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Sample records for dna substrate binds

  1. The Fanconi anemia associated protein FAAP24 uses two substrate specific binding surfaces for DNA recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienk, Hans; Slootweg, Jack C; Speerstra, Sietske; Kaptein, Robert; Boelens, Rolf; Folkers, Gert E

    2013-07-01

    To maintain the integrity of the genome, multiple DNA repair systems exist to repair damaged DNA. Recognition of altered DNA, including bulky adducts, pyrimidine dimers and interstrand crosslinks (ICL), partially depends on proteins containing helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) domains. To understand how ICL is specifically recognized by the Fanconi anemia proteins FANCM and FAAP24, we determined the structure of the HhH domain of FAAP24. Although it resembles other HhH domains, the FAAP24 domain contains a canonical hairpin motif followed by distorted motif. The HhH domain can bind various DNA substrates; using nuclear magnetic resonance titration experiments, we demonstrate that the canonical HhH motif is required for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding, whereas the unstructured N-terminus can interact with single-stranded DNA. Both DNA binding surfaces are used for binding to ICL-like single/double-strand junction-containing DNA substrates. A structural model for FAAP24 bound to dsDNA has been made based on homology with the translesion polymerase iota. Site-directed mutagenesis, sequence conservation and charge distribution support the dsDNA-binding model. Analogous to other HhH domain-containing proteins, we suggest that multiple FAAP24 regions together contribute to binding to single/double-strand junction, which could contribute to specificity in ICL DNA recognition.

  2. Binding of Substrate Locks the Electrochemistry of CRY-DASH into DNA Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindt, Yvonne M; Messyasz, Adriana; Jumbo, Pamela I

    2015-05-12

    VcCry1, a member of the CRY-DASH family, may serve two diverse roles in vivo, including blue-light signaling and repair of UV-damaged DNA. We have discovered that the electrochemistry of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor of VcCry1 is locked to cycle only between the hydroquinone and neutral semiquinone states when UV-damaged DNA is present. Other potential substrates, including undamaged DNA and ATP, have no discernible effect on the electrochemistry, and the kinetics of the reduction is unaffected by damaged DNA. Binding of the damaged DNA substrate determines the role of the protein and prevents the presumed photochemistry required for blue-light signaling.

  3. Monitoring conformational heterogeneity of the lid of DnaK substrate-binding domain during its chaperone cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupa; Jayaraj, Gopal Gunanathan; Peter, Joshua Jebakumar; Kumar, Vignesh; Mapa, Koyeli

    2016-08-01

    DnaK or Hsp70 of Escherichia coli is a master regulator of the bacterial proteostasis network. Allosteric communication between the two functional domains of DnaK, the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and the C-terminal substrate- or peptide-binding domain (SBD) regulate its activity. X-ray crystallography and NMR studies have provided snapshots of distinct conformations of Hsp70 proteins in various physiological states; however, the conformational heterogeneity and dynamics of allostery-driven Hsp70 activity remains underexplored. In this work, we employed single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements to capture distinct intradomain conformational states of a region within the DnaK-SBD known as the lid. Our data conclusively demonstrate prominent conformational heterogeneity of the DnaK lid in ADP-bound states; in contrast, the ATP-bound open conformations are homogeneous. Interestingly, a nonhydrolysable ATP analogue, AMP-PNP, imparts heterogeneity to the lid conformations mimicking the ADP-bound state. The cochaperone DnaJ confers ADP-like heterogeneous lid conformations to DnaK, although the presence of the cochaperone accelerates the substrate-binding rate by a hitherto unknown mechanism. Irrespective of the presence of DnaJ, binding of a peptide substrate to the DnaK-SBD leads to prominent lid closure. Lid closure is only partial upon binding to molten globule-like authentic cellular substrates, probably to accommodate non-native substrate proteins of varied structures.

  4. Inhibition of RNA polymerase by captan at both DNA and substrate binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, G; Lewis, R A

    1992-12-01

    RNA synthesis carried out in vitro by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase was inhibited irreversibly by captan when T7 DNA was used as template. An earlier report and this one show that captan blocks the DNA binding site on the enzyme. Herein, it is also revealed that captan acts at the nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding site, and kinetic relationships of the action of captan at the two sites are detailed. The inhibition by captan via the DNA binding site of the enzyme was confirmed by kinetic studies and it was further shown that [14C]captan bound to the beta' subunit of RNA polymerase. This subunit contains the DNA binding site. Competitive-like inhibition by captan versus UTP led to the conclusion that captan also blocked the NTP binding site. In support of this conclusion, [14C]captan was observed to bind to the beta subunit which contains the NTP binding site. Whereas, preincubation of RNA polymerase with both DNA and NTPs prevented captan inhibition, preincubation with either DNA or NTPs alone was insufficient to protect the enzyme from the action of captan. Furthermore, the interaction of [14C]captan with the beta and beta' subunits was not prevented by a similar preincubation. Captan also bound, to a lesser extent, to the alpha and sigma subunits. Therefore, captan binding appears to involve interaction with RNA polymerase at sites in addition to those for DNA and NTP; however, this action does not inhibit the polymerase activity.

  5. Enhanced Binding Affinity for an i-Motif DNA Substrate Exhibited by a Protein Containing Nucleobase Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoguang; Talukder, Poulami; Daskalova, Sasha M; Roy, Basab; Chen, Shengxi; Li, Zhongxian; Dedkova, Larisa M; Hecht, Sidney M

    2017-03-17

    Several variants of a nucleic acid binding motif (RRM1) of putative transcription factor hnRNP LL containing nucleobase amino acids at specific positions have been prepared and used to study binding affinity for the BCL2 i-motif DNA. Molecular modeling suggested a number of amino acids in RRM1 likely to be involved in interaction with the i-motif DNA, and His24 and Arg26 were chosen for modification based on their potential ability to interact with G14 of the i-motif DNA. Four nucleobase amino acids were introduced into RRM1 at one or both of positions 24 and 26. The introduction of cytosine nucleobase 2 into position 24 of RRM1 increased the affinity of the modified protein for the i-motif DNA, consistent with the possible Watson-Crick interaction of 2 and G14. In comparison, the introduction of uracil nucleobase 3 had a minimal effect on DNA affinity. Two structurally simplified nucleobase analogues (1 and 4) lacking both the N-1 and the 2-oxo substituents were also introduced in lieu of His24. Again, the RRM1 analogue containing 1 exhibited enhanced affinity for the i-motif DNA, while the protein analogue containing 4 bound less tightly to the DNA substrate. Finally, the modified protein containing 1 in lieu of Arg26 also bound to the i-motif DNA more strongly than the wild-type protein, but a protein containing 1 both at positions 24 and 26 bound to the DNA less strongly than wild type. The results support the idea of using nucleobase amino acids as protein constituents for controlling and enhancing DNA-protein interaction. Finally, modification of the i-motif DNA at G14 diminished RRM1-DNA interaction, as well as the ability of nucleobase amino acid 1 to stabilize RRM1-DNA interaction.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG binds and unwinds model DNA substrates with a preference for Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Ephrem Debebe; Balasingham, Seetha V; Laerdahl, Jon K; Homberset, Håvard; Tønjum, Tone

    2012-08-01

    The RecG enzyme, a superfamily 2 helicase, is present in nearly all bacteria. Here we report for the first time that the recG gene is also present in the genomes of most vascular plants as well as in green algae, but is not found in other eukaryotes or archaea. The precise function of RecG is poorly understood, although ample evidence shows that it plays critical roles in DNA repair, recombination and replication. We further demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG (RecG(Mtb)) DNA binding activity had a broad substrate specificity, whereas it only unwound branched-DNA substrates such as Holliday junctions (HJs), replication forks, D-loops and R-loops, with a strong preference for the HJ as a helicase substrate. In addition, RecG(Mtb) preferentially bound relatively long (≥40 nt) ssDNA, exhibiting a higher affinity for the homopolymeric nucleotides poly(dT), poly(dG) and poly(dC) than for poly(dA). RecG(Mtb) helicase activity was supported by hydrolysis of ATP or dATP in the presence of Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+) or Fe(2+). Like its Escherichia coli orthologue, RecG(Mtb) is also a strictly DNA-dependent ATPase.

  7. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of the binding of nucleotide excision repair protein XPC-hHr23B with DNA substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Roche; D. Zhang (Dan); G.M. Segers-Nolten; W. Vermeulen (Wim); C. Wyman (Claire); K. Sugasawa (Kaoru); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); C. Otto

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein dimeric complex XPC-hHR23B, which is implicated in the DNA damage recognition step, with three Cy3.5 labeled 90-bp double-stranded DNA substrates (unmodified, with a central unpaired region, and cholesterol modified) and a 9

  8. A structural classification of substrate-binding proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsson, Ronnie P. -A.; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Substrate-binding proteins (SBP) are associated with a wide variety of protein complexes. The proteins are part of ATP-binding cassette transporters for substrate uptake, ion gradient driven transporters, DNA-binding proteins, as well as channels and receptors from both pro-and eukaryotes. A wealth

  9. Probing protein phosphatase substrate binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlys-Larsen, Kim B.; Sørensen, Kasper Kildegaard; Jensen, Knud Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and high throughput analysis for systems biology can benefit significantly from solid-phase chemical tools for affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures. Here we report the application of solid-phase synthesis of phosphopeptides for pull-down and analysis of the affinity...... around the phosphorylated residue are important for the binding affinity of ILKAP. We conclude that solid-phase affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures can be applied in phosphoproteomics and systems biology....

  10. The Inhibitory Effect of Non-Substrate and Substrate DNA on the Ligation and Self-Adenylylation Reactions Catalyzed by T4 DNA Ligase.

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    Robert J Bauer

    Full Text Available DNA ligases are essential both to in vivo replication, repair and recombination processes, and in vitro molecular biology protocols. Prior characterization of DNA ligases through gel shift assays has shown the presence of a nick site to be essential for tight binding between the enzyme and its dsDNA substrate, with no interaction evident on dsDNA lacking a nick. In the current study, we observed a significant substrate inhibition effect, as well as the inhibition of both the self-adenylylation and nick-sealing steps of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked, non-substrate dsDNA. Inhibition by non-substrate DNA was dependent only on the total DNA concentration rather than the structure; with 1 μg/mL of 40-mers, 75-mers, or circular plasmid DNA all inhibiting ligation equally. A >15-fold reduction in T4 DNA ligase self-adenylylation rate when in the presence of high non-nicked dsDNA concentrations was observed. Finally, EMSAs were utilized to demonstrate that non-substrate dsDNA can compete with nicked dsDNA substrates for enzyme binding. Based upon these data, we hypothesize the inhibition of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked dsDNA is direct evidence for a two-step nick-binding mechanism, with an initial, nick-independent, transient dsDNA-binding event preceding a transition to a stable binding complex in the presence of a nick site.

  11. The Inhibitory Effect of Non-Substrate and Substrate DNA on the Ligation and Self-Adenylylation Reactions Catalyzed by T4 DNA Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert J; Evans, Thomas C; Lohman, Gregory J S

    2016-01-01

    DNA ligases are essential both to in vivo replication, repair and recombination processes, and in vitro molecular biology protocols. Prior characterization of DNA ligases through gel shift assays has shown the presence of a nick site to be essential for tight binding between the enzyme and its dsDNA substrate, with no interaction evident on dsDNA lacking a nick. In the current study, we observed a significant substrate inhibition effect, as well as the inhibition of both the self-adenylylation and nick-sealing steps of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked, non-substrate dsDNA. Inhibition by non-substrate DNA was dependent only on the total DNA concentration rather than the structure; with 1 μg/mL of 40-mers, 75-mers, or circular plasmid DNA all inhibiting ligation equally. A >15-fold reduction in T4 DNA ligase self-adenylylation rate when in the presence of high non-nicked dsDNA concentrations was observed. Finally, EMSAs were utilized to demonstrate that non-substrate dsDNA can compete with nicked dsDNA substrates for enzyme binding. Based upon these data, we hypothesize the inhibition of T4 DNA ligase by non-nicked dsDNA is direct evidence for a two-step nick-binding mechanism, with an initial, nick-independent, transient dsDNA-binding event preceding a transition to a stable binding complex in the presence of a nick site.

  12. Aptamer-Binding Directed DNA Origami Pattern for Logic Gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Shuoxing; Liu, Xiangrong; Pan, Linqiang; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-12-14

    In this study, an aptamer-substrate strategy is introduced to control programmable DNA origami pattern. Combined with DNA aptamer-substrate binding and DNAzyme-cutting, small DNA tiles were specifically controlled to fill into the predesigned DNA origami frame. Here, a set of DNA logic gates (OR, YES, and AND) are performed in response to the stimuli of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cocaine. The experimental results are confirmed by AFM imaging and time-dependent fluorescence changes, demonstrating that the geometric patterns are regulated in a controllable and programmable manner. Our approach provides a new platform for engineering programmable origami nanopatterns and constructing complex DNA nanodevices.

  13. A KAS2 cDNA complements the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis fab1 mutant that differs in a single residue bordering the substrate binding pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, A.S.; LaBrie, S.T.; Kinney, A.J.;

    2002-01-01

    The fab1 mutant of Arabidopsis is partially deficient in activity of ß-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase II (KAS II). This defect results in increased levels of 16 : 0 fatty acid and is associated with damage and death of the mutants at low temperature. Transformation of fab1 plants with a c...... chain to bend. For functional analysis the equivalent Leu207Phe mutation was introduced into the fabB gene encoding the E. coli KAS I enzyme. Compared to wild-type, the Leu207Phe protein showed a 10-fold decrease in binding affinity for the fatty acid substrate, exhibited a modified behavior during size...

  14. DNA binding hydroxyl radical probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Vicky J.; Konigsfeld, Katie M.; Aguilera, Joe A. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0610 (United States); Milligan, Jamie R., E-mail: jmilligan@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0610 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores, which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA. - Highlights: > Examined four aromatic groups as a means to detect hydroxyl radicals by fluorescence. > Coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. > Characterized its reactivity when linked to a hexa-arginine peptide.

  15. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-09-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction-diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.

  16. Unique structural modulation of a non-native substrate by cochaperone DnaJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Satyam; Kumar, Vignesh; Jayaraj, Gopal Gunanathan; Maiti, Souvik; Mapa, Koyeli

    2013-02-12

    The role of bacterial DnaJ protein as a cochaperone of DnaK is strongly appreciated. Although DnaJ unaccompanied by DnaK can bind unfolded as well as native substrate proteins, its role as an individual chaperone remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that DnaJ binds a model non-native substrate with a low nanomolar dissociation constant and, more importantly, modulates the structure of its non-native state. The structural modulation achieved by DnaJ is different compared to that achieved by the DnaK-DnaJ complex. The nature of structural modulation exerted by DnaJ is suggestive of a unique unfolding activity on the non-native substrate by the chaperone. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the zinc binding motif along with the C-terminal substrate binding domain of DnaJ is necessary and sufficient for binding and the subsequent binding-induced structural alterations of the non-native substrate. We hypothesize that this hitherto unknown structural alteration of non-native states by DnaJ might be important for its chaperoning activity by removing kinetic traps of the folding intermediates.

  17. Quantitative detection of single DNA molecules on DNA tetrahedron decorated substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenguang; Xue, Qingwang; Tian, Wenzhi; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    A single DNA molecule detection method on DNA tetrahedron decorated substrates has been developed. DNA tetrahedra were introduced onto substrates for both preventing nonspecific adsorption and sensitive recognition of single DNA molecules.

  18. RNautophagy/DNautophagy possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Yuuki; Kikuchi, Hisae; Aizawa, Shu; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Wada, Keiji; Kabuta, Tomohiro

    2015-07-27

    Lysosomes can degrade various biological macromolecules, including nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. Recently, we identified novel nucleic acid-degradation systems termed RNautophagy/DNautophagy (abbreviated as RDA), in which RNA and DNA are directly taken up by lysosomes in an ATP-dependent manner and degraded. We also found that a lysosomal membrane protein, LAMP2C, the cytoplasmic region of which binds to RNA and DNA, functions, at least in part, as an RNA/DNA receptor in the process of RDA. However, it has been unclear whether RDA possesses selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and the RNA/DNA sequences that are recognized by LAMP2C have not been determined. In the present study, we found that the cytosolic region of LAMP2C binds to poly-G/dG, but not to poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT or poly-U. Consistent with this binding activity, poly-G/dG was transported into isolated lysosomes via RDA, while poly-A/dA, poly-C/dC, poly-dT and poly-U were not. GGGGGG or d(GGGG) sequences are essential for the interaction between poly-G/dG and LAMP2C. In addition to poly-G/dG, G/dG-rich sequences, such as a repeated GGGGCC sequence, interacted with the cytosolic region of LAMP2C. Our findings indicate that RDA does possess selectivity for RNA/DNA substrates and that at least some consecutive G/dG sequence(s) can mediate RDA. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Structure-based analysis of HU-DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Kerren K; Rice, Phoebe A

    2007-01-26

    HU and IHF are prokaryotic proteins that induce very large bends in DNA. They are present in high concentrations in the bacterial nucleoid and aid in chromosomal compaction. They also function as regulatory cofactors in many processes, such as site-specific recombination and the initiation of replication and transcription. HU and IHF have become paradigms for understanding DNA bending and indirect readout of sequence. While IHF shows significant sequence specificity, HU binds preferentially to certain damaged or distorted DNAs. However, none of the structurally diverse HU substrates previously studied in vitro is identical with the distorted substrates in the recently published Anabaena HU(AHU)-DNA cocrystal structures. Here, we report binding affinities for AHU and the DNA in the cocrystal structures. The binding free energies for formation of these AHU-DNA complexes range from approximately 10-14.5 kcal/mol, representing K(d) values in the nanomolar to low picomolar range, and a maximum stabilization of at least approximately 6.3 kcal/mol relative to complexes with undistorted, non-specific DNA. We investigated IHF binding and found that appropriate structural distortions can greatly enhance its affinity. On the basis of the coupling of structural and relevant binding data, we estimate the amount of conformational strain in an IHF-mediated DNA kink that is relieved by a nick (at least 0.76 kcal/mol) and pinpoint the location of the strain. We show that AHU has a sequence preference for an A+T-rich region in the center of its DNA-binding site, correlating with an unusually narrow minor groove. This is similar to sequence preferences shown by the eukaryotic nucleosome.

  20. Structure-based Analysis to Hu-DNA Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinger,K.; Rice, P.

    2007-01-01

    HU and IHF are prokaryotic proteins that induce very large bends in DNA. They are present in high concentrations in the bacterial nucleoid and aid in chromosomal compaction. They also function as regulatory cofactors in many processes, such as site-specific recombination and the initiation of replication and transcription. HU and IHF have become paradigms for understanding DNA bending and indirect readout of sequence. While IHF shows significant sequence specificity, HU binds preferentially to certain damaged or distorted DNAs. However, none of the structurally diverse HU substrates previously studied in vitro is identical with the distorted substrates in the recently published Anabaena HU(AHU)-DNA cocrystal structures. Here, we report binding affinities for AHU and the DNA in the cocrystal structures. The binding free energies for formation of these AHU-DNA complexes range from 10-14.5 kcal/mol, representing K{sub d} values in the nanomolar to low picomolar range, and a maximum stabilization of at least 6.3 kcal/mol relative to complexes with undistorted, non-specific DNA. We investigated IHF binding and found that appropriate structural distortions can greatly enhance its affinity. On the basis of the coupling of structural and relevant binding data, we estimate the amount of conformational strain in an IHF-mediated DNA kink that is relieved by a nick (at least 0.76 kcal/mol) and pinpoint the location of the strain. We show that AHU has a sequence preference for an A+T-rich region in the center of its DNA-binding site, correlating with an unusually narrow minor groove. This is similar to sequence preferences shown by the eukaryotic nucleosome.

  1. Substrate and drug binding sites in LeuT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyola, Ajeeta; Karpowich, Nathan K; Zhen, Juan; Marden, Jennifer; Reith, Maarten E; Wang, Da-Neng

    2010-08-01

    LeuT is a member of the neurotransmitter/sodium symporter family, which includes the neuronal transporters for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. The original crystal structure of LeuT shows a primary leucine-binding site at the center of the protein. LeuT is inhibited by different classes of antidepressants that act as potent inhibitors of the serotonin transporter. The newly determined crystal structures of LeuT-antidepressant complexes provide opportunities to probe drug binding in the serotonin transporter, of which the exact position remains controversial. Structure of a LeuT-tryptophan complex shows an overlapping binding site with the primary substrate site. A secondary substrate binding site was recently identified, where the binding of a leucine triggers the cytoplasmic release of the primary substrate. This two binding site model presents opportunities for a better understanding of drug binding and the mechanism of inhibition for mammalian transporters.

  2. DNA binding studies of tartrazine food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Zeidali, Sahar Heidary

    2011-07-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA with tartrazine in 10 mM Tris-HCl aqueous solution at neutral pH 7.4 was investigated. Tartrazine is a nitrous derivative and may cause allergic reactions, with a potential of toxicological risk. Also, tartrazine induces oxidative stress and DNA damage. Its DNA binding properties were studied by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectra, competitive binding with Hoechst 33258, and viscosity measurements. Tartrazine molecules bind to DNA via groove mode as illustrated by hyperchromism in the UV absorption band of tartrazine, decrease in Hoechst-DNA solution fluorescence, unchanged viscosity of DNA, and conformational changes such as conversion from B-like to C-like in the circular dichroism spectra of DNA. The binding constants (K(b)) of DNA with tartrazine were calculated at different temperatures. Enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated to be +37 and +213 kJ mol(-1), respectively, according to the Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Also, tartrazine does not cleave plasmid DNA. Tartrazine interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 3.75 × 10(4) M(-1).

  3. Arrays of Individual DNA Molecules on Nanopatterned Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Roland; Halilovic, Alma; Burns, Jonathan R.; Schäffler, Friedrich; Howorka, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Arrays of individual molecules can combine the advantages of microarrays and single-molecule studies. They miniaturize assays to reduce sample and reagent consumption and increase throughput, and additionally uncover static and dynamic heterogeneity usually masked in molecular ensembles. However, realizing single-DNA arrays must tackle the challenge of capturing structurally highly dynamic strands onto defined substrate positions. Here, we create single-molecule arrays by electrostatically adhering single-stranded DNA of gene-like length onto positively charged carbon nanoislands. The nanosites are so small that only one molecule can bind per island. Undesired adsorption of DNA to the surrounding non-target areas is prevented via a surface-passivating film. Of further relevance, the DNA arrays are of tunable dimensions, and fabricated on optically transparent substrates that enable singe-molecule detection with fluorescence microscopy. The arrays are hence compatible with a wide range of bioanalytical, biophysical, and cell biological studies where individual DNA strands are either examined in isolation, or interact with other molecules or cells.

  4. Mechanistic insights into a novel chromone-appended Cu(II) anticancer drug entity: in vitro binding profile with DNA/RNA substrates and cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and HepG2 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Imtiyaz; Arjmand, Farukh; Tabassum, Sartaj; Toupet, Loic; Khan, Rais Ahmad; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmad

    2015-06-14

    A new chromone-appended Cu(ii) drug entity () was designed and synthesized as a potential anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. The structural elucidation was carried out thoroughly by elemental analysis, FT-IR, EPR, ESI-MS and single crystal X-ray crystallography. Complex resulted from the in situ methoxylation reaction of the 3-formylchromone ligand and its subsequent complexation with the copper nitrate salt in a 2 : 1 ratio, respectively. crystallized in the monoclinic P21/c space group possessing the lattice parameters, a = 8.75 Å, b = 5.07 Å, c = 26.22 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 96.3° per unit cell. Furthermore, in vitro interaction studies of with ct-DNA and tRNA were carried out which suggested more avid binding propensity towards the RNA target via intercalative mode, which was reflected from its Kb, K and Ksv values. The gel electrophoretic mobility assay was carried out on the pBR322 plasmid DNA substrate, to ascertain the cleaving ability and the mechanistic pathway in the presence of additives, and the results revealed the efficient cleaving ability of via the oxidative pathway. In vitro cell growth inhibition via the MTT assay was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of complex and IC50 values were found to be in the range of 5-10 μg mL(-1) in HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, which were found to be much lower than the IC50 values of previously reported similar Cu(ii) complexes. Additionally, in the presence of , reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels in the tested cancer cell lines increased significantly, coupled with reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Thus, our results suggested that ROS plays an important role in cell apoptosis induced by the Cu(ii) complex and validates its potential to act as a robust anticancer drug entity.

  5. The human DNA-activated protein kinase, DNA-PK: Substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.W.; Connelly, M.A.; Zhang, H.; Sipley, J.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biology Dept.; Lees-Miller, S.P.; Lintott, L.G. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Appella, E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Lab. of Cell Biology

    1994-11-05

    Although much has been learned about the structure and function of p53 and the probable sequence of subsequent events that lead to cell cycle arrest, little is known about how DNA damage is detected and the nature of the signal that is generated by DNA damage. Circumstantial evidence suggests that protein kinases may be involved. In vitro, human DNA-PK phosphorylates a variety of nuclear DNA-binding, regulatory proteins including the tumor suppressor protein p53, the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the heat shock protein hsp90, the large tumor antigen (TAg) of simian virus 40, a variety of transcription factors including Fos, Jun, serum response factor (SRF), Myc, Sp1, Oct-1, TFIID, E2F, the estrogen receptor, and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (reviewed in Anderson, 1993; Jackson et al., 1993). However, for most of these proteins, the sites that are phosphorylated by DNA-PK are not known. To determine if the sites that were phosphorylated in vitro also were phosphorylated in vivo and if DNA-PK recognized a preferred protein sequence, the authors identified the sites phosphorylated by DNA-PK in several substrates by direct protein sequence analysis. Each phosphorylated serine or threonine is followed immediately by glutamine in the polypeptide chain; at no other positions are the amino acid residues obviously constrained.

  6. The human DNA-activated protein kinase, DNA-PK: Substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.W.; Connelly, M.A.; Zhang, H.; Sipley, J.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Biology Dept.; Lees-Miller, S.P.; Lintott, L.G. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu; Appella, E. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Lab. of Cell Biology

    1994-11-05

    Although much has been learned about the structure and function of p53 and the probable sequence of subsequent events that lead to cell cycle arrest, little is known about how DNA damage is detected and the nature of the signal that is generated by DNA damage. Circumstantial evidence suggests that protein kinases may be involved. In vitro, human DNA-PK phosphorylates a variety of nuclear DNA-binding, regulatory proteins including the tumor suppressor protein p53, the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA, the heat shock protein hsp90, the large tumor antigen (TAg) of simian virus 40, a variety of transcription factors including Fos, Jun, serum response factor (SRF), Myc, Sp1, Oct-1, TFIID, E2F, the estrogen receptor, and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (reviewed in Anderson, 1993; Jackson et al., 1993). However, for most of these proteins, the sites that are phosphorylated by DNA-PK are not known. To determine if the sites that were phosphorylated in vitro also were phosphorylated in vivo and if DNA-PK recognized a preferred protein sequence, the authors identified the sites phosphorylated by DNA-PK in several substrates by direct protein sequence analysis. Each phosphorylated serine or threonine is followed immediately by glutamine in the polypeptide chain; at no other positions are the amino acid residues obviously constrained.

  7. Characterization of Dnmt1 Binding and DNA Methylation on Nucleosomes and Nucleosomal Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Anna; Gross, Thomas; Thalhammer, Verena; Längst, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes and the organisation into higher order structures of chromatin limits the access of sequence specific DNA binding factors to DNA. In cells, DNA methylation is preferentially occuring in the linker region of nucleosomes, suggesting a structural impact of chromatin on DNA methylation. These observations raise the question whether DNA methyltransferases are capable to recognize the nucleosomal substrates and to modify the packaged DNA. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of nucleosome binding and nucleosomal DNA methylation by the maintenance DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. Our binding studies show that Dnmt1 has a DNA length sensing activity, binding cooperatively to DNA, and requiring a minimal DNA length of 20 bp. Dnmt1 needs linker DNA to bind to nucleosomes and most efficiently recognizes nucleosomes with symmetric DNA linkers. Footprinting experiments reveal that Dnmt1 binds to both DNA linkers exiting the nucleosome core. The binding pattern correlates with the efficient methylation of DNA linkers. However, the enzyme lacks the ability to methylate nucleosomal CpG sites on mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, unless chromatin remodeling enzymes create a dynamic chromatin state. In addition, our results show that Dnmt1 functionally interacts with specific chromatin remodeling enzymes to enable complete methylation of hemi-methylated DNA in chromatin.

  8. Characterization of Dnmt1 Binding and DNA Methylation on Nucleosomes and Nucleosomal Arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Schrader

    Full Text Available The packaging of DNA into nucleosomes and the organisation into higher order structures of chromatin limits the access of sequence specific DNA binding factors to DNA. In cells, DNA methylation is preferentially occuring in the linker region of nucleosomes, suggesting a structural impact of chromatin on DNA methylation. These observations raise the question whether DNA methyltransferases are capable to recognize the nucleosomal substrates and to modify the packaged DNA. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of nucleosome binding and nucleosomal DNA methylation by the maintenance DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. Our binding studies show that Dnmt1 has a DNA length sensing activity, binding cooperatively to DNA, and requiring a minimal DNA length of 20 bp. Dnmt1 needs linker DNA to bind to nucleosomes and most efficiently recognizes nucleosomes with symmetric DNA linkers. Footprinting experiments reveal that Dnmt1 binds to both DNA linkers exiting the nucleosome core. The binding pattern correlates with the efficient methylation of DNA linkers. However, the enzyme lacks the ability to methylate nucleosomal CpG sites on mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, unless chromatin remodeling enzymes create a dynamic chromatin state. In addition, our results show that Dnmt1 functionally interacts with specific chromatin remodeling enzymes to enable complete methylation of hemi-methylated DNA in chromatin.

  9. SUMO-1 possesses DNA binding activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieruszeski Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs is a frequent post-translational modification of proteins. SUMOs can also temporally associate with protein-targets via SUMO binding motifs (SBMs. Protein sumoylation has been identified as an important regulatory mechanism especially in the regulation of transcription and the maintenance of genome stability. The precise molecular mechanisms by which SUMO conjugation and association act are, however, not understood. Findings Using NMR spectroscopy and protein-DNA cross-linking experiments, we demonstrate here that SUMO-1 can specifically interact with dsDNA in a sequence-independent fashion. We also show that SUMO-1 binding to DNA can compete with other protein-DNA interactions at the example of the regulatory domain of Thymine-DNA Glycosylase and, based on these competition studies, estimate the DNA binding constant of SUMO1 in the range 1 mM. Conclusion This finding provides an important insight into how SUMO-1 might exert its activity. SUMO-1 might play a general role in destabilizing DNA bound protein complexes thereby operating in a bottle-opener way of fashion, explaining its pivotal role in regulating the activity of many central transcription and DNA repair complexes.

  10. STN1 OB Fold Mutation Alters DNA Binding and Affects Selective Aspects of CST Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Anukana; Stewart, Jason; Chaiken, Mary; Price, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) participates in multiple aspects of telomere replication and genome-wide recovery from replication stress. CST resembles Replication Protein A (RPA) in that it binds ssDNA and STN1 and TEN1 are structurally similar to RPA2 and RPA3. Conservation between CTC1 and RPA1 is less apparent. Currently the mechanism underlying CST action is largely unknown. Here we address CST mechanism by using a DNA-binding mutant, (STN1 OB-fold mutant, STN1-OBM) to examine the relationship between DNA binding and CST function. In vivo, STN1-OBM affects resolution of endogenous replication stress and telomere duplex replication but telomeric C-strand fill-in and new origin firing after exogenous replication stress are unaffected. These selective effects indicate mechanistic differences in CST action during resolution of different replication problems. In vitro binding studies show that STN1 directly engages both short and long ssDNA oligonucleotides, however STN1-OBM preferentially destabilizes binding to short substrates. The finding that STN1-OBM affects binding to only certain substrates starts to explain the in vivo separation of function observed in STN1-OBM expressing cells. CST is expected to engage DNA substrates of varied length and structure as it acts to resolve different replication problems. Since STN1-OBM will alter CST binding to only some of these substrates, the mutant should affect resolution of only a subset of replication problems, as was observed in the STN1-OBM cells. The in vitro studies also provide insight into CST binding mechanism. Like RPA, CST likely contacts DNA via multiple OB folds. However, the importance of STN1 for binding short substrates indicates differences in the architecture of CST and RPA DNA-protein complexes. Based on our results, we propose a dynamic DNA binding model that provides a general mechanism for CST action at diverse forms of replication stress. PMID:27690379

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of DNA binding by a Bacillus single stranded DNA binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas-Fiss Esther E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB are essential for DNA replication, repair, and recombination in all organisms. SSB works in concert with a variety of DNA metabolizing enzymes such as DNA polymerase. Results We have cloned and purified SSB from Bacillus anthracis (SSBBA. In the absence of DNA, at concentrations ≤100 μg/ml, SSBBA did not form a stable tetramer and appeared to resemble bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein. Fluorescence anisotropy studies demonstrated that SSBBA bound ssDNA with high affinity comparable to other prokaryotic SSBs. Thermodynamic analysis indicated both hydrophobic and ionic contributions to ssDNA binding. FRET analysis of oligo(dT70 binding suggested that SSBBA forms a tetrameric assembly upon ssDNA binding. This report provides evidence of a bacterial SSB that utilizes a novel mechanism for DNA binding through the formation of a transient tetrameric structure. Conclusions Unlike other prokaryotic SSB proteins, SSBBA from Bacillus anthracis appeared to be monomeric at concentrations ≤100 μg/ml as determined by SE-HPLC. SSBBA retained its ability to bind ssDNA with very high affinity, comparable to SSB proteins which are tetrameric. In the presence of a long ssDNA template, SSBBA appears to form a transient tetrameric structure. Its unique structure appears to be due to the cumulative effect of multiple key amino acid changes in its sequence during evolution, leading to perturbation of stable dimer and tetramer formation. The structural features of SSBBA could promote facile assembly and disassembly of the protein-DNA complex required in processes such as DNA replication.

  12. The MLLE domain of the ubiquitin ligase UBR5 binds to its catalytic domain to regulate substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2015-09-11

    E3 ubiquitin ligases catalyze the transfer of ubiquitin from an E2-conjugating enzyme to a substrate. UBR5, homologous to the E6AP C terminus (HECT)-type E3 ligase, mediates the ubiquitination of proteins involved in translation regulation, DNA damage response, and gluconeogenesis. In addition, UBR5 functions in a ligase-independent manner by prompting protein/protein interactions without ubiquitination of the binding partner. Despite recent functional studies, the mechanisms involved in substrate recognition and selective ubiquitination of its binding partners remain elusive. The C terminus of UBR5 harbors the HECT catalytic domain and an adjacent MLLE domain. MLLE domains mediate protein/protein interactions through the binding of a conserved peptide motif, termed PAM2. Here, we characterize the binding properties of the UBR5 MLLE domain to PAM2 peptides from Paip1 and GW182. The crystal structure with a Paip1 PAM2 peptide reveals the network of hydrophobic and ionic interactions that drive binding. In addition, we identify a novel interaction of the MLLE domain with the adjacent HECT domain mediated by a PAM2-like sequence. Our results confirm the role of the MLLE domain of UBR5 in substrate recruitment and suggest a potential role in regulating UBR5 ligase activity.

  13. DNA binding properties of the small cascade subunit Csa5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Daume

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems provide immunity against viral attacks in archaeal and bacterial cells. Type I systems employ a Cas protein complex termed Cascade, which utilizes small CRISPR RNAs to detect and degrade the exogenic DNA. A small sequence motif, the PAM, marks the foreign substrates. Previously, a recombinant type I-A Cascade complex from the archaeon Thermoproteus tenax was shown to target and degrade DNA in vitro, dependent on a native PAM sequence. Here, we present the biochemical analysis of the small subunit, Csa5, of this Cascade complex. T. tenax Csa5 preferentially bound ssDNA and mutants that showed decreased ssDNA-binding and reduced Cascade-mediated DNA cleavage were identified. Csa5 oligomerization prevented DNA binding. Specific recognition of the PAM sequence was not observed. Phylogenetic analyses identified Csa5 as a universal member of type I-A systems and revealed three distinct groups. A potential role of Csa5 in R-loop stabilization is discussed.

  14. The inhibition of anti-DNA binding to DNA by nucleic acid binding polymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Stearns

    Full Text Available Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and can mediate disease pathogenesis by the formation of immune complexes. Since blocking immune complex formation can attenuate disease manifestations, the effects of nucleic acid binding polymers (NABPs on anti-DNA binding in vitro were investigated. The compounds tested included polyamidoamine dendrimer, 1,4-diaminobutane core, generation 3.0 (PAMAM-G3, hexadimethrine bromide, and a β-cylodextrin-containing polycation. As shown with plasma from patients with SLE, NABPs can inhibit anti-DNA antibody binding in ELISA assays. The inhibition was specific since the NABPs did not affect binding to tetanus toxoid or the Sm protein, another lupus autoantigen. Furthermore, the polymers could displace antibody from preformed complexes. Together, these results indicate that NABPs can inhibit the formation of immune complexes and may represent a new approach to treatment.

  15. An additional substrate binding site in a bacterial phenylalanine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronau, Judith A; Paul, Lake N; Fuchs, Julian E; Corn, Isaac R; Wagner, Kyle T; Liedl, Klaus R; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M; Das, Chittaranjan

    2013-09-01

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine, a reaction that must be kept under tight regulatory control. Mammalian PAH has a regulatory domain in which binding of the substrate leads to allosteric activation of the enzyme. However, the existence of PAH regulation in evolutionarily distant organisms, for example some bacteria in which it occurs, has so far been underappreciated. In an attempt to crystallographically characterize substrate binding by PAH from Chromobacterium violaceum, a single-domain monomeric enzyme, electron density for phenylalanine was observed at a distal site 15.7 Å from the active site. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments revealed a dissociation constant of 24 ± 1.1 μM for phenylalanine. Under the same conditions, ITC revealed no detectable binding for alanine, tyrosine, or isoleucine, indicating the distal site may be selective for phenylalanine. Point mutations of amino acid residues in the distal site that contact phenylalanine (F258A, Y155A, T254A) led to impaired binding, consistent with the presence of distal site binding in solution. Although kinetic analysis revealed that the distal site mutants suffer discernible loss of their catalytic activity, X-ray crystallographic analysis of Y155A and F258A, the two mutants with the most noticeable decrease in activity, revealed no discernible change in the structure of their active sites, suggesting that the effect of distal binding may result from protein dynamics in solution.

  16. FTIR study of CPD photolyase with substrate in single strand DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaputra Wijaya, I M; Iwata, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Kenichi; Iwai, Shigenori; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Photolyases (PHRs) utilize near UV/blue light to specifically repair the major photoproducts (PPs) of UV-induced damaged DNA. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-PHR binds flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and repairs CPD lesions in double-stranded DNA. To understand the activation and repair mechanism of CPD-PHR, we applied light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to CPD-PHR, whose signals were identified by use of isotope-labeling. To further investigate the enzymatic function, here we study the activation and repair mechanism of CPD-PHR with the substrate in single strand DNA, and the obtained FTIR spectra are compared with those in double-stranded DNA, the natural substrate. The difference spectra of photoactivation, the fully-reduced (FADH(-)) minus semiquinone (FADH(•)) spectra, are almost identical in the presence of single strand and double-stranded DNA, except for slight spectral modification in the amide-I region. On the other hand, the difference spectra of photorepair were highly substrate dependent. Strong bands of the C=O stretch (1,720-1,690 cm(-1)) and phosphate vibrations (1,090-1,060 cm(-1)) of double-stranded DNA may have disappeared in the case of single strand DNA. However, an isotope-labeled enzyme study revealed that spectral features upon DNA repair are similar between both substrates, and the main reason for the apparent spectral difference originates from structural flexibility of DNA after repair.

  17. A general approach to visualize protein binding and DNA conformation without protein labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Graham, Thomas G W; Loparo, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation methods, such as magnetic tweezers and flow stretching, generally use the measurement of changes in DNA extension as a proxy for examining interactions between a DNA-binding protein and its substrate. These approaches are unable to directly measure protein-DNA association without fluorescently labelling the protein, which can be challenging. Here we address this limitation by developing a new approach that visualizes unlabelled protein binding on DNA with changes in DNA conformation in a relatively high-throughput manner. Protein binding to DNA molecules sparsely labelled with Cy3 results in an increase in fluorescence intensity due to protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE), whereas DNA length is monitored under flow of buffer through a microfluidic flow cell. Given that our assay uses unlabelled protein, it is not limited to the low protein concentrations normally required for single-molecule fluorescence imaging and should be broadly applicable to studying protein-DNA interactions.

  18. ATP-dependent DNA binding, unwinding, and resection by the Mre11/Rad50 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqi; Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Youngran; Li, Fuyang; Gwon, Gwanghyun; Jo, Aera; Kim, Ae-Kyoung; Kim, Taeyoon; Song, Ok-Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Cho, Yunje

    2016-04-01

    ATP-dependent DNA end recognition and nucleolytic processing are central functions of the Mre11/Rad50 (MR) complex in DNA double-strand break repair. However, it is still unclear how ATP binding and hydrolysis primes the MR function and regulates repair pathway choice in cells. Here,Methanococcus jannaschii MR-ATPγS-DNA structure reveals that the partly deformed DNA runs symmetrically across central groove between two ATPγS-bound Rad50 nucleotide-binding domains. Duplex DNA cannot access the Mre11 active site in the ATP-free full-length MR complex. ATP hydrolysis drives rotation of the nucleotide-binding domain and induces the DNA melting so that the substrate DNA can access Mre11. Our findings suggest that the ATP hydrolysis-driven conformational changes in both DNA and the MR complex coordinate the melting and endonuclease activity.

  19. DBD2BS: connecting a DNA-binding protein with its binding sites

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    By binding to short and highly conserved DNA sequences in genomes, DNA-binding proteins initiate, enhance or repress biological processes. Accurately identifying such binding sites, often represented by position weight matrices (PWMs), is an important step in understanding the control mechanisms of cells. When given coordinates of a DNA-binding domain (DBD) bound with DNA, a potential function can be used to estimate the change of binding affinity after base substitutions, where the changes c...

  20. Organo-silane coated substrates for DNA purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquardini, L.; Lunelli, L.; Potrich, C.; Marocchi, L.; Fiorilli, S.; Vozzi, D.; Vanzetti, L.; Gasparini, P.; Anderle, M.; Pederzolli, C.

    2011-10-01

    The use of blood as DNA source to be employed in genetic analysis requires a purification process in order to remove proteins, lipids and any other contaminants, such as hemoglobin, which inhibit PCR. On the other hand, the increasing demand of miniaturized and automated biological tests able to reduce time and cost of analysis, requires the development and the characterization of materials aimed to perform the DNA purification processes in micro-devices. In this work we studied the interaction of DNA molecules with modified silicon based substrates, positively charged after deposition of a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) or 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (AEEA) interfacial layer. The evaluation of the DNA adsorption and elution capacity of different substrates (thermally grown silicon oxide, silicon oxide obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, and Pyrex ®) was studied taking into account the nature of the substrate and the effect of DNA length (in the 208-50,000 base pairs range). Main findings are that DNA elution capacity depends both on the utilized substrate and on the choice of the silanizing agent. Higher DNA recovery was obtained from AEEA-modified substrates, but the eluted DNA had different electrophoretic properties from native DNA. DNA with the same electrophoretic behaviour as genomic DNA was instead recovered from APTES-treated surfaces. Furthermore, the length of DNA present in the starting material strongly modulates the elution efficiency, longer DNA being released in a lesser amount, suggesting that opportunely modified surfaces could be used as systems for differential DNA separation.

  1. Ligand Binding and Substrate Discrimination by UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Todd D.; Borrok, M. Jack; Westler, William M.; Forest, Katrina T.; Kiessling, Laura L.; (UW)

    2009-07-31

    Galactofuranose (Galf) residues are present in cell wall glycoconjugates of numerous pathogenic microbes. Uridine 5{prime}-diphosphate (UDP) Galf, the biosynthetic precursor of Galf-containing glycoconjugates, is produced from UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp) by the flavoenzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM). The gene encoding UGM (glf) is essential for the viability of pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and this finding underscores the need to understand how UGM functions. Considerable effort has been devoted to elucidating the catalytic mechanism of UGM, but progress has been hindered by a lack of structural data for an enzyme-substrate complex. Such data could reveal not only substrate binding interactions but how UGM can act preferentially on two very different substrates, UDP-Galp and UDP-Galf, yet avoid other structurally related UDP sugars present in the cell. Herein, we describe the first structure of a UGM-ligand complex, which provides insight into the catalytic mechanism and molecular basis for substrate selectivity. The structure of UGM from Klebsiella pneumoniae bound to the substrate analog UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc) was solved by X-ray crystallographic methods and refined to 2.5 {angstrom} resolution. The ligand is proximal to the cofactor, a finding that is consistent with a proposed mechanism in which the reduced flavin engages in covalent catalysis. Despite this proximity, the glucose ring of the substrate analog is positioned such that it disfavors covalent catalysis. This orientation is consistent with data indicating that UDP-Glc is not a substrate for UGM. The relative binding orientations of UDP-Galp and UDP-Glc were compared using saturation transfer difference NMR. The results indicate that the uridine moiety occupies a similar location in both ligand complexes, and this relevant binding mode is defined by our structural data. In contrast, the orientations of the glucose and galactose sugar moieties differ. To understand the

  2. DNA-Aptamers Binding Aminoglycoside Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nikolaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short, single stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are able to bind specifically and with high affinity to their non-nucleic acid target molecules. This binding reaction enables their application as biorecognition elements in biosensors and assays. As antibiotic residues pose a problem contributing to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens and thereby reducing the effectiveness of the drug to fight human infections, we selected aptamers targeted against the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin A with the aim of constructing a robust and functional assay that can be used for water analysis. With this work we show that aptamers that were derived from a Capture-SELEX procedure targeting against kanamycin A also display binding to related aminoglycoside antibiotics. The binding patterns differ among all tested aptamers so that there are highly substance specific aptamers and more group specific aptamers binding to a different variety of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Also the region of the aminoglycoside antibiotics responsible for aptamer binding can be estimated. Affinities of the different aptamers for their target substance, kanamycin A, are measured with different approaches and are in the micromolar range. Finally, the proof of principle of an assay for detection of kanamycin A in a real water sample is given.

  3. Thermodynamics of Damaged DNA Binding and Catalysis by Human AP Endonuclease 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikova, A D; Kuznetsova, A A; Kuznetsov, N A; Fedorova, O S

    2016-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases play an important role in DNA repair and initiation of AP site elimination. One of the most topical problems in the field of DNA repair is to understand the mechanism of the enzymatic process involving the human enzyme APE1 that provides recognition of AP sites and efficient cleavage of the 5'-phosphodiester bond. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between APE1 and a DNA substrate containing a stable AP site analog lacking the C1' hydroxyl group (F site) was performed. Based on stopped-flow kinetic data at different temperatures, the steps of DNA binding, catalysis, and DNA product release were characterized. The changes in the standard Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sequential specific steps of the repair process were determined. The thermodynamic analysis of the data suggests that the initial step of the DNA substrate binding includes formation of non-specific contacts between the enzyme binding surface and DNA, as well as insertion of the amino acid residues Arg177 and Met270 into the duplex, which results in the removal of "crystalline" water molecules from DNA grooves. The second binding step involves the F site flipping-out process and formation of specific contacts between the enzyme active site and the everted 5'-phosphate-2'-deoxyribose residue. It was shown that non-specific interactions between the binding surfaces of the enzyme and DNA provide the main contribution into the thermodynamic parameters of the DNA product release step.

  4. The influence of substrate on DNA transfer and extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2013-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding deposition of DNA profiles are increasingly becoming an issue in court proceedings, especially whether or not the deposit was made by primary transfer. In order to improve the currently problematic evaluation of transfer scenarios in court proceedings, we examined the influence a variety of nine substrate types (six varieties of fabric, plywood, tarpaulin, and plastic sheets) has on DNA transfer involving blood. DNA transfer percentages were significantly higher (p=0.03) when the primary substrate was of non-porous material (such as tarpaulin, plastic or, to a lesser degree, wood) and the secondary substrate porous (such as fabrics). These findings on transfer percentages confirm the results of previous studies. Fabric composition was also shown to have a significant (p=0.03) effect on DNA transfer; when experiments were performed with friction from a variety of fabrics to a specific weave of cotton, transfer percentages ranged from 4% (flannelette) to 94% (acetate). The propensity for the same nine substrates to impact upon the efficiency of DNA extraction procedures was also examined. Significant (p=0.03) differences were found among the extraction efficiencies from different materials. When 15μL of blood was deposited on each of the substrates, the lowest quantity of DNA was extracted from plastic (20ng) and the highest quantities extracted from calico and flannelette (650ng). Significant (pDNA extraction yield from different initial blood volumes from all substrates. Also, significantly greater (pDNA was seen during concentration of extracts with higher compared to lower initial quantities of DNA. These findings suggest that the efficiency of extraction and concentration impacts upon the final amount of DNA available for analysis and that consideration of these effects should not be ignored. The application of correction factors to adjust for any variation among extraction and concentration efficiencies among substrates is

  5. High Purity DNA Extraction with a SPE Microfluidic Chip Using KI as the Binding Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing CHEN; Da Fu CUI; Chang Chun LIU

    2006-01-01

    Based on solid phase extraction method, a novel silicon-PDMS-glass microchip for high purity DNA extraction has been developed by using KI as the binding salt. The microfluidic chip fabricated by MEMS technology was composed of a silicon substrate with a coiled channel and a compounded PDMS-glass cover. With this microfluidic chip, the wall of the coiled channel was used as solid phase matrix for binding DNA and DNA was extracted by the fluxion of the binding buffer, washing buffer and elution buffer. KI as a substitute for guanidine, was used successfully as binding salt for purification DNA, obtaining higher purity of genomic DNA and about 13.9 ng DNA from 1 μL rat whole blood in 35 minutes.

  6. Rapid identification of DNA-binding proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordhoff, E; Krogsdam, A M; Jorgensen, H F

    1999-01-01

    We report a protocol for the rapid identification of DNA-binding proteins. Immobilized DNA probes harboring a specific sequence motif are incubated with cell or nuclear extract. Proteins are analyzed directly off the solid support by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass...... was validated by the identification of known prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins, and its use provided evidence that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase exhibits DNA sequence-specific binding to DNA....

  7. Characterization of the DNA binding properties of polyomavirus capsid protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D.; Cai, X.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The DNA binding properties of the polyomavirus structural proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were studied by Southwestern analysis. The major viral structural protein VP1 and host-contributed histone proteins of polyomavirus virions were shown to exhibit DNA binding activity, but the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 failed to bind DNA. The N-terminal first five amino acids (Ala-1 to Lys-5) were identified as the VP1 DNA binding domain by genetic and biochemical approaches. Wild-type VP1 expressed in Escherichia coli (RK1448) exhibited DNA binding activity, but the N-terminal truncated VP1 mutants (lacking Ala-1 to Lys-5 and Ala-1 to Cys-11) failed to bind DNA. The synthetic peptide (Ala-1 to Cys-11) was also shown to have an affinity for DNA binding. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP1 gene showed that the point mutations at Pro-2, Lys-3, and Arg-4 on the VP1 molecule did not affect DNA binding properties but that the point mutation at Lys-5 drastically reduced DNA binding affinity. The N-terminal (Ala-1 to Lys-5) region of VP1 was found to be essential and specific for DNA binding, while the DNA appears to be non-sequence specific. The DNA binding domain and the nuclear localization signal are located in the same N-terminal region.

  8. Study of MMLV RT- Binding with DNA using Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei WU; Ming-Hui HUANG; Jian-Long ZHAO; Meng-Su YANG

    2005-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance biosensor technique was used to study the binding of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase without RNase H domain (MMLV RT-) with DNA in the absence and in the presence of inhibitors. Different DNA substrates, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA),DNA template-primer (T-P) duplex and gapped DNA, were immobilized on the biosensor chip surface using streptavidin-biotin, and MMLV RT--DNA binding kinetics were analyzed by different models. MMLV RT-could bind with ssDNA and the binding was involved in conformation change. MMLV RT- binding DNA T-P duplex and gapped DNA could be analyzed using the simple 1:1 Langmuir model. The lack of RNase H domain reduced the affinity between MMLV RT- and T-P duplex. The effects of RT inhibitors, including efavirenz, nevirapine and quercetin, on the interaction between MMLV RT- and gapped DNA were analyzed according to recovered kinetics parameters. Efavirenz slightly interfered with the binding between RT and DNA and the affinity constant in the presence of the inhibitor (KA=1.21× 106 M-1) was lower than in the absence of the inhibitor (KA=4.61× 106 M-1). Nevirapine induced relatively tight binding between RT and DNA and the affinity constant in the presence of the inhibsitor (KA=l.47×107 M-1) was approximately three folds higher than without nevirapine, mainly due to rapid association and slow dissociation. Quercetin, a flavonoid originating from plant which has previously shown strong inhibition of the activity of RT, was found to have minimal effect on the RT-DNA binding.

  9. Binding characteristics of salbutamol with DNA by spectral methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuyun; Pang, Bo; Zhao, Tingting; Wang, Tianjiao; Wang, Yu; Yan, Lili

    2013-07-01

    Salbutamol interacting with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was examined by fluorescence, UV absorption, viscosity measurements, and DNA melting techniques. The binding constants and binding sites were obtained at different temperatures by fluorescence quenching. The Stern-Volmer plots showed that the quenching of fluorescence of salbutamol by DNA was a static quenching. To probe the binding mode, various analytical methods were performed and the results were as follows: hyperchromic effect was shown in the absorption spectra of salbutamol upon addition of DNA; there was no appreciable increase in melting temperature of DNA when salbutamol was presented in DNA solution; the fluorescence intensity of salbutamol-DNA decrease with the increasing ionic strength; the relative viscosity of DNA did not change in the presence of salbutamol; the binding constant of salbutamol with double strand DNA (dsDNA) was much higher than that of it with single strand DNA (ssDNA). All these results indicated that the binding mode of salbutamol to DNA should be groove binding. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that hydrogen bond or van der Waals force might play an important role in salbutamol binding to DNA. According to the Förster energy transference theory, the binding distance between the acceptor and donor was 3.70 nm.

  10. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple

  11. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovir

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of peeling a DNA molecule on substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Shi; Yong Kong; Yapu Zhao; Huajian Gao

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study adhesion and peeling of a short fragment of single strand DNA (ssDNA) molecule from a graphite surface. The critical peel-off force is found to depend on both the peeling angle and the elasticity of ssDNA. For the short ssDNA strand under investigation, we show that the simulation results can be explained by a continuum model of an adhesive elastic band on substrate. The analysis suggests that it is often the peak value, rather than the mean value, of adhesion energy which determines the peeling of a nanoscale material.

  13. DNA and RNA Quadruplex-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Brázda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Four-stranded DNA structures were structurally characterized in vitro by NMR, X-ray and Circular Dichroism spectroscopy in detail. Among the different types of quadruplexes (i-Motifs, minor groove quadruplexes, G-quadruplexes, etc., the best described are G-quadruplexes which are featured by Hoogsteen base-paring. Sequences with the potential to form quadruplexes are widely present in genome of all organisms. They are found often in repetitive sequences such as telomeric ones, and also in promoter regions and 5' non-coding sequences. Recently, many proteins with binding affinity to G-quadruplexes have been identified. One of the initially portrayed G-rich regions, the human telomeric sequence (TTAGGGn, is recognized by many proteins which can modulate telomerase activity. Sequences with the potential to form G-quadruplexes are often located in promoter regions of various oncogenes. The NHE III1 region of the c-MYC promoter has been shown to interact with nucleolin protein as well as other G-quadruplex-binding proteins. A number of G-rich sequences are also present in promoter region of estrogen receptor alpha. In addition to DNA quadruplexes, RNA quadruplexes, which are critical in translational regulation, have also been predicted and observed. For example, the RNA quadruplex formation in telomere-repeat-containing RNA is involved in interaction with TRF2 (telomere repeat binding factor 2 and plays key role in telomere regulation. All these fundamental examples suggest the importance of quadruplex structures in cell processes and their understanding may provide better insight into aging and disease development.

  14. Cooperative binding interaction of ethidium with allosteric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, D

    1999-09-30

    The specific association of drugs with deoxyoligonucleotides, containing a B-Z junction between left-handed Z-DNA and right-handed B-DNA, was examined by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) technique. Ethidium was chosen for a simple DNA binding compound because it binds to right-handed DNA and hybrid B-Z forms containing a B-Z junction in a highly cooperative manner. The binding isotherms were analyzed by an allosteric model in order to describe the cooperativity of association. Binding of ethidium to the DNA that are initially in the hybrid B-Z forms showed over an order of magnitude higher affinity than other DNA which were entirely in the B-form. The conformational transitions of deoxyoligonucleotides containing a B-Z junction as a result of ethidium binding were monitored by CD and the influence of NaCl on the complex formation was also determined by the CD spectra. The singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis was used to characterize a family of CD spectra of the species in binding equilibria. The results of SVD analysis showed a strikingly complex thermodynamic equilibria of cooperative binding of drugs to the allosterically converted DNA forms. The results also showed that these DNA forms in low- and high-salt were different in the absence or presence of drug. These results demonstrate that DNA-binding-drugs can preferentially interact with specific DNA structures and that these interactions are accompanied by allosteric changes of DNA conformations.

  15. Structural basis of substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M.H.G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna J.S.; van Zeijl, Leonie; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.; Kasiem, Mobien; Harlos, Karl; Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Smyth, Susan S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bollen, Mathieu; Morris, Andrew J.; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Perrakis, Anastassis (Pfizer); (Leuven); (Oxford); (NCI-Netherlands); (Kentucky)

    2013-09-25

    Autotaxin (ATX, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2, ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemoattractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling is involved in various pathologies including tumor progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis by ATX and the mechanism by which it interacts with target cells are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of ATX, alone and in complex with a small-molecule inhibitor. We have identified a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and mapped key residues for catalysis and selection between nucleotide and phospholipid substrates. We have shown that ATX interacts with cell-surface integrins through its N-terminal somatomedin B-like domains, using an atypical mechanism. Our results define determinants of substrate discrimination by the ENPP family, suggest how ATX promotes localized LPA signaling and suggest new approaches for targeting ATX with small-molecule therapeutic agents.

  16. AFM studies of nonspecific binding of enzyme on DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张益; 谢恒月; 等

    1996-01-01

    Atomic force microscope(AFM) is used to study restriction endonuclease digestion of plasmid DNA,pWRr plasmid DNA is digested by Hind Ⅲ,and the specific and the nonspecific binding of the restriction endonuclease are imaged,and the biological function of the enzyme binding to nonspecific sites is discussed.In addition,it is found that nonspecific binding of Hind ǚ could not induce the DNA characteristic bending angle.

  17. Thermodynamics of sequence-specific binding of PNA to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratilainen, T; Holmén, A; Tuite, E

    2000-01-01

    For further characterization of the hybridization properties of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), the thermodynamics of hybridization of mixed sequence PNA-DNA duplexes have been studied. We have characterized the binding of PNA to DNA in terms of binding affinity (perfectly matched duplexes) and seq......For further characterization of the hybridization properties of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), the thermodynamics of hybridization of mixed sequence PNA-DNA duplexes have been studied. We have characterized the binding of PNA to DNA in terms of binding affinity (perfectly matched duplexes...

  18. Two DNA-binding and Nick Recognition Modules in Human DNA Ligase III*

    OpenAIRE

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Human DNA ligase III contains an N-terminal zinc finger domain that binds to nicks and gaps in DNA. This small domain has been described as a DNA nick sensor, but it is not required for DNA nick joining activity in vitro. In light of new structural information for mammalian ligases, we measured the DNA binding affinity and specificity of each domain of DNA ligase III. These studies identified two separate, independent DNA-binding modules in DNA ligase III that each bin...

  19. Affinity purification of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    We describe a method for affinity purification of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that is fast and effective. Complementary chemically synthesized oligodeoxynucleotides that contain a recognition site for a sequence-specific DNA binding protein are annealed and ligated to give oligomers. This DNA is then covalently coupled to Sepharose CL-2B with cyanogen bromide to yield the affinity resin. A partially purified protein fraction is combined with competitor DNA and subsequently passed t...

