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Sample records for dna strand breakage

  1. Radiobiology of DNA strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, I.

    1975-01-01

    The yield of single-strand breaks in lambda DNA within lysogenic host bacteria was measured after exposure to 4-MeV electrons (50 msec) and rapid transfer (45 msec) to alkaline detergent. In nitrogen anoxia the yield was 1.2 x 10 -12 DNA single-strand breaks per rad per dalton, and under full oxygenation the yield increased to 5 x 10 -12 breaks per rad per dalton. A search for the presence of fast repair mechanisms failed to demonstrate the presence of any mechanism for repair of strand breaks operating within a fraction of a second. Strand breaks produced in the presence of oxygen were repaired in 30--40 sec, while breaks produced under anoxia were rejoined even slower. A functional product from the polAl gene was needed for the rejoining of the broken molecules. Intermediate levels of DNA strand breakage seen at low concentrations of oxygen are dependent on the concentration of cellular sulfhydryl compounds, suggesting that in strand breakage oxygen and hydrogen donors compete for reactions with radiation-induced transients in the DNA. Intercomparisons of data on radiation-induced lethality of cells and single-strand breaks in episomal DNA allow the distinction between two classes of radiation-induced radicals, R 1 and R 2 , with different chemical properties; R 1 reacts readily with oxygen and N-oxyls under formation of potentially lethal products. The reactivity of oxygen in this reaction is 30--40 times higher than that of TMPN. R 2 reacts 16 times more readily than R 1 with oxygen under formation of single-strand breaks in the DNA. R 2 does not react with N-oxyls

  2. Using DNA origami nanostructures to determine absolute cross sections for UV photon-induced DNA strand breakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Stefanie; Rackwitz, Jenny; Schürman, Robin; Prinz, Julia; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Giuliani, Alexandre; Bald, Ilko

    2015-11-19

    We have characterized ultraviolet (UV) photon-induced DNA strand break processes by determination of absolute cross sections for photoabsorption and for sequence-specific DNA single strand breakage induced by photons in an energy range from 6.50 to 8.94 eV. These represent the lowest-energy photons able to induce DNA strand breaks. Oligonucleotide targets are immobilized on a UV transparent substrate in controlled quantities through attachment to DNA origami templates. Photon-induced dissociation of single DNA strands is visualized and quantified using atomic force microscopy. The obtained quantum yields for strand breakage vary between 0.06 and 0.5, indicating highly efficient DNA strand breakage by UV photons, which is clearly dependent on the photon energy. Above the ionization threshold strand breakage becomes clearly the dominant form of DNA radiation damage, which is then also dependent on the nucleotide sequence.

  3. DNA strand breakage by 125I-decay in oligoDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevsky, P.; Martin, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide containing 125 I-dC in a defined location, with 5'- or 3'- 32 P-end-labelling of either strand, was used to investigate DNA strand breakage resulting from 125 I decay. Samples of the 32 P-end-labelled and 125 I-dC containing oligoDNA were incubated in 20 mM phosphate buffer (PB), or PB + 2 M dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at 4 deg during 18-20 days. The 32 P-end-labelled DNA fragments produced by 125 I decays were separated on denaturing polyacrylamide gels, and the 3P activity in each fragment was determined by scintillation counting after elution from the gel. The fragment size distribution was then converted to a distribution of single stranded break probabilities at each nucleotide position. The results indicate that each 125 I decay event produces at least one break in the 125 I-dC containing strand, and causes breakage of the opposite strand in 75-80% of events. Thus, the double stranded break is produced by 125 I decay with probability ∼0.8. Most of single stranded breaks (around 90%) occurred within 5-6 nucleotides of the 125 I-dC, however DNA breaks were detected up to 18-20 nucleotides from the decay site. The average numbers of single stranded breaks per decay are 3.7 (PB) and 3.3 (PB+DMSO) in 125 I-dC containing strand, and 1.5 (PB) and 1.3 (PB+DMSO) in the opposite strand. Deconvolution of strand break probabilities as a function of separation from the 125 I, in terms of both distance (to target deoxyribosyl carbon atoms, in B-DNA) and nucleotide number, show that the latter is an important parameter for the shorter-range damage. This could indicate a role for attenuation/dissipation of damage through the stacked bases. In summary, the results represent a much more extensive set of data than available from earlier experiments on DNA breakage from l25 I-decay, and may provide new mechanistic insights

  4. Protection of DNA strand breakage by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won

    1997-12-01

    Human ceruloplasmin, the plasma copper containing protein, is thought to play an essential role in iron metabolism, but it also has antioxidant properties. Ceruloplasmin directly scavenged hydroxyl radicals (.OH) generated in dithiothreitol/FeCl 3 system besides inhibitory function of hydroxyl radical formation and lipid peroxidation. Polyamines, spermidine and spermine, significantly protected the supercoiled DNA strand breakage by hydroxyl radicals and DNA strand breakage by UV was highly protected by all four polyamines used in this study. In polyamine deficient mutant KL527. It was shown that cell survivability following UV irradiation was slightly increased by exogenous polyamines putrescine and spermidine supplement. However the cell survivability of wild type (MG 1655) was not influenced by polyamine supplement. In γ-irradiated cells, cell survivability of polyamine-deficient mutant strain KL527 was significantly increased by exogenous putrescine supplement and that of wild type strain MG1655 was similar irrespective of polyamine supplement. These results implicate the possibility that polyamines play a potent role in radioprotection of cell and DNA level. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs

  5. Estimates of DNA strand breakage in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus leukocytes measured with the Comet and DNA diffusion assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of DNA damage by mean of Comet or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE assay has been commonly used to assess genotoxic impact in aquatic animals being able to detect exposure to low concentrations of contaminants in a wide range of species. The aims of this work were 1 to evaluate the usefulness of the Comet to detect DNA strand breakage in dolphin leukocytes, 2 to use the DNA diffusion assay to determine the amount of DNA strand breakage associated with apoptosis or necrosis, and 3 to determine the proportion of DNA strand breakage that was unrelated to apoptosis and necrosis. Significant intra-individual variation was observed in all of the estimates of DNA damage. DNA strand breakage was overestimated because a considerable amount (~29% of the DNA damage was derived from apoptosis and necrosis. The remaining DNA damage in dolphin leukocytes was caused by factors unrelated to apoptosis and necrosis. These results indicate that the DNA diffusion assay is a complementary tool that can be used together with the Comet assay to assess DNA damage in bottlenose dolphins.

  6. Sequence dependence of electron-induced DNA strand breakage revealed by DNA nanoarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Adrian; Rackwitz, Jenny; Cauët, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    The electronic structure of DNA is determined by its nucleotide sequence, which is for instance exploited in molecular electronics. Here we demonstrate that also the DNA strand breakage induced by low-energy electrons (18 eV) depends on the nucleotide sequence. To determine the absolute cross sec...

  7. Replication stress-induced chromosome breakage is correlated with replication fork progression and is preceded by single-stranded DNA formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Di Rienzi, Sara C; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2011-10-01

    Chromosome breakage as a result of replication stress has been hypothesized to be the direct consequence of defective replication fork progression, or "collapsed" replication forks. However, direct and genome-wide evidence that collapsed replication forks give rise to chromosome breakage is still lacking. Previously we showed that a yeast replication checkpoint mutant mec1-1, after transient exposure to replication impediment imposed by hydroxyurea (HU), failed to complete DNA replication, accumulated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at the replication forks, and fragmented its chromosomes. In this study, by following replication fork progression genome-wide via ssDNA detection and by direct mapping of chromosome breakage after HU exposure, we have tested the hypothesis that the chromosome breakage in mec1 cells occurs at collapsed replication forks. We demonstrate that sites of chromosome breakage indeed correlate with replication fork locations. Moreover, ssDNA can be detected prior to chromosome breakage, suggesting that ssDNA accumulation is the common precursor to double strand breaks at collapsed replication forks.

  8. Genetic ecotoxicology IV: survival and DNA strand breakage is dependent on genotype in radionuclide-exposed mosquitofish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, C.W. [Texas A and M University, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, College Station, TX 77843-2258 (United States); Elbl, T. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States); Shugart, L.R. [L.R. Shugart and Associates, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were caged in situ in a radioactively-contaminated pond in order to determine if survival and amount of DNA strand breakage were dependent on genotype. Genotypes of fish were determined using the randomly amplified polymorphic (RAPD) technique, and DNA strand breakage was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. This study is a continuation of research undertaken at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which examined the effects of radionuclide contamination on the population genetic structure of mosquitofish. The previous research found 17 RAPD markers that were present at a higher frequency in contaminated than in reference populations ('contaminant-indicative bands'), and fish from contaminated sites which possessed these markers had higher fecundity and fewer strand breaks than fish which did not. One of the contaminated populations (Pond 3513) was colonized from one of the reference populations (Crystal Springs) in 1977. In the present study, fish were obtained from Crystal Springs and an additional reference site, and caged in Pond 3513. The percent survival and amount of DNA strand breakage were then determined for fish with and without the contaminant-indicative markers. When Crystal Springs fish were caged in Pond 3513, it was found that the genotypic distribution of the survivors was more similar to the native Pond 3513 population than to the Crystal Springs population. Furthermore, for nine of the contaminant-indicative markers, the percent survival was greater for fish which possessed these markers than for fish which did not. For five of these markers, fish which possessed them had higher DNA integrity (fewer strand breaks) than fish which did not. These data indicate that probability of survival and degree of DNA strand breakage in radionuclide-exposed mosquitofish are dependent on RAPD genotype, and are consistent with the hypothesis that the contaminant-indicative RAPD bands are markers of loci

  9. Visual characterization and quantitative measurement of artemisinin-induced DNA breakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Huaihong [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yang Peihui [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: typh@jnu.edu.cn; Chen Jianan [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liang Zhihong [Experiment and Technology Center, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chen Qiongyu [Institute of Genetic Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai Jiye [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-05-01

    DNA conformational change and breakage induced by artemisinin, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been visually characterized and quantitatively measured by the multiple tools of electrochemistry, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and DNA electrophoresis. Electrochemical and spectroscopic results confirm that artemisinin can intercalate into DNA double helix, which causes DNA conformational changes. AFM imaging vividly demonstrates uneven DNA strand breaking induced by QHS interaction. To assess these DNA breakages, quantitative analysis of the extent of DNA breakage has been performed by analyzing AFM images. Basing on the statistical analysis, the occurrence of DNA breaks is found to depend on the concentration of artemisinin. DNA electrophoresis further validates that the intact DNA molecules are unwound due to the breakages occur at the single strands. A reliable scheme is proposed to explain the process of artemisinin-induced DNA cleavage. These results can provide further information for better understanding the anticancer activity of artemisinin.

  10. Use of orthogonal field alternational gel electrophoresis (OFAGE) for studying DNA double strand breakage and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contopoulou, C.R.; Cook, V.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The study of DNA double strand breakage and repair has normally been carried by using neutral sucrose gradient or neutral elution techniques. The authors have applied OFAGE procedures to study x-ray induced double strand breaks and repair. Breakage of chromosomes is seen by a decrease in intensity of individual chromosome bands; as expected, this decrease becomes more pronounced as chromosome size increases. The fragments of broken chromosomes appears as a broad smear in the size range 100 kb to 1000 kb. Following repair, these fragments partially disappear and the chromosomal bands increase in intensity. In four repair deficient mutants, rad51, rad52, rad54, rad55, no increase in chromosomal band intensity was seen. These results have been confirmed by blotting for a specific chromosome

  11. Protection of halogenated DNA from strand breakage and sister-chromatid exchange induced by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orta, Manuel Luis; Mateos, Santiago; Cantero, Gloria; Wolff, Lisa J.; Cortes, Felipe

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental nuclear enzyme DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), cleaves the double-stranded DNA molecule at preferred sequences within its recognition/binding sites. We have recently reported that when cells incorporate halogenated nucleosides analogues of thymidine into DNA, it interferes with normal chromosome segregation, as shown by an extraordinarily high yield of endoreduplication, and results in a protection against DNA breakage induced by the topo II poison m-AMSA [F. Cortes, N. Pastor, S. Mateos, I. Dominguez, The nature of DNA plays a role in chromosome segregation: endoreduplication in halogen-substituted chromosomes, DNA Repair 2 (2003) 719-726; G. Cantero, S. Mateos, N. Pastor; F. Cortes, Halogen substitution of DNA protects from poisoning of topoisomerase II that results in DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), DNA Repair 5 (2006) 667-674]. In the present investigation, we have assessed whether the presence of halogenated nucleosides in DNA diminishes the frequency of interaction of topo I with DNA and thus the frequency with which the stabilisation of cleavage complexes by the topo I poison camptothecin (CPT) takes place, in such a way that it protects from chromosome breakage and sister-chromatid exchange. This protective effect is shown to parallel a loss in halogen-substituted cells of the otherwise CPT-increased catalytic activity bound to DNA

  12. How quantum entanglement in DNA synchronizes double-strand breakage by type II restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, P; Dunston, G; Lindesay, J

    2016-02-21

    Macroscopic quantum effects in living systems have been studied widely in pursuit of fundamental explanations for biological energy transport and sensing. While it is known that type II endonucleases, the largest class of restriction enzymes, induce DNA double-strand breaks by attacking phosphodiester bonds, the mechanism by which simultaneous cutting is coordinated between the catalytic centers remains unclear. We propose a quantum mechanical model for collective electronic behavior in the DNA helix, where dipole-dipole oscillations are quantized through boundary conditions imposed by the enzyme. Zero-point modes of coherent oscillations would provide the energy required for double-strand breakage. Such quanta may be preserved in the presence of thermal noise by the enzyme's displacement of water surrounding the DNA recognition sequence. The enzyme thus serves as a decoherence shield. Palindromic mirror symmetry of the enzyme-DNA complex should conserve parity, because symmetric bond-breaking ceases when the symmetry of the complex is violated or when physiological parameters are perturbed from optima. Persistent correlations in DNA across longer spatial separations-a possible signature of quantum entanglement-may be explained by such a mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The validity of sedimentation data from high molecular weight DNA and the effects of additives on radiation-induced single-strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    The optimization of many of the factors governing reproducible sedimentation behaviour of high molecular weight single-strand DNA in a particular alkaline sucrose density gradient system is described. A range of angular momenta is defined for which a constant strand breakage efficiency is required, despite a rotor speed effect which increases the measured molecular weights at decreasing rotor speeds for larger DNA molecules. The possibility is discussed that the bimodal control DNA profiles obtained after sedimentation at 11 500 rev/min (12 400 g) or less represent structural subunits of the chromatid. The random induction of single-strand DNA breaks by ionizing radiation is demonstrated by the computer-derived fits to the experimental profiles. The enhancement of single-strand break (SSB) yields in hypoxic cells by oxygen, para-nitroacetophenone (PNAP), or any of the three nitrofuran derivatives used was well correlated with increased cell killing. Furthermore, reductions in SSB yields for known hydroxyl radical (OH.) scavengers correlates with the reactivities of these compounds toward OH.. This supports the contention that some type of OH.-induced initial lesion, which may ultimately be expressed as an unrepaired or misrepaired double-strand break, constitutes a lethal event. (author)

  14. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhiyong; Suzhou Univ., Suzhou; Zhang Lihui; Li Ming; Fan Wo; Xu Yujie

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E 0 + E 1 l + E 2 l 2 , the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl 2 ). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl 2 ), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  15. Simulation of 125I-induced DNA strand breaks in a CAP-DNA complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Friedland, W.; Jacob, P.

    2000-01-01

    DNA strand breakage induced by decay of 125 I incorporated into the pyrimidine of a small piece of DNA with a specific base pair sequence has been investigated theoretically and experimentally (Lobachevsky and Martin 2000a, 2000b; Nikjoo et al., 1996; Pomplun and Terrissol, 1994; Charlton and Humm, 1988). Recently an attempt was made to analyse the DNA kinks in a CAP-DNA complex with 125 I induced DNA strand breakage (Karamychev et al., 1999). This method could be used as a so called radioprobing for such DNa distortions like other chemical and biological assays, provided that it has been tested and confirmed in a corresponding theoretical simulation. In the measurement, the distribution of the first breaks on the DNA strands starting from their labeled end can be determined. Based on such first breakage distributions, the simulation calculation could then be used to derive information on the structure of a given DNA-protein complex. The biophysical model PARTRAC has been applied successfully in simulating DNA damage induced by irradiation (Friedland et al., 1998; 1999). In the present study PARTRAC is adapted to a DNA-protein complex in which a specific sequence of 30 base pairs of DNA is connected with the catabolite gene activator protein (CAP). This report presents the first step of the analysis in which the CAP-DNA model used in NIH is overlaid with electron track structures in liquid water and the strand breaks due to direct ionization and due to radical attack are simulated. The second step will be to take into account the neutralization of the heavily charged tellurium and the protective effect of the CAP protein against radical attack. (orig.)

  16. Low-Energy Electron-Induced Strand Breaks in Telomere-Derived DNA Sequences-Influence of DNA Sequence and Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackwitz, Jenny; Bald, Ilko

    2018-03-26

    During cancer radiation therapy high-energy radiation is used to reduce tumour tissue. The irradiation produces a shower of secondary low-energy (DNA very efficiently by dissociative electron attachment. Recently, it was suggested that low-energy electron-induced DNA strand breaks strongly depend on the specific DNA sequence with a high sensitivity of G-rich sequences. Here, we use DNA origami platforms to expose G-rich telomere sequences to low-energy (8.8 eV) electrons to determine absolute cross sections for strand breakage and to study the influence of sequence modifications and topology of telomeric DNA on the strand breakage. We find that the telomeric DNA 5'-(TTA GGG) 2 is more sensitive to low-energy electrons than an intermixed sequence 5'-(TGT GTG A) 2 confirming the unique electronic properties resulting from G-stacking. With increasing length of the oligonucleotide (i.e., going from 5'-(GGG ATT) 2 to 5'-(GGG ATT) 4 ), both the variety of topology and the electron-induced strand break cross sections increase. Addition of K + ions decreases the strand break cross section for all sequences that are able to fold G-quadruplexes or G-intermediates, whereas the strand break cross section for the intermixed sequence remains unchanged. These results indicate that telomeric DNA is rather sensitive towards low-energy electron-induced strand breakage suggesting significant telomere shortening that can also occur during cancer radiation therapy. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Influence of DNA conformation on radiation-induced single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, F.; Belli, M.; Mazzei, F.

    1994-01-01

    We performed experiments on two DNA fragments of about 300 bp having different conformation to test whether radiation-induced single-strand breakage is dependent on DNA conformation. Breakage analysis was carried out by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which allows determination of the broken site at single nucleotide resolution. We found uniform cutting patterns in B-form regions. On the contrary, X- or γ-irradiation of curved fragments of kinetoplast DNA showed that the distribution of single-strand breaks was not uniform along the fragment, as the cleavage pattern was modulated in phase with the runs of A-T pairs. This modulation likely reflected the reduced accessibility of the sites which on hydroxyl-radical attack give rise to strand breaks. The cleavage pattern was phased with the runs of A-T pairs. Moreover, the overall yield of strand breaks was considerably lower in curved DNA fragments than in those with extended straight regions. The conformation effect found here indicates that the cleavage pattern reflects the fine structural features of DNA. (orig./MG)

  18. Multiple pathways of DNA double-strand break processing in a mutant Indian muntjac cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Jha, B.; Johnson, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    DNA break processing is compared in the Indian muntjac cell lines, SVM and DM. The initial frequencies and resealing of X-ray generated single- and double-strand breaks are similar in the two cell lines. Inhibiting the repair of UV damage leads to greater double-strand breakage in SVM than in DM, and some of these breaks are not repaired; however, repair-associated single-strand breakage and resealing are normal. Dimethylsulfate also induces excess double-strand breakage in SVM, and these breaks are irreparable. Restricted plasmids are reconstituted correctly in SVM at approximately 30% of the frequency observed in DM. Thus SVM has a reduced capacity to repair certain types of double-strand break. This defect is not due to a DNA ligase deficiency. We conclude that DNA double-strand breaks are repaired by a variety of pathways within mammalian cells and that the structure of the break or its mode of formation determines its subsequent fate

  19. Aphidicolin synchronization of mouse L cells perturbs the relationship between cell killing and DNA double-strand breakage after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.R.; Broadhurst, S.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between X-ray-induced cell killing and DNA double-strand breakage was examined for synchronized mouse L cells that had entered S-phase, G2-phase, mitosis, and G1-phase following release from aphidicolin and compared to asynchronous culture response. Aphidicolin-synchronized cells showed cycle phase-dependent changes in dose-responses for both killing and DNA dsb. However, on the basis of DNA dsb per unit length of DNA required to produce a lethal lesion, aphidicolin-synchronized cells were more sensitive to X-rays than asynchronous cultures. This sensitivity peaked 2 h after release from aphidicolin treatment, and then progressively declined towards the asynchronous culture value. It is argued that results are due to deregulation of the temporal order of DNA replication following aphidicolin treatment, and can be incorporated into the critical DNA target size model by postulating that the targets for radiation action in mammalian cells are DNA-associated with potentially transcriptionally active proto-oncogenes or constitutive fragile sites. (author)

  20. DNA strand breakage repair in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Jr, R A; Sheridan, III, R B; Huang, P C [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md. (USA). Dept. of Environmental and Biophysical Sciences

    1975-12-01

    Human diploid fibroblast-like cells derived from four patients with the genetic disease ataxia telangiectasia and from two non-mutant donors were examined for the repair of x-ray induced strand breaks in DNA. The ataxia telangiectasia cultures showed no significant differences from the non-mutant cultures in the kinetics and extent of strand repair. This suggests that the increased spontaneous and x-ray induced chromatid aberrations observed in ataxia telangiectasia cells are not caused by a defect in the repair of single strand breaks as might be suspected from a general model of aberration production.

  1. Resveratrol protects mouse embryonic stem cells from ionizing radiation by accelerating recovery from DNA strand breakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissova, Natalia G; Nasello, Cara M; Yeung, Percy L; Tischfield, Jay A; Brenneman, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol has elicited many provocative anticancer effects in laboratory animals and cultured cells, including reduced levels of oxidative DNA damage, inhibition of tumor initiation and progression and induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. Use of resveratrol as a cancer-preventive agent in humans will require that its anticancer effects not be accompanied by damage to normal tissue stem or progenitor cells. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) or early mouse embryos exposed to ethanol, resveratrol has been shown to suppress apoptosis and promote survival. However, in cells exposed to genotoxic stress, survival may come at the expense of genome stability. To learn whether resveratrol can protect stem cells from DNA damage and to study its effects on genomic integrity, we exposed mESC pretreated with resveratrol to ionizing radiation (IR). Forty-eight hours pretreatment with a comparatively low concentration of resveratrol (10 μM) improved survival of mESC >2-fold after exposure to 5 Gy of X-rays. Cells pretreated with resveratrol sustained the same levels of reactive oxygen species and DNA strand breakage after IR as mock-treated controls, but repaired DNA damage more rapidly and resumed cell division sooner. Frequencies of IR-induced mutation at a chromosomal reporter locus were not increased in cells pretreated with resveratrol as compared with controls, indicating that resveratrol can improve viability in mESC after DNA damage without compromising genomic integrity.

  2. Electro-mechanical behaviors of composite superconducting strand with filament breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xu; Gao, Yuanwen; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromechanical behaviors of the superconducting (SC) strand are investigated. • A 3D FEM model for bending behaviors and electric properties of strand is developed. • The influence of breakage of filaments on the critical current of SC strand is calculated. • The impact of current transfer length on the electric properties of SC strand is discussed. - Abstract: The bending behaviors of superconducting strand with typical multi-filament twist configuration are investigated based on a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand. In this 3D FEM model, the impacts of initial thermal residual stress, filament-breakage and its evaluation are taken into accounts. The mechanical responses of the strand under bending load are studied with the factors taken into consideration one by one. The distribution of the damage of the filaments and its evolution and the movement of the neutral axis caused by it are studied and displayed in detail. Besides, taking the advantages of the Multi-filament twist model, the normalized critical current of the strand under bending load is also calculated based on the invariant temperature and field strain functions. In addition, the non-negligible influences of the pitch length of the filaments on both the mechanical behaviors and the normalized critical current are discussed. The stress-strain characteristics of the strand under tensile load and the normalized critical current of it under axial and bending loads resulting from the Multi-filament twist model show good agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Electro-mechanical behaviors of composite superconducting strand with filament breakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Zhou, Youhe [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Environment and Disaster in Western China, The Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical behaviors of the superconducting (SC) strand are investigated. • A 3D FEM model for bending behaviors and electric properties of strand is developed. • The influence of breakage of filaments on the critical current of SC strand is calculated. • The impact of current transfer length on the electric properties of SC strand is discussed. - Abstract: The bending behaviors of superconducting strand with typical multi-filament twist configuration are investigated based on a three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand. In this 3D FEM model, the impacts of initial thermal residual stress, filament-breakage and its evaluation are taken into accounts. The mechanical responses of the strand under bending load are studied with the factors taken into consideration one by one. The distribution of the damage of the filaments and its evolution and the movement of the neutral axis caused by it are studied and displayed in detail. Besides, taking the advantages of the Multi-filament twist model, the normalized critical current of the strand under bending load is also calculated based on the invariant temperature and field strain functions. In addition, the non-negligible influences of the pitch length of the filaments on both the mechanical behaviors and the normalized critical current are discussed. The stress-strain characteristics of the strand under tensile load and the normalized critical current of it under axial and bending loads resulting from the Multi-filament twist model show good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Monophosphate end groups produced in radiation induced strand breakage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, E.; Ward, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A solution of DNA was gamma-irradiated and treated with monophosphatase for studies on the amount of inorganic phosphate released as a function of time. Studies were also conducted on: effect of alkali on yield of monophosphate end groups; induction of DNA strand breaks by treatment with DNAase; initial G values for monophosphate termini; and effect of alkali on radioinduced DNA damage

  5. Radiation induced strand breaks and time scale for repair of broken strands in superinfecting phage lambda DNA in Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, I.; Boye, E.; Brustad, T.

    1975-01-01

    The production of the first radiation induced break in covalent lambda DNA molecules in pol + and pol A 1 lysogenic host cells was measured after exposure to electrons from a linear accelerator and transfer to alkaline detergent within 100 ms from the onset of irradiation. The results revealed the presence of an oxygen effect in DNA strand breakage. In both pol + and pol A 1 host cells the rate of production in nitrogen was 1.2x10 -12 DNA single strand breaks per rad per dalton as compared to 5x10 -12 in oxygen. The yields of strand breaks in lambda DNA in pol + host cells under oxygenated or anoxic conditions are independent of whether the cells are irradiated in buffer at room temperature, in buffer at ice temperature, or in growth medium at 37 0 C. These results indicate that enzymic repair of DNA strand breaks before analysis is insignificant in these experiments. The presence of an oxygen effect in DNA strand breakage under these conditions suggest that an actual difference exists between initial number of breaks produced in nitrogen and in oxygen. The kinetics of rejoining of broken molecules under optimal growth conditions was measured by incubating the irradiated host cells prior to lysis. In pol + host cells 50% of the lambda DNA molecules broken in presence of oxygen are rejoined within 10 to 20 seconds of incubation. A significantly lower recovery is seen in pol + host cells after irradiation in nitrogen. The rejoining of broken lambda DNA strands in pol A 1 host cells is impaired after irradiation in presence of oxygen as well as under anoxia. These results show that DNA polymerase I is needed for the rapid rejoining of radiation induced strand breaks in the DNA, and that oxygen promoted strand breaks are more easily rejoined than are those produced in nitrogen. (author)

  6. Electron attachment to DNA single strands: gas phase and aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2007-01-01

    such as glycosidic bond breakage. However, the radical anions of the pyrimidine nucleotides with high VDE are expected to be electronically stable. Thus the base-centered radical anions of the pyrimidine nucleotides might be the possible intermediates for DNA single-strand breakage.