  20. Isolation of ubiquitinated substrates by tandem affinity purification of E3 ligase-polyubiquitin-binding domain fusions (ligase traps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kevin G; Loveless, Theresa B; Toczyski, David P

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitination is an essential protein modification that influences eukaryotic processes ranging from substrate degradation to nonproteolytic pathway alterations, including DNA repair and endocytosis. Previous attempts to analyze substrates via physical association with their respective ubiquitin ligases have had some success. However, because of the transient nature of enzyme-substrate interactions and rapid protein degradation, detection of substrates remains a challenge. Ligase trapping is an affinity purification approach in which ubiquitin ligases are fused to a polyubiquitin-binding domain, which allows the isolation of ubiquitinated substrates. Immunoprecipitation is first used to enrich for proteins that are bound to the ligase trap. Subsequently, affinity purification is used under denaturing conditions to capture proteins conjugated with hexahistidine-tagged ubiquitin. By using this protocol, ubiquitinated substrates that are specific for a given ligase can be isolated for mass spectrometry or western blot analysis. After cells have been collected, the described protocol can be completed in 2-3 d.

  1. Structure of photosystem II and substrate binding at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin; Koroidov, Sergey; Brewster, Aaron S.; Tran, Rosalie; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Kroll, Thomas; Michels-Clark, Tara; Laksmono, Hartawan; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stan, Claudiu A.; Hussein, Rana; Zhang, Miao; Douthit, Lacey; Kubin, Markus; de Lichtenberg, Casper; Long Vo, Pham; Nilsson, Håkan; Cheah, Mun Hon; Shevela, Dmitriy; Saracini, Claudio; Bean, Mackenzie A.; Seuffert, Ina; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Pastor, Ernest; Weninger, Clemens; Fransson, Thomas; Lassalle, Louise; Bräuer, Philipp; Aller, Pierre; Docker, Peter T.; Andi, Babak; Orville, Allen M.; Glownia, James M.; Nelson, Silke; Sikorski, Marcin; Zhu, Diling; Hunter, Mark S.; Lane, Thomas J.; Aquila, Andy; Koglin, Jason E.; Robinson, Joseph; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sébastien; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Liebschner, Dorothee; Afonine, Pavel V.; Waterman, David G.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wernet, Philippe; Dobbek, Holger; Weis, William I.; Brunger, Axel T.; Zwart, Petrus H.; Adams, Paul D.; Zouni, Athina; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Kern, Jan; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Light-induced oxidation of water by photosystem II (PS II) in plants, algae and cyanobacteria has generated most of the dioxygen in the atmosphere. PS II, a membrane-bound multi-subunit pigment-protein complex, couples the one-electron photochemistry at the reaction center with the four-electron redox chemistry of water oxidation at the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) (Fig. 1a, Extended Data Fig. 1). Under illumination, the OEC cycles through five intermediate S-states (S0 to S4)1, where S1 is the dark stable state and S3 is the last semi-stable state before O-O bond formation and O2 evolution2,3. A detailed understanding of the O-O bond formation mechanism remains a challenge, and elucidating the structures of the OEC in the different S-states, as well as the binding of the two substrate waters to the catalytic site4-6, is a prerequisite for this purpose. Here we report the use of femtosecond pulses from an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) to obtain damage free, room temperature (RT) structures of dark-adapted (S1), two-flash illuminated (2F; S3-enriched), and ammonia-bound two-flash illuminated (2F-NH3; S3-enriched) PS II. Although the recent 1.95 Å structure of PS II7 at cryogenic temperature using an XFEL provided a damage-free view of the S1 state, RT measurements are required to study the structural landscape of proteins under functional conditions8,9, and also for in situ advancement of the S-states. To investigate the water-binding site(s), ammonia, a water analog, has been used as a marker, as it binds to the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the S2 and S3 states10. Since the ammonia-bound OEC is active, the ammonia-binding Mn site is not a substrate water site10-13. Thus, this approach, together with a comparison of the native dark and 2F states, is used to discriminate between proposed O-O bond formation mechanisms. PMID:27871088

  2. Inhibitor and substrate binding by angiotensin-converting enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuemei; Wu, Shanshan; Xu, Dingguo;

    2011-01-01

    . In this work, we propose a model for an ACE Michaelis complex based on two known X-ray structures of inhibitor-enzyme complexes. Specifically, the human testis angiotensin-converting enzyme (tACE) complexed with two clinic drugs were first investigated using a combined quantum mechanical and molecular......Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an important zinc-dependent hydrolase responsible for converting the inactive angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and for inactivating the vasodilator bradykinin. However, the substrate binding mode of ACE has not been completely understood...... mechanical (QM/MM) approach. The structural parameters obtained from the 550 ps molecular dynamics simulations are in excellent agreement with the X-ray structures, validating the QM/MM approach. Based on these structures, a model for the Michaelis complex was proposed and simulated using the same...

  3. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding and cytotoxic activities of Ru(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Sreekanth; Vallala, Srujana; Yerra, Rajeshwar; Rodrigues, Daniel Alencar; Raghavendra, Nulgumnalli Manjunathaiah; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2016-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel Ru(II) compounds (Ru-1 to Ru-8) bearing R-pdc, 4-Cl-pbinh ligands (where R=4-CF3, 4-F, 4-OH pdc=3-phenyl-5-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide, pbinh=phenoxybenzylidene isonicotinyl hydrazides) and their in vitro antitumor activity toward the cell lines murine leukemia L1210, human lymphocyte CEM, human epithelial cervical carcinoma HeLa, BEL-7402 and Molt4/C8. Some of the complexes exhibited more potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines than the standard drug cisplatin. Ruthenium complex Ru-2 displayed potent cytotoxicity with than that of cisplatin. DNA-binding, DNA cleavage and protein binding properties of ruthenium complexes with these ligands are reported. Interactions of these ruthenium complexes with DNA revealed an intercalative mode of binding between them. Synchronous fluorescence spectra proved that the interaction of ruthenium complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) resulted in a conformational change of the latter.

  4. Formation and characterization of DNA microarrays at silicon nitride substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Mary; Redmond, Gareth

    2005-01-01

    A versatile method for direct, covalent attachment of DNA microarrays at silicon nitride layers, previously deposited by chemical vapor deposition at silicon wafer substrates, is reported. Each microarray fabrication process step, from silicon nitride substrate deposition, surface cleaning, amino-silanation, and attachment of a homobifunctional cross-linking molecule to covalent immobilization of probe oligonucleotides, is defined, characterized, and optimized to yield consistent probe microarray quality, homogeneity, and probe-target hybridization performance. The developed microarray fabrication methodology provides excellent (high signal-to-background ratio) and reproducible responsivity to target oligonucleotide hybridization with a rugged chemical stability that permits exposure of arrays to stringent pre- and posthybridization wash conditions through many sustained cycles of reuse. Overall, the achieved performance features compare very favorably with those of more mature glass based microarrays. It is proposed that this DNA microarray fabrication strategy has the potential to provide a viable route toward the successful realization of future integrated DNA biochips.

  5. Detection of DNA damage by Escherichia coli UvrB-binding competition assay is limited by the stability of the UvrB-DNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, M N; Allan, J M; Garner, R C

    1997-07-01

    To investigate the use of UvrB-binding to detect DNA damage, mobility shift gel electrophoresis was used to detect binding of UvrB protein to a 136 bp DNA fragment that was randomly adducted with aflatoxin B1 8,9-epoxide and end-labelled with 32P. After polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the shifted band that contained DNA bound by UvrB was quantified as a percentage of total radioactive substrate DNA. This method was applied to analyse plasmid DNA that was adducted with various DNA modifying agents in vitro. These adducts competed for UvrB-binding to the labelled substrate. By competing for UvrB-binding with 10 ng of plasmid DNA that was adducted with known levels of aflatoxin B1, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, or benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, UvrB competition could be quantified for DNA adducted with between one adduct in 10(2) and one adduct in 10(5) normal nucleotides. However, plasmid DNA exposed to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or methylene blue + visible light, did not compete for UvrB-binding, even though the presence of UvrABC sensitive sites were confirmed on this DNA by a UvrABC incision assay. Mono-adducted 96-bp DNA substrates, which contained an internal 32P-label and either a single apurinic site, aflatoxin B1-guanine adduct, O6-methylguanine, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine or non-adducted guanine, were also used as substrates for UvrA- and UvrB-binding to examine the stability of UvrB-DNA complexes with specific adducts. Under similar conditions used for the competition assay, significant UvrB-binding was seen only for the aflatoxin adducted substrate. These results suggest that stability of UvrB-binding varies greatly between bulky and non-bulky adducts. It was also found that rat liver DNA from untreated rats inhibited UvrB-binding to the substrate DNA in the competition assay, to a degree that was equivalent to competition with plasmid adducted at one adduct in 10(3) normal nucleotides.

  6. Selective binding of anti-DNA antibodies to native dsDNA fragments of differing sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccellini, Melissa B; Busto, Patricia; Debatis, Michelle; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann; Viglianti, Gregory A

    2012-03-30

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of autoantibodies directed against a limited subset of nuclear antigens, including DNA. DNA-specific B cells take up mammalian DNA through their B cell receptor, and this DNA is subsequently transported to an endosomal compartment where it can potentially engage TLR9. We have previously shown that ssDNA-specific B cells preferentially bind to particular DNA sequences, and antibody specificity for short synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). Since CpG-rich DNA, the ligand for TLR9 is found in low abundance in mammalian DNA, we sought to determine whether antibodies derived from DNA-reactive B cells showed binding preference for CpG-rich native dsDNA, and thereby select immunostimulatory DNA for delivery to TLR9. We examined a panel of anti-DNA antibodies for binding to CpG-rich and CpG-poor DNA fragments. We show that a number of anti-DNA antibodies do show preference for binding to certain native dsDNA fragments of differing sequence, but this does not correlate directly with the presence of CpG dinucleotides. An antibody with preference for binding to a fragment containing optimal CpG motifs was able to promote B cell proliferation to this fragment at 10-fold lower antibody concentrations than an antibody that did not selectively bind to this fragment, indicating that antibody binding preference can influence autoreactive B cell responses.

  7. In vitro DNA binding studies of Aspartame, an artificial sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2013-03-05

    A number of small molecules bind directly and selectively to DNA, by inhibiting replication, transcription or topoisomerase activity. In this work the interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with Aspartame (APM), an artificial sweeteners was studied at physiological pH. DNA binding study of APM is useful to understand APM-DNA interaction mechanism and to provide guidance for the application and design of new and safer artificial sweeteners. The interaction was investigated using spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD). Hypochromism and red shift are shown in UV absorption band of APM. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to APM was observed and the binding constants (Kf) of DNA with APM and corresponding number of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated to be +181kJmol(-1) and +681Jmol(-1)K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Moreover, spectrofluorometric competition experiment and circular dichroism (CD) results are indicative of non-intercalative DNA binding nature of APM. We suggest that APM interacts with calf thymus DNA via groove binding mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 5×10(+4)M(-1).

  8. DNA origami deposition on native and passivated molybdenum disulfide substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the structural fidelity of DNA origami structures on substrates is a prerequisite for the successful fabrication of hybrid DNA origami/semiconductor-based biomedical sensor devices. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 is an ideal substrate for such future sensors due to its exceptional electrical, mechanical and structural properties. In this work, we performed the first investigations into the interaction of DNA origami with the MoS2 surface. In contrast to the structure-preserving interaction of DNA origami with mica, another atomically flat surface, it was observed that DNA origami structures rapidly lose their structural integrity upon interaction with MoS2. In a further series of studies, pyrene and 1-pyrenemethylamine, were evaluated as surface modifications which might mitigate this effect. While both species were found to form adsorption layers on MoS2 via physisorption, 1-pyrenemethylamine serves as a better protective agent and preserves the structures for significantly longer times. These findings will be beneficial for the fabrication of future DNA origami/MoS2 hybrid electronic structures.

  9. High-Fidelity DNA Sensing by Protein Binding Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Tlusty, Tsvi; Libchaber, Albert; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.258103

    2010-01-01

    One of the major functions of RecA protein in the cell is to bind single-stranded DNA exposed upon damage, thereby triggering the SOS repair response.We present fluorescence anisotropy measurements at the binding onset, showing enhanced DNA length discrimination induced by adenosine triphosphate consumption. Our model explains the observed DNA length sensing as an outcome of out-of equilibrium binding fluctuations, reminiscent of microtubule dynamic instability. The cascade architecture of the binding fluctuations is a generalization of the kinetic proofreading mechanism. Enhancement of precision by an irreversible multistage pathway is a possible design principle in the noisy biological environment.

  10. A DNA immunoprecipitation assay used in quantitative detection of in vitro DNA-protein complex binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Chae, Ji Hyung; Oh, Chang-Ho; Kim, Chul Geun

    2013-10-15

    To begin gene transcription, several transcription factors must bind to specific DNA sequences to form a complex via DNA-protein interactions. We established an in vitro method for specific and sensitive analyses of DNA-protein interactions based on a DNA immunoprecipitation (DIP) method. We verified the accuracy and efficiency of the DIP assay in quantitatively measuring DNA-protein binding using transcription factor CP2c as a model. With our DIP assay, we could detect specific interactions within a DNA-CP2c complex, with reproducible and quantitative binding values. In addition, we were able to effectively measure the changes in DNA-CP2c binding by the addition of a small molecule, FQI1 (factor quinolinone inhibitor 1), previously identified as a specific inhibitor of this binding. To identify a new regulator of DNA-CP2c binding, we analyzed several CP2c binding peptides and found that only one class of peptide severely inhibits DNA-CP2c binding. These data show that our DIP assay is very useful in quantitatively detecting the binding dynamics of DNA-protein complex. Because DNA-protein interaction is very dynamic in different cellular environments, our assay can be applied to the detection of active transcription factors, including promoter occupancy in normal and disease conditions. Moreover, it may be used to develop a targeted regulator of specific DNA-protein interaction.

  11. Modulation of DNA binding by gene-specific transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleif, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    The transcription of many genes, particularly in prokaryotes, is controlled by transcription factors whose activity can be modulated by controlling their DNA binding affinity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which DNA binding affinity is regulated is important, but because forming definitive conclusions usually requires detailed structural information in combination with data from extensive biophysical, biochemical, and sometimes genetic experiments, little is truly understood about this topic. This review describes the biological requirements placed upon DNA binding transcription factors and their consequent properties, particularly the ways that DNA binding affinity can be modulated and methods for its study. What is known and not known about the mechanisms modulating the DNA binding affinity of a number of prokaryotic transcription factors, including CAP and lac repressor, is provided.

  12. Binding Parameters of Alkaloids Berberine and Sanguinarine with DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Gumenyuk, V G; Kutovyy, S Yu; Yashchuk, V M; Zaika, L A

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction of berberine and sanguinarine (plant alkaloids) with DNA in aqueous solutions, by using optical spectroscopy methods (absorption and fluorescence). The dependencies of alkaloid spectral characteristics on the concentration ratio N/c between the DNA base pairs and alkaloid molecules in the solutions are considered, and the manifestations of the alkaloid-DNA binding are revealed. The character of binding is found to depend on N/c. The parameters of the binding of berberine and sanguinarine with DNA are determined, by using the modified Scatchard and McGhee-von Hippel equations

  13. The substrate binding domains of human SIAH E3 ubiquitin ligases are now crystal clear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhongduo; Hou, Feng; Harding, Rachel; Huang, Xinyi; Dong, Aiping; Walker, John R.; Tong, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Seven in absentia homologs (SIAHs) comprise a family of highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligases that play an important role in regulating signalling pathways in tumorigenesis, including the DNA damage repair and hypoxia response pathways. SIAH1 and SIAH2 have been found to function as a tumour repressor and a proto-oncogene, respectively, despite the high sequence identity of their substrate binding domains (SBDs). Ubiquitin-specific protease USP19 is a deubiquitinase that forms a complex with SIAHs and counteracts the ligase function. Much effort has been made to find selective inhibitors of the SIAHs E3 ligases. Menadione was reported to inhibit SIAH2 specifically. We used X-ray crystallography, peptide array, bioinformatic analysis, and biophysical techniques to characterize the structure and interaction of SIAHs with deubiquitinases and literature reported compounds. We solved the crystal structures of SIAH1 in complex with a USP19 peptide and of the apo form SIAH2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the SIAH/USP19 complex is conserved in evolution. We demonstrated that menadione destabilizes both SIAH1 and SIAH2 non-specifically through covalent modification. The SBDs of SIAH E3 ligases are structurally similar with a subtle stability difference. USP19 is the only deubiquitinase that directly binds to SIAHs through the substrate binding pocket. Menadione is not a specific inhibitor for SIAH2. The crystallographic models provide structural insights into the substrate binding of the SIAH family E3 ubiquitin ligases that are critically involved in regulating cancer-related pathways. Our results suggest caution should be taken when using menadione as a specific SIAH2 inhibitor.

  14. False-positive myeloperoxidase binding activity due to DNA/anti-DNA antibody complexes: a source for analytical error in serologic evaluation of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, H S; Nachman, P H; Falk, R J; Jennette, J C

    2000-09-01

    Anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies (anti-MPO) are a major type of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). While evaluating anti-MPO monoclonal antibodies from SCG/Kj mice, we observed several hybridomas that appeared to react with both MPO and DNA. Sera from some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) also react with MPO and DNA. We hypothesized that the MPO binding activity is a false-positive result due to the binding of DNA, contained within the antigen binding site of anti-DNA antibodies, to the cationic MPO. Antibodies from tissue culture supernatants from 'dual reactive' hybridomas were purified under high-salt conditions (3 M NaCl) to remove any antigen bound to antibody. The MPO and DNA binding activity were measured by ELISA. The MPO binding activity was completely abrogated while the DNA binding activity remained. The MPO binding activity was restored, in a dose-dependent manner, by the addition of increasing amount of calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) to the purified antibody. Sera from six patients with SLE that reacted with both MPO and DNA were treated with DNase and showed a decrease in MPO binding activity compared with untreated samples. MPO binding activity was observed when CT-DNA was added to sera from SLE patients that initially reacted with DNA but not with MPO. These results suggest that the DNA contained within the antigen binding site of anti-DNA antibodies could bind to the highly cationic MPO used as substrate antigen in immunoassays, resulting in a false-positive test.

  15. The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 preventsmutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jen-Yeu; Sarker, Altaf Hossain; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Volkert, Michael R.

    2004-02-01

    Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional coactivator with a highly conserved single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding domain of unknown function. We identified PC4 as a suppressor of the oxidative mutator phenotype of the Escherichia coli fpg mutY mutant and demonstrate that this suppression requires its ssDNA binding activity. Yeast mutants lacking their PC4 ortholog Sub1 are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and exhibit spontaneous and peroxide induced hypermutability. PC4 expression suppresses the peroxide sensitivity of the yeast sub l{Delta} mutant, suggesting that the human protein has a similar function. A role for yeast and human proteins in DNA repair is suggested by the demonstration that Sub1 acts in a peroxide-resistance pathway involving Rad2 and by the physical interaction of PC4 with the human Rad2 homolog XPG. We show XPG recruits PC4 to a bubble-containing DNA substrate with resulting displacement of XPG and formation of a PC4-DNA complex. We discuss the possible requirement for PC4 in either global or transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage to mediate the release of XPG bound to its substrate.

  16. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    OpenAIRE

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van, J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus-infected cells increased expression of LEF-3, LEF-4, and P35. In contrast, expression of the structural genes coding for P39 and polyhedrin was suppressed while expression of genes coding for P1...

  17. The binding of in vitro synthesized adenovirus DNA binding protein to single-stranded DNA is stimulated by zinc ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, H.L.; Lee, F.M. van der; Sussenbach, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have synthesized wild type DNA binding protein (DBP) of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and several truncated forms of this protein by a combination of in vitro transcription and translation. The proteins obtained were tested for binding to a single-stranded DNA-cellulose column. It could be shown that f

  18. Adsorption of DNA binding proteins to functionalized carbon nanotube surfaces with and without DNA wrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yu; Oura, Shusuke; Umemura, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    We examined the adsorption of DNA binding proteins on functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). When SWNTs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG-SWNT), moderate adsorption of protein molecules was observed. In contrast, nanotubes functionalized with CONH2 groups (CONH2-SWNT) exhibited very strong interactions between the CONH2-SWNT and DNA binding proteins. Instead, when these SWNT surfaces were wrapped with DNA molecules (thymine 30-mers), protein binding was a little decreased. Our results revealed that DNA wrapped PEG-SWNT was one of the most promising candidates to realize DNA nanodevices involving protein reactions on DNA-SWNT surfaces. In addition, the DNA binding protein RecA was more adhesive than single-stranded DNA binding proteins to the functionalized SWNT surfaces.

  19. DNA-binding factor CTCF and long-range gene interactions in V(D)J recombination and oncogene activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Ribeiro de Almeida (Claudia); R. Stadhouders (Ralph); S. Thongjuea (Supat); E. Soler (Eric); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRegulation of V(D)J recombination events at immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor loci in lymphoid cells is complex and achieved via changes in substrate accessibility. Various studies over the last year have identified the DNA-binding zinc-finger protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) as

  20. Characterisation of the interactions between substrate, copper(II) complex and DNA and their role in rate acceleration in DNA-based asymmetric catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draksharapu, Apparao; Boersma, Arnold J; Browne, Wesley R; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of the azachalcone derived substrate Aza with copper(II) complexes in the presence and absence of st-DNA were studied in detail by UV/Vis absorption, EPR and Raman and (UV and vis) resonance Raman spectroscopies. The binding of Aza to the Lewis acidic copper(II) complexes, which results

  1. Characterisation of the interactions between substrate, copper(II) complex and DNA and their role in rate acceleration in DNA-based asymmetric catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draksharapu, Apparao; Boersma, Arnold J; Browne, Wesley R; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of the azachalcone derived substrate Aza with copper(II) complexes in the presence and absence of st-DNA were studied in detail by UV/Vis absorption, EPR and Raman and (UV and vis) resonance Raman spectroscopies. The binding of Aza to the Lewis acidic copper(II) complexes, which results

  2. RNA recognition by the DNA end-binding Ku heterodimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Andrew B; Goodrich, Karen J; Pfingsten, Jennifer S; Cech, Thomas R

    2013-06-01

    Most nucleic acid-binding proteins selectively bind either DNA or RNA, but not both nucleic acids. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ku heterodimer is unusual in that it has two very different biologically relevant binding modes: (1) Ku is a sequence-nonspecific double-stranded DNA end-binding protein with prominent roles in nonhomologous end-joining and telomeric capping, and (2) Ku associates with a specific stem-loop of TLC1, the RNA subunit of budding yeast telomerase, and is necessary for proper nuclear localization of this ribonucleoprotein enzyme. TLC1 RNA-binding and dsDNA-binding are mutually exclusive, so they may be mediated by the same site on Ku. Although dsDNA binding by Ku is well studied, much less is known about what features of an RNA hairpin enable specific recognition by Ku. To address this question, we localized the Ku-binding site of the TLC1 hairpin with single-nucleotide resolution using phosphorothioate footprinting, used chemical modification to identify an unpredicted motif within the hairpin secondary structure, and carried out mutagenesis of the stem-loop to ascertain the critical elements within the RNA that permit Ku binding. Finally, we provide evidence that the Ku-binding site is present in additional budding yeast telomerase RNAs and discuss the possibility that RNA binding is a conserved function of the Ku heterodimer.

  3. DNA and Protein Requirements for Substrate Conformational Changes Necessary for Human Flap Endonuclease-1-catalyzed Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algasaier, Sana I; Exell, Jack C; Bennet, Ian A; Thompson, Mark J; Gotham, Victoria J B; Shaw, Steven J; Craggs, Timothy D; Finger, L David; Grasby, Jane A

    2016-04-08

    Human flap endonuclease-1 (hFEN1) catalyzes the essential removal of single-stranded flaps arising at DNA junctions during replication and repair processes. hFEN1 biological function must be precisely controlled, and consequently, the protein relies on a combination of protein and substrate conformational changes as a prerequisite for reaction. These include substrate bending at the duplex-duplex junction and transfer of unpaired reacting duplex end into the active site. When present, 5'-flaps are thought to thread under the helical cap, limiting reaction to flaps with free 5'-terminiin vivo Here we monitored DNA bending by FRET and DNA unpairing using 2-aminopurine exciton pair CD to determine the DNA and protein requirements for these substrate conformational changes. Binding of DNA to hFEN1 in a bent conformation occurred independently of 5'-flap accommodation and did not require active site metal ions or the presence of conserved active site residues. More stringent requirements exist for transfer of the substrate to the active site. Placement of the scissile phosphate diester in the active site required the presence of divalent metal ions, a free 5'-flap (if present), a Watson-Crick base pair at the terminus of the reacting duplex, and the intact secondary structure of the enzyme helical cap. Optimal positioning of the scissile phosphate additionally required active site conserved residues Tyr(40), Asp(181), and Arg(100)and a reacting duplex 5'-phosphate. These studies suggest a FEN1 reaction mechanism where junctions are bound and 5'-flaps are threaded (when present), and finally the substrate is transferred onto active site metals initiating cleavage.

  4. Extended HSR/CARD domain mediates AIRE binding to DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslovskaja, Julia, E-mail: julia.maslovskaja@ut.ee; Saare, Mario; Liiv, Ingrid; Rebane, Ana; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-12-25

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) activates the transcription of many genes in an unusual promiscuous and stochastic manner. The mechanism by which AIRE binds to the chromatin and DNA is not fully understood, and the regulatory elements that AIRE target genes possess are not delineated. In the current study, we demonstrate that AIRE activates the expression of transiently transfected luciferase reporters that lack defined promoter regions, as well as intron and poly(A) signal sequences. Our protein-DNA interaction experiments with mutated AIRE reveal that the intact homogeneously staining region/caspase recruitment domain (HSR/CARD) and amino acids R113 and K114 are key elements involved in AIRE binding to DNA. - Highlights: • Promoter and mRNA processing elements are not important for AIRE to activate gene expression from reporter plasmids. • AIRE protein fragment aa 1–138 mediates direct binding to DNA. • Integrity of the HSR/CARD domain is needed for AIRE binding to DNA.

  5. Characterisation of the interactions between substrate, copper(II) complex and DNA and their role in rate acceleration in DNA-based asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draksharapu, Apparao; Boersma, Arnold J; Browne, Wesley R; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-02-28

    Interactions of the azachalcone derived substrate Aza with copper(II) complexes in the presence and absence of st-DNA were studied in detail by UV/Vis absorption, EPR and Raman and (UV and vis) resonance Raman spectroscopies. The binding of Aza to the Lewis acidic copper(II) complexes, which results in activation of the substrate, was established spectroscopically. It was shown that the binding of Aza differs between Cu(II)dmbpy and Cu(II)terpy, consistent with the observed differences in catalytic asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions with regard to both the rate and enantiomeric preference. Finally, it was shown that DNA has a major beneficial effect on the binding of Aza to the copper(II) complex due to the fact that both bind to the DNA. The result is a high effective molarity of both the copper complexes and the Aza substrate, which leads to a significant increase in binding of Aza to the copper(II) complex. This effect is a key reason for the observed rate acceleration in the catalyzed reactions brought about by the presence of DNA.

  6. Identification of a second substrate-binding site in solute-sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Lee, Ashley S E; Bracher, Susanne; Jung, Heinrich; Paz, Aviv; Kumar, Jay P; Abramson, Jeff; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-02

    The structure of the sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT), a solute-sodium symporter (SSS) from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shares a common structural fold with LeuT of the neurotransmitter-sodium symporter family. Structural alignments between LeuT and vSGLT reveal that the crystallographically identified galactose-binding site in vSGLT is located in a more extracellular location relative to the central substrate-binding site (S1) in LeuT. Our computational analyses suggest the existence of an additional galactose-binding site in vSGLT that aligns to the S1 site of LeuT. Radiolabeled galactose saturation binding experiments indicate that, like LeuT, vSGLT can simultaneously bind two substrate molecules under equilibrium conditions. Mutating key residues in the individual substrate-binding sites reduced the molar substrate-to-protein binding stoichiometry to ~1. In addition, the related and more experimentally tractable SSS member PutP (the Na(+)/proline transporter) also exhibits a binding stoichiometry of 2. Targeting residues in the proposed sites with mutations results in the reduction of the binding stoichiometry and is accompanied by severely impaired translocation of proline. Our data suggest that substrate transport by SSS members requires both substrate-binding sites, thereby implying that SSSs and neurotransmitter-sodium symporters share common mechanistic elements in substrate transport.

  7. Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance allow quantifying substrate binding to different binding sites of Bacillus subtilis xylanase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuyvers, Sven; Dornez, Emmie; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2012-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance were tested for their ability to study substrate binding to the active site (AS) and to the secondary binding site (SBS) of Bacillus subtilis xylanase A separately. To this end, three enzyme variants were compared. The first was a cat......Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance were tested for their ability to study substrate binding to the active site (AS) and to the secondary binding site (SBS) of Bacillus subtilis xylanase A separately. To this end, three enzyme variants were compared. The first...

  8. A filter microplate assay for quantitative analysis of DNA binding proteins using fluorescent DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Swartz, James R

    2011-08-15

    We present a rapid method for quantifying the apparent DNA binding affinity and capacity of recombinant transcription factors (TFs). We capture His6-tagged TFs using nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose and incubate the immobilized TFs with fluorescently labeled cognate DNA probes. After washing, the strength of the fluorescence signal indicates the extent of DNA binding. The assay was validated using two pluripotency-regulating TFs: SOX2 and NANOG. Using competitive binding analysis with nonlabeled competitor DNA, we show that SOX2 and NANOG specifically bind to their consensus sequences. We also determined the apparent affinity of SOX2 and NANOG for their consensus sequences to be 54.2±9 and 44.0±6nM, respectively, in approximate agreement with literature values. Our assay does not require radioactivity, but radioactively labeling the TFs enables the measurement of absolute amounts of immobilized SOX2 and NANOG and, hence, a DNA-to-protein binding ratio. SOX2 possesses a 0.95 DNA-to-protein binding ratio, whereas NANOG possesses a 0.44 ratio, suggesting that most of the SOX2 and approximately half of the NANOG are competent for DNA binding. Alternatively, the NANOG dimer may be capable of binding only one DNA target. This flexible DNA binding assay enables the analysis of crude or purified samples with or without radioactivity.

  9. Roles of multiple surface sites, long substrate binding clefts, and carbohydrate binding modules in the action of amylolytic enzymes on polysaccharide substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Munch; Seo, E.S.; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2008-01-01

    with a characteristic subsite binding energy profile around the catalytic site. Furthermore, several amylolytic enzymes that facilitate attack on the natural substrate, i.e. the endosperm starch granules, have secondary sugar binding sites either situated on the surface of the protein domain or structural unit...... that contains the catalytic site or belonging to a separate starch binding domain. The role of surface sites in the function of barley alpha-amylase 1 has been investigated by using mutational analysis in conjunction with carbohydrate binding analyses and crystallography. The ability to bind starch depends...

  10. Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics study on the oxygen binding and substrate hydroxylation step in AlkB repair enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesne, Matthew G; Latifi, Reza; Gonzalez-Ovalle, Luis E; Kumar, Devesh; de Visser, Sam P

    2014-01-07

    AlkB repair enzymes are important nonheme iron enzymes that catalyse the demethylation of alkylated DNA bases in humans, which is a vital reaction in the body that heals externally damaged DNA bases. Its mechanism is currently controversial and in order to resolve the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) study was performed on the demethylation of the N(1) -methyladenine fragment by AlkB repair enzymes. Firstly, the initial modelling identified the oxygen binding site of the enzyme. Secondly, the oxygen activation mechanism was investigated and a novel pathway was found, whereby the catalytically active iron(IV)-oxo intermediate in the catalytic cycle undergoes an initial isomerisation assisted by an Arg residue in the substrate binding pocket, which then brings the oxo group in close contact with the methyl group of the alkylated DNA base. This enables a subsequent rate-determining hydrogen-atom abstraction on competitive σ- and π-pathways on a quintet spin-state surface. These findings give evidence of different locations of the oxygen and substrate binding channels in the enzyme and the origin of the separation of the oxygen-bound intermediates in the catalytic cycle from substrate. Our studies are compared with small model complexes and the effect of protein and environment on the kinetics and mechanism is explained.

  11. Quantitative Determination of DNA-Ligand Binding Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Eamonn F.

    2007-01-01

    The effective use of fluorescence spectroscopy for determining the binding of the intercalcating agent crhidium bromide to DNA is being described. The analysis used simple measurement techniques and hence can be easily adopted by the students for a better understanding.

  12. Visually Relating Gene Expression and in vivo DNA Binding Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Yu; Mackey, Lester; Ker?,; nen, Soile V. E.; Weber, Gunther H.; Jordan, Michael I.; Knowles, David W.; Biggin, Mark D.; Hamann, Bernd

    2011-09-20

    Gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data provide important information for understanding gene regulatory networks: in vivo DNA binding data indicate genomic regions where transcription factors are bound, and expression data show the output resulting from this binding. Thus, there must be functional relationships between these two types of data. While visualization and data analysis tools exist for each data type alone, there is a lack of tools that can easily explore the relationship between them. We propose an approach that uses the average expression driven by multiple of ciscontrol regions to visually relate gene expression and in vivo DNA binding data. We demonstrate the utility of this tool with examples from the network controlling early Drosophila development. The results obtained support the idea that the level of occupancy of a transcription factor on DNA strongly determines the degree to which the factor regulates a target gene, and in some cases also controls whether the regulation is positive or negative.

  13. Proteolytic dissection of Zab, the Z-DNA-binding domain of human ADAR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, T.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Kim, Y. G.; Li, L.; Brown, B. A. 2nd; Herbert, A.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zalpha is a peptide motif that binds to Z-DNA with high affinity. This motif binds to alternating dC-dG sequences stabilized in the Z-conformation by means of bromination or supercoiling, but not to B-DNA. Zalpha is part of the N-terminal region of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1), a candidate enzyme for nuclear pre-mRNA editing in mammals. Zalpha is conserved in ADAR1 from many species; in each case, there is a second similar motif, Zbeta, separated from Zalpha by a more divergent linker. To investigate the structure-function relationship of Zalpha, its domain structure was studied by limited proteolysis. Proteolytic profiles indicated that Zalpha is part of a domain, Zab, of 229 amino acids (residues 133-361 in human ADAR1). This domain contains both Zalpha and Zbeta as well as a tandem repeat of a 49-amino acid linker module. Prolonged proteolysis revealed a minimal core domain of 77 amino acids (positions 133-209), containing only Zalpha, which is sufficient to bind left-handed Z-DNA; however, the substrate binding is strikingly different from that of Zab. The second motif, Zbeta, retains its structural integrity only in the context of Zab and does not bind Z-DNA as a separate entity. These results suggest that Zalpha and Zbeta act as a single bipartite domain. In the presence of substrate DNA, Zab becomes more resistant to proteases, suggesting that it adopts a more rigid structure when bound to its substrate, possibly with conformational changes in parts of the protein.

  14. Enzyme-adenylate structure of a bacterial ATP-dependent DNA ligase with a minimized DNA-binding surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Adele; Rothweiler, Ulli; Leiros, Hanna Kirsti Schrøder

    2014-11-01

    DNA ligases are a structurally diverse class of enzymes which share a common catalytic core and seal breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of double-stranded DNA via an adenylated intermediate. Here, the structure and activity of a recombinantly produced ATP-dependent DNA ligase from the bacterium Psychromonas sp. strain SP041 is described. This minimal-type ligase, like its close homologues, is able to ligate singly nicked double-stranded DNA with high efficiency and to join cohesive-ended and blunt-ended substrates to a more limited extent. The 1.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the enzyme-adenylate complex reveals no unstructured loops or segments, and suggests that this enzyme binds the DNA without requiring full encirclement of the DNA duplex. This is in contrast to previously characterized minimal DNA ligases from viruses, which use flexible loop regions for DNA interaction. The Psychromonas sp. enzyme is the first structure available for the minimal type of bacterial DNA ligases and is the smallest DNA ligase to be crystallized to date.

  15. Structures of apo IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains: effect of loop L1 on DNA binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Escalante, Carlos R.; Aggarwal, Aneel K. (VCU); (Mount Sinai Hospital)

    2013-11-20

    Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are transcription factors essential in the activation of interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) gene in response to viral infections. Although, both proteins recognize the same consensus IRF binding site AANNGAAA, they have distinct DNA binding preferences for sites in vivo. The X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains (DBDs) bound to IFN-{beta} promoter elements revealed flexibility in the loops (L1-L3) and the residues that make contacts with the target sequence. To characterize the conformational changes that occur on DNA binding and how they differ between IRF family members, we have solved the X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DBDs in the absence of DNA. We found that loop L1, carrying the conserved histidine that interacts with the DNA minor groove, is disordered in apo IRF-3 but is ordered in apo IRF-7. This is reflected in differences in DNA binding affinities when the conserved histidine in loop L1 is mutated to alanine in the two proteins. The stability of loop L1 in IRF-7 derives from a unique combination of hydrophobic residues that pack against the protein core. Together, our data show that differences in flexibility of loop L1 are an important determinant of differential IRF-DNA binding.

  16. Variables influencing DNA-binding in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, H G

    1987-01-01

    The suitability of certain mouse strains for carcinogenicity testing has been questioned. Some chemicals increase the incidence of liver tumors above a relatively high background, an effect not seen in rats. This raises the question whether species and tissue specific effects are involved which are reflected in the DNA binding of metabolites. DNA binding indices in mouse liver have been determined in only a few instances. They are comparable to those found for rat liver DNA with aniline, benzo(a)-pyrene, butadiene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylnitrosourea and they are lower in the mouse with aflatoxin B1, trans-4-acetylaminostilbene and 2-aminofluorene derivatives. The available data on DNA binding in mouse liver suggest that the same adducts are formed as in rats but that metabolism and repair are variables which can modify the extent of DNA damage. However, the extent of DNA binding does not always correlate with the susceptibility of this tissue to carcinogenesis. But mouse liver is no exception in this respect. It is concluded that the formation of mouse liver tumors in long term studies with genotoxic chemicals indicates tumor initiating potential. In contrast, there are other chemicals such as chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides which do not bind to DNA to any extent and which are not genotoxic in common short term tests and yet give rise to liver tumors in mice but not in rats. Positive results in long term studies are suggested to indicate promoting properties of such compounds.

  17. DNA-binding specificities of human transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolma, Arttu; Yan, Jian; Whitington, Thomas; Toivonen, Jarkko; Nitta, Kazuhiro R; Rastas, Pasi; Morgunova, Ekaterina; Enge, Martin; Taipale, Mikko; Wei, Gonghong; Palin, Kimmo; Vaquerizas, Juan M; Vincentelli, Renaud; Luscombe, Nicholas M; Hughes, Timothy R; Lemaire, Patrick; Ukkonen, Esko; Kivioja, Teemu; Taipale, Jussi

    2013-01-17

    Although the proteins that read the gene regulatory code, transcription factors (TFs), have been largely identified, it is not well known which sequences TFs can recognize. We have analyzed the sequence-specific binding of human TFs using high-throughput SELEX and ChIP sequencing. A total of 830 binding profiles were obtained, describing 239 distinctly different binding specificities. The models represent the majority of human TFs, approximately doubling the coverage compared to existing systematic studies. Our results reveal additional specificity determinants for a large number of factors for which a partial specificity was known, including a commonly observed A- or T-rich stretch that flanks the core motifs. Global analysis of the data revealed that homodimer orientation and spacing preferences, and base-stacking interactions, have a larger role in TF-DNA binding than previously appreciated. We further describe a binding model incorporating these features that is required to understand binding of TFs to DNA.

  18. Ligand Binding and Crystal Structures of the Substrate-Binding Domain of the ABC Transporter OpuA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Justina C.; Berntsson, Ronnie P-A.; Gul, Nadia; Karasawa, Akira; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W. H.; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2010-01-01

    The ABC transporter OpuA from Lactococcus lactis transports glycine betaine upon activation by threshold values of ionic strength. In this study, the ligand binding characteristics of purified OpuA in a detergent-solubilized state and of its substrate-binding domain produced as soluble protein (OpuA

  19. Tetrameric ZBRK1 DNA binding domain has affinity towards cognate DNA in absence of zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Lumbini R; Biswal, Mahamaya N; Vikrant; Hosur, M V; Varma, Ashok K

    2014-07-18

    Zinc finger transcription regulatory proteins play crucial roles in cell-cycle regulation, DNA damage response and tumor genesis. Human ZBRK1 is a zinc-finger transcription repressor protein, which recognizes double helical DNA containing consensus sequences of 5'GGGXXXCAGXXXTTT3'. In the present study, we have purified recombinant DNA binding domain of ZBRK1, and studied binding with zinc ions and DNA, using biophysical techniques. The elution profile of the purified protein suggests that this ZBRK1 forms a homotetramer in solution. Dissociation and pull down assays also suggest that this domain forms a higher order oligomer. The ZBRK1-DNA binding domain acquires higher stability in the presence of zinc ions and DNA. The secondary structure of the ZBRK1-DNA complex is found to be significantly altered from the standard B-DNA conformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumedha Roy; Shayoni Dutta; Kanika Khanna; Shruti Singla; Durai Sundar

    2012-07-01

    Zinc finger proteins interact via their individual fingers to three base pair subsites on the target DNA. The four key residue positions −1, 2, 3 and 6 on the alpha-helix of the zinc fingers have hydrogen bond interactions with the DNA. Mutating these key residues enables generation of a plethora of combinatorial possibilities that can bind to any DNA stretch of interest. Exploiting the binding specificity and affinity of the interaction between the zinc fingers and the respective DNA can help to generate engineered zinc fingers for therapeutic purposes involving genome targeting. Exploring the structure–function relationships of the existing zinc finger–DNA complexes can aid in predicting the probable zinc fingers that could bind to any target DNA. Computational tools ease the prediction of such engineered zinc fingers by effectively utilizing information from the available experimental data. A study of literature reveals many approaches for predicting DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins. However, an alternative approach that looks into the physico-chemical properties of these complexes would do away with the difficulties of designing unbiased zinc fingers with the desired affinity and specificity. We present a physico-chemical approach that exploits the relative strengths of hydrogen bonding between the target DNA and all combinatorially possible zinc fingers to select the most optimum zinc finger protein candidate.

  1. Thermodynamics of cationic lipid binding to DNA and DNA condensation: roles of electrostatics and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulis, Daumantas; Rouzina, Ioulia; Bloomfield, Victor A

    2002-06-26

    Alkylammonium binding to DNA was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry. Experimental data, obtained as functions of alkyl chain length, salt concentration, DNA concentration, and temperature, provided a detailed thermodynamic description of lipid-DNA binding reactions leading to DNA condensation. Lipid binding, counterion displacement, and DNA condensation were highly cooperative processes, driven by a large increase in entropy and opposed by a relatively small endothermic enthalpy at room temperature. Large negative heat capacity change indicated a contribution from hydrophobic interactions between aliphatic tails. An approximation of lipid-DNA binding as dominated by two factors-ionic and hydrophobic interactions-yielded a model that was consistent with experimental data. Chemical group contributions to the energetics of binding were determined and could be used to predict energetics of other lipid binding to DNA. Electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions to Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity could be distinguished by applying additivity principles. Binding of lipids with two, three, and four aliphatic tails was investigated and compared to single-tailed lipid binding. Structurally, the model suggests that lipid cationic headgroups and aliphatic tails distribute evenly and lay down on DNA surface without the formation of micelles.

  2. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5' ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3'-5' exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and localization of the

  3. Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 has an interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weibin; Wang, Jinfeng; Perrett, Sarah; Feng, Yingang

    2014-02-21

    Retinoblastoma-binding protein 1 (RBBP1) is a tumor and leukemia suppressor that binds both methylated histone tails and DNA. Our previous studies indicated that RBBP1 possesses a Tudor domain, which cannot bind histone marks. In order to clarify the function of the Tudor domain, the solution structure of the RBBP1 Tudor domain was determined by NMR and is presented here. Although the proteins are unrelated, the RBBP1 Tudor domain forms an interdigitated double Tudor structure similar to the Tudor domain of JMJD2A, which is an epigenetic mark reader. This indicates the functional diversity of Tudor domains. The RBBP1 Tudor domain structure has a significant area of positively charged surface, which reveals a capability of the RBBP1 Tudor domain to bind nucleic acids. NMR titration and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicate that the RBBP1 Tudor domain binds both double- and single-stranded DNA with an affinity of 10-100 μM; no apparent DNA sequence specificity was detected. The DNA binding mode and key interaction residues were analyzed in detail based on a model structure of the Tudor domain-dsDNA complex, built by HADDOCK docking using the NMR data. Electrostatic interactions mediate the binding of the Tudor domain with DNA, which is consistent with NMR experiments performed at high salt concentration. The DNA-binding residues are conserved in Tudor domains of the RBBP1 protein family, resulting in conservation of the DNA-binding function in the RBBP1 Tudor domains. Our results provide further insights into the structure and function of RBBP1.

  4. Antineoplastic DNA-binding compounds: intercalating and minor groove binding drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Katarina; Bujak, Maro; Baus Lončar, Mirela; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2013-12-01

    DNA intercalating and minor groove binding compounds are new weapons in the battle against malignant diseases. These antineoplastic agents target the DNA molecule and interfere with the cell cycle leading to rapidly proliferating cell death. They are mainly derivates of a naturally occurring organic compound derived from a microorganism or plant. Intercalators usually act as topoisomerase I and/or II poisons, while the mechanisms of DNA minor groove binders are a combination of several steps including topoisomerase poisoning. This paper gives an overview of some of the developed DNA intercalating and minor groove binding compounds, as well as an explanation of their chemical structures, origins, and application in chemotherapy.

  5. ATP-independent cooperative binding of yeast Isw1a to bare and nucleosomal DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne De Cian

    Full Text Available Among chromatin remodeling factors, the ISWI family displays a nucleosome-enhanced ATPase activity coupled to DNA translocation. While these enzymes are known to bind to DNA, their activity has not been fully characterized. Here we use TEM imaging and single molecule manipulation to investigate the interaction between DNA and yeast Isw1a. We show that Isw1a displays a highly cooperative ATP-independent binding to and bridging between DNA segments. Under appropriate tension, rare single nucleation events can sometimes be observed and loop DNA with a regular step. These nucleation events are often followed by binding of successive complexes bridging between nearby DNA segments in a zipper-like fashion, as confirmed by TEM observations. On nucleosomal substrates, we show that the specific ATP-dependent remodeling activity occurs in the context of cooperative Isw1a complexes bridging extranucleosomal DNA. Our results are interpreted in the context of the recently published partial structure of Isw1a and support its acting as a "protein ruler" (with possibly more than one tick.

  6. Binding Isotherms and Cooperative Effects for Metal-DNA Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Gelagutashvili, Eteri

    2008-01-01

    The stoichiometric binding constants of Nickel(II), Cobalt(II), Manganese(II), Silver(I), Zinc(II) ions with DNA, from Spirulina platensis were determined from their binding isotherms by equilibrium dialysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. It was shown, that the nature of these ions interaction with DNA, from S .platensis is different. For Cobalt(II), Zinc(II) ions were observed cooperative effects and existence of two different types of the binding sites. Nickel(II)_, Silver(I) -DNA complexes shows independent and identical binding sites and Manganese(II)_ negative cooperative interaction. The logarithm of binding constants for Cobalt (II)_, Nickel (II)_, Manganese (II)_, Zinc (II)_, Silver (I) - DNA, from S. platensis in 3 mM Na(I) are 5.11; 5.18; 4.77; 5.05; 5.42; respectively. The linear correlation of logarithm of binding constants (for complexes of metal-DNA from S. platensis) and the covalent index of Pauling are observed.

  7. Effect of clustered peptide binding on DNA condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jennifer; Kabiru, Paul; Geng, Yan

    2010-01-01

    DNA condensation in-vitro has been studied as a model system to reveal common principles underlying gene packaging in biology, and as the critical first step towards the development of non-viral gene delivery vectors. In this study, we use a bio-inspired approach, where small DNA-binding peptides are controllably clustered by an amphiphilic block copolymer scaffold, to reveal the effect of clustered peptide binding on the energetics, size, shape and physical properties of DNA condensation in-vitro. This provides insights into the general architectural effect of gene-binding proteins on DNA condensation process. Moreover, the versatility afforded by regulating the clustering density and composition of peptides may provide a novel design platform for gene delivery applications in the future.

  8. Insights into the mechanism of DNA recognition by the methylated LINE binding protein EhMLBP of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Tal; Siman-Tov, Rama; Ankri, Serge

    2009-08-01

    EhMLBP is an essential Entamoeba histolytica protein that binds preferentially to methylated long interspersed nuclear elements and rDNA. In an effort to identify more EhMLBP DNA substrates, we developed an affinity-based technique in which the C-terminal DNA binding domain of EhMLBP (GST-CterEhMLBP) was used as the ligand. Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequences that were isolated by this affinity method revealed the presence of a 29-nucleotide consensus motif that includes a stretch of ten adenines. Gel retardation analysis showed that EhMLBP binds to the consensus motif with a preference for its methylated form. Four DNA sequences, namely those that encoded either dihydrouridine synthetase, RAP GTPase activating protein, serine/threonine protein kinase or leucine-rich repeat containing protein (LRPP) were then selected for further analysis. In vivo binding of EhMLBP to these genes was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. The presence of methylated cytosines was detected in DNA encoding LRPP and to a lower extent in the other genes. EhMLBP binds preferentially to the methylated forms of these DNA targets. The ability of the consensus motif to compete with EhMLBP binding to its DNA substrates indicates that the adenine stretch is involved in the mechanism of DNA recognition. The results of this investigation extend our existing knowledge on the number of DNA sequences that are recognized by EhMLBP and reinforce the notion that this protein is an innate methylated DNA binding protein in E. histolytica.

  9. DNA binding, DNA cleavage, and cytotoxicity studies of two new copper (II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Shahabadi, Nahid; Rezvani, Alireza; Mansouri, Ghobad

    2011-05-01

    The DNA binding behavior of [Cu(phen)(phen-dione)Cl]Cl (1) and [Cu(bpy)(phen-dione)Cl]Cl (2) was studied with a series of techniques including UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and viscometric methods. Cytotoxicity effect and DNA unwinding properties were also investigated. The results indicate that the Cu(II) complexes interact with calf-thymus DNA by both partially intercalative and hydrogen binding. These findings have been further substantiated by the determination of intrinsic binding constants spectrophotometrically, 12.5 × 10(5) and 5 × 10(5) for 1 and 2, respectively. Our findings suggest that the type of ligands and structure of complexes have marked effect on the binding affinity of complexes involving CT-DNA. Circular dichroism results show that complex 1 causes considerable increase in base stacking of DNA, whereas 2 decreases the base stacking, which is related to more extended aromatic area of 1,10-phenanthroline in 1 rather than bipyridine in 2. Slow decrease in DNA viscosity indicates partially intercalative binding in addition to hydrogen binding on the surface of DNA. The second binding mode was also confirmed by additional tests: interaction in denaturation condition and acidic pH. Also, these new complexes induced cleavage in pUC18 plasmid DNA as indicated in gel electrophoresis and showed excellent antitumor activity against K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia) cells.

  10. Analysis of substrate specificity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mag1 alkylpurine DNA glycosylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Suraj; Eichman, Brandt F. (Vanderbilt)

    2014-10-02

    DNA glycosylases specialized for the repair of alkylation damage must identify, with fine specificity, a diverse array of subtle modifications within DNA. The current mechanism involves damage sensing through interrogation of the DNA duplex, followed by more specific recognition of the target base inside the active site pocket. To better understand the physical basis for alkylpurine detection, we determined the crystal structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mag1 (spMag1) in complex with DNA and performed a mutational analysis of spMag1 and the close homologue from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (scMag). Despite strong homology, spMag1 and scMag differ in substrate specificity and cellular alkylation sensitivity, although the enzymological basis for their functional differences is unknown. We show that Mag preference for 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A) is influenced by a minor groove-interrogating residue more than the composition of the nucleobase-binding pocket. Exchanging this residue between Mag proteins swapped their {var_epsilon}A activities, providing evidence that residues outside the extrahelical base-binding pocket have a role in identification of a particular modification in addition to sensing damage.

  11. Dynamic Conformational Change Regulates the Protein-DNA Recognition: An Investigation on Binding of a Y-Family Polymerase to Its Target DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiakun; Liu, Fei; Maxwell, Brian A.; Wang, Yong; Suo, Zucai; Wang, Haijun; Han, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Protein-DNA recognition is a central biological process that governs the life of cells. A protein will often undergo a conformational transition to form the functional complex with its target DNA. The protein conformational dynamics are expected to contribute to the stability and specificity of DNA recognition and therefore may control the functional activity of the protein-DNA complex. Understanding how the conformational dynamics influences the protein-DNA recognition is still challenging. Here, we developed a two-basin structure-based model to explore functional dynamics in Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Y-family polymerase IV (DPO4) during its binding to DNA. With explicit consideration of non-specific and specific interactions between DPO4 and DNA, we found that DPO4-DNA recognition is comprised of first 3D diffusion, then a short-range adjustment sliding on DNA and finally specific binding. Interestingly, we found that DPO4 is under a conformational equilibrium between multiple states during the binding process and the distributions of the conformations vary at different binding stages. By modulating the strength of the electrostatic interactions, the flexibility of the linker, and the conformational dynamics in DPO4, we drew a clear picture on how DPO4 dynamically regulates the DNA recognition. We argue that the unique features of flexibility and conformational dynamics in DPO4-DNA recognition have direct implications for low-fidelity translesion DNA synthesis, most of which is found to be accomplished by the Y-family DNA polymerases. Our results help complete the description of the DNA synthesis process for the Y-family polymerases. Furthermore, the methods developed here can be widely applied for future investigations on how various proteins recognize and bind specific DNA substrates. PMID:25188490

  12. Molecular docking simulations provide insights in the substrate binding sites and possible substrates of the ABCC6 transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hosen

    Full Text Available The human ATP-binding cassette family C member 6 (ABCC6 gene encodes an ABC transporter protein (ABCC6, primarily expressed in liver and kidney. Mutations in the ABCC6 gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE, an autosomal recessive connective tissue disease characterized by ectopic mineralization of the elastic fibers. The pathophysiology underlying PXE is incompletely understood, which can at least partly be explained by the undetermined nature of the ABCC6 substrates as well as the unknown substrate recognition and binding sites. Several compounds, including anionic glutathione conjugates (N-ethylmaleimide; NEM-GS and leukotriene C4 (LTC4 were shown to be modestly transported in vitro; conversely, vitamin K3 (VK3 was demonstrated not to be transported by ABCC6. To predict the possible substrate binding pockets of the ABCC6 transporter, we generated a 3D homology model of ABCC6 in both open and closed conformation, qualified for molecular docking and virtual screening approaches. By docking 10 reported in vitro substrates in our ABCC6 3D homology models, we were able to predict the substrate binding residues of ABCC6. Further, virtual screening of 4651 metabolites from the Human Serum Metabolome Database against our open conformation model disclosed possible substrates for ABCC6, which are mostly lipid and biliary secretion compounds, some of which are found to be involved in mineralization. Docking of these possible substrates in the closed conformation model also showed high affinity. Virtual screening expands this possibility to explore more compounds that can interact with ABCC6, and may aid in understanding the mechanisms leading to PXE.

  13. New non detrimental DNA binding mutants of the Escherichia coli initiator protein DnaA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, Marlene; Atlung, Tove

    2004-01-01

    an extensive mutational analysis of the DNA-binding domain of the Escherichia coli DnaA protein using mutagenic PCR. We analyzed mutants exhibiting more or less partial activity by selecting for complementation of a dnaA(Ts) mutant strain at different expression levels of the new mutant proteins. The selection...

  14. The role of the adenovirus DNA binding protein in DNA replication and recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Replication of adenovirus DNA in infected cells is an efficient process that, compared to cellular replication, has the use of a protein primer as a hallmark. The mechanism of this DNA replication process and especially the role of one of the replication proteins, the DNA binding protein DBP, is the

  15. Competition for DNA binding sites using Promega DNA IQ™ paramagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; De Moors, Anick

    2012-09-01

    The Promega DNA IQ™ system is easily amenable to automation and has been an integral part of standard operating procedures for many forensic laboratories including those of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) since 2004. Due to some failure to extract DNA from samples that should have produced DNA using our validated automated DNA IQ™-based protocol, the competition for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ magnetic beads was more closely examined. Heme from heavily blooded samples interfered slightly with DNA binding. Increasing the concentration of Proteinase K during lysis of these samples did not enhance DNA recovery. However, diluting the sample lysate following lysis prior to DNA extraction overcame the reduction in DNA yield and preserved portions of the lysates for subsequent manual or automated extraction. Dye/chemicals from black denim lysates competed for binding sites on the DNA IQ™ beads and significantly reduced DNA recovery. Increasing the size or number of black denim cuttings during lysis had a direct adverse effect on DNA yield from various blood volumes. The dilution approach was successful on these samples and permitted the extraction of high DNA yields. Alternatively, shortening the incubation time for cell lysis to 30 min instead of the usual overnight at 56 °C prevented competition from black denim dye/chemicals and increased DNA yields.

  16. Structural and mutational analysis of Escherichia coli AlkB provides insight into substrate specificity and DNA damage searching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Holland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Escherichia coli, cytotoxic DNA methyl lesions on the N1 position of purines and N3 position of pyrimidines are primarily repaired by the 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG iron(II dependent dioxygenase, AlkB. AlkB repairs 1-methyladenine (1-meA and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC lesions, but it also repairs 1-methylguanine (1-meG and 3-methylthymine (3-meT at a much less efficient rate. How the AlkB enzyme is able to locate and identify methylated bases in ssDNA has remained an open question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the crystal structures of the E. coli AlkB protein holoenzyme and the AlkB-ssDNA complex containing a 1-meG lesion. We coupled this to site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids in and around the active site, and tested the effects of these mutations on the ability of the protein to bind both damaged and undamaged DNA, as well as catalyze repair of a methylated substrate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of our substrate-bound AlkB-ssDNA complex with our unliganded holoenzyme reveals conformational changes of residues within the active site that are important for binding damaged bases. Site-directed mutagenesis of these residues reveals novel insight into their roles in DNA damage recognition and repair. Our data support a model that the AlkB protein utilizes at least two distinct conformations in searching and binding methylated bases within DNA: a "searching" mode and "repair" mode. Moreover, we are able to functionally separate these modes through mutagenesis of residues that affect one or the other binding state. Finally, our mutagenesis experiments show that amino acid D135 of AlkB participates in both substrate specificity and catalysis.

  17. Binding and Transformation of Extracellular DNA in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Peng; HUANG Qiao-Yun; ZHANG Xue-Wen; CHEN Hao

    2005-01-01

    DNA is the genetic material of various organisms. Extracellular DNA adsorbed or bound on surface-active particles in soils has been shown to persist for long periods against nucleases degradation and still retain the ability to transform competent cells. This paper reviews some recent advances on the binding and transformation of extracellular DNA in soils,which is fundamental to understanding the nature of the soil, regulating biodiversity, and assessing the risk of releasing genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) as well as being helpful for development of the genetic evolutional theory of bacteria. Several influencing factors, such as soil pH, ionic strength, soil surface properties, and characteristics of the DNA polymer, are discussed. To date, the understanding of the type of molecular binding sites and the conformation of adsorbed and bound DNA to soil particles is still in its infancy.

  18. Dynamics of nucleosome invasion by DNA binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Hannah S; Gurunathan, Kaushik; Levitus, Marcia; Widom, Jonathan

    2011-08-12

    Nucleosomes sterically occlude their wrapped DNA from interacting with many large protein complexes. How proteins gain access to nucleosomal DNA target sites in vivo is not known. Outer stretches of nucleosomal DNA spontaneously unwrap and rewrap with high frequency, providing rapid and efficient access to regulatory DNA target sites located there; however, rates for access to the nucleosome interior have not been measured. Here we show that for a selected high-affinity nucleosome positioning sequence, the spontaneous DNA unwrapping rate decreases dramatically with distance inside the nucleosome. The rewrapping rate also decreases, but only slightly. Our results explain the previously known strong position dependence on the equilibrium accessibility of nucleosomal DNA, which is characteristic of both selected and natural sequences. Our results point to slow nucleosome conformational fluctuations as a potential source of cell-cell variability in gene activation dynamics, and they reveal the dominant kinetic path by which multiple DNA binding proteins cooperatively invade a nucleosome.

  19. Immobilization of proteins onto microbeads using a DNA binding tag for enzymatic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takaaki; Mizoguchi, Takuro; Ota, Eri; Hata, Jumpei; Homma, Keisuke; Zhu, Bo; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Nakano, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    A novel DNA-binding protein tag, scCro-tag, which is a single-chain derivative of the bacteriophage lambda Cro repressor, has been developed to immobilize proteins of interest (POI) on a solid support through binding OR consensus DNA (ORC) that is tightly bound by the scCro protein. The scCro-tag successfully bound a transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2) substrate and manganese peroxidase (MnP) to microbeads via scaffolding DNA. The resulting protein-coated microbeads can be utilized for functional analysis of the enzymatic activity using flow cytometry. The quantity of bead-bound proteins can be enhanced by increasing the number of ORCs. In addition, proteins with the scCro-tag that were synthesized using a cell-free protein synthesis system were also immobilized onto the beads, thus indicating that this bead-based system would be applicable to high-throughput analysis of various enzymatic activities.