  7. Lack of spontaneous and radiation-induced chromosome breakage at interstitial telomeric sites in murine scid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H-P; Mozdarani, H; Finnegan, C; McIlrath, J; Bryant, P E; Slijepcevic, P

    2004-01-01

    Interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs) in chromosomes from DNA repair-proficient mammalian cells are sensitive to both spontaneous and radiation-induced chromosome breakage. Exact mechanisms of this chromosome breakage sensitivity are not known. To investigate factors that predispose ITSs to chromosome breakage we used murine scid cells. These cells lack functional DNA-PKcs, an enzyme involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Interestingly, our results revealed lack of both spontaneous and radiation-induced chromosome breakage at ITSs found in scid chromosomes. Therefore, it is possible that increased sensitivity of ITSs to chromosome breakage is associated with the functional DNA double-strand break repair machinery. To investigate if this is the case we used scid cells in which DNA-PKcs deficiency was corrected. Our results revealed complete disappearance of ITSs in scid cells with functional DNA-PKcs, presumably through chromosome breakage at ITSs, but their unchanged frequency in positive and negative control cells. Therefore, our results indicate that the functional DNA double-strand break machinery is required for elevated sensitivity of ITSs to chromosome breakage. Interestingly, we observed significant differences in mitotic chromosome condensation between scid cells and their counterparts with restored DNA-PKcs activity suggesting that lack of functional DNA-PKcs may cause a defect in chromatin organization. Increased condensation of mitotic chromosomes in the scid background was also confirmed in vivo. Therefore, our results indicate a previously unanticipated role of DNA-PKcs in chromatin organisation, which could contribute to the lack of ITS sensitivity to chromosome breakage in murine scid cells. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Induction of DNA strand breaks by RSU-1069, a nitroimidazole-aziridine radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.R.J.; O'Neill, P.; Jenkins, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    [2- 14 C]-RSU-1069 [1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3-(1-aziridino)-2-propanol], either as a parent or following radiation reduction, binds to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Radiation-reduced RSU-1069 binds to a greater extent and more rapidly than the parent compound. RSU-1137, a non-aziridino analogue of RSU-1069, binds following radiation reduction. Radiation-reduced misonidazole exhibits binding ratios a thousand-fold less than those of reduced RSU-1069. Both parent and reduced RSU-1069 cause single strand breaks (ssbs) in pSV2 gpt plasmid DNA with the reduced compound causing a greater number of breaks. Parent and reduced RSU-1137 and misonidazole do not cause ssbs. It is inferred that the aziridine moiety present in both parent and reduced RSU-1069 is required for ssb production. RSU-1069 reacts with inorganic phosphate probably via nucleophilic ring-opening of the aziridine fragment. Incubation of plasmid DNA with reduced RSU-1069 in the presence of either phosphate or deoxyribose-5-phosphate at concentrations greater than 0.35 mol dm -3 prevents strand breakage, whereas 1.2 mol dm -3 deoxyribose does not protect against strand breakage formation. It is proposed that the observed binding to DNA occurs via the aziridine and the reduced nitro group of RSU-1069 and that these two have different target sites. Binding to DNA via the reduced nitro group may serve to increase aziridine attack due to localization at or near its target. (author)

  9. 125I-induced DNA double strand breaks: use in calibration of the neutral filter elution technique and comparison with X-ray induced breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.R.; Hodgson, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The neutral filter elution assay, for measurement of DNA double strand breakage, has been calibrated using mouse L cells and Chinese hamster V79 cells labelled with [ 125 I]dUrd and then held at liquid nitrogen temperature to accumulate decays. The basis of the calibration is the observation that each 125 I decay, occurring in DNA, produces a DNA double strand break. Linear relationships between 125 I decays per cell and lethal lesions per cell (minus natural logarithm survival) and the level of elution, were found. Using the calibration data, it was calculated that the yield of DNA double strand breaks after X-irradiation of both cell types was from 6 to 9 x 10 -12 DNA double strand breaks per Gy per dalton of DNA, for doses greater than 6 Gy. Neutral filter elution and survival data for X-irradiated and 125 I-labelled cells suggested that the relationships between lethal lesions and DNA double strand breakage were significantly different for both cell types. An attempt was made to study the repair kinetics for 125 I-induced DNA double strand breaks, but was frustrated by the rapid DNA degradation which occurs in cells that have been killed by the freezing-thawing process. (author)

  10. Adaptive responses on chromosome aberration and DNA breakage of peripheral lymphocytes from workers exposed to thorium and rare earth mixed dust in Baotou steel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjie; Feng Jiangbing; Lu Xue; Chen Deqing; Lv Huimin; Su Xu; Liu Yufei; Jia Kejun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore if the occupational exposure to low dose thorium could induce adaptive response in peripheral lymphocytes. Methods: 40 individuals, who exposed to thorium and rare earth mixed dust (exposure group) or control in Baotou Steel Plant, were selected, and chromosome aberrations were analyzed. Then the peripheral blood samples were irradiated in vitro with 2 Gy 60 Co γ-rays, and unstable chromosome aberration or DNA stand breakage analysis using single cell gel electrophoresis was performed. Results: The dicentrics before 2 Gy exposure in exposure group was higher than that in control (P>0.05). But the dicentrics after 2 Gy exposure in exposure group was lower than that in control, but not significantly (P >0.05). The tricentrics in exposure group was significantly lower than that in control (U=3.1622, 0.001< P<0.002). The DNA strand breakage in control group was significantly higher than that in exposure group (t=25, P<0.001). Conclusions: Occupational exposure to low dose thorium could induce the adaptive response on chromosome aberration and DNA strand breakage in peripheral lymphocytes. (authors)

  11. The sensitivity of active and inactive chromatin to ionizing radiation-induced DNA strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.-M.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity of DNA in actively transcribing and inactive states has been compared with regard to γ-radiation-induced single-strand break (SSB) induction. The results indicate that chromatin organization is important in the determination of the sensitivity of cellular DNA toward γ-radiation: Not only the yield but also the rate of repair of SSB is greater in the actively transcribing genes than in the total nuclear DNA. (author)

  12. Monitoring of DNA breakage in embryonic stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) after exposure to lead nitrate using alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alaa G M; Mekkawy, Imam A; Verreth, Johan; Wuertz, Sven; Kloas, Werner; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Increasing lead contamination in Egyptian ecosystems and high lead concentrations in food items have raised concern for human health and stimulated studies on monitoring ecotoxicological impact of lead-caused genotoxicity. In this work, the alkaline comet assay was modified for monitoring DNA strand breakage in sensitive early life stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Following exposure to 100, 300, and 500 microg/L lead nitrate, DNA strand breakage was quantified in embryos at 30, 48, 96, 144, and 168 h post-fertilization (PFS). For quantitative analysis, four commonly used parameters (tail % DNA, %TDNA; head % DNA, %HDNA; tail length, TL; tail moment, TM) were analyzed in 96 nuclei (in triplicates) at each sampling point. The parameter %TDNA revealed highest resolution and lowest variation. A strong correlation between lead concentration, time of exposure, and DNA strand breakage was observed. Here, genotoxicity detected by comet assay preceded the manifested malformations assessed with conventional histology. Qualitative evaluation was carried out using five categories are as follows: undamaged (%TDNA 75%) nuclei confirming a dose and time-dependent shift towards increased frequencies of highly and extremely damaged nuclei. A protective capacity provided by a hardened chorion is a an interesting finding in this study as DNA damage in the prehatching stages 30 h-PFS and 48 h-PFS was low in all treatments (qualitative and quantitative analyses). These results clearly show that the comet assay is a sensitive tool for the detection of genotoxicity in vulnerable early life stages of the African catfish and is a method more sensitive than histological parameters for monitoring genotoxic effects. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Enzymatic induction of DNA double-strand breaks in γ-irradiated Escherichia coli K-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonura, T.; Smith, K.C.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    The polA1 mutation increases the sensitivity of E. coli K-12 to killing by γ-irradiation in air by a factor of 2.9 and increases the yield of DNA double-strand breaks by a factor of 2.5. These additional DNA double-strand breaks appear to be due to the action of nucleases in the polA1 strain rather than to the rejoining of radiation-induced double-strand breaks in the pol + strain. This conclusion is based upon the observation that γ-irradiation at 3 0 did not affect the yield of DNA double-strand breaks in the pol + strain, but decreased the yield in the polA1 strain by a factor of 2.2. Irradiation of the polA1 strain at 3 0 followed by incubation at 3 0 for 20 min before plating resulted in approximately a 1.5-fold increase in the D 0 . The yield of DNA double-strand breaks was reduced by a factor of 1.5. The pol + strain, however, did not show the protective effect of the low temperature incubation upon either survival or DNA double-strand breakage. We suggest that the increased yield of DNA double-strand breaks in the polA 1 strain may be the result of the unsuccessful excision repair of ionizing radiation-induced dna base damage

  14. Increased rate of repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA strand breaks in mitogen stimulated lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, S.M.; Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A. (Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Biochemistry; Queensland Univ., St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Veterinary Pathology; Queensland Univ. St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Public Health)

    1982-05-01

    Previous results have shown that phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes exhibit a peak of ultraviolet-induced DNA repair synthesis 3 to 4 days after addition of mitogen. The level of repair synthesis was approximately tenfold higher than that in unstimulated lymphocytes. These studies have been extended to examine the rate of repair of strand breaks in U.V.-irradiated bovine lymphocytes. The extent of breakage of DNA was shown to be the same in mitogen-stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes from two breeds of cattle, when determined by sedimentation of nucleoids on sucrose gradients. However, in mitogen-stimulated cells the time taken to repair DNA strand breaks was 6 hours compared with 12 hours in stationary phase lymphocytes after a U.V. dose of 5 J/m/sup 2/. These results suggest that the increased rate of repair of strand breaks is due to the induction of enzymes involved at the post-incision stage of DNA repair. Thus the increased level of repair synthesis observed in earlier work correlates with an increased rate of repair of DNA strand breaks in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes.

  15. Increased rate of repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA strand breaks in mitogen stimulated lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, S.M.; Lavin, M.F.; Jennings, P.A.; Queensland Univ., St. Lucia; Queensland Univ. St. Lucia

    1982-01-01

    Previous results have shown that phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes exhibit a peak of ultraviolet-induced DNA repair synthesis 3 to 4 days after addition of mitogen. The level of repair synthesis was approximately tenfold higher than that in unstimulated lymphocytes. These studies have been extended to examine the rate of repair of strand breaks in U.V.-irradiated bovine lymphocytes. The extent of breakage of DNA was shown to be the same in mitogen-stimulated and unstimulated lymphocytes from two breeds of cattle, when determined by sedimentation of nucleoids on sucrose gradients. However, in mitogen-stimulated cells the time taken to repair DNA strand breaks was 6 hours compared with 12 hours in stationary phase lymphocytes after a U.V. dose of 5 J/m 2 . These results suggest that the increased rate of repair of strand breaks is due to the induction of enzymes involved at the post-incision stage of DNA repair. Thus the increased level of repair synthesis observed in earlier work correlates with an increased rate of repair of DNA strand breaks in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated bovine lymphocytes. (author)

  16. Iodine-125 induced DNA strand breakage: Contributions of different physical and chemical radiation action mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.

    2002-01-01

    The decay of the radioisotope 125 I into 125 Te is typically followed by the emission of two groups of approximately 10 electrons each. In deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with 125 I incorporated, these electrons produce various types of damage to DNA, e.g. single and double strand breaks. They occur through direct actions of physical tracks, or indirect actions of radicals produced in water. Among the direct actions one should consider not only the excitation and ionization of DNA by electrons but also the neutralization of highly charged 125m Te ions with electrons from neighboring molecules. The present work begins with a detailed description of electron tracks with the use of the PARTRAC code, compares results with recent experiments, and concludes with a firm assessment of the contribution to the strand break yields from the neutralization effect. (orig.)

  17. Photolysis of phosphodiester bonds in plasmid DNA by high intensity UV laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croke, D.T.; Blau, Werner; OhUigin, Colm; Kelly, J.M.; McConnell, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The cleavage of phosphodiester bonds in DNA exposed to high intensity UV laser pulses in aerated aqueous solution has been investigated using a krypton fluoride excimer laser (248 nm) and bacterial plasmid DNA. The dependence of strand breakage on fluence and intensity has been studied in detail and shows that the process is non-linear with respect to intensity. The relationship between the quantum yield for strand breakage and intensity shows that the strand breakage reaction involves two-photon excitation of DNA bases. The quantum yield rises with intensity from a lower value of 7 x 10 -5 until a maximum value of 4.5 x 10 -4 is attained at intensities of 10 11 W m -2 and above. This value is approximately fifty-fold higher than the quantum yield for strand breakage induced by exposure to low density UV irradiation (254 nm, 12 W m -2 ). DNA sequencing experiments have shown that strand breakage occurs by the specific cleavage of the phosphodiester bond which lies immediately 3' to guanine residues in the DNA, leaving some alkali-labile remnant attached to the terminal phosphate. A mechanism for DNA strand breakage which involves the generation of guanine radical cations is proposed. (author)

  18. Induction and repair of double- and single-strand DNA breaks in bacteriophage lambda superinfecting Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, E.; Krisch, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Induction and repair of double-and single-strand DNA breaks have been measured after decays of 125 I and 3 H incorporated into the DNA and after external irradiation with 4 MeV electrons. For the decay experiments, cells of wild type Escherichia coli K-12 were superinfected with bacteriophage lambda DNA labelled with 5'-( 125 I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine or with (methyl- 3 H)thymidine and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Aliquots were thawed at intervals and lysed at neutral pH, and the phage DNA was assayed for double- and single-strand breakage by neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation. The gradients used allowed measurements of both kinds of breaks in the same gradient. Decays of 125 I induced 0.39 single-strand breaks per double-strand break. No repair of either break type could be detected. Each 3 H disintegration caused 0.20 single-strand breaks and very few double-strand breaks. The single-strand breaks were rapidly rejoined after the cells were thawed. For irradiation with 4 MeV electrons, cells of wild type E. coli K-12 were superinfected with phage lambda and suspended in growth medium. Irradiation induced 42 single-strand breaks per double-strand break. The rates of break induction were 6.75 x 10 -14 (double-strand breaks) and 2.82 x 10 -12 (single-strand breaks) per rad and per dalton. The single-strand breaks were rapidly repaired upon incubation whereas the double-strand breaks seemed to remain unrepaired. It is concluded that double-strand breaks in superinfecting bacteriophage lambda DNA are repaired to a very small extent, if at all. (Author)

  19. Inhibition of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by hoechst 33258: OH-radical scavenging and DNA radical quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, A.; Bothe, E.; Von Sonntag, C.; Adhikary, A.

    1997-01-01

    The minor-groove-binding dye Hoechst 33258 has been found to protect pBR322 DNA in aqueous solution against radiation-induced single-strand breaks (ssb). This protective effect has been assumed to be largely due to the scavenging of the strand-break-generating OH radicals by Hoechst. From D 37 values for ssb at different Hoechst concentrations the value of the OH radical scavenging constant of DNA-bound Hoechst has been estimated at k Ho/DNA = 2.7 * 10 11 dm 3 mol -1 . This unexpectedly high value has led us to study the reactions of OH radicals with Hoechst in the absence and in the presence of double-stranded calf thymus DNA (ds DNA) by pulse radiolysis, and the formation of radiation-induced ssb by low angle laser light scattering. The D 37 /D 37 0 values at different Hoechst concentrations agree with the values obtained by Martin and al. and demonstrate the protection. However, this protection cannot be explained on the basis of OH radical scavenging alone using the above rate constants. There must, in addition, be some quenching of DNA radicals. Hoechst radicals are formed in the later ms time range, i.e a long time after the disappearance of the OH radicals. This delayed Hoechst radical formation has been assigned to a a reaction of DNA radicals with Hoechst, thereby inhibiting strand breakage. In confirmation, pulse radiolysis of aqueous solution of nucleotides in the presence of Hoechst yields a similar delayed Hoechst radical formation. The data indicate that in DNA the cross-section of this quenching has a diameter of 3 to 4 base pairs per Hoechst molecule. (N.C.)

  20. Protection of free-radical induced DNA strand breaks in vitro by flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L.; Anderson, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: We have used both plasmid and cosmid test systems to assay the effect of antioxidant flavonoids (AO) on DNA strand breakage in supercoiled closed circular DNA (DNA SC ) following the formation oxidative radical damage on DNA (DNA OXID + . ) in aqueous solution. Single strand breaks in DNA SC result in the formation of the relaxed circular form (DNA RC ) and double strand breaks give linear DNA (DNA L ). Dose response curves were constructed for the log of the loss of [DNA S C] against dose (0-600 Gy). The D 37 (dose for 37% unchanged DNA SC ) values determined in the presence of increasing amounts of flavonoids were compared as ratios to the D 37 control value to give dose modification factor (DMF). Irradiations were carried out under 'constant scavenging' conditions to separate out the effect of direct radical scavenging from the possible electron transfer reaction. Control irradiation experiments, were performed in aerated TRIS buffer, concentration 10 mM, which has a scavenging capacity, k s (defined as the summation of the rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with all species in solution, multiplied by their concentrations) of 1.5 x 10 7 s -1 . The concentration of TRIS was reduced upon addition of AO to maintain k s at this level. Data will be presented for examples from all four major types of flavonoids (flavonols, isoflavones, flavones and flavon-3-ols) showing DMF values plateau at near 2.0 even at low concentrations (ca. 20 μM) of the flavonoids. Increased DNA strand breaks following post irradiation incubation with endo III protein was unaffected by having the flavonoids present at the time of irradiation. This result suggests that the protection afforded by the flavonoids is unlikely to be in repairing radical damage on pyrimidine bases that are precursors of DNA strand breaks. Overall these studies provide evidence for an additional mechanism of antioxidant activity

  1. Strand breaks and lethal damage in plasmid DNA subjected to 60CO-γirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimczak, U.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments with calf thymus DNA subjected to extracellular irradiation yield information on the role of direct and indirect effects in single-strand breakage, if this is evaluated with reference to the scavenger activity in respect of OH radicals. The role of the two processes in the occurrence of double-stand breaks and further damage leading to cell decay has so far remained largely obscure. It was the aim of the study described here to contribute to research in this field by performing in vitro experiments on biologically active DNA. For this purpose, DNA from pBR322 plasmids was irradiated in the presence of OH-radical scavengers. The number of single-strand and double-strand breaks was determined on the basis of the system's ability to eliminate OH radicals. In order to asses the influence of irradiation processes on the biological activity of DNA, investigations were carried out in E. coli for transformations caused by irradiated plasmid DNA. The results were interpreted in the light of theories about inhomogenous reaction kinetics put forward by Mark et al. (1989). It was finally discussed, which of the gamma-irradiation injuries occurring in DNA was to be held responsible for the inactivation of plasmid DNA and which enzymatic processes were additionally at work here. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Mathematical modelling of the automated FADU assay for the quantification of DNA strand breaks and their repair in human peripheral mononuclear blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junk, Michael; Salzwedel, Judy; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cells continuously undergo DNA damage from exogenous agents like irradiation or genotoxic chemicals or from endogenous radicals produced by normal cellular metabolic activities. DNA strand breaks are one of the most common genotoxic lesions and they can also arise as intermediates of DNA repair activity. Unrepaired DNA damage can lead to genomic instability, which can massively compromise the health status of organisms. Therefore it is important to measure and quantify DNA damage and its repair. We have previously published an automated method for measuring DNA strand breaks based on fluorimetric detection of alkaline DNA unwinding [1], and here we present a mathematical model of the FADU assay, which enables to an analytic expression for the relation between measured fluorescence and the number of strand breaks. Assessment of the formation and also the repair of DNA strand breaks is a crucial functional parameter to investigate genotoxicity in living cells. A reliable and convenient method to quantify DNA strand breakage is therefore of significant importance for a wide variety of scientific fields, e.g. toxicology, pharmacology, epidemiology and medical sciences

  3. Radiation sensitivity of organisms of different organization level: an approach including DNA strand breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampf, G.

    1983-01-01

    The mean numbers of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) suggested to be necessary to lead to the loss of reproductive capacity are compared with bacteriophages, bacteria, and cells of the Chinese hamster after the influence of several radiation qualities. The results suggest that the critical target for the inactivating action of radiations may not be the entire DNA of all organisms but a structure unit of it designed as membrane-attached super structure unit. With organisms having only one of these structures (bacteria) the inactivation probability of one DSB will be near unity, with their multiplication in higher cells it will become lower. This means, eukaryotic cells are able to tolerate more DSB before being inactivated than organisms of a lower organization level, and consequently are more ''lesion resistant''. This behavior represents an evolutionary stabilization of higher cells towards the lethal action of severe DNA lesions such as DSB. (author)

  4. Flavonoids with DNA strand-scission activity from Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Nan; Chen, Hui-Ling; Yen, Ming-Hong

    2008-01-01

    The flavonoids isolated from the stems of Rhus javanica var. roxburghiana, taxifolin (1), fisetin (2), fustin (3), 3,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (4) and 3,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone (5) caused breakage of supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of Cu(II). Cu(I) was shown to be an essential intermediate by using the Cu(I)-specific sequestering reagent neocuproine. The Cu(II)-mediated DNA scissions induced by 1, 2, 3 and 5 were inhibited by the addition of catalase and exhibited DNA strand break by the addition of KI and superoxide dimutase (SOD), while in the Cu(II)-mediated DNA scissions induced by 4 was inhibited by the addition of KI, SOD, and catalase. It is concluded that 1, 2, 3, and 5 can induce H2O2 and superoxide anion, while 4 can induce OH* and H2O2 and subsequent oxidative damage of DNA in the presence of Cu(II).

  5. DNA replication and the repair of DNA strand breaks in nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. Progress report, September 1, 1977--July 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, E.N.; Nygaard, O.F.; Kuncio, G.

    1978-01-01

    Isolated nuclei and intact plasmodia of Physarum contain a heat-stable stimulator of nuclear DNA replication. This substance has been purified extensively and found to contain both protein and carbohydrate. The molecular weight, estimated by gel filtration, is ca. 30,000 d. The purified material does not exhibit DNA polymerase or DNase activity, and does not stimulate DNA polymerase activity per se. In the presence of the stimulatory factor, DNA chain elongation occurs at an elevated rate, and continues for a longer time than in its absence, but G 2 nuclei are not stimulated to initiate DNA synthesis. Double-strand breaks in nuclear DNA of irradiated plasmodia are repaired in vitro to a greater extent following nuclear isolation during G 2 , and the DNA of unirradiated plasmodia is less susceptible to double-strand breakage during cell-free nuclear incubation, than is the DNA of S-phase nuclei. This correlation suggests a common basis for both observations, for example an increase in deoxyribonuclease activity or a decrease in DNA ligase activity during the S period. This, in turn, may account for the cell cycle-dependent sensitivity of this organism, in terms of mitotic delay, to ionizing radiation

  6. The effect of mitotic inhibitors on DNA strand size and radiation-associated break repair in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.G.; Steiner, M.E.; Kalvonjian, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of mitotic inhibitors on formation and repair of DNA breaks was studied in cultured fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome in order to investigate the hypothesis that the karyotyping procedure itself may play a role in the increased chromosome breakage seen in these cells after gamma radiation exposure. Using the nondenaturing elution and alkaline elution techniques to examine fibroblasts from Down syndrome patients and from controls, no specific abnormalities in Down syndrome cells could be detected after exposure to mitotic inhibitors, including rate and extent of elution of DNA from filters as well as repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks. In both normal and Down syndrome cell strains, however, exposure to mitotic inhibitors was associated with a decrease in cellular DNA strand size, suggesting the presence of drug-induced DNA strand breaks. The mechanism of increased chromosome sensitivity of Down syndrome cells to gamma radiation remains unknown. (orig.)

  7. Explanation for excessive DNA single-strand breaks and endogenous repair foci in pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banáth, J P; Bañuelos, C A; Klokov, D; MacPhail, S M; Lansdorp, P M; Olive, P L

    2009-05-01

    Pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells) exhibit approximately 100 large gammaH2AX repair foci in the absence of measurable numbers of DNA double-strand breaks. Many of these cells also show excessive numbers of DNA single-strand breaks (>10,000 per cell) when analyzed using the alkaline comet assay. To understand the reasons for these unexpected observations, various methods for detecting DNA strand breaks were applied to wild-type mES cells and to mES cells lacking H2AX, ATM, or DNA-PKcs. H2AX phosphorylation and expression of other repair complexes were measured using flow and image analysis of antibody-stained cells. Results indicate that high numbers of endogenous gammaH2AX foci and single-strand breaks in pluripotent mES cells do not require ATM or DNA-PK kinase activity and appear to be associated with global chromatin decondensation rather than pre-existing DNA damage. This will limit applications of gammaH2AX foci analysis in mES cells to relatively high levels of initial or residual DNA damage. Excessive numbers of single-strand breaks in the alkaline comet assay can be explained by the vulnerability of replicating chromatin in mES cells to osmotic shock. This suggests that caution is needed in interpreting results with the alkaline comet assay when applied to certain cell types or after treatment with agents that make chromatin vulnerable to osmotic changes. Differentiation of mES cells caused a reduction in histone acetylation, gammaH2AX foci intensity, and DNA single-strand breakage, providing a link between chromatin structural organization, excessive gammaH2AX foci, and sensitivity of replicating mES cell chromatin to osmotic shock.

  8. Radiation sensitization by an iodine-labelled DNA ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R F; Murray, V; D' Cunha, G; Pardee, M; Haigh, A; Hodgson, G S [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., Melbourne (Australia); Kampouris, E; Kelly, D P [Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia)

    1990-05-01

    An iodinated DNA ligand, iodoHoechst 33258, which binds in the minor groove of DNA, enhances DNA strand breakage and cell killing by UV-A irradiation. The sites of UV-induced strand breaks reflect the known sequence specificity of the ligand. (author).

  9. Strand Displacement by DNA Polymerase III Occurs through a τ-ψ-χ Link to Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Coating the Lagging Strand Template*

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of γ-complex to support the reaction in the absence of τ. However, if γ-complex is p...

  10. Molecular targets, DNA breakage, DNA repair: Their roles in mutation induction in mammalian germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sega, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Variability in genetic sensitivity among different germ-cell stages in the mammal to various mutagens could be the result of how much chemical reaches the different stages, what molecular targets may be affected in the different stages and whether or not repair of lesions occurs. Several chemicals have been found to bind very strongly to protamine in late-spermatid and early-spermatozoa stages in the mouse. The chemicals also produce their greatest genetic damage in these same germ-cell stages. While chemical binding to DNA has not been correlated with the level of induced genetic damage, DNA breakage in the sensitive stages has been shown to increase. This DNA breakage is believed to indirectly result from chemical binding to sulfhydryl groups in protamine which prevents normal chromatin condensation within the sperm nucleus. 22 refs., 5 figs

  11. Photochemical Acceleration of DNA Strand Displacement by Using Ultrafast DNA Photo-crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigetaka; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2017-10-18

    DNA strand displacement is an essential reaction in genetic recombination, biological processes, and DNA nanotechnology. In particular, various DNA nanodevices enable complicated calculations. However, it takes time before the output is obtained, so acceleration of DNA strand displacement is required for a rapid-response DNA nanodevice. Herein, DNA strand displacement by using DNA photo-crosslinking to accelerate this displacement is evaluated. The DNA photo-crosslinking of 3-cyanovinylcarbazole ( CNV K) was accelerated at least 20 times, showing a faster DNA strand displacement. The rate of photo-crosslinking is a key factor and the rate of DNA strand displacement is accelerated through ultrafast photo-crosslinking. The rate of DNA strand displacement was regulated by photoirradiation energy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Second-strand cDNA synthesis: classical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubler, U.

    1987-01-01

    The classical scheme for the synthesis of double-stranded cDNA as it was reported in 1976 is described. Reverse transcription of mRNA with oligo(dT) as the primer generates first strands with a small loop at the 3' end of the cDNA (the end that corresponds to the 5' end of the mRNA). Subsequent removal of the mRNA by alkaline hydrolysis leaves single-stranded cDNA molecules again with a small 3' loop. This loop can be used by either reverse transcriptase or Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I as a primer for second-strand synthesis. The resulting products are double-stranded cDNA molecules that are covalently closed at the end corresponding to the 5' end of the original mRNA. Subsequent cleavage of the short piece of single-stranded cDNA within the loop with the single-strand-specific S 1 nuclease generate open double-stranded molecules that can be used for molecular cloning in plasmids or in phage. Useful variations of this scheme have been described

  13. Strand displacement by DNA polymerase III occurs through a tau-psi-chi link to single-stranded DNA-binding protein coating the lagging strand template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; McHenry, Charles S

    2009-11-13

    In addition to the well characterized processive replication reaction catalyzed by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme on single-stranded DNA templates, the enzyme possesses an intrinsic strand displacement activity on flapped templates. The strand displacement activity is distinguished from the single-stranded DNA-templated reaction by a high dependence upon single-stranded DNA binding protein and an inability of gamma-complex to support the reaction in the absence of tau. However, if gamma-complex is present to load beta(2), a truncated tau protein containing only domains III-V will suffice. This truncated protein is sufficient to bind both the alpha subunit of DNA polymerase (Pol) III and chipsi. This is reminiscent of the minimal requirements for Pol III to replicate short single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB)-coated templates where tau is only required to serve as a scaffold to hold Pol III and chi in the same complex (Glover, B., and McHenry, C. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 23476-23484). We propose a model in which strand displacement by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme depends upon a Pol III-tau-psi-chi-SSB binding network, where SSB is bound to the displaced strand, stabilizing the Pol III-template interaction. The same interaction network is probably important for stabilizing the leading strand polymerase interactions with authentic replication forks. The specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)) for the strand displacement reaction is approximately 300-fold less favorable than reactions on single-stranded templates and proceeds with a slower rate (150 nucleotides/s) and only moderate processivity (approximately 300 nucleotides). PriA, the initiator of replication restart on collapsed or misassembled replication forks, blocks the strand displacement reaction, even if added to an ongoing reaction.

  14. Binding of Multiple Rap1 Proteins Stimulates Chromosome Breakage Induction during DNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy H Goto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, have a specialized chromatin structure that provides a stable chromosomal terminus. In budding yeast Rap1 protein binds to telomeric TG repeat and negatively regulates telomere length. Here we show that binding of multiple Rap1 proteins stimulates DNA double-stranded break (DSB induction at both telomeric and non-telomeric regions. Consistent with the role of DSB induction, Rap1 stimulates nearby recombination events in a dosage-dependent manner. Rap1 recruits Rif1 and Rif2 to telomeres, but neither Rif1 nor Rif2 is required for DSB induction. Rap1-mediated DSB induction involves replication fork progression but inactivation of checkpoint kinase Mec1 does not affect DSB induction. Rap1 tethering shortens artificially elongated telomeres in parallel with telomerase inhibition, and this telomere shortening does not require homologous recombination. These results suggest that Rap1 contributes to telomere homeostasis by promoting chromosome breakage.

  15. Protected DNA strand displacement for enhanced single nucleotide discrimination in double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakov, Dmitriy A; Khodakova, Anastasia S; Huang, David M; Linacre, Adrian; Ellis, Amanda V

    2015-03-04

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a prime source of genetic diversity. Discriminating between different SNPs provides an enormous leap towards the better understanding of the uniqueness of biological systems. Here we report on a new approach for SNP discrimination using toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement. The distinctiveness of the approach is based on the combination of both 3- and 4-way branch migration mechanisms, which allows for reliable discrimination of SNPs within double-stranded DNA generated from real-life human mitochondrial DNA samples. Aside from the potential diagnostic value, the current study represents an additional way to control the strand displacement reaction rate without altering other reaction parameters and provides new insights into the influence of single nucleotide substitutions on 3- and 4-way branch migration efficiency and kinetics.

  16. Combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics dynamics simulation of A-DNA double strands irradiated by ultra-low-energy carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngaojampa, C.; Nimmanpipug, P. [Computer Simulation and Modeling Laboratory (CSML), Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.t [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Lee, V.S., E-mail: vannajan@gmail.co [Computer Simulation and Modeling Laboratory (CSML), Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    In order to promote understanding of the fundamentals of ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA, molecular dynamics simulations using combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics of poly-AT and poly-GC A-DNA double strands irradiated by <200 eV carbon ions were performed to investigate the molecular implications of mutation bias. The simulations were focused on the responses of the DNA backbones and nitrogenous bases to irradiation. Analyses of the root mean square displacements of the backbones and non-hydrogen atoms of base rings of the simulated DNA structure after irradiation revealed a potential preference of DNA double strand separation, dependent on the irradiating energy. The results show that for the backbones, the large difference in the displacement between poly-GC and poly-AT in the initial time period could be the reason for the backbone breakage; for the nitrogenous base pairs, A-T is 30% more sensitive or vulnerable to ion irradiation than G-C, demonstrating a preferential, instead of random, effect of irradiation-induced mutation.

  17. Combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics dynamics simulation of A-DNA double strands irradiated by ultra-low-energy carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngaojampa, C.; Nimmanpipug, P.; Yu, L.D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Lee, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote understanding of the fundamentals of ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA, molecular dynamics simulations using combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics of poly-AT and poly-GC A-DNA double strands irradiated by <200 eV carbon ions were performed to investigate the molecular implications of mutation bias. The simulations were focused on the responses of the DNA backbones and nitrogenous bases to irradiation. Analyses of the root mean square displacements of the backbones and non-hydrogen atoms of base rings of the simulated DNA structure after irradiation revealed a potential preference of DNA double strand separation, dependent on the irradiating energy. The results show that for the backbones, the large difference in the displacement between poly-GC and poly-AT in the initial time period could be the reason for the backbone breakage; for the nitrogenous base pairs, A-T is 30% more sensitive or vulnerable to ion irradiation than G-C, demonstrating a preferential, instead of random, effect of irradiation-induced mutation.

  18. Photosensitization by iodinated DNA minor groove binding ligands: Evaluation of DNA double-strand break induction and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Benjamin; Ververis, Katherine; Rodd, Annabelle L; Foong, Laura J L; Silva, Fernando M Da; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-05-03

    Iodinated DNA minor groove binding bibenzimidazoles represent a unique class of UVA photosensitizer and their extreme photopotency has been previously characterized. Earlier studies have included a comparison of three isomers, referred to as ortho-, meta- and para-iodoHoechst, which differ only in the location of the iodine substituent in the phenyl ring of the bibenzimidazole. DNA breakage and clonogenic survival studies in human erythroleukemic K562 cells have highlighted the higher photo-efficiency of the ortho-isomer (subsequently designated UV(A)Sens) compared to the meta- and para-isomers. In this study, the aim was to compare the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by the three isomers in K562 cells. Further, we examined the effects of the prototypical broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, on ortho-iodoHoechst/UVA-induced double-strand breaks in K562 cells. Using γH2AX as a molecular marker of the DNA lesions, our findings indicate a disparity in the induction and particularly, in the repair kinetics of double-strand breaks for the three isomers. The accumulation of γH2AX foci induced by the meta- and para-isomers returned to background levels within 24 and 48 h, respectively; the number of γH2AX foci induced by ortho-iodoHoechst remained elevated even after incubation for 96 h post-irradiation. These findings provide further evidence that the extreme photopotency of ortho-iodoHoechst is due to not only to the high quantum yield of dehalogenation, but also to the severity of the DNA lesions which are not readily repaired. Finally, our findings which indicate that Trichostatin A has a remarkable potentiating effect on ortho-iodoHoechst/UVA-induced DNA lesions are encouraging, particularly in the context of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, for which a histone deacetylase inhibitor is already approved for therapy. This finding prompts further evaluation of the potential of combination therapies. Copyright © 2011

  19. Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand Exchange*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, María V.; Monti, Mariela R.; Zhao, Weixing; Sung, Patrick; Argaraña, Carlos E.; Pezza, Roberto J.

    2016-01-01

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the mechanism of Dmc1-mediated strand exchange between DNA oligonucleotides with different degrees of heterology. The efficiency of strand exchange is highly sensitive to the location, type, and distribution of mismatches. Mismatches near the 3′ end of the initiating DNA strand have a small effect, whereas most mismatches near the 5′ end impede strand exchange dramatically. The Hop2-Mnd1 protein complex stimulates Dmc1-catalyzed strand exchange on homologous DNA or containing a single mismatch. We observed that Dmc1 can reject divergent DNA sequences while bypassing a few mismatches in the DNA sequence. Our findings have important implications in understanding meiotic recombination. First, Dmc1 acts as an initial barrier for heterologous recombination, with the mismatch repair system providing a second level of proofreading, to ensure that ectopic sequences are not recombined. Second, Dmc1 stepping over infrequent mismatches is likely critical for allowing recombination between the polymorphic sequences of homologous chromosomes, thus contributing to gene conversion and genetic diversity. PMID:26709229

  20. Xrcc1-dependent and Ku-dependent DNA double-strand break repair kinetics in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Cyril; Gallego, Maria E; White, Charles I

    2010-10-01

    Double-strand breakage (DSB) of DNA involves loss of information on the two strands of the DNA fibre and thus cannot be repaired by simple copying of the complementary strand which is possible with single-strand DNA damage. Homologous recombination (HR) can precisely repair DSB using another copy of the genome as template and non-homologous recombination (NHR) permits repair of DSB with little or no dependence on DNA sequence homology. In addition to the well-characterised Ku-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, much recent attention has been focused on Ku-independent NHR. The complex interrelationships and regulation of NHR pathways remain poorly understood, even more so in the case of plants, and we present here an analysis of Ku-dependent and Ku-independent repair of DSB in Arabidopsis thaliana. We have characterised an Arabidopsis xrcc1 mutant and developed quantitative analysis of the kinetics of appearance and loss of γ-H2AX foci as a tool to measure DSB repair in dividing root tip cells of γ-irradiated plants in vivo. This approach has permitted determination of DSB repair kinetics in planta following a short pulse of γ-irradiation, establishing the existence of a Ku-independent, Xrcc1-dependent DSB repair pathway. Furthermore, our data show a role for Ku80 during the first minutes post-irradiation and that Xrcc1 also plays such a role, but only in the absence of Ku. The importance of Xrcc1 is, however, clearly visible at later times in the presence of Ku, showing that alternative end-joining plays an important role in DSB repair even in the presence of active NHEJ. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Excess single-stranded DNA inhibits meiotic double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Johnson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During meiosis, self-inflicted DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are created by the protein Spo11 and repaired by homologous recombination leading to gene conversions and crossovers. Crossover formation is vital for the segregation of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division and requires the RecA orthologue, Dmc1. We analyzed repair during meiosis of site-specific DSBs created by another nuclease, VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE, in cells lacking Dmc1 strand-exchange protein. Turnover and resection of the VDE-DSBs was assessed in two different reporter cassettes that can repair using flanking direct repeat sequences, thereby obviating the need for a Dmc1-dependent DNA strand invasion step. Access of the single-strand binding complex replication protein A, which is normally used in all modes of DSB repair, was checked in chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, using antibody against Rfa1. Repair of the VDE-DSBs was severely inhibited in dmc1Delta cells, a defect that was associated with a reduction in the long tract resection required to initiate single-strand annealing between the flanking repeat sequences. Mutants that either reduce Spo11-DSB formation or abolish resection at Spo11-DSBs rescued the repair block. We also found that a replication protein A component, Rfa1, does not accumulate to expected levels at unrepaired single-stranded DNA (ssDNA in dmc1Delta cells. The requirement of Dmc1 for VDE-DSB repair using flanking repeats appears to be caused by the accumulation of large quantities of ssDNA that accumulate at Spo11-DSBs when Dmc1 is absent. We propose that these resected DSBs sequester both resection machinery and ssDNA binding proteins, which in wild-type cells would normally be recycled as Spo11-DSBs repair. The implication is that repair proteins are in limited supply, and this could reflect an underlying mechanism for regulating DSB repair in wild-type cells, providing protection from potentially harmful effects

  2. Tolerance of DNA Mismatches in Dmc1 Recombinase-mediated DNA Strand Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, María V; Monti, Mariela R; Zhao, Weixing; Sung, Patrick; Argaraña, Carlos E; Pezza, Roberto J

    2016-03-04

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is required for the faithful meiotic segregation of chromosomes and leads to the generation of genetic diversity. The conserved meiosis-specific Dmc1 recombinase catalyzes homologous recombination triggered by DNA double strand breaks through the exchange of parental DNA sequences. Although providing an efficient rate of DNA strand exchange between polymorphic alleles, Dmc1 must also guard against recombination between divergent sequences. How DNA mismatches affect Dmc1-mediated DNA strand exchange is not understood. We have used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the mechanism of Dmc1-mediated strand exchange between DNA oligonucleotides with different degrees of heterology. The efficiency of strand exchange is highly sensitive to the location, type, and distribution of mismatches. Mismatches near the 3' end of the initiating DNA strand have a small effect, whereas most mismatches near the 5' end impede strand exchange dramatically. The Hop2-Mnd1 protein complex stimulates Dmc1-catalyzed strand exchange on homologous DNA or containing a single mismatch. We observed that Dmc1 can reject divergent DNA sequences while bypassing a few mismatches in the DNA sequence. Our findings have important implications in understanding meiotic recombination. First, Dmc1 acts as an initial barrier for heterologous recombination, with the mismatch repair system providing a second level of proofreading, to ensure that ectopic sequences are not recombined. Second, Dmc1 stepping over infrequent mismatches is likely critical for allowing recombination between the polymorphic sequences of homologous chromosomes, thus contributing to gene conversion and genetic diversity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Connecting localized DNA strand displacement reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullor Ruiz, Ismael; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Lad, Amitkumar; Mendoza, Oscar; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions.Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR02434J

  4. Phleomycin-induced lethality and DNA degradation in Escherichia coli K12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, H

    1975-01-01

    The cell lethality and DNA fragmentation caused by phleomycin (PM) were studied in E. coli K12 strains with special reference to the effects of repair or recombination deficiencies and metabolic inhibitors. Unlike excision-defective derivatives of E. coli B, uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC mutants of strain K12 showed no peculiarities compared with wild type in regard to cell survival. Likewise, mutant alleles at uvrD and polA loci had no effect. In contrast, rec mutants were more sensitive to PM-killing than were rec/sup +/ strains. PM-induced strand breakage in DNA was observed in all strains tested including the above-mentioned mutants. There was no significant distinction between the uvr mutants and the wild type strain, indicating that the uvr-endonuclease was not responsible for the strand breaks. Involvement of endonuclease I was also ruled out. At least some of the PM-induced strand breaks were repairable. PM-induced lethality and strand breakage were totally dependent on energy supply. Inhibition of protein synthesis resulted in a partial and parallel suppression of the two effects. Our results suggest that the lethality is due to DNA strand breakage and the repair of such damage is postulated to be controlled by rec genes.

  5. Comparison of DNA strand-break simulated with different DNA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wenzhang; Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Yan, Congchong; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    Full text of the publication follows. In Monte Carlo simulation of DNA damage, the geometric model of DNA is of great importance. To study the influence of DNA model on the simulation of DNA damage, three DNA models were created in this paper. They were a volume model and two atomic models with different parameters. Direct DNA strand-break induced by low-energy electrons were simulated respectively with the three models. The results show that most of the energy depositions in the DNA segments do not lead to strand-breaks. The simple single strand-break (SSB) tends to be the predominant damage type, and the contribution of complex double strand-break (DSB) to the total DSB cannot be neglected. Among the yields of all the three DNA target models applied here, the yields of the volume model are the highest, the yields of the atomic model with double van der Waals radii (r) take the second place, whereas the yields of the atomic model with single r come last. On average, the ratios of SSB yields are approximately equivalent to the corresponding ratios of the models' volume. However, there seems to be no clear relationship between the DSB yields and the models' volume. (authors)

  6. Strand-Specific Analysis of DNA Synthesis and Proteins Association with DNA Replication Forks in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanhe; Gan, Haiyun; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2018-01-01

    DNA replication initiates at DNA replication origins after unwinding of double-strand DNA(dsDNA) by replicative helicase to generate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) templates for the continuous synthesis of leading-strand and the discontinuous synthesis of lagging-strand. Therefore, methods capable of detecting strand-specific information will likely yield insight into the association of proteins at leading and lagging strand of DNA replication forks and the regulation of leading and lagging strand synthesis during DNA replication. The enrichment and Sequencing of Protein-Associated Nascent DNA (eSPAN), which measure the relative amounts of proteins at nascent leading and lagging strands of DNA replication forks, is a step-wise procedure involving the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of a protein of interest followed by the enrichment of protein-associated nascent DNA through BrdU immunoprecipitation. The isolated ssDNA is then subjected to strand-specific sequencing. This method can detect whether a protein is enriched at leading or lagging strand of DNA replication forks. In addition to eSPAN, two other strand-specific methods, (ChIP-ssSeq), which detects potential protein-ssDNA binding and BrdU-IP-ssSeq, which can measure synthesis of both leading and lagging strand, were developed along the way. These methods can provide strand-specific and complementary information about the association of the target protein with DNA replication forks as well as synthesis of leading and lagging strands genome wide. Below, we describe the detailed eSPAN, ChIP-ssSeq, and BrdU-IP-ssSeq protocols.

  7. The role of glutathione in DNA damage by potassium bromate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, J L; Chipman, J K

    2000-07-01

    We have investigated the role of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the genetic toxicity of the rodent renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). A statistically significant increase in the concentration of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) relative to deoxyguanosine was measured following incubation of calf thymus DNA with KBrO(3) and GSH or N-acetylcysteine (NACys). This was dependent on these thiols and was associated with the loss of GSH and production of oxidized glutathione. A short-lived (potassium chlorate (KClO(3)) or potassium iodate (KIO(3)) were used instead of KBrO(3), though GSH depletion also occurred with KIO(3), but not with KClO(3). Other reductants and thiols in combination with KBrO(3) did not cause a significant increase in DNA oxidation. DNA strand breakage was also induced by KBrO(3) in human white blood cells (5 mM) and rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E, 1.5 mM). This was associated with an apparent small depletion of thiols in NRK-52E cells at 15 min and with an elevation of 8-oxodG at a delayed time of 24 h. Depletion of intra-cellular GSH by diethylmaleate in human lymphocytes decreased the amount of strand breakage induced by KBrO(3). Extracellular GSH, however, protected against DNA strand breakage by KBrO(3), possibly due to the inability of the reactive product to enter the cell. In contrast, membrane-permeant NACys enhanced KBrO(3)-induced DNA strand breakage in these cells. DNA damage by KBrO(3) is therefore largely dependent on access to intracellular GSH.

  8. Formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, S.I.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of γ-irradiated ( 60 Co)Ex coli bacteria depending on the function of fast repair processes of DNA single-strand breaks, is investigated. The profiles of sedimentation of DNA Ex coli cells, irradiated at 0-2 deg C in the salt medium and in EDTA-borate buffer, are presented. It is shown that when irradiating cells in EDTA-borate buffer, the output of single- and double strand breaks in DNA is much higher than in the case of their irradiation in the minimum salt medium. The dependence of output of single-strand and double-strand breaks depending on the radiatier doze of E coli cells in the salt medium and EDTA-borate buffer, is studied. The supposition is made on the presence of a regulative interaction between the accumulation of DNA single-breaks and their repair with the formation of double-strand breaks. The functionating of fast and superfast repair processes considerably affects the formation of double-strand breaks in DNA of a bacterium cell. A considerable amount of double-breaks registered immediately after irradiation forms due to a close position of single-strand breaks on the opposite DNA strands

  9. Control of DNA strand displacement kinetics using toehold exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-12-02

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions. Here, we characterize the kinetics of DNA toehold exchange and model it as a three-step process. This model is simple and quantitatively predicts the kinetics of 85 different strand displacement reactions from the DNA sequences. Furthermore, we use toehold exchange to construct a simple catalytic reaction. This work improves the understanding of the kinetics of nucleic acid reactions and will be useful in the rational design of dynamic DNA and RNA circuits and nanodevices.

  10. Equilibrious Strand Exchange Promoted by DNA Conformational Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguo; Xie, Xiao; Li, Puzhen; Zhao, Jiayi; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Most of DNA strand exchange reactions in vitro are based on toehold strategy which is generally nonequilibrium, and intracellular strand exchange mediated by proteins shows little sequence specificity. Herein, a new strand exchange promoted by equilibrious DNA conformational switching is verified. Duplexes containing c-myc sequence which is potentially converted into G-quadruplex are designed in this strategy. The dynamic equilibrium between duplex and G4-DNA is response to the specific exchange of homologous single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The SER is enzyme free and sequence specific. No ATP is needed and the displaced ssDNAs are identical to the homologous ssDNAs. The SER products and exchange kenetics are analyzed by PAGE and the RecA mediated SER is performed as the contrast. This SER is a new feature of G4-DNAs and a novel strategy to utilize the dynamic equilibrium of DNA conformations.

  11. Trapping and breaking of in vivo nicked DNA during pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sharik R.; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) offers a high-resolution approach to quantify chromosomal fragmentation in bacteria, measured as percent of chromosomal DNA entering the gel. The degree of separation in PFG depends upon the size of DNA, as well as various conditions of electrophoresis, such as electric field strength (FS), time of electrophoresis, switch time and buffer composition. Here we describe a new parameter, the structural integrity of the sample DNA itself, that influences its migration through PFGs. We show that sub-chromosomal fragments containing both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced nicks are prone to breakage during PFGE. Such breakage at single strand interruptions results in artefactual decrease in molecular weight of linear DNA making accurate determination of the number of double strand breaks difficult. While breakage of nicked sub-chromosomal fragments is FS-independent, some high molecular weight sub-chromosomal fragments are also trapped within wells under the standard PFGE conditions. This trapping can be minimized by lowering the field strength and increasing the time of electrophoresis. We discuss how breakage of nicked DNA may be mechanistically linked to trapping. Our results suggest how to optimize conditions for PFGE when quantifying chromosomal fragmentation induced by DNA damage. PMID:23770235

  12. DNA turnover and strand breaks in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, P.; Grivell, A.; Nakayama, H.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of DNA turnover has been measured in a dnaB mutant of Escherichia coli, temperature sensitive for semiconservative DNA replication. At the nonpermissive temperature about 0.02 percent of the deoxynucleotides in DNA are exchanged per generation period. This turnover rate is markedly depressed in the presence of rifampicin. During thymine starvation strand breaks accumulate in the DNA of E. coli strains that are susceptible to thymineless death. Rifampicin suppresses the appearance of these breaks, consistent with our hypothesis that transcription may be accompanied by repairable single-strand breaks in DNA. DNA turnover is enhanced severalfold in strands containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine in place of thymidine, possibly because the analog (or the deoxyuridine, following debromination) is sometimes recognized and excised

  13. A model capturing novel strand symmetries in bacterial DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobottka, Marcelo; Hart, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We propose a simple stochastic model to construct primitive DNA sequences. → The model provide an explanation for Chargaff's second parity rule in primitive DNA sequences. → The model is also used to predict a novel type of strand symmetry in primitive DNA sequences. → We extend the results for bacterial DNA sequences and compare distributional properties intrinsic to the model to statistical estimates from 1049 bacterial genomes. → We find out statistical evidences that the novel type of strand symmetry holds for bacterial DNA sequences. -- Abstract: Chargaff's second parity rule for short oligonucleotides states that the frequency of any short nucleotide sequence on a strand is approximately equal to the frequency of its reverse complement on the same strand. Recent studies have shown that, with the exception of organellar DNA, this parity rule generally holds for double-stranded DNA genomes and fails to hold for single-stranded genomes. While Chargaff's first parity rule is fully explained by the Watson-Crick pairing in the DNA double helix, a definitive explanation for the second parity rule has not yet been determined. In this work, we propose a model based on a hidden Markov process for approximating the distributional structure of primitive DNA sequences. Then, we use the model to provide another possible theoretical explanation for Chargaff's second parity rule, and to predict novel distributional aspects of bacterial DNA sequences.

  14. Investigations into the molecular mechanism of chromatid breakage in the G2-phase of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.E.; Armstrong, G.N.; Gray, L.; Frankenberg, D.; Mozdarani, H.

    2003-01-01

    Chromatid breakage following irradiation of cells in the G2-phase of the cell cycle results from the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). The conversion of dsb into chromatid breaks (cb) has a genetic basis, seemingly different from that of dsb rejoining. The variation in extent of this conversion is exemplified by the stiking variation in frequency of cb in irradiated cycling T-lymphocytes between different normal individuals. Elevated cb frequency in lymphocytes of around 40% of breast cancer patients and their first-degree relatives suggests the presence of mutations in low penetrance cancer predisposing genes that also affect conversion of dsb to cb. Investigation of the mechanism of chromatid radiosensitivity using genetically engineered rodent cell lines containing unique dsb break sites indicate that a single isolated dsb is sufficient to cause a cb. The single-event nature of chromatid breakage is confirmed by the fact that cb are induced as a linear function of radiation dose. Moreover, we have recently shown that ultrasoft carbon-K X-rays also induce chromatid breakage. In this case the energy of the secondary electrons produced by carbon-K X-rays is too low to span more than one DNA double helix, thus further supporting our conclusion that a single dsb is responsible for the formation of a cb. Chromatid breakage is thought to involve a rearrangement between DNA strands at the crossover points of chromatin loop(s) triggered by the presence of a dsb within the loop structure. The occasional observation of 'looped-out' sections of chromatin at cb sites supports this hypothesis. The occurrence of 'colour-switches' between FPG stained chromatids at a proportion of break sites (e.g. about 16% in CHO cells) shows that a significant proportion of cb definitely result from chromatin rearrangements. Measurements of altered colour-switch ratio (csr) in mutant rodent and human cells (irs1 and AT cells respectively) also indicate a genetic basis for the

  15. Correlations of DNA strand breaks and their repair with cell survival following acute exposure to mercury(II) and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantoni, O.; Costa, M.