  20. DnaT is a PriC-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-09-01

    DnaT and PriC are replication restart primosomal proteins required for re-initiating chromosomal DNA replication. DnaT is a component of the PriA-dependent primosome, while PriC belongs to the PriC-dependent primosome. Whether DnaT can interact with PriC is still unknown. In this study, we define a direct interaction between PriC, a key initiator protein in PriC-mediated DNA replication restart, and DnaT, a DnaB/C complex loader protein, from Klebsiella pneumoniae. In fluorescence titrations, PriC bound to single-stranded DNA with a binding-site size of approximately 9 nt. Gold nanoparticle assay showed that the solution of DnaT-PriC changed from red to purple, which indicated the protein-protein interactions due to gold nanoparticle aggregate. In addition, this DnaT-PriC complex could be co-purified by the heparin HP column. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the Kd value of DnaT bound to PriC was 2.9 × 10(-8) M. These results constitute a pioneering study of the DnaT-PriC interaction and present a putative link between the two independent replication restart pathways, namely, PriA- and PriC-dependent primosome assemblies. Further research can directly focus on determining how DnaT binds to the PriC-SSB-DNA tricomplex and regulates the PriC-dependent replication restart.

  1. NAD+ Modulates p53 DNA Binding Specificity and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, Kevin G.; Takagi, Masatoshi; Kastan, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    DNA damage induces p53 DNA binding activity, which affects tumorigenesis, tumor responses to therapies, and the toxicities of cancer therapies (B. Vogelstein, D. Lane, and A. J. Levine, Nature 408:307-310, 2000; K. H. Vousden and X. Lu, Nat. Rev. Cancer 2:594-604, 2002). Both transcriptional and transcription-independent activities of p53 contribute to DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and aneuploidy prevention (M. B. Kastan et al., Cell 71:587-597, 1992; K. H. Vousden and X. Lu, Nat. Rev. Cancer 2:594-604, 2002). Small-molecule manipulation of p53 DNA binding activity has been an elusive goal, but here we show that NAD+ binds to p53 tetramers, induces a conformational change, and modulates p53 DNA binding specificity in vitro. Niacinamide (vitamin B3) increases the rate of intracellular NAD+ synthesis, alters radiation-induced p53 DNA binding specificity, and modulates activation of a subset of p53 transcriptional targets. These effects are likely due to a direct effect of NAD+ on p53, as a molecule structurally related to part of NAD+, TDP, also inhibits p53 DNA binding, and the TDP precursor, thiamine (vitamin B1), inhibits intracellular p53 activity. Niacinamide and thiamine affect two p53-regulated cellular responses to ionizing radiation: rereplication and apoptosis. Thus, niacinamide and thiamine form a novel basis for the development of small molecules that affect p53 function in vivo, and these results suggest that changes in cellular energy metabolism may regulate p53. PMID:15509798

  2. enDNA-Prot: Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins by Applying Ensemble Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA-binding proteins are crucial for various cellular processes, such as recognition of specific nucleotide, regulation of transcription, and regulation of gene expression. Developing an effective model for identifying DNA-binding proteins is an urgent research problem. Up to now, many methods have been proposed, but most of them focus on only one classifier and cannot make full use of the large number of negative samples to improve predicting performance. This study proposed a predictor called enDNA-Prot for DNA-binding protein identification by employing the ensemble learning technique. Experiential results showed that enDNA-Prot was comparable with DNA-Prot and outperformed DNAbinder and iDNA-Prot with performance improvement in the range of 3.97–9.52% in ACC and 0.08–0.19 in MCC. Furthermore, when the benchmark dataset was expanded with negative samples, the performance of enDNA-Prot outperformed the three existing methods by 2.83–16.63% in terms of ACC and 0.02–0.16 in terms of MCC. It indicated that enDNA-Prot is an effective method for DNA-binding protein identification and expanding training dataset with negative samples can improve its performance. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, we developed a user-friendly web-server for enDNA-Prot which is freely accessible to the public.

  3. Force-activated substrates for high-precision, high-throughput optical trapping assays of ssDNA motor proteins (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoniewski, Stephen; Perkins, Thomas T.

    2016-09-01

    Optical-trapping-based assays can measure individual proteins bind to and move along DNA with sub-nm resolution, and have yielded insight into a broad array of protein-DNA interactions. Unfortunately, collecting large numbers of high-resolution traces remains an ongoing challenge. Studying helicase motion along DNA exemplifies this challenge. One major difficulty is that helicase binding often requires a single stranded (ss)-double stranded (ds) DNA junction flanked by ssDNA with a minimum size and orientation. Historically, creating such DNA substrates is inefficient. More problematic is that data throughput is low in standard surface-based assays since all substrates are unwound upon introduction of ATP. The net result is 2-4 high-resolution traces on a good day. To improve throughput, we sought to turn-on or activate a substrate for a helicase one molecule at a time and thereby sequentially study many molecules on an individual microscope slide. As a first step towards this goal, we engineered a dsDNA that contains two site-specific nicks along the same strand of the dsDNA but no ssDNA. Upon overstretching the DNA (F = 65 pN), the strand between the two nicks was mechanically dissociated. We demonstrated this with two different substrates: one yielding an internal ssDNA region of 1100 nt and the other yielding a 20-bp long hairpin flanked by 30 nt of ssDNA. Unwinding a hairpin yields a 3-fold larger signal while the 30-nt ssDNA serves as the binding site for the helicase. We expect that these force-activated substrates to significantly accelerate high-resolution optical-trapping studies of DNA helicases.

  4. SUMO-1 regulates the conformational dynamics of Thymine-DNA Glycosylase regulatory domain and competes with its DNA binding activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilebrecht Sebastian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG plays a dual role in base excision repair of G:U/T mismatches and in transcription. Regulation of TDG activity by SUMO-1 conjugation was shown to act on both functions. Furthermore, TDG can interact with SUMO-1 in a non-covalent manner. Results Using NMR spectroscopy we have determined distinct conformational changes in TDG upon either covalent sumoylation on lysine 330 or intermolecular SUMO-1 binding through a unique SUMO-binding motif (SBM localized in the C-terminal region of TDG. The non-covalent SUMO-1 binding induces a conformational change of the TDG amino-terminal regulatory domain (RD. Such conformational dynamics do not exist with covalent SUMO-1 attachment and could potentially play a broader role in the regulation of TDG functions for instance during transcription. Both covalent and non-covalent processes activate TDG G:U repair similarly. Surprisingly, despite a dissociation of the SBM/SUMO-1 complex in presence of a DNA substrate, SUMO-1 preserves its ability to stimulate TDG activity indicating that the non-covalent interactions are not directly involved in the regulation of TDG activity. SUMO-1 instead acts, as demonstrated here, indirectly by competing with the regulatory domain of TDG for DNA binding. Conclusions SUMO-1 increases the enzymatic turnover of TDG by overcoming the product-inhibition of TDG on apurinic sites. The mechanism involves a competitive DNA binding activity of SUMO-1 towards the regulatory domain of TDG. This mechanism might be a general feature of SUMO-1 regulation of other DNA-bound factors such as transcription regulatory proteins.

  5. Ligand binding and crystal structures of the substrate-binding domain of the ABC transporter OpuA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina C Wolters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ABC transporter OpuA from Lactococcus lactis transports glycine betaine upon activation by threshold values of ionic strength. In this study, the ligand binding characteristics of purified OpuA in a detergent-solubilized state and of its substrate-binding domain produced as soluble protein (OpuAC was characterized. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The binding of glycine betaine to purified OpuA and OpuAC (K(D = 4-6 microM did not show any salt dependence or cooperative effects, in contrast to the transport activity. OpuAC is highly specific for glycine betaine and the related proline betaine. Other compatible solutes like proline and carnitine bound with affinities that were 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower. The low affinity substrates were not noticeably transported by membrane-reconstituted OpuA. OpuAC was crystallized in an open (1.9 A and closed-liganded (2.3 A conformation. The binding pocket is formed by three tryptophans (Trp-prism coordinating the quaternary ammonium group of glycine betaine in the closed-liganded structure. Even though the binding site of OpuAC is identical to that of its B. subtilis homolog, the affinity for glycine betaine is 4-fold higher. CONCLUSIONS: Ionic strength did not affect substrate binding to OpuA, indicating that regulation of transport is not at the level of substrate binding, but rather at the level of translocation. The overlap between the crystal structures of OpuAC from L.lactis and B.subtilis, comprising the classical Trp-prism, show that the differences observed in the binding affinities originate from outside of the ligand binding site.

  6. Binding of hairpin polyamides to DNA studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for DNA nanoarchitectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Chayan K.; Parui, Partha P.; Brutschy, Bernhard [University of Frankfurt, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Frankfurt (Germany); Schmidt, Thorsten L.; Heckel, Alexander [University of Frankfurt, Cluster of Excellence Macromolecular Complexes, c/o Institute for Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    We have recently constructed a ''DNA strut'' consisting of two DNA-binding hairpin polyamides of Dervan-type connected via a long flexible linker and were able to show that this strut can be used to sequence-selectively connect DNA helices. This approach provides a second structural element (besides the Watson-Crick base pairing) for the assembly of higher-order DNA nanoarchitectures from smaller DNA building blocks. Since none of the existing analytical techniques for studying this kind of system were found suitable for detection and quantification of the formation of the resulting complexes, we chose fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In the present study we show that FCS allowed us in a versatile and fast way to investigate the binding of Dervan polyamides to DNA. In particular it also shows its power in the quantitative detection of the formation of multimeric complexes and the in investigation of binding under nonphysiological conditions. (orig.)

  7. Solution structure and binding specificity of the p63 DNA binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthart, Andreas; Klein, Christian; Dehner, Alexander; Coles, Murray; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst; Hagn, Franz

    2016-05-26

    p63 is a close homologue of p53 and, together with p73, is grouped into the p53 family of transcription factors. p63 is known to be involved in the induction of controlled apoptosis important for differentiation processes, germ line integrity and development. Despite its high homology to p53, especially within the DNA binding domain (DBD), p63-DBD does not show cooperative DNA binding properties and is significantly more stable against thermal and chemical denaturation. Here, we determined the solution structure of p63-DBD and show that it is markedly less dynamic than p53-DBD. In addition, we also investigate the effect of a double salt bridge present in p53-DBD, but not in p63-DBD on the cooperative binding behavior and specificity to various DNA sites. Restoration of the salt bridges in p63-DBD by mutagenesis leads to enhanced binding affinity to p53-specific, but not p63-specific response elements. Furthermore, we show that p63-DBD is capable of binding to anti-apoptotic BclxL via its DNA binding interface, a feature that has only been shown for p53 so far. These data suggest that all p53 family members - despite alterations in the specificity and binding affinity - are capable of activating pro-apoptotic pathways in a tissue specific manner.

  8. CLK-1 protein has DNA binding activity specific to O(L) region of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2002-04-10

    Mutations in the clk-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans extend worm life span and slow down a variety of physiological processes. Here we report that C. elegans CLK-1 as well as its mouse homologue have DNA binding activity that is specific to the O(L) region of mitochondrial DNA. DNA binding activity of CLK-1 is inhibited by ADP, and is altered by mutations that extend nematode life span. Our results suggest that, in addition to its enzymatic function in ubiquinone biosynthesis, CLK-1 is involved in the regulation of mtDNA replication or transcription.

  9. Coupling Substrate and Ion Binding to Extracellular Gate of a Sodium-Dependent Aspartate Transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudker,O.; Ryan, R.; Yernool, D.; Shimamoto, K.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary transporters are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the movement of substrate molecules across the lipid bilayer by coupling substrate transport to one or more ion gradients, thereby providing a mechanism for the concentrative uptake of substrates. Here we describe crystallographic and thermodynamic studies of Glt{sub Ph}, a sodium (Na{sup +})-coupled aspartate transporter, defining sites for aspartate, two sodium ions and D,L-threo-{beta}-benzyloxyaspartate, an inhibitor. We further show that helical hairpin 2 is the extracellular gate that controls access of substrate and ions to the internal binding sites. At least two sodium ions bind in close proximity to the substrate and these sodium-binding sites, together with the sodium-binding sites in another sodium-coupled transporter, LeuT, define an unwound {alpha}-helix as the central element of the ion-binding motif, a motif well suited to the binding of sodium and to participation in conformational changes that accompany ion binding and unbinding during the transport cycle.

  10. Synthesis, DNA binding and cytotoxic evaluation of aminoquinoline scaffolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal Senthil Kumar; Mohamed Ashraf Ali; Tan Soo Choon; Rajendra Prasad Karnam Jayarampillai

    2016-03-01

    An effortless synthetic route has been developed for the synthesis of a new class of aminoquinoline substituted isoindolin-1,3-diones from regio-isomerical hydrazinylquinolines with phthalic anhydride in presence of Eaton’s reagent. DNA binding studies of selected isomeric compounds showed interaction withDNA via intercalation mode with higher binding affinity of 4-substituted quinolines rather than 2-substituted counterparts. Further, all compounds were screened for cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines,among them compound 2c outranged standard doxorubicin against CCRF-CEM cell line.

  11. In Vitro Whole Genome DNA Binding Analysis of the Bacterial Replication Initiator and Transcription Factor DnaA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Smith

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DnaA, the replication initiation protein in bacteria, is an AAA+ ATPase that binds and hydrolyzes ATP and exists in a heterogeneous population of ATP-DnaA and ADP-DnaA. DnaA binds cooperatively to the origin of replication and several other chromosomal regions, and functions as a transcription factor at some of these regions. We determined the binding properties of Bacillus subtilis DnaA to genomic DNA in vitro at single nucleotide resolution using in vitro DNA affinity purification and deep sequencing (IDAP-Seq. We used these data to identify 269 binding regions, refine the consensus sequence of the DnaA binding site, and compare the relative affinity of binding regions for ATP-DnaA and ADP-DnaA. Most sites had a slightly higher affinity for ATP-DnaA than ADP-DnaA, but a few had a strong preference for binding ATP-DnaA. Of the 269 sites, only the eight strongest binding ones have been observed to bind DnaA in vivo, suggesting that other cellular factors or the amount of available DnaA in vivo restricts DnaA binding to these additional sites. Conversely, we found several chromosomal regions that were bound by DnaA in vivo but not in vitro, and that the nucleoid-associated protein Rok was required for binding in vivo. Our in vitro characterization of the inherent ability of DnaA to bind the genome at single nucleotide resolution provides a backdrop for interpreting data on in vivo binding and regulation of DnaA, and is an approach that should be adaptable to many other DNA binding proteins.

  12. Substrate Binding Induces Domain Movements in Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Pernille Hanne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Jensen, Kaj Frank;

    2002-01-01

    ); here we present the 2.5 Å structure of the uncomplexed apo enzyme, determined from twinned crystals. A structural analysis and comparison of the two structures of the E. coli enzyme show that binding of the inhibitor is accompanied by significant domain movements of approximately 12° around a hinge...... that crosses the active site. Hence, the ODCase dimer, which contains two active sites, may be divided in three domains: a central domain that is fixed, and two lids which independently move 12° upon binding. Corresponding analyses, presented herein, of the two Saccharomyces cerevisiae ODCase structures (with...

  13. Interaction with Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Stimulates Escherichia coli Ribonuclease HI Enzymatic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christine; Marceau, Aimee H; Miller, Katherine H; Marqusee, Susan; Keck, James L

    2015-06-01

    Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) bind and protect ssDNA intermediates formed during replication, recombination, and repair reactions. SSBs also directly interact with many different genome maintenance proteins to stimulate their enzymatic activities and/or mediate their proper cellular localization. We have identified an interaction formed between Escherichia coli SSB and ribonuclease HI (RNase HI), an enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA in RNA/DNA hybrids. The RNase HI·SSB complex forms by RNase HI binding the intrinsically disordered C terminus of SSB (SSB-Ct), a mode of interaction that is shared among all SSB interaction partners examined to date. Residues that comprise the SSB-Ct binding site are conserved among bacterial RNase HI enzymes, suggesting that RNase HI·SSB complexes are present in many bacterial species and that retaining the interaction is important for its cellular function. A steady-state kinetic analysis shows that interaction with SSB stimulates RNase HI activity by lowering the reaction Km. SSB or RNase HI protein variants that disrupt complex formation nullify this effect. Collectively our findings identify a direct RNase HI/SSB interaction that could play a role in targeting RNase HI activity to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates within the genome.

  14. Functional Diversity of Tandem Substrate-Binding Domains in ABC Transporters from Pathogenic Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fulyani, Faizah; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Vujicic - Zagar, Andreja; Guskov, Albert; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Poolman, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter GInPQ is an essential uptake system for amino acids in gram-positive pathogens and related nonpathogenic bacteria. The transporter has tandem substrate-binding domains (SBDs) fused to each transmembrane domain, giving rise to four SBDs per functional transp

  15. Structural determinants of HIV-1 Vif susceptibility and DNA binding in APOBEC3F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Karen K; Sultana, Azmiri; Azimi, Farshad C; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    The human APOBEC3 family of DNA cytosine deaminases serves as a front-line intrinsic immune response to inhibit the replication of diverse retroviruses. APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G are the most potent factors against HIV-1. As a countermeasure, HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) targets APOBEC3s for proteasomal degradation. Here we report the crystal structure of the Vif-binding domain in APOBEC3F and a novel assay to assess Vif-APOBEC3 binding. Our results point to an amphipathic surface that is conserved in APOBEC3s as critical for Vif susceptibility in APOBEC3F. Electrostatic interactions likely mediate Vif binding. Moreover, structure-guided mutagenesis reveals a straight ssDNA-binding groove distinct from the Vif-binding site, and an 'aromatic switch' is proposed to explain DNA substrate specificities across the APOBEC3 family. This study opens new lines of inquiry that will further our understanding of APOBEC3-mediated retroviral restriction and provides an accurate template for structure-guided development of inhibitors targeting the APOBEC3-Vif axis.

  16. LNA effects on DNA binding and conformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pabon-Martinez, Y Vladimir; Xu, You; Villa, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    hybridization analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to better understand the underlying structural features of modified ONs in stabilizing duplex- and triplex structures. Particularly, we investigated the role played by the position and number of locked...... nucleic acid (LNA) substitutions in the ON when targeting a c-MYC or FXN (Frataxin) sequence. We found that LNA-containing single strand TFOs are conformationally pre-organized for major groove binding. Reduced content of LNA at consecutive positions at the 3'-end of a TFO destabilizes the triplex...... structure, whereas the presence of Twisted Intercalating Nucleic Acid (TINA) at the 3'-end of the TFO increases the rate and extent of triplex formation. A triplex-specific intercalating benzoquinoquinoxaline (BQQ) compound highly stabilizes LNA-containing triplex structures. Moreover, LNA...

  17. Structural basis for substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    OpenAIRE

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Day, Jacqueline E.; Wu, Tao; Fulkerson, Zachary; Albers, Harald M. H. G.; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Houben, Anna; Zeijl, Leonie van; Jansen, Silvia; Andries, Maria; Hall, Troii; Pegg, Lyle E.; Benson, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) or ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2 (ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemo-attractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling has roles in various pathologies including tumour progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis, and the mechanism of interaction with target cells, has been elusive. Here we present the crystal stru...

  18. Increased enzyme binding to substrate is not necessary for more efficient cellulose hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dahai; Chundawat, Shishir P. S.; Sethi, Anurag; Balan, Venkatesh; Gnanakaran, S.; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Substrate binding is typically one of the rate-limiting steps preceding enzyme catalytic action during homogeneous reactions. However, interfacial-based enzyme catalysis on insoluble crystalline substrates, like cellulose, has additional bottlenecks of individual biopolymer chain decrystallization from the substrate interface followed by its processive depolymerization to soluble sugars. This additional decrystallization step has ramifications on the role of enzyme–substrate binding and its relationship to overall catalytic efficiency. We found that altering the crystalline structure of cellulose from its native allomorph Iβ to IIII results in 40–50% lower binding partition coefficient for fungal cellulases, but surprisingly, it enhanced hydrolytic activity on the latter allomorph. We developed a comprehensive kinetic model for processive cellulases acting on insoluble substrates to explain this anomalous finding. Our model predicts that a reduction in the effective binding affinity to the substrate coupled with an increase in the decrystallization procession rate of individual cellulose chains from the substrate surface into the enzyme active site can reproduce our anomalous experimental findings. PMID:23784776

  19. Deconstructing the DGAT1 enzyme: membrane interactions at substrate binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L S Lopes

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 is a key enzyme in the triacylglyceride synthesis pathway. Bovine DGAT1 is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound protein associated with the regulation of fat content in milk and meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of DGAT1 peptides corresponding to putative substrate binding sites with different types of model membranes. Whilst these peptides are predicted to be located in an extramembranous loop of the membrane-bound protein, their hydrophobic substrates are membrane-bound molecules. In this study, peptides corresponding to the binding sites of the two substrates involved in the reaction were examined in the presence of model membranes in order to probe potential interactions between them that might influence the subsequent binding of the substrates. Whilst the conformation of one of the peptides changed upon binding several types of micelles regardless of their surface charge, suggesting binding to hydrophobic domains, the other peptide bound strongly to negatively-charged model membranes. This binding was accompanied by a change in conformation, and produced leakage of the liposome-entrapped dye calcein. The different hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions observed suggest the peptides may be involved in the interactions of the enzyme with membrane surfaces, facilitating access of the catalytic histidine to the triacylglycerol substrates.

  20. Substrate binding properties of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Bilal; Tuncel, Aytug; Green, Abigail R; Koper, Kaan; Hwang, Seon-Kap; Okita, Thomas W; Kang, ChulHee

    2015-06-04

    Substrate binding properties of the large (LS) and small (SS) subunits of potato tuber ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were investigated by using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our results clearly show that the wild type heterotetramer (S(WT)L(WT)) possesses two distinct types of ATP binding sites, whereas the homotetrameric LS and SS variant forms only exhibited properties of one of the two binding sites. The wild type enzyme also exhibited significantly increased affinity to this substrate compared to the homotetrameric enzyme forms. No stable binding was evident for the second substrate, glucose-1-phosphate, in the presence or absence of ATPγS suggesting that interaction of glucose-1-phosphate is dependent on hydrolysis of ATP and supports the Theorell-Chance bi bi reaction mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of knots on binding of intercalators to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalion, Shlomi; Rabin, Yitzhak

    2014-05-01

    We study the effect of knots in circular dsDNA molecules on the binding of intercalating ligands. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that depending on their handedness, the presence of knots can either suppress or enhance intercalation in supercoiled DNA. When the occupancy of intercalators on DNA is low, the effect of knots on intercalation can be captured by introducing a shift in the mean writhe of the chain that accounts for the writhe of the corresponding ideal knot. In the limit of high intercalator occupancy, the writhe distribution of different knots is strongly affected by excluded volume effects and therefore by salt concentration. Based on the finding that different knots yield well-separated probability distributions of bound intercalators, we propose a new experimental approach to determine DNA topology by monitoring the intensity of fluorescence emitted by dye molecules intercalated into knotted DNA molecules.

  2. Fluoroquinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes: two modes of drug binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-05-02

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys(466) gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly(81) and GyrB-Glu(466) residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases.

  3. Increased anticoagulant activity of thrombin-binding DNA aptamers by nanoscale organization on DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangnekar, Abhijit; Zhang, Alex M.; Shiyuan Li, Susan;

    2012-01-01

    Control over thrombin activity is much desired to regulate blood clotting in surgical and therapeutic situations. Thrombin-binding RNA and DNA aptamers have been used to inhibit thrombin activity and thus the coagulation cascade. Soluble DNA aptamers, as well as two different aptamers tethered by...

  4. Extended HSR/CARD domain mediates AIRE binding to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovskaja, Julia; Saare, Mario; Liiv, Ingrid; Rebane, Ana; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-12-25

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) activates the transcription of many genes in an unusual promiscuous and stochastic manner. The mechanism by which AIRE binds to the chromatin and DNA is not fully understood, and the regulatory elements that AIRE target genes possess are not delineated. In the current study, we demonstrate that AIRE activates the expression of transiently transfected luciferase reporters that lack defined promoter regions, as well as intron and poly(A) signal sequences. Our protein-DNA interaction experiments with mutated AIRE reveal that the intact homogeneously staining region/caspase recruitment domain (HSR/CARD) and amino acids R113 and K114 are key elements involved in AIRE binding to DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NPM/ALK binds and phosphorylates the RNA/DNA-binding protein PSF in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galietta, Annamaria; Gunby, Rosalind H; Redaelli, Sara; Stano, Paola; Carniti, Cristiana; Bachi, Angela; Tucker, Philip W; Tartari, Carmen J; Huang, Ching-Jung; Colombo, Emanuela; Pulford, Karen; Puttini, Miriam; Piazza, Rocco G; Ruchatz, Holger; Villa, Antonello; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Marin, Oriano; Perrotti, Danilo; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2007-10-01

    The oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinase nucleophosmin/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM/ALK) induces cellular transformation in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCLs) carrying the t(2;5) chromosomal translocation. Protein-protein interactions involving NPM/ALK are important for the activation of downstream signaling pathways. This study was aimed at identifying novel NPM/ALK-binding proteins that might contribute to its oncogenic transformation. Using a proteomic approach, several RNA/DNA-binding proteins were found to coimmunoprecipitate with NPM/ALK, including the multifunctional polypyrimidine tract binding proteinassociated splicing factor (PSF). The interaction between NPM/ALK and PSF was dependent on an active ALK kinase domain and PSF was found to be tyrosine-phosphorylated in NPM/ALK-expressing cell lines and in primary ALK(+) ALCL samples. Furthermore, PSF was shown to be a direct substrate of purified ALK kinase domain in vitro, and PSF Tyr293 was identified as the site of phosphorylation. Y293F PSF was not phosphorylated by NPM/ALK and was not delocalized in NPM/ALK(+) cells. The expression of ALK fusion proteins induced delocalization of PSF from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and forced overexpression of PSF-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in cells expressing NPM/ALK. PSF phosphorylation also increased its binding to RNA and decreased the PSF-mediated suppression of GAGE6 expression. These results identify PSF as a novel NPM/ALK-binding protein and substrate, and suggest that PSF function may be perturbed in NPM/ALK-transformed cells.

  6. ProteDNA: a sequence-based predictor of sequence-specific DNA-binding residues in transcription factors

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the design of a sequence-based predictor named ProteDNA for identifying the sequence-specific binding residues in a transcription factor (TF). Concerning protein–DNA interactions, there are two types of binding mechanisms involved, namely sequence-specific binding and nonspecific binding. Sequence-specific bindings occur between protein sidechains and nucleotide bases and correspond to sequence-specific recognition of genes. Therefore, sequence-specific bindings are esse...

  7. Z-DNA binding protein from chicken blood nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, A. G.; Spitzner, J. R.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    A protein (Z alpha) that appears to be highly specific for the left-handed Z-DNA conformer has been identified in chicken blood nuclear extracts. Z alpha activity is measured in a band-shift assay by using a radioactive probe consisting of a (dC-dG)35 oligomer that has 50% of the deoxycytosines replaced with 5-bromodeoxycytosine. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+, the probe converts to the Z-DNA conformation and is bound by Z alpha. The binding of Z alpha to the radioactive probe is specifically blocked by competition with linear poly(dC-dG) stabilized in the Z-DNA form by chemical bromination but not by B-form poly(dC-dG) or boiled salmon-sperm DNA. In addition, the binding activity of Z alpha is competitively blocked by supercoiled plasmids containing a Z-DNA insert but not by either the linearized plasmid or by an equivalent amount of the parental supercoiled plasmid without the Z-DNA-forming insert. Z alpha can be crosslinked to the 32P-labeled brominated probe with UV light, allowing us to estimate that the minimal molecular mass of Z alpha is 39 kDa.

  8. Recognition rules for binding of homeodomains to operator DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirgadze, Yu N; Sivozhelezov, V S; Polozov, R V; Stepanenko, V A; Ivanov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of interfaces between homeodomain transcription factors and operator DNA has been considered. We analyzed the binding contacts for a representative set of 22 complexes of homeodomain transcription factors with a double-stranded operator DNA in the region of the major groove. It was shown that the recognition of DNA by the recognizing _-helix of protein is governed by two contact groups. Invariant protein-DNA group of contacts includes six contacts, formed by atomic groups of coding and non-coding DNA chains with the groups of amino acids. The recognizing _-helix forms contacts by polar groups of residues Trp2 (NE1), Asn5, and Lys9 with the canonical sequence T(1)A(2)A(3)T(4) of the coding DNA chain, and contacts by residues Lys0, Arg7 and Lys11 with the sequence A(4)X(5)X(6)X(7) of a non-coding DNA chain, where X is any nucleotide. Variable protein-DNA group of contacts comprises two groups bound with the sequence T(3)A(4)X(5)X(6) of the non- coding DNA-chain. These contacts are mainly with the bases and specify the binding pattern of individual homeodomains. The invariant contact group represents a recognition pattern for transcription factors of the homeodomain family: multiple adenine-asparagine contact and six position-specific phosphate contacts mainly with lysine or arginine. Within this group, we have found three most significant invariant contacts which allow deducing the recognition rules for homeodomains. These rules are inherent for different taxonomic groups of the homeodomain family and can distinguishing members of this family from any other family of transcription factors.

  9. Identifying Sequential Substrate Binding at the Single-Molecule Level by Enzyme Mechanical Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A.; Fernandez, Julio M.; Guixé, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-substrate binding is a dynamic process intimately coupled to protein structural changes, which in turn changes the unfolding energy landscape. By the use of single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), we characterize the open-to-closed conformational transition experienced by the hyperthermophilic ADP-dependent glucokinase from Thermococcus litoralis triggered by the sequential binding of substrates. In the absence of substrates, the mechanical unfolding of TlGK shows an intermediate I, which is stabilized in the presence of Mg·ADP-, the first substrate to bind to the enzyme. However, in the presence of this substrate, an additional unfolding event is observed, intermediate-1*. Finally, in the presence of both substrates, the unfolding force of intermediates-1 and -1*, increases as a consequence of the domain closure. These results show that SMFS could be used as a powerful experimental tool to investigate binding mechanisms of different enzymes with more than one ligand, expanding the repertoire of protocols traditionally used in enzymology. PMID:25840594

  10. Predicting DNA-binding proteins and binding residues by complex structure prediction and application to human proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Zhao

    Full Text Available As more and more protein sequences are uncovered from increasingly inexpensive sequencing techniques, an urgent task is to find their functions. This work presents a highly reliable computational technique for predicting DNA-binding function at the level of protein-DNA complex structures, rather than low-resolution two-state prediction of DNA-binding as most existing techniques do. The method first predicts protein-DNA complex structure by utilizing the template-based structure prediction technique HHblits, followed by binding affinity prediction based on a knowledge-based energy function (Distance-scaled finite ideal-gas reference state for protein-DNA interactions. A leave-one-out cross validation of the method based on 179 DNA-binding and 3797 non-binding protein domains achieves a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.77 with high precision (94% and high sensitivity (65%. We further found 51% sensitivity for 82 newly determined structures of DNA-binding proteins and 56% sensitivity for the human proteome. In addition, the method provides a reasonably accurate prediction of DNA-binding residues in proteins based on predicted DNA-binding complex structures. Its application to human proteome leads to more than 300 novel DNA-binding proteins; some of these predicted structures were validated by known structures of homologous proteins in APO forms. The method [SPOT-Seq (DNA] is available as an on-line server at http://sparks-lab.org.

  11. The kinetics of slow-binding and slow, tight-binding inhibition: the effects of substrate depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waley, S G

    1993-08-15

    Inhibitors with dissociation constants in the micromolar to nanomolar range are important, but hard to characterize kinetically, especially when the substrate concentration in the assay is less than Km. When inhibition increases during the course of the assay (slow-binding inhibition) the concentration of substrate may decrease appreciably. Methods that take substrate depletion into account are described for analysing experiments in which the initial substrate concentration is below Km. Fitting progress curves gives the rate constants for the second (slow) step in a two-step mechanism. An approximate value for the overall dissociation constant may be determined from measurements of rates when the reaction is treated as a first-order process. When the concentrations of inhibitor and enzyme are comparable numerical methods are required. Procedures, suitable for implementation on a microcomputer, for the solution of the differential equations and the fitting of progress curves are described.

  12. Accurate prediction of DnaK-peptide binding via homology modelling and experimental data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Van Durme

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones are essential elements of the protein quality control machinery that governs translocation and folding of nascent polypeptides, refolding and degradation of misfolded proteins, and activation of a wide range of client proteins. The prokaryotic heat-shock protein DnaK is the E. coli representative of the ubiquitous Hsp70 family, which specializes in the binding of exposed hydrophobic regions in unfolded polypeptides. Accurate prediction of DnaK binding sites in E. coli proteins is an essential prerequisite to understand the precise function of this chaperone and the properties of its substrate proteins. In order to map DnaK binding sites in protein sequences, we have developed an algorithm that combines sequence information from peptide binding experiments and structural parameters from homology modelling. We show that this combination significantly outperforms either single approach. The final predictor had a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.819 when assessed over the 144 tested peptide sequences to detect true positives and true negatives. To test the robustness of the learning set, we have conducted a simulated cross-validation, where we omit sequences from the learning sets and calculate the rate of repredicting them. This resulted in a surprisingly good MCC of 0.703. The algorithm was also able to perform equally well on a blind test set of binders and non-binders, of which there was no prior knowledge in the learning sets. The algorithm is freely available at http://limbo.vib.be.

  13. Study of the activity of DNA polymerases β and λ using 5-formyluridine containing DNA substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrik O. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the TLS-activity of human DNA polymerases β and λ (pols β and λ using 5-formyluridine (5-foU containing DNA duplexes which are imitating the intermediates during replication of the leading DNA strand, and to study the influence of replication factors hRPA and hPCNA on this activity. Methods. The EMSA and the methods of enzyme’s kinetics were used. Results. The capability of pols β and λ to catalyze DNA synthesis across 5-foU was investigated and the kinetic characteristics of this process in the presence and in the absence of protein factors hRPA and hPCNA were evaluated. Conclusions. It was shown that: (i both proteins are able to catalyze TLS on used DNA substrates regardless of the reaction conditions, however, pol λ was more accurate enzyme; (ii hRPA can stimulate the efficacy of the nonmutagenic TLS catalyzed by pol at the nucleotide incorporation directly opposite of 5-foU, at the same time it doesn’t influence the incorporation efficacy if the damage displaced into the duplex; (iii hPCNA doesn’t influence the efficacy of TLS catalyzed by both enzymes.

  14. Oligosaccharide and substrate binding in the starch debranching enzyme barley limit dextrinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Marie S; Windahl, Michael S; Sim, Lyann; Bøjstrup, Marie; Abou Hachem, Maher; Hindsgaul, Ole; Palcic, Monica; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2015-03-27

    Complete hydrolytic degradation of starch requires hydrolysis of both the α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in amylopectin. Limit dextrinase (LD) is the only endogenous barley enzyme capable of hydrolyzing the α-1,6-glucosidic bond during seed germination, and impaired LD activity inevitably reduces the maltose and glucose yields from starch degradation. Crystal structures of barley LD and active-site mutants with natural substrates, products and substrate analogues were sought to better understand the facets of LD-substrate interactions that confine high activity of LD to branched maltooligosaccharides. For the first time, an intact α-1,6-glucosidically linked substrate spanning the active site of a LD or pullulanase has been trapped and characterized by crystallography. The crystal structure reveals both the branch and main-chain binding sites and is used to suggest a mechanism for nucleophilicity enhancement in the active site. The substrate, product and analogue complexes were further used to outline substrate binding subsites and substrate binding restraints and to suggest a mechanism for avoidance of dual α-1,6- and α-1,4-hydrolytic activity likely to be a biological necessity during starch synthesis.

  15. Biochemical Characterization of the Human Mitochondrial Replicative Twinkle Helicase: SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY, DNA BRANCH MIGRATION, AND ABILITY TO OVERCOME BLOCKADES TO DNA UNWINDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan; Crouch, Jack D; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Sommers, Joshua A; Carney, Sean M; Yakubovskaya, Elena; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Trakselis, Michael A; Brosh, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in the c10orf2 gene encoding the human mitochondrial DNA replicative helicase Twinkle are linked to several rare genetic diseases characterized by mitochondrial defects. In this study, we have examined the catalytic activity of Twinkle helicase on model replication fork and DNA repair structures. Although Twinkle behaves as a traditional 5' to 3' helicase on conventional forked duplex substrates, the enzyme efficiently dissociates D-loop DNA substrates irrespective of whether it possesses a 5' or 3' single-stranded tailed invading strand. In contrast, we report for the first time that Twinkle branch-migrates an open-ended mobile three-stranded DNA structure with a strong 5' to 3' directionality preference. To determine how well Twinkle handles potential roadblocks to mtDNA replication, we tested the ability of the helicase to unwind substrates with site-specific oxidative DNA lesions or bound by the mitochondrial transcription factor A. Twinkle helicase is inhibited by DNA damage in a unique manner that is dependent on the type of oxidative lesion and the strand in which it resides. Novel single molecule FRET binding and unwinding assays show an interaction of the excluded strand with Twinkle as well as events corresponding to stepwise unwinding and annealing. TFAM inhibits Twinkle unwinding, suggesting other replisome proteins may be required for efficient removal. These studies shed new insight on the catalytic functions of Twinkle on the key DNA structures it would encounter during replication or possibly repair of the mitochondrial genome and how well it tolerates potential roadblocks to DNA unwinding.

  16. Roles of RNA-Binding Proteins in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoko Kai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR, and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate. Upstream factors of DNA damage checkpoints and repair, “sensor” proteins, detect DNA damage and send the signals to downstream factors in order to maintain genomic integrity. Unexpectedly, we have discovered that an RNA-processing factor is involved in DNA repair processes. We have identified a gene that contributes to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM’s treatment resistance and recurrence. This gene, RBM14, is known to function in transcription and RNA splicing. RBM14 is also required for maintaining the stem-like state of GBM spheres, and it controls the DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ pathway by interacting with KU80. RBM14 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP with low complexity domains, called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs, and it also physically interacts with PARP1. Furthermore, RBM14 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs in a poly(ADP-ribose (PAR-dependent manner (unpublished data. DNA-dependent PARP1 (poly-(ADP ribose polymerase 1 makes key contributions in the DNA damage response (DDR network. RBM14 therefore plays an important role in a PARP-dependent DSB repair process. Most recently, it was shown that the other RBPs with intrinsically disordered domains are recruited to DNA damage sites in a PAR-dependent manner, and that these RBPs form liquid compartments (also known as

  17. Characterization of the target DNA sequence for the DNA-binding domain of zinc finger protein 191

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoyue Wang; Ruilin Sun; Guoxiang Liu; Minghui Yao; Jian Fei; Hebai Shen

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the DNA-binding properties of transcription factors are important in searching for the downstream genes regulated by these factors. In the present study, we report on the DNA-binding property of a Cys2His2-type transcription factor, zinc finger protein 191 (Zfp191), which has been newly found to play a significant role in mice.By constructing a fusion protein containing the DNA-binding domain of Zfp191,we characterized target DNA by determining the protein's binding specificity and dependence on zinc.The data showed that the DNA-binding domain of Zfp191can specifically bind to the TCAT repeat motif and that there is a cooperative effect among the target DNA's multiple binding sites.Furthermore,the binding reaction is dependent on zinc.This work provides a foundation for further studies on the role of Zfp191 in gene regulation and development.

  18. Specific enrichment of prokaryotic DNA using a recombinant DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandetskaya, Natalia; Naumann, Andreas; Hennig, Katharina; Kuhlmeier, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Targeted enrichment of DNA is often necessary for its detection and characterization in complex samples. We describe the development and application of the novel molecular tool for the specific enrichment of prokaryotic DNA. A fused protein comprising the DNA-binding subunit of the bacterial topoisomerase II, gyrase, was expressed, purified, and immobilized on magnetic particles. We demonstrated the specific affinity of the immobilized protein towards bacterial DNA and investigated its efficiency in the samples with high background of eukaryotic DNA. The reported approach allowed for the selective isolation and further detection of as few as 5 pg Staphylococcus aureus DNA from the sample with 4 × 10(6)-fold surplus of human DNA. This method is a promising approach for the preparation of such type of samples, for example in molecular diagnostics of sepsis.

  19. DNA Mutagenic Activity and Capacity for HIV-1 Restriction of the Cytidine Deaminase APOBEC3G Depends on Whether DNA or RNA Binds to Tyrosine 315.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoda, Bogdan; Joseph, Rebecca; Friedman, Alan E; Bennett, Ryan P; Greiner, Rebecca; De Zoysa, Thareendra; Stewart, Ryan A; Smith, Harold C

    2017-04-05

    APOBEC3G (A3G) belongs to the AID/APOBEC protein family of cytidine deaminases (CDA) that bind to nucleic acids. A3G mutates the HIV genome by deamination of dC to dU, leading to accumulation of virus-inactivating mutations. Binding to cellular RNAs inhibits A3G binding to substrate single-stranded (ss) DNA and CDA activity. RNA and ssDNA bind to the same three A3G tryptic peptides (amino acids 181-194, 314-320, and 345-374) that form parts of a continuously exposed protein surface extending from the catalytic domain in the C-terminus of A3G to its N-terminus. We show here that the A3G tyrosines 181 and 315 directly cross-link ssDNA. Binding experiments showed that a Y315A mutation alone significantly reduced A3G binding to both ssDNA and RNA, whereas Y181A and Y182A mutations only moderately affected A3G nucleic acid binding. Consistent with these findings, the Y315A mutant exhibited little to no deaminase activity in an E. coli DNA mutator reporter, while Y181A and Y182A mutants retained ~50% of wild-type A3G activity. The Y315A mutant also showed a markedly reduced ability to assemble into viral particles and had reduced antiviral activity. In uninfected cells, the impaired RNA-binding capacity of Y315A was evident by a shift of A3G from high-molecular-mass ribonucleoprotein complexes to low-molecular-mass complexes. We conclude that Y315 is essential for coordinating ssDNA interaction with or entry to the deaminase domain and hypothesize that RNA bound to Y315 may be sufficient to competitively inhibit ssDNA deaminase-dependent antiviral activity.

  20. Pitfalls of DNA Quantification Using DNA-Binding Fluorescent Dyes and Suggested Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakayama

    Full Text Available The Qubit fluorometer is a DNA quantification device based on the fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dye binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA. Qubit is generally considered useful for checking DNA quality before next-generation sequencing because it measures intact dsDNA. To examine the most accurate and suitable methods for quantifying DNA for quality assessment, we compared three quantification methods: NanoDrop, which measures UV absorbance; Qubit; and quantitative PCR (qPCR, which measures the abundance of a target gene. For the comparison, we used three types of DNA: 1 DNA extracted from fresh frozen liver tissues (Frozen-DNA; 2 DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues comparable to those used for Frozen-DNA (FFPE-DNA; and 3 DNA extracted from the remaining fractions after RNA extraction with Trizol reagent (Trizol-DNA. These DNAs were serially diluted with distilled water and measured using three quantification methods. For Frozen-DNA, the Qubit values were not proportional to the dilution ratio, in contrast with the NanoDrop and qPCR values. This non-proportional decrease in Qubit values was dependent on a lower salt concentration, and over 1 mM NaCl in the DNA solution was required for the Qubit measurement. For FFPE-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were lower than the NanoDrop values. However, electrophoresis revealed that qPCR reflected the degree of DNA fragmentation more accurately than Qubit. Thus, qPCR is superior to Qubit for checking the quality of FFPE-DNA. For Trizol-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were consistently lower than the NanoDrop values, similar to FFPE-DNA. However, the qPCR values were higher than the NanoDrop values. Electrophoresis with SYBR Green I and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA quantification demonstrated that Trizol-DNA consisted mostly of non-fragmented ssDNA. Therefore, Qubit is not always the most accurate method

  1. Experimental strategies for studying transcription factor-DNA binding specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertz, Marcel; Maerkl, Sebastian J

    2010-12-01

    Specific binding of transcription factors (TFs) determines in a large part the connectivity of gene regulatory networks as well as the quantitative level of gene expression. A multiplicity of both experimental and computational methods is currently used to discover and characterize the underlying TF-DNA interactions. Experimental methods can be further subdivided into in vitro- and in vivo-based approaches, each accenting different aspects of TF-binding events. In this review we summarize the flexibility and performance of a selection of both types of experimental methods. In conclusion, we argue that a serial combination of methods with different throughput and data type constitutes an optimal experimental strategy.

  2. Interaction of bacteriophage T4 and T7 single-stranded DNA-binding proteins with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Leila; Rouzina, Ioulia; Williams, Mark C.

    2009-06-01

    Bacteriophages T4 and T7 are well-studied model replication systems, which have allowed researchers to determine the roles of many proteins central to DNA replication, recombination and repair. Here we summarize and discuss the results from two recently developed single-molecule methods to determine the salt-dependent DNA-binding kinetics and thermodynamics of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins (SSBs) from these systems. We use these methods to characterize both the equilibrium double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and ssDNA binding of the SSBs T4 gene 32 protein (gp32) and T7 gene 2.5 protein (gp2.5). Despite the overall two-orders-of-magnitude weaker binding of gp2.5 to both forms of DNA, we find that both proteins exhibit four-orders-of-magnitude preferential binding to ssDNA relative to dsDNA. This strong preferential ssDNA binding as well as the weak dsDNA binding is essential for the ability of both proteins to search dsDNA in one dimension to find available ssDNA-binding sites at the replication fork.

  3. DBD2BS: connecting a DNA-binding protein with its binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ting-Ying; Lin, Chih-Kang; Lin, Chih-Wei; Weng, Yi-Zhong; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chang, Darby Tien-Hao

    2012-07-01

    By binding to short and highly conserved DNA sequences in genomes, DNA-binding proteins initiate, enhance or repress biological processes. Accurately identifying such binding sites, often represented by position weight matrices (PWMs), is an important step in understanding the control mechanisms of cells. When given coordinates of a DNA-binding domain (DBD) bound with DNA, a potential function can be used to estimate the change of binding affinity after base substitutions, where the changes can be summarized as a PWM. This technique provides an effective alternative when the chromatin immunoprecipitation data are unavailable for PWM inference. To facilitate the procedure of predicting PWMs based on protein-DNA complexes or even structures of the unbound state, the web server, DBD2BS, is presented in this study. The DBD2BS uses an atom-level knowledge-based potential function to predict PWMs characterizing the sequences to which the query DBD structure can bind. For unbound queries, a list of 1066 DBD-DNA complexes (including 1813 protein chains) is compiled for use as templates for synthesizing bound structures. The DBD2BS provides users with an easy-to-use interface for visualizing the PWMs predicted based on different templates and the spatial relationships of the query protein, the DBDs and the DNAs. The DBD2BS is the first attempt to predict PWMs of DBDs from unbound structures rather than from bound ones. This approach increases the number of existing protein structures that can be exploited when analyzing protein-DNA interactions. In a recent study, the authors showed that the kernel adopted by the DBD2BS can generate PWMs consistent with those obtained from the experimental data. The use of DBD2BS to predict PWMs can be incorporated with sequence-based methods to discover binding sites in genome-wide studies. Available at: http://dbd2bs.csie.ntu.edu.tw/, http://dbd2bs.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/, and http://dbd2bs.ee.ncku.edu.tw.

  4. Genomic DNA binding to ZnO microrods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Embús, D. A.; Cardozo, M. Orrego; Vargas-Hernández, C.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, ZnO microrods were produced by hydrothermal synthesis. DNA was extracted from pork spleen cells by cellular lysis, deproteinization and precipitation. The analysis of the DNA binding to the ZnO was performed using Raman spectroscopy a technique that allowed for the evaluation of the effect that the presence of the ZnO in the complex has on the DNA structure. Vibrational spectral bands from the DNA molecule and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO were observed and classified as E2(M), A1(TO), E2(High), E1(LO) and 2LO. The Raman signals from the vibrational bands corresponding to the phosphodiester bond 5‧-C-O-P-O-C-3‧ and bond stretching of the PO2- group, as well as ring vibrations of the nitrogenous bases of the DNA, were enhanced by the presence of the ZnO microrods. The bands from the modes corresponding to the C-O and Odbnd Psbnd O- molecules of the DNA backbone were observed to exhibit larger spectral shifts due to the compression and tensile stresses generated at the ZnO/DNA interface, respectively. In addition, the relative vibrational mode intensities of the nitrogenous bases increased.

  5. Elasticity of DNA and the effect of Dendrimer Binding

    CERN Document Server

    Mogurampelly, Santosh; Netz, Roland R; Maiti, Prabal K

    2013-01-01

    Negatively charged DNA can be compacted by positively charged dendrimers and the degree of compaction is a delicate balance between the strength of the electrostatic interaction and the elasticity of DNA. We report various elastic properties of short double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and the effect of dendrimer binding using fully atomistic molecular dynamics and numerical simulations. In equilibrium at room temperature, the contour length distribution P(L) and end-to-end distance distribution P(R) are nearly Gaussian, the former gives an estimate of the stretch modulus {\\gamma}_1 of dsDNA in quantitative agreement with the literature value. The bend angle distribution P({\\theta}) of the dsDNA also has a Gaussian form and allows to extract a persistence length, L_p of 43 nm. When the dsDNA is compacted by positively charged dendrimer, the stretch modulus stays invariant but the effective bending rigidity estimated from the end-to-end distance distribution decreases dramatically due to backbone charge neutralization...

  6. Selective inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 by targeting a substrate-specific secondary binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn-Wache, Kerstin; Bär, Joachim W; Hoffmann, Torsten; Wolf, Raik; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DP4) is a multifunctional serine protease liberating dipeptide from the N-terminus of (oligo)peptides which can modulate the activity of these peptides. The enzyme is involved in physiological processes such as blood glucose homeostasis and immune response. DP4 substrate specificity is characterized in detail using synthetic dipeptide derivatives. The specificity constant k(cat)/K(m) strongly depends on the amino acid in P₁-position for proline, alanine, glycine and serine with 5.0 x 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, 1.8 x 10⁴ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, 3.6 x 10² M⁻¹ s⁻¹, 1.1 x 10² M⁻¹ s⁻¹, respectively. By contrast, kinetic investigation of larger peptide substrates yields a different pattern. The specific activity of DP4 for neuropeptide Y (NPY) cleavage comprising a proline in P₁-position is the same range as the k(cat)/K(m) values of NPY derivatives containing alanine or serine in P₁-position with 4 x 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, 9.5 x 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹ and 2.1 x 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, respectively. The proposed existence of an additional binding region outside the catalytic center is supported by measurements of peptide substrates with extended chain length. This 'secondary' binding site interaction depends on the amino acid sequence in P₄'-P₈'-position. Interactions with this binding site could be specifically blocked for substrates of the GRF/glucagon peptide family. By contrast, substrates not belonging to this peptide family and dipeptide derivative substrates that only bind to the catalytic center of DP4 were not inhibited. This more selective inhibition approach allows, for the first time, to distinguish between substrate families by substrate-discriminating inhibitors.

  7. ERdj3, a luminal ER DnaJ homologue, binds directly to unfolded proteins in the mammalian ER: identification of critical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Zhuang, Min; Hendershot, Linda M

    2009-01-13

    ERdj3 was identified as a soluble, lumenal DnaJ family member that binds to unassembled immunoglobulin heavy chains along with the BiP chaperone complex in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells. Here we demonstrated that ERdj3 binds directly to unfolded substrates. Secondary structure predictions suggested that the substrate binding domain of ERdj3 was likely to closely resemble Ydj1, a yeast cytosolic DnaJ family member, which was previously crystallized with a peptide bound to the C-terminal fragment composed of domains I, II, and III. Mutation of conserved residues in domain I, which formed the peptide binding site in Ydj1, affected ERdj3's substrate binding ability in mammalian cells and in vitro binding studies. Somewhat unexpectedly, we found that domain II, which is highly conserved among ERdj3 homologues, but very different from domain II of Ydj1, was also critical for substrate binding. In addition, we demonstrated that ERdj3 forms multimers in cells and found that the conserved carboxy-terminal residue phenylalanine 326 played a critical role in self-assembly. In vitro binding assays revealed that mutation of this residue to alanine diminished ERdj3's substrate binding ability, arguing that multimerization is important for substrate binding. Together, these studies demonstrate that the Ydj1 structure is conserved in another family member and reveal that among this group of DnaJ proteins domain II, which is not present in the closely related type II family members, also plays an essential role in substrate binding.

  8. Selectivity of substrate binding and ionization of 2-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luanloet, Thikumporn; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2015-08-01

    2-Methyl-3-hydroxypyridine-5-carboxylic acid (MHPC) oxygenase (EC 1.14.12.4) from Pseudomonas sp. MA-1 is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes a hydroxylation and aromatic ring cleavage reaction. The functional roles of two residues, Tyr223 and Tyr82, located ~ 5 Å away from MHPC, were characterized using site-directed mutagenesis, along with ligand binding, product analysis and transient kinetic experiments. Mutation of Tyr223 resulted in enzyme variants that were impaired in their hydroxylation activity and had Kd values for substrate binding 5-10-fold greater than the wild-type enzyme. Because this residue is adjacent to the water molecule that is located next to the 3-hydroxy group of MHPC, the results indicate that the interaction between Tyr223, H2 O and the 3-hydroxyl group of MHPC are important for substrate binding and hydroxylation. By contrast, the Kd for substrate binding of Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants were similar to that of the wild-type enzyme. However, only ~ 40-50% of the substrate was hydroxylated in the reactions of both variants, whereas most of the substrate was hydroxylated in the wild-type enzyme reaction. In free solution, MHPC or 5-hydroxynicotinic acid exists in a mixture of monoanionic and tripolar ionic forms, whereas only the tripolar ionic form binds to the wild-type enzyme. The binding of tripolar ionic MHPC would allow efficient hydroxylation through an electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanism. For the Tyr82His and Tyr82Phe variants, both forms of substrates can bind to the enzymes, indicating that the mutation at Tyr82 abolished the selectivity of the enzyme towards the tripolar ionic form. Transient kinetic studies indicated that the hydroxylation rate constants of both Tyr82 variants are approximately two- to 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Altogether, our findings suggest that Tyr82 is important for the binding selectivity of MHPC oxygenase towards the tripolar ionic species, whereas the

  9. Xenon and halogenated alkanes track putative substrate binding cavities in the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, D A; Rosenzweig, A C; Frederick, C A; Lippard, S J

    2001-03-27

    To investigate the role of protein cavities in facilitating movement of the substrates, methane and dioxygen, in the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH), we determined the X-ray structures of MMOH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) cocrystallized with dibromomethane or iodoethane, or by using crystals pressurized with xenon gas. The halogenated alkanes bind in two cavities within the alpha-subunit that extend from one surface of the protein to the buried dinuclear iron active site. Two additional binding sites were located in the beta-subunit. Pressurization of two crystal forms of MMOH with xenon resulted in the identification of six binding sites located exclusively in the alpha-subunit. These results indicate that hydrophobic species bind preferentially in preexisting cavities in MMOH and support the hypothesis that such cavities may play a functional role in sequestering and enhancing the availability of the physiological substrates for reaction at the active site.

  10. Synthesis, DNA binding and topoisomerase inhibition of mononaphthalimide homospermidine derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yong Tian; Hong Xia Ma; Song Qiang Xie; Xue Wang; Jin Zhao; Chao Jie Wang; Wen Yuan Gao

    2008-01-01

    Two novel mononaphthalimide homospermidine derivatives (2a, 2b) with three or four methylene unit as linkages weresynthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against human leukemia K562, murine melanoma B 16 and Chinese hamster ovary CHOcell lines. The presence of homospermidine motif could greatly elevate the potency of 1,8-naphthalimide. Conjugate 2b with longerspacer exhibited higher in vitro cytotoxicity than 2a. The DNA binding experiments indicated that conjugates 2b could bind toherring sperm DNA. The topoisomerase Ⅱ poison trials revealed that 2b could inhibit the activity of top. Ⅱ.2008 Chao Jie Wang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Autoantigenic proteins that bind recombinogenic sequences in Epstein-Barr virus and cellular DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    We have identified conserved autoantigenic cellular proteins that bind to G-rich sequence motifs in recombinogenic regions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA. This binding activity, called TRBP, recognizes the EBV terminal repeats, a locus responsible for interconversion of linear and circular EBV DNA. We found that TRBP also binds to EBV DNA sequences involved in deletion of EBNA2, a gene product required for immortalization. We show that TRBP binds sequences present in repetitive cellular DNA,...

  12. Effect of DNA binding protein Ssh12 from hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae on DNA supercoiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼慧强; 黄力; VietQ.Mai

    1999-01-01

    An 11.5-ku DNA binding protein, designated as Sshl2, was purified from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae by column chromatography in SP Sepharose, DNA cellulose and phosphocellulose. Sshl2 accounts for about 4 % of the total cellular protein. The protein is capable of binding to both negatively supercoiled and relaxed DNAs. Nick closure analysis revealed that Sshl2 constrains negative supercoils upon binding to DNA. While the ability of the protein to constrain supercoils is weak at 22℃ , it is enhanced substantially at temperatures higher than 37℃ . Both the cellular content and supercoil-constraining ability of Sshl2 suggest that the protein may play an important role in the organization and stabilization of the chromosome of S. shibatae.

  13. Proteomic screen finds pSer/pThr-binding domain localizing Plk1 to mitotic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Andrew E H; Cantley, Lewis C; Yaffe, Michael B

    2003-02-21

    We have developed a proteomic approach for identifying phosphopeptide binding domains that modulate kinase-dependent signaling pathways. An immobilized library of partially degenerate phosphopeptides biased toward a particular protein kinase phosphorylation motif is used to isolate phospho-binding domains that bind to proteins phosphorylated by that kinase. Applying this approach to cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), we identified the polo-box domain (PBD) of the mitotic kinase polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as a specific phosphoserine (pSer) or phosphothreonine (pThr) binding domain and determined its optimal binding motif. This motif is present in known Plk1 substrates such as Cdc25, and an optimal phosphopeptide containing the motif disrupted PBD-substrate binding and localization of the PBD to centrosomes. This finding reveals how Plk1 can localize to specific sites within cells in response to Cdk phosphorylation at those sites and provides a structural mechanism for targeting the Plk1 kinase domain to its substrates.

  14. Computational redesign of endonuclease DNA binding and cleavage specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Justin; Havranek, James J.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Sussman, Django; Monnat, Raymond J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2006-06-01

    The reprogramming of DNA-binding specificity is an important challenge for computational protein design that tests current understanding of protein-DNA recognition, and has considerable practical relevance for biotechnology and medicine. Here we describe the computational redesign of the cleavage specificity of the intron-encoded homing endonuclease I-MsoI using a physically realistic atomic-level forcefield. Using an in silico screen, we identified single base-pair substitutions predicted to disrupt binding by the wild-type enzyme, and then optimized the identities and conformations of clusters of amino acids around each of these unfavourable substitutions using Monte Carlo sampling. A redesigned enzyme that was predicted to display altered target site specificity, while maintaining wild-type binding affinity, was experimentally characterized. The redesigned enzyme binds and cleaves the redesigned recognition site ~10,000 times more effectively than does the wild-type enzyme, with a level of target discrimination comparable to the original endonuclease. Determination of the structure of the redesigned nuclease-recognition site complex by X-ray crystallography confirms the accuracy of the computationally predicted interface. These results suggest that computational protein design methods can have an important role in the creation of novel highly specific endonucleases for gene therapy and other applications.

  15. TRF2 binds branched DNA to safeguard telomere integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Isabelle; Timashev, Leonid; Xie, Wei; Patel, Dinshaw J; de Lange, Titia

    2017-09-01

    Although t-loops protect telomeres, they are at risk of cleavage by Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases if branch migration converts the three-way t-loop junction into four-way HJs. T-loop cleavage is repressed by the TRF2 basic domain, which binds three- and four-way junctions and protects HJs in vitro. By replacing the basic domain with bacterial-protein domains binding three- and four-way junctions, we demonstrated the in vivo relevance of branched-DNA binding. Branched-DNA binding also repressed PARP1, presumably by masking the PARP1 site in the t-loop junction. Although PARP1 recruits HJ resolvases and promotes t-loop cleavage, PARP1 activation alone did not result in t-loop cleavage, thus suggesting that the basic domain also prevents formation of HJs. Concordantly, removal of HJs by BLM helicase mitigated t-loop cleavage in response to loss of the basic domain. We propose that TRF2 masks and stabilizes the t-loop three-way junction, thereby protecting telomeres from detrimental deletions and PARP1 activation.