    1983-01-01

    Alkaline elution analysis demonstrates that both HgCl 2 and X-rays result in a rapid induction of DNA single-strand breaks at acutely cytotoxic doses (HgCl 2 , 25-100 microM for 60 min; X-rays, 150-600 rads) in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cytotoxicity, as measured by cell-plating efficiency, correlates linearly with the level of DNA breakage induced by both agents (HgCl 2 , r . 0.97; X-rays, r . 0.99), although a substantial difference in axis intercepts of the two linear regression lines indicates that a higher level of DNA damage was required by X-rays as compared with HgCl 2 to produce an equivalent level of cell killing. DNA damage induced by X-rays was rapidly repaired such that within 1 hr following treatment the elution rate of DNA from treated cells resembled that obtained in untreated cultures. In contrast, DNA damage after Hg 2+ insult was not repaired, and further damage was evident following a similar 1-hr recovery period. Addition of noncytotoxic, non-DNA-damaging concentrations of HgCl 2 (10 microM) to cells 15-45 min following treatment with X-rays greatly inhibited the repair of the DNA strand breaks. Thus, although both HgCl 2 and X-rays induce rapid and striking single-strand breaks in the DNA, persistence of Hg 2+ in the cell can inhibit the repair of these breaks. The inhibition of DNA repair by HgCl 2 may explain why this agent is not severely mutagenic or carcinogenic despite its ability to induce an X-ray-like DNA damage and why a lower level of mercury-induced DNA damage, compared with that induced by X-rays, was required to produce an equivalent level of cell death

  16. Early models of DNA damage formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of DNA damage, induced by various types of incident radiation as well as chemical agents, has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies, supporting the development of modern cancer therapy. The primary observations showed that many factors can lead to damage of DNA molecules. It became clear that the development of experimental techniques for exploring this phenomenon is required. Another problem was simultaneously dealt with, anticipating on how the damage is distributed within the double helix of the DNA molecule and how the single strand break formation and accumulation can influence the lethal double strand break formation. In this work the most important probabilistic models for DNA strand breakage and damage propagation are summarized and compared.

  17. DNA-imprinted polymer nanoparticles with monodispersity and prescribed DNA-strand patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Tuan; Liao, Chenyi; Toader, Violeta; Barłóg, Maciej; Bazzi, Hassan S.; Li, Jianing; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-02-01

    As colloidal self-assembly increasingly approaches the complexity of natural systems, an ongoing challenge is to generate non-centrosymmetric structures. For example, patchy, Janus or living crystallization particles have significantly advanced the area of polymer assembly. It has remained difficult, however, to devise polymer particles that associate in a directional manner, with controlled valency and recognition motifs. Here, we present a method to transfer DNA patterns from a DNA cage to a polymeric nanoparticle encapsulated inside the cage in three dimensions. The resulting DNA-imprinted particles (DIPs), which are 'moulded' on the inside of the DNA cage, consist of a monodisperse crosslinked polymer core with a predetermined pattern of different DNA strands covalently 'printed' on their exterior, and further assemble with programmability and directionality. The number, orientation and sequence of DNA strands grafted onto the polymeric core can be controlled during the process, and the strands are addressable independently of each other.

  18. Induction of DNA strand breaks in 14C-labelled cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundell-Bergman, S.; Johanson, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Chinese hamster cells grown in vitro were labelled with 14 C-thymidine for 18 hours and after 3 hours in non-radioactive medium they were stored at 0 0 C for various periods ( 1 to 12 hours). During this treatment a number of DNA strand breaks were induced by 14 C decay which were not repaired at 0 0 C. The number of DNA strand breaks was determined using the DNA unwinding technique. At 0.5-1 dpm per cell a detectable number of DNA strand breaks were found. Treatment for six hours (1 dpm per cell) reduced the percentage of double-stranded DNA from 80 to 70%, corresponding to about 750 DNA strand breaks per cell. The rejoining of DNA strand breaks was studied after treatment for 12 hours at 0 0 C followed by incubation of the cells for various periods at 37 0 C. Most of the DNA strand breaks induced by 14 C decay at 0 0 C were repaired after incubation at 37 0 C for 15 minutes. Assuming an absorbed dose of 1.8 mGy per 14 C decay to the cell nucleus an RBE value close to 1 was found for internal irradiation from 14 C decay as compared with 60 Co-gamma irradiation. (author)

  19. A Novel Computational Method to Reduce Leaky Reaction in DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement.

  20. Sub-ensemble monitoring of DNA strand displacement using multiparameter single-molecule FRET

    OpenAIRE

    Baltierra Jasso, Laura; Morten, Michael; Magennis, Steven William

    2018-01-01

    Non-enzymatic DNA strand displacement is an important mechanism in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here we show that the large parameter space that is accessible by single-molecule FRET is ideal for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple reactants and products of DNA strand exchange reactions. We monitored the strand displacement from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at 37 °C; the data were modelled as a second-order reaction approaching equilibrium, with a rate constan...

  1. Repetitious nature of repaired DNA in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three appendices, as follows: summary of preliminary studies of the comparative DNA repair in normal lymphoblastoid and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines; nonuniform reassociation of human lymphoblastoid cell DNA repair replicated following methyl methane sulfonate treatment; and preliminary DNA single-strand breakage studies in the L5178Y cell line

  2. Towards quantitative viromics for both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Viruses strongly influence microbial population dynamics and ecosystem functions. However, our ability to quantitatively evaluate those viral impacts is limited to the few cultivated viruses and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA viral genomes captured in quantitative viral metagenomes (viromes. This leaves the ecology of non-dsDNA viruses nearly unknown, including single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that have been frequently observed in viromes, but not quantified due to amplification biases in sequencing library preparations (Multiple Displacement Amplification, Linker Amplification or Tagmentation. Methods Here we designed mock viral communities including both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses to evaluate the capability of a sequencing library preparation approach including an Adaptase step prior to Linker Amplification for quantitative amplification of both dsDNA and ssDNA templates. We then surveyed aquatic samples to provide first estimates of the abundance of ssDNA viruses. Results Mock community experiments confirmed the biased nature of existing library preparation methods for ssDNA templates (either largely enriched or selected against and showed that the protocol using Adaptase plus Linker Amplification yielded viromes that were ±1.8-fold quantitative for ssDNA and dsDNA viruses. Application of this protocol to community virus DNA from three freshwater and three marine samples revealed that ssDNA viruses as a whole represent only a minor fraction (<5% of DNA virus communities, though individual ssDNA genomes, both eukaryote-infecting Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA viruses and bacteriophages from the Microviridae family, can be among the most abundant viral genomes in a sample. Discussion Together these findings provide empirical data for a new virome library preparation protocol, and a first estimate of ssDNA virus abundance in aquatic systems.

  3. Stem cell identity and template DNA strand segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2008-12-01

    The quest for stem cell properties to distinguish their identity from that of committed daughters has led to a re-investigation of the notion that DNA strands are not equivalent, and 'immortal' DNA strands are retained in stem cells whereas newly replicated DNA strands segregate to the differentiating daughter cell during mitosis. Whether this process occurs only in stem cells, and also in all tissues, remains unclear. That individual chromosomes can be also partitioned non-randomly raises the question if this phenomenon is related to the immortal DNA hypothesis, and it underscores the need for high-resolution techniques to observe these events empirically. Although initially postulated as a mechanism to avoid DNA replication errors, alternative views including epigenetic regulation and sister chromatid silencing may provide insights into this process.

  4. Torsional regulation of hRPA-induced unwinding of double-stranded DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vlaminck, I.; Vidic, I.; Van Loenhout, M.T.J.; Kanaar, R.; Lebbink, J.H.G.; Dekker, C.

    2010-01-01

    All cellular single-stranded (ss) DNA is rapidly bound and stabilized by single stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs). Replication protein A, the main eukaryotic SSB, is able to unwind double-stranded (ds) DNA by binding and stabilizing transiently forming bubbles of ssDNA. Here, we study the

  5. Strand displacement activated peroxidase activity of hemin for fluorescent DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanbo; Xu, Nan; Gui, Zhen; Lei, Jianping; Ju, Huangxian; Yan, Feng

    2015-10-07

    To efficiently regulate the catalytic activity of the peroxidase mimic hemin, this work designs a double-stranded DNA probe containing an intermolecular dimer of hemin, whose peroxidase activity can be activated by a DNA strand displacement reaction. The double-stranded probe is prepared by annealing two strands of hemin labelled DNA oligonucleotides. Using the fluorescent oxidation product of tyramine by H2O2 as a tracing molecule, the low peroxidase activity of the hemin dimer ensures a low fluorescence background. The strand displacement reaction of the target DNA dissociates the hemin dimer and thus significantly increases the catalytic activity of hemin to produce a large amount of dityramine for fluorescence signal readout. Based on the strand displacement regulated peroxidase activity, a simple and sensitive homogeneous fluorescent DNA sensing method is proposed. The detection can conveniently be carried out in a 96-well plate within 20 min with a detection limit of 0.18 nM. This method shows high specificity, which can effectively distinguish single-base mismatched DNA from perfectly matched target DNA. The DNA strand displacement regulated catalytic activity of hemin has promising application in the determination of various DNA analytes.

  6. DNA single-strand breaks during repair of uv damage in human fibroblasts and abnormalities of repair in xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Kohn, K.W.; Kann, H.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The method of DNA alkaline elution was applied to a study of the formation and resealing of DNA single-strand breaks after irradiation of human fibroblasts with ultraviolet light (UV). The general features of the results were consistent with current concepts of DNA excision repair, in that breaks appeared rapidly after uv, and resealed slowly in normal fibroblasts, whereas breaks did not appear in those cells of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) that are known to have defects in DNA repair synthesis. The appearance of breaks required a short post-uv incubation, consistent with the expected action of an endonuclease. Cells of the variant form of XP characterized by normal DNA repair synthesis exhibited normal production of breaks after uv, but were slower than normal cells in resealing these breaks. This difference was enhanced by caffeine. A model is proposed to relate this finding with a previously described defect in post-replication repair in these XP variant cells. DNA crosslinking appears to cause an underestimate in the measurement of DNA breakage after uv

  7. Inhibition of human Chk1 causes increased initiation of DNA replication, phosphorylation of ATR targets, and DNA breakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syljuåsen, Randi G; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg

    2005-01-01

    by increased amounts of nonextractable RPA protein, formation of single-stranded DNA, and induction of DNA strand breaks. Moreover, these responses were prevented by siRNA-mediated downregulation of Cdk2 or the replication initiation protein Cdc45, or by addition of the CDK inhibitor roscovitine. We propose...

  8. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  9. DNA cleavage agents from Schisandra propinqua var. sinensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... 2Engineering Research Center of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Ministry of ... DNA strand breakage process is involved in various bio- ..... Bioactive prenylated flavonoids from the stem bark.

  10. Formation of DNA single-strand breaks by near-ultraviolet and gamma-rays in normal and Bloom's syndrome skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschi, M.; Netrawali, M.S.; Remsen, J.F.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The formation of single-strand breaks by near-ultraviolet light at 313 nm and by aerobic gamma-rays was compared for skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from 4 normal donors (NF) and 8 patients with Bloom's syndrome (BS) by the alkaline elution method. In 6 of 8 BS strains, the number of breaks induced by near-ultraviolet light, 2.25 kJ/sq m, at 0 degrees was comparable to NF, while elevated breakage was observed in BS strains HG 369 and HG 916. Breakage frequencies were increased substantially in 6 of 8 BS strains relative to NF when the near-ultraviolet light exposure was at 37 degrees. BS strain GM 2520 represents an exception since normal breakage frequencies were induced both at 0 degrees and 37 degrees. Aerobic gamma-rays (75 R) induced comparable numbers of single-strand breaks in BS and NF strains at 0 degrees. The breakage frequencies were reduced an average of 17% in NF when the same dose was given at 30 degrees followed by 6 min incubation. Under the same conditions, the breakage frequencies were on the average reduced by 42% relative to 0 degrees in the BS strains, indicating that they possess normal or possibly slightly increased capacities for the rejoining of gamma-ray-induced breaks

  11. The production and repair of double strand breaks in cells from normal humans and patients with ataxia telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, A.R.; Stevens, S.

    1977-01-01

    The production and repair of double strand breaks induced by γ-rays in the DNA of human fibroblasts have been measured by sedimentation in sucrose gradients under non-denaturing conditions. Unirradiated DNA formed a rapidly sedimenting gel. Low doses of radiation released freely sedimenting DNA molecules from this gel. Higher doses reduced the rate of sedimentation of the free DNA due to the introduction of double strand breaks. The breakage efficiency was 1 break/1.3x10 10 daltons of DNA/krad. Postirradiation incubation after a high dose of radiation resulted in an increase in molecular weight of the free DNA molecules, and after a low dose the rapidly-sedimenting gel was reformed. These data suggest that double strand breaks are repaired in human fibroblasts. No significant differences were found between fibroblasts from two normal donors and four patients with the radiosensitive disorder, ataxia telangiectasia, in either the production or repair of double strand breaks

  12. Double-Strand DNA Break Repair in Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Discontinuity of both strands of the chromosome is a lethal event in all living organisms because it compromises chromosome replication. As such, a diversity of DNA repair systems has evolved to repair double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). In part, this diversity of DSB repair systems has evolved to repair breaks that arise in diverse physiologic circumstances or sequence contexts, including cellular states of nonreplication or breaks that arise between repeats. Mycobacteria elaborate a set of three genetically distinct DNA repair pathways: homologous recombination, nonhomologous end joining, and single-strand annealing. As such, mycobacterial DSB repair diverges substantially from the standard model of prokaryotic DSB repair and represents an attractive new model system. In addition, the presence in mycobacteria of a DSB repair system that can repair DSBs in nonreplicating cells (nonhomologous end joining) or when DSBs arise between repeats (single-strand annealing) has clear potential relevance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis, although the exact role of these systems in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis is still being elucidated. In this article we will review the genetics of mycobacterial DSB repair systems, focusing on recent insights.

  13. Fine resolution mapping of double-strand break sites for human ribosomal DNA units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. Pope

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage arises during a variety of biological processes, including transcription, replication and genome rearrangements. In the context of disease, extensive fragmentation of DNA has been described in cancer cells and during early stages of neurodegeneration (Stephens et al., 2011 Stephens et al. (2011 [5]; Blondet et al., 2001 Blondet et al. (2001 [1]. Stults et al. (2009 Stults et al. (2009 [6] reported that human rDNA gene clusters are hotspots for recombination and that rDNA restructuring is among the most common chromosomal alterations in adult solid tumours. As such, analysis of rDNA regions is likely to have significant prognostic and predictive value, clinically. Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016 Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016 [7,9] have made major advances in this direction, reporting that sites of human genome double-strand breaks (DSBs occur frequently at sites in rDNA that are tightly linked with active transcription - the authors used a RAFT (rapid amplification of forum termini protocol that selects for blunt-ended sites. They reported the relative frequency of these rDNA DSBs within defined co-ordinate ‘windows’ of varying size and made these data (as well as the relevant ‘raw’ sequencing information available to the public (Tchurikov et al., 2015b. Assay designs targeting rDNA DSB hotspots will benefit greatly from the publication of break sites at greater resolution. Here, we re-analyse public RAFT data and make available rDNA DSB co-ordinates to the single-nucleotide level.

  14. In vitro Assays for Eukaryotic Leading/Lagging Strand DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Grant; Finkelstein, Jeff; O'Donnell, Mike

    2017-09-20

    The eukaryotic replisome is a multiprotein complex that duplicates DNA. The replisome is sculpted to couple continuous leading strand synthesis with discontinuous lagging strand synthesis, primarily carried out by DNA polymerases ε and δ, respectively, along with helicases, polymerase α-primase, DNA sliding clamps, clamp loaders and many other proteins. We have previously established the mechanisms by which the polymerases ε and δ are targeted to their 'correct' strands, as well as quality control mechanisms that evict polymerases when they associate with an 'incorrect' strand. Here, we provide a practical guide to differentially assay leading and lagging strand replication in vitro using pure proteins.

  15. Sub-Ensemble Monitoring of DNA Strand Displacement Using Multiparameter Single-Molecule FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltierra-Jasso, Laura E; Morten, Michael J; Magennis, Steven W

    2018-03-05

    Non-enzymatic DNA strand displacement is an important mechanism in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here, we show that the large parameter space that is accessible by single-molecule FRET is ideal for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple reactants and products of DNA strand exchange reactions. We monitored the strand displacement from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at 37 °C; the data were modelled as a second-order reaction approaching equilibrium, with a rate constant of 10 m -1  s -1 . We also followed the displacement from a DNA three-way junction (3WJ) by ssDNA. The presence of three internal mismatched bases in the middle of the invading strand did not prevent displacement from the 3WJ, but reduced the second-order rate constant by about 50 %. We attribute strand exchange in the dsDNA and 3WJ to a zero-toehold pathway from the blunt-ended duplex arms. The single-molecule approach demonstrated here will be useful for studying complex DNA networks. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Broadwater, D.?W.?Bo; Kim, Harold?D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied si...

  17. Telomere healing following DNA polymerase arrest-induced breakages is likely the main mechanism generating chromosome 4p terminal deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes, Femke; Van Houdt, Jeroen; Quarrell, Oliver W; Poot, Martin; Hochstenbach, Ron; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Vermeesch, Joris R

    2010-12-01

    Constitutional developmental disorders are frequently caused by terminal chromosomal deletions. The mechanisms and/or architectural features that might underlie those chromosome breakages remain largely unexplored. Because telomeres are the vital DNA protein complexes stabilizing linear chromosomes against chromosome degradation, fusion, and incomplete replication, those terminal-deleted chromosomes acquired new telomeres either by telomere healing or by telomere capture. To unravel the mechanisms leading to chromosomal breakage and healing, we sequenced nine chromosome 4p terminal deletion boundaries. A computational analysis of the breakpoint flanking region, including 12 previously published pure terminal breakage sites, was performed in order to identify architectural features that might be involved in this process. All terminal 4p truncations were likely stabilized by telomerase-mediated telomere healing. In the majority of breakpoints multiple genetic elements have a potential to induce secondary structures and an enrichment in replication stalling site motifs were identified. These findings suggest DNA replication stalling-induced chromosome breakage during early development is the first mechanistic step leading toward terminal deletion syndromes. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Radioprotective action of WR-1065 on radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.; VanAnkeren, S.C.; Milas, L.; Meyn, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the radioprotective effect of WR-1065 on cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. The effects of the drug on the induction and rejoining of gamma-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) were measured using alkaline (pH 12.1) and neutral (pH 7.0) elution, respectively. Molecular protection factors (PFs) calculated from these data allowed us to determine whether the degree of modification of strand breakage accurately predicted the PFs measured using the biological end point of cell survival. The drug did protect against the induction of both SSBs and DSBs, although to an extent that did not appear to fully account for the degree of radioprotection in terms of cell killing measured under identical conditions. It is therefore unlikely that radioprotection by WR-1065 occurs simply as a consequence of a general lowering of all types of gamma-ray-induced DNA lesions, and it is possible that the drug could differentially protect against the induction of subsets of these DNA lesions. The rate of SSB rejoining was retarded following preirradiation treatment of cells with WR-1065, but there was no effect on DSB rejoining. Postirradiation treatment with WR-1065 also appeared to retard SSB rejoining but without an accompanying effect on either DSB rejoining or cell survival; however, this effect was largely reversed by the addition of catalase and was, therefore, probably a result of H 2 O 2 generated by autoxidation of the drug. Based on these observations, it would appear that the molecular actions of aminothiol radioprotective compounds that lead to reduced cell killing are much more complex than previously thought

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments on the breakage-reunion domain of the DNA gyrase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piton, Jérémie; Matrat, Stéphanie; Petrella, Stéphanie; Jarlier, Vincent; Aubry, Alexandra; Mayer, Claudine

    2009-01-01

    The breakage-reunion domain of M. tuberculosis DNA gyrase was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. One of the four crystal forms obtained belonged to space group C2 and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 Å. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase, a nanomachine that is involved in the regulation of DNA topology, is the only type II topoisomerase present in this organism and hence is the sole target for fluoroquinolone action. The breakage-reunion domain of the A subunit plays an essential role in DNA binding during the catalytic cycle. Two constructs of 53 and 57 kDa (termed GA53BK and GA57BK) corresponding to this domain have been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected from four crystal forms. The resolution limits ranged from 4.6 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form. The best diffracting crystals belonged to space group C2, with a biological dimer in the asymmetric unit. This is the first report of the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the breakage-reunion domain of DNA gyrase from a species containing one unique type II topoisomerase

  20. Inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand cleavage and hydroxyl radical formation by aspirin at pharmacologically relevant concentrations: Implications for cancer intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei [Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Zhu, Hong; Jia, Zhenquan [Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Li, Jianrong [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Misra, Hara P. [Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Zhou, Kequan, E-mail: kzhou@wayne.edu [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Li, Yunbo, E-mail: yli@vcom.vt.edu [Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States)

    2009-12-04

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that the long-term use of aspirin is associated with a decreased incidence of human malignancies, especially colorectal cancer. Since accumulating evidence indicates that peroxynitrite is critically involved in multistage carcinogenesis, this study was undertaken to investigate the ability of aspirin to inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage. Peroxynitrite and its generator 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) were used to cause DNA strand breaks in {phi}X-174 plasmid DNA. We demonstrated that the presence of aspirin at concentrations (0.25-2 mM) compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in a significant inhibition of DNA cleavage induced by both peroxynitrite and SIN-1. Moreover, the consumption of oxygen caused by 250 {mu}M SIN-1 was found to be decreased in the presence of aspirin, indicating that aspirin might affect the auto-oxidation of SIN-1. Furthermore, EPR spectroscopy using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap demonstrated the formation of DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct (DMPO-OH) from authentic peroxynitrite, and that aspirin at 0.25-2 mM potently diminished the radical adduct formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that aspirin at pharmacologically relevant concentrations can inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation. These results may have implications for cancer intervention by aspirin.

  1. Inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand cleavage and hydroxyl radical formation by aspirin at pharmacologically relevant concentrations: Implications for cancer intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Hong; Jia, Zhenquan; Li, Jianrong; Misra, Hara P.; Zhou, Kequan; Li, Yunbo

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that the long-term use of aspirin is associated with a decreased incidence of human malignancies, especially colorectal cancer. Since accumulating evidence indicates that peroxynitrite is critically involved in multistage carcinogenesis, this study was undertaken to investigate the ability of aspirin to inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage. Peroxynitrite and its generator 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) were used to cause DNA strand breaks in φX-174 plasmid DNA. We demonstrated that the presence of aspirin at concentrations (0.25-2 mM) compatible with amounts in plasma during chronic anti-inflammatory therapy resulted in a significant inhibition of DNA cleavage induced by both peroxynitrite and SIN-1. Moreover, the consumption of oxygen caused by 250 μM SIN-1 was found to be decreased in the presence of aspirin, indicating that aspirin might affect the auto-oxidation of SIN-1. Furthermore, EPR spectroscopy using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap demonstrated the formation of DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct (DMPO-OH) from authentic peroxynitrite, and that aspirin at 0.25-2 mM potently diminished the radical adduct formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that aspirin at pharmacologically relevant concentrations can inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation. These results may have implications for cancer intervention by aspirin.

  2. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of DNA breakage and breakage repair in mice spleen cells induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Xue Jingying; Li Jin; Mu Chuanjie; Fan Feiyue

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radioresistance mechanism of IBM-2 mice through measuring DNA single-strand break(SSB) and double-strands break (DSB) as well as their repair. Methods: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to measure DSB and SSB in IRM-2 mice and their parental mice ICR/JCL and 615 mice after exposure to different doses of γ-ray at different postirradiation time. Results: The initial DNA damages, ie the quantities of DSB and SSB in unirradiation IRM-2 mice were less serious than that of their parental mice ICR/JCL and 615 alice(P<0.01). The percent- age of DSB and SSB in IBM -2 mice was significantly lower than that of ICB/JCL and 615 mice after exposure to various doses of γ-ray(P<0.01 and P<0.05). There were not statistic differences in DSB and SSB repair between IRM-2 mice and their parental mice after exposure to 2Gy radiation. The DNA damage repair rate induced by 4Gy and 8Gy radiation in IRM - 2 mice was rapid, ie the repair rate of SSB and DSB after 0.5h and 1h postirradiation in IRM-2 mice was higher than that of their' parental mice (P<0.01 and P<0.05). And remaining damages after repair in IRM-2 mice were lower than that of ICR/JCL and 615 mice. Conclusion: The DNA damages in IBM-2 mice were lower than that of their parental mice after exposure to ionizing radiation. Moreover, the repair rate of SSB and DSB was higher than that of their parental mice, which perhaps were the radioresistance causes of IBM-2 mice. Therefore IRM-2 mice are naturally resistant to DNA damages induced by ionizing radiation. (authors)

  4. Programmable autonomous synthesis of single-stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Jocelyn Y.; Schaus, Thomas E.; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; Xuan, Feng; Yin, Peng

    2018-02-01

    DNA performs diverse functional roles in biology, nanotechnology and biotechnology, but current methods for autonomously synthesizing arbitrary single-stranded DNA are limited. Here, we introduce the concept of primer exchange reaction (PER) cascades, which grow nascent single-stranded DNA with user-specified sequences following prescribed reaction pathways. PER synthesis happens in a programmable, autonomous, in situ and environmentally responsive fashion, providing a platform for engineering molecular circuits and devices with a wide range of sensing, monitoring, recording, signal-processing and actuation capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate a nanodevice that transduces the detection of a trigger RNA into the production of a DNAzyme that degrades an independent RNA substrate, a signal amplifier that conditionally synthesizes long fluorescent strands only in the presence of a particular RNA signal, molecular computing circuits that evaluate logic (AND, OR, NOT) combinations of RNA inputs, and a temporal molecular event recorder that records in the PER transcript the order in which distinct RNA inputs are sequentially detected.

  5. Genome-wide mapping of DNA strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Leduc

    Full Text Available Determination of cellular DNA damage has so far been limited to global assessment of genome integrity whereas nucleotide-level mapping has been restricted to specific loci by the use of specific primers. Therefore, only limited DNA sequences can be studied and novel regions of genomic instability can hardly be discovered. Using a well-characterized yeast model, we describe a straightforward strategy to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks without compromising nucleotide-level resolution. This technique, termed "damaged DNA immunoprecipitation" (dDIP, uses immunoprecipitation and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end-labeling (TUNEL to capture DNA at break sites. When used in combination with microarray or next-generation sequencing technologies, dDIP will allow researchers to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks as well as other types of DNA damage and to establish a clear profiling of altered genes and/or intergenic sequences in various experimental conditions. This mapping technique could find several applications for instance in the study of aging, genotoxic drug screening, cancer, meiosis, radiation and oxidative DNA damage.

  6. 75 FR 62820 - Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Providers of Synthetic Double- Stranded DNA AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the.... Government has developed Guidance that provides a framework for screening synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). This document, the Screening Framework Guidance for Providers of Synthetic Double-Stranded DNA...

  7. Cellular DNA breakage by soy isoflavone genistein and its methylated structural analogue biochanin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohd Fahad; Shamim, Uzma; Hanif, Sarmad; Azmi, Asfar S; Hadi, Sheikh M

    2009-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that populations with high isoflavone intake through soy consumption have lower rates of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. The isoflavone polyphenol genistein in soybean is considered to be a potent chemopreventive agent against cancer. In order to explore the chemical basis of chemopreventive activity of genistein, in this paper we have examined the structure-activity relationship between genistein and its structural analogue biochanin A. We show that both genistein and its methylated derivative biochanin A are able to mobilize nuclear copper in human lymphocyte, leading to degradation of cellular DNA. However, the relative rate of DNA breakage was greater in the case of genistein. Further, the cellular DNA degradation was inhibited by copper chelator (neocuproine/bathocuproine) but not by compounds that specifically bind iron and zinc (desferrioxamine mesylate and histidine, respectively). We also compared the antioxidant activity of the two isoflavones against tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative breakage in lymphocytes. Again genistein was found to be more effective than biochanin A in providing protection against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. It would therefore appear that the structural features of isoflavones that are important for antioxidant properties are also the ones that contribute to their pro-oxidant action through a mechanism that involves redox cycling of chromatin-bound nuclear copper.

  8. DNA double-strand breaks & poptosis in the testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, Geert

    2003-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, DNA damage is a naturally occurring event. At a certain stage, during the first meiotic prophase, DNA breaks are endogenously induced and even required for meiotic recombination. We studied these DNA breaks but also used ionizing radiation (IR) to induce DNA double-strand

  9. Sequential strand displacement beacon for detection of DNA coverage on functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwoda, Rebecca E; Li, Feng; Reid, Michael S; Lin, Yanwen; Le, X Chris

    2014-06-17

    Functionalizing nanomaterials for diverse analytical, biomedical, and therapeutic applications requires determination of surface coverage (or density) of DNA on nanomaterials. We describe a sequential strand displacement beacon assay that is able to quantify specific DNA sequences conjugated or coconjugated onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Unlike the conventional fluorescence assay that requires the target DNA to be fluorescently labeled, the sequential strand displacement beacon method is able to quantify multiple unlabeled DNA oligonucleotides using a single (universal) strand displacement beacon. This unique feature is achieved by introducing two short unlabeled DNA probes for each specific DNA sequence and by performing sequential DNA strand displacement reactions. Varying the relative amounts of the specific DNA sequences and spacing DNA sequences during their coconjugation onto AuNPs results in different densities of the specific DNA on AuNP, ranging from 90 to 230 DNA molecules per AuNP. Results obtained from our sequential strand displacement beacon assay are consistent with those obtained from the conventional fluorescence assays. However, labeling of DNA with some fluorescent dyes, e.g., tetramethylrhodamine, alters DNA density on AuNP. The strand displacement strategy overcomes this problem by obviating direct labeling of the target DNA. This method has broad potential to facilitate more efficient design and characterization of novel multifunctional materials for diverse applications.

  10. Bacillus subtilis DNA polymerases, PolC and DnaE, are required for both leading and lagging strand synthesis in SPP1 origin-dependent DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Elena M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Firmicutes have two distinct replicative DNA polymerases, the PolC leading strand polymerase, and PolC and DnaE synthesizing the lagging strand. We have reconstituted in vitro Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 θ-type DNA replication, which initiates unidirectionally at oriL. With this system we show that DnaE is not only restricted to lagging strand synthesis as previously suggested. DnaG primase and DnaE polymerase are required for initiation of DNA replication on both strands. DnaE and DnaG synthesize in concert a hybrid RNA/DNA ‘initiation primer’ on both leading and lagging strands at the SPP1 oriL region, as it does the eukaryotic Pol α complex. DnaE, as a RNA-primed DNA polymerase, extends this initial primer in a reaction modulated by DnaG and one single-strand binding protein (SSB, SsbA or G36P), and hands off the initiation primer to PolC, a DNA-primed DNA polymerase. Then, PolC, stimulated by DnaG and the SSBs, performs the bulk of DNA chain elongation at both leading and lagging strands. Overall, these modulations by the SSBs and DnaG may contribute to the mechanism of polymerase switch at Firmicutes replisomes. PMID:28575448

  11. Higher 5-hydroxymethylcytosine identifies immortal DNA strand chromosomes in asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yang Hoon; Cohen, Justin; Sherley, James L

    2013-10-15

    Immortal strands are the targeted chromosomal DNA strands of nonrandom sister chromatid segregation, a mitotic chromosome segregation pattern unique to asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells (DSCs). By nonrandom segregation, immortal DNA strands become the oldest DNA strands in asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs. Nonrandom segregation of immortal DNA strands may limit DSC mutagenesis, preserve DSC fate, and contribute to DSC aging. The mechanisms responsible for specification and maintenance of immortal DNA strands are unknown. To discover clues to these mechanisms, we investigated the 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) content on chromosomes in mouse hair follicle DSCs during nonrandom segregation. Although 5-methylcytosine content did not differ significantly, the relative content of 5hmC was significantly higher in chromosomes containing immortal DNA strands than in opposed mitotic chromosomes containing younger mortal DNA strands. The difference in relative 5hmC content was caused by the loss of 5hmC from mortal chromosomes. These findings implicate higher 5hmC as a specific molecular determinant of immortal DNA strand chromosomes. Because 5hmC is an intermediate during DNA demethylation, we propose a ten-eleven translocase enzyme mechanism for both the specification and maintenance of nonrandomly segregated immortal DNA strands. The proposed mechanism reveals a means by which DSCs "know" the generational age of immortal DNA strands. The mechanism is supported by molecular expression data and accounts for the selection of newly replicated DNA strands when nonrandom segregation is initiated. These mechanistic insights also provide a possible basis for another characteristic property of immortal DNA strands, their guanine ribonucleotide dependency.

  12. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress and DNA-adduct formation but not DNA-breakage in human lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schins Roel PF

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Titanium dioxide (TiO2, also known as titanium (IV oxide or anatase, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It is also one of the most commercially used form. To date, no parameter has been set for the average ambient air concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP by any regulatory agency. Previously conducted studies had established these nanoparticles to be mainly non-cyto- and -genotoxic, although they had been found to generate free radicals both acellularly (specially through photocatalytic activity and intracellularly. The present study determines the role of TiO2-NP (anatase, ∅ in vitro. For comparison, iron containing nanoparticles (hematite, Fe2O3, ∅ 2-NP did not induce DNA-breakage measured by the Comet-assay in both cell types. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured acellularly (without any photocatalytic activity as well as intracellularly for both types of particles, however, the iron-containing NP needed special reducing conditions before pronounced radical generation. A high level of DNA adduct formation (8-OHdG was observed in IMR-90 cells exposed to TiO2-NP, but not in cells exposed to hematite NP. Our study demonstrates different modes of action for TiO2- and Fe2O3-NP. Whereas TiO2-NP were able to generate elevated amounts of free radicals, which induced indirect genotoxicity mainly by DNA-adduct formation, Fe2O3-NP were clastogenic (induction of DNA-breakage and required reducing conditions for radical formation.

  13. Checkpoint Kinase Rad53 Couples Leading- and Lagging-Strand DNA Synthesis under Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Haiyun; Yu, Chuanhe; Devbhandari, Sujan; Sharma, Sushma; Han, Junhong; Chabes, Andrei; Remus, Dirk; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2017-10-19

    The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is activated during replication stress to prevent fork collapse, an essential but poorly understood process. Here we show that Rad53 couples leading- and lagging-strand synthesis under replication stress. In rad53-1 cells stressed by dNTP depletion, the replicative DNA helicase, MCM, and the leading-strand DNA polymerase, Pol ε, move beyond the site of DNA synthesis, likely unwinding template DNA. Remarkably, DNA synthesis progresses further along the lagging strand than the leading strand, resulting in the exposure of long stretches of single-stranded leading-strand template. The asymmetric DNA synthesis in rad53-1 cells is suppressed by elevated levels of dNTPs in vivo, and the activity of Pol ε is compromised more than lagging-strand polymerase Pol δ at low dNTP concentrations in vitro. Therefore, we propose that Rad53 prevents the generation of excessive ssDNA under replication stress by coordinating DNA unwinding with synthesis of both strands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis by using the herpes simplex virus 1 replication complex and minicircle DNA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Gudrun; Kuchta, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    The origin-specific replication of the herpes simplex virus 1 genome requires seven proteins: the helicase-primase (UL5-UL8-UL52), the DNA polymerase (UL30-UL42), the single-strand DNA binding protein (ICP8), and the origin-binding protein (UL9). We reconstituted these proteins, excluding UL9, on synthetic minicircular DNA templates and monitored leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis using the strand-specific incorporation of dTMP and dAMP. Critical features of the assays that led to efficient leading and lagging stand synthesis included high helicase-primase concentrations and a lagging strand template whose sequence resembled that of the viral DNA. Depending on the nature of the minicircle template, the replication complex synthesized leading and lagging strand products at molar ratios varying between 1:1 and 3:1. Lagging strand products (∼0.2 to 0.6 kb) were significantly shorter than leading strand products (∼2 to 10 kb), and conditions that stimulated primer synthesis led to shorter lagging strand products. ICP8 was not essential; however, its presence stimulated DNA synthesis and increased the length of both leading and lagging strand products. Curiously, human DNA polymerase α (p70-p180 or p49-p58-p70-p180), which improves the utilization of RNA primers synthesized by herpesvirus primase on linear DNA templates, had no effect on the replication of the minicircles. The lack of stimulation by polymerase α suggests the existence of a macromolecular assembly that enhances the utilization of RNA primers and may functionally couple leading and lagging strand synthesis. Evidence for functional coupling is further provided by our observations that (i) leading and lagging strand synthesis produce equal amounts of DNA, (ii) leading strand synthesis proceeds faster under conditions that disable primer synthesis on the lagging strand, and (iii) conditions that accelerate helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding stimulate decoupled leading strand synthesis but not

  15. Plasmid-derived DNA Strand Displacement Gates for Implementing Chemical Reaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Rao, Sundipta D; Seelig, Georg

    2015-11-25

    DNA nanotechnology requires large amounts of highly pure DNA as an engineering material. Plasmid DNA could meet this need since it is replicated with high fidelity, is readily amplified through bacterial culture and can be stored indefinitely in the form of bacterial glycerol stocks. However, the double-stranded nature of plasmid DNA has so far hindered its efficient use for construction of DNA nanostructures or devices that typically contain single-stranded or branched domains. In recent work, it was found that nicked double stranded DNA (ndsDNA) strand displacement gates could be sourced from plasmid DNA. The following is a protocol that details how these ndsDNA gates can be efficiently encoded in plasmids and can be derived from the plasmids through a small number of enzymatic processing steps. Also given is a protocol for testing ndsDNA gates using fluorescence kinetics measurements. NdsDNA gates can be used to implement arbitrary chemical reaction networks (CRNs) and thus provide a pathway towards the use of the CRN formalism as a prescriptive molecular programming language. To demonstrate this technology, a multi-step reaction cascade with catalytic kinetics is constructed. Further it is shown that plasmid-derived components perform better than identical components assembled from synthetic DNA.

  16. DNA Strand Breaks in Mitotic Germ Cells of Caenorhabditis elegans Evaluated by Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sojin; Choi, Seoyun; Ahn, Byungchan

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage responses are important for the maintenance of genome stability and the survival of organisms. Such responses are activated in the presence of DNA damage and lead to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA repair. In Caenorhabditis elegans, double-strand breaks induced by DNA damaging agents have been detected indirectly by antibodies against DSB recognizing proteins. In this study we used a comet assay to detect DNA strand breaks and to measure the elimination of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. We found that C. elegans brc-1 mutants were more sensitive to ionizing radiation and camptothecin than the N2 wild-type strain and repaired DNA strand breaks less efficiently than N2. This study is the first demonstration of direct measurement of DNA strand breaks in mitotic germline nuclei of C. elegans. This newly developed assay can be applied to detect DNA strand breaks in different C. elegans mutants that are sensitive to DNA damaging agents. PMID:26903030

  17. Single-stranded DNA cleavage by divergent CRISPR-Cas9 enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Enbo; Harrington, Lucas B.; O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Zhou, Kaihong; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage by Cas9 is a hallmark of type II CRISPR-Cas immune systems. Cas9–guide RNA complexes recognize 20-base-pair sequences in DNA and generate a site-specific double-strand break, a robust activity harnessed for genome editing. DNA recognition by all studied Cas9 enzymes requires a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) next to the target site. We show that Cas9 enzymes from evolutionarily divergent bacteria can recognize and cleave single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by an RNA-guided, PAM-independent recognition mechanism. Comparative analysis shows that in contrast to the type II-A S. pyogenes Cas9 that is widely used for genome engineering, the smaller type II-C Cas9 proteins have limited dsDNA binding and unwinding activity and promiscuous guide-RNA specificity. These results indicate that inefficiency of type II-C Cas9 enzymes for genome editing results from a limited ability to cleave dsDNA, and suggest that ssDNA cleavage was an ancestral function of the Cas9 enzyme family. PMID:26545076

  18. Prooxidant action of furanone compounds: implication of reactive oxygen species in the metal-dependent strand breaks and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Haneda, M; Makino, T; Yoshino, M

    2007-07-01

    Prooxidant properties of furanone compounds including 2,5-furanone (furaneol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-furan-3-one), 4,5-furanone (4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone) (sotolone) and cyclotene (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one) were analyzed in relation to the metal-reducing activity. Only 2.5-furanone known as a "strawberry or pineapple furanone" inactivated aconitase the most sensitive enzyme to active oxygen in the presence of ferrous sulfate, suggesting the furaneol/iron-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. 2,5-Furanone caused strand scission of pBR322 DNA in the presence of copper. Treatment of calf thymus DNA with 2,5-furanone plus copper produced 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA. 2,5-Furanone showed a potent copper-reducing activity, and thus, DNA strand breaks and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine by 2,5-furanone can be initiated by the production of superoxide radical through the reduction of cupric ion to cuprous ion, resulting in the conversion to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. However, an isomer and analog of 2,5-furanone, 4,5-furanone and cyclotene, respectively, did not show an inactivation of aconitase, DNA injuries including strand breakage and the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and copper-reducing activity. Cytotoxic effect of 2,5-furanone with hydroxyketone structure can be explained by its prooxidant properties: furaneol/transition metal complex generates reactive oxygen species causing the inactivation of aconitase and the formation of DNA base damage by hydroxyl radical.

  19. Phenotypic Analysis of ATM Protein Kinase in DNA Double-Strand Break Formation and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Elisabeth; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is involved in various regulatory processes in mammalian cells. Its best-known role is apical activation of the DNA damage response following generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When DSBs appear, sensor and mediator proteins are recruited, activating transducers such as ATM, which in turn relay a widespread signal to a multitude of downstream effectors. ATM mutation causes Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), whereby the disease phenotype shows differing characteristics depending on the underlying ATM mutation. However, all phenotypes share progressive neurodegeneration and marked predisposition to malignancies at the organismal level and sensitivity to ionizing radiation and chromosome aberrations at the cellular level. Expression and localization of the ATM protein can be determined via western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy; however, detection of subtle alterations such as resulting from amino acid exchanges rather than truncating mutations requires functional testing. Previous studies on the role of ATM in DSB repair, which connects with radiosensitivity and chromosomal stability, gave at first sight contradictory results. To systematically explore the effects of clinically relevant ATM mutations on DSB repair, we engaged a series of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from AT patients and controls. To examine DSB repair both in a quantitative and qualitative manners, we used an EGFP-based assay comprising different substrates for distinct DSB repair mechanisms. In this way, we demonstrated that particular signaling defects caused by individual ATM mutations led to specific DSB repair phenotypes. To explore the impact of ATM on carcinogenic chromosomal aberrations, we monitored chromosomal breakage at a breakpoint cluster region hotspot within the MLL gene that has been associated with therapy-related leukemia. PCR-based MLL-breakage analysis of HeLa cells

  20. Responding to chromosomal breakage during M-phase: insights from a cell-free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanzo Vincenzo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA double strand breaks (DSBs activate ATM and ATR dependent checkpoints that prevent the onset of mitosis. However, how cells react to DSBs occurring when they are already in mitosis is poorly understood. The Xenopus egg extract has been utilized to study cell cycle progression and DNA damage checkpoints. Recently this system has been successfully used to uncover an ATM and ATR dependent checkpoint affecting centrosome driven spindle assembly. These studies have led to the identification of XCEP63 as major target of this pathway. XCEP63 is a coiled-coil rich protein localized at centrosome essential for proper spindle assembly. ATM and ATR directly phosphorylate XCEP63 on serine 560 inducing its delocalization from centrosome, which in turn delays spindle assembly. This pathway might contribute to regulate DNA repair or mitotic cell survival in the presence of chromosome breakage.

  1. Characterization of a parallel-stranded DNA hairpin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, M.W.; Vogel, H.J.; Pon, R.T.; van de Sande, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recently, the authors have shown that synthetic DNA containing homooligomeric A-T base pairs can form a parallel-stranded intramolecular hairpin structure. In the present study, they have employed NMR and optical spectroscopy to investigate the structure of the parallel-stranded (PS) DNA hairpin 3'-d(T) 8 C 4 (A) 8 -3' and the related antiparallel (APS) hair 5'-d(T) 8 C 4 (A) 8 -3'. The parallel orientation of the strands in the PS oligonucleotide is achieved by introducing a 5'-5' phosphodiester linkage in the hairpin loop. Ultraviolet spectroscopic and fluorescence data of drug binding are consistent with the formation of PS and APS structures, respectively, in these two hairpins. Vacuum circular dichroism measurements in combination with theoretical CD calculations indicate that the PS structure forms a right-handed helix. 31 P NMR measurements indicate that the conformation of the phosphodiester backbone of the PS structure is not drastically different from that of the APS control. The presence of slowly exchanging imino protons at 14 ppm and the observation of nuclear Overhauser enhancement between imino protons and the AH-2 protons demonstrate that similar base pairing and base stacking between T and A residues occur in both hairpins. On the basis of NOESY measurements, they find that the orientation of the bases is in the anti region and that the sugar puckering is in the 2'-endo range. The results indicate a B-like conformation for each of the strands in the stem part of the PS hairpin and reverse Watson-Crick base pairing between the T and A residues. These data are consistent with a previously calculated structure for parallel-stranded DNA

  2. Biophysical characterization of the association of histones with single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; van Merwyk, Luis; Tönsing, Katja; Walhorn, Volker; Anselmetti, Dario; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Despite the profound current knowledge of the architecture and dynamics of nucleosomes, little is known about the structures generated by the interaction of histones with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is widely present during replication and transcription. Non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic tweezers. Histones have a high affinity for ssDNA in 0.15M NaCl ionic strength, with an apparent binding constant similar to that calculated for their association with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The length of DNA (number of nucleotides in ssDNA or base pairs in dsDNA) associated with a fixed core histone mass is the same for both ssDNA and dsDNA. Although histone-ssDNA complexes show a high tendency to aggregate, nucleosome-like structures are formed at physiological salt concentrations. Core histones are able to protect ssDNA from digestion by micrococcal nuclease, and a shortening of ssDNA occurs upon its interaction with histones. The purified (+) strand of a cloned DNA fragment of nucleosomal origin has a higher affinity for histones than the purified complementary (-) strand. At physiological ionic strength histones have high affinity for ssDNA, possibly associating with it into nucleosome-like structures. In the cell nucleus histones may spontaneously interact with ssDNA to facilitate their participation in the replication and transcription of chromatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-strand DNA molecule translocation through nanoelectrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiongce; Payne, Christina M; Cummings, Peter T; Lee, James W

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the translocation of single-strand DNA through nanoscale electrode gaps under the action of a constant driving force. The application behind this theoretical study is a proposal to use nanoelectrodes as a screening gap as part of a rapid genomic sequencing device. Preliminary results from a series of simulations using various gap widths and driving forces suggest that the narrowest electrode gap that a single-strand DNA can pass is ∼1.5 nm. The minimum force required to initiate the translocation within nanoseconds is ∼0.3 nN. Simulations using DNA segments of various lengths indicate that the minimum initiation force is insensitive to the length of DNA. However, the average threading velocity of DNA varies appreciably from short to long DNA segments. We attribute such variation to the different nature of drag force experienced by the short and long DNA segments in the environment. It is found that DNA molecules deform significantly to fit in the shape of the nanogap during the translocation

  4. Nucleic Acid Analogue Induced Transcription of Double Stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    RNA is transcribed from a double stranded DNA template by forming a complex by hybridizing to the template at a desired transcription initiation site one or more oligonucleic acid analogues of the PNA type capable of forming a transcription initiation site with the DNA and exposing the complex...... to the action of a DNA dependant RNA polymerase in the presence of nucleoside triphosphates. Equal length transcripts may be obtained by placing a block to transcription downstream from the initiation site or by cutting the template at such a selected location. The initiation site is formed by displacement...... of one strand of the DNA locally by the PNA hybridization....

  5. Effect of radiomodifying agents on the ratios of X-ray-induced lesions in cellular DNA: use in lethal lesion determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.R.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of three radiomodifying agents, cysteamine, hyperthermia, and hypoxia, on the induction of the major classes of X-ray-induced DNA lesions, was studied using mouse L cells and Chinese hamster V79 cells. The use of filter elution techniques allowed most of these studies to be conducted at X-ray doses within the survival-curve range. Cysteamine was found to protect against DNA single-strand breakage (ssb), DNA base damage, and DNA-protein crosslinkage. Hyperthermia had no effect on the level of DNA ssb or DNA base damage, but in L cells (but not in V79 cells) it increased the level of DNA-protein crosslinkage relative to DNA ssb. Hypoxia protected against DNA ssb, had no significant effect on the level of DNA base damage, and enhanced the level of DNA-protein crosslinkage relative to DNA ssb. These results support the previous suggestion that the X-ray-induced lethal lesion is DNA double-strand breakage. Implications of these findings for the mechanisms of formation of X-ray-induced DNA lesions are also discussed. (author)

  6. Genetic analysis of RPA single-stranded DNA binding protein in Haloferax volcanii

    OpenAIRE

    Stroud, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is present in all three domains of life. The roles of RPA include stabilising and protecting single- stranded DNA from nuclease degradation during DNA replication and repair. To achieve this, RPA uses an oligosaccharide-binding fold (OB fold) to bind single- stranded DNA. Haloferax volcanii encodes three RPAs – RPA1, RPA2 and RPA3, of which rpa1 and rpa3 are in operons with genes encoding associated proteins (APs). ...

  7. Evolutionary implications of inversions that have caused intra-strand parity in DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei John

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chargaff's rule of DNA base composition, stating that DNA comprises equal amounts of adenine and thymine (%A = %T and of guanine and cytosine (%C = %G, is well known because it was fundamental to the conception of the Watson-Crick model of DNA structure. His second parity rule stating that the base proportions of double-stranded DNA are also reflected in single-stranded DNA (%A = %T, %C = %G is more obscure, likely because its biological basis and significance are still unresolved. Within each strand, the symmetry of single nucleotide composition extends even further, being demonstrated in the balance of di-, tri-, and multi-nucleotides with their respective complementary oligonucleotides. Results Here, we propose that inversions are sufficient to account for the symmetry within each single-stranded DNA. Human mitochondrial DNA does not demonstrate such intra-strand parity, and we consider how its different functional drivers may relate to our theory. This concept is supported by the recent observation that inversions occur frequently. Conclusion Along with chromosomal duplications, inversions must have been shaping the architecture of genomes since the origin of life.

  8. C-terminal phenylalanine of bacteriophage T7 single-stranded DNA-binding protein is essential for strand displacement synthesis by T7 DNA polymerase at a nick in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Marintcheva, Boriana; Takahashi, Masateru; Richardson, Charles C

    2009-10-30

    Single-stranded DNA-binding protein (gp2.5), encoded by gene 2.5 of bacteriophage T7, plays an essential role in DNA replication. Not only does it remove impediments of secondary structure in the DNA, it also modulates the activities of the other replication proteins. The acidic C-terminal tail of gp2.5, bearing a C-terminal phenylalanine, physically and functionally interacts with the helicase and DNA polymerase. Deletion of the phenylalanine or substitution with a nonaromatic amino acid gives rise to a dominant lethal phenotype, and the altered gp2.5 has reduced affinity for T7 DNA polymerase. Suppressors of the dominant lethal phenotype have led to the identification of mutations in gene 5 that encodes the T7 DNA polymerase. The altered residues in the polymerase are solvent-exposed and lie in regions that are adjacent to the bound DNA. gp2.5 lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine has a lower affinity for gp5-thioredoxin relative to the wild-type gp2.5, and this affinity is partially restored by the suppressor mutations in DNA polymerase. gp2.5 enables T7 DNA polymerase to catalyze strand displacement DNA synthesis at a nick in DNA. The resulting 5'-single-stranded DNA tail provides a loading site for T7 DNA helicase. gp2.5 lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine does not support this event with wild-type DNA polymerase but does to a limited extent with T7 DNA polymerase harboring the suppressor mutations.

  9. C-terminal Phenylalanine of Bacteriophage T7 Single-stranded DNA-binding Protein Is Essential for Strand Displacement Synthesis by T7 DNA Polymerase at a Nick in DNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Marintcheva, Boriana; Takahashi, Masateru; Richardson, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding protein (gp2.5), encoded by gene 2.5 of bacteriophage T7, plays an essential role in DNA replication. Not only does it remove impediments of secondary structure in the DNA, it also modulates the activities of the other replication proteins. The acidic C-terminal tail of gp2.5, bearing a C-terminal phenylalanine, physically and functionally interacts with the helicase and DNA polymerase. Deletion of the phenylalanine or substitution with a nonaromatic amino acid gives rise to a dominant lethal phenotype, and the altered gp2.5 has reduced affinity for T7 DNA polymerase. Suppressors of the dominant lethal phenotype have led to the identification of mutations in gene 5 that encodes the T7 DNA polymerase. The altered residues in the polymerase are solvent-exposed and lie in regions that are adjacent to the bound DNA. gp2.5 lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine has a lower affinity for gp5-thioredoxin relative to the wild-type gp2.5, and this affinity is partially restored by the suppressor mutations in DNA polymerase. gp2.5 enables T7 DNA polymerase to catalyze strand displacement DNA synthesis at a nick in DNA. The resulting 5′-single-stranded DNA tail provides a loading site for T7 DNA helicase. gp2.5 lacking the C-terminal phenylalanine does not support this event with wild-type DNA polymerase but does to a limited extent with T7 DNA polymerase harboring the suppressor mutations. PMID:19726688

  10. DNA conformation of Chinese hamster V79 cells and sensitivity to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, P.L.; Hilton, J.; Durand, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Chinese hamster V79 cells grown for 20 h in suspension culture form small clusters of cells (spheroids) which are more resistant to killing by ionizing radiation than V79 cells grown as monolayers. This resistance appears to be due to the greater capacity of cells grown in contact to repair radiation damage. Attempts to relate this ''contact effect'' to differences in DNA susceptibility or DNA repair capacity have provided conflicting results. Two techniques, alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation and alkaline elution, show no difference in the amounts of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breakage or its repair between suspension or monolayer cells. However, using the alkali-unwinding assay, the rate of DNA unwinding is much slower for suspension cells than for monolayer cells. Interestingly, a decrease in salt concentration or in pH of the unwinding solution eliminates these differences in DNA unwinding kinetics. A fourth assay, sedimentation of nucleoids on neutral sucrose gradients, also shows a significant decrease in radiation damage produced in suspension compared to monolayer cultures. It is believed that this assay measures differences in DNA conformation (supercoiling) as well as differences in DNA strand breakage. We conclude from these four assays that the same number of DNA strand breaks/Gy is produced in monolayer and spheroid cells. However, changes in DNA conformation or packaging occur when cells are grown as spheroids, and these changes are responsible for reducing DNA damage by ionizing radiation

  11. Design and Characterization of DNA Strand-Displacement Circuits in Serum-Supplemented Cell Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Joshua; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-09-15

    The functional stability and lifetimes of synthetic molecular circuits in biological environments are important for long-term, stable sensors or controllers of cell or tissue behavior. DNA-based molecular circuits, in particular DNA strand-displacement circuits, provide simple and effective biocompatible control mechanisms and sensors, but are vulnerable to digestion by nucleases present in living tissues and serum-supplemented cell culture. The stability of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA circuit components in serum-supplemented cell medium and the corresponding effect of nuclease-mediated degradation on circuit performance were characterized to determine the major routes of degradation and DNA strand-displacement circuit failure. Simple circuit design choices, such as the use of 5' toeholds within the DNA complexes used as reactants in the strand-displacement reactions and the termination of single-stranded components with DNA hairpin domains at the 3' termini, significantly increase the functional lifetime of the circuit components in the presence of nucleases. Simulations of multireaction circuits, guided by the experimentally measured operation of single-reaction circuits, enable predictive realization of multilayer and competitive-reaction circuit behavior. Together, these results provide a basic route to increased DNA circuit stability in cell culture environments.