  16. Tentative identification of the second substrate binding site in Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chen Chia

    Full Text Available Phytochelatin synthase (PCS uses the substrates glutathione (GSH, γGlu-Cys-Gly and a cadmium (Cd-bound GSH (Cd∙GS2 to produce the shortest phytochelatin product (PC2, (γGlu-Cys2-Gly through a ping-pong mechanism. The binding of the 2 substrates to the active site, particularly the second substrate binding site, is not well-understood. In this study, we generated a structural model of the catalytic domain of Arabidopsis AtPCS1 (residues 12-218 by using the crystal structure of the γGlu-Cys acyl-enzyme complex of the PCS of the cyanobacterium Nostoc (NsPCS as a template. The modeled AtPCS1 revealed a cavity in proximity to the first substrate binding site, consisting of 3 loops containing several conserved amino acids including Arg152, Lys185, and Tyr55. Substitutions of these amino acids (R152K, K185R, or double mutation resulted in the abrogation of enzyme activity, indicating that the arrangement of these 2 positive charges is crucial for the binding of the second substrate. Recombinant AtPCS1s with mutations at Tyr55 showed lower catalytic activities because of reduced affinity (3-fold for Y55W for the Cd∙GS2, further suggesting the role of the cation-π interaction in recognition of the second substrate. Our study results indicate the mechanism for second substrate recognition in PCS. The integrated catalytic mechanism of PCS is further discussed.

  17. Comparative modeling of the human monoamine transporters: similarities in substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Christiansen, Anja B; Sinning, Steffen; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2013-02-20

    The amino acid compositions of the substrate binding pockets of the three human monoamine transporters are compared as is the orientation of the endogenous substrates, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, bound in these. Through a combination of homology modeling, induced fit dockings, molecular dynamics simulations, and uptake experiments in mutant transporters, we propose a common binding mode for the three substrates. The longitudinal axis of the substrates is similarly oriented with these, forming an ionic interaction between the ammonium group and a highly conserved aspartate, Asp98 (serotonin transporter, hSERT), Asp79 (dopamine transporter, hDAT), and Asp75 (norepinephrine transporter, hNET). The 6-position of serotonin and the para-hydroxyl groups of dopamine and norepinephrine were found to face Ala173 in hSERT, Gly153 in hDAT, and Gly149 in hNET. Three rotations of the substrates around the longitudinal axis were identified. In each mode, an aromatic hydroxyl group of the substrates occupied equivalent volumes of the three binding pockets, where small changes in amino acid composition explains the differences in selectivity. Uptake experiments support that the 5-hydroxyl group of serotonin and the meta-hydroxyl group norepinephrine and dopamine are placed in the hydrophilic pocket around Ala173, Ser438, and Thr439 in hSERT corresponding to Gly149, Ser419, Ser420 in hNET and Gly153 Ser422 and Ala423 in hDAT. Furthermore, hDAT was found to possess an additional hydrophilic pocket around Ser149 to accommodate the para-hydroxyl group. Understanding these subtle differences between the binding site compositions of the three transporters is imperative for understanding the substrate selectivity, which could eventually aid in developing future selective medicines.

  18. Synthesis and DNA-binding properties of novel DNA cyclo-intercalators containing purine-glucuronic acid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renshuai; Chen, Shaopeng; Wang, Xueting; Yu, Rilei; Li, Mingjing; Ren, Sumei; Jiang, Tao

    2016-06-24

    Novel DNA cyclo-intercalators, which incorporated two intercalator subunits linked by two bridges, were synthesized. Binding of the compounds to calf-thymus DNA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and docking simulations were used to predict the binding modes of these cyclic compounds. The spectral data demonstrated that all of these compounds can interact with CT-DNA. The sugar moiety played an important role in the process of binding between the intercalators containing glucuronic acid and DNA. The length and flexibility of the connecting bridges affected the binding affinity of the resultant cyclo-intercalators. Docking simulations showed that compounds 7 and 8 interact with DNA as mono-intercalators.

  19. Effects of organic solvents and substrate binding on trypsin in acetonitrile and hexane media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Yanyan; Guo, Yanzhi; Li, Menglong; Wang, Zhimeng; Pu, Xuemei; Jiang, Lin

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we used molecular dynamic (MD) simulation to study trypsin with and without a six-amino-acid peptide bound in three different solvents (water, acetonitrile and hexane) in order to provide molecular information for well understanding the structure and function of enzymes in non-aqueous media. The results show that the enzyme is more compact and less native-like in hexane than in the other two polar solvents. The substrate could stabilize the native protein structure in the two polar media, but not in the non-polar hexane. There are no significant differences in the conformation of the S1 pocket upon the substrate binding in water and acetonitrile media while a reverse behavior is observed in hexane media, implying a possible induced fit binding mechanism in the non-polar media. The substrate binding enhances the stability of catalytic H-bond network since it could expel the solvent molecules from the active site. The enzyme and the substrate appear to be more appropriate to the reactive conformation in the organic solvents compared with aqueous solution. There is much greater substrate binding strength in hexane media than the water and acetonitrile ones since the polar solvent significantly weakens electrostatic interactions, which are observed to be the main driving force to the binding. In addition, some residues of the S1 pocket could remain favorable contribution to the binding despite the solvent change, but with differences in the contribution extent, the number and the type of residues between the three media.

  20. Cytotoxic, DNA binding, DNA cleavage and antibacterial studies of ruthenium-fluoroquinolone complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan N Patel; Hardik N Joshi; Chintan R Patel

    2014-05-01

    Six new Ru(II) and Ru(III) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, LC-MS, electronic spectra, IR spectra and magnetic moment measurements. DNA-binding properties of Ru complexes have been studied by means of absorption spectrophotometry and viscosity measurements as well as their HS DNA cleavage properties by means of agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results show that all the complexes can bind to DNA via partial intercalative mode. The b values of complexes were found in the range 2.14 × 104 to 2.70 × 105 M-1. All the complexes show excellent efficiency of cleaving DNA than respective fluoroquinolones. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay has been performed to check the cytotoxic activity. The IC50 values of the complexes are in the range of 6.27 to 16.05 g mL-1.

  1. A novel DNA-binding domain in the Shrunken initiator-binding protein (IBP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugert, T; Werr, W

    1994-06-01

    South-western screening of lambda gt11 expression library with a fragment of the Shrunken promoter containing the initiator element resulted in cloning of a novel maize gene. The encoded initiator-binding protein (IBP1) interacts at the transcription start site of the Shrunken promoter. Analysis of the 680 amino acid (aa) long polypeptide revealed a novel bipartite DNA-binding domain at the carboxyl terminus. In its amino-terminal part, it is weakly related to Myb R-repeats but the following basic region is also essential for DNA binding. A region of similarity to the conserved 2.1 and 2.2 motifs in bacterial sigma-factors is located close to the IBP1 amino terminus. Two putative nuclear localization signals are compatible with the presence of antigenically related polypeptides in nuclear protein extracts. The IBP1 gene was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 9 (9L095); a second highly related gene IBP2 is located on the short arm of chromosome 1 (1S014). Both genes encode proteins sharing 93% similarity and are transcribed with similar activity in different plant organs. A small 82 nucleotide intron in the IBP2 transcript is found unspliced to a variable degree in different tissues. Translation of this incompletely processed transcript would result in a truncated amino-terminal polypeptide lacking the DNA-binding domain.

  2. Specific amino acid residues are involved in substrate discrimination and template binding of human REV1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Jinlian; Masuda, Yuji; Kamiya, Kenji

    2010-02-05

    REV1 is a member of the Y-family DNA polymerases, but is atypical in utilizing only dCTP with a preference for guanine (G) as the template. Crystallography of the REV1-DNA-dCTP ternary complex has revealed a unique mechanism by which template G is evicted from the DNA helix and incoming dCTP is recognized by an arginine residue in an alpha-loop, termed the N-digit. To better understand functions of its individual amino acid residues, we made a series of mutant human REV1 proteins. We found that R357 and L358 play vital roles in template binding. Furthermore, extensive mutation analysis revealed a novel function of R357 for substrate discrimination, in addition to previously proposed specific interaction with incoming dCTP. We found that the binding pocket for dCTP of REV1 has also significant but latent affinity for dGTP. The results suggest that the positive charge on R357 could prevent interaction with dGTP. We propose that both direct and indirect mechanisms mediated by R357 ensure specificity for dCTP.

  3. Molecular basis for oligomeric-DNA binding and episome maintenance by KSHV LANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Domsic

    Full Text Available LANA is the KSHV-encoded terminal repeat binding protein essential for viral replication and episome maintenance during latency. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of LANA C-terminal DNA binding domain (LANADBD to reveal its capacity to form a decameric ring with an exterior DNA binding surface. The dimeric core is structurally similar to EBV EBNA1 with an N-terminal arm that regulates DNA binding and is required for replication function. The oligomeric interface between LANA dimers is dispensable for single site DNA binding, but is required for cooperative DNA binding, replication function, and episome maintenance. We also identify a basic patch opposite of the DNA binding surface that is responsible for the interaction with BRD proteins and contributes to episome maintenance function. The structural features of LANADBD suggest a novel mechanism of episome maintenance through DNA-binding induced oligomeric assembly.

  4. Conformational dynamics in substrate-binding domains influences transport in the ABC importer GlnPQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Schuurman-Wolters, Geesina; Ploetz, Evelyn; Husada, Florence; Vietrov, Ruslan; de Boer, Marijn; Cordes, Thorben; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The conformational dynamics in ABC transporters is largely elusive. The ABC importer GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis has different covalently linked substrate-binding domains (SBDs), thus making it an excellent model system to elucidate the dynamics and role of the SBDs in transport. We demonstrate by

  5. Localization of the substrate binding site in the homodimeric mannitol transporter, EIImtl, of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opacic, Milena; Vos, Erwin P. P.; Hesp, Ben H.; Broos, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    The mannitol transporter from Escherichia coli, EIImtl, belongs to a class of membrane proteins coupling the transport of substrates with their chemical modification. EIImtl is functional as a homodimer, and it harbors one high affinity mannitol-binding site in the membrane-embedded C domain (IICmtl

  6. The substrate-binding protein imposes directionality on an electrochemical sodium gradient-driven TRAP transporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Christopher; Geertsma, Eric R.; Severi, Emmanuele; Kelly, David J.; Poolman, Bert; Thomas, Gavin H.

    2009-01-01

    Substrate-binding protein-dependent secondary transporters are widespread in prokaryotes and are represented most frequently by members of the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter family. Here, we report the membrane reconstitution of a TRAP transporter, the sialic acid-specific

  7. Regulation of Structural Dynamics within a Signal Recognition Particle Promotes Binding of Protein Targeting Substrates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Kight, Alicia D.; Henderson, Rory; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Patel, Parth; Murchison, Marissa; Sharma, Priyanka; Goforth, Robyn L.; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh; Henry, Ralph L.; Heyes, Colin D.

    2015-01-01

    Protein targeting is critical in all living organisms and involves a signal recognition particle (SRP), an SRP receptor, and a translocase. In co-translational targeting, interactions among these proteins are mediated by the ribosome. In chloroplasts, the light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding protein (LHCP) in the thylakoid membrane is targeted post-translationally without a ribosome. A multidomain chloroplast-specific subunit of the SRP, cpSRP43, is proposed to take on the role of coordinating the sequence of targeting events. Here, we demonstrate that cpSRP43 exhibits significant interdomain dynamics that are reduced upon binding its SRP binding partner, cpSRP54. We showed that the affinity of cpSRP43 for the binding motif of LHCP (L18) increases when cpSRP43 is complexed to the binding motif of cpSRP54 (cpSRP54pep). These results support the conclusion that substrate binding to the chloroplast SRP is modulated by protein structural dynamics in which a major role of cpSRP54 is to improve substrate binding efficiency to the cpSRP. PMID:25918165

  8. Substrate binding and formation of an occluded state in the leucine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Leyla; Schiøtt, Birgit; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2008-03-01

    Translocation through the extracellular vestibule and binding of leucine in the leucine transporter (LeuT) have been studied with molecular dynamics simulations. More than 0.1 mus of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on different combinations of LeuT, bound substrate, and bound structural Na(+) ions to describe molecular events involved in substrate binding and in the formation of the occluded state and to investigate the dynamics of this state. Three structural features are found to be directly involved in the initial steps of leucine transport: a Na(+) ion directly coordinated to leucine (Na-1), two aromatic residues closing the binding site toward the extracellular vestibule (Tyr-108 and Phe-253), and a salt bridge in the extracellular vestibule (Arg-30 and Asp-404). These features account for observed differences between simulations of LeuT with and without bound substrate and for a possible pathway for leucine binding and thereby formation of the occluded LeuT binding site.

  9. Construction of Plasmonic Core-Satellite Nanostructures on Substrates Based on DNA-Directed Self-Assembly as a Sensitive and Reproducible Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Li, He; Hou, Shengwei; Dong, Youqing; Pang, Guangsheng; Zhang, Yingwei

    2015-12-16

    We report the successful construction of plasmonic core-satellite nanostructured assemblies on two-dimensional substrates, based on a strategy of combining DNA-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) with the specific recognition ability toward target to enable satellite NPs to self-assemble around the core immobilized on substrates. A strongly coupled plasmonic resonance band was observed because of the close proximity between core and satellite NPs, which presented significant red-shift and enhanced extinction with respect to the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band of individual core NPs on the substrate. The functionality of this core-satellite nanostructured assembly as a biosensor was further explored, and the changes in extinction intensity and the peak shift of the plasmonic coupling resonance band arising from the probe-target DNA binding event all proved to be useful criteria for target DNA detection. Moreover, high selectivity down to single-base mismatched DNA was achieved using this strongly coupled plasmonic core-satellite nanostructured assembly on a substrate. Such substrate-based detection was advantageous, and its reusability and high cycle stability were demonstrated after five cycles of disassembly and reassembly. Our work demonstrates the biosensing capacity of this DNA-functionalized plasmonic nanoassembly model system on two-dimensional substrate, which is also applicable to the detection of numerous DNA-recognized biomolecules. Likewise, the presented construction method can be extended to fabricate other compositional core-satellite nanoassemblies.

  10. Entropic estimate of cooperative binding of substrate on a single oligomeric enzyme: An index of cooperativity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Kinshuk; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Here we have systematically studied the cooperative binding of substrate molecules on the active sites of a single oligomeric enzyme in a chemiostatic condition. The average number of bound substrate and the net velocity of the enzyme catalyzed reaction are studied by the formulation of stochastic master equation for the cooperative binding classified here as spatial and temporal. We have estimated the entropy production for the cooperative binding schemes based on single trajectory analysis using a kinetic Monte Carlo technique. It is found that the total as well as the medium entropy production show the same generic diagnostic signature for detecting the cooperativity, usually characterized in terms of the net velocity of the reaction. This feature is also found to be valid for the total entropy production rate at the nonequilibrium steady state. We have introduced an index of cooperativity, C, defined in terms of the ratio of the surprisals or equivalently, the stochastic system entropy associated with the...

  11. Phase Behavior of DNA in the Presence of DNA-Binding Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Treut, Guillaume; Képès, François; Orland, Henri

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the thermodynamical equilibrium of DNA chains interacting with a solution of nonspecific binding proteins, we implemented a Flory-Huggins free energy model. We explored the dependence on DNA and protein concentrations of the DNA collapse. For physiologically relevant values of the DNA-protein affinity, this collapse gives rise to a biphasic regime with a dense and a dilute phase; the corresponding phase diagram was computed. Using an approach based on Hamiltonian paths, we show that the dense phase has either a molten globule or a crystalline structure, depending on the DNA bending rigidity, which is influenced by the ionic strength. These results are valid at the thermodynamical equilibrium and therefore should be consistent with many biological processes, whose characteristic timescales range typically from 1 ms to 10 s. Our model may thus be applied to biological phenomena that involve DNA-binding proteins, such as DNA condensation with crystalline order, which occurs in some bacteria to protect their chromosome from detrimental factors; or transcription initiation, which occurs in clusters called transcription factories that are reminiscent of the dense phase characterized in this study.

  12. Differential Salt-Induced Dissociation of the p53 Protein Complexes with Circular and Linear Plasmid DNA Substrates Suggest Involvement of a Sliding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Šebest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of salt conditions on the association and dissociation of wild type p53 with different ~3 kbp long plasmid DNA substrates (supercoiled, relaxed circular and linear, containing or lacking a specific p53 binding site, p53CON using immunoprecipitation at magnetic beads is presented. Salt concentrations above 200 mM strongly affected association of the p53 protein to any plasmid DNA substrate. Strikingly different behavior was observed when dissociation of pre-formed p53-DNA complexes in increased salt concentrations was studied. While contribution from the p53CON to the stability of the p53-DNA complexes was detected between 100 and 170 mM KCl, p53 complexes with circular DNAs (but not linear exhibited considerable resistance towards salt treatment for KCl concentrations as high as 2 M provided that the p53 basic C-terminal DNA binding site (CTDBS was available for DNA binding. On the contrary, when the CTDBS was blocked by antibody used for immunoprecipitation, all p53-DNA complexes were completely dissociated from the p53 protein in KCl concentrations ≥200 mM under the same conditions. These observations suggest: (a different ways for association and dissociation of the p53-DNA complexes in the presence of the CTDBS; and (b a critical role for a sliding mechanism, mediated by the C-terminal domain, in the dissociation process.

  13. A Novel DNA Binding Mechanism for maf Basic Region-Leucine Zipper Factors Inferred from a MafA-DNA Complex Structure and Binding Specificities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xun; Guanga, Gerald P; Wan, Cheng; Rose, Robert B [Z; (W Elec.); (NCSU)

    2012-11-13

    MafA is a proto-oncoprotein and is critical for insulin gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. Maf proteins belong to the AP1 superfamily of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. Residues in the basic helix and an ancillary N-terminal domain, the Extended Homology Region (EHR), endow maf proteins with unique DNA binding properties: binding a 13 bp consensus site consisting of a core AP1 site (TGACTCA) flanked by TGC sequences and binding DNA stably as monomers. To further characterize maf DNA binding, we determined the structure of a MafA–DNA complex. MafA forms base-specific hydrogen bonds with the flanking G–5C–4 and central C0/G0 bases, but not with the core-TGA bases. However, in vitro binding studies utilizing a pulse–chase electrophoretic mobility shift assay protocol revealed that mutating either the core-TGA or flanking-TGC bases dramatically increases the binding off rate. Comparing the known maf structures, we propose that DNA binding specificity results from positioning the basic helix through unique phosphate contacts. The EHR does not contact DNA directly but stabilizes DNA binding by contacting the basic helix. Collectively, these results suggest a novel multistep DNA binding process involving a conformational change from contacting the core-TGA to contacting the flanking-TGC bases.

  14. A robust assay to measure DNA topology-dependent protein binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tamara R; Solà, Maria; Holt, Ian J; Neuman, Keir C

    2015-04-20

    DNA structure and topology pervasively influence aspects of DNA metabolism including replication, transcription and segregation. However, the effects of DNA topology on DNA-protein interactions have not been systematically explored due to limitations of standard affinity assays. We developed a method to measure protein binding affinity dependence on the topology (topological linking number) of supercoiled DNA. A defined range of DNA topoisomers at equilibrium with a DNA binding protein is separated into free and protein-bound DNA populations using standard nitrocellulose filter binding techniques. Electrophoretic separation and quantification of bound and free topoisomers combined with a simple normalization procedure provide the relative affinity of the protein for the DNA as a function of linking number. Employing this assay we measured topology-dependent DNA binding of a helicase, a type IB topoisomerase, a type IIA topoisomerase, a non-specific mitochondrial DNA binding protein and a type II restriction endonuclease. Most of the proteins preferentially bind negatively supercoiled DNA but the details of the topology-dependent affinity differ among proteins in ways that expose differences in their interactions with DNA. The topology-dependent binding assay provides a robust and easily implemented method to probe topological influences on DNA-protein interactions for a wide range of DNA binding proteins.

  15. Substrate and Substrate-Mimetic Chaperone Binding Sites in Human α-Galactosidase A Revealed by Affinity-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Adrian; Maeser, Stefan; Rawer, Stephan; Eggers, Frederike; Murphy, Mary; Bornheim, Jeff; Przybylski, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare metabolic disorder of a group of lysosomal storage diseases, caused by deficiency or reduced activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase. Human α-galactosidase A (hαGAL) hydrolyses the terminal α-galactosyl moiety from glycosphingolipids, predominantly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Enzyme deficiency leads to incomplete or blocked breakdown and progressive accumulation of Gb3, with detrimental effects on normal organ functions. FD is successfully treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with purified recombinant hαGAL. An emerging treatment strategy, pharmacologic chaperone therapy (PCT), employs small molecules that can increase and/or reconstitute the activity of lysosomal enzyme trafficking by stabilizing misfolded isoforms. One such chaperone, 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), is a structural galactose analogue currently validated in clinical trials. DGJ is an active-site-chaperone that binds at the same or similar location as galactose; however, the molecular determination of chaperone binding sites in lysosomal enzymes represents a considerable challenge. Here we report the identification of the galactose and DGJ binding sites in recombinant α-galactosidase through a new affinity-mass spectrometry-based approach that employs selective proteolytic digestion of the enzyme-galactose or -inhibitor complex. Binding site peptides identified by mass spectrometry, [39-49], [83-100], and [141-168], contain the essential ligand-contacting amino acids, in agreement with the known X-ray crystal structures. The inhibitory effect of DGJ on galactose recognition was directly characterized through competitive binding experiments and mass spectrometry. The methods successfully employed in this study should have high potential for the characterization of (mutated) enzyme-substrate and -chaperone interactions, and for identifying chaperones without inhibitory effects.

  16. Macromolecular crowding increases binding of DNA polymerase to DNA: an adaptive effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, S.B.; Harrison, B.

    1987-05-01

    Macromolecular crowding extends the range of ionic conditions supporting high DNA polymerase reaction rates. Reactions tested were nick translation and gap-filling by DNA polymerase I of E. coli, nuclease and polymerase activities of the large fragment of that polymerase, and polymerization by the T4 DNA polymerase. For all of these reactions, high concentrations of nonspecific polymers increased enzymatic activity under otherwise inhibitory conditions resulting from relatively high ionic strength. The primary mechanism of the polymer effect seems to be to increase the binding of polymerase to DNA. They suggest that this effect of protein-DNA complexes is only one example of a general metabolic buffering action of crowded solutions on a variety of macromolecular interactions.

  17. Prediction of Protein-DNA binding by Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuefan; Eisenberg, Moises; Korobka, Alex

    1997-08-01

    We present an analysis and prediction of protein-DNA binding specificity based on the hydrogen bonding between DNA, protein, and auxillary clusters of water molecules. Zif268, glucocorticoid receptor, λ-repressor mutant, HIN-recombinase, and tramtrack protein-DNA complexes are studied. Hydrogen bonds are approximated by the Lennard-Jones potential with a cutoff distance between the hydrogen and the acceptor atoms set to 3.2 Åand an angular component based on a dipole-dipole interaction. We use a three-stage docking algorithm: geometric hashing that matches pairs of hydrogen bonding sites; (2) least-squares minimization of pairwise distances to filter out insignificant matches; and (3) Monte Carlo stochastic search to minimize the energy of the system. More information can be obtained from our first paper on this subject [Y.Deng et all, J.Computational Chemistry (1995)]. Results show that the biologically correct base pair is selected preferentially when there are two or more strong hydrogen bonds (with LJ potential lower than -0.20) that bind it to the protein. Predicted sequences are less stable in the case of weaker bonding sites. In general the inclusion of water bridges does increase the number of base pairs for which correct specificity is predicted.

  18. The biotin repressor: thermodynamic coupling of corepressor binding, protein assembly, and sequence-specific DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streaker, Emily D; Gupta, Aditi; Beckett, Dorothy

    2002-12-03

    The Escherichia coli biotin repressor, an allosteric transcriptional regulator, is activated for binding to the biotin operator by the small molecule biotinyl-5'-AMP. Results of combined thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural studies of the protein have revealed that corepressor binding results in disorder to order transitions in the protein monomer that facilitate tighter dimerization. The enhanced stability of the dimer leads to stabilization of the resulting biotin repressor-biotin operator complex. It is not clear, however, that the allosteric response in the system is transmitted solely through the protein-protein interface. In this work, the allosteric mechanism has been quantitatively probed by measuring the biotin operator binding and dimerization properties of three biotin repressor species: the apo or unliganded form, the biotin-bound form, and the holo or bio-5'-AMP-bound form. Comparisons of the pairwise differences in the bioO binding and dimerization energetics for the apo and holo species reveal that the enhanced DNA binding energetics resulting from adenylate binding track closely with the enhanced assembly energetics. However, when the results for repressor pairs that include the biotin-bound species are compared, no such equivalence is observed.

  19. HTLV-1 Tax Protein Stimulation of DNA Binding of bZIP Proteins by Enhancing Dimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Susanne; Green, Michael R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tax protein of human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-I) transcriptionally activates the HTLV-I promoter. This activation requires binding sites for activating transcription factor (ATF) proteins, a family of cellular proteins that contain basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA binding domains. Data are presented showing that Tax increases the in vitro DNA binding activity of multiple ATF proteins. Tax also stimulated DNA binding by other bZIP proteins, but did not affect DNA binding proteins that lack a bZIP domain. The increase in DNA binding occurred because Tax promotes dimerization of the bZIP domain in the absence of DNA, and the elevated concentration of the bZIP homodimer then facilitates the DNA binding reaction. These results help explain how Tax activates viral transcription and transforms cells.

  20. BindUP: a web server for non-homology-based prediction of DNA and RNA binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Inbal; Kligun, Efrat; Bengad, Barak; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2016-07-08

    Gene expression is a multi-step process involving many layers of regulation. The main regulators of the pathway are DNA and RNA binding proteins. While over the years, a large number of DNA and RNA binding proteins have been identified and extensively studied, it is still expected that many other proteins, some with yet another known function, are awaiting to be discovered. Here we present a new web server, BindUP, freely accessible through the website http://bindup.technion.ac.il/, for predicting DNA and RNA binding proteins using a non-homology-based approach. Our method is based on the electrostatic features of the protein surface and other general properties of the protein. BindUP predicts nucleic acid binding function given the proteins three-dimensional structure or a structural model. Additionally, BindUP provides information on the largest electrostatic surface patches, visualized on the server. The server was tested on several datasets of DNA and RNA binding proteins, including proteins which do not possess DNA or RNA binding domains and have no similarity to known nucleic acid binding proteins, achieving very high accuracy. BindUP is applicable in either single or batch modes and can be applied for testing hundreds of proteins simultaneously in a highly efficient manner.

  1. Two molybdate/tungstate ABC transporters that interact very differently with their substrate binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigonsky, Elena; Ovcharenko, Elena; Lewinson, Oded

    2013-04-02

    In all kingdoms of life, ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters participate in many physiological and pathological processes. Despite the diversity of their functions, they have been considered to operate by a largely conserved mechanism. One deviant is the vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD that has been shown to operate by a distinct mechanism. However, it is unknown if this deviation is an exotic example, perhaps arising from the nature of the transported moiety. Here we compared two ABC importers of identical substrate specificity (molybdate/tungstate), and find that their interactions with their substrate binding proteins are utterly different. One system forms a high-affinity, slow-dissociating complex that is destabilized by nucleotide and substrate binding. The other forms a low-affinity, transient complex that is stabilized by ligands. The results highlight significant mechanistic divergence among ABC transporters, even when they share the same substrate specificity. We propose that these differences are correlated with the different folds of the transmembrane domains of ABC transporters.

  2. An Aromatic Cap Seals the Substrate Binding Site in an ECF-Type S Subunit for Riboflavin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpowich, Nathan K.; Song, Jinmei; Wang, Da-Neng

    2016-06-13

    ECF transporters are a family of active membrane transporters for essential micronutrients, such as vitamins and trace metals. Found exclusively in archaea and bacteria, these transporters are composed of four subunits: an integral membrane substrate-binding subunit (EcfS), a transmembrane coupling subunit (EcfT), and two ATP-binding cassette ATPases (EcfA and EcfA'). We have characterized the structural basis of substrate binding by the EcfS subunit for riboflavin from Thermotoga maritima, TmRibU. TmRibU binds riboflavin with high affinity, and the protein–substrate complex is exceptionally stable in solution. The crystal structure of riboflavin-bound TmRibU reveals an electronegative binding pocket at the extracellular surface in which the substrate is completely buried. Analysis of the intermolecular contacts indicates that nearly every available substrate hydrogen bond is satisfied. A conserved aromatic residue at the extracellular end of TM5, Tyr130, caps the binding site to generate a substrate-bound, occluded state, and non-conservative mutation of Tyr130 reduces the stability of this conformation. Using a novel fluorescence binding assay, we find that an aromatic residue at this position is essential for high-affinity substrate binding. Comparison with other S subunit structures suggests that TM5 and Loop5-6 contain a dynamic, conserved motif that plays a key role in gating substrate entry and release by S subunits of ECF transporters.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and DNA Binding Studies of Nanoplumbagin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheik Dawood Shahida Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional anticancer medicine plumbagin (PLN was prepared as nanostructured material (nanoplumbagin, NPn1 from its commercial counterparts, simultaneously coencapsulating with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or cyclodextrin as stabilizers using ultrasonication technique. Surface morphology of NPn analysed from atomic force microscopy (AFM indicates that NPn has tunable size between 75 nm and 100 nm with narrow particle size distribution. Its binding efficiency with herring sperm DNA was studied using spectral and electrochemical techniques and its efficiency was found to be more compared to the commercial microcrystalline plumbagin (PLN. DNA cleavage was also studied by gel electrophoresis. The observed results indicate that NPn1 has better solubility in aqueous medium and hence showed better bioavailability compared to its commercial counterparts.

  4. The substrate-binding protein imposes directionality on an electrochemical sodium gradient-driven TRAP transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Christopher; Geertsma, Eric R; Severi, Emmanuele; Kelly, David J; Poolman, Bert; Thomas, Gavin H

    2009-02-10

    Substrate-binding protein-dependent secondary transporters are widespread in prokaryotes and are represented most frequently by members of the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter family. Here, we report the membrane reconstitution of a TRAP transporter, the sialic acid-specific SiaPQM system from Haemophilus influenzae, and elucidate its mechanism of energy coupling. Uptake of sialic acid via membrane-reconstituted SiaQM depends on the presence of the sialic acid-binding protein, SiaP, and is driven by the electrochemical sodium gradient. The interaction between SiaP and SiaQM is specific as transport is not reconstituted using the orthologous sialic acid-binding protein VC1779. Importantly, the binding protein also confers directionality on the transporter, and reversal of sialic acid transport from import to export is only possible in the presence of an excess of unliganded SiaP.

  5. Novel approach for selecting the best predictor for identifying the binding sites in DNA binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R; Ahmad, Shandar; Gromiha, M Michael

    2013-09-01

    Protein-DNA complexes play vital roles in many cellular processes by the interactions of amino acids with DNA. Several computational methods have been developed for predicting the interacting residues in DNA-binding proteins using sequence and/or structural information. These methods showed different levels of accuracies, which may depend on the choice of data sets used in training, the feature sets selected for developing a predictive model, the ability of the models to capture information useful for prediction or a combination of these factors. In many cases, different methods are likely to produce similar results, whereas in others, the predictors may return contradictory predictions. In this situation, a priori estimates of prediction performance applicable to the system being investigated would be helpful for biologists to choose the best method for designing their experiments. In this work, we have constructed unbiased, stringent and diverse data sets for DNA-binding proteins based on various biologically relevant considerations: (i) seven structural classes, (ii) 86 folds, (iii) 106 superfamilies, (iv) 194 families, (v) 15 binding motifs, (vi) single/double-stranded DNA, (vii) DNA conformation (A, B, Z, etc.), (viii) three functions and (ix) disordered regions. These data sets were culled as non-redundant with sequence identities of 25 and 40% and used to evaluate the performance of 11 different methods in which online services or standalone programs are available. We observed that the best performing methods for each of the data sets showed significant biases toward the data sets selected for their benchmark. Our analysis revealed important data set features, which could be used to estimate these context-specific biases and hence suggest the best method to be used for a given problem. We have developed a web server, which considers these features on demand and displays the best method that the investigator should use. The web server is freely available at

  6. Recombinant human MDM2 oncoprotein shows sequence composition selectivity for binding to both RNA and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challen, Christine; Anderson, John J; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A; Lightowlers, Robert N; Lunec, John

    2012-03-01

    MDM2 is a 90 kDa nucleo-phosphoprotein that binds p53 and other proteins contributing to its oncogenic properties. Its structure includes an amino proximal p53 binding site, a central acidic domain and a carboxy region which incorporates Zinc and Ring Finger domains suggestive of nucleic acid binding or transcription factor function. It has previously been reported that a bacculovirus expressed MDM2 protein binds RNA in a sequence-specific manner through the Ring Finger domain, however, its ability to bind DNA has yet to be examined. We report here that a bacterially expressed human MDM2 protein binds both DNA as well as the previously defined RNA consensus sequence. DNA binding appears selective and involves the carboxy-terminal domain of the molecule. RNA binding is inhibited by an MDM2 specific antibody, which recognises an epitope within the carboxy region of the protein. Selection cloning and sequence analysis of MDM2 DNA binding sequences, unlike RNA binding sequences, revealed no obvious DNA binding consensus sequence, but preferential binding to oligopurine:pyrimidine-rich stretches. Our results suggest that the observed preferential DNA binding may occur through the Zinc Finger or in a charge-charge interaction through the Ring Finger, thereby implying potentially different mechanisms for DNA and RNA MDM2 binding.

  7. The Sso7d DNA-binding protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus has ribonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehi, E; Serina, S; Fumagalli, G; Vanoni, M; Consonni, R; Zetta, L; Dehò, G; Tortora, P; Fusi, P

    2001-05-25

    Sso7d is a small, basic, abundant protein from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Previous research has shown that Sso7d can bind double-stranded DNA without sequence specificity by placing its triple-stranded beta-sheet across the minor groove. We previously found RNase activity both in preparations of Sso7d purified from its natural source and in recombinant, purified protein expressed in Escherichia coli. This paper provides conclusive evidence that supports the assignment of RNase activity to Sso7d, shown by the total absence of activity in the single-point mutants E35L and K12L, despite the preservation of their overall structure under the assay conditions. In keeping with our observation that the residues putatively involved in RNase activity and those playing a role in DNA binding are located on different surfaces of the molecule, the activity was not impaired in the presence of DNA. If a small synthetic RNA was used as a substrate, Sso7d attacked both predicted double- and single-stranded RNA stretches, with no evident preference for specific sequences or individual bases. Apparently, the more readily attacked bonds were those intrinsically more unstable.

  8. General approach for engineering small-molecule-binding DNA split aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Alexandra D; Spiropulos, Nicholas G; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2013-10-15

    Here we report a general method for engineering three-way junction DNA aptamers into split aptamers. Split aptamers show significant potential for use as recognition elements in biosensing applications, but reliable methods for generating these sequences are currently lacking. We hypothesize that the three-way junction is a "privileged architecture" for the elaboration of aptamers into split aptamers, as it provides two potential splitting sites that are distal from the target binding pocket. We propose a general method for split aptamer engineering that involves removing one loop region, then systematically modifying the number of base pairs in the remaining stem regions in order to achieve selective assembly only in the presence of the target small molecule. We screen putative split aptamer sequence pairs using split aptamer proximity ligation (StAPL) technology developed by our laboratory, but we validate that the results obtained using StAPL translate directly to systems in which the aptamer fragments are assembling noncovalently. We introduce four new split aptamer sequences, which triples the number of small-molecule-binding DNA split aptamers reported to date, and the methods described herein provide a reliable route for the engineering of additional split aptamers, dramatically advancing the potential substrate scope of DNA assembly based biosensors.

  9. Localization of the Substrate-binding Site in the Homodimeric Mannitol Transporter, EIImtl, of Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opačić, Milena; Vos, Erwin P. P.; Hesp, Ben H.; Broos, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    The mannitol transporter from Escherichia coli, EIImtl, belongs to a class of membrane proteins coupling the transport of substrates with their chemical modification. EIImtl is functional as a homodimer, and it harbors one high affinity mannitol-binding site in the membrane-embedded C domain (IICmtl). To localize this binding site, 19 single Trp-containing mutants of EIImtl were biosynthetically labeled with 5-fluorotryptophan (5-FTrp) and mixed with azi-mannitol, a substrate analog acting as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor. Typically, for mutants showing FRET, only one 5-FTrp was involved, whereas the 5-FTrp from the other monomer was too distant. This proves that the mannitol-binding site is asymmetrically positioned in dimeric IICmtl. Combined with the available two-dimensional projection maps of IICmtl, it is concluded that a second resting binding site is present in this transporter. Active transport of mannitol only takes place when EIImtl becomes phosphorylated at Cys384 in the cytoplasmic B domain. Stably phosphorylated EIImtl mutants were constructed, and FRET experiments showed that the position of mannitol in IICmtl remains the same. We conclude that during the transport cycle, the phosphorylated B domain has to move to the mannitol-binding site, located in the middle of the membrane, to phosphorylate mannitol. PMID:20522557

  10. Localization of the substrate-binding site in the homodimeric mannitol transporter, EIImtl, of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opacić, Milena; Vos, Erwin P P; Hesp, Ben H; Broos, Jaap

    2010-08-13

    The mannitol transporter from Escherichia coli, EII(mtl), belongs to a class of membrane proteins coupling the transport of substrates with their chemical modification. EII(mtl) is functional as a homodimer, and it harbors one high affinity mannitol-binding site in the membrane-embedded C domain (IIC(mtl)). To localize this binding site, 19 single Trp-containing mutants of EII(mtl) were biosynthetically labeled with 5-fluorotryptophan (5-FTrp) and mixed with azi-mannitol, a substrate analog acting as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor. Typically, for mutants showing FRET, only one 5-FTrp was involved, whereas the 5-FTrp from the other monomer was too distant. This proves that the mannitol-binding site is asymmetrically positioned in dimeric IIC(mtl). Combined with the available two-dimensional projection maps of IIC(mtl), it is concluded that a second resting binding site is present in this transporter. Active transport of mannitol only takes place when EII(mtl) becomes phosphorylated at Cys(384) in the cytoplasmic B domain. Stably phosphorylated EII(mtl) mutants were constructed, and FRET experiments showed that the position of mannitol in IIC(mtl) remains the same. We conclude that during the transport cycle, the phosphorylated B domain has to move to the mannitol-binding site, located in the middle of the membrane, to phosphorylate mannitol.

  11. Nonconsensus Protein Binding to Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Significantly Affects Eukaryotic Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, Ariel; Cohen, Hila; Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Gordân, Raluca; Lukatsky, David B

    2015-08-01

    Recent genome-wide experiments in different eukaryotic genomes provide an unprecedented view of transcription factor (TF) binding locations and of nucleosome occupancy. These experiments revealed that a large fraction of TF binding events occur in regions where only a small number of specific TF binding sites (TFBSs) have been detected. Furthermore, in vitro protein-DNA binding measurements performed for hundreds of TFs indicate that TFs are bound with wide range of affinities to different DNA sequences that lack known consensus motifs. These observations have thus challenged the classical picture of specific protein-DNA binding and strongly suggest the existence of additional recognition mechanisms that affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We have previously demonstrated that repetitive DNA sequence elements characterized by certain symmetries statistically affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We call this binding mechanism nonconsensus protein-DNA binding in order to emphasize the point that specific consensus TFBSs do not contribute to this effect. In this paper, using the simple statistical mechanics model developed previously, we calculate the nonconsensus protein-DNA binding free energy for the entire C. elegans and D. melanogaster genomes. Using the available chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) results on TF-DNA binding preferences for ~100 TFs, we show that DNA sequences characterized by low predicted free energy of nonconsensus binding have statistically higher experimental TF occupancy and lower nucleosome occupancy than sequences characterized by high free energy of nonconsensus binding. This is in agreement with our previous analysis performed for the yeast genome. We suggest therefore that nonconsensus protein-DNA binding assists the formation of nucleosome-free regions, as TFs outcompete nucleosomes at genomic locations with enhanced nonconsensus binding. In addition, here we perform a new, large-scale analysis using

  12. Nonconsensus Protein Binding to Repetitive DNA Sequence Elements Significantly Affects Eukaryotic Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Afek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide experiments in different eukaryotic genomes provide an unprecedented view of transcription factor (TF binding locations and of nucleosome occupancy. These experiments revealed that a large fraction of TF binding events occur in regions where only a small number of specific TF binding sites (TFBSs have been detected. Furthermore, in vitro protein-DNA binding measurements performed for hundreds of TFs indicate that TFs are bound with wide range of affinities to different DNA sequences that lack known consensus motifs. These observations have thus challenged the classical picture of specific protein-DNA binding and strongly suggest the existence of additional recognition mechanisms that affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We have previously demonstrated that repetitive DNA sequence elements characterized by certain symmetries statistically affect protein-DNA binding preferences. We call this binding mechanism nonconsensus protein-DNA binding in order to emphasize the point that specific consensus TFBSs do not contribute to this effect. In this paper, using the simple statistical mechanics model developed previously, we calculate the nonconsensus protein-DNA binding free energy for the entire C. elegans and D. melanogaster genomes. Using the available chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq results on TF-DNA binding preferences for ~100 TFs, we show that DNA sequences characterized by low predicted free energy of nonconsensus binding have statistically higher experimental TF occupancy and lower nucleosome occupancy than sequences characterized by high free energy of nonconsensus binding. This is in agreement with our previous analysis performed for the yeast genome. We suggest therefore that nonconsensus protein-DNA binding assists the formation of nucleosome-free regions, as TFs outcompete nucleosomes at genomic locations with enhanced nonconsensus binding. In addition, here we perform a new, large

  13. Template-primer analogs as substrates for DNA polymerase.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain more understanding about the mode of action of DNA polymerase, eight related partially self-complementary "hairpin" shaped oligodeoxynucleotides were prepared. Four of the oligomers contained either 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (ara-U) or 1-beta-D-2'deoxyxylofuranosylthymine (dxT) nucleoside analogs at their 3' termini. We investigated the ability of the oligomers to prime DNA synthesis in relationship to the stability of the hybridized region, the nature of the sugar term...

  14. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  15. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  16. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  17. Statistical analysis of structural determinants for protein-DNA-binding specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Rosario I; Guo, Jun-Tao

    2016-08-01

    DNA-binding proteins play critical roles in biological processes including gene expression, DNA packaging and DNA repair. They bind to DNA target sequences with different degrees of binding specificity, ranging from highly specific (HS) to nonspecific (NS). Alterations of DNA-binding specificity, due to either genetic variation or somatic mutations, can lead to various diseases. In this study, a comparative analysis of protein-DNA complex structures was carried out to investigate the structural features that contribute to binding specificity. Protein-DNA complexes were grouped into three general classes based on degrees of binding specificity: HS, multispecific (MS), and NS. Our results show a clear trend of structural features among the three classes, including amino acid binding propensities, simple and complex hydrogen bonds, major/minor groove and base contacts, and DNA shape. We found that aspartate is enriched in HS DNA binding proteins and predominately binds to a cytosine through a single hydrogen bond or two consecutive cytosines through bidentate hydrogen bonds. Aromatic residues, histidine and tyrosine, are highly enriched in the HS and MS groups and may contribute to specific binding through different mechanisms. To further investigate the role of protein flexibility in specific protein-DNA recognition, we analyzed the conformational changes between the bound and unbound states of DNA-binding proteins and structural variations. The results indicate that HS and MS DNA-binding domains have larger conformational changes upon DNA-binding and larger degree of flexibility in both bound and unbound states. Proteins 2016; 84:1147-1161. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Interaction of zinc and cobalt with dipeptides and their DNA binding studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Rabindra Reddy; M Radhika; K Srinivas Rao

    2004-06-01

    Interactions of zinc and cobalt with peptides cysteinylglycine and histidylglycine have been studied. The binding modes were identified and geometry assigned. Stabilities of these complexes and their ability to bind DNA have been investigated. It is demonstrated that only zinc complexes bind DNA as compared to cobalt complexes.

  19. The impact of DNA intercalators on DNA and DNA-processing enzymes elucidated through force-dependent binding kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebricher, Andreas S.; Heller, Iddo; Roijmans, Roel F. H.; Hoekstra, Tjalle P.; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA intercalators are widely used as fluorescent probes to visualize DNA and DNA transactions in vivo and in vitro. It is well known that they perturb DNA structure and stability, which can in turn influence DNA-processing by proteins. Here we elucidate this perturbation by combining single-dye fluorescence microscopy with force spectroscopy and measuring the kinetics of DNA intercalation by the mono- and bis-intercalating cyanine dyes SYTOX Orange, SYTOX Green, SYBR Gold, YO-PRO-1, YOYO-1 and POPO-3. We show that their DNA-binding affinity is mainly governed by a strongly tension-dependent dissociation rate. These rates can be tuned over a range of seven orders of magnitude by changing DNA tension, intercalating species and ionic strength. We show that optimizing these rates minimizes the impact of intercalators on strand separation and enzymatic activity. These new insights provide handles for the improved use of intercalators as DNA probes with minimal perturbation and maximal efficacy. PMID:26084388

  20. Spectroscopic and equilibrium studies of ligand and organic substrate binding to indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sono, M

    1990-02-13

    The binding of a number of ligands to the heme protein indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase has been examined with UV-visible absorption and with natural and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Relatively large ligands (e.g., norharman) which do not readily form complexes with myoglobin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) can bind to the dioxygenase. Except for only a few cases (e.g., 4-phenylimidazole) for the ferric dioxygenase, a direct competition for the enzyme rarely occurs between the substrate L-tryptophan (Trp) and the ligands examined. L-Trp and small heme ligands (CN-,N3-,F-) markedly enhance the affinity of each other for the ferric enzyme in a reciprocal manner, exhibiting positive cooperativity. For the ferrous enzyme, L-Trp exerts negative cooperativity with some ligands such as imidazoles, alkyl isocyanides, and CO binding to the enzyme. This likely reflects the proximity of the Trp binding site to the heme iron. Other indolamine substrates also exert similar but smaller cooperative effects on the binding of azide or ethyl isocyanide. The pH dependence of the ligand affinity of the dioxygenase is similar to that of myoglobin rather than that of HRP. These results suggest that indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase has the active-site heme pocket whose environmental structure is similar to, but whose size is considerably larger than, that of myoglobin, a typical O2-binding heme protein. Although the L-Trp affinity of the ferric cyanide and ferrous CO enzyme varies only slightly between pH 5.5 and 9.5, the unligated ferric and ferrous enzymes have considerably higher affinity for L-Trp at alkaline pH than at acidic pH. L-Trp binding to the ferrous dioxygenase is affected by an ionizable residue with a pKa value of 7.3.

  1. Catalytic pathway, substrate binding and stability in SAICAR synthetase: A structure and molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Kavyashree; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2015-07-01

    The de novo purine biosynthesis is one of the highly conserved pathways among all organisms and is essential for the cell viability. A clear understanding of the enzymes in this pathway would pave way for the development of antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide (SAICAR) synthetase is one of the enzymes in this pathway that catalyzes ATP dependent ligation of carboxyaminoimidazole ribotide (CAIR) with l-aspartate (ASP). Here, we describe eight crystal structures of this enzyme, in C2221 and H3 space groups, bound to various substrates and substrate mimics from a hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii along with molecular dynamics simulations of the structures with substrates. Complexes exhibit minimal deviation from its apo structure. The CAIR binding site displays a preference for pyrimidine nucleotides. In the ADP·TMP·ASP complex, the ASP binds at a position equivalent to that found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae structure (PDB: 2CNU) and thus, clears the ambiguity regarding ASP's position. A possible mode for the inhibition of the enzyme by CTP and UTP, observed earlier in the yeast enzyme, is clearly illustrated in the structures bound to CMP and UMP. The ADP.Mg(2+)·PO4·CD/MP complex having a phosphate ion between the ATP and CAIR sites strengthens one of the two probable pathways (proposed in Escherichia coli study) of catalytic mechanism and suggests the possibility of a phosphorylation taking place before the ASP's attack on CAIR. Molecular dynamic simulations of this enzyme along with its substrates at 90°C reveal the relative strengths of substrate binding, possible antagonism and the role of Mg(2+) ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Substrate Hydrophobicity/Hydrophilicity on Height Measurement of Individual DNA Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua-Bin; ZHOU Xing-Fei; AN Hong-Jie; GUO Yun-Chang; SUN Jie-Lin; ZHANG Yi; HU Jun

    2007-01-01

    Effects of substrate hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity on height measurement of individual ds-DNA molecules are investigated with tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) and vibrating mode scanning polarization force microscopy (VSPFM). The measured heights of ds-DNA on hydrophobic highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are remarkably less than those on hydrophilic bare mica and Ni2+ treated mica in both TMAFM and VSPFM. By analysing the results, we propose that the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of substrate can greatly influence the height measurement of DNA molecules.

  3. ncDNA and drift drive binding site accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruths Troy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of transcription factor binding sites (TFBS in an organism’s genome positively correlates with the complexity of the regulatory network of the organism. However, the manner by which TFBS arise and accumulate in genomes and the effects of regulatory network complexity on the organism’s fitness are far from being known. The availability of TFBS data from many organisms provides an opportunity to explore these issues, particularly from an evolutionary perspective. Results We analyzed TFBS data from five model organisms – E. coli K12, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, A. thaliana – and found a positive correlation between the amount of non-coding DNA (ncDNA in the organism’s genome and regulatory complexity. Based on this finding, we hypothesize that the amount of ncDNA, combined with the population size, can explain the patterns of regulatory complexity across organisms. To test this hypothesis, we devised a genome-based regulatory pathway model and subjected it to the forces of evolution through population genetic simulations. The results support our hypothesis, showing neutral evolutionary forces alone can explain TFBS patterns, and that selection on the regulatory network function does not alter this finding. Conclusions The cis-regulome is not a clean functional network crafted by adaptive forces alone, but instead a data source filled with the noise of non-adaptive forces. From a regulatory perspective, this evolutionary noise manifests as complexity on both the binding site and pathway level, which has significant implications on many directions in microbiology, genetics, and synthetic biology.

  4. Structure of a lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase suggests how conformational changes govern substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, Anandhi; Evans, Genevieve L; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; O'Mara, Megan L; John, Constance M; Phillips, Nancy J; Jarvis, Gary A; Wills, Siobhan S; Stubbs, Keith A; Moraes, Isabel; Kahler, Charlene M; Vrielink, Alice

    2017-02-28

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria have increased the prevalence of fatal sepsis in modern times. Colistin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) antibiotic that permeabilizes the bacterial outer membrane (OM) and has been used to treat these infections. The OM outer leaflet is comprised of endotoxin containing lipid A, which can be modified to increase resistance to CAMPs and prevent clearance by the innate immune response. One type of lipid A modification involves the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the 1 and 4' headgroup positions by phosphoethanolamine transferases. Previous structural work on a truncated form of this enzyme suggested that the full-length protein was required for correct lipid substrate binding and catalysis. We now report the crystal structure of a full-length lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase from Neisseria meningitidis, determined to 2.75-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously uncharacterized helical membrane domain and a periplasmic facing soluble domain. The domains are linked by a helix that runs along the membrane surface interacting with the phospholipid head groups. Two helices located in a periplasmic loop between two transmembrane helices contain conserved charged residues and are implicated in substrate binding. Intrinsic fluorescence, limited proteolysis, and molecular dynamics studies suggest the protein may sample different conformational states to enable the binding of two very different- sized lipid substrates. These results provide insights into the mechanism of endotoxin modification and will aid a structure-guided rational drug design approach to treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

  5. Substrate and Transition State Binding in Alkaline Phosphatase Analyzed by Computation of Oxygen Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roston, Daniel; Cui, Qiang

    2016-09-14

    Enzymes are powerful catalysts, and a thorough understanding of the sources of their catalytic power will facilitate many medical and industrial applications. Here we have studied the catalytic mechanism of alkaline phosphatase (AP), which is one of the most catalytically proficient enzymes known. We have used quantum mechanics calculations and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations to model a variety of isotope effects relevant to the reaction of AP. We have calculated equilibrium isotope effects (EIEs), binding isotope effects (BIEs), and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for a range of phosphate mono- and diester substrates. The results agree well with experimental values, but the model for the reaction's transition state (TS) differs from the original interpretation of those experiments. Our model indicates that isotope effects on binding make important contributions to measured KIEs on V/K, which complicated interpretation of the measured values. Our results provide a detailed interpretation of the measured isotope effects and make predictions that can test the proposed model. The model indicates that the substrate is deformed in the ground state (GS) of the reaction and partially resembles the TS. The highly preorganized active site preferentially binds conformations that resemble the TS and not the GS, which induces the substrate to adapt to the enzyme, rather than the other way around-as with classic "induced fit" models. The preferential stabilization of the TS over the GS is what lowers the barrier to the chemical step.

  6. Endonuclease-based Method for Detecting the Sequence Specific DNA Binding Protein on Double-stranded DNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Fei BAI; Qin Yu GE; Tong Xiang LI; Jin Ke WANG; Quan Jun LIU; Zu Hong LU

    2005-01-01

    The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) probe contains two different protein binding sites.One is for DNA- binding proteins to be detected and the other is for a DNA restriction enzyme.The two sites were arranged together with no base interval. The working principle of the capturing dsDNA probe is described as follows: the capturing probe can be cut with the DNA restriction enzyme (such as EcoR I) to cause a sticky terminal, if the probe is not bound with a target protein, and the sticky terminal can be extended and labeled with Cy3-dUTP by DNA polymerase. When the probe is bound with a target protein, the probe is not capable to be cut by the restriction enzyme because of space obstruction. The amount of the target DNA binding proteins can be measured according to the variations of fluorescent signals of the corresponding probes.

  7. Strategy to target the substrate binding site of SET domain protein methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kong T; Li, Fengling; Poda, Gennadiy; Smil, David; Vedadi, Masoud; Schapira, Matthieu

    2013-03-25

    Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) are a novel gene family of therapeutic relevance involved in chromatin-mediated signaling and other biological mechanisms. Most PMTs are organized around the structurally conserved SET domain that catalyzes the methylation of a substrate lysine. A few potent chemical inhibitors compete with the protein substrate, and all are anchored in the channel recruiting the methyl-accepting lysine. We propose a novel strategy to design focused chemical libraries targeting the substrate binding site, where a limited number of warheads each occupying the lysine-channel of multiple enzymes would be decorated by different substituents. A variety of sequence and structure-based approaches used to analyze the diversity of the lysine channel of SET domain PMTs support the relevance of this strategy. We show that chemical fragments derived from published inhibitors are valid warheads that can be used in the design of novel focused libraries targeting other PMTs.

  8. Dielectric constant of graphene-on-polarized substrate: A tight-binding model study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIVABRATA SAHU; S K S PARASHAR; G C ROUT

    2017-07-01

    We report here a microscopic tight-binding theoretical study of the dynamic dielectric response of graphene-on-polarizable substrate with impurity. The Hamiltonian consists of first, second and third nearest neighbour electron hopping interactions besides doping and substrate-induced effects on graphene. We have introduced electron–electron correlation effect at A and B sublattices of graphene which is considered within Hartree–Fock mean-field approximation. The electron occupancies at both sublattices are calculated and solvedself-consistently and numerically for both up- and down-spin orientations. The polarization function appearing in the dielectric function is a two-particle Green’s function which is calculated by using Zubarev’s Green’s function technique. The temperature and optical frequency-dependent dielectric function is evaluated and compared with experimental data by varying Coulomb correlation energy, substrate-induced gap and impurity concentrations.

  9. Endonuclease-rolling circle amplification-based method for sensitive analysis of DNA-binding protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li Li; Dong Rui Zhou; Hong Zhao; Jin Ke Wang; Zu Hong Lu

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive approach for the qualitative detection of DNA-binding protein on the microarray was developed. DNA complexes in which a partial duplex region is formed from a biotin-primer and a circle single strand DNA (ssDNA) were spotted on a microarray. The endonuclease recognition site (ERS) and the DNA-binding sites (DBS) were arranged side by side within the duplex region. The working principle of the detection system is described as follows: when the DNA-binding protein capture the DBS, the endonuclease could not attach to the ERS, and the immobilized primer in the DNA complex could be extended along the circle ssDNA by rolling circle amplification (RCA). When no protein protects the DBS, the ERS could be attacked by the endonuclease and subsequently no rolling circle amplification occurs. Thereby we can detect the sequence specific DNA-binding activity with high-sensitivity due to the signal amplification of RCA.

  10. Alkane-induced expression, substrate binding profile, and immunolocalization of a cytochrome P450 encoded on the nifD excision element of Anabaena 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjetland Conrad R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alkanes have been hypothesized to act as universal inducers of bacterial cytochrome P450 gene expression. We tested this hypothesis on an unusual P450 gene (cyp110 found on a conserved 11 kilobase episomal DNA element of unknown function found in filamentous cyanobacteria. We also monitored the binding of potential substrates to the P450 protein and explored the distribution of P450 protein in vegetative cells and nitrogen-fixing heterocysts using immuno-electron microscopy. Results Hexadecane treatments resulted in a two-fold increase in mRNA, and a four-fold increase in P450 protein levels relative to control cultures. Hexane, octane and dodecane were toxic and induced substantial changes in membrane morphology. Long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were shown to bind the CYP110 protein using a spectroscopic spin-shift assay, but alkanes did not bind. CYP110 protein was detected in vegetative cells but not in differentiated heterocysts where nitrogen fixation occurs. Conclusion Hexadecane treatment was an effective inducer of CYP110 expression in cyanobacteria. Based on substrate binding profiles and amino acid sequence similarities it is hypothesized that CYP110 is a fatty acid ω-hydroxylase in photosynthetic cells. CYP110 was found associated with membrane fractions unlike other soluble microbial P450 proteins, and in this regard CYP110 more closely resembles eukarytotic P450s. Substrate stablization is an unlikely mechanism for alkane induction because alkanes did not bind to purified CYP110 protein.

  11. Structure, mechanics, and binding mode heterogeneity of LEDGF/p75-DNA nucleoprotein complexes revealed by scanning force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Willem; Lipfert, Jan; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Debyser, Zeger; de Feyter, Steven

    2014-04-01

    plasmid DNA substrates I-IV in the absence of LEDGF/p75; proof-of-principle of bend angle determination on supercoiled plasmid DNA-EcoRV binding to cognate and non-cognate sites in pBR322 plasmid DNA. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00022f

  12. Systematic study for DNA recovery and profiling from common IED substrates: From laboratory to casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetpeng, Sukanya; Kitpipit, Thitika; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

    2015-07-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) made from household items are encountered in terrorist attacks worldwide. Assembling an IED leaves trace DNA on its components, but deflagration degrades DNA. To maximize the amount of DNA recovered, a systematic evaluation of DNA collection methods was carried out and the most efficient methods were implemented with IED casework evidence as a validation exercise. Six swab types and six moistening agents were used to collect dried buffy coat stains on four common IED substrates. The most efficient swab/moistening agent combinations were then compared with tape-lifting using three brands of adhesive tape and also with direct DNA extraction from evidence. The most efficient collection methods for different IED substrates (post-study protocol) were then implemented for IED casework and compared with the pre-study protocol using 195 pieces of IED evidence. There was no single best swab type or moistening agent. Swab type had the largest effect on DNA recovery percentages, but moistening agents, substrates, and the interactions between factors all affected DNA recovery. The most efficient swab/moistening agent combinations performed equally well when compared with the best adhesive tape and direct extraction. The post-study protocol significantly improved STR profiles obtained from IED evidence. This paper outlines a comprehensive study of DNA collection methods for trace DNA and the validation of the most efficient collection methods with IED evidence. The findings from both parts of this study emphasize the need to continuously re-evaluate standard operating protocols with empirical studies.