  12. Three methods to determine the yields of DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erzgraeber, G.; Lapidus, I.L.

    1985-01-01

    A possibility of determining the yield of DNA double-strand breaks in cells of the Chinese hamster (V79-4) by finding the amount of DNA released as a result of breaks and by determining the relative sedimentation velocity of DNA-membrane complexes affected by ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics is discussed. Results of the analysis are compared with the data obtained by a traditional method of sedimentation in the neutral sucrose density gradient. Comparative characterization of the methods is discussed. The yields of DNA double-strand breaks determined by the suggested independent methods are in good agreement, which opens possibilities of studying induction and repair of double-strand breaks by means of simpler and more reliable methods

  13. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3’ddR5p) at the 3’-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex. Here we present evidence that 3’ddR5p derivatives generated by spermine-catalyzed strand cleavage at Ap sites in duplex DNA can react with adenine residues on the opposing strand to generate a complex lesion consisting of an interstrand cross-link adjacent to a strand break. The cross-link blocks DNA replication by ϕ29 DNA polymerase, a highly processive polymerase enzyme that couples synthesis with strand displacement. This suggests that 3’ddR5p-derived cross-links have the potential to block critical cellular DNA transactions that require strand separation. LC-MS/MS methods developed herein provide powerful tools for studying the occurrence and properties of these cross-links in biochemical and biological systems. PMID:28531327

  14. DNA strand scission by the novel antitumor antibiotic leinamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Mitsunobu; Saitoh, Yutaka; Nakano, Hirofumi

    1990-01-01

    Leinamycin is a recently discovered antitumor antibiotic with an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane structure. It preferentially inhibits the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into the acid-insoluble fraction of Bacillus subtilis. In vitro, leinamycin causes single-strand cleavage of supercoiled double-helical pBR322 DNA in the presence of thiol cofactors. Scavengers of oxygen radical did not suppress the DNA-cleaving activity. Thiol-activated leinamycin binds calf thymus DNA at 4 degree C and thermal treatment of the leinamycin-DNA adduct released a chemically modified leinamycin from the complex. The lack of cytotoxicity and DNA-cleaving activity for S-deoxyleinamycin indicates that the 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety is essential for the activity of leinamycin. Thus, the primary cellular target of leinamycin appears to be DNA. It binds DNA and causes single-strand break at low concentrations, which may account for the potent antitumor activity

  15. Importance of the efficiency of double-stranded DNA formation in cDNA synthesis for the imprecision of microarray expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Hans G; Gudmundsson, Bjarki; Eiriksdottir, Freyja; Kil, Siyoen; Gunnarsson, Gudmundur H; Magnusson, Magnus Karl; Hsu, Jason C; Jonsson, Jon J

    2013-04-01

    The causes of imprecision in microarray expression analysis are poorly understood, limiting the use of this technology in molecular diagnostics. Two-dimensional strandness-dependent electrophoresis (2D-SDE) separates nucleic acid molecules on the basis of length and strandness, i.e., double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and RNA·DNA hybrids. We used 2D-SDE to measure the efficiency of cDNA synthesis and its importance for the imprecision of an in vitro transcription-based microarray expression analysis. The relative amount of double-stranded cDNA formed in replicate experiments that used the same RNA sample template was highly variable, ranging between 0% and 72% of the total DNA. Microarray experiments showed an inverse relationship between the difference between sample pairs in probe variance and the relative amount of dsDNA. Approximately 15% of probes showed between-sample variation (P cDNA synthesized can be an important component of the imprecision in T7 RNA polymerase-based microarray expression analysis. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  16. Repair of endogenous and ionizing radiation-induced DNA damages: mechanisms and biological functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, S.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular DNA is continuously exposed to endogenous and exogenous stress. Oxidative stress due to cellular metabolism is the major cause of endogenous DNA damage. On the other hand, ionizing radiation (IR) is an important exogenous stress. Both induce similar DNA damages: damaged bases, abasic sites and strand breakage. Most of these lesions are lethal and/or mutagenic. The survival of the cell is managed by efficient and accurate DNA repair mechanisms that remove lesions before their replication or transcription. DNA repair pathways involved in the removal of IR-induced lesions are briefly described. Base excision repair (BER) is mostly involved in the removal of base damage, abasic sites and single strand breaks. In contrast, DNA double strand breaks are mostly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). How DNA repair pathways prevent cancer process is also discussed. (author)

  17. Repair and gamma radiation-induced single- and double-strand breaks in DNA of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    Studies in the kinetics of repair of γ-radiation-induced single- and double-strand breaks in DNA of E. coli cells showed that double-strand DNA breaks are rejoined by the following two ways. The first way is conditioned by repair of single-strand breaks and represents the repair of ''oblique'' double-strand breaks in DNA, whereas the second way is conditioned by functioning of the recombination mechanisms and, to all appearance, represents the repair of ''direct'' double-strand breaks in DNA

  18. Replication of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA entails transient ribonucleotide incorporation throughout the lagging strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Takehiro; Reyes, Aurelio; Cluett, Tricia J; Yang, Ming-Yao; Bowmaker, Mark; Jacobs, Howard T; Holt, Ian J

    2006-11-15

    Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, we show that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication of birds and mammals frequently entails ribonucleotide incorporation throughout the lagging strand (RITOLS). Based on a combination of two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoretic analysis and mapping of 5' ends of DNA, initiation of RITOLS replication occurs in the major non-coding region of vertebrate mtDNA and is effectively unidirectional. In some cases, conversion of nascent RNA strands to DNA starts at defined loci, the most prominent of which maps, in mammalian mtDNA, in the vicinity of the site known as the light-strand origin.

  19. Effects of hyperthermia on repair of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.D.; Meyn, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested a relationship between the heat-induced changes in nucleoprotein and the hyperthermic enhancement of radiation sensitivity. In an effort to further understand these relationships, we measured the level of initial DNA strand break damage and the DNA strand break rejoining kinetics in Chinese hamster ovary cells following combined hyperthermia and ionizing radiation treatments. The amount of protein associated with DNA measured as the ratio of [ 3 H)leucine to [ 14 C]thymidine was also compared in chromatin isolated from both heated and unheated cells. The results of these experiments show that the initial level of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks is significantly enhanced by a prior hyperthermia treatment of 43 0 C for 30 min. Treatments at higher temperatures and longer treatments at the same temperature magnified this effect. Hyperthermia was also shown to cause a substantial inhibition of the DNA strand break rejoining after irradiation. Both the initial level of DNA damage and the rejoining kinetics recovered to normal levels with incubation at 37 0 C between the hyperthermia and radiation treatments. Recovery of these parameters coincided with the return of the amount of protein associated with DNA to normal values, further suggesting a relationship between the changes in nucleoprotein and the hyperthermic enhancement of radiation sensivivity

  20. Protected DNA strand displacement for enhanced single nucleotide discrimination in double-stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Khodakova, Anastasia S.; Huang, David M.; Linacre, Adrian; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a prime source of genetic diversity. Discriminating between different SNPs provides an enormous leap towards the better understanding of the uniqueness of biological systems. Here we report on a new approach for SNP discrimination using toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement. The distinctiveness of the approach is based on the combination of both 3- and 4-way branch migration mechanisms, which allows for reliable discrimination of SNPs within doubl...

  1. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E; Johnson, Kevin M; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S

    2017-06-20

    Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3'ddR5p) at the 3'-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex. Here we present evidence that 3'ddR5p derivatives generated by spermine-catalyzed strand cleavage at Ap sites in duplex DNA can react with adenine residues on the opposing strand to generate a complex lesion consisting of an interstrand cross-link adjacent to a strand break. The cross-link blocks DNA replication by ϕ29 DNA polymerase, a highly processive polymerase enzyme that couples synthesis with strand displacement. This suggests that 3'ddR5p-derived cross-links have the potential to block critical cellular DNA transactions that require strand separation. LC-MS/MS methods developed herein provide powerful tools for studying the occurrence and properties of these cross-links in biochemical and biological systems. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. The role of cytosine methylation on charge transport through a DNA strand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jianqing, E-mail: jqqi@uw.edu; Anantram, M. P., E-mail: anantmp@uw.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2500 (United States); Govind, Niranjan, E-mail: niri.govind@pnnl.gov [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    Cytosine methylation has been found to play a crucial role in various biological processes, including a number of human diseases. The detection of this small modification remains challenging. In this work, we computationally explore the possibility of detecting methylated DNA strands through direct electrical conductance measurements. Using density functional theory and the Landauer-Büttiker method, we study the electronic properties and charge transport through an eight base-pair methylated DNA strand and its native counterpart. We first analyze the effect of cytosine methylation on the tight-binding parameters of two DNA strands and then model the transmission of the electrons and conductance through the strands both with and without decoherence. We find that the main difference of the tight-binding parameters between the native DNA and the methylated DNA lies in the on-site energies of (methylated) cytosine bases. The intra- and inter-strand hopping integrals between two nearest neighboring guanine base and (methylated) cytosine base also change with the addition of the methyl groups. Our calculations show that in the phase-coherent limit, the transmission of the methylated strand is close to the native strand when the energy is nearby the highest occupied molecular orbital level and larger than the native strand by 5 times in the bandgap. The trend in transmission also holds in the presence of the decoherence with the same rate. The lower conductance for the methylated strand in the experiment is suggested to be caused by the more stable structure due to the introduction of the methyl groups. We also study the role of the exchange-correlation functional and the effect of contact coupling by choosing coupling strengths ranging from weak to strong coupling limit.

  3. Postreplicational formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli uvrB cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tzuchien V.; Smith, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    The number of DNA double-strand breaks formed in UV-irradiated uvrB recF recB cells correlates with the number of unrepaired DNA daughter-strand gaps, and is dependent on DNA synthesis after UV-irradiation. These results are consistent with the model that the DNA double-strand breaks that are produced in UV-irradiated excision-deficient cells occur as the result of breaks in the parental DNA opposite unrepaired DNA daughter-strand gaps. By employing a temperature-sensitive recA200 mutation, we have devised an improved assay for studying the formation and repair of these DNA double-strand breaks. Possible mechanisms for the postreplication repair of DNA double-strand breaks are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Folate deficiency facilitates recruitment of upstream binding factor to hot spots of DNA double-strand breaks of rRNA genes and promotes its transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiu; Li, Caihua; Song, Xiaozhen; Wu, Lihua; Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Zhiyong; Cao, Haiyan; Yu, Kaihui; Wan, Chunlei; Li, Jianting; Yang, Feng; Huang, Zebing; Niu, Bo; Jiang, Zhengwen; Zhang, Ting

    2017-03-17

    The biogenesis of ribosomes in vivo is an essential process for cellular functions. Transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis controlled by environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the role of folate antagonist on changes of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) landscape in mouse embryonic stem cells. A significant DSB enhancement was detected in the genome of these cells and a large majority of these DSBs were found in rRNA genes. Furthermore, spontaneous DSBs in cells under folate deficiency conditions were located exclusively within the rRNA gene units, representing a H3K4me1 hallmark. Enrichment H3K4me1 at the hot spots of DSB regions enhanced the recruitment of upstream binding factor (UBF) to rRNA genes, resulting in the increment of rRNA genes transcription. Supplement of folate resulted in a restored UBF binding across DNA breakage sites of rRNA genes, and normal rRNA gene transcription. In samples from neural tube defects (NTDs) with low folate level, up-regulation of rRNA gene transcription was observed, along with aberrant UBF level. Our results present a new view by which alterations in folate levels affects DNA breakage through epigenetic control leading to the regulation of rRNA gene transcription during the early stage of development. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Macromolecule oxidation and DNA repair in mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) gill following exposure to Cd and Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanouil, C.; Sheehan, T.M.T.; Chipman, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of DNA and lipid was analysed in the marine mussel (Mytilus edulis) in response to exposure (10 μg/l and 200 μg/l) to cadmium (Cd) and chromium [Cr(VI)]. Concentration dependent uptake of both metals into mussel tissues was established and levels of gill ATP were not depleted at these exposure levels. DNA strand breakage in gill cells (analysed by the comet assay) was elevated by both metals, however, DNA oxidation [measured by DNA strand breakage induced by the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG)] was not elevated. This was despite a statistically significant increase in both malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal - indicative of lipid peroxidation - following treatment with Cd. In contrast, both frank DNA stand breaks and FPG-induced DNA strand breaks (indicative of DNA oxidation) were increased following injection of mussels with sodium dichromate (10.4 μg Cr(VI)/mussel). The metals also showed differential inhibitory potential towards DNA repair enzyme activity with Cd exhibiting inhibition of DNA cutting activity towards an oligonucleotide containing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and Cr(VI) showing inhibition of such activity towards an oligonucleotide containing ethenoadenosine, both at 200 μg/l. The metals thus show DNA damage activity in mussel gill with distinct mechanisms involving both direct and indirect (oxidative) DNA damage, as well as impairing different DNA repair capacities. A combination of these activities can contribute to adverse effects in these organisms

  6. Integrating DNA strand-displacement circuitry with DNA tile self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Hariadi, Rizal F.; Choi, Harry M.T.; Winfree, Erik

    2013-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology has emerged as a reliable and programmable way of controlling matter at the nanoscale through the specificity of Watson–Crick base pairing, allowing both complex self-assembled structures with nanometer precision and complex reaction networks implementing digital and analog behaviors. Here we show how two well-developed frameworks, DNA tile self-assembly and DNA strand-displacement circuits, can be systematically integrated to provide programmable kinetic control of self-assembly. We demonstrate the triggered and catalytic isothermal self-assembly of DNA nanotubes over 10 μm long from precursor DNA double-crossover tiles activated by an upstream DNA catalyst network. Integrating more sophisticated control circuits and tile systems could enable precise spatial and temporal organization of dynamic molecular structures. PMID:23756381

  7. Acute hypoxia and hypoxic exercise induce DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Loft, S; Lundby, C

    2001-01-01

    ; lymphocytes were isolated for analysis of DNA strand breaks and oxidatively altered nucleotides, detected by endonuclease III and formamidipyridine glycosylase (FPG) enzymes. Urine was collected for 24 h periods for analysis of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage...... oxygen species, generated by leakage of the mitochondrial respiration or during a hypoxia-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the presence of DNA strand breaks may play an important role in maintaining hypoxia-induced inflammation processes. Hypoxia seems to deplete the antioxidant system of its capacity...

  8. DNA synthesis in vitro in human fibroblast preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    When confluent cultures of human fibroblasts were ultraviolet irradiated and either permeabilized or lysed, three types of DNA synthesis were subsequently observed during incubation in vitro: (A) a low level of DNA replication, which ceased after 15-30 min incubation at 37/sup 0/C; (B) radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling, which also ceased after 15 min at 37/sup 0/C; and (C) radiation-independent DNA synthesis, which was not semiconservative and proceeded at a linear rate for 1 hr at 37/sup 0/C. Normal and xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts displayed different rates of radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling after lysis but similar rates of radiation-independent DNA synthesis. The rates of DNA replication and radiation-independent DNA synthesis were less in the permeable cell system than in the lysed cell system, whereas radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling was the same in both. Preparations of permeable and lysed cells activated radiation-dependent reparative gap-filling at about 15% of the rate estimated for intact cells. No radiation-dependent DNA strand breaks, as assayed by alkaline elution, were observed in the lysed cell preparation. Some radiation-dependent breaks were observed in the permeable cell preparation, but radiation-dependent DNA breakage was less than that seen in intact cells. This inability to incise DNA at damaged sites could account for the low rate of activation of reparative gap-filling in vitro. DNA strand breaks were produced in fibroblast preparations nonspecifically during lysis or permeabilization and incubation in vitro, and this breakage of DNA probably was responsible for the radiation-independent DNA synthesis.

  9. Dynamics of DNA replication loops reveal temporal control of lagging-strand synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdan, Samir M.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Takahashi, Masateru; Richardson, Charles C.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    In all organisms, the protein machinery responsible for the replication of DNA, the replisome, is faced with a directionality problem. The antiparallel nature of duplex DNA permits the leading-strand polymerase to advance in a continuous fashion, but forces the lagging-strand polymerase to

  10. Interaction of bacteriophage T4 and T7 single-stranded DNA-binding proteins with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Leila; Williams, Mark C; Rouzina, Ioulia

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages T4 and T7 are well-studied model replication systems, which have allowed researchers to determine the roles of many proteins central to DNA replication, recombination and repair. Here we summarize and discuss the results from two recently developed single-molecule methods to determine the salt-dependent DNA-binding kinetics and thermodynamics of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins (SSBs) from these systems. We use these methods to characterize both the equilibrium double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and ssDNA binding of the SSBs T4 gene 32 protein (gp32) and T7 gene 2.5 protein (gp2.5). Despite the overall two-orders-of-magnitude weaker binding of gp2.5 to both forms of DNA, we find that both proteins exhibit four-orders-of-magnitude preferential binding to ssDNA relative to dsDNA. This strong preferential ssDNA binding as well as the weak dsDNA binding is essential for the ability of both proteins to search dsDNA in one dimension to find available ssDNA-binding sites at the replication fork

  11. Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Hussain; Rehmani, Nida; Farhan, Mohd; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources) induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In the present study, we examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of flavonoids by studying the structure–activity relationship of myricetin (MN), fisetin (FN), quercetin (QN), kaempferol (KL) and galangin (GN). Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay), we established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as MN > FN > QN > KL > GN. Also, we determined that the cellular DNA breakage was the result of mobilization of chromatin-bound copper ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The relative DNA binding affinity order was further confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies through the interaction of flavonoids with calf thymus DNA. Our results suggest that novel anti-cancer molecules should have ortho-dihydroxy groups in B-ring and hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 in the A-ring system. Additional hydroxyl groups at other positions further enhance the cellular cytotoxicity of the flavonoids. PMID:26569217

  12. MEIOB targets single-strand DNA and is necessary for meiotic recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Souquet

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is a mandatory process for sexual reproduction. We identified a protein specifically implicated in meiotic homologous recombination that we named: meiosis specific with OB domain (MEIOB. This protein is conserved among metazoan species and contains single-strand DNA binding sites similar to those of RPA1. Our studies in vitro revealed that both recombinant and endogenous MEIOB can be retained on single-strand DNA. Those in vivo demonstrated the specific expression of Meiob in early meiotic germ cells and the co-localization of MEIOB protein with RPA on chromosome axes. MEIOB localization in Dmc1 (-/- spermatocytes indicated that it accumulates on resected DNA. Homologous Meiob deletion in mice caused infertility in both sexes, due to a meiotic arrest at a zygotene/pachytene-like stage. DNA double strand break repair and homologous chromosome synapsis were impaired in Meiob (-/- meiocytes. Interestingly MEIOB appeared to be dispensable for the initial loading of recombinases but was required to maintain a proper number of RAD51 and DMC1 foci beyond the zygotene stage. In light of these findings, we propose that RPA and this new single-strand DNA binding protein MEIOB, are essential to ensure the proper stabilization of recombinases which is required for successful homology search and meiotic recombination.

  13. Genomic mapping of single-stranded DNA in hydroxyurea-challenged yeasts identifies origins of replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Collingwood, David; Boeck, Max E; Fox, Lindsay A; Alvino, Gina M; Fangman, Walton L; Raghuraman, Mosur K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2006-02-01

    During DNA replication one or both strands transiently become single stranded: first at the sites where initiation of DNA synthesis occurs (known as origins of replication) and subsequently on the lagging strands of replication forks as discontinuous Okazaki fragments are generated. We report a genome-wide analysis of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formation in the presence of hydroxyurea during DNA replication in wild-type and checkpoint-deficient rad53 Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In wild-type cells, ssDNA was first observed at a subset of replication origins and later 'migrated' bi-directionally, suggesting that ssDNA formation is associated with continuously moving replication forks. In rad53 cells, ssDNA was observed at virtually every known origin, but remained there over time, suggesting that replication forks stall. Telomeric regions seemed to be particularly sensitive to the loss of Rad53 checkpoint function. Replication origins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe were also mapped using our method.

  14. Molecular investigation of evaporation of biodroplets containing single-strand DNA on graphene surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Fahimeh; Foroutan, Masumeh

    2018-02-14

    In this study, the water droplet behaviour of four different types of single-strand DNA with homogeneous base sequence on a graphene substrate during evaporation of the droplet was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results indicated that the evaporation depended on the DNA sequence. The observed changes can be divided into four parts: (i) vaporization mode, (ii) evaporation flux, (iii) mechanism of single-strand placement on the surface, and (iv) consideration of remaining single strands after evaporation. Our simulation observations indicated different evaporation modes for thymine biodroplets as compared to those for other biodroplets. The evaporation of the thymine biodroplets occurred with an increase in the contact angle, while that of the other biodroplets occur in a constant contact angle mode. Moreover, thymine biodroplets generate the lowest contact line compared to other single strands, and it is always placed far away from the centre of the droplets during evaporation. Investigating variations in the evaporation flux shows that thymine has the highest evaporation flux and guanine has the lowest. Moreover, during initial evaporation, the flux of evaporation increases at the triple point of the biodroplets containing thymine single strands, while it decreases in the other biodroplets. The following observation was obtained from the study of the placement of single strands on the substrate: guanine and thymine interacted slower than other single strands during evaporation with graphene, adenine single strand had a higher folding during evaporation, and guanine single strand showed the lowest end-to-end distance. The investigation of single-strand DNA after evaporation shows that adenine produces the most stable structure at the end of evaporation. In addition, cytosine is the most stretched single-strand DNA due to its lack of internal π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding. Therefore, cytosine single strand is more

  15. Mammalian DNA single-strand break repair: an X-ra(y)ted affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldecott, K W

    2001-05-01

    The genetic stability of living cells is continuously threatened by the presence of endogenous reactive oxygen species and other genotoxic molecules. Of particular threat are the thousands of DNA single-strand breaks that arise in each cell, each day, both directly from disintegration of damaged sugars and indirectly from the excision repair of damaged bases. If un-repaired, single-strand breaks can be converted into double-strand breaks during DNA replication, potentially resulting in chromosomal rearrangement and genetic deletion. Consequently, cells have adopted multiple pathways to ensure the rapid and efficient removal of single-strand breaks. A general feature of these pathways appears to be the extensive employment of protein-protein interactions to stimulate both the individual component steps and the overall repair reaction. Our current understanding of DNA single-strand break repair is discussed, and testable models for the architectural coordination of this important process are presented. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Photosensitive interaction of RSU 1069 with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.I.; Knox, R.J.; Skolimowski, I.M.; Zahoor, A.; Knight, R.C.

    1984-08-01

    RSU 1069 is a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer with an aziridine-containing side chain. In light (360 nm) the absorbance maximum of the nitro group at 325 nm disappears, which is accompanied by expulsion of the nitro group as the nitrite ion. This photosensitive effect was used to determine separately the damage of DNA induced by the reduced nitro group and the alkylating property of the aziridine. The aziridine-induced DNA damage is maximized in the dark when the nitro group is either absent (electrolytically reduced prior to the addition of DNA) or non functional (unreduced). In the light, damage is reduced. Typical DNA damage includes helix disruption leading to single strand breaks and the release of thymidine. Alkaline filter elution studies show evidence only for strand breakage and none for cross-linking indicating the drug is capable of mono-functional alkylation only.

  17. Photosensitive interaction of RSU 1069 with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.I.; Knox, R.J.; Skolimowski, I.M.; Zahoor, A.; Knight, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    RSU 1069 is a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer with an aziridine-containing side chain. In light (360 nm) the absorbance maximum of the nitro group at 325 nm disappears, which is accompanied by expulsion of the nitro group as the nitrite ion. This photosensitive effect was used to determine separately the damage of DNA induced by the reduced nitro group and the alkylating property of the aziridine. The aziridine-induced DNA damage is maximized in the dark when the nitro group is either absent (electrolytically reduced prior to the addition of DNA) or non functional (unreduced). In the light, damage is reduced. Typical DNA damage includes helix disruption leading to single strand breaks and the release of thymidine. Alkaline filter elution studies show evidence only for strand breakage and none for cross-linking indicating the drug is capable of mono-functional alkylation only

  18. R.b.e. of 50 kVp X-rays and 660 keV γ-rays (137Cs) with respect to the production of DNA damage, repair and cell-killing in Escherichia coli K-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonura, T.; Youngs, D.A.; Smith, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the efficiency of cell-killing, DNA single-strand breakage and double-strand breakage in an Escherichia coli K-12 wild-type strain after irradiation with soft X-rays (50 kVp) and hard γ-rays (660 keV) under aerobic conditions. Irradiation with 50 kVp X-rays resulted in 1.47 times more cell-killing than was observed with 137 Cs γ-rays based on a comparison of D 0 values evaluated from the survival curves. DNA sedimentation studies showed that, although 50 kVp X-rays were 1.93 times more effective than 137 Cs γ-rays in producing DNA double-strand breaks, there was no significant difference between the two qualities of radiation with respect to the initial number of single-strand breaks produced. When the cells were irradiated and allowed to repair maximally in minimal medium, 1.57 times more unrepaired DNA single-strand breaks remained per krad after irradiation with 50 kVp X-rays than with 137 Cs γ-rays. The increased yield of DNA double-strand breaks resulting from 50 kVp X-irradiation may account for most of these additional unrepaired single-strand breaks, since single- and double-strand breaks are indistinguishable on alkaline sucrose gradients. These results suggest that the greater r.b.e. of 50 kVp X-rays may be related to an increased effectiveness for producing DNA double-strand breaks compared with the higher energy 137 Cs γ-rays. (author)

  19. Detection of DNA strand breaks in mammalian cells using the radioresistant bacterium PprA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katsuya; Wada, Seiichi; Narumi, Issay; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-01

    We have previously found that the PprA protein from Deinococcus radiodurans possesses ability to recognize DNA carrying strand breaks. In the present study, we attempted to visualize radiation-induced DNA strand breaks with PprA protein using immunofluorescence technique to elucidate the DNA damage response mechanism in mammalian cultured cells. As a result, colocalization of Cy2 and DAPI fluorescent signals was observed. This observation suggests that DNA strand breaks in the nucleus of CHO-K1 cells were effectively detected using the PprA protein. The amount of DNA strand breaks (integrated density of Cy2 fluorescent signals) was increased with the increase in the radiation dose. (author)

  20. Study in regularities in the formation of double stranded DNA breaks in irradiated rat thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivannik, B.P.; ProskuryakoV, S.Ya.; Ryabchenko, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Using low-gradient viscosimetry of neutral detergent nuclear lysates a study was made of postradiation changes in the molecular weight of double-stranded DNA of thymocytes. It was established that 375 eV are needed for one double-stranded break to appear, and a dose of 1 rad is required for 0.275 double-stranded break to occur at the site of DNA with m.w. 10 12 dalton. The repair of double-stranded breaks is only observed when rats are exposed to a dose of 500 R. It is assumed that the absence of repair of double-stranded DNA breaks and the presence of secondary postradiation degradation of DNA are responsible for thymocyte death

  1. Enzymatic quantification of strand breaks of DNA induced by vacuum-UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    Hind3 digested plasmid DNA dried on an aluminum plate was irradiated by vacuum-UV at 160 and 195 nm using a synchrotron irradiation system. A change induced in the DNA, presumably a single strand break, was quantified by the aid of the strand break-derived stimulation of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase activity. The end group of strand breaks so induced was recognized by the enzyme as effectively as that by DNase 1 treatment, suggesting a nicking as the major lesion inflicted on the DNA. The fluence (UV) dependent stimulation of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase activity was much higher upon 160 nm irradiation than upon 195 nm irradiation. (Auth.)