  13. Dihedral angle preferences of DNA and RNA binding amino acid residues in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuraj, Karthe; Saravanan, Konda Mani

    2017-04-01

    A protein can interact with DNA or RNA molecules to perform various cellular processes. Identifying or analyzing DNA/RNA binding site amino acid residues is important to understand molecular recognition process. It is quite possible to accurately model DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues in experimental protein-DNA/RNA complex by using the electron density map whereas, locating/modeling the binding site amino acid residues in the predicted three dimensional structures of DNA/RNA binding proteins is still a difficult task. Considering the above facts, in the present work, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of dihedral angle preferences of DNA and RNA binding site amino acid residues by using a classical Ramachandran map. We have computed backbone dihedral angles of non-DNA/RNA binding residues and used as control dataset to make a comparative study. The dihedral angle preference of DNA and RNA binding site residues of twenty amino acid type is presented. Our analysis clearly revealed that the dihedral angles (φ, ψ) of DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues prefer to occupy (-89° to -60°, -59° to -30°) bins. The results presented in this paper will help to model/locate DNA/RNA binding amino acid residues with better accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutational analysis of an archaeal minichromosome maintenance protein exterior hairpin reveals critical residues for helicase activity and DNA binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster Aaron S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mini-chromosome maintenance protein (MCM complex is an essential replicative helicase for DNA replication in Archaea and Eukaryotes. While the eukaryotic complex consists of six homologous proteins (MCM2-7, the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has only one MCM protein (ssoMCM, six subunits of which form a homohexamer. We have recently reported a 4.35Å crystal structure of the near full-length ssoMCM. The structure reveals a total of four β-hairpins per subunit, three of which are located within the main channel or side channels of the ssoMCM hexamer model generated based on the symmetry of the N-terminal Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (mtMCM structure. The fourth β-hairpin, however, is located on the exterior of the hexamer, near the exit of the putative side channels and next to the ATP binding pocket. Results In order to better understand this hairpin's role in DNA binding and helicase activity, we performed a detailed mutational and biochemical analysis of nine residues on this exterior β-hairpin (EXT-hp. We examined the activities of the mutants related to their helicase function, including hexamerization, ATPase, DNA binding and helicase activities. The assays showed that some of the residues on this EXT-hp play a role for DNA binding as well as for helicase activity. Conclusions These results implicate several current theories regarding helicase activity by this critical hexameric enzyme. As the data suggest that EXT-hp is involved in DNA binding, the results reported here imply that the EXT-hp located near the exterior exit of the side channels may play a role in contacting DNA substrate in a manner that affects DNA unwinding.

  15. Inhibition of RNA Polymerase II Transcription in Human Cells by Synthetic DNA-Binding Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Liliane A.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Trauger, John W.; Baird, Eldon E.; Mosier, Donald E.; Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    1998-10-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-binding small molecules that can permeate human cells potentially could regulate transcription of specific genes. Multiple cellular DNA-binding transcription factors are required by HIV type 1 for RNA synthesis. Two pyrrole--imidazole polyamides were designed to bind DNA sequences immediately adjacent to binding sites for the transcription factors Ets-1, lymphoid-enhancer binding factor 1, and TATA-box binding protein. These synthetic ligands specifically inhibit DNA-binding of each transcription factor and HIV type 1 transcription in cell-free assays. When used in combination, the polyamides inhibit virus replication by >99% in isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no detectable cell toxicity. The ability of small molecules to target predetermined DNA sequences located with RNA polymerase II promoters suggests a general approach for regulation of gene expression, as well as a mechanism for the inhibition of viral replication.

  16. Probing substrate binding to Metallo-β-Lactamase L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by using site-directed mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yates Robert B

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metallo-β-lactamases are Zn(II-containing enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam bond in penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems and are involved in bacterial antibiotic resistance. There are at least 20 distinct organisms that produce a metallo-β-lactamase, and these enzymes have been extensively studied using X-ray crystallographic, computational, kinetic, and inhibition studies; however, much is still unknown about how substrates bind and the catalytic mechanism. In an effort to probe substrate binding to metallo-β-lactamase L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, nine site-directed mutants of L1 were prepared and characterized using metal analyses, CD spectroscopy, and pre-steady state and steady state kinetics. Results Site-directed mutations were generated of amino acids previously predicted to be important in substrate binding. Steady-state kinetic studies using the mutant enzymes and 9 different substrates demonstrated varying Km and kcat values for the different enzymes and substrates and that no direct correlation between Km and the effect of the mutation on substrate binding could be drawn. Stopped-flow fluorescence studies using nitrocefin as the substrate showed that only the S224D and Y228A mutants exhibited weaker nitrocefin binding. Conclusions The data presented herein indicate that Ser224, Ile164, Phe158, Tyr228, and Asn233 are not essential for tight binding of substrate to metallo-β-lactamase L1. The results in this work also show that Km values are not reliable for showing substrate binding, and there is no correlation between substrate binding and the amount of reaction intermediate formed during the reaction. This work represents the first experimental testing of one of the computational models of the metallo-β-lactamases.

  17. Characterization of How DNA Modifications Affect DNA Binding by C2H2 Zinc Finger Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Zhang, X.; Cheng, X.

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about vertebrate DNA methylation and oxidation; however, much less is known about how modified cytosine residues within particular sequences are recognized. Among the known methylated DNA-binding domains, the Cys2-His2 zinc finger (ZnF) protein superfamily is the largest with hundreds of members, each containing tandem ZnFs ranging from 3 to >30 fingers. We have begun to biochemically and structurally characterize these ZnFs not only on their sequence specificity but also on their sensitivity to various DNA modifications. Rather than following published methods of refolding insoluble ZnF arrays, we have expressed and purified soluble forms of ZnFs, ranging in size from a tandem array of two to six ZnFs, from seven different proteins. We also describe a fluorescence polarization assay to measure ZnFs affinity with oligonucleotides containing various modifications and our approaches for cocrystallization of ZnFs with oligonucleotides. PMID:27372763

  18. Crystal structures of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 enzyme reveal conformational changes and substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Yuko; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K

    2013-11-01

    The β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 (β4GalT7) enzyme is involved in proteoglycan synthesis. In the presence of a manganese ion, it transfers galactose from UDP-galactose to xylose on a proteoglycan acceptor substrate. We present here the crystal structures of human β4GalT7 in open and closed conformations. A comparison of these crystal structures shows that, upon manganese and UDP or UDP-Gal binding, the enzyme undergoes conformational changes involving a small and a long loop. We also present the crystal structures of Drosophila wild-type β4GalT7 and D211N β4GalT7 mutant enzymes in the closed conformation in the presence of the acceptor substrate xylobiose and the donor substrate UDP-Gal, respectively. To understand the catalytic mechanism, we have crystallized the ternary complex of D211N β4GalT7 mutant enzyme in the presence of manganese with the donor and the acceptor substrates together in the same crystal structure. The galactose moiety of the bound UDP-Gal molecule forms seven hydrogen bonds with the protein molecule. The nonreducing end of the xylose moiety of xylobiose binds to the hydrophobic acceptor sugar binding pocket created by the conformational changes, whereas its extended xylose moiety forms hydrophobic interactions with a Tyr residue. In the ternary complex crystal structure, the nucleophile O4 oxygen atom of the xylose molecule is found in close proximity to the C1 and O5 atoms of the galactose moiety. This is the first time that a Michaelis complex of a glycosyltransferase has been described, and it clearly suggests an SN2 type catalytic mechanism for the β4GalT7 enzyme.

  19. ProteDNA: a sequence-based predictor of sequence-specific DNA-binding residues in transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wen-Yi; Huang, Yu-Feng; Huang, Chun-Chin; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Kang; Oyang, Yen-Jen

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the design of a sequence-based predictor named ProteDNA for identifying the sequence-specific binding residues in a transcription factor (TF). Concerning protein-DNA interactions, there are two types of binding mechanisms involved, namely sequence-specific binding and nonspecific binding. Sequence-specific bindings occur between protein sidechains and nucleotide bases and correspond to sequence-specific recognition of genes. Therefore, sequence-specific bindings are essential for correct gene regulation. In this respect, ProteDNA is distinctive since it has been designed to identify sequence-specific binding residues. In order to accommodate users with different application needs, ProteDNA has been designed to operate under two modes, namely, the high-precision mode and the balanced mode. According to the experiments reported in this article, under the high-precision mode, ProteDNA has been able to deliver precision of 82.3%, specificity of 99.3%, sensitivity of 49.8% and accuracy of 96.5%. Meanwhile, under the balanced mode, ProteDNA has been able to deliver precision of 60.8%, specificity of 97.6%, sensitivity of 60.7% and accuracy of 95.4%. ProteDNA is available at the following websites: http://protedna.csbb.ntu.edu.tw/, http://protedna.csie.ntu.edu.tw/, http://bio222.esoe.ntu.edu.tw/ProteDNA/.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Bridged Nucleosides on Thermus aquaticus DNA Polymerase and Insight into the Binding Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Kun Kim

    Full Text Available Modified nucleosides have the potential to inhibit DNA polymerases for the treatment of viral infections and cancer. With the hope of developing potent drug candidates by the modification of the 2',4'-position of the ribose with the inclusion of a bridge, efforts were focused on the inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase using quantitative real time PCR, and the results revealed the significant inhibitory effects of 2',4'-bridged thymidine nucleoside on the polymerase. Study on the mode of inhibition revealed the competitive mechanism with which the 2',4'-bridged thymidine operates. With a Ki value of 9.7 ± 1.1 μM, the 2',4'-bridged thymidine proved to be a very promising inhibitor. Additionally, docking analysis showed that all the nucleosides including 2',4'-bridged thymidine were able to dock in the active site, indicating that the substrate analogs reflect a structural complementarity to the enzyme active site. The analysis also provided evidence that Asp610 was a key binding site for 2',4'-bridged thymidine. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed to further understand the conformational variations of the binding. The root-mean-square deviation (RMSD values for the peptide backbone of the enzyme and the nitrogenous base of the inhibitor stabilized within 0.8 and 0.2 ns, respectively. Furthermore, the MD analysis indicates substantial conformational change in the ligand (inhibitor as the nitrogenous base rotated anticlockwise with respect to the sugar moiety, complemented by the formation of several new hydrogen bonds where Arg587 served as a pivot axis for binding formation. In conclusion, the active site inhibition of Taq DNA polymerase by 2',4'-bridged thymidine suggests the potential of bridged nucleosides as drug candidates.

  1. SELEX-Seq: A Method to Determine DNA Binding Specificities of Plant Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaczniak, Cezary; Angenent, Gerco C; Kaufmann, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is a method that allows isolating specific nucleotide sequences that interact with a DNA binding protein of choice. By using a transcription factor (TF) and a randomized pool of double-stranded DNA, this technique can be used to characterize TF DNA binding specificities and affinities. The method is based on protein-DNA complex immunoprecipitation with protein-specific antibodies and subsequent DNA selection and amplification. Application of massively parallel sequencing (-seq) at each cycle of SELEX allows determining the relative affinities to any DNA sequence for any transcription factor or TF complex. The resulting TF DNA binding motifs can be used to predict potential DNA binding sites in genomes and thereby direct target genes of TFs.

  2. New Insights into Cooperative Binding of Homeodomain Transcription Factors PREP1 and PBX1 to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Chiara; Ferrari, Elena; Blasi, Francesco; Musco, Giovanna; Bruckmann, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    PREP1 and PBX1 are homeodomain (HD) transcription factors that play crucial roles in embryonic development. Here, we present the first biophysical characterization of a PREP1 HD, and the NMR spectroscopic study of its DNA binding pocket. The data show that residues flanking the HD participate in DNA binding. The kinetic parameters for DNA binding of individual PREP1 and PBX1 HDs, and of their combination, show that isolated PREP1 and PBX1 HDs bind to DNA in a cooperative manner. A novel PREP1 motif, flanking the HD at the C-terminus, is required for cooperativity. PMID:28094776

  3. Extensive mapping of PPAR binding to genomic DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ronni; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Trindade, Luisa

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) transcription factors a, d and g are members of the nuclear hormone receptor super family. The PPARs bind regulatory DNA elements (PPREs) as heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and thereby induce transcription in response to ligand...... activation. The PPARs are important regulators of transcription in response to metabolic signalling, but have diverse metabolic functions. Thus, PPARg is a lipogenic transcription factor, whereas PPARa and -d induce lipid oxidation. In vivo, the PPARs are required for regulation of diverse metabolic...... processes such as adaptation to fasting and cold, muscle isotype switching and adipogenesis, underscoring the metabolic importance of these transcription factors. Although the PPARs have been subject to intensive studies for almost two decades, far from all PPAR target genes are known. In addition, only few...

  4. Structural and mechanistic insight into substrate binding from the conformational dynamics in apo and substrate-bound DapE enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debodyuti; Mishra, Sabyashachi

    2016-01-21

    Conformational dynamics in large biomolecular systems is often associated with their physiological roles. The dynamics of a dimeric microbial enzyme, DapE, with great potential as an antibiotic target, has been studied employing long molecular dynamics simulations of the enzyme in apo form and in substrate bound complex form. The essential dynamics of the apo enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex are extracted from the principal component analysis of the simulations of these two systems where the first two principal components are analyzed in detail. The essential motion of the enzyme in the substrate bound form exhibits a folding motion of its two catalytic domains over the two dimerization domains, which results in repulsion of water molecules away from the active site of the enzyme-substrate complex. This folding motion also leads to a stabilizing binding free energy of the substrate arising from the favorable interaction of the substrate and side chains of the enzyme. The dynamics in the enzyme-substrate complex results in stronger interaction between the catalytic and dimerization domains reflected by an increased number of inter-domain hydrogen bonds. The substrate, located in the catalytic domain of DapE, establishes contacts with the side chains of the dimerization domain of DapE by extended chains of hydrogen bonds, which emphasizes the role of the dimerization domain in substrate binding.

  5. Preparation of Mica and Silicon Substrates for DNA Origami Analysis and Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillers, Michelle A.; Shute, Rebecca; Farchone, Adam; Linder, Keenan P.; Doerfler, Rose; Gavin, Corey; Goss, Valerie; Lieberman, Marya

    2015-01-01

    The designed nature and controlled, one-pot synthesis of DNA origami provides exciting opportunities in many fields, particularly nanoelectronics. Many of these applications require interaction with and adhesion of DNA nanostructures to a substrate. Due to its atomically flat and easily cleaned nature, mica has been the substrate of choice for DNA origami experiments. However, the practical applications of mica are relatively limited compared to those of semiconductor substrates. For this reason, a straightforward, stable, and repeatable process for DNA origami adhesion on derivatized silicon oxide is presented here. To promote the adhesion of DNA nanostructures to silicon oxide surface, a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) is deposited from an aqueous solution that is compatible with many photoresists. The substrate must be cleaned of all organic and metal contaminants using Radio Corporation of America (RCA) cleaning processes and the native oxide layer must be etched to ensure a flat, functionalizable surface. Cleanrooms are equipped with facilities for silicon cleaning, however many components of DNA origami buffers and solutions are often not allowed in them due to contamination concerns. This manuscript describes the set-up and protocol for in-lab, small-scale silicon cleaning for researchers who do not have access to a cleanroom or would like to incorporate processes that could cause contamination of a cleanroom CMOS clean bench. Additionally, variables for regulating coverage are discussed and how to recognize and avoid common sample preparation problems is described. PMID:26274888

  6. Preparation of Mica and Silicon Substrates for DNA Origami Analysis and Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillers, Michelle A; Shute, Rebecca; Farchone, Adam; Linder, Keenan P; Doerfler, Rose; Gavin, Corey; Goss, Valerie; Lieberman, Marya

    2015-07-23

    The designed nature and controlled, one-pot synthesis of DNA origami provides exciting opportunities in many fields, particularly nanoelectronics. Many of these applications require interaction with and adhesion of DNA nanostructures to a substrate. Due to its atomically flat and easily cleaned nature, mica has been the substrate of choice for DNA origami experiments. However, the practical applications of mica are relatively limited compared to those of semiconductor substrates. For this reason, a straightforward, stable, and repeatable process for DNA origami adhesion on derivatized silicon oxide is presented here. To promote the adhesion of DNA nanostructures to silicon oxide surface, a self-assembled monolayer of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) is deposited from an aqueous solution that is compatible with many photoresists. The substrate must be cleaned of all organic and metal contaminants using Radio Corporation of America (RCA) cleaning processes and the native oxide layer must be etched to ensure a flat, functionalizable surface. Cleanrooms are equipped with facilities for silicon cleaning, however many components of DNA origami buffers and solutions are often not allowed in them due to contamination concerns. This manuscript describes the set-up and protocol for in-lab, small-scale silicon cleaning for researchers who do not have access to a cleanroom or would like to incorporate processes that could cause contamination of a cleanroom CMOS clean bench. Additionally, variables for regulating coverage are discussed and how to recognize and avoid common sample preparation problems is described.

  7. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Primosomal DnaD Protein: Highly Conserved C-Terminal Region Is Crucial for ssDNA and PriA Helicase Binding but Not for DnaA Protein-Binding and Self-Tetramerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available The role of DnaD in the recruitment of replicative helicase has been identified. However, knowledge of the DNA, PriA, and DnaA binding mechanism of this protein for the DnaA- and PriA-directed replication primosome assemblies is limited. We characterized the DNA-binding properties of DnaD from Staphylococcus aureus (SaDnaD and analyzed its interactions with SaPriA and SaDnaA. The gel filtration chromatography analysis of purified SaDnaD and its deletion mutant proteins (SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200 and SaDnaD1-204 showed a stable tetramer in solution. This finding indicates that the C-terminal region aa 196-228 is not crucial for SaDnaD oligomerization. SaDnaD forms distinct complexes with ssDNA of different lengths. In fluorescence titrations, SaDnaD bound to ssDNA with a binding-site size of approximately 32 nt. A stable complex of SaDnaD1-195, SaDnaD1-200, and SaDnaD1-204 with ssDNA dT40 was undetectable, indicating that the C-terminal region of SaDnaD (particularly aa 205-228 is crucial for ssDNA binding. The SPR results revealed that SaDnaD1-195 can interact with SaDnaA but not with SaPriA, which may indicate that DnaD has different binding sites for PriA and DnaA. Both SaDnaD and SaDnaDY176A mutant proteins, but not SaDnaD1-195, can significantly stimulate the ATPase activity of SaPriA. Hence, the stimulation effect mainly resulted from direct contact within the protein-protein interaction, not via the DNA-protein interaction. Kinetic studies revealed that the SaDnaD-SaPriA interaction increases the Vmax of the SaPriA ATPase fivefold without significantly affecting the Km. These results indicate that the conserved C-terminal region is crucial for ssDNA and PriA helicase binding, but not for DnaA protein-binding and self-tetramerization.

  8. DNA structure, binding mechanism and biology functions of polypyridyl complexes in biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable research interest and vigorous debate about the DNA binding of polypyridyl complexes including the electron transfer involving DNA. In this review, based on the fluorescence quenching experiments, it was proposed that DNA might serve as a conductor. From the time-interval CD spectra, the different binding rates of D- and L-enantiomer to calf thymus DNA were observed. The factors influencing the DNA-binding of polypyridyl complexes, and the potential bio-functions of the complexes are also discussed.

  9. Improvement of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase enantioselectivity by using mutagenesis targeted to the substrate binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, F; Cambon, E; Dossat-Létisse, V; André, I; Croux, C; Nicaud, J M; Marty, A

    2009-07-06

    Lip2p lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica was shown to be an efficient catalyst for the resolution of 2-bromo-arylacetic acid esters, an important class of chemical intermediates in the pharmaceutical industry. Enantioselectivity of this lipase was improved by site-directed mutagenesis targeted to the substrate binding site. To guide mutagenesis experiments, the three-dimensional model of this lipase was built by homology modelling techniques by using the structures of lipases from Rhizomucor miehei and Thermomyces lanuginosa as templates. On the basis of this structural model, five amino acid residues (T88, V94, D97, V232, V285) that form the hydrophobic substrate binding site of the lipase were selected for site-directed mutagenesis. Position 232 was identified as crucial for the discrimination between enantiomers. Variant V232A displayed an enantioselectivity enhanced by one order of magnitude, whereas variant V232L exhibited a selectivity inversion. To further explore the diversity, position 232 was systematically replaced by the 19 possible amino acids. Screening of this library led to the identification of the V232S variant, which has a tremendously increased E value compared to the parental enzyme for the resolution of 2-bromo-phenylacetic acid ethyl ester (58-fold) and 2-bromo-o-tolylacetic acid ethyl ester (16-fold). In addition to the gain in enantioselectivity, a remarkable increase in velocity was observed (eightfold increase) for both substrates.

  10. Flow cytometric fluorescence lifetime analysis of DNA binding fluorochromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crissman, Harry A.; Cui, H. H. (H. Helen); Steinkamp, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Most flow cytometry (FCM) applications monitor fluorescence intensity to quantitate the various cellular parameters; however, the fluorescence emission also contains information relative to the fluorescence lifetime. Recent developments in FCM (Pinsky et al., 1993; Steinkamp & Crissman, 1993; Steinkamp et al., 1993), provide for the measurement of fluorescence lifetime which is also commonly referred to as fluorescence decay, or the time interval in which a fluorochrome remains in the excited state. Many unbound fluorochromes have characteristic lifetime values that are determined by their molecular structure; however, when the probe becomes bound, the lifetime value is influenced by a number of factors that affect the probe interaction with a target molecule. Monitoring the changes in the lifetime of the probe yields information relating to the molecular conformation, the functional state or activity of the molecular target. In addition, the lifetime values can be used as signatures to resolve the emissions of multiple fluorochrome labels with overlapping emission spectra that cannot be resolved by conventional FCM methodology. Such strategies can increase the number of fluorochrome combinations used in a flow cytometer with a single excitation source. Our studies demonstrate various applications of lifetime measurements for the analysis of the binding of different fluorochromes to DNA in single cells. Data presented in this session will show the utility of lifetime measurements for monitoring changes in chromatin structure associated with cell cycle progression, cellular differentiation, or DNA damage, such as induced during apoptosis. Several studies show that dyes with specificity for nucleic acids display different lifetime values when bound to DNA or to dsRNA. The Phase Sensitive Flow Cytometer is a multiparameter instrument, capable of performing lifetime measurements in conjunction with all the conventional FCM measurements. Future modifications of this

  11. Label free detection of DNA on Au/ZnO/Ag hybrid structure based SERS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Anil Kumar; Mohan, D. Bharathi

    2016-04-01

    Au/ZnO/Ag based SERS substrate was fabricated for the label free detection of DNA of Escherichia Coli bacteria. The SERS substrate was fabricated by growing ZnO nanorod arrays on thermally evaporated ultrathin Ag film of 5 nm thickness using hydrothermal process. Non-spherical like Au nanoparticles were decorated on ZnO nanorod arrays by sputtering technique with sputtering time of 45 sec. The surface of Au/ZnO/Ag was observed to be nearly superhydrophobic exhibiting the contact angle of 144 °. A low volume (5 µl) of aqueous solution of DNA of laboratory strain Escherichia Coli with very low concentration was adsorbed on fabricated SERS substrate by drop casting. The SERS detection of DNA molecules was achieved up to lower concentration of 10-8 M due to strong local electric field enhancement at the nanometer gap among Au nanoparticles and superhydrophobic nature of Au/ZnO/Ag surface.

  12. Rapid detection and purification of sequence specific DNA binding proteins using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIJANA SAVIC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the rapid identification and purification of sequence specific DNA binding proteins based on magnetic separation is presented. This method was applied to confirm the binding of the human recombinant USF1 protein to its putative binding site (E-box within the human SOX3 protomer. It has been shown that biotinylated DNA attached to streptavidin magnetic particles specifically binds the USF1 protein in the presence of competitor DNA. It has also been demonstrated that the protein could be successfully eluted from the beads, in high yield and with restored DNA binding activity. The advantage of these procedures is that they could be applied for the identification and purification of any high-affinity sequence-specific DNA binding protein with only minor modifications.

  13. Quercetin-Iron Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, DNA Cleavage, and Antibacterial Activity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aun; Xu, Xiuquan; Xia, Li; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Quercetin-iron (II) complex was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron micrography and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal:ligand) of the complex. Antioxidant study of the quercetin and its metal complex against 2, 2-di-phenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical showed that the complex has much more radical scavenging activity than free quercetin. The interaction of quercetin-iron (II) complex with DNA was determined using ultraviolet visible spectra, fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that quercetin-iron (II) complex can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form to nicked circular form and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was an oxidative cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of complex to cleave DNA. In addition, antibacterial activity of complex on E.coli and S. aureus was also investigated. The results showed that complex has higher antibacterial activity than ligand.

  14. Rutin-Nickel Complex: Synthesis, Characterization, Antioxidant, DNA Binding, and DNA Cleavage Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aun; Bano, Shumaila; Xu, Xiuquan; Zhang, Rong Xian; Khalid, Haider; Iqbal, Furqan Muhammad; Xia, Changkun; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen

    2016-12-17

    The rutin-nickel (II) complex (RN) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, IR, mass spectrometry, (1)H NMR, TG-DSC, SEM, and molar conductivity. The low molar conductivity value investigates the non-electrolyte nature of the complex. The elemental analysis and other physical and spectroscopic methods reveal the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio (metal/ligand) of the complex. An antioxidant study of rutin and its metal complex against DPPH radical showed that the complex has more radical scavenging activity than free rutin. The interaction of complex RN with DNA was determined using fluorescence spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that RN can intercalate moderately with DNA, quench a strong intercalator ethidium bromide (EB), and compete for the intercalative binding sites. The complex showed significant cleavage of pBR 322 DNA from supercoiled form (SC) to nicked circular form (NC), and these cleavage effects were dose-dependent. Moreover, the mechanism of DNA cleavage indicated that it was a hydrolytic cleavage pathway. These results revealed the potential nuclease activity of the complex to cleave DNA.

  15. Heterogeneous dynamics in DNA site discrimination by the structurally homologous DNA-binding domains of ETS-family transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gaofei; Tolic, Ana; Bashkin, James K; Poon, Gregory M K

    2015-04-30

    The ETS family of transcription factors exemplifies current uncertainty in how eukaryotic genetic regulators with overlapping DNA sequence preferences achieve target site specificity. PU.1 and Ets-1 represent archetypes for studying site discrimination by ETS proteins because their DNA-binding domains are the most divergent in sequence, yet they share remarkably superimposable DNA-bound structures. To gain insight into the contrasting thermodynamics and kinetics of DNA recognition by these two proteins, we investigated the structure and dynamics of site discrimination by their DNA-binding domains. Electrophoretic mobilities of complexes formed by the two homologs with circularly permuted binding sites showed significant dynamic differences only for DNA complexes of PU.1. Free solution measurements by dynamic light scattering showed PU.1 to be more dynamic than Ets-1; moreover, dynamic changes are strongly coupled to site discrimination by PU.1, but not Ets-1. Interrogation of the protein/DNA interface by DNA footprinting showed similar accessibility to dimethyl sulfate for PU.1/DNA and Ets-1/DNA complexes, indicating that the dynamics of PU.1/DNA complexes reside primarily outside that interface. An information-based analysis of the two homologs' binding motifs suggests a role for dynamic coupling in PU.1's ability to enforce a more stringent sequence preference than Ets-1 and its proximal sequence homologs. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Structural dynamics of E. coli single-stranded DNA binding protein reveal DNA wrapping and unwrapping pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksombat, Sukrit; Khafizov, Rustem; Kozlov, Alexander G; Lohman, Timothy M; Chemla, Yann R

    2015-08-25

    Escherichia coli single-stranded (ss)DNA binding (SSB) protein mediates genome maintenance processes by regulating access to ssDNA. This homotetrameric protein wraps ssDNA in multiple distinct binding modes that may be used selectively in different DNA processes, and whose detailed wrapping topologies remain speculative. Here, we used single-molecule force and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate E. coli SSB binding to ssDNA. Stretching a single ssDNA-SSB complex reveals discrete states that correlate with known binding modes, the likely ssDNA conformations and diffusion dynamics in each, and the kinetic pathways by which the protein wraps ssDNA and is dissociated. The data allow us to construct an energy landscape for the ssDNA-SSB complex, revealing that unwrapping energy costs increase the more ssDNA is unraveled. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism by which proteins gain access to ssDNA bound by SSB, as demonstrated by experiments in which SSB is displaced by the E. coli recombinase RecA.

  17. Identification of the DNA-Binding Domains of Human Replication Protein A That Recognize G-Quadruplex DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication protein A (RPA, a key player in DNA metabolism, has 6 single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA- binding domains (DBDs A-F. SELEX experiments with the DBDs-C, -D, and -E retrieve a 20-nt G-quadruplex forming sequence. Binding studies show that RPA-DE binds preferentially to the G-quadruplex DNA, a unique preference not observed with other RPA constructs. Circular dichroism experiments show that RPA-CDE-core can unfold the G-quadruplex while RPA-DE stabilizes it. Binding studies show that RPA-C binds pyrimidine- and purine-rich sequences similarly. This difference between RPA-C and RPA-DE binding was also indicated by the inability of RPA-CDE-core to unfold an oligonucleotide containing a TC-region 5′ to the G-quadruplex. Molecular modeling studies of RPA-DE and telomere-binding proteins Pot1 and Stn1 reveal structural similarities between the proteins and illuminate potential DNA-binding sites for RPA-DE and Stn1. These data indicate that DBDs of RPA have different ssDNA recognition properties.

  18. Role of teh Rad52 Amino-terminal DNA Binding Activity in DNA Strand Capture in Homologous Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Idina; Hallwyl, Swee Chuang Lim; Seong, Changhyun

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 protein promotes homologous recombination by nucleating the Rad51 recombinase onto replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA strands and also by directly annealing such strands. We show that the purified rad52-R70A mutant protein, with a compromised amino...... conversion intermediates reveals that rad52-R70A cells can mediate DNA strand invasion but are unable to complete the recombination event. These results provide evidence that DNA binding by the evolutionarily conserved amino terminus of Rad52 is needed for the capture of the second DNA end during homologous......-terminal DNA binding domain, is capable of Rad51 delivery to DNA but is deficient in DNA annealing. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments find that rad52-R70A associates with DNA double-strand breaks and promotes recruitment of Rad51 as efficiently as wild-type Rad52. Analysis of gene...

  19. Tyrosine 105 and threonine 212 at outermost substrate binding subsites -6 and +4 control substrate specificity, oligosaccharide cleavage patterns, and multiple binding modes of barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; André, G.; Gottschalk, T.E.;

    2004-01-01

    The role in activity of outer regions in the substrate binding cleft in alpha-amylases is illustrated by mutational analysis of Tyr(105) and Thr(212) localized at subsites - 6 and +4 ( substrate cleavage occurs between subsites -1 and +1) in barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1). Tyr(105) is conserved in...

  20. Genome-Wide Motif Statistics are Shaped by DNA Binding Proteins over Evolutionary Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Long; Kussell, Edo

    2016-10-01

    The composition of a genome with respect to all possible short DNA motifs impacts the ability of DNA binding proteins to locate and bind their target sites. Since nonfunctional DNA binding can be detrimental to cellular functions and ultimately to organismal fitness, organisms could benefit from reducing the number of nonfunctional DNA binding sites genome wide. Using in vitro measurements of binding affinities for a large collection of DNA binding proteins, in multiple species, we detect a significant global avoidance of weak binding sites in genomes. We demonstrate that the underlying evolutionary process leaves a distinct genomic hallmark in that similar words have correlated frequencies, a signal that we detect in all species across domains of life. We consider the possibility that natural selection against weak binding sites contributes to this process, and using an evolutionary model we show that the strength of selection needed to maintain global word compositions is on the order of point mutation rates. Likewise, we show that evolutionary mechanisms based on interference of protein-DNA binding with replication and mutational repair processes could yield similar results and operate with similar rates. On the basis of these modeling and bioinformatic results, we conclude that genome-wide word compositions have been molded by DNA binding proteins acting through tiny evolutionary steps over time scales spanning millions of generations.

  1. Multispectroscopic studies of paeoniflorin binding to calf thymus DNA in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guowen, E-mail: gwzhang@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235, Nanjing East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047 (China); Fu, Peng; Pan, Junhui [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235, Nanjing East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330047 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The mechanism of paeoniflorin binding to calf thymus DNA in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated by multispectroscopic methods including UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with viscosity measurements and DNA melting techniques. The results suggested that paeoniflorin molecules could bind to DNA via groove binding mode as evidenced by no significant change in iodide quenching effect, increase in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) quenching effect, and almost unchanged relative viscosity and melting temperature of DNA. The observed changes in CD signals revealed that DNA remains in the B-conformation. Further, the displacement experiments with Hoechst 33258 probe and the results of FT-IR spectra indicated that paeoniflorin mainly binds in the region of rich A-T base pairs of DNA. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change ({Delta}H Degree-Sign ) and entropy change ({Delta}S Degree-Sign ) were calculated to be -30.09{+-}0.18 kJ mol{sup -1} and -14.07{+-}0.61 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} by the van't Hoff equation, suggesting that hydrogen bond and van der Waals forces play a predominant role in the binding of paeoniflorin to DNA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding mode of paeoniflorin to calf thymus DNA is the minor groove binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paeoniflorin mainly binds in the region of rich A-T base pairs of DNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding does not alter the native B-conformation of DNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding is driven mainly by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces.

  2. Study on the binding mode of Mg(Sal2trien) with DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiaoli; YANG Manman; ZHOU Chengyong; ZHAO Jing; YANG Pin

    2006-01-01

    In this study the complex Mg(Sal2trien) was synthesized for the first time, the binding mode of which with CT DNA was studied by the methods of UV spectra, fluorescence spectra, viscosity and CV (cyclic voltammetry). It was found that after the complex acted with CT DNA, the Abs of UV spectra rose obviously; the fluorescence intensity of EB-DNA was almost not changed; viscosity decreased. Determination of cyclic voltammetry showed that DNA made the MgL's formal potential negatively shift. Scatchard plot showed that the addition of the binding mode of the complex to EB was uncompetitive inhibition compared with EB to DNA. So the binding mode of the complex with CT DNA was stable-electricity binding. Then the interaction of the complex with pBR322 was studied by the method of gel electrophoresis. The result showed that the complex could cleave pBR322 DNA effectively.

  3. Conformational dynamics in substrate-binding domains influences transport in the ABC importer GlnPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K; Ploetz, Evelyn; Husada, Florence; Vietrov, Ruslan; de Boer, Marijn; Cordes, Thorben; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The conformational dynamics in ABC transporters is largely elusive. The ABC importer GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis has different covalently linked substrate-binding domains (SBDs), thus making it an excellent model system to elucidate the dynamics and role of the SBDs in transport. We demonstrate by single-molecule spectroscopy that the two SBDs intrinsically transit from open to closed ligand-free conformation, and the proteins capture their amino acid ligands via an induced-fit mechanism. High-affinity ligands elicit transitions without changing the closed-state lifetime, whereas low-affinity ligands dramatically shorten it. We show that SBDs in the closed state compete for docking onto the translocator, but remarkably the effect is strongest without ligand. We find that the rate-determining steps depend on the SBD and the amino acid transported. We conclude that the lifetime of the closed conformation controls both SBD docking to the translocator and substrate release.

  4. The effect of polyamines on the binding of anti-DNA antibodies from patients with SLE and normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Stearns, Nancy A; Li, Xingfu; Pisetsky, David S

    2014-07-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To elucidate specificity further, the effect of polyamines on the binding of anti-DNA antibodies from patients with lupus was tested by ELISA to calf thymus (CT) DNA; we also assessed the binding of plasmas of patients and normal human subjects (NHS) to Micrococcus luteus (MC) DNA. As these studies showed, spermine can dose-dependently inhibit SLE anti-DNA binding to CT DNA and can promote dissociation of preformed immune complexes. With MC DNA as antigen, spermine failed to inhibit the NHS anti-DNA binding. Studies using plasmas adsorbed to a CT DNA cellulose affinity indicated that SLE plasmas are mixtures of anti-DNA that differ in inhibition by spermine and binding to conserved and non-conserved determinants. Together, these studies demonstrate that spermine can influence the binding of anti-DNA autoantibodies and may contribute to the antigenicity of DNA.

  5. Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain enhances the processivity and fidelity of Taq DNA polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain (TBD) into the distantly related thermostable Taq DNA polymerase at an analogous position in the thumb domain, converts the Taq DNA polymerase from a low processive to a highly processive enzyme. Processivity is dependent on the presence of thioredoxin. The enhancement in processivity is 20–50-fold when compared with the wild-type Taq DNA polymerase or to the recombinant polymerase in the absence of thioredoxin. The recombinant Taq...

  6. Small substrate transport and mechanism of a molybdate ATP binding cassette transporter in a lipid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Austin J; Harrison, Alistair; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-05-23

    Embedded in the plasma membrane of all bacteria, ATP binding cassette (ABC) importers facilitate the uptake of several vital nutrients and cofactors. The ABC transporter, MolBC-A, imports molybdate by passing substrate from the binding protein MolA to a membrane-spanning translocation pathway of MolB. To understand the mechanism of transport in the biological membrane as a whole, the effects of the lipid bilayer on transport needed to be addressed. Continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance and in vivo molybdate uptake studies were used to test the impact of the lipid environment on the mechanism and function of MolBC-A. Working with the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, we found that MolBC-A functions as a low affinity molybdate transporter in its native environment. In periods of high extracellular molybdate concentration, H. influenzae makes use of parallel molybdate transport systems (MolBC-A and ModBC-A) to take up a greater amount of molybdate than a strain with ModBC-A alone. In addition, the movement of the translocation pathway in response to nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in a lipid environment is conserved when compared with in-detergent analysis. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that a lipid environment restricts the flexibility of the MolBC translocation pathway. By combining continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and substrate uptake studies, we reveal details of molybdate transport and the logistics of uptake systems that employ multiple transporters for the same substrate, offering insight into the mechanisms of nutrient uptake in bacteria.

  7. A homology model of Xyloglucan Xylosyltransferase 2 reveals critical amino acids involved in substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Alan T; Tietze, Alesia A; Tietze, Daniel; Chou, Yi-Hsiang; Smith, Adrienne L; Young, Zachary T; Zabotina, Olga A

    2016-09-01

    In dicotyledonous plants, xyloglucan (XyG) is the most abundant hemicellulose of the primary cell wall. The enzymes involved in XyG biosynthesis have been identified through reverse-genetics and activity was characterized by heterologous expression. Currently, there is no information on the atomic structures or amino acids involved in activity or substrate binding of any of the Golgi-localized XyG biosynthetic enzymes. A homology model of the xyloglucan xylosyltransferase 2 (XXT2) catalytic domain was built on the basis of the crystal structure of A64Rp. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the homology model retains the glycosyltransferase (GT)-A fold of the template structure used to build the homology model indicating that XXT2 likely has a GT-A fold. According to the XXT2 homology model, six amino acids (Phe204, Lys207, Asp228, Ser229, Asp230, His378) were selected and their contribution in catalytic activity was investigated. Site-directed mutagenesis studies show that Asp228, Asp230 and His378 are critical for XXT2 activity and are predicted to be involved in coordination of manganese ion. Lys207 was also found to be critical for protein activity and the homology model indicates a critical role in substrate binding. Additionally, Phe204 mutants have less of an impact on XXT2 activity with the largest effect when replaced with a polar residue. This is the first study that investigates the amino acids involved in substrate binding of the XyG-synthesizing xylosyltransferases and contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of polysaccharide-synthesizing GTs and XyG biosynthesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. DNA as a universal substrate for chemical kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, David; Seelig, Georg; Winfree, Erik

    2010-03-23

    Molecular programming aims to systematically engineer molecular and chemical systems of autonomous function and ever-increasing complexity. A key goal is to develop embedded control circuitry within a chemical system to direct molecular events. Here we show that systems of DNA molecules can be constructed that closely approximate the dynamic behavior of arbitrary systems of coupled chemical reactions. By using strand displacement reactions as a primitive, we construct reaction cascades with effectively unimolecular and bimolecular kinetics. Our construction allows individual reactions to be coupled in arbitrary ways such that reactants can participate in multiple reactions simultaneously, reproducing the desired dynamical properties. Thus arbitrary systems of chemical equations can be compiled into real chemical systems. We illustrate our method on the Lotka-Volterra oscillator, a limit-cycle oscillator, a chaotic system, and systems implementing feedback digital logic and algorithmic behavior.

  9. Functionalization of Poly- (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a substrate for DNA microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fixe, A.F.; Dufva, Hans Martin; Telleman, Pieter

    2004-01-01

    amines was confirmed by the immobilization of DNA probes and hybridization with a complementary DNA strand. The hybridization signal and the hybridization efficiency of the chemically aminated PMMA slides were comparable to the hybridization signal and the hybridization efficiency obtained from...... since the hybridization performance of microarrays subjected to 20 PCR heat cycles was only reduced by 4%. In conclusion, this new strategy to modify PMMA provides a robust procedure to immobilize DNA, which is a very useful substrate for fabricating single use diagnostics devices with integrated......A chemical procedure was developed to functionalize poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates. PMMA is reacted with hexamethylene diamine to yield an aminated surface for immobilizing DNA in microarrays. The density of primary NH2 groups was 0.29 nmol/cm(2). The availability of these primary...

  10. Multiple DNA binding proteins contribute to timing of chromosome replication in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. Dna...... replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology...... in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on ori...

  11. From footprint to toeprint: a close-up of the DnaA box, the binding site for the bacterial initiator protein DnaA.

    OpenAIRE

    Speck, C.; Weigel, C; Messer, W

    1997-01-01

    The Escherichia coli DnaA protein binds as a monomer to the DnaA box, a 9 bp consensus sequence: 5'-TTA/TTNCACA. To assess the contribution of individual bases to protein binding we probed the DnaA-DnaA box complex with the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) footprinting technique. (i) dU at the positions of T2, T4, T7' or T9' completely inhibits DnaA binding to the DnaA box. At these positions the methyl groups of the thymine residues are essential for successful DnaA binding, indicating protein c...

  12. Resonance Raman study on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: Control of reactivity by substrate-binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Hara, Masayuki [Graduate School of Life Science and Picobiology Institute, University of Hyogo, Koto 3-2-1, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu [Biometal Science Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Koto 1-1-1, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ogura, Takashi, E-mail: ogura@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Life Science and Picobiology Institute, University of Hyogo, Koto 3-2-1, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • Indoleamine 2,3-dioygenase has been studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy. • Trp-binding to the enzyme induces high frequency shift of the Fe–His stretching mode. • Increased imidazolate character of histidine promotes the O–O bond cleavage step. • A fine-tuning of the reactivity of the O–O bond cleavage reaction is identified. • The results are consistent with the sequential oxygen-atom-transfer mechanism. - Abstract: Resonance Raman spectra of ligand-bound complexes including the 4-phenylimidazole complex and of free and L-Trp-bound forms of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in the ferric state were examined. Effects on the vinyl and propionate substituent groups of the heme were detected in a ligand-dependent fashion. The effects of phenyl group of 4-phenylimidazole on the vinyl and propionate Raman bands were evident when compared with the case of imidazole ligand. Substrate binding to the ferrous protein caused an upshift of the iron–histidine stretching mode by 3 cm{sup −1}, indicating an increase in negativity of the imidazole ring, which favors the O–O bond cleavage. The substrate binding event is likely to be communicated from the heme distal side to the iron–histidine bond through heme substituent groups and the hydrogen-bond network which includes water molecules, as identified in an X-ray structure of a 4-phenylimidazole complex. The results provide evidence for fine-tuning of the reactivity of O–O bond cleavage by the oxygenated heme upon binding of L-Trp.

  13. Mixed ligand copper(II) dicarboxylate complexes: the role of co-ligand hydrophobicity in DNA binding, double-strand DNA cleavage, protein binding and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Rangasamy; Ramakrishnan, Sethu; Ganeshpandian, Mani; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Palaniandavar, Mallayan; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Akbarsha, Mohamad Abdulkadhar

    2015-06-14

    A few water soluble mixed ligand copper(ii) complexes of the type [Cu(bimda)(diimine)] , where bimda is N-benzyliminodiacetic acid and diimine is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy, ) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, ) or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5,6-dmp, ) or 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3,4,7,8-tmp, ) and dipyrido[3,2-d: 2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, ), have been successfully isolated and characterized by elemental analysis and other spectral techniques. The coordination geometry around copper(ii) in is described as distorted square based pyramidal while that in is described as square pyramidal. Absorption spectral titrations and competitive DNA binding studies reveal that the intrinsic DNA binding affinity of the complexes depends upon the diimine co-ligand, dpq () > 3,4,7,8-tmp () > 5,6-dmp () > phen () > bpy (). The phen and dpq co-ligands are involved in the π-stacking interaction with DNA base pairs while the 3,4,7,8-tmp/5,6-dmp and bpy co-ligands are involved in respectively hydrophobic and surface mode of binding with DNA. The small enhancement in the relative viscosity of DNA upon binding to supports the DNA binding modes proposed. Interestingly, and are selective in exhibiting a positive induced CD band (ICD) upon binding to DNA suggesting that they induce B to A conformational change. In contrast, and show CD responses which reveal their involvement in strong DNA binding. The complexes are unique in displaying prominent double-strand DNA cleavage while effects only single-strand DNA cleavage, and their ability to cleave DNA in the absence of an activator varies as > > > > . Also, all the complexes exhibit oxidative double-strand DNA cleavage activity in the presence of ascorbic acid, which varies as > > > > . The ability of the complexes to bind and cleave the protein BSA varies in the order > > > > . Interestingly, and cleave the protein non-specifically in the presence of H2O2 as an activator suggesting that they can act also as chemical proteases

  14. Structure-Based Analysis of the Interaction between the Simian Virus 40 T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain and Single-Stranded DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Meinke; P Phelan; A Fradet-Turcotte; A Bohm; J Archambault; P Bullock

    2011-12-31

    The origin-binding domain (OBD) of simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen (T-Ag) is essential for many of T-Ag's interactions with DNA. Nevertheless, many important issues related to DNA binding, for example, how single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) transits along the T-Ag OBD, have yet to be established. Therefore, X-ray crystallography was used to determine the costructure of the T-Ag OBD bound to DNA substrates such as the single-stranded region of a forked oligonucleotide. A second structure of the T-Ag OBD crystallized in the presence of poly(dT){sub 12} is also reported. To test the conclusions derived from these structures, residues identified as being involved in binding to ssDNA by crystallography or by an earlier nuclear magnetic resonance study were mutated, and their binding to DNA was characterized via fluorescence anisotropy. In addition, these mutations were introduced into full-length T-Ag, and these mutants were tested for their ability to support replication. When considered in terms of additional homology-based sequence alignments, our studies refine our understanding of how the T-Ag OBDs encoded by the polyomavirus family interact with ssDNA, a critical step during the initiation of DNA replication.

  15. Interindividual variation in binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human Bronchi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, C.C.; Autrup, Herman; Connor, R.

    1976-01-01

    The binding of benzo[a]pyrene to DNA in cultured human bronchus was measured in specimens from 37 patients. The binding values ranged from 2 to 151 picomoles of benzo[a]pyrene per milligram of DNA with an overall mean +/- standard error of 34.2 +/- 5.2. This 75-fold interindividual variation in t...

  16. Sequence-selective DNA binding with cell-permeable oligoguanidinium-peptide conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Jesús; Sánchez, Mateo I; Valero, Julián; de Mendoza, Javier; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2015-03-21

    Conjugation of a short peptide fragment from a bZIP protein to an oligoguanidinium tail results in a DNA-binding miniprotein that selectively interacts with composite sequences containing the peptide-binding site next to an A/T-rich tract. In addition to stabilizing the complex with the target DNA, the oligoguanidinium unit also endows the conjugate with cell internalization properties.

  17. Characterization and DNA-binding specificities of Ralstonia TAL-like effectors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lixin

    2013-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. © 2013 The Author.

  18. Binding interaction between sorafenib and calf thymus DNA: Spectroscopic methodology, viscosity measurement and molecular docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Chen, Jun; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ying-Yao

    2015-02-01

    The binding interaction of sorafenib with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was studied using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), viscosity measurement and molecular docking methods. The experimental results revealed that there was obvious binding interaction between sorafenib and ct-DNA. The binding constant (Kb) of sorafenib with ct-DNA was 5.6 × 103 M-1 at 298 K. The enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH0 and ΔS0) in the binding process of sorafenib with ct-DNA were -27.66 KJ mol-1 and -21.02 J mol-1 K-1, respectively, indicating that the main binding interaction forces were van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding. The docking results suggested that sorafenib preferred to bind on the minor groove of A-T rich DNA and the binding site of sorafenib was 4 base pairs long. The conformation change of sorafenib in the sorafenib-DNA complex was obviously observed and the change was close relation with the structure of DNA, implying that the flexibility of sorafenib molecule played an important role in the formation of the stable sorafenib-ct-DNA complex.

  19. An Overview of the Prediction of Protein DNA-Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingna Si

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between proteins and DNA play an important role in many essential biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and repair. The identification of amino acid residues involved in DNA-binding sites is critical for understanding the mechanism of these biological activities. In the last decade, numerous computational approaches have been developed to predict protein DNA-binding sites based on protein sequence and/or structural information, which play an important role in complementing experimental strategies. At this time, approaches can be divided into three categories: sequence-based DNA-binding site prediction, structure-based DNA-binding site prediction, and homology modeling and threading. In this article, we review existing research on computational methods to predict protein DNA-binding sites, which includes data sets, various residue sequence/structural features, machine learning methods for comparison and selection, evaluation methods, performance comparison of different tools, and future directions in protein DNA-binding site prediction. In particular, we detail the meta-analysis of protein DNA-binding sites. We also propose specific implications that are likely to result in novel prediction methods, increased performance, or practical applications.

  20. Binding of DNA by a dinitro-diester calix[4]arene: denaturation and condensation of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostos, F J; Lebron, J A; Moyá, M L; Deasy, M; López-Cornejo, P

    2015-03-01

    A study of a dinitro-diester calix[4]arene (5,17-(3-nitrobenzylideneamino)-11,23-di-tert-butyl-25,27-diethoxycarbonyl methyleneoxy-26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene) interaction with calf-thymus DNA was carried out using several techniques. The measurements were done at various molar ratios X=[calixarene]/[DNA]. Results show diverse changes in the DNA conformation depending on the X value. Thus, at low macrocycle concentrations, the calixarene binds to the polynucleotide. This interaction, mainly in groove mode, weakens the hydrogen bonds between base pairs of the helix inducing denaturation of the double strands, as well as condensation of the macromolecule, from an extended coil state to a globular state. An opposite effect is observed at X molar ratios higher than 0.07. The de-condensation of DNA happens, that is, the transition from a compact state to a more extended conformation, probably due to the stacking of calixarene molecules in the solution. Results also show the importance of making a proper choice of the system under consideration.

  1. Photoinduced intercalation and coordination of a dirhodium complex to DNA: dual DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alycia M; Burya, Scott J; Gallucci, Judith C; Turro, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Two new complexes, cis-H,H-[Rh2 (OCCH3 NH)2 (LL)(CH3 CN)2 ](2+) , where LL=bpy (2, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) and dppz (3, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine), were prepared from the reaction of cis-H,H-[Rh2 (OCCH3 NH)2 (CH3 CN)6 ](2+) (1) with the corresponding bidentate ligand. The bpy and dppz ligands chelate to the same rhodium atom and are positioned trans to the amidato N atoms, as determined by the single crystal X-ray structure of 2. Irradiation of 2 and 3 with visible light in water results in the exchange of one CH3 CNeq ligand for an H2 O molecule with quantum yields, Φ400 , of 0.040 and 0.044, respectively (λirr =400 nm). The identities of the photoproducts of 2 and 3 were determined to be cis-H,H-[Rh2 (OCCH3 NH)2 (L)(H2 O)(CH3 CN)](2+) , where L is bpy (4) and dppz (5), respectively. Mobility shift assays show that 4 crosslinks double-stranded DNA, and ESI-MS experiments indicate that both 4 and 5 form covalent adducts with single-stranded DNA. In addition, relative viscosity and 2D NMR experiments show that the dppz ligand of 5 also intercalates into DNA upon irradiation, making 3 a dual-binding agent that both intercalates and covalently binds to DNA upon the absorption of visible light.

  2. DNA intercalation by ethidium bromide: A quantitative binding study using DNA stretching and force-induced melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark C.; Rouzina, Ioulia

    2005-03-01

    The interactions between single DNA molecules and the non- covalent binding agent ethidium bromide are investigated using an optical tweezers instrument and the effects of this intercalator on the structure and mechanical stability of DNA molecules are quantitatively analyzed using our model of force- induced melting. The DNA force-extension cycles in the presence and absence of drug are recorded. It is found that the drug binds preferentially to double-stranded DNA and stabilizes the double helix. There is clear evidence of the force induced melting transition at low concentrations of drug, while at higher concentrations the drug is able to prevent the melting transition. The DNA contour length is obtained as a function of ligand concentration directly from the stretching curves. From this data we obtain the complete ethidium bromide dsDNA binding isotherm, which is used to find the binding constant and the binding site size of the intercalator. Out data also allows us to quantify directly the effect of ethidium bromide on the free energy of the helix-coil transition in dsDNA. This single molecule study brings new insights into the molecular mechanisms which drive drug-DNA complex formation.

  3. Substrate Binding Mode and its Implication on Drug Design for Botulinum Neurotoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran, D.; Rawat, R; Ahmed, A; Swaminathan, S

    2008-01-01

    The seven antigenically distinct serotypes of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, the causative agents of botulism, block the neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three SNARE proteins and induce flaccid paralysis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has declared them as Category A biowarfare agents. The most potent among them, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A), cleaves its substrate synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). An efficient drug for botulism can be developed only with the knowledge of interactions between the substrate and enzyme at the active site. Here, we report the crystal structures of the catalytic domain of BoNT/A with its uncleavable SNAP-25 peptide 197QRATKM202 and its variant 197RRATKM202 to 1.5 A and 1.6 A, respectively. This is the first time the structure of an uncleavable substrate bound to an active botulinum neurotoxin is reported and it has helped in unequivocally defining S1 to S5? sites. These substrate peptides make interactions with the enzyme predominantly by the residues from 160, 200, 250 and 370 loops. Most notably, the amino nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of P1 residue (Gln197) chelate the zinc ion and replace the nucleophilic water. The P1?-Arg198, occupies the S1? site formed by Arg363, Thr220, Asp370, Thr215, Ile161, Phe163 and Phe194. The S2? subsite is formed by Arg363, Asn368 and Asp370, while S3? subsite is formed by Tyr251, Leu256, Val258, Tyr366, Phe369 and Asn388. P4?-Lys201 makes hydrogen bond with Gln162. P5?-Met202 binds in the hydrophobic pocket formed by the residues from the 250 and 200 loop. Knowledge of interactions between the enzyme and substrate peptide from these complex structures should form the basis for design of potent inhibitors for this neurotoxin.

  4. Substrate binding mode and its implication on drug design for botulinum neurotoxin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desigan Kumaran

    Full Text Available The seven antigenically distinct serotypes of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, the causative agents of botulism, block the neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three SNARE proteins and induce flaccid paralysis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has declared them as Category A biowarfare agents. The most potent among them, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A, cleaves its substrate synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25. An efficient drug for botulism can be developed only with the knowledge of interactions between the substrate and enzyme at the active site. Here, we report the crystal structures of the catalytic domain of BoNT/A with its uncleavable SNAP-25 peptide (197QRATKM(202 and its variant (197RRATKM(202 to 1.5 A and 1.6 A, respectively. This is the first time the structure of an uncleavable substrate bound to an active botulinum neurotoxin is reported and it has helped in unequivocally defining S1 to S5' sites. These substrate peptides make interactions with the enzyme predominantly by the residues from 160, 200, 250 and 370 loops. Most notably, the amino nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of P1 residue (Gln197 chelate the zinc ion and replace the nucleophilic water. The P1'-Arg198, occupies the S1' site formed by Arg363, Thr220, Asp370, Thr215, Ile161, Phe163 and Phe194. The S2' subsite is formed by Arg363, Asn368 and Asp370, while S3' subsite is formed by Tyr251, Leu256, Val258, Tyr366, Phe369 and Asn388. P4'-Lys201 makes hydrogen bond with Gln162. P5'-Met202 binds in the hydrophobic pocket formed by the residues from the 250 and 200 loop. Knowledge of interactions between the enzyme and substrate peptide from these complex structures should form the basis for design of potent inhibitors for this neurotoxin.

  5. The Caulobacter crescentus chromosome replication origin evolved two classes of weak DnaA binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James A; Ouimet, Marie-Claude; Wargachuk, Richard; Marczynski, Gregory T

    2011-10-01

    The Caulobacter crescentus replication initiator DnaA and essential response regulator CtrA compete to control chromosome replication. The C. crescentus replication origin (Cori) contains five strong CtrA binding sites but only two apparent DnaA boxes, termed G-boxes (with a conserved second position G, TGATCCACA). Since clusters of DnaA boxes typify bacterial replication origins, this discrepancy suggested that C. crescentus DnaA recognizes different DNA sequences or compensates with novel DNA-binding proteins. We searched for novel DNA sites by scanning mutagenesis of the most conserved Cori DNA. Autonomous replication assays showed that G-boxes and novel W-boxes (TCCCCA) are essential for replication. Further analyses showed that C. crescentus DnaA binds G-boxes with moderate and W-boxes with very weak affinities significantly below DnaA's capacity for high-affinity Escherichia coli-boxes (TTATCCACA). Cori has five conserved W-boxes. Increasing W-box affinities increases or decreases autonomous replication depending on their strategic positions between the G-boxes. In vitro, CtrA binding displaces DnaA from proximal G-boxes and from distal W-boxes implying CtrA-DnaA competition and DnaA-DnaA cooperation between G-boxes and W-boxes. Similarly, during cell cycle progression, CtrA proteolysis coincides with DnaA binding to Cori. We also observe highly conserved W-boxes in other replication origins lacking E. coli-boxes. Therefore, strategically weak DnaA binding can be a general means of replication control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. On the role of the two extracytoplasmic substrate-binding domains in the ABC transporter OpuA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans-Oldehinkel, E; Poolman, B

    2003-01-01

    Members of two transporter families of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily use two or even four extracytoplasmic substrate-binding domains (SBDs) for transport. We report on the role of the two SBDs in the translocation cycle of the ABC transporter OpuA from Lactococcus lactis. Heterooligomer

  7. Viral reverse transcriptases show selective high affinity binding to DNA-DNA primer-templates that resemble the polypurine tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri R Nair

    Full Text Available Previous results using a SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment-based approach that selected DNA primer-template duplexes binding with high affinity to HIV reverse transcriptase (RT showed that primers mimicking the 3' end, and in particular the six nt terminal G tract, of the RNA polypurine tract (PPT; HIV PPT: 5'-AAAAGAAAAGGGGGG-3' were preferentially selected. In this report, two viral (Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV and avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV and one retrotransposon (Ty3 RTs were used for selection. Like HIV RT, both viral RTs selected duplexes with primer strands mimicking the G tract at the PPT 3' end (AMV PPT: 5'-AGGGAGGGGGA-3'; MuLV PPT: 5'-AGAAAAAGGGGGG-3'. In contrast, Ty3, whose PPT lacks a G tract (5'-GAGAGAGAGGAA-3' showed no selective binding to any duplex sequences. Experiments were also conducted with DNA duplexes (termed DNA PPTs mimicking the RNA PPT-DNA duplex of each virus and a control duplex with a random DNA sequence. Retroviral RTs bound with high affinity to all viral DNA PPT constructs, with HIV and MuLV RTs showing comparable binding to the counterpart DNA PPT duplexes and reduced affinity to the AMV DNA PPT. AMV RT showed similar behavior with a modest preference for its own DNA PPT. Ty3 RT showed no preferential binding for its own or any other DNA PPT and viral RTs bound the Ty3 DNA PPT with relatively low affinity. In contrast, binding affinity of HIV RT to duplexes containing the HIV RNA PPT was less dependent on the G tract, which is known to be pivotal for efficient extension. We hypothesize that the G tract on the RNA PPT helps shift the binding orientation of RT to the 3' end of the PPT where extension can occur.

  8. Molecular dynamics study of DNA binding by INT-DBD under a polarized force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xue X; Ji, Chang G; Xie, Dai Q; Zhang, John Z H

    2013-05-15

    The DNA binding domain of transposon Tn916 integrase (INT-DBD) binds to DNA target site by positioning the face of a three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet within the major groove. As the negatively charged DNA directly interacts with the positively charged residues (such as Arg and Lys) of INT-DBD, the electrostatic interaction is expected to play an important role in the dynamical stability of the protein-DNA binding complex. In the current work, the combined use of quantum-based polarized protein-specific charge (PPC) for protein and polarized nucleic acid-specific charge (PNC) for DNA were employed in molecular dynamics simulation to study the interaction dynamics between INT-DBD and DNA. Our study shows that the protein-DNA structure is stabilized by polarization and the calculated protein-DNA binding free energy is in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, our study revealed a positive correlation between the measured binding energy difference in alanine mutation and the occupancy of the corresponding residue's hydrogen bond. This correlation relation directly relates the contribution of a specific residue to protein-DNA binding energy to the strength of the hydrogen bond formed between the specific residue and DNA.

  9. Predicting DNA-binding sites of proteins based on sequential and 3D structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi-Qing; Feng, Kai-Yan; Ding, Juan; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2014-06-01

    Protein-DNA interactions play important roles in many biological processes. To understand the molecular mechanisms of protein-DNA interaction, it is necessary to identify the DNA-binding sites in DNA-binding proteins. In the last decade, computational approaches have been developed to predict protein-DNA-binding sites based solely on protein sequences. In this study, we developed a novel predictor based on support vector machine algorithm coupled with the maximum relevance minimum redundancy method followed by incremental feature selection. We incorporated not only features of physicochemical/biochemical properties, sequence conservation, residual disorder, secondary structure, solvent accessibility, but also five three-dimensional (3D) structural features calculated from PDB data to predict the protein-DNA interaction sites. Feature analysis showed that 3D structural features indeed contributed to the prediction of DNA-binding site and it was demonstrated that the prediction performance was better with 3D structural features than without them. It was also shown via analysis of features from each site that the features of DNA-binding site itself contribute the most to the prediction. Our prediction method may become a useful tool for identifying the DNA-binding sites and the feature analysis described in this paper may provide useful insights for in-depth investigations into the mechanisms of protein-DNA interaction.