  2. On the linearity of the dose-effect relationship of DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Most radiation biologists believe that DNA double-strand breaks are induced linearly with radiation dose for all types of radiation. Since 1985, with the advent of elution and gel electrophoresis techniques which permit the measurement of DNA double-strand breaks induced in mammalian cells at doses having radiobiological relevance, the true nature of the dose-effect relationship has been brought into some doubt. Many investigators measured curvilinear dose-effect relationships and a few found good correlations between the induction of the DNA double-strand breaks and cell survival. We approach the problem pragmatically by assuming that the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by 125 I Auger electron emitters incorporated into the DNA of the cells is a linear function of the number of 125 I decays, and by comparing the dose-effect relationship for sparsely ionizing radiation against this standard. The conclusion drawn that the curvilinear dose-effect relationships and the correlations with survival are real. (Author)

  3. A Major Role of DNA Polymerase δ in Replication of Both the Leading and Lagging DNA Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert E; Klassen, Roland; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya

    2015-07-16

    Genetic studies with S. cerevisiae Polδ (pol3-L612M) and Polε (pol2-M644G) mutant alleles, each of which display a higher rate for the generation of a specific mismatch, have led to the conclusion that Polε is the primary leading strand replicase and that Polδ is restricted to replicating the lagging strand template. Contrary to this widely accepted view, here we show that Polδ plays a major role in the replication of both DNA strands, and that the paucity of pol3-L612M-generated errors on the leading strand results from their more proficient removal. Thus, the apparent lack of Polδ contribution to leading strand replication is due to differential mismatch removal rather than differential mismatch generation. Altogether, our genetic studies with Pol3 and Pol2 mutator alleles support the conclusion that Polδ, and not Polε, is the major DNA polymerase for carrying out both leading and lagging DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Noncoding Regions of Rad51C Do Not Change the Risk of Unselected Breast Cancer but They Modulate the Level of Oxidative Stress and the DNA Damage Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gresner, Peter; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Jablonska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    affect the unselected BrC risk. Contrary to this, carriers of rs12946522, rs16943176, rs12946397 and rs17222691 rare-alleles were found to present significantly increased level of blood plasma TBARS compared to respective wild-type homozygotes (p... decreased fraction of oxidatively generated DNA damage (34% of total damaged DNA) in favor of DNA strand breakage, with no effect on total DNA damage, unlike respective wild-types, among which more evenly distributed proportions between oxidatively damaged DNA (48% of total DNA damage) and DNA strand...

  5. A model for the mechanism of strand passage by DNA gyrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Bates, A D; Maxwell, A

    1999-01-01

    this mechanism by probing the topology of the bound DNA segment at distinct steps of the catalytic cycle. We propose a model in which gyrase captures a contiguous DNA segment with high probability, irrespective of the superhelical density of the DNA substrate, setting up an equilibrium of the transported segment......The mechanism of type II DNA topoisomerases involves the formation of an enzyme-operated gate in one double-stranded DNA segment and the passage of another segment through this gate. DNA gyrase is the only type II topoisomerase able to introduce negative supercoils into DNA, a feature that requires...... the enzyme to dictate the directionality of strand passage. Although it is known that this is a consequence of the characteristic wrapping of DNA by gyrase, the detailed mechanism by which the transported DNA segment is captured and directed through the DNA gate is largely unknown. We have addressed...

  6. Breaks in plasmid DNA strand induced by laser radiation at a wavelength of 193 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.G.; Shul'te Frolinde, D.

    1996-01-01

    DNA of plasmid pB322 irradiated with laser at a wavelength of 193 nm was treated with an extract containing proteins from E.coli K12 AB1157 (wild-type). The enzymes were found to produce single- and double-strand DNA breaks, which was interpreted as a transformation of a portion of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts into nonrepairable single-strand DNA breaks. The products resulted from ionization of DNA, in particular, single-strand breaks, transform to double-strand breaks. A comparison of these data with the data on survival of plasmid upon transformation of E.coli K12 AB1157 enables one to assess the biological significance of single- and double-strand breaks. The inactivation of the plasmid is mainly determined by the number of directly formed laser-induced single-strand breaks. 26 refs.; 2 figs

  7. Strand breaks in plasmid DNA following positional changes of Auger-electron-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Kassis, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of our studies is to elucidate the kinetics of DNA strand breaks caused by low-energy Auger electron emitters in close proximity to DNA. Previously we have studied the DNA break yields in plasmids after the decay of indium-111 bound to DNA or free in solution. In this work, we compare the DNA break yields in supercoiled DNA of iodine-125 decaying close to DNA following DNA intercalation, minor-groove binding, or surface binding, and at a distance form DNA. Supercoiled DNA, stored at 4 C to accumulate radiation dose from the decay of 125 I, was then resolved by gel electrophoresis into supercoiled, nicked circular, and linear forms, representing undamaged DNA, single-strand breaks, and double-strand breaks respectively. DNA-intercalated or groove-bound 125 I is more effective than surface-bound radionuclide or 125 I free in solution. The hydroxyl radical scavenger DMSO protects against damage by 125 I free in solution but has minimal effect on damage by groove-bound 125 I. (orig.)

  8. The Human L1 Element Causes DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    cancer is complex. However, defects in DNA repair genes in the double-strand break repair pathway are cancer predisposing. My lab has characterized...a new potentially important source of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells and are interested in characterizing which DNA repair genes act on...this particular source of DNA damage. Selfish DNA accounts for 45% of the human genome. We have recently demonstrated that one particular selfish

  9. MO-AB-BRA-04: Radiation Measurements with a DNA Double-Strand-Break Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeidat, M; Cline, K; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N; Rasmussen, K; Gutierrez, A; Ha, CS; Lee, SE; Shim, EY; Kirby, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Many types of dosimeters are used to measure radiation, but none of them directly measures the biological effect of this dose. The purpose here is to create a dosimeter that can measure the probability of double-strand breaks (DSB) for DNA, which is directly related to the biological effect of radiation. Methods: The dosimeter has DNA strands, which are labeled on one end with biotin and on the other with fluorescein. The biotin attaches these strands to magnetic beads. We suspended the DNA dosimeter in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as it matches the internal environment of the body. We placed small volumes (50µL) of the DNA dosimeter into tubes and irradiated these samples in a water-equivalent plastic phantom with several doses (three samples per dose). After irradiating the samples, a magnet was placed against the tubes. The fluorescein attached to broken DNA strands was extracted (called the supernatant) and placed into a different tube. The fluorescein on the unbroken strands remained attached to the beads in the tube and was re-suspended with 50µL of PBS. A fluorescence reader was used to measure the fluorescence for both the re-suspended beads and supernatant. To prove that we are measuring DSB, we tested dosimeter response with two different lengths of attached DNA strands (1 and 4 kilo-base pair). Results: The probability of DSB at the dose levels of 5, 10, 25, and 50 Gy were 0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.19, respectively, while the coefficients of variation were 0.14, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. The 4 kilo-base-pair dosimeter produced 5.3 times the response of the 1 kilo-base-pair dosimeter. Conclusion: The DNA dosimeter yields a measurable response to dose that scales with the DNA strand length. The goal now is to refine the dosimeter fabrication to reproducibly create a low coefficient of variation for the lower doses. This work was supported in part by Yarmouk University (Irbid, Jordan) and CPRIT (RP140105)

  10. MO-AB-BRA-04: Radiation Measurements with a DNA Double-Strand-Break Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeidat, M; Cline, K; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N; Rasmussen, K; Gutierrez, A; Ha, CS; Lee, SE; Shim, EY; Kirby, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Many types of dosimeters are used to measure radiation, but none of them directly measures the biological effect of this dose. The purpose here is to create a dosimeter that can measure the probability of double-strand breaks (DSB) for DNA, which is directly related to the biological effect of radiation. Methods: The dosimeter has DNA strands, which are labeled on one end with biotin and on the other with fluorescein. The biotin attaches these strands to magnetic beads. We suspended the DNA dosimeter in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as it matches the internal environment of the body. We placed small volumes (50µL) of the DNA dosimeter into tubes and irradiated these samples in a water-equivalent plastic phantom with several doses (three samples per dose). After irradiating the samples, a magnet was placed against the tubes. The fluorescein attached to broken DNA strands was extracted (called the supernatant) and placed into a different tube. The fluorescein on the unbroken strands remained attached to the beads in the tube and was re-suspended with 50µL of PBS. A fluorescence reader was used to measure the fluorescence for both the re-suspended beads and supernatant. To prove that we are measuring DSB, we tested dosimeter response with two different lengths of attached DNA strands (1 and 4 kilo-base pair). Results: The probability of DSB at the dose levels of 5, 10, 25, and 50 Gy were 0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.19, respectively, while the coefficients of variation were 0.14, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. The 4 kilo-base-pair dosimeter produced 5.3 times the response of the 1 kilo-base-pair dosimeter. Conclusion: The DNA dosimeter yields a measurable response to dose that scales with the DNA strand length. The goal now is to refine the dosimeter fabrication to reproducibly create a low coefficient of variation for the lower doses. This work was supported in part by Yarmouk University (Irbid, Jordan) and CPRIT (RP140105)

  11. DNA template strand sequencing of single-cells maps genomic rearrangements at high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconer, Ester; Hills, Mark; Naumann, Ulrike; Poon, Steven S. S.; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Sanders, Ashley D.; Zhao, Yongjun; Hirst, Martin; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    DNA rearrangements such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are sensitive indicators of genomic stress and instability, but they are typically masked by single-cell sequencing techniques. We developed Strand-seq to independently sequence parental DNA template strands from single cells, making it

  12. Interstrand cross-links arising from strand breaks at true abasic sites in duplex DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiyu; Price, Nathan E.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3?ddR5p) at the 3?-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electr...

  13. Role of teh Rad52 Amino-terminal DNA Binding Activity in DNA Strand Capture in Homologous Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Idina; Hallwyl, Swee Chuang Lim; Seong, Changhyun

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 protein promotes homologous recombination by nucleating the Rad51 recombinase onto replication protein A-coated single-stranded DNA strands and also by directly annealing such strands. We show that the purified rad52-R70A mutant protein, with a compromised amino-ter...

  14. Evidence that DNA polymerase δ contributes to initiating leading strand DNA replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Marta A; Lujan, Scott A; Burkholder, Adam B; Cox, Phillip B; Wu, Qiuqin; Zhou, Zhi-Xiong; Haber, James E; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2018-02-27

    To investigate nuclear DNA replication enzymology in vivo, we have studied Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains containing a pol2-16 mutation that inactivates the catalytic activities of DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). Although pol2-16 mutants survive, they present very tiny spore colonies, increased doubling time, larger than normal cells, aberrant nuclei, and rapid acquisition of suppressor mutations. These phenotypes reveal a severe growth defect that is distinct from that of strains that lack only Pol ε proofreading (pol2-4), consistent with the idea that Pol ε is the major leading-strand polymerase used for unstressed DNA replication. Ribonucleotides are incorporated into the pol2-16 genome in patterns consistent with leading-strand replication by Pol δ when Pol ε is absent. More importantly, ribonucleotide distributions at replication origins suggest that in strains encoding all three replicases, Pol δ contributes to initiation of leading-strand replication. We describe two possible models.

  15. Swi5-Sfr1 protein stimulates Rad51-mediated DNA strand exchange reaction through organization of DNA bases in the presynaptic filament.

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H

    2013-12-03

    The Swi5-Sfr1 heterodimer protein stimulates the Rad51-promoted DNA strand exchange reaction, a crucial step in homologous recombination. To clarify how this accessory protein acts on the strand exchange reaction, we have analyzed how the structure of the primary reaction intermediate, the Rad51/single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) complex filament formed in the presence of ATP, is affected by Swi5-Sfr1. Using flow linear dichroism spectroscopy, we observe that the nucleobases of the ssDNA are more perpendicularly aligned to the filament axis in the presence of Swi5-Sfr1, whereas the bases are more randomly oriented in the absence of Swi5-Sfr1. When using a modified version of the natural protein where the N-terminal part of Sfr1 is deleted, which has no affinity for DNA but maintained ability to stimulate the strand exchange reaction, we still observe the improved perpendicular DNA base orientation. This indicates that Swi5-Sfr1 exerts its activating effect through interaction with the Rad51 filament mainly and not with the DNA. We propose that the role of a coplanar alignment of nucleobases induced by Swi5-Sfr1 in the presynaptic Rad51/ssDNA complex is to facilitate the critical matching with an invading double-stranded DNA, hence stimulating the strand exchange reaction.

  16. Mechanism of replication of ultraviolet-irradiated single-stranded DNA by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of Escherichia coli. Implications for SOS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livneh, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Replication of UV-irradiated oligodeoxynucleotide-primed single-stranded phi X174 DNA with Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme in the presence of single-stranded DNA-binding protein was investigated. The extent of initiation of replication on the primed single-stranded DNA was not altered by the presence of UV-induced lesions in the DNA. The elongation step exhibited similar kinetics when either unirradiated or UV-irradiated templates were used. Inhibition of the 3'----5' proofreading exonucleolytic activity of the polymerase by dGMP or by a mutD mutation did not increase bypass of pyrimidine photodimers, and neither did purified RecA protein influence the extent of photodimer bypass as judged by the fraction of full length DNA synthesized. Single-stranded DNA-binding protein stimulated bypass since in its absence the fraction of full length DNA decreased 5-fold. Termination of replication at putative pyrimidine dimers involved dissociation of the polymerase from the DNA, which could then reinitiate replication at other available primer templates. Based on these observations a model for SOS-induced UV mutagenesis is proposed

  17. Defective processing of methylated single-stranded DNA by E. coli alkB mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglay, Suneet; Trewick, Sarah C.; Lindahl, Tomas; Sedgwick, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli alkB mutants are very sensitive to DNA methylating agents. Despite these mutants being the subject of many studies, no DNA repair or other function has been assigned to the AlkB protein or to its human homolog. Here, we report that reactivation of methylmethanesulfonate (MMS)-treated single-stranded DNA phages, M13, f1, and G4, was decreased dramatically in alkB mutants. No such decrease occurred when using methylated λ phage or M13 duplex DNA. These data show that alkB mutants have a marked defect in processing methylation damage in single-stranded DNA. Recombinant AlkB protein bound more efficiently to single- than double-stranded DNA. The single-strand damage processed by AlkB was primarily cytotoxic and not mutagenic and was induced by SN2 methylating agents, MMS, DMS, and MeI but not by SN1 agent N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or by γ irradiation. Strains lacking other DNA repair activities, alkA tag, xth nfo, uvrA, mutS, and umuC, were not defective in reactivation of methylated M13 phage and did not enhance the defect of an alkB mutant. A recA mutation caused a small but additive defect. Thus, AlkB functions in a novel pathway independent of these activities. We propose that AlkB acts on alkylated single-stranded DNA in replication forks or at transcribed regions. Consistent with this theory, stationary phase alkB cells were less MMS sensitive than rapidly growing cells. PMID:10950872

  18. Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Arif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In the present study, we examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of flavonoids by studying the structure–activity relationship of myricetin (MN, fisetin (FN, quercetin (QN, kaempferol (KL and galangin (GN. Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay, we established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as MN > FN > QN > KL > GN. Also, we determined that the cellular DNA breakage was the result of mobilization of chromatin-bound copper ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The relative DNA binding affinity order was further confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies through the interaction of flavonoids with calf thymus DNA. Our results suggest that novel anti-cancer molecules should have ortho-dihydroxy groups in B-ring and hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 in the A-ring system. Additional hydroxyl groups at other positions further enhance the cellular cytotoxicity of the flavonoids.

  19. Stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage by rifamycin SV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukiełka, E; Cederbaum, A I

    1995-04-15

    Rifamycin SV is an antibiotic anti-bacterial agent used in the treatment of tuberculosis. This drug can autoxidize, especially in the presence of metals, and generate reactive oxygen species. A previous study indicated that rifamycin SV can increase NADH-dependent microsomal production of reactive oxygen species. The current study evaluated the ability of rifamycin SV to interact with iron and increase microsomal production of hydroxyl radical, as detected by conversion of supercoiled plasmid DNA into the relaxed open circular state. The plasmid used was pBluescript II KS(-), and the forms of DNA were separated by agarose-gel electrophoresis. Incubation of rat liver microsomes with plasmid plus NADH plus ferric-ATP caused DNA strand cleavage. The addition of rifamycin SV produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in DNA-strand cleavage. No stimulation by rifamycin SV occurred in the absence of microsomes, NADH or ferric-ATP. Stimulation occurred with other ferric complexes besides ferric-ATP, e.g. ferric-histidine, ferric-citrate, ferric-EDTA, and ferric-(NH4)2SO4. Rifamycin SV did not significantly increase the high rates of DNA strand cleavage found with NADPH as the microsomal reductant. The stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage was completely blocked by catalase, superoxide dismutase, GSH and a variety of hydroxyl-radical-scavenging agents, but not by anti-oxidants that prevent microsomal lipid peroxidation. Redox cycling agents, such as menadione and paraquat, in contrast with rifamycin SV, stimulated the NADPH-dependent reaction; menadione and rifamycin SV were superior to paraquat in stimulating the NADH-dependent reaction. These results indicate that rifamycin SV can, in the presence of an iron catalyst, increase microsomal production of reactive oxygen species which can cause DNA-strand cleavage. In contrast with other redox cycling agents, the stimulation by rifamycin SV is more pronounced with NADH than with NADPH as the

  20. Viral interference with DNA repair by targeting of the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pubali; DeJesus, Rowena; Gjoerup, Ole; Schaffhausen, Brian S

    2013-10-01

    Correct repair of damaged DNA is critical for genomic integrity. Deficiencies in DNA repair are linked with human cancer. Here we report a novel mechanism by which a virus manipulates DNA damage responses. Infection with murine polyomavirus sensitizes cells to DNA damage by UV and etoposide. Polyomavirus large T antigen (LT) alone is sufficient to sensitize cells 100 fold to UV and other kinds of DNA damage. This results in activated stress responses and apoptosis. Genetic analysis shows that LT sensitizes via the binding of its origin-binding domain (OBD) to the single-stranded DNA binding protein replication protein A (RPA). Overexpression of RPA protects cells expressing OBD from damage, and knockdown of RPA mimics the LT phenotype. LT prevents recruitment of RPA to nuclear foci after DNA damage. This leads to failure to recruit repair proteins such as Rad51 or Rad9, explaining why LT prevents repair of double strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination. A targeted intervention directed at RPA based on this viral mechanism could be useful in circumventing the resistance of cancer cells to therapy.

  1. Design and Analysis of Compact DNA Strand Displacement Circuits for Analog Computation Using Autocatalytic Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqi; Garg, Sudhanshu; Mokhtar, Reem; Bui, Hieu; Reif, John

    2018-01-19

    A main goal in DNA computing is to build DNA circuits to compute designated functions using a minimal number of DNA strands. Here, we propose a novel architecture to build compact DNA strand displacement circuits to compute a broad scope of functions in an analog fashion. A circuit by this architecture is composed of three autocatalytic amplifiers, and the amplifiers interact to perform computation. We show DNA circuits to compute functions sqrt(x), ln(x) and exp(x) for x in tunable ranges with simulation results. A key innovation in our architecture, inspired by Napier's use of logarithm transforms to compute square roots on a slide rule, is to make use of autocatalytic amplifiers to do logarithmic and exponential transforms in concentration and time. In particular, we convert from the input that is encoded by the initial concentration of the input DNA strand, to time, and then back again to the output encoded by the concentration of the output DNA strand at equilibrium. This combined use of strand-concentration and time encoding of computational values may have impact on other forms of molecular computation.

  2. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemistry, structure and function of DNA-PK, its roles in DNA double strand break repair and its newly described roles in mitosis and other cellular processes. PMID:25550082

  3. Exonuclease of human DNA polymerase gamma disengages its strand displacement function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Quan; Shumate, Christie K; White, Mark A; Molineux, Ian J; Yin, Y Whitney

    2013-11-01

    Pol γ, the only DNA polymerase found in human mitochondria, functions in both mtDNA repair and replication. During mtDNA base-excision repair, gaps are created after damaged base excision. Here we show that Pol γ efficiently gap-fills except when the gap is only a single nucleotide. Although wild-type Pol γ has very limited ability for strand displacement DNA synthesis, exo(-) (3'-5' exonuclease-deficient) Pol γ has significantly high activity and rapidly unwinds downstream DNA, synthesizing DNA at a rate comparable to that of the wild-type enzyme on a primer-template. The catalytic subunit Pol γA alone, even when exo(-), is unable to synthesize by strand displacement, making this the only known reaction of Pol γ holoenzyme that has an absolute requirement for the accessory subunit Pol γB. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. DNA translocation by human uracil DNA glycosylase: the case of single-stranded DNA and clustered uracils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhoft, Joseph D; Stivers, James T

    2013-04-16

    Human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) plays a central role in DNA repair and programmed mutagenesis of Ig genes, requiring it to act on sparsely or densely spaced uracil bases located in a variety of contexts, including U/A and U/G base pairs, and potentially uracils within single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). An interesting question is whether the facilitated search mode of hUNG, which includes both DNA sliding and hopping, changes in these different contexts. Here we find that hUNG uses an enhanced local search mode when it acts on uracils in ssDNA, and also, in a context where uracils are densely clustered in duplex DNA. In the context of ssDNA, hUNG performs an enhanced local search by sliding with a mean sliding length larger than that of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In the context of duplex DNA, insertion of high-affinity abasic product sites between two uracil lesions serves to significantly extend the apparent sliding length on dsDNA from 4 to 20 bp and, in some cases, leads to directionally biased 3' → 5' sliding. The presence of intervening abasic product sites mimics the situation where hUNG acts iteratively on densely spaced uracils. The findings suggest that intervening product sites serve to increase the amount of time the enzyme remains associated with DNA as compared to nonspecific DNA, which in turn increases the likelihood of sliding as opposed to falling off the DNA. These findings illustrate how the search mechanism of hUNG is not predetermined but, instead, depends on the context in which the uracils are located.

  5. X-ray induced DNA double strand break production and repair in mammalian cells as measured by neutral filter elution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M O; Kohn, K W [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1979-10-01

    A neutral filter elution method was used for detecting DNA double strand breaks in mouse L1210 cells after X-ray. The assay detected the number of double strand breaks induced by as little as 1000 rad of X-ray. The rate of DNA elution through the filters under neutral conditions increased with X-ray dose. Certain conditions for deproteinization, pH, and filter type were shown to increase the assay's sensitivity. Hydrogen peroxide and Bleomycin also induced apparent DNA double strand breaks, although the ratios of double to single strand breaks varied from those produced by X-ray. The introduction of double strand cuts by HpA I restriction endonuclease in DNA lysed on filters resulted in a rapid rate of elution under neutral conditions, implying that the method can detect double strand breaks if they exist in the DNA. The eluted DNA banded with a double stranded DNA marker in cesium chloride. This evidence suggested that the assay detected DNA double strand breaks. L1210 cells were shown to rejoin most of the DNA double strand breaks induced by 5-10 krad of X-ray with a half-time of about 40 minutes. (author).

  6. Environmental and chemotherapeutic agents induce breakage at genes involved in leukemia-causing gene rearrangements in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thys, Ryan G., E-mail: rthys@wakehealth.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1016 (United States); Lehman, Christine E., E-mail: clehman@wakehealth.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1016 (United States); Pierce, Levi C.T., E-mail: Levipierce@gmail.com [Human Longevity, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Wang, Yuh-Hwa, E-mail: yw4b@virginia.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0733 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Environmental/chemotherapeutic agents cause DNA breakage in MLL and CBFB in HSPCs. • Diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA breakage at MLL and CBFB shown for the first time. • Chemical-induced DNA breakage occurs at topoisomerase II cleavage sites. • Chemical-induced DNA breaks display a pattern similar to those in leukemia patients. • Long-term exposures suggested to generate DNA breakage at leukemia-related genes. - Abstract: Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all of the cells that make up the hematopoietic system in the human body, making their stability and resilience especially important. Damage to these cells can severely impact cell development and has the potential to cause diseases, such as leukemia. Leukemia-causing chromosomal rearrangements have largely been studied in the context of radiation exposure and are formed by a multi-step process, including an initial DNA breakage and fusion of the free DNA ends. However, the mechanism for DNA breakage in patients without previous radiation exposure is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of non-cytotoxic levels of environmental factors, benzene, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and chemotherapeutic agents, etoposide, and doxorubicin, in generating DNA breakage at the patient breakpoint hotspots of the MLL and CBFB genes in human HSPCs. These conditions represent exposure to chemicals encountered daily or residual doses from chemotherapeutic drugs. Exposure of HSPCs to non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals or chemotherapeutic agents causes DNA breakage at preferential sites in the human genome, including the leukemia-related genes MLL and CBFB. Though benzene, etoposide, and doxorubicin have previously been linked to leukemia formation, this is the first study to demonstrate a role for DEN in the generation of DNA breakage at leukemia-specific sites. These chemical-induced DNA breakpoints coincide with sites of predicted topoisomerase II cleavage. The

  7. Environmental and chemotherapeutic agents induce breakage at genes involved in leukemia-causing gene rearrangements in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thys, Ryan G.; Lehman, Christine E.; Pierce, Levi C.T.; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental/chemotherapeutic agents cause DNA breakage in MLL and CBFB in HSPCs. • Diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA breakage at MLL and CBFB shown for the first time. • Chemical-induced DNA breakage occurs at topoisomerase II cleavage sites. • Chemical-induced DNA breaks display a pattern similar to those in leukemia patients. • Long-term exposures suggested to generate DNA breakage at leukemia-related genes. - Abstract: Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all of the cells that make up the hematopoietic system in the human body, making their stability and resilience especially important. Damage to these cells can severely impact cell development and has the potential to cause diseases, such as leukemia. Leukemia-causing chromosomal rearrangements have largely been studied in the context of radiation exposure and are formed by a multi-step process, including an initial DNA breakage and fusion of the free DNA ends. However, the mechanism for DNA breakage in patients without previous radiation exposure is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of non-cytotoxic levels of environmental factors, benzene, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and chemotherapeutic agents, etoposide, and doxorubicin, in generating DNA breakage at the patient breakpoint hotspots of the MLL and CBFB genes in human HSPCs. These conditions represent exposure to chemicals encountered daily or residual doses from chemotherapeutic drugs. Exposure of HSPCs to non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals or chemotherapeutic agents causes DNA breakage at preferential sites in the human genome, including the leukemia-related genes MLL and CBFB. Though benzene, etoposide, and doxorubicin have previously been linked to leukemia formation, this is the first study to demonstrate a role for DEN in the generation of DNA breakage at leukemia-specific sites. These chemical-induced DNA breakpoints coincide with sites of predicted topoisomerase II cleavage. The

  8. DNA strand breaks, repair, and survival in x-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, D.L.; Gillespie, C.J.; Chapman, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The yields of unrepairable single- and double-strand breaks in the DNA of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells were measured by low-speed neutral and alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation in order to investigate the relation between these lesions and reproductive death. After maximal single-strand rejoining, at all doses, the number of residual single-strand breaks was twice the number of residual double-strand breaks. Both double-strand and unrepairable single-strand breaks were proportional to the square of absorbed dose, in the range 10-50 krad. No rejoining of double-strand breaks was observed. These observations suggest that, in mammalian cells, most double-strand breaks are not repairable, while all single-strand breaks are repaired except those that are sufficiently close on complementary strands to constitute double-strand breaks. Comparison with cell survival measurements at much lower doses suggests that loss of reproductive capacity corresponds to induction of approximately one double-strand break

  9. Detection of DNA damage in cells exposed to ionizing radiation by use of antisingle-stranded-DNA monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Loon, A.A.W.M. van; Groenendijk, R.H.; Baan, R.A.