  10. DNA binding during expanded bed adsorption and factors affecting adsorbent aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Mathiasen, N.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2008-01-01

    tolerance of anion exchangers when binding DNA. However, more importantly. with the adsorbents examined here. attempts to reduce bed aggregation by feedstock conditioning with added salt may increase DNA binding leading to a reduction in expanded bed adsorption performance compromising protein capture...... ligand densities to be examined. Very high dynamic binding capacities at 10% breakthrough were found in the absence of added salt. However, the highest binding capacities (similar to 10 and similar to 19mg DNA ml(-1) gel) were found in buffers containing added salt at concentrations of either 0.25 or 0......) even though the dynamic binding capacity was reduced as DNA concentration was increased. The extent of bed contraction during DNA loading was found to be a function of added salt concentration and ligand density of the adsorbent. The results imply that ligand density significantly affects the salt...

  11. Differential sensitivity to methylated DNA by ETS-family transcription factors is intrinsically encoded in their DNA-binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dominique C; Poon, Gregory M K

    2016-10-14

    Transactivation by the ETS family of transcription factors, whose members share structurally conserved DNA-binding domains, is variably sensitive to methylation of their target genes. The mechanism by which DNA methylation controls ETS proteins remains poorly understood. Uncertainly also pervades the effects of hemi-methylated DNA, which occurs following DNA replication and in response to hypomethylating agents, on site recognition by ETS proteins. To address these questions, we measured the affinities of two sequence-divergent ETS homologs, PU.1 and Ets-1, to DNA sites harboring a hemi- and fully methylated CpG dinucleotide. While the two proteins bound unmethylated DNA with indistinguishable affinity, their affinities to methylated DNA are markedly heterogeneous and exhibit major energetic coupling between the two CpG methylcytosines. Analysis of simulated DNA and existing co-crystal structures revealed that hemi-methylation induced non-local backbone and groove geometries that were not conserved in the fully methylated state. Indirect readout of these perturbations was differentially achieved by the two ETS homologs, with the distinctive interfacial hydration in PU.1/DNA binding moderating the inhibitory effects of DNA methylation on binding. This data established a biophysical basis for the pioneering properties associated with PU.1, which robustly bound fully methylated DNA, but not Ets-1, which was substantially inhibited. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Binding of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) to Ku but not to DNA-PKcs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunmei; Lieber, Michael R

    2002-03-29

    The nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) pathway is responsible for repairing a major fraction of double strand DNA breaks in somatic cells of all multicellular eukaryotes. As an indispensable protein in the NHEJ pathway, Ku has been hypothesized to be the first protein to bind at the DNA ends generated at a double strand break being repaired by this pathway. When bound to a DNA end, Ku improves the affinity of another DNA end-binding protein, DNA-PK(cs), to that end. The Ku.DNA-PK(cs) complex is often termed the DNA-PK holoenzyme. It was recently shown that myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) stimulates the joining of complementary DNA ends in a cell free system. Moreover, the binding data suggested that IP(6) bound to DNA-PK(cs) (not to Ku). Here we clearly show that, in fact, IP(6) associates not with DNA-PK(cs), but rather with Ku. Furthermore, the binding of DNA ends and IP(6) to Ku are independent of each other. The possible relationship between inositol phosphate metabolism and DNA repair is discussed in light of these findings.

  13. Structural basis of human transcription factor Sry-related box 17 binding to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nana; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Hai; Cheng, Zhong; Qian, Huolian; Si, Shuyi; Xie, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Sry-related box (Sox) transcription factors share a conserved high-mobility-group box domain (HMG-domain) that binds DNA in the minor groove and bends DNA for further assembly of transcriptional machineries. During organogenesis, each member of the Sox family triggers a specific cell lineage differentiation, indicating that their interactions with DNA are different from each other. Therefore, investigating structural rearrangement of each Sox transcription factor HMG-domain upon binding to DNA would help to elucidate the distinctive molecular mechanism by which they interact with DNA. Previous studies have determined the crystal structures of Sox2 HMG-domain/DNA, Sox4 HMGdomain/ DNA, Sox9 HMG-domain/DNA and Sox17 HMG-domain/DNA complexes. However, major gaps remain in the structural information on the Sox transcription factor HMG-domains. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human Sox17 HMG-domain alone at 2.4 A resolution. Comparing this structure and the structure of the mouse Sox17 HMGdomain/ DNA complex provides structural understanding of the mechanism of Sox17 binding to DNA. Specifically, after electrostatic interactions attract Sox17 to DNA, Asn73, Ser99, and Trp106 form hydrogen bonds with DNA, Arg70, Lys80, Arg83, His94, and Asn95 on Sox17 undergo conformational changes and form hydrogen bonds with DNA, contributing to the electrostatic interaction between Sox17 and DNA.

  14. Comparative thermodynamic studies on substrate and product binding of O-Acetylserine Sulfhydrylase reveals two different ligand recognition modes†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Sangaralingam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of understanding the detailed mechanism of cysteine biosynthesis in bacteria is underscored by the fact that cysteine is the only sulfur donor for all cellular components containing reduced sulfur. O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS catalyzes this crucial last step in the cysteine biosynthesis and has been recognized as an important gene for the survival and virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Structural and kinetic studies have contributed to the understanding of mechanistic aspects of OASS, but details of ligand recognition features of OASS are not available. In the absence of any detailed study on the energetics of ligand binding, we have studied the thermodynamics of OASS from Salmonella typhimurium (StOASS, Haemophilus influenzae (HiOASS, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtOASS binding to their substrate O-acetylserine (OAS, substrate analogue (methionine, and product (cysteine. Results Ligand binding properties of three OASS enzymes are studied under defined solution conditions. Both substrate and product binding is an exothermic reaction, but their thermodynamic signatures are very different. Cysteine binding to OASS shows that both enthalpy and entropy contribute significantly to the binding free energy at all temperatures (10-30°C examined. The analyses of interaction between OASS with OAS (substrate or methionine (substrate analogue revealed a completely different mode of binding. Binding of both OAS and methionine to OASS is dominated by a favorable entropy change, with minor contribution from enthalpy change (ΔHSt-Met = -1.5 ± 0.1 kJ/mol; TΔSSt-Met = 8.2 kJ/mol at 20°C. Our salt dependent ligand binding studies indicate that methionine binding affinity is more sensitive to [NaCl] as compared to cysteine affinity. Conclusions We show that OASS from three different pathogenic bacteria bind substrate and product through two different mechanisms. Results indicate that predominantly entropy driven

  15. Structural Basis of Substrate Binding in WsaF, a Rhamnosyltransferase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Kerstin; Hagelueken, Gregor; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina; Naismith, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrate polymers are medically and industrially important. The S-layer of many Gram-positive organisms comprises protein and carbohydrate polymers and forms an almost paracrystalline array on the cell surface. Not only is this array important for the bacteria but it has potential application in the manufacture of commercially important polysaccharides and glycoconjugates as well. The S-layer glycoprotein glycan from Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a is mainly composed of repeating units of three rhamnose sugars linked by α-1,3-, α-1,2-, and β-1,2-linkages. The formation of the β-1,2-linkage is catalysed by the enzyme WsaF. The rational use of this system is hampered by the fact that WsaF and other enzymes in the pathway share very little homology to other enzymes. We report the structural and biochemical characterisation of WsaF, the first such rhamnosyltransferase to be characterised. Structural work was aided by the surface entropy reduction method. The enzyme has two domains, the N-terminal domain, which binds the acceptor (the growing rhamnan chain), and the C-terminal domain, which binds the substrate (dTDP-β-l-rhamnose). The structure of WsaF bound to dTDP and dTDP-β-l-rhamnose coupled to biochemical analysis identifies the residues that underlie catalysis and substrate recognition. We have constructed and tested by site-directed mutagenesis a model for acceptor recognition. PMID:20097205

  16. Substrate binding of gelatinase B induces its enzymatic activity in the presence of intact propeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikov, Gregory A; Karelina, Tatiana V; Collier, Ivan E; Marmer, Barry L; Goldberg, Gregory I

    2002-05-03

    Expression of gelatinase B (matrix metalloprotease 9) in human placenta is developmentally regulated, presumably to fulfill a proteolytic function. Here we demonstrate that gelatinolytic activity in situ, in tissue sections of term placenta, is co-localized with gelatinase B. Judging by molecular mass, however, all the enzyme extracted from this tissue was found in a proform. To address this apparent incongruity, we examined the activity of gelatinase B bound to either gelatin- or type IV collagen-coated surfaces. Surprisingly, we found that upon binding, the purified proenzyme acquired activity against both the fluorogenic peptide (7-methoxycoumarin-4-yl)-acetic acid (MCA)-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-3-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-l-2,3-diaminopropionyl-Ala-Arg-NH(2) and gelatin substrates, whereas its propeptide remained intact. These results suggest that although activation of all known matrix metalloproteases in vitro is accomplished by proteolytic processing of the propeptide, other mechanisms, such as binding to a ligand or to a substrate, may lead to a disengagement of the propeptide from the active center of the enzyme, causing its activation.

  17. Squeezing at entrance of proton transport pathway in proton-translocating pyrophosphatase upon substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Tzu; Liu, Tseng-Huang; Lin, Shih-Ming; Chen, Yen-Wei; Pan, Yih-Jiuan; Lee, Ching-Hung; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Pan, Rong-Long

    2013-07-05

    Homodimeric proton-translocating pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase; EC 3.6.1.1) is indispensable for many organisms in maintaining organellar pH homeostasis. This unique proton pump couples the hydrolysis of PPi to proton translocation across the membrane. H(+)-PPase consists of 14-16 relatively hydrophobic transmembrane domains presumably for proton translocation and hydrophilic loops primarily embedding a catalytic site. Several highly conserved polar residues located at or near the entrance of the transport pathway in H(+)-PPase are essential for proton pumping activity. In this investigation single molecule FRET was employed to dissect the action at the pathway entrance in homodimeric Clostridium tetani H(+)-PPase upon ligand binding. The presence of the substrate analog, imidodiphosphate mediated two sites at the pathway entrance moving toward each other. Moreover, single molecule FRET analyses after the mutation at the first proton-carrying residue (Arg-169) demonstrated that conformational changes at the entrance are conceivably essential for the initial step of H(+)-PPase proton translocation. A working model is accordingly proposed to illustrate the squeeze at the entrance of the transport pathway in H(+)-PPase upon substrate binding.

  18. Stepwise bending of DNA by a single TATA box binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolic-Nørrelykke, Simon F; Rasmussen, Mette B; Pavone, Francesco S;

    2006-01-01

    bead is reduced compared to that of unbent DNA. We detected individual binding and dissocation events and derived kinetic parameters for the process. Dissociation was induced by increasing the salt concentration or by directly pulling on the tethered bead using optical tweezers. In addition to the well......The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required by all three eucaryotic RNA polymerases for the initiation of transcription from most promoters. TBP recognizes, binds to, and bends promoter sequences called "TATA-boxes" in the DNA. We present results from the study of individual Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae TBPs interacting with single DNA molecules containing a TATA-box. Using video microscopy, we observed the Brownian motion of the beads tethered by short surface-bound DNA. When TBP binds to and bends the DNA, the conformation of the DNA changes and the amplitude of Brownian motion of the tehtered...

  19. ALKBH7 Variant Related to Prostate Cancer Exhibits Altered Substrate Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Tina A.; Podolsky, Robert H.; Dyson, Gregory; Cisneros, Gerardo Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The search for prostate cancer biomarkers has received increased attention and several DNA repair related enzymes have been linked to this dysfunction. Here we report a targeted search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and functional impact characterization of human ALKBH family dioxygenases related to prostate cancer. Our results uncovered a SNP of ALKBH7, rs7540, which is associated with prostate cancer disease in a statistically significantly manner in two separate cohorts, and maintained in African American men. Comparisons of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on the wild-type and variant protein structures indicate that the resulting alteration in the enzyme induces a significant structural change that reduces ALKBH7’s ability to bind its cosubstrate. Experimental spectroscopy studies with purified proteins validate our MD predictions and corroborate the conclusion that this cancer-associated mutation affects productive cosubstrate binding in ALKBH7. PMID:28231280

  20. Fibronectin inhibits cytokine production induced by CpG DNA in macrophages without direct binding to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Yasuda, Sachiyo; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Kiyota, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2012-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is known to have four DNA-binding domains although their physiological significance is unknown. Primary murine peritoneal macrophages have been shown to exhibit markedly lower responsiveness to CpG motif-replete plasmid DNA (pDNA), Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) ligand, compared with murine macrophage-like cell lines. The present study was conducted to examine whether FN having DNA-binding domains is involved in this phenomenon. The expression of FN was significantly higher in primary macrophages than in a macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.7, suggesting that abundant FN might suppress the responsiveness in the primary macrophages. However, electrophoretic analysis revealed that FN did not bind to pDNA in the presence of a physiological concentration of divalent cations. Surprisingly, marked tumor necrosis factor - (TNF-)α production from murine macrophages upon CpG DNA stimulation was significantly reduced by exogenously added FN in a concentration-dependent manner but not by BSA, laminin or collagen. FN did not affect apparent pDNA uptake by the cells. Moreover, FN reduced TNF-α production induced by polyI:C (TLR3 ligand), and imiquimod (TLR7 ligand), but not by LPS (TLR4 ligand), or a non-CpG pDNA/cationic liposome complex. The confocal microscopic study showed that pDNA was co-localized with FN in the same intracellular compartment in RAW264.7, suggesting that FN inhibits cytokine signal transduction in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Taken together, the results of the present study has revealed, for the first time, a novel effect of FN whereby the glycoprotein modulates cytokine signal transduction via CpG-DNA/TLR9 interaction in macrophages without direct binding to DNA through its putative DNA-binding domains.

  1. Luminescence and binding properties of two isoquinoline alkaloids chelerythrine and sanguinarine with ctDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfen; Li, Baohong; Wu, Yanbo; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-09-01

    The binding mode and mechanism of the interactions between two planar cationic alkaloids chelerythrine (Che) and sanguinarine (San) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were systematically investigated at pH 5.40 using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Che and San show strong fluorescence at 570 and 589 nm, respectively. Che displays fluorescence enhancement with ctDNA whereas the fluorescence of San is quenched on interaction with ctDNA. In addition, UV-vis spectra of both alkaloids show apparent hypochromicity and are bathochromic shifted, indicating that they could intercalate into ctDNA bases. The fluorescence polarization of Che and San increases in the presence of ctDNA, again implying the intercalation of two alkaloids with ctDNA. This conclusion was also supported by the results obtained from anion quenching and cyclic voltammetry. The binding constants of both alkaloids with ctDNA were calculated in the order of 105 L/mol. San binds with ctDNA 3-fold stronger than Che. The stoichiometric bindings are five nucleotides per Che or San. Electrostatic binding also exists between the alkaloids and DNA helix. Finally, theoretical calculations show that only certain parts of Che and San molecules intercalate into the DNA helix.

  2. DNA deformability changes of single base pair mutants within CDE binding sites in S. Cerevisiae centromere DNA correlate with measured chromosomal loss rates and CDE binding site symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical sequence specific protein binding sites necessary for correct centromere formation and following assembly with proteins, are positioned near each other on a specialized nucleosome. Hegemann et al. BioEssays 1993, 15: 451–460 reported single base DNA mutants within the critical CDEI and CDEIII binding sites on the centromere of chromosome 6 and quantitated centromere loss of function, which they measured as loss rates for the different chromosome 6 mutants during cell division. Olson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 11163–11168 reported the use of protein-DNA crystallography data to produce a DNA dinucleotide protein deformability energetic scale (PD-scale that describes local DNA deformability by sequence specific binding proteins. We have used the PD-scale to investigate the DNA sequence dependence of the yeast chromosome 6 mutants' loss rate data. Each single base mutant changes 2 PD-scale values at that changed base position relative to the wild type. In this study, we have utilized these mutants to demonstrate a correlation between the change in DNA deformability of the CDEI and CDEIII core sites and the overall experimentally measured chromosome loss rates of the chromosome 6 mutants. Results In the CDE I and CDEIII core binding regions an increase in the magnitude of change in deformability of chromosome 6 single base mutants with respect to the wild type correlates to an increase in the measured chromosome loss rate. These correlations were found to be significant relative to 105 Monte Carlo randomizations of the dinucleotide PD-scale applied to the same calculation. A net loss of deformability also tends to increase the loss rate. Binding site position specific, 4 data-point correlations were also

  3. Determination of the cationic amphiphilic drug-DNA binding mode and DNA-assisted fluorescence resonance energy transfer amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Zahid; Banday, Abdul Rouf; Hussain, Mohammed Aamir; Tabish, Mohammad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2014-03-25

    Understanding the mechanism of drug-DNA binding is crucial for predicting the potential genotoxicity of drugs. Agarose gel electrophoresis, absorption, steady state fluorescence, and circular dichroism have been used in exploring the interaction of cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) such as amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT), imipramine hydrochloride (IMP), and promethazine hydrochloride (PMT) with calf thymus or pUC19 DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay, along with absorption and steady state fluorescence studies, reveal interaction between the CADs and DNA. A comparative study of the drugs with respect to the effect of urea, iodide induced quenching, and ethidium bromide (EB) exclusion assay reflects binding of CADs to the DNA primarily in an intercalative fashion. Circular dichroism data also support the intercalative mode of binding. Besides quenching, there is fluorescence exchange energy transfer (FRET) in between CADs and EB using DNA as a template.

  4. ø29 DNA polymerase residue Lys383, invariant at motif B of DNA-dependent polymerases, is involved in dNTP binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturno, J; Lázaro, J M; Esteban, F J; Blanco, L; Salas, M

    1997-06-13

    Bacteriophage ø29 DNA polymerase shares with other DNA-dependent DNA polymerases several regions of amino acid homology along the primary structure. Among them, motif B, characterized by the consensus +x3Kx(6-7)YG (+ being a positively charged amino acid), appears to be specifically conserved in those polymerases that use DNA but not RNA as template. In particular, the lysine residue of this motif is invariant in all members of DNA-dependent polymerases. In this paper we report a mutational analysis of this invariant residue of motif B with the construction and characterization of two mutant proteins in the corresponding residue (Lys383) of ø29 DNA polymerase. Mutant proteins (K383R and K383P) were overexpressed, purified and analyzed under steady-state conditions. In agreement with the modular organization proposed for ø29 DNA polymerase, the exonuclease activity was not affected in either mutant protein. Conversely, mutant K383P showed no detectable capacity to incorporate dNTP substrates using either DNA or TP as primer, although its affinity for DNA was not affected. The conservative substitution of Lys383 by arginine (K383R) resulted in a considerable impairment to use dNTPs, in both processive and non-processive DNA synthesis; the Km for dNTPs being 200-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Mutant K383R recovered the wild-type polymerase/exonuclease ratio when Mn2+ was used instead of Mg2+ as metal activator, indicating a distorted binding of the [dNTP-metal] chelate at the mutant enzyme active site. The positive charge at residue Lys383 was also critical in the catalysis of deoxynucleotidylation of the terminal protein by ø29 DNA polymerase. The results obtained suggest a direct role for the lysine residue in motif B in forming an evolutionarily conserved DNA templated dNTP binding pocket. Additionally, K383R mutant protein was also affected in the progression from protein-primed initiation to DNA elongation, a switch between two modes of

  5. Different thermodynamic signatures for DNA minor groove binding with changes in salt concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Kumar, Arvind; Aston, Karl; Nguyen, Binh; Bashkin, James K; Boykin, David W; Wilson, W David

    2013-10-04

    The effects of salt concentration and temperature on the thermodynamics of DNA minor groove binding have quite different signatures: binding enthalpy is salt concentration independent but temperature dependent. Conversely, binding free energy is salt dependent but essentially temperature independent through enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  6. Different Thermodynamic Signatures for DNA Minor Groove Binding with Changes in Salt Concentration and Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The effects of salt concentration and temperature on the thermodynamics of DNA minor groove binding have quite different signatures: binding enthalpy is salt concentration independent but temperature dependent. Conversely, binding free energy is salt dependent but essentially temperature independent through enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  7. Involvement of individual subsites and secondary substrate binding sites in multiple attack on amylose by barley alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramhøft, Birte; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Mori, Haruhide

    2005-01-01

    Barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1) hydrolyzed amylose with a degree of multiple attack (DMA) of 1.9; that is, on average, 2.9 glycoside bonds are cleaved per productive enzyme-substrate encounter. Six AMY1 mutants, spanning the substrate binding cleft from subsites -6 to +4, and a fusion protein, AMY1...... can be manipulated by structural changes in the active site or by introduction of extra substrate binding sites....... translocation of substrate in the binding cleft upon the initial cleavage to produce G6-G10, essentially independent of subsite mutations, and short-distance moves resulting in individually very different rates of release of G1-G4. Accordingly, the degree of multiple attack as well as the profile of products...

  8. In Vitro Selection of Optimal DNA Substrates for Ligation by a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection to investigate the sequence requirements for efficient template-directed ligation of oligonucleotides at 0 deg C using a water-soluble carbodiimide as condensing agent. We find that only 2 bp at each side of the ligation junction are needed. We also studied chemical ligation of substrate ensembles that we have previously selected as optimal by RNA ligase or by DNA ligase. As anticipated, we find that substrates selected with DNA ligase ligate efficiently with a chemical ligating agent, and vice versa. Substrates selected using RNA ligase are not ligated by the chemical condensing agent and vice versa. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry are discussed.

  9. A Novel Cobalt(Ⅲ) Mixed-polypyridyl Complex: Synthesis,Characterization and DNA Binding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Hui-Li(陈绘丽); YANG,Pin(杨频)

    2002-01-01

    A novel complex[Co(phen)2HPIP]Cl3[phen=phenanethroline,HPIP=2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanethroline]has been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis,UV,IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The interaction of the complex with calf thymus DNA(CT DNA)has been studied using absorption and emission spectroscopy, DNA melting techniques and cyclic voltammetry. The compound shows absorption hypochromicity, fluorescence enhancement and DNA melting temperature increment when binding to CT DNA. CV measurement shows a shift in reduction potential and a change in peak current with addition of DNA.These results prove that the compound inserts into DNA base pairs. The shift of peak potential indicates the ion interaction mode between the complex and DNA. The binding constant of the compound to DNA is 4.37×104. The complex also seems to be an efficient photocleavage reagent.

  10. Structural Basis for p53 Lys120-Acetylation-Dependent DNA-Binding Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainer, Radion; Cohen, Sarit; Shahar, Anat; Zarivach, Raz; Arbely, Eyal

    2016-07-31

    Normal cellular homeostasis depends on tight regulation of gene expression, which requires the modulation of transcription factors' DNA-binding specificity. That said, the mechanisms that allow transcription factors to distinguish between closely related response elements following different cellular signals are not fully understood. In the tumor suppressor protein p53, acetylation of loop L1 residue Lys120 within the DNA-binding domain has been shown to promote the transcription of proapoptotic genes such as bax. Here, we report the crystal structures of Lys120-acetylated p53 DNA-binding domain in complex with a consensus response element and with the natural BAX response element. Our structural analyses reveal that Lys120 acetylation expands the conformational space of loop L1 in the DNA-bound state. Loop L1 flexibility is known to increase p53's DNA-binding specificity, and Lys120-acetylation-dependent conformational changes in loop L1 enable the formation of sequence-dependent DNA-binding modes for p53. Furthermore, binding to the natural BAX response element is accompanied by global conformational changes, deformation of the DNA helical structure, and formation of an asymmetric tetrameric complex. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for p53's Lys120 acetylation-dependent DNA-binding mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A calmodulin binding protein from Arabidopsis is induced by ethylene and contains a DNA-binding motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S.; Reddy, V. S.; Golovkin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a key calcium sensor in all eukaryotes, regulates diverse cellular processes by interacting with other proteins. To isolate CaM binding proteins involved in ethylene signal transduction, we screened an expression library prepared from ethylene-treated Arabidopsis seedlings with 35S-labeled CaM. A cDNA clone, EICBP (Ethylene-Induced CaM Binding Protein), encoding a protein that interacts with activated CaM was isolated in this screening. The CaM binding domain in EICBP was mapped to the C-terminus of the protein. These results indicate that calcium, through CaM, could regulate the activity of EICBP. The EICBP is expressed in different tissues and its expression in seedlings is induced by ethylene. The EICBP contains, in addition to a CaM binding domain, several features that are typical of transcription factors. These include a DNA-binding domain at the N terminus, an acidic region at the C terminus, and nuclear localization signals. In database searches a partial cDNA (CG-1) encoding a DNA-binding motif from parsley and an ethylene up-regulated partial cDNA from tomato (ER66) showed significant similarity to EICBP. In addition, five hypothetical proteins in the Arabidopsis genome also showed a very high sequence similarity with EICBP, indicating that there are several EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis. The structural features of EICBP are conserved in all EICBP-related proteins in Arabidopsis, suggesting that they may constitute a new family of DNA binding proteins and are likely to be involved in modulating gene expression in the presence of ethylene.

  12. Specific binding of a dihydropyrimidinone derivative with DNA: Spectroscopic, calorimetric and modeling investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Gongke, E-mail: wanggongke@126.com [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Yan Changling; Wang Dongchao; Li Dan [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Lu Yan, E-mail: yanlu2001@sohu.com [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2012-07-15

    One of the dihydropyrimidinone derivative 5-(ethoxycarbonyl)-6-methyl-4-(4-methoxyphenyl) -3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one (EMMD) was synthesized, and its binding properties with calf-thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated using spectroscopic, viscometric, isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) and molecular modeling techniques. Fluorescence spectra suggested that the fluorescence enhancement of the binding interaction of EMMD to ctDNA was a static process with ground state complex formation. The binding constant determined with spectroscopic titration and ITC was found to be in the same order of 10{sup 4} M{sup -1}. According to the results of the viscosity analysis, fluorescence competitive binding experiment, fluorescence quenching studies, absorption spectral and ITC investigations, it can be concluded that EMMD is intercalative binding to ctDNA. Furthermore, the results of molecular modeling confirmed those obtained from spectroscopic, viscosimetric and ITC investigations. Additionally, ITC studies also indicated that the binding interaction is predominantly enthalpy driven. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Medically important dihydropyrimidinones derivative EMMD is synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EMMD is intercalative binding into ctDNA helix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen bonding may play an essential role in the binding of EMCD with ctDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This binding interaction is predominantly enthalpy driven.

  13. Binding of 8-methoxypsoralen to DNA in vitro: Monitoring by spectroscopic and chemometrics approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Guowen, E-mail: gwzhang@ncu.edu.cn; Wang, Langhong

    2014-10-15

    8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is a naturally occurring furanocoumarin with a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. The binding mechanism of 8-MOP to calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) at physiological pH was investigated by multi-spectroscopic techniques including UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy along with DNA melting studies and viscosity measurements. The multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) chemometrics approach was introduced to resolve the expanded UV–vis spectral data matrix, and both the pure spectra and the equilibrium concentration profiles for the components (8-MOP, ctDNA and 8-MOP-ctDNA complex) in the system were successfully obtained to monitor the 8-MOP-ctDNA interaction. The results suggested that 8-MOP could bind to ctDNA via intercalation binding as evidenced by significant increases in melting and relative viscosity of ctDNA and competitive study using acridine orange (AO) as a fluorescence probe. The positive values of enthalpy and entropy change suggested that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a predominant role in the binding process. Further, FT-IR and CD spectra analysis indicated that 8-MOP preferentially bound to A–T base pairs with no major perturbation in ctDNA double helix conformation. Moreover, molecular docking was employed to exhibit the specific binding mode of 8-MOP to ctDNA intuitively. - Highlights: • The interaction processes of 8-MOP with ctDNA was monitored by MCR-ALS approach. • The binding mode of 8-MOP to ctDNA was an intercalation. • 8-MOP most likely bound to adenine and thymine base pairs of ctDNA. • Molecular docking illustrated the specific binding.

  14. CSI-FID: high throughput label-free detection of DNA binding molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Karl E; Stover, James S; Boger, Dale L; Ansari, Aseem Z

    2009-07-15

    Determining the sequence specifity of DNA binding molecules is a non-trivial task. Here we describe the development of a platform for assaying the sequence specificity of DNA ligands using label free detection on high density DNA microarrays. This is achieved by combining Cognate Site Identification (CSI) with Fluorescence Intercalation Displacement (FID) to create CSI-FID. We use the well-studied small molecule DNA ligand netropsin to develop this high throughput platform. Analysis of the DNA binding properties of protein- and small molecule-based libraries with CSI-FID will advance the development of genome-anchored molecules for therapeutic purposes.

  15. Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding in chromatin

    CERN Document Server

    Teif, Vladimir B

    2010-01-01

    Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding are well established as a method to describe complex ligand binding equilibriums measured in vitro with purified DNA and protein components. Recently, a new field of applications has opened up for this approach since it has become possible to experimentally quantify genome-wide protein occupancies in relation to the DNA sequence. In particular, the organization of the eukaryotic genome by histone proteins into a nucleoprotein complex termed chromatin has been recognized as a key parameter that controls the access of transcription factors to the DNA sequence. New approaches have to be developed to derive statistical mechanical lattice descriptions of chromatin-associated protein-DNA interactions. Here, we present the theoretical framework for lattice models of histone-DNA interactions in chromatin and investigate the (competitive) DNA binding of other chromosomal proteins and transcription factors. The results have a number of applications for quant...

  16. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N- (4-chlorophenyl hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f, while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a. There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties.

  17. How does a protein reach its binding locus: sliding along DNA chain or not?

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingwei

    2016-01-01

    In gene expression, various kinds of proteins need to bind to specific locus of DNA. It is still not clear how these proteins find their target locus. In this study, the mean first-passage time (FPT) of protein binding to its target locus on DNA chain is discussed by a chain-space coupled model. Our results show that the 1-dimensional diffusion constant has a critical value, with which the mean time spent by a protein to find its target locus is almost independent of the binding rate of protein to DNA chain and the detachment rate from DNA chain. Which implies that, the frequency of protein binding to DNA and the sliding time on DNA chain have little influence on the search efficiency, and therefore whether or not the 1-dimensional sliding on DNA chain increases the search efficiency depends on the 1-dimensional diffusion constant of the protein on DNA chain. This study also finds that only protein bindings to DNA loci which are close to the target locus help to increase the search efficiency, while bindings ...

  18. Precise sequential DNA ligation on a solid substrate: solid-based rapid sequential ligation of multiple DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Eiji; Kohda, Katsunori; Tomatsu, Hajime; Hanano, Shigeru; Moriya, Kanami; Hosouchi, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Shibata, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Ligation, the joining of DNA fragments, is a fundamental procedure in molecular cloning and is indispensable to the production of genetically modified organisms that can be used for basic research, the applied biosciences, or both. Given that many genes cooperate in various pathways, incorporating multiple gene cassettes in tandem in a transgenic DNA construct for the purpose of genetic modification is often necessary when generating organisms that produce multiple foreign gene products. Here, we describe a novel method, designated PRESSO (precise sequential DNA ligation on a solid substrate), for the tandem ligation of multiple DNA fragments. We amplified donor DNA fragments with non-palindromic ends, and ligated the fragment to acceptor DNA fragments on solid beads. After the final donor DNA fragments, which included vector sequences, were joined to the construct that contained the array of fragments, the ligation product (the construct) was thereby released from the beads via digestion with a rare-cut meganuclease; the freed linear construct was circularized via an intra-molecular ligation. PRESSO allowed us to rapidly and efficiently join multiple genes in an optimized order and orientation. This method can overcome many technical challenges in functional genomics during the post-sequencing generation.

  19. Specific interaction of IP6 with human Ku70/80, the DNA-binding subunit of DNA-PK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakahi, Les A; West, Stephen C

    2002-04-15

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA double-strand breaks can be repaired by non-homologous end-joining, a process dependent upon Ku70/80, XRCC4 and DNA ligase IV. In mammals, this process also requires DNA-PK(cs), the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase DNA-PK. Previously, inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) was shown to be bound by DNA-PK and to stimulate DNA-PK-dependent end-joining in vitro. Here, we localize IP6 binding to the Ku70/80 subunits of DNA- PK, and show that DNA-PK(cs) alone exhibits no detectable affinity for IP6. Moreover, proteolysis mapping of Ku70/80 in the presence and absence of IP6 indicates that binding alters the conformation of the Ku70/80 heterodimer. The yeast homologue of Ku70/80, yKu70/80, fails to bind IP6, indicating that the function of IP6 in non-homologous end-joining, like that of DNA-PK(cs), is unique to the mammalian end-joining process.

  20. A substrate-induced biotin binding pocket in the carboxyltransferase domain of pyruvate carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D; St Maurice, Martin

    2013-07-05

    Biotin-dependent enzymes catalyze carboxyl transfer reactions by efficiently coordinating multiple reactions between spatially distinct active sites. Pyruvate carboxylase (PC), a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the bicarbonate- and MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues. To complete the overall reaction, the tethered biotin prosthetic group must first gain access to the biotin carboxylase domain and become carboxylated and then translocate to the carboxyltransferase domain, where the carboxyl group is transferred from biotin to pyruvate. Here, we report structural and kinetic evidence for the formation of a substrate-induced biotin binding pocket in the carboxyltransferase domain of PC from Rhizobium etli. Structures of the carboxyltransferase domain reveal that R. etli PC occupies a symmetrical conformation in the absence of the biotin carboxylase domain and that the carboxyltransferase domain active site is conformationally rearranged upon pyruvate binding. This conformational change is stabilized by the interaction of the conserved residues Asp(590) and Tyr(628) and results in the formation of the biotin binding pocket. Site-directed mutations at these residues reduce the rate of biotin-dependent reactions but have no effect on the rate of biotin-independent oxaloacetate decarboxylation. Given the conservation with carboxyltransferase domains in oxaloacetate decarboxylase and transcarboxylase, the structure-based mechanism described for PC may be applicable to the larger family of biotin-dependent enzymes.

  1. A role for the weak DnaA binding sites in bacterial replication origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    DnaA initiates the chromosomal DNA replication in nearly all bacteria, and replication origins are characterized by binding sites for the DnaA protein (DnaA-boxes) along with an ‘AT-rich’ region. However, great variation in number, spatial organization and specificity of DnaA-boxes is observed...... between species. In the study by Taylor et al. (2011), new and unexpectedly weak DnaA-boxes were identified within the Caulobacter crescentus origin of replication (Cori). The position of weak and stronger DnaA-boxes follows a pattern seen in Escherichia coli oriC. This raises the possibility...

  2. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  3. Theory of dielectric loss in Graphene-on-substrate: A tight- binding model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sivabrata; Panda, S. K.; Rout, G. C.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene-on-substrate exhibits interesting dielectric behaviour due to screening of coulomb interaction induced by many body effects. In this communication we attempt to study the dielectric loss property of graphene within tight-binding model approach. The Hamiltonian consisting of electron hopping upto third-nearest-neighbour's with impurities in two in equivalent sub-lattices. The graphene-on-substrate raises the energy +Δ at one sub lattice and reduces energy -Δ at other sub lattice. Further we introduced coulomb interaction between π - electrons at the two sub lattices separately with the same effective coulomb interaction. We calculate polarization function Π(q, ω) which is a two particle Green's function arising due to charge-charge correlation by using Zubarev's Green's function technique. Finally we calculate dielectric function of graphene i.e. ε(q, ω) =1+Π(q,ω) at arbitrary wave vector q and frequency ra. The dielectric loss in graphene calculated from the imaginary part of dielectric function which is a measure of absorption spectrum. Only a few Fragmentary theoretical attempts have been made to utilize the full frequency and wave vector dependent dielectric function. We compute numerically the frequency dependent dielectric loss function for 100x100 momentum grid points. We observe a low energy Plasmon resonance peak and a high energy flat peak arising due to absorption of optical energy at substrate induced gap. With increase of small Plasmon wave vector, both low and high energy peaks approach each other. The dielectric loss at low energies exhibits a parabolic curve, but it exhibit a clear peak on introduction of higher order electron hopping's. The Coulomb interaction suppresses induced gap in graphene and decreases the optical energy absorption spectra. The increase of substrate induced gap shifts the high energy flat peak to higher energies and enhances the dielectric loss throughout the frequency range. Finally the effect of doping on

  4. The role of monogamous bivalency and Fc interactions in the binding of anti-DNA antibodies to DNA antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Nancy A; Pisetsky, David S

    2016-05-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus. These antibodies can bind DNA avidly by monogamous bivalency, a mechanism which requires the interaction of both Fab combining regions with antigenic determinants on the same polynucleotide. To explore further this mechanism, we tested Fab and F(ab')2 fragments prepared from IgG from patient plasmas in an ELISA with native DNA antigen, detecting antibody with a peroxidase conjugated anti-Fab reagent. These studies showed that Fab fragments, which can only bind monovalently, had negligible activity. Although bivalent F(ab')2 fragments would be predicted to bind DNA, these fragments also showed poor anti-DNA activity. Control studies showed that the fragments retained antibody activity to tetanus toxoid and an EBV antigen preparation. Together, these findings suggest that anti-DNA avidity depends on monogamous bivalency, with the antibody Fc portion also influencing DNA binding, in a mechanism which can be termed Fc-dependent monogamous bivalency.

  5. RecA Binding to a Single Double-Stranded DNA Molecule: A Possible Role of DNA Conformational Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J. F.; Robert, J.; Bourdieu, L.; Chatenay, D.; Marko, J. F.

    1998-10-01

    Most genetic regulatory mechanisms involve protein-DNA interactions. In these processes, the classical Watson-Crick DNA structure sometimes is distorted severely, which in turn enables the precise recognition of the specific sites by the protein. Despite its key importance, very little is known about such deformation processes. To address this general question, we have studied a model system, namely, RecA binding to double-stranded DNA. Results from micromanipulation experiments indicate that RecA binds strongly to stretched DNA; based on this observation, we propose that spontaneous thermal stretching fluctuations may play a role in the binding of RecA to DNA. This has fundamental implications for the protein-DNA binding mechanism, which must therefore rely in part on a combination of flexibility and thermal fluctuations of the DNA structure. We also show that this mechanism is sequence sensitive. Theoretical simulations support this interpretation of our experimental results, and it is argued that this is of broad relevance to DNA-protein interactions.

  6. DNA interaction studies of a platinum (II) complex containing an antiviral drug, ribavirin: the effect of metal on DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Mirzaei kalar, Zeinab; Moghadam, Neda Hosseinpour

    2012-10-01

    The water-soluble Pt (II) complex, [PtCl (DMSO)(N(4)N(7)-ribavirin)]· H(2)O (ribavirin is an antiviral drug) has been synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding interactions of this complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated using fluorimetry, spectrophotometry, circular dichroism and viscosimetry. The complex binds to CT-DNA in an intercalative mode. The calculated binding constant, K(b), was 7.2×10(5) M(-1). In fluorimetric studies, the enthalpy (ΔH0) changes of the reaction between the Pt (II) complex with CT-DNA showed hydrophobic interaction. In addition, CD study showed stabilization of the right-handed B form of CT-DNA. All these results prove that the complex interacts with CT-DNA via intercalative mode of binding. In comparison with the previous study of the DNA interaction with ribavirin, these results show that platinum complex has greater affinity to CT-DNA.

  7. Investigation of DNA binding, DNA photocleavage, topoisomerase I inhibition and antioxidant activities of water soluble titanium(IV) phthalocyanine compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Arzu; Barut, Burak; Demirbaş, Ümit; Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya

    2016-04-01

    The binding mode of water soluble peripherally tetra-substituted titanium(IV) phthalocyanine (Pc) compounds Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 with calf thymus (CT) DNA was investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermal denaturation studies in this work. The results of DNA binding constants (Kb) and the changes in the thermal denaturation profile of DNA with the addition of Pc compounds indicated that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 are able to bind to CT-DNA with different binding affinities. DNA photocleavage studies of Pc compounds were performed in the absence and presence of oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (AA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) using the agarose gel electrophoresis method at irradiation 650 nm. According to the results of electrophoresis studies, Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 cleaved of supercoiled pBR322 DNA via photocleavage pathway. The Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds were examined for topoisomerase I inhibition by measuring the relaxation of supercoiled pBR322 DNA. The all of Pc compounds inhibited topoisomerase I at 20 μM concentration. A series of antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, superoxide radical scavenging (SOD) assay and metal chelating effect assay were performed for Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds. The results of antioxidant assays indicated that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds have remarkable superoxide radical scavenging activities, moderate 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activities and metal chelating effect activities. All the experimental studies showed that Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds bind to CT-DNA via minor groove binding, cleave of supercoiled pBR322 DNA via photocleavage pathway, inhibit topoisomerase I and have remarkable superoxide radical scavenging activities. Thanks to these properties the Pc1, Pc2 and Pc3 compounds are suitable agents for photo dynamic therapy.

  8. Purification of DNA polymerase II stimulatory factor I, a yeast single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Incidental to the purification of yeast DNA polymerase II was the observation that various chromatographic fractions contained activities that stimulated synthesis by this polymerase. In this paper we report the purification and initial characterization of one such factor, stimulatory factor I (SFI). SFI, which is associated with an apparent complex of three polypeptides of 66, 37, and 13.5 kDa, binds preferentially to single-stranded DNA, possibly explaining its ability to stimulate DNA poly...

  9. Preliminary investigation of sequence-independent DNA binding proteins in rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum and their function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文; 姜志胜; 倪菊华; 陈光慧; 刘乃奎; 汤健; 贾弘褆; 唐朝枢

    2000-01-01

    To observe the binding of plasmid DNA to non-nuclear DNA binding proteins in sar-coplasmic reticulum (SR) and the effects of this binding on SR function, sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins in rat skeletal muscle were isolated by differential centrifuge and sucrose density-gradient centrifuge. The results showed that there are two sequence-independent DNA binding proteins in SR proteins, the molecular weights of which are 83 and 58 ku, respectively. Ca2+ uptake and release of SR were remarkably promoted by the binding of plasmid DNA to DNA binding proteins in SR, the mechanism is probably through increasing of Ca2+-ATPase activity in SR and changing of character of Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptors induced by the binding. These results suggest that there exist DNA binding proteins in SR and its binding to DNA may affect Ca2+ transport of SR.

  10. Preliminary investigation of sequence-independent DNA binding proteins in rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum and their function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To observe the binding of plasmid DNA to non-nuclear DNA binding proteins in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the effects of this binding on SR function, sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins in rat skeletal muscle were isolated by differential centrifuge and sucrose density-gradient centrifuge. The results showed that there are two sequence-independent DNA binding proteins in SR proteins, the molecular weights of which are 83 and 58 ku, respectively. Ca2+ uptake and release of SR were remarkably promoted by the binding of plasmid DNA to DNA binding proteins in SR, the mechanism is probably through increasing of Ca2+-ATPase activity in SR and changing of character of Ca2+ release channel ryanodine receptors induced by the binding. These results suggest that there exist DNA binding proteins in SR and its binding to DNA may affect Ca2+ transport of SR.

  11. Spectrophotometric analysis of flavonoid-DNA binding interactions at physiological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Siddiqa, Asima; Yaqub, Azra; Sabahat, Sana; Qureshi, Rumana; Haque, Sayed ul

    2009-12-01

    Mode of interactions of three flavonoids [morin (M), quercetin (Q), and rutin (R)] with chicken blood ds.DNA (ck.DNA) has been investigated spectrophotometrically at different temperatures including body temperature (310 K) and at two physiological pH values, i.e. 7.4 (human blood pH) and 4.7 (stomach pH). The binding constants, Kf, evaluated using Benesi-Hildebrand equation showed that the flavonoids bind effectively through intercalation at both pH values and body temperature. Quercetin, somehow, showed greater binding capabilities with DNA. The free energies of flavonoid-DNA complexes indicated the spontaneity of their binding. The order of binding constants of three flavonoids at both pH values were found to be Kf(Q) > Kf(R) > Kf(M) and at 310 K.

  12. Identification of a DNA binding protein that recognizes the nonamer recombinational signal sequence of immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, B D; Desiderio, S V

    1987-10-01

    Extracts of nuclei from B- and T-lymphoid cells contain a protein that binds specifically to the conserved nonamer DNA sequence within the recombinational signals of immunoglobulin genes. Complexes with DNA fragments from four kappa light-chain joining (J) segments have the same electrophoretic mobility. Nonamer-containing DNA fragments from heavy-chain and light-chain genes compete for binding. Within the 5'-flanking DNA of the J kappa 4 gene segment, the binding site has been localized to a 27-base-pair interval spanning the nonamer region. The binding activity is recovered as a single peak after ion-exchange chromatography. The site of binding of the protein and its presence in nuclei of lymphoid cells suggest that it may function in the assembly of immunoglobulin genes.

  13. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Patricia A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I•C base pairs are functional analogs of A•T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1 ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.

  14. Context influences on TALE-DNA binding revealed by quantitative profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Julia M; Barrera, Luis A; Reyon, Deepak; Sander, Jeffry D; Kellis, Manolis; Joung, J Keith; Bulyk, Martha L

    2015-06-11

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins recognize DNA using a seemingly simple DNA-binding code, which makes them attractive for use in genome engineering technologies that require precise targeting. Although this code is used successfully to design TALEs to target specific sequences, off-target binding has been observed and is difficult to predict. Here we explore TALE-DNA interactions comprehensively by quantitatively assaying the DNA-binding specificities of 21 representative TALEs to ∼5,000-20,000 unique DNA sequences per protein using custom-designed protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). We find that protein context features exert significant influences on binding. Thus, the canonical recognition code does not fully capture the complexity of TALE-DNA binding. We used the PBM data to develop a computational model, Specificity Inference For TAL-Effector Design (SIFTED), to predict the DNA-binding specificity of any TALE. We provide SIFTED as a publicly available web tool that predicts potential genomic off-target sites for improved TALE design.

  15. Study on the Binding Mode of a Co(Ⅱ) Complex with DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qing-Hua; YANG Pin

    2005-01-01

    The mode of binding of CoLCl2, here L=bis(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine, with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by fluorescence measurements, equilibrium dialysis, viscosity experiments and gel electrophoresis. The complex was found to bind but weakly to DNA, with binding constant of 1.96× 104 L/mol determind at 20 ℃ in a solution containing 5 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 7.1) and 50 mmol/L NaCl. Polyelectrolyte theory was applied to analyse these values. Viscosity experiments show that binding did not alter the relative viscosity of DNA with any complexes to an appreciable extent. Electrophoresis test displayed that the compound could not cleave the DNA.These results show that the complex is essentially electrostatically bound to DNA.

  16. Spectroscopic probe of the competitive binding of ethidium bromide and neomycin to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Medini Kanta; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    1995-03-01

    The three spectroscopic changes of ethidium bromide (EB) on its binding to DNA, namely red-shift of the νmax, enhancement of fluorescence and induced dichroism are utilized to study the competitive binding of neomycin (NMC) and EB to DNA. Reversion of νmax, decrease in fluorescence and reduction of dichroism of DNA-EB on addition of NMC shows that the binding of NMC and EB to DNA is competitive in nature, over a limited concentration of the polymer. The binding constant of EB-DNA falls from 4.00 × 10 6 to 2.27 × 10 4 1 mol -1 in the presence of added NMC.

  17. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) binding with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Irudayam Maria; Prakash, Halan; Prathiba, Jeyaguru; Raghunathan, Raghavachary; Malathi, Raghunathan

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+) and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m)) or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3) M(-1), DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3) M(-1), and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3) M(-1). On the other hand T(m)/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C) and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond) interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+), methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+). The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  18. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine binding with DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irudayam Maria Johnson

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+ and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3 M(-1, DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3 M(-1, and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3 M(-1. On the other hand T(m/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+, methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+. The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  19. Conformation of nanoconfined DNA as a function of ATP, AMP, CTP, Mg2+, and dye binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Maedeh; Riehn, Robert

    2014-03-01

    DNA molecules stretch in nanochannels with a channel cross-section of 100x100 nm2, thereby allowing analysis by observation of a fluorescent dye. The length and configuration of DNA can be directly observed, and the effect of different DNA-binding proteins on DNA configuration can be studied. Recently, we reported on the ability of T4 ligase to transiently manipulate DNA as a function of ATP and magnesium exposure. In this process we have extensively probed the interactions of dyes and enzyme co-factors with DNA under nanoconfinement. We find negligible effects if DNA is visualized using groove-binding dyes such as DAPI. However, if an intercalating dye (YOYO-1) is used, we find a significant shortening of the DNA in the presence of ATP that we attribute to an interaction of dye and ATP (as well as AMP and CTP). We did not record a noticeable effect due to Mg2+.

  20. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene to DNA by cytochrome P-450 catalyzed one-electron oxidation in rat liver microsomes and nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalieri, E.L.; Rogan, E.G.; Devanesan, P.D.; Cremonesi, P. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (USA)); Cerny, R.L.; Gross, M.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA)); Bodell, W.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-05-22

    To investigate whether cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the covalent binding of substrates to DNA by one-electron oxidation, the ability of both uninduced and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) induced rat liver microsomes and nuclei to catalyze covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to DNA and formation of the labile adduct 7-(benzo(a)pyren-6-yl)guanine (BP-N7Gua) was investigated. In the various systems studied, 1-9 times more BP-N7Gua adduct was isolated than the total amount of stable BP adducts in the DNA. The specific cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 2-((4,6-dichloro-o-biphenyl)oxy)ethylamine hydrobromide (DPEA) reduced or eliminated BP metabolism, binding of BP to DNA, and formation of BP-N7Gua by cytochrome P-450 in both microsomes and nuclei. The effects of the antioxidants cysteine, glutathione, and p-methoxythiophenol were also investigated. This study represents the first demonstration of cytochrome P-450 mediating covalent binding of substrates to DNA via one-electron oxidation and suggests that this enzyme can catalyze peroxidase-type electron-transfer reactions.

  1. Structural Determinants of DNA Binding by a P. falciparum ApiAP2 Transcriptional Regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, Scott E.; De Silva, Erandi K.; Keck, James L.; Llinás, Manuel (Princeton); (UW-MED)

    2010-11-05

    Putative transcription factors have only recently been identified in the Plasmodium spp., with the major family of regulators comprising the Apicomplexan Apetala2 (AP2) proteins. To better understand the DNA-binding mechanisms of these transcriptional regulators, we characterized the structure and in vitro function of an AP2 DNA-binding domain from a prototypical Apicomplexan AP2 protein, PF14{_}0633 from Plasmodium falciparum. The X-ray crystal structure of the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain bound to DNA reveals a {beta}-sheet fold that binds the DNA major groove through base-specific and backbone contacts; a prominent {alpha}-helix supports the {beta}-sheet structure. Substitution of predicted DNA-binding residues with alanine weakened or eliminated DNA binding in solution. In contrast to plant AP2 domains, the PF14{_}0633 AP2 domain dimerizes upon binding to DNA through a domain-swapping mechanism in which the {alpha}-helices of the AP2 domains pack against the {beta}-sheets of the dimer mates. DNA-induced dimerization of PF14{_}0633 may be important for tethering two distal DNA loci together in the nucleus and/or for inducing functional rearrangements of its domains to facilitate transcriptional regulation. Consistent with a multisite binding mode, at least two copies of the consensus sequence recognized by PF14{_}0633 are present upstream of a previously identified group of sporozoite-stage genes. Taken together, these findings illustrate how Plasmodium has adapted the AP2 DNA-binding domain for genome-wide transcriptional regulation.

  2. Approaches to enzyme and substrate design of the murine Dnmt3a DNA methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Renata Z; Siddique, Abu Nasar; Jurkowski, Tomasz P; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-07-01

    Dnmt3a-C, the catalytic domain of the Dnmt3a DNA-(cytosine-C5)-methyltransferase, is active in an isolated form but, like the full-length Dnmt3a, shows only weak DNA methylation activity. To improve this activity by directed evolution, we set up a selection system in which Dnmt3a-C methylated its own expression plasmid in E. coli, and protected it from cleavage by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. However, despite screening about 400 clones that were selected in three rounds from a random mutagenesis library of 60 000 clones, we were not able to isolate a variant with improved activity, most likely because of a background of uncleaved plasmids and plasmids that had lost the restriction sites. To improve the catalytic activity of Dnmt3a-C by optimization of the sequence of the DNA substrate, we analyzed its flanking-sequence preference in detail by bisulfite DNA-methylation analysis and sequencing of individual clones. Based on the enrichment and depletion of certain bases in the positions flanking >1300 methylated CpG sites, we were able to define a sequence-preference profile for Dnmt3a-C from the -6 to the +6 position of the flanking sequence. This revealed preferences for T over a purine at position -2, A over G at -1, a pyrimidine at +1, and A and T over G at +3. We designed one "good" substrate optimized for methylation and one "bad" substrate designed not to be efficiently methylated, and showed that the optimized substrate is methylated >20 times more rapidly at its central CpG site. The optimized Dnmt3a-C substrate can be applied in enzymatic high-throughput assays with Dnmt3a-C (e.g., for inhibitor screening), because the increased activity provides an improved dynamic range and better signal/noise ratio.

  3. DNA intercalators induce specific release of HMG 14, HMG 17 and other DNA-binding proteins from chicken erythrocyte chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, H; Maier, G; Ponstingl, H; Nordheim, A

    1985-01-01

    Chicken erythrocyte nuclei were incubated with DNA intercalating agents in order to isolate from chromatin specific DNA-binding proteins whose binding specificity may be determined by DNA secondary and/or tertiary structure. The intercalating agents ethidium bromide (EtBr) and propidium iodide induce the specific release of high mobility group proteins HMG 14 and HMG 17 under low ionic strength conditions. Chloroquine (CQ) intercalation also results in the selective liberation of HMG 14 and HMG 17, but, in addition, selectively releases other nuclear proteins (including histone H1A) in a pH- and ionic strength-dependent fashion. The use of this new 'elutive intercalation' technique for the isolation and purification of 'sequence-specific' and 'helix-specific' DNA-binding proteins is suggested. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:4092697

  4. Minor Groove Binding between Norfloxacin and DNA Duplexes in Solution: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics were used to investigate the interaction between norfloxacin and DNA duplex. The results showed that norfloxacin was situated in the minor groove of DNA,binding to the TCGA region of d [ATATCGATAT] 2. Specific hydrogen bonds were formed between norfloxacin and guanine base of DNA during the 2 ns MD, which may be the reason for the preferentiality of quinolone antibacterial towards the guanine base of DNA duplex.

  5. Calculations of the resonant response of carbon nanotubes to binding of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Meng; Ke Changhong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Eom, Kilho, E-mail: cke@binghamton.ed, E-mail: kilhoeom@korea.ac.k [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-21

    We theoretically study the dynamical response of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the binding of DNA in an aqueous environment by considering two major interactions in DNA helical binding to the CNT side surface: adhesion between DNA nucleobases and CNT surfaces and electrostatic interactions between negative charges on DNA backbones. The equilibrium DNA helical wrapping angle is obtained using the minimum potential energy method. Our results show that the preferred DNA wrapping angle in the equilibrium binding to CNT is dependent on both DNA length and DNA base. The equilibrium wrapping angle for a poly(dT) chain is larger than a comparable poly(dA) chain as a result of dT in a homopolymer chain having a higher effective binding energy to CNT than dA. Our results also interestingly reveal a sharp transition in the wrapping angle-DNA length profile for both homopolymers, implying that the equilibrium helical wrapping configuration does not exist for a certain range of wrapping angles. Furthermore, the resonant response of the DNA-CNT complex is analysed based on the variational method with a Hamiltonian which takes into account the CNT bending energy as well as DNA-CNT interactions. The closed-form analytical solution for predicting the resonant frequency of the DNA-CNT complex is presented. Our results show that the hydrodynamic loading on the oscillating CNT in aqueous environments has profound impacts on the resonance behaviour of DNA-CNT complexes. Our results suggest that detection of DNA molecules using CNT resonators based on DNA-CNT interactions through frequency measurements should be conducted in media with low hydrodynamic loading on CNTs. Our theoretical framework provides a fundamental principle for label-free detection using CNT resonators based on DNA-CNT interactions.

  6. Dynamic Coupling among Protein Binding, Sliding, and DNA Bending Revealed by Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Terakawa, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Shoji

    2016-07-13

    Protein binding to DNA changes the DNA's structure, and altered DNA structure can, in turn, modulate the dynamics of protein binding. This mutual dependency is poorly understood. Here we investigated dynamic couplings among protein binding to DNA, protein sliding on DNA, and DNA bending by applying a coarse-grained simulation method to the bacterial architectural protein HU and 14 other DNA-binding proteins. First, we verified our method by showing that the simulated HU exhibits a weak preference for A/T-rich regions of DNA and a much higher affinity for gapped and nicked DNA, consistent with biochemical experiments. The high affinity was attributed to a local DNA bend, but not the specific chemical moiety of the gap/nick. The long-time dynamic analysis revealed that HU sliding is associated with the movement of the local DNA bending site. Deciphering single sliding steps, we found the coupling between HU sliding and DNA bending is akin to neither induced-fit nor population-shift; instead they moved concomitantly. This is reminiscent of a cation transfer on DNA and can be viewed as a protein version of polaron-like sliding. Interestingly, on shorter time scales, HU paused when the DNA was highly bent at the bound position and escaped from pauses once the DNA spontaneously returned to a less bent structure. The HU sliding is largely regulated by DNA bending dynamics. With 14 other proteins, we explored the generality and versatility of the dynamic coupling and found that 6 of the 15 assayed proteins exhibit the polaron-like sliding.

  7. Direct assessment of substrate binding to the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter LeuT by solid state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Simon; Gotfryd, Kamil; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Mortensen, Jonas Sigurd; Geiger, Michel-Andreas; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Gether, Ulrik; Teilum, Kaare; Loland, Claus J

    2017-01-01

    The Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters (NSSs) represent an important class of proteins mediating sodium-dependent uptake of neurotransmitters from the extracellular space. The substrate binding stoichiometry of the bacterial NSS protein, LeuT, and thus the principal transport mechanism, has been heavily debated. Here we used solid state NMR to specifically characterize the bound leucine ligand and probe the number of binding sites in LeuT. We were able to produce high-quality NMR spectra of substrate bound to microcrystalline LeuT samples and identify one set of sodium-dependent substrate-specific chemical shifts. Furthermore, our data show that the binding site mutants F253A and L400S, which probe the major S1 binding site and the proposed S2 binding site, respectively, retain sodium-dependent substrate binding in the S1 site similar to the wild-type protein. We conclude that under our experimental conditions there is only one detectable leucine molecule bound to LeuT. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19314.001 PMID:28117663

  8. Direct assessment of substrate binding to the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter LeuT by solid state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Simon; Gotfryd, Kamil; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Mortensen, Jonas Sigurd; Geiger, Michel-Andreas; van Rossum, Barth-Jan; Oschkinat, Hartmut; Gether, Ulrik; Teilum, Kaare; Loland, Claus J

    2017-01-24

    The Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters (NSSs) represent an important class of proteins mediating sodium-dependent uptake of neurotransmitters from the extracellular space. The substrate binding stoichiometry of the bacterial NSS protein, LeuT, and thus the principal transport mechanism, has been heavily debated. Here we used solid state NMR to specifically characterize the bound leucine ligand and probe the number of binding sites in LeuT. We were able to produce high-quality NMR spectra of substrate bound to microcrystalline LeuT samples and identify one set of sodium-dependent substrate-specific chemical shifts. Furthermore, our data show that the binding site mutants F253A and L400S, which probe the major S1 binding site and the proposed S2 binding site, respectively, retain sodium-dependent substrate binding in the S1 site similar to the wild-type protein. We conclude that under our experimental conditions there is only one detectable leucine molecule bound to LeuT.

  9. Steady state kinetic model for the binding of substrates and allosteric effectors to Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl-diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Larsen, Sine

    2000-01-01

    saturation with ribose 5-phosphate leads to the binding of Mg2+ and substrates via a slow pathway where Pi binds to the enzyme last. The random mechanism for Pi binding was further supported by studies with competitive inhibitors of Mg2+, MgATP, and ribose 5-phosphate that all appeared noncompetitive when...... varying Pi at either saturating or unsaturating ribose 5-phosphate concentrations. Furthermore, none of the inhibitors induced inhibition at increasing Pi concentrations. Results from ADP inhibition of Pi activation suggest that these effectors compete for binding to a common regulatory site....

  10. Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The π-π∗ transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid.

  11. Structural modelling of substrate binding and inhibition in penicillin V acylase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, V S; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Suresh, C G; Pundle, Archana V; Ramasamy, Sureshkumar

    2013-08-09

    Penicillin V acylases (PVAs) and bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) have considerable sequence and structural similarity; however, they vary significantly in their substrate specificity. We have identified a PVA from a Gram-negative organism, Pectobacterium atrosepticum (PaPVA) that turned out to be a remote homolog of the PVAs and BSHs reported earlier. Even though the active site residues were conserved in PaPVA it showed high specificity towards penV and interestingly the penV acylase activity was inhibited by bile salts. Comparative modelling and docking studies were carried out to understand the structural differences of the binding site that confer this characteristic property. We show that PaPVA exhibits significant differences in structure, which are in contrast to those of known PVAs and such enzymes from Gram-negative bacteria require further investigation.

  12. Deciphering the groove binding modes of tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin with calf thymus DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Mo; Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui; Xiong, Chunhong

    2016-02-01

    Tau-fluvalinate (TFL) and flumethrin (FL), widely used in agriculture and a class of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides with a similar structure, may cause a potential security risk. Herein, the modes of binding in vitro of TFL and FL with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were characterized by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the aid of viscosity measurements, melting analyses and molecular docking studies. The fluorescence titration indicated that both TFL and FL bound to ctDNA forming complexes through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. The binding constants of TFL and FL with ctDNA were in the range of 104 L mol- 1, and FL exhibited a higher binding propensity than TFL. The iodide quenching effect, single/double-stranded DNA effects, and ctDNA melting and viscosity measurements demonstrated that the binding of both TFL and FL to ctDNA was groove mode. The FT-IR analyses suggested the A-T region of the minor groove of ctDNA as the preferential binding for TFL and FL, which was confirmed by the displacement assays with Hoechst 33258 probe, and the molecular docking visualized the specific binding. The changes in CD spectra indicated that both FL and TFL induced the perturbation on the base stacking and helicity of B-DNA, but the disturbance caused by FL was more obvious. Gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that both TFL and FL did not cause significant DNA cleavage. This study provides novel insights into the binding properties of TFL/FL with ctDNA and its toxic mechanisms.

  13. Deciphering the groove binding modes of tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Mo; Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui; Xiong, Chunhong

    2016-02-15

    Tau-fluvalinate (TFL) and flumethrin (FL), widely used in agriculture and a class of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides with a similar structure, may cause a potential security risk. Herein, the modes of binding in vitro of TFL and FL with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were characterized by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the aid of viscosity measurements, melting analyses and molecular docking studies. The fluorescence titration indicated that both TFL and FL bound to ctDNA forming complexes through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. The binding constants of TFL and FL with ctDNA were in the range of 10(4)Lmol(-1), and FL exhibited a higher binding propensity than TFL. The iodide quenching effect, single/double-stranded DNA effects, and ctDNA melting and viscosity measurements demonstrated that the binding of both TFL and FL to ctDNA was groove mode. The FT-IR analyses suggested the A-T region of the minor groove of ctDNA as the preferential binding for TFL and FL, which was confirmed by the displacement assays with Hoechst 33258 probe, and the molecular docking visualized the specific binding. The changes in CD spectra indicated that both FL and TFL induced the perturbation on the base stacking and helicity of B-DNA, but the disturbance caused by FL was more obvious. Gel electrophoresis analyses indicated that both TFL and FL did not cause significant DNA cleavage. This study provides novel insights into the binding properties of TFL/FL with ctDNA and its toxic mechanisms.

  14. N5-CAIR mutase: role of a CO2 binding site and substrate movement in catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Aaron A; Morar, Mariya; Kappock, T Joseph; Mathews, Irimpan I; Zaugg, Judith B; Barder, Timothy E; Peng, Paul; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Ealick, Steven E; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2007-03-13

    N5-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase (N5-CAIR mutase or PurE) from Escherichia coli catalyzes the reversible interconversion of N5-CAIR to carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR) with direct CO2 transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis, a pH-rate profile, DFT calculations, and X-ray crystallography together provide new insight into the mechanism of this unusual transformation. These studies suggest that a conserved, protonated histidine (His45) plays an essential role in catalysis. The importance of proton transfers is supported by DFT calculations on CAIR and N5-CAIR analogues in which the ribose 5'-phosphate is replaced with a methyl group. The calculations suggest that the nonaromatic tautomer of CAIR (isoCAIR) is only 3.1 kcal/mol higher in energy than its aromatic counterpart, implicating this species as a potential intermediate in the PurE-catalyzed reaction. A structure of wild-type PurE cocrystallized with 4-nitroaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (NO2-AIR, a CAIR analogue) and structures of H45N and H45Q PurEs soaked with CAIR have been determined and provide the first insight into the binding of an intact PurE substrate. A comparison of 19 available structures of PurE and PurE mutants in apo and nucleotide-bound forms reveals a common, buried carboxylate or CO2 binding site for CAIR and N5-CAIR in a hydrophobic pocket in which the carboxylate or CO2 interacts with backbone amides. This work has led to a mechanistic proposal in which the carboxylate orients the substrate for proton transfer from His45 to N5-CAIR to form an enzyme-bound aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) and CO2 intermediate. Subsequent movement of the aminoimidazole moiety of AIR reorients it for addition of CO2 at C4 to generate isoCAIR. His45 is now in a position to remove a C4 proton to produce CAIR.

  15. CK2 phosphorylation inactivates DNA binding by the papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stephen; Ruse, Cristian; Stenlund, Arne

    2013-07-01

    Papillomaviruses have complex life cycles that are understood only superficially. Although it is well established that the viral E1 and E2 proteins play key roles in controlling viral transcription and DNA replication, how these factors are regulated is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation by the protein kinase CK2 controls the biochemical activities of the bovine papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins by modifying their DNA binding activity. Phosphorylation at multiple sites in the N-terminal domain in E1 results in the loss of sequence-specific DNA binding activity, a feature that is also conserved in human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 proteins. The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E2 protein, when phosphorylated by CK2 on two specific sites in the hinge, also loses its site-specific DNA binding activity. Mutation of these sites in E2 results in greatly increased levels of latent viral DNA replication, indicating that CK2 phosphorylation of E2 is a negative regulator of viral DNA replication during latent viral replication. In contrast, mutation of the N-terminal phosphorylation sites in E1 has no effect on latent viral DNA replication. We propose that the phosphorylation of the N terminus of E1 plays a role only in vegetative viral DNA replication, and consistent with such a role, caspase 3 cleavage of E1, which has been shown to be necessary for vegetative viral DNA replication, restores the DNA binding activity to phosphorylated E1.

  16. On the Roles of Substrate Binding and Hinge Unfolding in Conformational Changes of Adenylate Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokaw, Jason B.; Chu, Jhih-wei

    2010-11-17

    We characterized the conformational change of adenylate kinase (AK) between open and closed forms by conducting five all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations, each of 100 ns duration. Different initial structures and substrate binding configurations were used to probe the pathways of AK conformational change in explicit solvent, and no bias potential was applied. A complete closed-to-open and a partial open-to-closed transition were observed, demonstrating the direct impact of substrate-mediated interactions on shifting protein conformation. The sampled configurations suggest two possible pathways for connecting the open and closed structures of AK, affirming the prediction made based on available x-ray structures and earlier works of coarse-grained modeling. The trajectories of the all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations revealed the complexity of protein dynamics and the coupling between different domains during conformational change. Calculations of solvent density and density fluctuations surrounding AK did not show prominent variation during the transition between closed and open forms. Finally, we characterized the effects of local unfolding of an important hinge near Pro177 on the closed-to-open transition of AK and identified a novel mechanism by which hinge unfolding modulates protein conformational change. The local unfolding of Pro177 hinge induces alternative tertiary contacts that stabilize the closed structure and prevent the opening transition.

  17. Escherichia coli CorA periplasmic domain functions as a homotetramer to bind substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Zhen; Chen, Yong; Sun, Zhan-Hua; Zhou, Qiang; Sui, Sen-Fang

    2006-09-15

    CorA is a primary Mg2+ transporter in bacteria, which also mediates influx of Ni2+ and Co2+. Topological studies suggested that it could be divided into a large soluble periplasmic domain (PPD) and three membrane-spanning alpha-helixes. In the present study, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion Escherichia coli CorA PPD was purified by GST affinity chromatography, and PPD was obtained by on-column thrombin digestion. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated that purified PPD exists as a homotetramer. Single particle electron microscopy analysis of PPD and two-dimensional crystals of GST-PPD indicated that E. coli CorA PPD is a pyramid-like homotetramer with a central cavity. Comparison of the CD spectra of full-length CorA and PPD also suggested that PPD has similar secondary structure to the full-length CorA. Dissociation constants for CorA and PPD with their substrates, determined by dose-dependent fluorescence quench of ligands, suggested that purified PPD retains its substrate binding ability as native CorA. The CorA PPD structure described here may provide structural information for the E. coli CorA functional oligomeric state.

  18. Substrate binds in the S1 site of the F253A mutant of LeuT, a neurotransmitter sodium symporter homologue

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Gouaux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The controversy about the number of substrate binding sites in the neurotransmitter sodium symporter model protein LeuT is ongoing. Ligand binding assays and crystal structures of the LeuT F253A mutant support the presence of a single high affinity substrate binding site.

  19. Substrate binds in the S1 site of the F253A mutant of LeuT, a neurotransmitter sodium symporter homologue

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Gouaux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The controversy about the number of substrate binding sites in the neurotransmitter sodium symporter model protein LeuT is ongoing. Ligand binding assays and crystal structures of the LeuT F253A mutant support the presence of a single high affinity substrate binding site.

  20. Differential interfacial and substrate binding modes of mammalian pancreatic phospholipases A2: a comparison among human, bovine, and porcine enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitko, Y; Han, S K; Lee, B I; Cho, W

    1999-06-15

    To identify the residues essential for interfacial binding and substrate binding of human pancreatic phospholipase A2 (hpPLA2), several ionic residues in the putative interfacial binding surface (R6E, K7E, K10E, and K116E) and substrate binding site (D53K and K56E) were mutated. Interfacial affinity of these mutants was measured using anionic polymerized liposomes, and their enzymatic activity was measured using various substrates including phospholipid monomers, zwitterionic and anionic micelles, and anionic polymerized mixed liposomes. Similar mutations (R6E, K10E, K56E, and K116E) were made to porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (ppPLA2), and the properties of mutants were measured by the same methods. Results indicate that hpPLA2 and ppPLA2 have similar interfacial binding mechanisms in which cationic residues in the amino terminus and Lys-116 in the carboxy terminus are involved in binding to anionic lipid surfaces. Small but definite differences between the two enzymes were observed in overall interfacial affinity and activity and the effects of the mutations on interfacial enzyme activity. The interfacial binding of hpPLA2 and ppPLA2 is distinct from that of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 in that Lys-56 is involved in the interfacial binding of the latter enzyme. The unique phospholipid headgroup specificity of hpPLA2 derives from the presence of Asp-53 in the substrate binding site. This residue appears to participate in stabilizing electrostatic interactions with the cationic ethanolamine headgroup, hence the phosphatidylethanolamine preference of hpPLA2. Taken together, these studies reveal the similarities and the differences in the mechanisms by which mammalian pancreatic phospholipases A2 interact with lipid aggregates and perform interfacial catalysis.

  1. Novel DNA motif binding activity observed in vivo with an estrogen receptor α mutant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Sylvia C; Li, Leping; Grimm, Sara A; Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Hamilton, Katherine J; Pockette, Brianna; Rubel, Cory A; Pedersen, Lars C; Fargo, David; Lanz, Rainer B; DeMayo, Francesco J; Schütz, Günther; Korach, Kenneth S

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) interacts with DNA directly or indirectly via other transcription factors, referred to as "tethering." Evidence for tethering is based on in vitro studies and a widely used "KIKO" mouse model containing mutations that prevent direct estrogen response element DNA- binding. KIKO mice are infertile, due in part to the inability of estradiol (E2) to induce uterine epithelial proliferation. To elucidate the molecular events that prevent KIKO uterine growth, regulation of the pro-proliferative E2 target gene Klf4 and of Klf15, a progesterone (P4) target gene that opposes the pro-proliferative activity of KLF4, was evaluated. Klf4 induction was impaired in KIKO uteri; however, Klf15 was induced by E2 rather than by P4. Whole uterine chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed enrichment of KIKO ERα binding to hormone response elements (HREs) motifs. KIKO binding to HRE motifs was verified using reporter gene and DNA-binding assays. Because the KIKO ERα has HRE DNA-binding activity, we evaluated the "EAAE" ERα, which has more severe DNA-binding domain mutations, and demonstrated a lack of estrogen response element or HRE reporter gene induction or DNA-binding. The EAAE mouse has an ERα null-like phenotype, with impaired uterine growth and transcriptional activity. Our findings demonstrate that the KIKO mouse model, which has been used by numerous investigators, cannot be used to establish biological functions for ERα tethering, because KIKO ERα effectively stimulates transcription using HRE motifs. The EAAE-ERα DNA-binding domain mutant mouse demonstrates that ERα DNA-binding is crucial for biological and transcriptional processes in reproductive tissues and that ERα tethering may not contribute to estrogen responsiveness in vivo.

  2. DNA minor groove binding of small molecules: Experimental and computational evidence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prateek Pandya; Md Maidul Islam; G Suresh Kumar; B Jayaram; Surat Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Eight indole derivatives were studied for their DNA binding ability using fluorescence quenching and molecular docking methods. These indole compounds have structural moieties similar as in few indole alkaloids. Experimental and theoretical studies have suggested that indole derivatives bind in the minor groove of DNA. Thermodynamic profiles of DNA complexes of indole derivatives were obtained from computational methods. The complexes were largely stabilized by H-bonding and van der Waal’s forces with positive entropy values. Indole derivatives were found to possess some Purine (Pu) - Pyrimidine (Py) specificity with DNA sequences. The results obtained from experimental and computational methods showed good agreement with each other, supported by their correlation constant values.

  3. DAPI binding to the DNA minor groove: a continuum solvent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, L F Pineda; Zacharias, M

    2002-01-01

    A continuum solvent model based on the generalized Born (GB) or finite-difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB) approaches has been employed to compare the binding of 4'-6-diamidine-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) to the minor groove of various DNA sequences. Qualitative agreement between the results of GB and FDPB approaches as well as between calculated and experimentally observed trends regarding the sequence specificity of DAPI binding to B-DNA was obtained. Calculated binding energies were decomposed into various contributions to solvation and DNA-ligand interaction. DNA conformational adaptation was found to make a favorable contribution to the calculated total interaction energy but did not change the DAPI binding affinity ranking of different DNA sequences. The calculations indicate that closed complex formation is mainly driven by nonpolar contributions and was found to be disfavored electrostatically due to a desolvation penalty that outbalances the attractive Coulomb interaction. The calculated penalty was larger for DAPI binding to GC-rich sequences compared with AT-rich target sequences and generally larger for the FDPB vs the GB continuum model. A radial interaction profile for DAPI at different distances from the DNA minor groove revealed an electrostatic energy minimum a few Angstroms farther away from the closed binding geometry. The calculated electrostatic interaction up to this distance is attractive and it may stabilize a nonspecific binding arrangement.

  4. High specific surface gold electrode on polystyrene substrate: Characterization and application as DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiliu; Liu, Yichen; Lu, Wei; Yuan, Qingpan; Wang, Wei; Pu, Qiaosheng; Yao, Bo

    2016-05-15

    In the past decades, many efforts have been made to improve the sensitivity and specificity of electrochemical DNA biosensors. However, it is still strongly required to develop disposable and reliable DNA biosensors for wide and practical application. In this article, we reported superior electrochemical properties of an integrated plastic-gold electrode (PGE) fabricated in-house by chemical plating on polystyrene substrate. PGEs were found having extremely high capacity of DNA immobilization compared with gold electrodes fabricated by standard sputtering based photolithography. Unique nano-structured surface was observed on PGEs through morphology techniques, which would to some extend give an explanation to higher capacity of DNA immobilization on PGEs. A probable mechanism of carboxylic acid produced on polystyrene substrate after exposure to UV irradiation was proposed and discussed for the first time. This biosensor was applied to detection and manipulate of DNA hybridization. Detection limit of 7.2×10(-11) M and 1-500 nM of linearity range was obtained.

  5. Structural basis of Ets1 cooperative binding to widely separated sites on promoter DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar D Babayeva

    Full Text Available Ets1 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. Ets1 is expressed in autoinhibited form and its DNA binding depends on partner proteins bound to adjacent sequences or the relative positioning of a second Ets-binding site (EBS. The autoinhibition of Ets1 is mediated by structural coupling of regions flanking the DNA-binding domain. The NMR structure of Ets1 revealed that the inhibitory regions comprised of helices HI1 and HI2 and H4 are packed together on the Ets domain to form an inhibitory module. The crystal structure of Ets1 unexpectedly revealed a homodimer in which homodimerisation occurs via swapping of HI1 helices. Modeling of DNA binding indicates that the Ets1 dimer can bind to two antiparallel pieces of DNA. To verify this, we crystallized and solved the structure of the complex comprised of Ets1 dimer and two pieces of DNA. DNA binding by Ets1 dimer resulted in formation of additional intermolecular protein•DNA interactions, implying that the complex formation is cooperative.

  6. SiteOut: An Online Tool to Design Binding Site-Free DNA Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Estrada

    Full Text Available DNA-binding proteins control many fundamental biological processes such as transcription, recombination and replication. A major goal is to decipher the role that DNA sequence plays in orchestrating the binding and activity of such regulatory proteins. To address this goal, it is useful to rationally design DNA sequences with desired numbers, affinities and arrangements of protein binding sites. However, removing binding sites from DNA is computationally non-trivial since one risks creating new sites in the process of deleting or moving others. Here we present an online binding site removal tool, SiteOut, that enables users to design arbitrary DNA sequences that entirely lack binding sites for factors of interest. SiteOut can also be used to delete sites from a specific sequence, or to introduce site-free spacers between functional sequences without creating new sites at the junctions. In combination with commercial DNA synthesis services, SiteOut provides a powerful and flexible platform for synthetic projects that interrogate regulatory DNA. Here we describe the algorithm and illustrate the ways in which SiteOut can be used; it is publicly available at https://depace.med.harvard.edu/siteout/.

  7. SiteOut: An Online Tool to Design Binding Site-Free DNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Javier; Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Scholes, Clarissa; Wunderlich, Zeba; DePace, Angela H

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins control many fundamental biological processes such as transcription, recombination and replication. A major goal is to decipher the role that DNA sequence plays in orchestrating the binding and activity of such regulatory proteins. To address this goal, it is useful to rationally design DNA sequences with desired numbers, affinities and arrangements of protein binding sites. However, removing binding sites from DNA is computationally non-trivial since one risks creating new sites in the process of deleting or moving others. Here we present an online binding site removal tool, SiteOut, that enables users to design arbitrary DNA sequences that entirely lack binding sites for factors of interest. SiteOut can also be used to delete sites from a specific sequence, or to introduce site-free spacers between functional sequences without creating new sites at the junctions. In combination with commercial DNA synthesis services, SiteOut provides a powerful and flexible platform for synthetic projects that interrogate regulatory DNA. Here we describe the algorithm and illustrate the ways in which SiteOut can be used; it is publicly available at https://depace.med.harvard.edu/siteout/.

  8. Assembly of custom TALE-type DNA binding domains by modular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbitzer, Robert; Elsaesser, Janett; Hausner, Jens; Lahaye, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding proteins show tremendous potential as molecular tools for targeted binding to any desired DNA sequence. Their DNA binding domain consists of tandem arranged repeats, and due to this repetitive structure it is challenging to generate designer TALEs (dTALEs) with user-defined specificity. We present a cloning approach that facilitates the assembly of multiple repeat-encoding DNA fragments that translate into dTALEs with pre-defined DNA binding specificity. This method makes use of type IIS restriction enzymes in two sequential cut-ligase reactions to build dTALE repeat arrays. We employed this modular approach for generation of a dTALE that differentiates between two highly similar DNA sequences that are both targeted by the Xanthomonas TALE, AvrBs3. These data show that this modular assembly system allows rapid generation of highly specific TALE-type DNA binding domains that target binding sites of predefined length and sequence. This approach enables the rapid and flexible production of dTALEs for gene regulation and genome editing in routine and high-throughput applications.

  9. Decoding Structural Properties of a Partially Unfolded Protein Substrate: En Route to Chaperone Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Suhani; Tiwari, Satyam; Mapa, Koyeli; Thukral, Lipi

    2015-01-01

    Many proteins comprising of complex topologies require molecular chaperones to achieve their unique three-dimensional folded structure. The E.coli chaperone, GroEL binds with a large number of unfolded and partially folded proteins, to facilitate proper folding and prevent misfolding and aggregation. Although the major structural components of GroEL are well defined, scaffolds of the non-native substrates that determine chaperone-mediated folding have been difficult to recognize. Here we performed all-atomistic and replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to dissect non-native ensemble of an obligate GroEL folder, DapA. Thermodynamics analyses of unfolding simulations revealed populated intermediates with distinct structural characteristics. We found that surface exposed hydrophobic patches are significantly increased, primarily contributed from native and non-native β-sheet elements. We validate the structural properties of these conformers using experimental data, including circular dichroism (CD), 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) binding measurements and previously reported hydrogen-deutrium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Further, we constructed network graphs to elucidate long-range intra-protein connectivity of native and intermediate topologies, demonstrating regions that serve as central "hubs". Overall, our results implicate that genomic variations (or mutations) in the distinct regions of protein structures might disrupt these topological signatures disabling chaperone-mediated folding, leading to formation of aggregates.

  10. Decoding Structural Properties of a Partially Unfolded Protein Substrate: En Route to Chaperone Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhani Nagpal

    Full Text Available Many proteins comprising of complex topologies require molecular chaperones to achieve their unique three-dimensional folded structure. The E.coli chaperone, GroEL binds with a large number of unfolded and partially folded proteins, to facilitate proper folding and prevent misfolding and aggregation. Although the major structural components of GroEL are well defined, scaffolds of the non-native substrates that determine chaperone-mediated folding have been difficult to recognize. Here we performed all-atomistic and replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to dissect non-native ensemble of an obligate GroEL folder, DapA. Thermodynamics analyses of unfolding simulations revealed populated intermediates with distinct structural characteristics. We found that surface exposed hydrophobic patches are significantly increased, primarily contributed from native and non-native β-sheet elements. We validate the structural properties of these conformers using experimental data, including circular dichroism (CD, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS binding measurements and previously reported hydrogen-deutrium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS. Further, we constructed network graphs to elucidate long-range intra-protein connectivity of native and intermediate topologies, demonstrating regions that serve as central "hubs". Overall, our results implicate that genomic variations (or mutations in the distinct regions of protein structures might disrupt these topological signatures disabling chaperone-mediated folding, leading to formation of aggregates.

  11. Analytical methods to determine the comparative DNA binding studies of curcumin-Cu(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Jegathalaprathaban; Rajasekaran, Marichamy; Rajagopal, Gurusamy; Athappan, Periakaruppan

    2012-11-01

    DNA interaction studies of two mononuclear [1:1(1); 1:2(2)] copper(II) complexes of curcumin have been studied. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA has been explored by physical methods to propose modes of DNA binding of the complexes. Absorption spectral titrations of complex 1 with CT-DNA shows a red-shift of 3 nm with the DNA binding affinity of K(b), 5.21×10(4)M(-1) that are higher than that obtained for 2 (red-shift, 2 nm; K(b), 1.73×10(4)M(-1)) reveal that the binding occurs in grooves as a result of the interaction is via exterior phosphates. The CD spectra of these Cu(II) complexes show a red shift of 3-10nm in the positive band with increase in intensities. This spectral change of induced CD due to the hydrophobic interaction of copper complexes with DNA is the characteristic of B to A conformational change. The EB displacement assay also reveals the same trend as observed in UV-Vis spectral titration. The addition of complexes 1 and 2 to the DNA bound ethidium bromide (EB) solutions causes an obvious reduction in emission intensities indicating that these complexes competitively bind to DNA with EB. The positive shift of both the E(pc) and E(0)' accompanied by reduction of peak currents in differential pulse voltammogram (DPV), upon adding different concentrations of DNA to the metal complexes, are obviously in favor of strong binding to DNA. The super coiled plasmid pUC18 DNA cleavage ability of Cu(II) complexes in the presence of reducing agent reveals the single strand DNA cleavage (ssDNA) is observed. The hydroxyl radical (HO()) and the singlet oxygen are believed to be the reactive species responsible for the cleavage.

  12. Kinetic mechanism and order of substrate binding for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew W; Fawcett, Tony; Slabas, Antoni R

    2002-03-13

    sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT, EC 2.3.1.15), a component of glycerolipid biosynthesis, is an important enzyme in chilling sensitivity in plants. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme from squash (Cucurbita moschata), without bound substrate, has been determined [Turnbull et al. (2001) Acta Crystallogr. D 57, 451-453; Turnbull et al. (2001) Structure 9, 347-353]. Here we report the kinetic mechanism of plastidial G3PAT from squash and the order of substrate binding using acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates. The reaction proceeds via a compulsory-ordered ternary complex with acyl-ACP binding before glycerol-3-phosphate. We have also determined that the reaction will proceed with C(4:0)-CoA, C(6:0)-CoA and C(12:0)-ACP substrates, allowing a wider choice of acyl groups for future co-crystallisation studies.

  13. From face to interface recognition: a differential geometric approach to distinguish DNA from RNA binding surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazman, Shula; Elber, Gershon; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2011-09-01

    Protein nucleic acid interactions play a critical role in all steps of the gene expression pathway. Nucleic acid (NA) binding proteins interact with their partners, DNA or RNA, via distinct regions on their surface that are characterized by an ensemble of chemical, physical and geometrical properties. In this study, we introduce a novel methodology based on differential geometry, commonly used in face recognition, to characterize and predict NA binding surfaces on proteins. Applying the method on experimentally solved three-dimensional structures of proteins we successfully classify double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) binding proteins, with 83% accuracy. We show that the method is insensitive to conformational changes that occur upon binding and can be applicable for de novo protein-function prediction. Remarkably, when concentrating on the zinc finger motif, we distinguish successfully between RNA and DNA binding interfaces possessing the same binding motif even within the same protein, as demonstrated for the RNA polymerase transcription-factor, TFIIIA. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein surfaces, which can accurately tell apart dsDNA from an ssRNA binding interfaces. The strength of our method in recognizing fine-tuned differences on NA binding interfaces make it applicable for many other molecular recognition problems, with potential implications for drug design.

  14. A Comparison Study for DNA Motif Modeling on Protein Binding Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Chun; Li, Yue; Peng, Chengbin; Wong, Hau-San

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are relatively short (5-15 bp) and degenerate. Identifying them is a computationally challenging task. In particular, protein binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughput platform that can measure the DNA binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner; for instance, a typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all possible DNA k-mers (k = 8∼10). Since proteins can often bind to DNA with different binding intensities, one of the major challenges is to build TFBS (also known as DNA motif) models which can fully capture the quantitative binding affinity data. To learn DNA motif models from the non-convex objective function landscape, several optimization methods are compared and applied to the PBM motif model building problem. In particular, representative methods from different optimization paradigms have been chosen for modeling performance comparison on hundreds of PBM datasets. The results suggest that the multimodal optimization methods are very effective for capturing the binding preference information from PBM data. In particular, we observe a general performance improvement if choosing di-nucleotide modeling over mono-nucleotide modeling. In addition, the models learned by the best-performing method are applied to two independent applications: PBM probe rotation testing and ChIP-Seq peak sequence prediction, demonstrating its biological applicability.

  15. Binding interaction of cationic phenazinium dyes with calf thymus DNA: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Deboleena; Das, Paramita; Basak, Soumen; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2008-07-31

    Absorption, steady-state fluorescence, steady-state fluorescence anisotropy, and intrinsic and induced circular dichroism (CD) have been exploited to explore the binding of calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) with three cationic phenazinium dyes, viz., phenosafranin (PSF), safranin-T (ST), and safranin-O (SO). The absorption and fluorescence spectra of all the three dyes reflect significant modifications upon interaction with the DNA. A comparative study of the dyes with respect to modification of fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy upon binding, effect of urea, iodide-induced fluorescence quenching, and CD measurements reveal that the dyes bind to the ctDNA principally in an intercalative fashion. The effect of ionic strength indicates that electrostatic attraction between the cationic dyes and ctDNA is also an important component of the dye-DNA interaction. Intrinsic and induced CD studies help to assess the structural effects of dyes binding to DNA and confirm the intercalative mode of binding as suggested by fluorescence and other studies. Finally it is proposed that dyes with bulkier substitutions are intercalated into the DNA to a lesser extent.

  16. Patchiness of ion-exchanged mica revealed by DNA binding dynamics at short length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, D. J.; Lee, A. J.; Johansson, N. A. B.; Walton, A.; Stanger, L.; Crampton, N.; Bonass, W. A.; Thomson, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of double-stranded (ds) DNA to mica can be controlled through ion-exchanging the mica with divalent cations. Measurements of the end-to-end distance of linear DNA molecules discriminate whether the binding mechanism occurs through 2D surface equilibration or kinetic trapping. A range of linear dsDNA fragments have been used to investigate length dependences of binding. Mica, ion-exchanged with Ni(II) usually gives rise to kinetically trapped DNA molecules, however, short linear fragments (ion-exchanged mica is heterogeneous, and contains patches or domains, separating different ionic species. These results correlate with imaging of dsDNA under aqueous buffer on Ni(II)-mica and indicate that binding domains are of the order of 100 nm in diameter. Shorter DNA fragments behave intermediate to the two extreme cases of 2D equilibration and kinetic trapping. Increasing the incubation time of Ni(II) on mica, from minutes to hours, brings the conformations of the shorter DNA fragments closer to the theoretical value for kinetic trapping, indicating that long timescale kinetics play a role in ion-exchange. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to confirm that the relative abundance of Ni(II) ions on the mica surface increases with time. These findings can be used to enhance spatial control of binding of DNA to inorganic surfaces with a view to patterning high densities arrays.

  17. Binding mechanism of PicoGreen to DNA characterized by magnetic tweezers and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Schellenberg, Helene; Walhorn, Volker; Toensing, Katja; Anselmetti, Dario

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescent dyes are broadly used in many biotechnological applications to detect and visualize DNA molecules. However, their binding to DNA alters the structural and nanomechanical properties of DNA and, thus, interferes with associated biological processes. In this work we employed magnetic tweezers and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the binding of PicoGreen to DNA at room temperature in a concentration-dependent manner. PicoGreen is an ultrasensitive quinolinium nucleic acid stain exhibiting hardly any background signal from unbound dye molecules. By means of stretching and overwinding single, torsionally constrained, nick-free double-stranded DNA molecules, we acquired force-extension and supercoiling curves which allow quantifying DNA contour length, persistence length and other thermodynamical binding parameters, respectively. The results of our magnetic tweezers single-molecule binding study were well supported through analyzing the fluorescent spectra of stained DNA. On the basis of our work, we could identify a concentration-dependent bimodal binding behavior, where, apparently, PicoGreen associates to DNA as an intercalator and minor-groove binder simultaneously.

  18. Recognition of methylated DNA through methyl-CpG binding domain proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Xueqing; Ma, Wen; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key regulatory control route in epigenetics, involving gene silencing and chromosome inactivation. It has been recognized that methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an important role in interpreting the genetic information encoded by methylated DNA (mDNA). Although...... the function of MBD proteins has attracted considerable attention and is well characterized, the mechanism underlying mDNA recognition by MBD proteins is still poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG dinucleotides are recognized at the MBD-mDNA interface by two MBD arginines...... and by strengthening the interaction between mDNA and MBD proteins. Free-energy perturbation calculations also show that methylation yields favorable contribution to the binding free energy for MBD-mDNA complex....

  19. To be, or not to be two sites: that is the question about LeuT substrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Nicolas; Tavoulari, Sotiria

    2011-10-01

    Transport proteins of the neurotransmitter sodium symporter (NSS) family regulate the extracellular concentration of several neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. The only member of this family for which atomic-resolution structural data are available is the prokaryotic homologue LeuT. This protein has been used as a model system to study the molecular mechanism of transport of the NSS family. In this Journal Club, we discuss two strikingly different LeuT transport mechanisms: one involving a single high-affinity substrate binding site and one recently proposed alternative involving two high-affinity substrate binding sites that are allosterically coupled.

  20. Quantitative analysis of EGR proteins binding to DNA: assessing additivity in both the binding site and the protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormo Gary D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition codes for protein-DNA interactions typically assume that the interacting positions contribute additively to the binding energy. While this is known to not be precisely true, an additive model over the DNA positions can be a good approximation, at least for some proteins. Much less information is available about whether the protein positions contribute additively to the interaction. Results Using EGR zinc finger proteins, we measure the binding affinity of six different variants of the protein to each of six different variants of the consensus binding site. Both the protein and binding site variants include single and double mutations that allow us to assess how well additive models can account for the data. For each protein and DNA alone we find that additive models are good approximations, but over the combined set of data there are context effects that limit their accuracy. However, a small modification to the purely additive model, with only three additional parameters, improves the fit significantly. Conclusion The additive model holds very well for every DNA site and every protein included in this study, but clear context dependence in the interactions was detected. A simple modification to the independent model provides a better fit to the complete data.

  1. Simulation of the type of coralin alkaloid-DNA binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, K. G.; Koshlan, T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Interaction between a synthesized coralin protoberberine alkaloid and the DNA double helix of the calf's thymus in a salt solution is studied by optical absorption spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry. The dependence of the spectral characteristics of the alkaloid on a ratio between the DNA base pair concentration and the alkaloid molecule concentration is considered. The parameters of bonds between the coralin alkaloid and the DNA double helix are determined using modified McGhee-von Hippel equations.

  2. Interaction of coumarin with calf thymus DNA: deciphering the mode of binding by in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Tarique; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Tabish, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    DNA is the major target for a wide range of therapeutic substances. Thus, there has been considerable interest in the binding studies of small molecules with DNA. Interaction between small molecules and DNA provides a structural guideline in rational drug designing and in the synthesis of new and improved drugs with enhanced selective activity and greater clinical efficacy. Plant derived polyphenolic compounds have a large number of biological and pharmacological properties. Coumarin is a polyphenolic compound which has been extensively studied for its diverse pharmacological properties. However, its mode of interaction with DNA has not been elucidated. In the present study, we have attempted to ascertain the mode of binding of coumarin with calf thymus DNA (Ct-DNA) through various biophysical techniques. Analysis of UV-visible absorbance spectra and fluorescence spectra indicates the formation of complex between coumarin and Ct-DNA. Several other experiments such as effect of ionic strength, iodide induced quenching, competitive binding assay with ethidium bromide, acridine orange and Hoechst 33258 reflected that coumarin possibly binds to the minor groove of the Ct-DNA. These observations were further supported by CD spectral analysis, viscosity measurements, DNA melting studies and in silico molecular docking.

  3. Binding and interaction of di- and tri-substituted organometallic triptycene palladium complexes with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rina; Bhowmick, Sourav; Das, Neeladri; Das, Prolay

    2014-10-01

    Two triptycene-based ligands with pendant bromophenyl units have been prepared. These triptycene derivatives have been used as synthons for the synthesis of di and tri nuclear palladium complexes. The organic molecules and their corresponding organometallic complexes have been fully characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The mode of binding and effect of the complexes on pUC19 plasmid, calf thymus DNA and oligomer duplex DNA have been investigated by a host of analytical methods. The complexes brought about unwinding of supercoiled plasmid and the unwinding angle was found to be related to the binding affinity of the complexes with DNA, where both these parameters were guided by the structure of the complexes. Concentration-dependent inhibition of endonuclease activity of SspI and BamHI by the complexes indicates preference for G/C sequence for binding to DNA. However, neither the complexes did not introduce any cleavage at abasic site in oligomer duplex DNA, nor they created linear form of the plasmid upon co-incubation with the DNA samples. The interactions of the complexes with DNA were found to be strongly guided by the structure of the complexes, where intercalation as well as groove binding was observed, without inflicting any damage to the DNA. The mode of interaction of the complexes with DNA was further confirmed by isothermal calorimetry.

  4. Effects of calmodulin on DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The DNA-binding activity of heat shock transcription factor (HSF) was induced by heat shock (HS) of a whole cell extract. Addition of antiserum, specific to CaM, to a whole cell extract reduced bind of the HSF to the heat shock element (HSE) with maize, and the re-addition of CaM to the sample restored the activity of the HSF for binding to HSE. In addition, DNA-binding activity of the HSF was also induced by directly adding CaM to a whole cell extract at non-HS temperature with maize. Similar results were obtained with wheat and tomato. Our observations provide the first example of the involvement of CaM in regulation of the DNA-binding activity of the HSF.

  5. Using TESS to predict transcription factor binding sites in DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    This unit describes how to use the Transcription Element Search System (TESS). This Web site predicts transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in DNA sequence using two different kinds of models of sites, strings and positional weight matrices. The binding of transcription factors to DNA is a major part of the control of gene expression. Transcription factors exhibit sequence-specific binding; they form stronger bonds to some DNA sequences than to others. Identification of a good binding site in the promoter for a gene suggests the possibility that the corresponding factor may play a role in the regulation of that gene. However, the sequences transcription factors recognize are typically short and allow for some amount of mismatch. Because of this, binding sites for a factor can typically be found at random every few hundred to a thousand base pairs. TESS has features to help sort through and evaluate the significance of predicted sites.

  6. The N-terminal hybrid binding domain of RNase HI from Thermotoga maritima is important for substrate binding and Mg2+-dependent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongruja, Nujarin; You, Dong-Ju; Kanaya, Eiko; Koga, Yuichi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2010-11-01

    Thermotoga maritima ribonuclease H (RNase H) I (Tma-RNase HI) contains a hybrid binding domain (HBD) at the N-terminal region. To analyze the role of this HBD, Tma-RNase HI, Tma-W22A with the single mutation at the HBD, the C-terminal RNase H domain (Tma-CD) and the N-terminal domain containing the HBD (Tma-ND) were overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and biochemically characterized. Tma-RNase HI prefers Mg(2+) to Mn(2+) for activity, and specifically loses most of the Mg(2+)-dependent activity on removal of the HBD and 87% of it by the mutation at the HBD. Tma-CD lost the ability to suppress the RNase H deficiency of an E. coli rnhA mutant, indicating that the HBD is responsible for in vivo RNase H activity. The cleavage-site specificities of Tma-RNase HI are not significantly changed on removal of the HBD, regardless of the metal cofactor. Binding analyses of the proteins to the substrate using surface plasmon resonance indicate that the binding affinity of Tma-RNase HI is greatly reduced on removal of the HBD or the mutation. These results indicate that there is a correlation between Mg(2+)-dependent activity and substrate binding affinity. Tma-CD was as stable as Tma-RNase HI, indicating that the HBD is not important for stability. The HBD of Tma-RNase HI is important not only for substrate binding, but also for Mg(2+)-dependent activity, probably because the HBD affects the interaction between the substrate and enzyme at the active site, such that the scissile phosphate group of the substrate and the Mg(2+) ion are arranged ideally.

  7. Transcriptional Regulation in Mammalian Cells by Sequence-Specific DNA Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Pamela J.; Tjian, Robert

    1989-07-01

    The cloning of genes encoding mammalian DNA binding transcription factors for RNA polymerase II has provided the opportunity to analyze the structure and function of these proteins. This review summarizes recent studies that define structural domains for DNA binding and transcriptional activation functions in sequence-specific transcription factors. The mechanisms by which these factors may activate transcriptional initiation and by which they may be regulated to achieve differential gene expression are also discussed.

  8. Delineation of Methyl-DNA Binding Protein Interactions in the Prostate Cancer Genome (PC110091)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    DNA Binding Protein Interactions in the Prostate Cancer Genome (PC110091) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Roderick T Hori, PhD...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Prostate Cancer, Methylated DNA, Methyl- CpG Binding Domain, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation 14. ABSTRACT The purpose...of this study is to generate a genome-wide association profile of Methyl- CpG Domain-containing (MBD) proteins, such as MeCP2, MBD1, MBD2 and MBD4, in

  9. From intercalation to groove binding: switching the DNA-binding mode of isostructural transition-metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Haslina; Wragg, Ashley; Cullen, Will; Wombwell, Claire; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Thomas, Jim A

    2014-03-10

    The interaction with duplex DNA of a small library of structurally related complexes that all contain a d6-metal ion coordinated to either the 2,2′:4,4′′:4′,4′′′-quaterpyridyl ligand or its methylated derivative are reported. This library is made up of a mixture of newly synthesised and previously reported systems. Despite their structural similarities the complexes display an almost 20-fold variation in binding affinities. Although effects due to the overall charge of the complexes are apparent, the differences in binding characteristics are deeper than this; indeed, in a number of cases, changes in overall charge have little effect on binding affinity. Intriguingly, despite interacting with DNA through unfused ring systems, although two of the complexes studied are groove binders, the majority are non-classical intercalators. A rationale for these effects has been obtained through a combination of experimental and computational studies.

  10. Novel cyclen-based linear polymer as a high-affinity binding material for DNA condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG YongZhe; WANG Na; ZHANG Ji; LI Kun; ZHANG ZhongWei; LIN HongHui; YU XiaoQi

    2009-01-01

    A novel cyclen-based linear polyamine (POGEC) was designed and synthesized from the reaction be-tween 1,3-propanediol diglycidyl ether and 1,7-bis(diethoxyphosphory)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclod- odecane.High-affinity binding between POGEC and DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the formed POGEC/DNA complex (termed polyplex) could be disassociated to release the free DNA through addition of the physiological concentration of NaCl solution. Fluorescence spectrum was used to measure the high-affinity binding and DNA con-densation capability of POGEC. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrum indicates that the DNA conformation did not change after binding to POEGC.

  11. Novel cyclen-based linear polymer as a high-affinity binding material for DNA condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A novel cyclen-based linear polyamine (POGEC) was designed and synthesized from the reaction between 1,3-propanediol diglycidyl ether and 1,7-bis(diethoxyphosphory)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclod-odecane. High-affinity binding between POGEC and DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover,the formed POGEC/DNA complex (termed polyplex) could be disassociated to release the free DNA through addition of the physiological concentration of NaCl solution. Fluorescence spectrum was used to measure the high-affinity binding and DNA condensation capability of POGEC. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrum indicates that the DNA conformation did not change after binding to POEGC.

  12. DNA binding activity of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer probed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, So Young; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Kim, Doseok

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sensory rhodopsin transducer (ASRT) is believed to be a major player in the photo-signal transduction cascade, which is triggered by Anabaena sensory rhodopsin. Here, we characterized DNA binding activity of ASRT probed by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We observed clear decrease of diffusion coefficient of DNA upon binding of ASRT. The dissociation constant, K(D), of ASRT to 20 bp-long DNA fragments lied in micro-molar range and varied moderately with DNA sequence. Our results suggest that ASRT may interact with several different regions of DNA with different binding affinity for global regulation of several genes that need to be activated depending on the light illumination.

  13. The DNA-binding box of human SPARTAN contributes to the targeting of Polη to DNA damage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Agnes; Hegedus, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia; Haracska, Lajos; Burkovics, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate repair of UV-induced DNA damage results in human diseases such as Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which is associated with an extremely high risk of skin cancer. A variant form of XP is caused by the absence of Polη, which is normally able to bypass UV-induced DNA lesions in an error-free manner. However, Polη is highly error prone when replicating undamaged DNA and, thus, the regulation of the proper targeting of Polη is crucial for the prevention of mutagenesis and UV-induced cancer formation. Spartan is a novel regulator of the damage tolerance pathway, and its association with Ub-PCNA has a role in Polη targeting; however, our knowledge about its function is only rudimentary. Here, we describe a new biochemical property of purified human SPARTAN by showing that it is a DNA-binding protein. Using a DNA binding mutant, we provide in vivo evidence that DNA binding by SPARTAN regulates the targeting of Polη to damage sites after UV exposure, and this function contributes highly to its DNA-damage tolerance function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of target DNA using photo-reactive protoporphyrin moeity on a nanocomposite substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumana; Mishra, Madhusmita; Vasireddi, Ramakrishna; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-03-01

    Detection of pathogens from infected biological samples through conventional process involves cell lysis and purification. The main objective of this work is to minimize the time and sample loss, as well as to increase the efficiency of detection of biomolecules. Electrical lysis of medical sample is performed in a closed microfluidic channel in a single integrated platform where the downstream analysis of the sample is possible. The device functions involve, in a sequence, flow of lysate from lysis chamber passed through a thermal denaturation counter where dsDNA is denatured to ssDNA, which is controlled by heater unit. A functionalized binding chamber of ssDNA is prepared by using ZnO nanorods as the matrix and functionalized with bifunctional carboxylic acid, 16-(2-pyridyldithiol) hexadecanoic acid (PDHA) which is further attached to a linker molecule 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) (EDC). Linker moeity is then covalently bound to photoreactive protoporphyrin (PPP) molecule. The photolabile molecule protoporphyrin interacts with -NH2 labeled single stranded DNA (ssDNA) which thus acts as a probe to detect complimentary ssDNA from target organisms. Thereafter the bound DNA with protoporphyrin is exposed to an LED of particular wavelength for a definite period of time and DNA was eluted and analyzed. UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis at 260/280 nm wavelength confirms the purity and peak at 260 nm is reconfirmed for the elution of target DNA. Quantitative and qualitative data obtained from the current experiments show highly selective detection of biomolecule such as DNA which have large number of future applications in Point-of-Care devices.

  15. Specific binding of eukaryotic ORC to DNA replication origins depends on highly conserved basic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hironori; Ohashi, Eiji; Kanamoto, Shota; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2015-10-12

    In eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) heterohexamer preferentially binds replication origins to trigger initiation of DNA replication. Crystallographic studies using eubacterial and archaeal ORC orthologs suggested that eukaryotic ORC may bind to origin DNA via putative winged-helix DNA-binding domains and AAA+ ATPase domains. However, the mechanisms how eukaryotic ORC recognizes origin DNA remain elusive. Here, we show in budding yeast that Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of the largest subunit (Orc1), both outside the aforementioned domains, are crucial for specific binding of ORC to origin DNA. These basic residues, which reside in a putative disordered domain, were dispensable for interaction with ATP and non-specific DNA sequences, suggesting a specific role in recognition. Consistent with this, both residues were required for origin binding of Orc1 in vivo. A truncated Orc1 polypeptide containing these residues solely recognizes ARS sequence with low affinity and Arg-367 residue stimulates sequence specific binding mode of the polypeptide. Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of Orc1 are highly conserved among eukaryotic ORCs, but not in eubacterial and archaeal orthologs, suggesting a eukaryote-specific mechanism underlying recognition of replication origins by ORC.

  16. A Potential Structural Switch for Regulating DNA-Binding by TEAD Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Sun; Vonrhein, Clemens; Albarado, Diana; Raman, C S; Veeraraghavan, Sudha

    2016-06-19

    TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors are essential for the normal development of eukaryotes and are the downstream effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. Whereas our earlier work established the three-dimensional structure of the highly conserved DNA-binding domain using solution NMR spectroscopy, the structural basis for regulating the DNA-binding activity remains unknown. Here, we present the X-ray crystallographic structure and activity of a TEAD mutant containing a truncated L1 loop, ΔL1 TEAD DBD. Unexpectedly, the three-dimensional structure of the ΔL1 TEAD DBD reveals a helix-swapped homodimer wherein helix 1 is swapped between monomers. Furthermore, each three-helix bundle in the domain-swapped dimer is a structural homolog of MYB-like domains. Our investigations of the DNA-binding activity reveal that although the formation of the three-helix bundle by the ΔL1 TEAD DBD is sufficient for binding to an isolated M-CAT-like DNA element, multimeric forms are deficient for cooperative binding to tandemly duplicated elements, indicating that the L1 loop contributes to the DNA-binding activity of TEAD. These results suggest that switching between monomeric and domain-swapped forms may regulate DNA selectivity of TEAD proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of DNA binding on geminate CO recombination kinetics in CooA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Karunakaran, Venugopal; Youn, Hwan; Poulos, Thomas; Champion, Paul

    2012-02-01

    CooA proteins are heme-based CO-sensing transcription factors. Here we study the ultrafast dynamics of geminate CO rebinding to RrCooA. The effects of DNA binding and the truncation of the DNA binding domain on the CO geminate recombination kinetics were investigated. The CO rebinding kinetics in these CooA complexes takes place on ultrafast timescales but remains non-exponential over many decades in time. We show that this non-exponential kinetic response is due to a quenched enthalpic barrier distribution resulting from a distribution of heme geometries that is frozen or slowly evolving on the timescale of CO rebinding. We also show that, upon CO binding, the distal pocket of the heme in RrCooA relaxes to form a very efficient hydrophobic trap for CO. DNA binding further tightens the narrow distal pocket and slightly weakens the iron-proximal histidine bond. Analysis of our data reveals that the uncomplexed and inherently flexible DNA binding domain adds additional structural heterogeneity to the heme doming coordinate. When CooA forms a complex with DNA, the flexibility of the DNA-binding domain decreases and the distribution of the conformations available in the heme domain becomes restricted.

  18. Zinc-regulated DNA binding of the yeast Zap1 zinc-responsive activator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery G Frey

    Full Text Available The Zap1 transcription factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a central role in zinc homeostasis by controlling the expression of genes involved in zinc metabolism. Zap1 is active in zinc-limited cells and repressed in replete cells. At the transcriptional level, Zap1 controls its own expression via positive autoregulation. In addition, Zap1's two activation domains are regulated independently of each other by zinc binding directly to those regions and repressing activation function. In this report, we show that Zap1 DNA binding is also inhibited by zinc. DMS footprinting showed that Zap1 target gene promoter occupancy is regulated with or without transcriptional autoregulation. These results were confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Zinc regulation of DNA binding activity mapped to the DNA binding domain indicating other parts of Zap1 are unnecessary for this control. Overexpression of Zap1 overrode DNA binding regulation and resulted in constitutive promoter occupancy. Under these conditions of constitutive binding, both the zinc dose response of Zap1 activity and cellular zinc accumulation were altered suggesting the importance of DNA binding control to zinc homeostasis. Thus, our results indicated that zinc regulates Zap1 activity post-translationally via three independent mechanisms, all of which contribute to the overall zinc responsiveness of Zap1.

  19. Determining the binding mode and binding affinity constant of tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD153035 to DNA using optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chih-Ming [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yuarn-Jang [Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wei-Ting [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chien-Ting [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Jing-Shin [School of Dental Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chien-Ming [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Ou, Keng-Liang [Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Biomedical Implants and Microsurgery Devices, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); and others

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} PD153035 is a DNA intercalator and intercalation occurs only under very low salt concentration. {yields} The minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. {yields} Binding affinity constant for PD153035 is 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M). {yields} The change of binding free energy of PD153035-DNA interaction is -5.49 kcal mol{sup -1} at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Accurately predicting binding affinity constant (K{sub A}) is highly required to determine the binding energetics of the driving forces in drug-DNA interactions. Recently, PD153035, brominated anilinoquinazoline, has been reported to be not only a highly selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor but also a DNA intercalator. Here, we use a dual-trap optical tweezers to determining K{sub A} for PD153035, where K{sub A} is determined from the changes in B-form contour length (L) of PD153035-DNA complex. Here, L is fitted using a modified wormlike chain model. We found that a noticeable increment in L in 1 mM sodium cacodylate was exhibited. Furthermore, our results showed that K{sub A} = 1.18({+-}0.09) x 10{sup 4} (1/M) at 23 {+-} 0.5 {sup o}C and the minimum distance between adjacent bound PD153035 {approx} 11 bp. We anticipate that by using this approach we can determine the complete thermodynamic profiles due to the presence of DNA intercalators.

  20. Spermine attenuates the action of the DNA intercalator, actinomycin D, on DNA binding and the inhibition of transcription and DNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone (MGBG enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion.

  1. Spermine attenuates the action of the DNA intercalator, actinomycin D, on DNA binding and the inhibition of transcription and DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yu; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Lee, Yueh-Luen; Lai, Yi-Hua; Chen, Jeremy J W; Wu, Wen-Lin; Yuann, Jeu-Ming P; Su, Wang-Lin; Chuang, Show-Mei; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer activity of DNA intercalators is related to their ability to intercalate into the DNA duplex with high affinity, thereby interfering with DNA replication and transcription. Polyamines (spermine in particular) are almost exclusively bound to nucleic acids and are involved in many cellular processes that require nucleic acids. Until now, the effects of polyamines on DNA intercalator activities have remained unclear because intercalation is the most important mechanism employed by DNA-binding drugs. Herein, using actinomycin D (ACTD) as a model, we have attempted to elucidate the effects of spermine on the action of ACTD, including its DNA-binding ability, RNA and DNA polymerase interference, and its role in the transcription and replication inhibition of ACTD within cells. We found that spermine interfered with the binding and stabilization of ACTD to DNA. The presence of increasing concentrations of spermine enhanced the transcriptional and replication activities of RNA and DNA polymerases, respectively, in vitro treated with ActD. Moreover, a decrease in intracellular polyamine concentrations stimulated by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) enhanced the ACTD-induced inhibition of c-myc transcription and DNA replication in several cancer cell lines. The results indicated that spermine attenuates ACTD binding to DNA and its inhibition of transcription and DNA replication both in vitro and within cells. Finally, a synergistic antiproliferative effect of MGBG and ACTD was observed in a cell viability assay. Our findings will be of significant relevance to future developments in combination with cancer therapy by enhancing the anticancer activity of DNA interactors through polyamine depletion.

  2. A comprehensive approach to ascertain the binding mode of curcumin with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, P.; Mary, Varughese; Aparna, P.; Dileep, K. V.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural phytochemical from the rhizoma of Curcuma longa, the popular Indian spice that exhibits a wide range of pharmacological properties like antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antiviral activities. In the published literatures we can see different studies and arguments on the interaction of curcumin with DNA. The intercalative binding, groove binding and no binding of curcumin with DNA were reported. In this context, we conducted a detailed study to understand the mechanism of recognition of dimethylsulfoxide-solubilized curcumin by DNA. The interaction of curcumin with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The nature of binding and energetics of interaction were studied by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), UV-visible, fluorescence and melting temperature (Tm) analysis. The experimental data were compared with molecular modeling studies. Our investigation confirmed that dimethylsulfoxide-solubilized curcumin binds in the minor groove of the ctDNA without causing significant structural alteration to the DNA.

  3. Mechanism of sequence-specific template binding by the DNA primase of bacteriophage T7

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seung-Joo

    2010-03-28

    DNA primases catalyze the synthesis of the oligoribonucleotides required for the initiation of lagging strand DNA synthesis. Biochemical studies have elucidated the mechanism for the sequence-specific synthesis of primers. However, the physical interactions of the primase with the DNA template to explain the basis of specificity have not been demonstrated. Using a combination of surface plasmon resonance and biochemical assays, we show that T7 DNA primase has only a slightly higher affinity for DNA containing the primase recognition sequence (5\\'-TGGTC-3\\') than for DNA lacking the recognition site. However, this binding is drastically enhanced by the presence of the cognate Nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs), Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Cytosine triphosphate (CTP) that are incorporated into the primer, pppACCA. Formation of the dimer, pppAC, the initial step of sequence-specific primer synthesis, is not sufficient for the stable binding. Preformed primers exhibit significantly less selective binding than that observed with ATP and CTP. Alterations in subdomains of the primase result in loss of selective DNA binding. We present a model in which conformational changes induced during primer synthesis facilitate contact between the zinc-binding domain and the polymerase domain. The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. DNA-binding study of anticancer drug cytarabine by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh; Maghsudi, Maryam

    2017-01-02

    The interaction of anticancer drug cytarabine with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove-binding mode, while the binding constant of UV-vis and the number of binding sites were 4.0 ± 0.2 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and 1.39, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drugs with CT-DNA is exothermic. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was employed to measure the conformational change of DNA in the presence of cytarabine. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity for DNA interaction. The molecular modeling results illustrated that cytarabine strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -20.61 KJ mol(-1). This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with biomacromolecules for clarifying the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

  5. Super-Resolution Microscopy and Tracking of DNA-Binding Proteins in Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to detect individual fluorescent molecules inside living cells has enabled a range of powerful microscopy techniques that resolve biological processes on the molecular scale. These methods have also transformed the study of bacterial cell biology, which was previously obstructed by the limited spatial resolution of conventional microscopy. In the case of DNA-binding proteins, super-resolution microscopy can visualize the detailed spatial organization of DNA replication, transcription, and repair processes by reconstructing a map of single-molecule localizations. Furthermore, DNA binding activities can be observed directly by tracking protein movement in real time. This allows identifying subpopulations of DNA-bound and diffusing proteins, and can be used to measure DNA-binding times in vivo. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for super-resolution microscopy and tracking of DNA-binding proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The protocol covers the construction of cell strains and describes data acquisition and analysis procedures, such as super-resolution image reconstruction, mapping single-molecule tracks, computing diffusion coefficients to identify molecular subpopulations with different mobility, and analysis of DNA-binding kinetics. While the focus is on the study of bacterial chromosome biology, these approaches are generally applicable to other molecular processes and cell types. PMID:27283312

  6. THAP5 is a DNA-binding transcriptional repressor that is regulated in melanoma cells during DNA damage-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P.; Cilenti, Lucia; Ambivero, Camilla [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Goto, Yamafumi [Department of Dermatology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan); Takata, Minoru [Department of Dermatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medical Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Turkson, James; Li, Xiaoman Shawn [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Zervos, Antonis S., E-mail: azervos@mail.ucf.edu [Biomolecular Science Center, Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. {yields} THAP5 is induced in melanoma cells upon exposure to UV or treatment with cisplatin. {yields} THAP5 induction correlates with the degree of apoptosis in melanoma cell population. {yields} THAP5 is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in melanoma cell death. -- Abstract: THAP5 was originally isolated as a specific interactor and substrate of the mitochondrial pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. It is a human zinc finger protein characterized by a restricted pattern of expression and the lack of orthologs in mouse and rat. The biological function of THAP5 is unknown but our previous studies suggest it could regulate G2/M transition in kidney cells and could be involved in human cardiomyocyte cell death associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this report, we expanded our studies on the properties and function of THAP5 in human melanoma cells. THAP5 was expressed in primary human melanocytes as well as in all melanoma cell lines that were tested. THAP5 protein level was significantly induced by UV irradiation or cisplatin treatment, conditions known to cause DNA damage. The induction of THAP5 correlated with a significant increase in apoptotic cell death. In addition, we show that THAP5 is a nuclear protein that could recognize and bind a specific DNA motif. THAP5 could also repress the transcription of a reporter gene in a heterologous system. Our work suggests that THAP5 is a DNA-binding protein and a transcriptional repressor. Furthermore, THAP5 has a pro-apoptotic function and it was induced in melanoma cells under conditions that promoted cell death.

  7. Tyrosine 105 and threonine 212 at outermost substrate binding subsites -6 and +4 control substrate specificity, oligosaccharide cleavage patterns, and multiple binding modes of barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; André, G.; Gottschalk, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    The role in activity of outer regions in the substrate binding cleft in alpha-amylases is illustrated by mutational analysis of Tyr(105) and Thr(212) localized at subsites - 6 and +4 ( substrate cleavage occurs between subsites -1 and +1) in barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1). Tyr(105) is conserved...... in plant alpha-amylases whereas Thr(212) varies in these and related enzymes. Compared with wild-type AMY1, the subsite -6 mutant Y105A has 140, 15, and ...% activity, respectively. Thus engineering of aromatic stacking interactions at the ends of the 10-subsite long binding cleft affects activity very differently, dependent on the substrate. Y105A dominates in dual subsite -6/+4 [Y105A/T212(Y/W)] AMY1 mutants having almost retained and low activity on starch...

  8. The DNA-binding factor Ctcf critically controls gene expression in macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Nikolic (Tatjana); D. Movita (Dowty); M.E.H. Lambers (Margaretha); C. Ribeiro de Almeida (Claudia); P.J. Biesta (Paula); K. Kreefft (Kim); M.J.W. de Bruijn (Marjolein); I.M. Bergen (Ingrid); N.J. Galjart (Niels); P.A. Boonstra (André); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMacrophages play an important role in immunity and homeostasis. Upon pathogen recognition via specific receptors, they rapidly induce inflammatory responses. This process is tightly controlled at the transcriptional level. The DNA binding zinc-finger protein CCCTC-binding factor (Ctcf) i

  9. CRITERIA FOR AN UPDATED CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DNA-BINDING DOMAINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingender, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    By binding to cis-regulatory elements in a sequence-specific manner, transcription factors regulate the activity of nearby genes. Here, we discuss the criteria for a comprehensive classification of human TFs based on their DNA-binding domains. In particular, classification of basic leucine zipper (b

  10. CRITERIA FOR AN UPDATED CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DNA-BINDING DOMAINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingender, Edgar

    By binding to cis-regulatory elements in a sequence-specific manner, transcription factors regulate the activity of nearby genes. Here, we discuss the criteria for a comprehensive classification of human TFs based on their DNA-binding domains. In particular, classification of basic leucine zipper

  11. DNA-binding specificity and molecular functions of NAC transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Addie Nina; Ernst, Heidi Asschenfeldt; Lo Leggio, Leila;

    2005-01-01

    The family of NAC (NAM/ATAF1,2/CUC2) transcription factors has been implicated in a wide range of plant processes, but knowledge on the DNA-binding properties of the family is limited. Using a reiterative selection procedure on random oligonucleotides, we have identified consensus binding sites f...

  12. A Comparison Study for DNA Motif Modeling on Protein Binding Microarray

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka-Chun

    2015-06-11

    Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBSs) are relatively short (5-15 bp) and degenerate. Identifying them is a computationally challenging task. In particular, Protein Binding Microarray (PBM) is a high-throughput platform that can measure the DNA binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner; for instance, a typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all possible DNA k-mers (k=810). Since proteins can often bind to DNA with different binding intensities, one of the major challenges is to build motif models which can fully capture the quantitative binding affinity data. To learn DNA motif models from the non-convex objective function landscape, several optimization methods are compared and applied to the PBM motif model building problem. In particular, representative methods from different optimization paradigms have been chosen for modeling performance comparison on hundreds of PBM datasets. The results suggest that the multimodal optimization methods are very effective for capturing the binding preference information from PBM data. In particular, we observe a general performance improvement using di-nucleotide modeling over mono-nucleotide modeling. In addition, the models learned by the best-performing method are applied to two independent applications: PBM probe rotation testing and ChIP-Seq peak sequence prediction, demonstrating its biological applicability.

  13. Design of Novel Relaxase Substrates Based on Rolling Circle Replicases for Bioconjugation to DNA Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagredo, Sandra; de la Cruz, Fernando; Moncalián, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    During bacterial conjugation and rolling circle replication, HUH endonucleases, respectively known as relaxases and replicases, form a covalent bond with ssDNA when they cleave their target sequence (nic site). Both protein families show structural similarity but limited amino acid identity. Moreover, the organization of the inverted repeat (IR) and the loop that shape the nic site differs in both proteins. Arguably, replicases cleave their target site more efficiently, while relaxases exert more biochemical control over the process. Here we show that engineering a relaxase target by mimicking the replicase target, results in enhanced formation of protein-DNA covalent complexes. Three widely different relaxases, which belong to MOBF, MOBQ and MOBP families, can properly cleave DNA sequences with permuted target sequences. Collaterally, the secondary structure that the permuted targets acquired within a supercoiled plasmid DNA resulted in poor conjugation frequencies underlying the importance of relaxase accessory proteins in conjugative DNA processing. Our results reveal that relaxase and replicase targets can be interchangeable in vitro. The new Rep substrates provide new bioconjugation tools for the design of sophisticated DNA-protein nanostructures. PMID:27027740

  14. Design of Novel Relaxase Substrates Based on Rolling Circle Replicases for Bioconjugation to DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagredo, Sandra; de la Cruz, Fernando; Moncalián, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    During bacterial conjugation and rolling circle replication, HUH endonucleases, respectively known as relaxases and replicases, form a covalent bond with ssDNA when they cleave their target sequence (nic site). Both protein families show structural similarity but limited amino acid identity. Moreover, the organization of the inverted repeat (IR) and the loop that shape the nic site differs in both proteins. Arguably, replicases cleave their target site more efficiently, while relaxases exert more biochemical control over the process. Here we show that engineering a relaxase target by mimicking the replicase target, results in enhanced formation of protein-DNA covalent complexes. Three widely different relaxases, which belong to MOBF, MOBQ and MOBP families, can properly cleave DNA sequences with permuted target sequences. Collaterally, the secondary structure that the permuted targets acquired within a supercoiled plasmid DNA resulted in poor conjugation frequencies underlying the importance of relaxase accessory proteins in conjugative DNA processing. Our results reveal that relaxase and replicase targets can be interchangeable in vitro. The new Rep substrates provide new bioconjugation tools for the design of sophisticated DNA-protein nanostructures.

  15. Discovery of selective inhibitors of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 by targeting the enzyme DNA-binding cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossmann, Bradley R; Abdelmalak, Monica; Lopez, Sophia; Tender, Gabrielle; Yan, Chunli; Pommier, Yves; Marchand, Christophe; Ivanov, Ivaylo

    2016-07-15

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) processes protein/DNA adducts resulting from abortive DNA topoisomerase II (Top2) activity. TDP2 inhibition could provide synergism with the Top2 poison class of chemotherapeutics. By virtual screening of the NCI diversity small molecule database, we identified selective TDP2 inhibitors and experimentally verified their selective inhibitory activity. Three inhibitors exhibited low-micromolar IC50 values. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a common binding mode for these inhibitors, involving association to the TDP2 DNA-binding cleft. MM-PBSA per-residue energy decomposition identified important interactions of the compounds with specific TDP2 residues. These interactions could provide new avenues for synthetic optimization of these scaffolds.

  16. Recognition of methylated DNA through methyl-CpG binding domain proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Xueqing; Ma, Wen; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key regulatory control route in epigenetics, involving gene silencing and chromosome inactivation. It has been recognized that methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an important role in interpreting the genetic information encoded by methylated DNA (mDNA). Although...... the function of MBD proteins has attracted considerable attention and is well characterized, the mechanism underlying mDNA recognition by MBD proteins is still poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG dinucleotides are recognized at the MBD-mDNA interface by two MBD arginines...

  17. Characteristics of DNA replication in isolated nuclei initiated by an aprotinin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Hameed, M; Cohen, S

    1993-02-01

    Isolated cell nuclei were used as the source of template DNA to investigate the role of a cytosolic aprotinin-binding protein (ADR) in the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Computerized image cytometry demonstrated that the DNA content of individual nuclei increased significantly following incubation with ADR-containing preparations, and the extent of DNA synthesis is consistent with that allowed by the limiting concentration of dTTP. Thus, dTTP incorporation into isolated nuclei represents DNA synthesis and not parent strand repair. We found that dTTP incorporation into the isolated nuclei is dependent on DNA polymerase alpha (a principal polymerase in DNA replication) but that DNA polymerase beta (a principal polymerase in DNA repair processes) does not play a significant role in this system. Finally, neither aprotinin nor a previously described cytosolic ADR inhibitor can block the replication of nuclease-treated calf thymus DNA, while both strongly inhibit replication of DNA in isolated nuclei. This result, coupled with the relative ineffectiveness of nuclease-treated DNA compared with nuclear DNA to serve as a replicative template in this assay, argues against a significant contribution from repair or synthesis which initiates at a site of DNA damage. These data indicate that ADR-mediated incorporation of 3H-dTTP into isolated nuclei results from DNA replicative processes that are directly relevant to in vivo S phase events.

  18. Evidence of DNA-Ligand Binding with Different Modes Studied by Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The binding behavior of several fluorescence dyes to calf thymus DNA has been studied by absorption, fluorescence and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which could provide direct evidence of formation modes and the corresponding nanostructural features of the ligand-DNA complexes.

  19. Exploiting anthracene photodimerization within peptides: light induced sequence-selective DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Gemma A; Tucker, James H R; Peacock, Anna F A

    2015-05-11

    The unprecedented use of anthracene photodimerization within a protein or peptide system is explored through its incorporation into a DNA-binding peptide, derived from the GCN4 transcription factor. This study demonstrates an effective and dynamic interplay between a photoreaction and a peptide-DNA assembly, with each process able to exert control over the other.

  20. Stapling monomeric GCN4 peptides allows for DNA binding and enhanced cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abhishek; Van Lysebetten, Dorien; Ruiz García, Yara; Louage, Benoit; De Geest, Bruno G; Madder, Annemieke

    2015-04-01

    The basic DNA recognition region of the GCN4 protein comprising 23 amino acids has been modified to contain two optimally positioned cysteines which have been linked and stapled using cross-linkers of suitable lengths. This results in stapled peptides with a stabilized α-helical conformation which allows for DNA binding and concurrent enhancement of cellular uptake.

  1. Structural Basis for Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT Binding to RNA Template and Telomeric DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M.; Gillis, A; Futahashi, M; Fujiwara, H; Skordalakes, E

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is a specialized DNA polymerase that extends the 3{prime} ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, a process required for genomic stability and cell viability. Here we present the crystal structure of the active Tribolium castaneum telomerase catalytic subunit, TERT, bound to an RNA-DNA hairpin designed to resemble the putative RNA-templating region and telomeric DNA. The RNA-DNA hybrid adopts a helical structure, docked in the interior cavity of the TERT ring. Contacts between the RNA template and motifs 2 and B{prime} position the solvent-accessible RNA bases close to the enzyme active site for nucleotide binding and selectivity. Nucleic acid binding induces rigid TERT conformational changes to form a tight catalytic complex. Overall, TERT-RNA template and TERT-telomeric DNA associations are remarkably similar to those observed for retroviral reverse transcriptases, suggesting common mechanistic aspects of DNA replication between the two families of enzymes.

  2. N5-CAIR Mutase: Role of a CO2 Binding Site and Substrate Movement in Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoskins,A.; Morar, M.; Kappack, T.; Mathews, I.; Zaugg, J.; Barder, T.; Peng, P.; Okamoto, A.; Ealick, S.; Stubbe, J.

    2007-01-01

    N{sup 5}-Carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase (N{sup 5}-CAIR mutase or PurE) from Escherichia coli catalyzes the reversible interconversion of N{sup 5}-CAIR to carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR) with direct CO{sub 2} transfer. Site-directed mutagenesis, a pH-rate profile, DFT calculations, and X-ray crystallography together provide new insight into the mechanism of this unusual transformation. These studies suggest that a conserved, protonated histidine (His45) plays an essential role in catalysis. The importance of proton transfers is supported by DFT calculations on CAIR and N{sup 5}-CAIR analogues in which the ribose 5'-phosphate is replaced with a methyl group. The calculations suggest that the nonaromatic tautomer of CAIR (isoCAIR) is only 3.1 kcal/mol higher in energy than its aromatic counterpart, implicating this species as a potential intermediate in the PurE-catalyzed reaction. A structure of wild-type PurE cocrystallized with 4-nitroaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (NO{sub 2}-AIR, a CAIR analogue) and structures of H45N and H45Q PurEs soaked with CAIR have been determined and provide the first insight into the binding of an intact PurE substrate. A comparison of 19 available structures of PurE and PurE mutants in apo and nucleotide-bound forms reveals a common, buried carboxylate or CO{sub 2} binding site for CAIR and N{sup 5}-CAIR in a hydrophobic pocket in which the carboxylate or CO{sub 2} interacts with backbone amides. This work has led to a mechanistic proposal in which the carboxylate orients the substrate for proton transfer from His45 to N{sup 5}-CAIR to form an enzyme-bound aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) and CO{sub 2} intermediate. Subsequent movement of the aminoimidazole moiety of AIR reorients it for addition of CO{sub 2} at C4 to generate isoCAIR. His45 is now in a position to remove a C4 proton to produce CAIR.

  3. ELK1 uses different DNA binding modes to regulate functionally distinct classes of target genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta Odrowaz

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic transcription factors are grouped into families and, due to their similar DNA binding domains, often have the potential to bind to the same genomic regions. This can lead to redundancy at the level of DNA binding, and mechanisms are required to generate specific functional outcomes that enable distinct gene expression programmes to be controlled by a particular transcription factor. Here we used ChIP-seq to uncover two distinct binding modes for the ETS transcription factor ELK1. In one mode, other ETS transcription factors can bind regulatory regions in a redundant fashion; in the second, ELK1 binds in a unique fashion to another set of genomic targets. Each binding mode is associated with different binding site features and also distinct regulatory outcomes. Furthermore, the type of binding mode also determines the control of functionally distinct subclasses of genes and hence the phenotypic response elicited. This is demonstrated for the unique binding mode where a novel role for ELK1 in controlling cell migration is revealed. We have therefore uncovered an unexpected link between the type of binding mode employed by a transcription factor, the subsequent gene regulatory mechanisms used, and the functional categories of target genes controlled.

  4. GABPα Binding to Overlapping ETS and CRE DNA Motifs Is Enhanced by CREB1: Custom DNA Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ximiao; Syed, Khund Sayeed; Tillo, Desiree; Mann, Ishminder; Weirauch, Matthew T; Vinson, Charles

    2015-07-16

    To achieve proper spatiotemporal control of gene expression, transcription factors cooperatively assemble onto specific DNA sequences. The ETS domain protein monomer of GABPα and the B-ZIP domain protein dimer of CREB1 cooperatively bind DNA only when the ETS ((C)/GCGGAA GT: ) and CRE ( GT: GACGTCAC) motifs overlap precisely, producing the ETS↔CRE motif ((C)/GCGGAA GT: GACGTCAC). We designed a Protein Binding Microarray (PBM) with 60-bp DNAs containing four identical sectors, each with 177,440 features that explore the cooperative interactions between GABPα and CREB1 upon binding the ETS↔CRE motif. The DNA sequences include all 15-mers of the form (C)/GCGGA--CG-, the ETS↔CRE motif, and all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and occurrences in the human and mouse genomes. CREB1 enhanced GABPα binding to the canonical ETS↔CRE motif CCGGAAGT two-fold, and up to 23-fold for several SNPs at the beginning and end of the ETS motif, which is suggestive of two separate and distinct allosteric mechanisms of cooperative binding. We show that the ETS-CRE array data can be used to identify regions likely cooperatively bound by GABPα and CREB1 in vivo, and demonstrate their ability to identify human genetic variants that might inhibit cooperative binding. Copyright © 2015 He et al.

  5. Characterization of the binding of paylean and DNA by fluorescence, UV spectroscopy and molecular docking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huifeng; Bi, Shuyun; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Tingting

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of paylean (PL) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption, melting studies, ionic strength, viscosity experiments and molecular docking under simulated physiological conditions. Values for the binding constant Ka between PL and DNA were 5.11 × 10(3) , 2.74 × 10(3) and 1.74 × 10(3)  L mol(-1) at 19, 29 and 39°C respectively. DNA quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of PL via a static quenching procedure as shown from Stern-Volmer plots. The relative viscosity and the melting temperature of DNA were basically unchanged in the presence of PL. The fluorescence intensity of PL-DNA decreased with increasing ionic strength. The value of Ka for PL with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was larger than that for PL with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). All the results revealed that the binding mode was groove binding, and molecular docking further indicated that PL was preferentially bonded to A-T-rich regions of DNA. The values for ΔH, ΔS and ΔG suggested that van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding might be the main acting forces between PL and DNA. The binding distance was determined to be 3.37 nm based on the theory of Förster energy transference, which indicated that a non-radiation energy transfer process occurred. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Molecular Interplay between the Dimer Interface and the Substrate-Binding Site of Human Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Yun; Lin, Chu-Cheng; Liu, Yi-Liang; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that the fully active form of Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) should be a dimer and not a monomer. This paper provides a plausible mechanism for the control of PAD4 catalysis by molecular interplay between its dimer-interface loop (I-loop) and its substrate-binding loop (S-loop). Mutagenesis studies revealed that two hydrophobic residues, W347 and V469, are critical for substrate binding at the active site; mutating these two residues led to a severe reduction in the catalytic activity. We also identified several hydrophobic amino acid residues (L6, L279 and V283) at the dimer interface. Ultracentrifugation analysis revealed that interruption of the hydrophobicity of this region decreases dimer formation and, consequently, enzyme activity. Molecular dynamic simulations and mutagenesis studies suggested that the dimer interface and the substrate-binding site of PAD4, which consist of the I-loop and the S-loop, respectively, are responsible for substrate binding and dimer stabilization. We identified five residues with crucial roles in PAD4 catalysis and dimerization: Y435 and R441 in the I-loop, D465 and V469 in the S-loop, and W548, which stabilizes the I-loop via van der Waals interactions with C434 and Y435. The molecular interplay between the S-loop and the I-loop is crucial for PAD4 catalysis. PMID:28209966

  7. Direct assessment of substrate binding to the Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporter LeuT by solid state NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Simon; Gotfryd, Kamil; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters (NSSs) represent an important class of proteins mediating sodium-dependent uptake of neurotransmitters from the extracellular space. The substrate binding stoichiometry of the bacterial NSS protein, LeuT, and thus the principal transport mechanism, has been ...

  8. Molecular Interplay between the Dimer Interface and the Substrate-Binding Site of Human Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Yun; Lin, Chu-Cheng; Liu, Yi-Liang; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2017-02-17

    Our previous studies suggest that the fully active form of Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) should be a dimer and not a monomer. This paper provides a plausible mechanism for the control of PAD4 catalysis by molecular interplay between its dimer-interface loop (I-loop) and its substrate-binding loop (S-loop). Mutagenesis studies revealed that two hydrophobic residues, W347 and V469, are critical for substrate binding at the active site; mutating these two residues led to a severe reduction in the catalytic activity. We also identified several hydrophobic amino acid residues (L6, L279 and V283) at the dimer interface. Ultracentrifugation analysis revealed that interruption of the hydrophobicity of this region decreases dimer formation and, consequently, enzyme activity. Molecular dynamic simulations and mutagenesis studies suggested that the dimer interface and the substrate-binding site of PAD4, which consist of the I-loop and the S-loop, respectively, are responsible for substrate binding and dimer stabilization. We identified five residues with crucial roles in PAD4 catalysis and dimerization: Y435 and R441 in the I-loop, D465 and V469 in the S-loop, and W548, which stabilizes the I-loop via van der Waals interactions with C434 and Y435. The molecular interplay between the S-loop and the I-loop is crucial for PAD4 catalysis.

  9. Antibodies to left-handed Z-DNA bind to interband regions of Drosophila polytene chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Alfred; Pardue, Mary Lou; Lafer, Eileen M.; Möller, Achim; Stollar, B. David; Rich, Alexander

    1981-12-01

    Antibodies which are specific to the Z-DNA conformation have been purified and characterized on the basis of their binding to three different DNA polymers which can form this left-handed helix. These antibodies bind specifically to polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster as visualized by fluorescent staining. The staining is found in the interband regions and its intensity varies among different interbands in a reproducible manner. This is the first identification of the Z-DNA conformation in material of biological origin.

  10. Binding Potency of Heparin Immobilized on Activated Charcoal for DNA Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhkova, E A; Tridon, A; Evrard, B; Nikolaev, V G; Uvarov, V Yu; Tsimbalyuk, R S; Ivanuk, A A; Komov, V V; Sakhno, L A

    2016-02-01

    In vitro experiments showed that heparin adsorbed on activated charcoal can bind antibodies raised against native and single-stranded DNA in a diluted sera pool with a high level of these DNA. Thus, heparin used as anticoagulant during hemosorption procedure can demonstrate supplementary therapeutic activity resulting from its interaction with various agents involved in acute and chronic inflammatory reactions such as DNA- and RNA-binding substances, proinflammatory cytokines, complement components, growth factors, etc. Research and development of heparin-containing carbonic adsorbents for the therapy of numerous inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems to be a promising avenue in hematology.

  11. A small molecule inhibitor of Pot1 binding to telomeric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Sarah E; Croy, Johnny E; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2012-10-01

    Chromosome ends are complex structures, consisting of repetitive DNA sequence terminating in an ssDNA overhang with many associated proteins. Because alteration of the regulation of these ends is a hallmark of cancer, telomeres and telomere maintenance have been prime drug targets. The universally conserved ssDNA overhang is sequence-specifically bound and regulated by Pot1 (protection of telomeres 1), and perturbation of Pot1 function has deleterious effects for proliferating cells. The specificity of the Pot1/ssDNA interaction and the key involvement of this protein in telomere maintenance have suggested directed inhibition of Pot1/ssDNA binding as an efficient means of disrupting telomere function. To explore this idea, we developed a high-throughput time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) screen for inhibitors of Pot1/ssDNA interaction. We conducted this screen with the DNA-binding subdomain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pot1 (Pot1pN), which confers the vast majority of Pot1 sequence-specificity and is highly similar to the first domain of human Pot1 (hPOT1). Screening a library of ∼20 000 compounds yielded a single inhibitor, which we found interacted tightly with sub-micromolar affinity. Furthermore, this compound, subsequently identified as the bis-azo dye Congo red (CR), was able to competitively inhibit hPOT1 binding to telomeric DNA. Isothermal titration calorimetry and NMR chemical shift analysis suggest that CR interacts specifically with the ssDNA-binding cleft of Pot1, and that alteration of this surface disrupts CR binding. The identification of a specific inhibitor of ssDNA interaction establishes a new pathway for targeted telomere disruption.

  12. Synthesis of trimethoprim metal complexes: Spectral, electrochemical, thermal, DNA-binding and surface morphology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirezen, Nihat; Tarınç, Derya; Polat, Duygu; Ceşme, Mustafa; Gölcü, Ayşegül; Tümer, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Complexes of trimethoprim (TMP), with Cu(II), Zn(II), Pt(II), Ru(III) and Fe(III) have been synthesized. Then, these complexes have been characterized by spectroscopic techniques involving UV-vis, IR, mass and (1)H NMR. CHN elemental analysis, electrochemical and thermal behavior of complexes have also been investigated. The electrochemical properties of all complexes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) with UV spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. UV studies of the interaction of the complexes with DNA have shown that these compounds can bind to CT DNA. The binding constants of the complexes with CT DNA have also been calculated. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes in the presence of CT DNA have shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA by both the intercalative and the electrostatic binding mode. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been evaluated against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against two different fungi has been evaluated and compared with the reference drug TMP. Almost all types of complexes show excellent activity against all type of bacteria and fungi. The morphology of the CT DNA, TMP, metal ions and metal complexes has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To get the SEM images, the interaction of compounds with CT DNA has been studied by means of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at CT DNA modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The decrease in intensity of the guanine oxidation signals has been used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism.

  13. How do ADARs bind RNA? New protein-RNA structures illuminate substrate recognition by the RNA editing ADARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin M; Beal, Peter A

    2017-02-20

    Deamination of adenosine in RNA to form inosine has wide ranging consequences on RNA function including amino acid substitution to give proteins not encoded in the genome. What determines which adenosines in an mRNA are subject to this modification reaction? The answer lies in an understanding of the mechanism and substrate recognition properties of adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs). Our recent publication of X-ray crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase domain bound to RNA editing substrates shed considerable light on how the catalytic domains of these enzymes bind RNA and promote adenosine deamination. Here we review in detail the deaminase domain-RNA contact surfaces and present models of how full length ADARs, bearing double stranded RNA-binding domains (dsRBDs) and deaminase domains, could process naturally occurring substrate RNAs.

  14. Interaction between Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV and single-stranded DNA-binding protein is required for DNA synthesis on SSB-coated DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukohri, Asako; Nishikawa, Yoshito; Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi; Maki, Hisaji

    2012-07-01

    DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) is one of three translesion polymerases in Escherichia coli. A mass spectrometry study revealed that single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) in lysates prepared from exponentially-growing cells has a strong affinity for column-immobilized Pol IV. We found that purified SSB binds directly to Pol IV in a pull-down assay, whereas SSBΔC8, a mutant protein lacking the C-terminal tail, failed to interact with Pol IV. These results show that the interaction between Pol IV and SSB is mediated by the C-terminal tail of SSB. When polymerase activity was tested on an SSBΔC8-coated template, we observed a strong inhibition of Pol IV activity. Competition experiments using a synthetic peptide containing the amino acid sequence of SSB tail revealed that the chain-elongating capacity of Pol IV was greatly impaired when the interaction between Pol IV and SSB tail was inhibited. These results demonstrate that Pol IV requires the interaction with the C-terminal tail of SSB to replicate DNA efficiently when the template ssDNA is covered with SSB. We speculate that at the primer/template junction, Pol IV interacts with the tail of the nearest SSB tetramer on the template, and that this interaction allows the polymerase to travel along the template while disassembling SSB.

  15. Nε-lysine acetylation of a bacterial transcription factor inhibits Its DNA-binding activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Thao

    Full Text Available Evidence suggesting that eukaryotes and archaea use reversible N(ε-lysine (N(ε-Lys acetylation to modulate gene expression has been reported, but evidence for bacterial use of N(ε-Lys acetylation for this purpose is lacking. Here, we report data in support of the notion that bacteria can control gene expression by modulating the acetylation state of transcription factors (TFs. We screened the E. coli proteome for substrates of the bacterial Gcn5-like protein acetyltransferase (Pat. Pat acetylated four TFs, including the RcsB global regulatory protein, which controls cell division, and capsule and flagellum biosynthesis in many bacteria. Pat acetylated residue Lys180 of RcsB, and the NAD(+-dependent Sir2 (sirtuin-like protein deacetylase (CobB deacetylated acetylated RcsB (RcsB(Ac, demonstrating that N(ε-Lys acetylation of RcsB is reversible. Analysis of RcsB(Ac and variant RcsB proteins carrying substitutions at Lys180 provided biochemical and physiological evidence implicating Lys180 as a critical residue for RcsB DNA-binding activity. These findings further the likelihood that reversible N(ε-Lys acetylation of transcription factors is a mode of regulation of gene expression used by all cells.

  16. The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim

    2013-11-01

    We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens.

  17. A physiological role for androgen actions in the absence of androgen receptor DNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tammy P S; Clarke, Michele V; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Lee, Nicole K L; Davey, Rachel A; MacLean, Helen E

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that androgens have physiological actions via non-DNA binding-dependent androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathways in males, using our genetically modified mice that express a mutant AR with deletion of the 2nd zinc finger of the DNA binding domain (AR(ΔZF2)) that cannot bind DNA. In cultured genital skin fibroblasts, the mutant AR(ΔZF2) has normal ligand binding ability, phosphorylates ERK-1/2 in response to 1 min DHT treatment (blocked by the AR antagonist bicalutamide), but has reduced androgen-dependent nuclear localization compared to wildtype (WT). AR(ΔZF2) males have normal baseline ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, with a 1.5-fold increase in Akt phosphorylation in AR(ΔZF2) muscle vs WT. To identify physiological actions of non-DNA binding-dependent AR signaling, AR(ΔZF2) males were treated for 6 weeks with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Cortical bone growth was suppressed by DHT in AR(ΔZF2) mice (6% decrease in periosteal and 7% decrease in medullary circumference vs untreated AR(ΔZF2) males). In conclusion, these data suggest that non-DNA binding dependent AR actions suppress cortical bone growth, which may provide a mechanism to fine-tune the response to androgens in bone.

  18. Molecular Mechanism of Mot1, a TATA-binding Protein (TBP)-DNA Dissociating Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Ramya; True, Jason D; Auble, David T

    2016-07-22

    The essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATPase Mot1 globally regulates transcription by impacting the genomic distribution and activity of the TATA-binding protein (TBP). In vitro, Mot1 forms a ternary complex with TBP and DNA and can use ATP hydrolysis to dissociate the TBP-DNA complex. Prior work suggested an interaction between the ATPase domain and a functionally important segment of DNA flanking the TATA sequence. However, how ATP hydrolysis facilitates removal of TBP from DNA is not well understood, and several models have been proposed. To gain insight into the Mot1 mechanism, we dissected the role of the flanking DNA segment by biochemical analysis of complexes formed using DNAs with short single-stranded gaps. In parallel, we used a DNA tethered cleavage approach to map regions of Mot1 in proximity to the DNA under different conditions. Our results define non-equivalent roles for bases within a broad segment of flanking DNA required for Mot1 action. Moreover, we present biochemical evidence for two distinct conformations of the Mot1 ATPase, the detection of which can be modulated by ATP analogs as well as DNA sequence flanking the TATA sequence. We also show using purified complexes that Mot1 dissociation of a stable, high affinity TBP-DNA interaction is surprisingly inefficient, suggesting how other transcription factors that bind to TBP may compete with Mot1. Taken together, these results suggest that TBP-DNA affinity as well as other aspects of promoter sequence influence Mot1 function in vivo.

  19. Binding of an anticancer Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside with calf thymus DNA: Biophysical and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Sandhya; Jaldappagari, Seetharamappa, E-mail: jseetharam@yahoo.com

    2013-10-15

    In the present work, we report the interaction of a bioactive Rutaceae plant flavonoid glycoside, diosmin (DIO) with calf thymus DNA employing ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe. The mode of binding between DIO and DNA was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence, 3D-fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, FT-IR, circular dichroism, melting temperature (T{sub m}) measurements and differential pulse voltammogram studies. The results revealed the intercalative mode of binding between DIO and DNA. Further, the values of thermodynamic parameters, ∆H° (−388.32 kJ mol{sup −1}) and ∆S° (−1.22 kJ mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}) indicated that the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a major role in the binding of DIO to DNA. The observed negative ∆G° values revealed the spontaneity of interaction process. The binding of DIO to DNA–EB was found to be stronger in the presence of coexisting substances. -- Highlights: • Mechanism of interaction of diosmin with DNA was studied by spectroscopic methods. • Ethidium bromide was used as a fluorescence probe in the present study. • The van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond played a significant role in the interaction. • Intercalative mode of binding was proposed between DIO and DNA.

  20. Structural insight into DNA binding and oligomerization of the multifunctional Cox protein of bacteriophage P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, Ronnie P-A; Odegrip, Richard; Sehlén, Wilhelmina; Skaar, Karin; Svensson, Linda M; Massad, Tariq; Högbom, Martin; Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth; Stenmark, Pål

    2014-02-01

    The Cox protein from bacteriophage P2 is a small multifunctional DNA-binding protein. It is involved in site-specific recombination leading to P2 prophage excision and functions as a transcriptional repressor of the P2 Pc promoter. Furthermore, it transcriptionally activates the unrelated, defective prophage P4 that depends on phage P2 late gene products for lytic growth. In this article, we have investigated the structural determinants to understand how P2 Cox performs these different functions. We have solved the structure of P2 Cox to 2.4 Å resolution. Interestingly, P2 Cox crystallized in a continuous oligomeric spiral with its DNA-binding helix and wing positioned outwards. The extended C-terminal part of P2 Cox is largely responsible for the oligomerization in the structure. The spacing between the repeating DNA-binding elements along the helical P2 Cox filament is consistent with DNA binding along the filament. Functional analyses of alanine mutants in P2 Cox argue for the importance of key residues for protein function. We here present the first structure from the Cox protein family and, together with previous biochemical observations, propose that P2 Cox achieves its various functions by specific binding of DNA while wrapping the DNA around its helical oligomer.

  1. Quantifying the DNA binding characteristics of ruthenium based threading intercalator Λ Λ -P with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Nicholas; McCauley, Micah; Westerlund, Fredrik; Lincoln, Per; Rouzina, Ioulia; Williams, Mark; Paramanathan, Thayaparan

    Utilizing optical tweezers, biophysics researchers have been able to study drug-DNA interactions on the single molecule level. Binuclear ruthenium complexes are a particular type of drug molecule that have been found to have potential cancer-fighting qualities, due to their high binding affinity and low dissociation rates. These complexes are threading intercalators, meaning that they must thread their bulky side chains through DNA base pairs to allow the central planar moiety to intercalate between the bases. In this study, we explored the binding properties of the binuclear ruthenium complex, ΛΛ -P (ΛΛ -[µ-bidppz(phen)4Ru2]4+) . A single DNA molecule is held at a constant force and the ΛΛ -P solution introduced to the system in varying concentrations until equilibrium is reached. DNA extension data at various concentrations of ΛΛ -P recorded as a function of time provide the DNA binding kinetics and equilibrium binding affinity. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ΛΛ -P exhibits fast binding kinetics compared to the very similar ΔΔ -P. These complexes have the same chemical structure and only differ in their chirality, which suggests that the left handed (ΛΛ) threading moieties require less DNA structural distortion for threading compared with the right handed (ΔΔ) threading moieties.

  2. Binding studies of the antidiabetic drug, metformin to calf thymus DNA using multispectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Heidari, Leila

    2012-11-01

    Interaction between antidiabetic drug, Metformin and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in (50 mM Tris-HCl) buffer were studied by UV-Visible absorption, fluorescence, CD spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. In fluorimetric studies, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is exothermic (ΔH = -35.4522 kJ mol-1; ΔS = -49.9523 J mol-1 K-1). The competitive binding studies showed that the drug could release Hoechst 33258 completely. The complex showed absorption hyperchromism in its UV-Vis spectrum with DNA. The calculated binding constant, Kb, obtained from UV-Vis absorption studies was 8.3 × 104 M-1. Moreover, the changes in the CD spectra in the presence of the drug show stabilization of the right-handed B form of CT-DNA. Finally, viscosity measurements revealed that the binding of the complex with CT-DNA could be surface binding, mainly due to groove binding.

  3. Postranslational modifications significantly alter the binding-folding pathways of proteins associating with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoian, Garegin

    2012-02-01

    Many important regulators of gene activity are natively disordered, but fully or partially order when they bind to their targets on DNA. Interestingly, the ensembles of disordered states for such free proteins are not structurally featureless, but can qualitatively differ from protein to protein. In particular, in random coil like states the chains are swollen, making relatively few contacts, while in molten globule like states a significant collapse occurs, with ensuing high density of intra-protein interactions. Furthermore, since many DNA binding proteins are positively charged polyelectrolytes, the electrostatic self-repulsion also influences the degree of collapse of the chain and its conformational preferences in the free state and upon binding to DNA. In our work, we have found that the nature of the natively disordered ensemble significantly affects the way the protein folds upon binding to DNA. In particular, we showed that posttranslational modifications of amino acid residues, such as lysine acetylation, can alter the degree of collapse and conformational preferences for a free protein, and also profoundly impact the binding affinity and pathways for the protein DNA association. These trends will be discussed in the context of DNA interacting with various histone tails and the p53 protein.

  4. DNA Binding Proteins and Drug Delivery Vehicles: Tales of Elephants and Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    We compare the DNA-interactive properties of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein (gp32) with those of crotamine, a component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake. Gene 32 protein is a classical single-stranded DNA binding protein that has served as a model for this class of proteins. We discuss its biological functions, structure, binding specificities, and how it controls its own expression. In addition, we delineate the roles of the structural domains of gp32 and how they regulate the protein's various activities. Crotamine, a component of the venom of the South American rattlesnake, is probably not a DNA binding protein in nature, but clearly shows significant DNA binding in vitro. Crotamine has been shown to selectively disrupt rapidly dividing cells and this specificity has been demonstrated for crotamine-facilitated delivery of plasmid DNA Thus, crotamine, or a variant of the protein, could have important clinical and/or diagnostic roles. Understanding its DNA binding properties may therefore lead to more effective drug delivery vehicles.

  5. Ephemeral protein binding to DNA shapes stable nuclear bodies and chromatin domains

    CERN Document Server

    Brackley, C A; Michieletto, D; Mouvet, F; Cook, P R; Marenduzzo, D

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy reveals that the contents of many (membrane-free) nuclear "bodies" exchange rapidly with the soluble pool whilst the underlying structure persists; such observations await a satisfactory biophysical explanation. To shed light on this, we perform large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations of a chromatin fiber interacting with an ensemble of (multivalent) DNA-binding proteins; these proteins switch between two states -- active (binding) and inactive (non-binding). This system provides a model for any DNA-binding protein that can be modified post-translationally to change its affinity for DNA (e.g., like the phosphorylation of a transcription factor). Due to this out-of-equilibrium process, proteins spontaneously assemble into clusters of self-limiting size, as individual proteins in a cluster exchange with the soluble pool with kinetics like those seen in photo-bleaching experiments. This behavior contrasts sharply with that exhibited by "equilibrium", or non-switching, proteins that exis...

  6. Molecular metal sulfide cluster model for substrate binding to oil-refinery hydrodesulfurization catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Konrad; Monari, Magda; Brorson, Michael

    2002-03-25

    Reaction between [(eta5-Cp')3Mo3S4]+ and [Ni(1,5-cod)2] (Cp' = methylcyclopentadienyl; 1,5-cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) in THF at ambient temperature yielded a coordinatively unsaturated cubane-like cluster cation, [(eta5-Cp')3Mo3S4Ni]+. The ligand sphere at the Ni atom could be saturated by coordinating dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, di(tert-butyl) sulfide, tetrahydrothiophene, thiochroman-4-ol, 1,4-dithiane, pyridine, quinoline, or 4,4'-bipyridine. The products structurally model a mode of substrate coordination on proposed binding sites of heterogeneous MoNi sulfide hydrotreating catalysts. No stable coordination compounds could be isolated for thiophene derivatives. X-ray crystal structures are reported for the ligand-bridged dicluster compounds [[(eta5-Cp')3Mo3S4Ni]2(mu-C4H4S2)][pts]2 (C4H8S2 = 1,4-dithiane) and [[(eta5-Cp')3Mo3S4Ni]2(mu-bipy)][pts]2 (bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine).

  7. Rotary and unidirectional metal shadowing of VAT: localization of the substrate-binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, B; Guckenberger, R; Gross, H; Tittmann, P; Baumeister, W

    2000-11-01

    AAA-ATPases have important roles in manifold cellular processes. VAT (valosine-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum), a hexameric archaeal member of this family, has the tripartite domain structure N-D1-D2 that is characteristic of many members of this family. N, the N-terminal domain of 20.5 kDa, has been implicated in substrate binding. We have applied rotary and unidirectional shadowing to VAT and an N-terminally deleted mutant, VAT(Delta N), in order to map the location of this domain. For the analysis of data derived from unidirectionally shadowed samples we used a new approach combining eigenvector analysis with surface relief reconstruction. Averages of rotary shadowed particles as well as relief reconstructions map the N-terminal domains to the periphery of the hexameric complex and reveal their bipartite structure. Thus, this method appears to be well suited to study the conformational changes that occur during the functional cycle of the protein.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of ETS-family DNA-binding in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gong-Hong; Badis, Gwenael; Berger, Michael F; Kivioja, Teemu; Palin, Kimmo; Enge, Martin; Bonke, Martin; Jolma, Arttu; Varjosalo, Markku; Gehrke, Andrew R; Yan, Jian; Talukder, Shaheynoor; Turunen, Mikko; Taipale, Mikko; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Ukkonen, Esko; Hughes, Timothy R; Bulyk, Martha L; Taipale, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Members of the large ETS family of transcription factors (TFs) have highly similar DNA-binding domains (DBDs)—yet they have diverse functions and activities in physiology and oncogenesis. Some differences in DNA-binding preferences within this family have been described, but they have not been analysed systematically, and their contributions to targeting remain largely uncharacterized. We report here the DNA-binding profiles for all human and mouse ETS factors, which we generated using two different methods: a high-throughput microwell-based TF DNA-binding specificity assay, and protein-binding microarrays (PBMs). Both approaches reveal that the ETS-binding profiles cluster into four distinct classes, and that all ETS factors linked to cancer, ERG, ETV1, ETV4 and FLI1, fall into just one of these classes. We identify amino-acid residues that are critical for the differences in specificity between all the classes, and confirm the specificities in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) for a member of each class. The results indicate that even relatively small differences in in vitro binding specificity of a TF contribute to site selectivity in vivo. PMID:20517297

  9. High-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding regions mediated by intrinsic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhenling; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2015-10-15

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs and IDRs) lack stable 3D structure under physiological conditions in-vitro, are common in eukaryotes, and facilitate interactions with RNA, DNA and proteins. Current methods for prediction of IDPs and IDRs do not provide insights into their functions, except for a handful of methods that address predictions of protein-binding regions. We report first-of-its-kind computational method DisoRDPbind for high-throughput prediction of RNA, DNA and protein binding residues located in IDRs from protein sequences. DisoRDPbind is implemented using a runtime-efficient multi-layered design that utilizes information extracted from physiochemical properties of amino acids, sequence complexity, putative secondary structure and disorder and sequence alignment. Empirical tests demonstrate that it provides accurate predictions that are competitive with other predictors of disorder-mediated protein binding regions and complementary to the methods that predict RNA- and DNA-binding residues annotated based on crystal structures. Application in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster proteomes reveals that RNA- and DNA-binding proteins predicted by DisoRDPbind complement and overlap with the corresponding known binding proteins collected from several sources. Also, the number of the putative protein-binding regions predicted with DisoRDPbind correlates with the promiscuity of proteins in the corresponding protein-protein interaction networks. Webserver: http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/DisoRDPbind/.

  10. Obesity risk gene TMEM18 encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana M Jurvansuu

    Full Text Available Transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18 has previously been connected to cell migration and obesity. However, the molecular function of the protein has not yet been described. Here we show that TMEM18 localises to the nuclear membrane and binds to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The protein binds DNA with its positively charged C-terminus that contains also a nuclear localisation signal. Increase in the amount of TMEM18 in cells suppresses expression from a reporter vector with the TMEM18 target sequence. TMEM18 is a small protein of 140 residues and is predicted to be mostly alpha-helical with three transmembrane parts. As a consequence the DNA binding by TMEM18 would bring the chromatin very near to nuclear membrane. We speculate that this closed perinuclear localisation of TMEM18-bound DNA might repress transcription from it.

  11. Studies on a Novel Minor-groove Targeting Artificial Nuclease: Synthesis and DNA Binding Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nucleases play an important role in molecular biology, for example, in DNA sequencing. Synthetic polyamide conjugates can be considered as a novel tool for the selective inhibition of gene expressions and also as potential drugs in anticancer or antiviral chemotherapy. In this article, the synthesis of a novel minor-groove targeting artificial nuclease, an oligopyrrol-containing compound, has been reported. It was found that this novel compound can bind DNA in AT-rich minor groove with high affinity and site specificity. DNA binding behavior was determined by using UV-Vis and CD. It is indicated that compound 6 can enhance the Tm of DNA from 80. 4 C to 84. 4 ℃ and that it possesses a high binding constant value(Kb = 3.05×104 L/mol).

  12. Mitoxantrone and Analogues Bind and Stabilize i-Motif Forming DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elisé P.; Day, Henry A.; Ibrahim, Ali M.; Kumar, Jeethendra; Boswell, Leo J. E.; Huguin, Camille; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Pors, Klaus; Waller, Zoë A. E.

    2016-12-01

    There are hundreds of ligands which can interact with G-quadruplex DNA, yet very few which target i-motif. To appreciate an understanding between the dynamics between these structures and how they can be affected by intervention with small molecule ligands, more i-motif binding compounds are required. Herein we describe how the drug mitoxantrone can bind, induce folding of and stabilise i-motif forming DNA sequences, even at physiological pH. Additionally, mitoxantrone was found to bind i-motif forming sequences preferentially over double helical DNA. We also describe the stabilisation properties of analogues of mitoxantrone. This offers a new family of ligands with potential for use in experiments into the structure and function of i-motif forming DNA sequences.

  13. [Expression and purification of FOXO1 DNA binding domain and its DNA properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yinuer; Li, Jun; Chen, Yongheng; Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhuchu

    2017-01-28

    目的:探讨翼螺旋转录因子FOXO1的DNA结合域(FOXO1 DNA binding domain,FOXO1-DBD)的表达、纯化及与DNA的结合特性。方法:采用优化FOXO1-DNA的基因序列和低温诱导的方式实现FOXO1-DBD蛋白的可溶性表达,通过镍亲和层析及阳离子交换层析进行纯化,并经凝胶迁移实验(electrophoretic mobility shift assay,EMSA)验证FOXO1-DBD的DNA结合特性。结果:优化后的FOXO1基因在21 ℃时编码的蛋白大多以可溶性方式表达,通过两步纯化即可获得95%以上纯度的FOXO1-DBD蛋白,纯化的蛋白与含FOX家族DNA结合基序(G/ATAAACA)的DNA序列显示良好的结合特性。结论:建立了FOXO1-DBD蛋白高效表达、纯化的方法,验证了FOXO1蛋白在识别DNA上的复杂性。.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary studies of the DNA-binding domain Za from ADAR1 complexed to left-handed DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, T; Shafer, K; Lowenhaupt, K; Hanlon, E; Herbert, A; Rich, A

    1999-07-01

    The proteolytically defined Z-DNA binding domain Za of human adenosine deaminase type 1 (hADAR1) has been crystallized in complex with the DNA oligomer d(TCGCGCG). The crystals were obtained from a solution containing ammonium sulfate as precipitating agent and belong to the tetragonal space group P4212. A complete diffraction data set has been collected to a resolution of 2.4 A. The unit-cell dimensions are a = b = 85.9, c = 71.3 A. A Raman spectrum of the complex indicates that the DNA in the complex adopts the left-handed Z conformation.

  15. Zinc complexes of the antibacterial drug oxolinic acid: structure and DNA-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarushi, Alketa; Psomas, George; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P

    2009-06-01

    The neutral mononuclear zinc complexes with the quinolone antibacterial drug oxolinic acid in the absence or presence of a nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline have been synthesized and characterized. The experimental data suggest that oxolinic acid is on deprotonated mode acting as a bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ion through the ketone and one carboxylato oxygen atoms. The crystal structures of (chloro)(oxolinato)(2,2'-bipyridine)zinc(II), 2, and bis(oxolinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)zinc(II), 3, have been determined with X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) with UV and fluorescence spectroscopies. UV studies of the interaction of the complexes with DNA have shown that they can bind to CT DNA and the DNA-binding constants have been calculated. Competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) have shown that complex 3 exhibits the ability to displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that it binds to DNA in strong competition with EB.

  16. Cyclic ferrocenylnaphthalene diimide derivative as a new class of G-quadruplex DNA binding ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Monirul; Sato, Shinobu; Shinozaki, Shingo; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2017-01-15

    To identify an effective ligand that binds to a G-quadruplex structure but not a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), a set of biophysical and biochemical experiments were carried out using newly synthesized cyclic ferrocenylnaphthalene diimide (cFNDI, 1) or the non-cyclic derivative (2) with various structures of G-quadruplex DNAs and dsDNA. Compound 1 bound strongly to G-quadruplexes DNAs (10(6)M(-1) order) with diminished binding to dsDNA (10(4)M(-1) order) in 100mM AcOH-AcOK buffer (pH 5.5) containing 100mM KCl. Interestingly, 1 showed an approximately 50-fold higher selectivity to mixed hybrid-type telomeric G-quadruplex DNA (K=3.4×10(6)M(-1) and a 2:1 stoichiometry) than dsDNA (K=7.5×10(4)M(-1)) did. Furthermore, 1 showed higher thermal stability to G-quadruplex DNAs than it did to dsDNA with a preference for c-kit and c-myc G-quadruplex DNAs over telomeric and thrombin binding aptamers. Additionally, 1 exhibited telomerase inhibitory activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.4μM. Compound 2 showed a preference for G-quadruplex; however, the binding affinity magnitude and preference were improved in 1 because the former had a cyclic structure.

  17. Generalizing and learning protein-DNA binding sequence representations by an evolutionary algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Ka Chun

    2011-02-05

    Protein-DNA bindings are essential activities. Understanding them forms the basis for further deciphering of biological and genetic systems. In particular, the protein-DNA bindings between transcription factors (TFs) and transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) play a central role in gene transcription. Comprehensive TF-TFBS binding sequence pairs have been found in a recent study. However, they are in one-to-one mappings which cannot fully reflect the many-to-many mappings within the bindings. An evolutionary algorithm is proposed to learn generalized representations (many-to-many mappings) from the TF-TFBS binding sequence pairs (one-to-one mappings). The generalized pairs are shown to be more meaningful than the original TF-TFBS binding sequence pairs. Some representative examples have been analyzed in this study. In particular, it shows that the TF-TFBS binding sequence pairs are not presumably in one-to-one mappings. They can also exhibit many-to-many mappings. The proposed method can help us extract such many-to-many information from the one-to-one TF-TFBS binding sequence pairs found in the previous study, providing further knowledge in understanding the bindings between TFs and TFBSs. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. MARs Wars: heterogeneity and clustering of DNA-binding domains in the nuclear matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioudinkova E. S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. CO326 is a chicken nuclear scaffold/matrix attachment region (MAR associated with the nuclear matrix in several types of chicken cells. It contains a binding site for a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, F326. We have studied its interaction with the nuclear matrix. Methods. We have used an in vitro MAR assay with isolated matrices from chicken HD3 cells. Results. We have found that an oligonucleotide binding site for the F326 inhibits binding of the CO326 to the nuclear matrix. At the same time, the binding of heterologous MARs is enhanced. Conclusions. Taken together, these data suggest that there exist several classes of MARs and MAR-binding domains and that the MAR-binding proteins may be clustered in the nuclear matrix.

  19. Fabrication of a Novel Cell Culture System Using DNA-Grafted Substrates and DNase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitomo, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Asumi; Suzuki, Yasunobu; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Niikura, Kenichi; Nakazawa, Kohji; Ijiro, Kuniharu

    2016-02-01

    In conventional cell culture systems, trypsin is generally used for cell harvesting. However, trypsin damages the cells due to the nonselective degradation of proteins on the cell surface. This is a critical issue for cell culture systems. Therefore, an alternative cell culture system with the lowest possible impact on cells is desired. In this paper, we have focused on DNA as a sacrificial layer and DNase as an alternate enzyme instead of trypsin. DNase ought not to result in damage to or stress on cells as it only hydrolyzes DNAs while the plasma membrane and extracellular matrices are basically composed of lipids, proteins, and glycosides. Therefore, we fabricated DNA-grafted substrates as cell culture dishes and evaluated this novel cell culture system. As a result, we were able to culture several types of mammalian cells on the DNA-grafted substrates, with the cells harvested using DNase with only little damage to the cells. This cell culture system could provide a breakthrough in cell culturing technology.

  20. Zinc-induced interaction of the metal-binding domain of amyloid-β peptide with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmeleva, Svetlana A; Mezentsev, Yuri V; Kozin, Sergey A; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Ivanov, Alexis S; Bodoev, Nikolay V; Makarov, Alexander A; Radko, Sergey P

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of the 16-mer synthetic peptide (Aβ16), which represents the metal-binding domain of the amyloid-β with DNA, was studied employing the surface plasmon resonance technique. It has been shown that Aβ16 binds to the duplex DNA in the presence of zinc ions and thus the metal-binding domain can serve as a zinc-dependent DNA-binding site of the amyloid-β. The interaction of Aβ16 with DNA most probably depends on oligomerization of the peptide and is dominated by interaction with phosphates of the DNA backbone.

  1. DNA familial binding profiles made easy: comparison of various motif alignment and clustering strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Mahony

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor (TF proteins recognize a small number of DNA sequences with high specificity and control the expression of neighbouring genes. The evolution of TF binding preference has been the subject of a number of recent studies, in which generalized binding profiles have been introduced and used to improve the prediction of new target sites. Generalized profiles are generated by aligning and merging the individual profiles of related TFs. However, the distance metrics and alignment algorithms used to compare the binding profiles have not yet been fully explored or optimized. As a result, binding profiles depend on TF structural information and sometimes may ignore important distinctions between subfamilies. Prediction of the identity or the structural class of a protein that binds to a given DNA pattern will enhance the analysis of microarray and ChIP-chip data where frequently multiple putative targets of usually unknown TFs are predicted. Various comparison metrics and alignment algorithms are evaluated (a total of 105 combinations. We find that local alignments are generally better than global alignments at detecting eukaryotic DNA motif similarities, especially when combined with the sum of squared distances or Pearson's correlation coefficient comparison metrics. In addition, multiple-alignment strategies for binding profiles and tree-building methods are tested for their efficiency in constructing generalized binding models. A new method for automatic determination of the optimal number of clusters is developed and applied in the construction of a new set of familial binding profiles which improves upon TF classification accuracy. A software tool, STAMP, is developed to host all tested methods and make them publicly available. This work provides a high quality reference set of familial binding profiles and the first comprehensive platform for analysis of DNA profiles. Detecting similarities between DNA motifs is a key step in the

  2. Both HMG boxes in Hmo1 are essential for DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Ayako; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Kasahara, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Hmo1, a member of the high mobility group B family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, associates with the promoters of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) to direct accurate transcriptional initiation. Here, to identify factors involved in the binding of Hmo1 to its targets and the mechanism of Hmo1-dependent transcriptional initiation, we developed a novel reporter system using the promoter of the RPG RPS5. A genetic screen did not identify any factors that influence Hmo1 binding, but did identify a number of mutations in Hmo1 that impair its DNA binding activity in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Hmo1 binds to its target promoters autonomously without any aid of additional factors. Furthermore, characterization of Hmo1 mutants showed that the box A domain plays a pivotal role in DNA binding and may be required for the recognition of structural properties of target promoters that occur in native chromatin.

  3. Structure and function of Plasmodium falciparum malate dehydrogenase: role of critical amino acids in co-substrate binding pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anupam; Tripathi, Abhai K; Desai, Prashant V; Mukherjee, Prasenjit K; Avery, Mitchell A; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2009-01-01

    The malaria parasite thrives on anaerobic fermentation of glucose for energy. Earlier studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (PfMDH) with striking similarity to lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) might complement PfLDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. The N-terminal glycine motif, which forms a characteristic Rossman dinucleotide-binding fold in the co-substrate binding pocket, differentiates PfMDH (GlyXGlyXXGly) from other eukaryotic and prokaryotic malate dehydrogenases (GlyXXGlyXXGly). The amino acids lining the co-substrate binding pocket are completely conserved in MDHs from different species of human, primate and rodent malaria parasites. Based on this knowledge and conserved domains among prokaryotic and eukaryotic MDH, the role of critical amino acids lining the co-substrate binding pocket was analyzed in catalytic functions of PfMDH using site-directed mutagenesis. Insertion of Ala at the 9th or 10th position, which converts the N-terminal GlyXGlyXXGly motif (characteristic of malarial MDH and LDH) to GlyXXGlyXXGly (as in bacterial and eukaryotic MDH), uncoupled regulation of the enzyme through substrate inhibition. The dinucleotide fold GlyXGlyXXGly motif seems not to be responsible for the distinct affinity of PfMDH to 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide (APAD, a synthetic analog of NAD), since Ala9 and Ala10 insertion mutants still utilized APADH. The Gln11Met mutation, which converts the signature glycine motif in PfMDH to that of PfLDH, did not change the enzyme function. However, the Gln11Gly mutant showed approximately a 5-fold increase in catalytic activity, and higher susceptibility to inhibition with gossypol. Asn119 and His174 participate in binding of both co-substrate and substrate. The Asn119Gly mutant exhibited approximately a 3-fold decrease in catalytic efficiency, while mutation of His174 to Asn or Ala resulted in an inactive enzyme. These studies provide critical insights into the co-substrate

  4. Structure solution of DNA-binding proteins and complexes with ARCIMBOLDO libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pröpper, Kevin [University of Göttingen, (Germany); Instituto de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC), (Spain); Meindl, Kathrin; Sammito, Massimo [Instituto de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC), (Spain); Dittrich, Birger; Sheldrick, George M. [University of Göttingen, (Germany); Pohl, Ehmke, E-mail: ehmke.pohl@durham.ac.uk [Durham University, (United Kingdom); Usón, Isabel, E-mail: ehmke.pohl@durham.ac.uk [Instituto de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB-CSIC), (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), (Spain); University of Göttingen, (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    The structure solution of DNA-binding protein structures and complexes based on the combination of location of DNA-binding protein motif fragments with density modification in a multi-solution frame is described. Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all aspects of genetic activity within an organism, such as transcription, packaging, rearrangement, replication and repair. The molecular detail of protein–DNA interactions can be best visualized through crystallography, and structures emphasizing insight into the principles of binding and base-sequence recognition are essential to understanding the subtleties of the underlying mechanisms. An increasing number of high-quality DNA-binding protein structure determinations have been witnessed despite the fact that the crystallographic particularities of nucleic acids tend to pose specific challenges to methods primarily developed for proteins. Crystallographic structure solution of protein–DNA complexes therefore remains a challenging area that is in need of optimized experimental and computational methods. The potential of the structure-solution program ARCIMBOLDO for the solution of protein–DNA complexes has therefore been assessed. The method is based on the combination of locating small, very accurate fragments using the program Phaser and density modification with the program SHELXE. Whereas for typical proteins main-chain α-helices provide the ideal, almost ubiquitous, small fragments to start searches, in the case of DNA complexes the binding motifs and DNA double helix constitute suitable search fragments. The aim of this work is to provide an effective library of search fragments as well as to determine the optimal ARCIMBOLDO strategy for the solution of this class of structures.

  5. Study on a hidden protein-DNA binding in salmon sperm DNA sample by dynamic kinetic capillary isoelectric focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Liang; Dou Peng; Dong Mingming; Ke Xiaokang; Bian Ningsheng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu Zhen, E-mail: zhenliu@nju.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-09-14

    Nuclease P1 is an important enzyme that hydrolyzes RNA or single-stranded DNA into nucleotides, and complete digestion is an essential basis for assays based on this enzyme. To digest a doubled-stranded DNA, the enzyme is usually combined with heat denaturing, which breaks doubled-stranded DNA into single strands. This paper presents an un-expected phenomenon that nuclease P1, in combination with heat denaturing, fails to completely digest a DNA sample extracted from salmon sperm. Under the experimental conditions used, at which nuclease P1 can completely digest calf thymus DNA, the digestion yield of salmon sperm DNA was only 89.5%. Spectrometric measurement indicated that a total protein of 4.7% is present in the DNA sample. To explain the reason for this phenomenon, the dynamic kinetic capillary isoelectric focusing (DK-CIEF) approach proposed previously, which allows for the discrimination of different types of protein-DNA interactions and the measurement of the individual dissociation rate constants, was modified and applied to examine possible protein-DNA interactions involved. It was found that a non-specific DNA-protein binding occurs in the sample, the dissociation rate constant for which was measured to be 7.05 {+-} 0.83 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. The formation of DNA-protein complex was suggested to be the main reason for the incomplete digestion of the DNA sample. The modified DK-CIEF approach can be applied as general DNA samples, with the advantages of fast speed and low sample consumption.

  6. Kinetics of carboplatin-DNA binding in genomic DNA and bladder cancer cells as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hah, S S; Stivers, K M; Vere White, R; Henderson, P T

    2005-12-29

    Cisplatin and carboplatin are platinum-based drugs that are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. The cytotoxicity of these drugs is mediated by platinum-DNA monoadducts and intra- and interstrand diadducts, which are formed following uptake of the drug into the nucleus of cells. The pharmacodynamics of carboplatin display fewer side effects than for cisplatin, albeit with less potency, which may be due to differences in rates of DNA adduct formation. We report the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a sensitive detection method often used for radiocarbon quantitation, to measure both the kinetics of [{sup 14}C]carboplatin-DNA adduct formation with genomic DNA and drug uptake and DNA binding in T24 human bladder cancer cells. Only carboplatin-DNA monoadducts contain radiocarbon in the platinated DNA, which allowed for calculation of kinetic rates and concentrations within the system. The percent of radiocarbon bound to salmon sperm DNA in the form of monoadducts was measured by AMS over 24 h. Knowledge of both the starting concentration of the parent carboplatin and the concentration of radiocarbon in the DNA at a variety of time points allowed calculation of the rates of Pt-DNA monoadduct formation and conversion to toxic cross-links. Importantly, the rate of carboplatin-DNA monoadduct formation was approximately 100-fold slower than that reported for the more potent cisplatin analogue, which may explain the lower toxicity of carboplatin. T24 human bladder cancer cells were incubated with a subpharmacological dose of [{sup 14}C]carboplatin, and the rate of accumulation of radiocarbon in the cells and nuclear DNA was measured by AMS. The lowest concentration of radiocarbon measured was approximately 1 amol/10 {micro}g of DNA. This sensitivity may allow the method to be used for clinical applications.

  7. Structural and dynamic properties of linker histone H1 binding to DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Dootz, Rolf; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Found in all eukaryotic cells, linker histones H1 are known to bind to and rearrange nucleosomal linker DNA. In vitro, the fundamental nature of H1/DNA interactions has attracted wide interest among research communities - for biologists from a chromatin organization deciphering point of view, and for physicists from the study of polyelectrolyte interactions point of view. Hence, H1/DNA binding processes, structural and dynamical information about these self-assemblies is of broad importance. Targeting a quantitative understanding of H1 induced DNA compaction mechanisms our strategy is based on using small angle X-ray microdiffraction in combination with microfluidics. The usage of microfluidic hydrodynamic focusing devices facilitate a microscale control of these self-assembly processes. In addition, the method enables time-resolved access to structure formation in situ, in particular to transient intermediate states. The observed time dependent structure evolution shows that the interaction of H1 with DNA ca...

  8. Bayesian Unsupervised Learning of DNA Regulatory Binding Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Corander

    2009-01-01

    positions within a set of DNA sequences are very rare in the literature. Here we show how such a learning problem can be formulated using a Bayesian model that targets to simultaneously maximize the marginal likelihood of sequence data arising under multiple motif types as well as under the background DNA model, which equals a variable length Markov chain. It is