    1989-03-01

    An immunochemical method has been developed for quantitative detection of DNA damage in mammalian cells. The method is based on the binding of a monoclonal antibody to single-stranded DNA. The clone producing this antibody, D1B, was obtained as a by-product from fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from a mouse immunized with chemically modified DNA. The technique is based upon the determination of the percentage single-strandedness resulting from the partial umwinding of cellular DNA under alkaline conditions, a time-dependent process. Single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks, or lesions converted into such breaks in alkaline medium, form initiation points for the unwinding. The extent of unwinding under controlled conditions is a measure, therefore, of the amount of such sites. The method is rapid, does not require radioactive labelling of DNA or physical separation of single- from double-stranded molecules, is sufficiently sensitive to detect damage induced by 1 Gu of ionizing radiation and needs only small amounts of cells. The usefulness of the technique was demonstrated in a study on the induction of damage and its repair in unlabelled cultured Chinese hamster cells and in DNA-containing cells of human blood, both after exposure to 60 Co-γ-rays, and in white blood cells and bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice. A dose-related degree of unwinding was observed and repair could be observed up to 60 min after irradiation. (author). 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  10. A Universal Fast Colorimetric Method for DNA Signal Detection with DNA Strand Displacement and Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA or gene signal detection is of great significance in many fields including medical examination, intracellular molecular monitoring, and gene disease signal diagnosis, but detection of DNA or gene signals in a low concentration with instant visual results remains a challenge. In this work, a universal fast and visual colorimetric detection method for DNA signals is proposed. Specifically, a DNA signal amplification “circuit” based on DNA strand displacement is firstly designed to amplify the target DNA signals, and then thiol modified hairpin DNA strands and gold nanoparticles are used to make signal detection results visualized in a colorimetric manner. If the target DNA signal exists, the gold nanoparticles aggregate and settle down with color changing from dark red to grey quickly; otherwise, the gold nanoparticles’ colloids remain stable in dark red. The proposed method provides a novel way to detect quickly DNA or gene signals in low concentrations with instant visual results. When applied in real-life, it may provide a universal colorimetric method for gene disease signal diagnosis.

  11. The foci of DNA double strand break-recognition proteins localize with γH2AX after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Mori, Eiichiro; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there have been many reports concerning proteins which can recognize DNA double strand break (DSBs), and such proteins include histone H2AX phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phospho-serine 1981, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phospho-threonine 2609, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) phospho-serine 343, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), phospho-threonine 68, and structural maintenance of chromosomes 1 (SMC1) phospho-serine 966. Thus, it should be possible to follow the formation of DSBs and their repair using immunohistochemical methods with multiple antibodies to detect these proteins. When normal human fibroblasts (AG1522 cells) were exposed to 3 Gy of X-rays as a control, clearly discernable foci for these proteins were detected, and these foci localized with γH2AX foci. After heat treatment at 45.5 deg C for 20 min, these proteins are partially localized with γH2AX foci. Here we show that there were slight differences in the localization pattern among these proteins, such as a disappearance from the nucleus (phospho-ATM) and translocation to the cytoplasm (phospho-NBS1) at 30 min after heat treatment, and some foci (phospho-DNA-PKcs and phospho-CHK2) appeared at 8 h after heat treatment. These results are discussed from perspectives of heat-induced denaturation of proteins and formation of DSBs. (author)

  12. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo; Frykholm, Karolin; Nordé n, Bengt; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Leishmania replication protein A-1 binds in vivo single-stranded telomeric DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, J.L. Siqueira; Lira, C.B.B.; Giardini, M.A.; Khater, L.; Perez, A.M.; Peroni, L.A.; Reis, J.R.R. dos; Freitas-Junior, L.H.; Ramos, C.H.I.; Cano, M.I.N.

    2007-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in different events of DNA metabolism. In yeast, subunits 1 (RPA-1) and 2 (RPA-2) work also as telomerase recruiters and, in humans, the complex unfolds G-quartet structures formed by the 3' G-rich telomeric strand. In most eukaryotes, RPA-1 and RPA-2 bind DNA using multiple OB fold domains. In trypanosomatids, including Leishmania, RPA-1 has a canonical OB fold and a truncated RFA-1 structural domain. In Leishmania amazonensis, RPA-1 alone can form a complex in vitro with the telomeric G-rich strand. In this work, we show that LaRPA-1 is a nuclear protein that associates in vivo with Leishmania telomeres. We mapped the boundaries of the OB fold DNA-binding domain using deletion mutants. Since Leishmania and other trypanosomatids lack homologues of known telomere end binding proteins, our results raise questions about the function of RPA-1 in parasite telomeres

  14. Comparison of the electrophoretic method with the sedimentation method for the analysis of DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Ogawa, Masaaki; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1982-01-01

    Application of electrophoresis to the analysis of DNA strand breaks was studied comparing with the sedimentation analysis. A BRL gel electrophoresis system (Type V16) was used for this study. Calf thymus DNA (1 mg/ml) irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays in SSC solution was applied to both the electrophoretic analysis and the sedimentation analysis. Lamda phage DNA and its fragments were employed as the standard size molecules. In a range from 1 k base pairs to 6 k base pairs in length for double stranded DNA or from 2 k bases to 12 k bases for single stranded DNA, the calculated average molecular weight from the electrophoresis coincided with that from the sedimentation. Number of single strand breaks and double strand breaks were 1.34 x 10 11 breaks/mg/rad (G = 0.215) and 0.48 x 10 5 breaks/mg/rad 2 , respectively. (author)

  15. A critical role for topoisomerase IIb and DNA double strand breaks in transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Stuart K

    2016-05-26

    Recent studies have indicated a novel role for topoisomerase IIb in transcription. Transcription of heat shock genes, serum-induced immediate early genes and nuclear receptor-activated genes, each required DNA double strands generated by topoisomerase IIb. Such strand breaks seemed both necessary and sufficient for transcriptional activation. In addition, such transcription was associated with initiation of the DNA damage response pathways, including the activation of the enzymes: ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), DNA-dependent protein kinase and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1. DNA damage response signaling was involved both in transcription and in repair of DNA breaks generated by topoisomerase IIb.

  16. Interactive Roles of DNA Helicases and Translocases with the Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein RPA in Nucleic Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awate, Sanket; Brosh, Robert M

    2017-06-08

    Helicases and translocases use the energy of nucleoside triphosphate binding and hydrolysis to unwind/resolve structured nucleic acids or move along a single-stranded or double-stranded polynucleotide chain, respectively. These molecular motors facilitate a variety of transactions including replication, DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. A key partner of eukaryotic DNA helicases/translocases is the single-stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA). Biochemical, genetic, and cell biological assays have demonstrated that RPA interacts with these human molecular motors physically and functionally, and their association is enriched in cells undergoing replication stress. The roles of DNA helicases/translocases are orchestrated with RPA in pathways of nucleic acid metabolism. RPA stimulates helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding, enlists translocases to sites of action, and modulates their activities in DNA repair, fork remodeling, checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance. The dynamic interplay between DNA helicases/translocases and RPA is just beginning to be understood at the molecular and cellular levels, and there is still much to be learned, which may inform potential therapeutic strategies.

  17. Regions of incompatibility in single-stranded DNA bacteriophages phi X174 and G4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Avoort, H. G.; van der Ende, A.; van Arkel, G. A.; Weisbeek, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular presence of a recombinant plasmid containing the intercistronic region between the genes H and A of bacteriophage phi X174 strongly inhibits the conversion of infecting single-stranded phi X DNA to parental replicative-form DNA. Also, transfection with single-stranded or

  18. Colocalization of multiple DNA double-strand breaks at a single Rad52 repair centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, M.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Rothstein, R.

    2003-01-01

    DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) is an essential process for preserving genomic integrity in all organisms. To investigate this process at the cellular level, we engineered a system of fluorescently marked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to visualize in ...

  19. Genetic and biochemical identification of a novel single-stranded DNA binding complex in Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eStroud

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-stranded DNA binding proteins play an essential role in DNA replication and repair. They use oligosaccharide-binding folds, a five-stranded ß-sheet coiled into a closed barrel, to bind to single-stranded DNA thereby protecting and stabilizing the DNA. In eukaryotes the single-stranded DNA binding protein is known as replication protein A (RPA and consists of three distinct subunits that function as a heterotrimer. The bacterial homolog is termed single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB and functions as a homotetramer. In the archaeon Haloferax volcanii there are three genes encoding homologs of RPA. Two of the rpa genes (rpa1 and rpa3 exist in operons with a novel gene specific to Euryarchaeota, this gene encodes a protein that we have termed rpa-associated protein (RPAP. The rpap genes encode proteins belonging to COG3390 group and feature oligosaccharide-binding folds, suggesting that they might cooperate with RPA in binding to single-stranded DNA. Our genetic analysis showed that rpa1 and rpa3 deletion mutants have differing phenotypes; only ∆rpa3 strains are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents. Deletion of the rpa3-associated gene rpap3 led to similar levels of DNA damage sensitivity, as did deletion of the rpa3 operon, suggesting that RPA3 and RPAP3 function in the same pathway. Protein pull-downs involving recombinant hexahistidine-tagged RPAs showed that RPA3 co-purifies with RPAP3, and RPA1 co-purifies with RPAP1. This indicates that the RPAs interact only with their respective associated proteins; this was corroborated by the inability to construct rpa1 rpap3 and rpa3 rpap1 double mutants. This is the first report investigating the individual function of the archaeal COG3390 RPA-associated proteins. We have shown genetically and biochemically that the RPAPs interact with their respective RPAs, and have uncovered a novel single-stranded DNA binding complex that is unique to Euryarchaeota.

  20. On the biophysics and kinetics of toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Sulc, Petr; Schaeffer, Joseph M; Yurke, Bernard; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K; Winfree, Erik

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic DNA nanotechnology often uses toehold-mediated strand displacement for controlling reaction kinetics. Although the dependence of strand displacement kinetics on toehold length has been experimentally characterized and phenomenologically modeled, detailed biophysical understanding has remained elusive. Here, we study strand displacement at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1D energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates 3D geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Two factors explain the dependence of strand displacement kinetics on toehold length: (i) the physical process by which a single step of branch migration occurs is significantly slower than the fraying of a single base pair and (ii) initiating branch migration incurs a thermodynamic penalty, not captured by state-of-the-art nearest neighbor models of DNA, due to the additional overhang it engenders at the junction. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for hybridization, fraying and branch migration, and they provide a biophysical explanation of strand displacement kinetics. Our work paves the way for accurate modeling of strand displacement cascades, which would facilitate the simulation and construction of more complex molecular systems.

  1. Normal formation and repair of γ-radiation-induced single and double strand DNA breaks in Down syndrome fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.E.; Woods, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) were examined for repair capability of γ-radiation-induced single strand and double strand DNA breaks. Formation and repair of DNA breaks were determined by DNA alkaline and non-denaturing elution techniques. Down syndrome fibroblasts were found to repair single strand and double strand breaks as well as fibroblasts from normal controls. (orig.)

  2. Method for detecting DNA strand breaks in mammalian cells using the Deinococcus radiodurans PprA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katsuya; Wada, Seiichi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Funayama, Tomoo; Narumi, Issay; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, we identified the novel protein PprA that plays a critical role in the radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. In this study, we focussed on the ability of PprA protein to recognize and bind to double-stranded DNA carrying strand breaks, and attempted to visualize radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in mammalian cultured cells by employing PprA protein using an immunofluorescence technique. Increased PprA protein binding to CHO-K1 nuclei immediately following irradiation suggests the protein is binding to DNA strand breaks. By altering the cell permeabilization conditions, PprA protein binding to CHO-K1 mitochondria, which is probably resulted from DNA strand break immediately following irradiation, was also detected. The method developed and detailed in this study will be useful in evaluating DNA damage responses in cultured cells, and could also be applicable to genotoxic tests in the environmental and pharmaceutical fields

  3. Breaking DNA strands by extreme-ultraviolet laser pulses in vacuum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Eva; Vyšín, Luděk; Burian, Tomáš; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie; Múčka, V.; Čuba, V.; Grisham, M. E.; Heinbuch, S.; Rocca, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 4 (2015), "042718-1"-"042718-8" ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GA13-28721S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : XUV * DNA damages * single- strand breaks (SSBs) * double- strand breaks (DSBs) Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014

  4. Dynamic protein assembly by programmable DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca P.; Blackstock, Daniel; Sun, Qing; Chen, Wilfred

    2018-03-01

    Inspired by the remarkable ability of natural protein switches to sense and respond to a wide range of environmental queues, here we report a strategy to engineer synthetic protein switches by using DNA strand displacement to dynamically organize proteins with highly diverse and complex logic gate architectures. We show that DNA strand displacement can be used to dynamically control the spatial proximity and the corresponding fluorescence resonance energy transfer between two fluorescent proteins. Performing Boolean logic operations enabled the explicit control of protein proximity using multi-input, reversible and amplification architectures. We further demonstrate the power of this technology beyond sensing by achieving dynamic control of an enzyme cascade. Finally, we establish the utility of the approach as a synthetic computing platform that drives the dynamic reconstitution of a split enzyme for targeted prodrug activation based on the sensing of cancer-specific miRNAs.

  5. SU-E-T-05: Comparing DNA Strand Break Yields for Photons under Different Irradiation Conditions with Geant4-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, P; Bernal, M; Naqa, I El; Seuntjens, J

    2012-06-01

    To validate and scrutinize published DNA strand break data with Geant4-DNA and a probabilistic model. To study the impact of source size, electronic equilibrium and secondary electron tracking cutoff on direct relative biological effectiveness (DRBE). Geant4 (v4.9.5) was used to simulate a cylindrical region of interest (ROI) with r = 15 nm and length = 1.05 mm, in a slab of liquid water of 1.06 g/cm 3 density. The ROI was irradiated with mono-energetic photons, with a uniformly distributed volumetric isotropic source (0.28, 1.5 keV) or a plane beam (0.662, 1.25 MeV), of variable size. Electrons were tracked down to 50 or 10 eV, with G4-DNA processes and energy transfer greater than 10.79 eV was scored. Based on volume ratios, each scored event had a 0.0388 probability of happening on either DNA helix (break). Clusters of at least one break on each DNA helix within 3.4 nm were found using a DBSCAN algorithm and categorized as double strand breaks (DSB). All other events were categorized as single strand breaks (SSB). Geant4-DNA is able to reproduce strand break yields previously published. Homogeneous irradiation conditions should be present throughout the ROI for DRBE comparisons. SSB yields seem slightly dependent on the primary photon energy. DRBEs show a significant increasing trend for lower energy incident photons. A lower electron cutoff produces higher SSB yields, but decreases the SSB/DSB yields ratio. The probabilistic and geometrical DNA models can predict equivalent results. Using Geant4, we were able to reproduce previously published results on the direct strand break yields of photon and study the importance of irradiation conditions. We also show an ascending trend for DRBE with lower incident photon energies. A probabilistic model coupled with track structure analysis can be used to simulate strand break yields. NSERC, CIHR. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sram, Radim J.; Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 μmol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with γ-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 μmol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 μmol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  7. Vitamin C for DNA damage prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J., E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Binkova, Blanka; Rossner, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-01

    The ability of vitamin C to affect genetic damage was reviewed in human studies that used molecular epidemiology methods, including analysis of DNA adducts, DNA strand breakage (using the Comet assay), oxidative damage measured as levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, and the induction of DNA repair proteins. The protective effect of vitamin C was observed at plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in groups with insufficient dietary intake who were occupationally exposed to mutagens, and also decreased the sensitivity to mutagens as assessed using the bleomycin assay. High vitamin C levels in plasma decreased the frequency of genomic translocations in groups exposed to ionizing radiation or c-PAHs in polluted air. The frequency of micronuclei was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in smokers challenged with {gamma}-irradiation, and higher vitamin C levels in plasma counteracted the damage induced by air pollution. The prevalence of DNA adducts inversely correlated with vitamin C levels in groups environmentally exposed to high concentrations of c-PAHs. Increased vitamin C levels decreased DNA strand breakage induced by air pollution. Oxidative damage (8-oxodG levels) was decreased by vitamin C supplementation in groups with plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to PM2.5 and c-PAHs. Modulation of DNA repair by vitamin C supplementation was observed both in poorly nourished subjects and in groups with vitamin C plasma levels > 50 {mu}mol/l exposed to higher concentrations of c-PAHs. It is possible that the impact of vitamin C on DNA damage depends both on background values of vitamin C in the individual as well as on the level of exposure to xenobiotics or oxidative stress.

  8. Mechanisms of DNA Packaging by Large Double-Stranded DNA Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Venigalla B.; Feiss, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Translocation of viral double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) into the icosahedral prohead shell is catalyzed by TerL, a motor protein that has ATPase, endonuclease, and translocase activities. TerL, following endonucleolytic cleavage of immature viral DNA concatemer recognized by TerS, assembles into a pentameric ring motor on the prohead’s portal vertex and uses ATP hydrolysis energy for DNA translocation. TerL’s N-terminal ATPase is connected by a hinge to the C-terminal endonuclease. Inchworm models propose that modest domain motions accompanying ATP hydrolysis are amplified, through changes in electrostatic interactions, into larger movements of the C-terminal domain bound to DNA. In phage φ29, four of the five TerL subunits sequentially hydrolyze ATP, each powering translocation of 2.5 bp. After one viral genome is encapsidated, the internal pressure signals termination of packaging and ejection of the motor. Current focus is on the structures of packaging complexes and the dynamics of TerL during DNA packaging, endonuclease regulation, and motor mechanics. PMID:26958920

  9. Solving probability reasoning based on DNA strand displacement and probability modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaobiao; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changjun

    2017-12-01

    In computation biology, DNA strand displacement technology is used to simulate the computation process and has shown strong computing ability. Most researchers use it to solve logic problems, but it is only rarely used in probabilistic reasoning. To process probabilistic reasoning, a conditional probability derivation model and total probability model based on DNA strand displacement were established in this paper. The models were assessed through the game "read your mind." It has been shown to enable the application of probabilistic reasoning in genetic diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-linking and relaxation of supercoiled DNA by psoralen and light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoakum, G.H.; Cole, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Photoreaction of 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen with superhelical ColE1 and ColE1amp DNA was studied. Changes in mobilities in agarose gels, formation of interstrand cross-links, and DNA strand breaks were determined. Psoralen and light treatment removed negative superhelical turns, and extensive treatments failed to produce positive superhelical turns in covalently closed plasmid DNA. The rate of relaxation of superhelical turns by psoralen photobinding appeared to be directly proportional to the number of superhelical turns remaining. A unique reaction mechanism is presented to explain these results. By this interpretation the initial rate of psoralen photobinding to superhelical DNA was estimated to be 3 times that for linear DNA, and the ratio of cross-linking to monofunctional adducts appears to be dependent on the superhelical conformation of the DNA. The estimated ratio of psoralen molecules bound to DNA strand breaks was 1.7 . 10 4 :1, and 70% of this breakage is caused by the light alone. (Auth.)

  11. Enzyme-free colorimetric detection systems based on the DNA strand displacement competition reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Birkedal, V.; Gothelf, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    The strand displacement competition assay is based on the dynamic equilibrium of the competitive hybridization of two oligonucleotides (A and B) to a third oligonucleotide (S). In the presence of an analyte that binds to a specific affinity-moiety conjugated to strand B, the equilibrium shifts, which can be detected by a shift in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal between dyes attached to the DNA strands. In the present study we have integrated an ATP aptamer in the strand B and demonstrated the optical detection of ATP. Furthermore we explore a new readout method using a split G-quadruplex DNAzyme for colorimetric readout of the detection of streptavidin by the naked eye. Finally, we integrate the whole G-quadruplex DNAzyme system in a single DNA strand and show that it is applicable to colorimetric detection.

  12. Enzyme-free colorimetric detection systems based on the DNA strand displacement competition reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhao; Birkedal, Victoria; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2016-01-01

    The strand displacement competition assay is based on the dynamic equilibrium of the competitive hybridization of two oligonucleotides (A and B) to a third oligonucleotide (S). In the presence of an analyte that binds to a specific affinity-moiety conjugated to strand B, the equilibrium shifts, w...... G-quadruplex DNAzyme for colorimetric readout of the detection of streptavidin by the naked eye. Finally, we integrate the whole G-quadruplex DNAzyme system in a single DNA strand and show that it is applicable to colorimetric detection......., which can be detected by a shift in the fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal between dyes attached to the DNA strands. In the present study we have integrated an ATP aptamer in the strand B and demonstrated the optical detection of ATP. Furthermore we explore a new readout method using a split...

  13. DNA unwinding by ring-shaped T4 helicase gp41 is hindered by tension on the occluded strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeck, Noah; Saleh, Omar A

    2013-01-01

    The replicative helicase for bacteriophage T4 is gp41, which is a ring-shaped hexameric motor protein that achieves unwinding of dsDNA by translocating along one strand of ssDNA while forcing the opposite strand to the outside of the ring. While much study has been dedicated to the mechanism of binding and translocation along the ssDNA strand encircled by ring-shaped helicases, relatively little is known about the nature of the interaction with the opposite, 'occluded' strand. Here, we investigate the interplay between the bacteriophage T4 helicase gp41 and the ss/dsDNA fork by measuring, at the single-molecule level, DNA unwinding events on stretched DNA tethers in multiple geometries. We find that gp41 activity is significantly dependent on the geometry and tension of the occluded strand, suggesting an interaction between gp41 and the occluded strand that stimulates the helicase. However, the geometry dependence of gp41 activity is the opposite of that found previously for the E. coli hexameric helicase DnaB. Namely, tension applied between the occluded strand and dsDNA stem inhibits unwinding activity by gp41, while tension pulling apart the two ssDNA tails does not hinder its activity. This implies a distinct variation in helicase-occluded strand interactions among superfamily IV helicases, and we propose a speculative model for this interaction that is consistent with both the data presented here on gp41 and the data that had been previously reported for DnaB.

  14. A novel setup for the determination of absolute cross sections for low-energy electron induced strand breaks in oligonucleotides - The effect of the radiosensitizer 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, J.; Rankovic, M.L.; Milosavljevic, A.R.; Bald, I.

    2017-01-01

    Low-energy electrons (LEEs) play an important role in DNA radiation damage. Here we present a method to quantify LEE induced strand breakage in well-defined oligonucleotide single strands in terms of absolute cross sections. An LEE irradiation setup covering electron energies <500 eV is constructed and optimized to irradiate DNA origami triangles carrying well-defined oligonucleotide target strands. Measurements are presented for 10.0 and 5.5 eV for different oligonucleotide targets. The determination of absolute strand break cross sections is performed by atomic force microscopy analysis. An accurate fluence determination ensures small margins of error of the determined absolute single strand break cross sections σ SSB . In this way, the influence of sequence modification with the radiosensitive 5-Fluorouracil ( 5F U) is studied using an absolute and relative data analysis. We demonstrate an increase in the strand break yields of 5F U containing oligonucleotides by a factor of 1.5 to 1.6 compared with non-modified oligonucleotide sequences when irradiated with 10 eV electrons. (authors)

  15. A specific subdomain in φ29 DNA polymerase confers both processivity and strand-displacement capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Irene; Lázaro, José M.; Blanco, Luis; Kamtekar, Satwik; Berman, Andrea J.; Wang, Jimin; Steitz, Thomas A.; Salas, Margarita; de Vega, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Recent crystallographic studies of φ29 DNA polymerase have provided structural insights into its strand displacement and processivity. A specific insertion named terminal protein region 2 (TPR2), present only in protein-primed DNA polymerases, together with the exonuclease, thumb, and palm subdomains, forms two tori capable of interacting with DNA. To analyze the functional role of this insertion, we constructed a φ29 DNA polymerase deletion mutant lacking TPR2 amino acid residues Asp-398 to Glu-420. Biochemical analysis of the mutant DNA polymerase indicates that its DNA-binding capacity is diminished, drastically decreasing its processivity. In addition, removal of the TPR2 insertion abolishes the intrinsic capacity of φ29 DNA polymerase to perform strand displacement coupled to DNA synthesis. Therefore, the biochemical results described here directly demonstrate that TPR2 plays a critical role in strand displacement and processivity. PMID:15845765

  16. Quantitation of the repair of gamma-radiation-induced double-strand DNA breaks in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The quantitation and repair of double-strand DNA breaks in human fibroblasts has been determined using a method involving the nondenaturing elution of DNA from a filter. DNA from cells from two human fibroblast lines exposed to γ-radiation from 0 to 10000 rad showed increasing retention on a filter with decreasing radiation dose, and the data suggest a linear relationship between double-strand breaks induced and radiation dose. The ability of normal human fibroblasts to repair double-strand breaks with various doses of radiation was demonstrated, with a tsub(1/2) of 10 min for repair of 5000 rad exposure and 39 min for repair of 10000 rad damage. The kinetics of the DNA rejoining were not linear and suggest that, as in the repair of single-strand breaks, both an initial fast and a later slow mechanism may be involved. (Auth.)

  17. Differences in heavy-ion-induced DNA double-strand breaks in a mouse DNA repair-deficient mutant cell line (SL3-147) before and after chromatin proteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Sato, Koki; Minohara, Shinichi; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yatagai, Fumio.

    1995-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks induced by X- or neon beam-irradiation in a DNA double-strand break-repair-deficient mutant cell line (SL3-147) were examined. The increase in the number of DNA double-strand breaks was dose-depend after irradiation with X-rays and neon beams and was enhanced by chromatin-proteolysis treatment before irradiation. These results suggest that the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation, including heavy-ions, is influenced by the chromatin structure. (author)

  18. Electron microscopic visualization of the RecA protein-mediated pairing and branch migration phases of DNA strand exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Register, JC; Christiansen, Gunna; Griffith, J

    1987-01-01

    examined by electron microscopy: supertwisted double-stranded (ds) DNA and linear single-stranded (ss) DNA, linear dsDNA and circular ssDNA, and linear dsDNA and colinear ssDNA. Several major observations were: (i) with RecA protein bound to the DNA, plectonemic joints were ultrastructurally...

  19. Molecular Basis for DNA Double-Strand Break Annealing and Primer Extension by an NHEJ DNA Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C. Brissett

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ is one of the major DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathways. The mechanisms by which breaks are competently brought together and extended during NHEJ is poorly understood. As polymerases extend DNA in a 5′-3′ direction by nucleotide addition to a primer, it is unclear how NHEJ polymerases fill in break termini containing 3′ overhangs that lack a primer strand. Here, we describe, at the molecular level, how prokaryotic NHEJ polymerases configure a primer-template substrate by annealing the 3′ overhanging strands from opposing breaks, forming a gapped intermediate that can be extended in trans. We identify structural elements that facilitate docking of the 3′ ends in the active sites of adjacent polymerases and reveal how the termini act as primers for extension of the annealed break, thus explaining how such DSBs are extended in trans. This study clarifies how polymerases couple break-synapsis to catalysis, providing a molecular mechanism to explain how primer extension is achieved on DNA breaks.

  20. Base damage within single-strand DNA underlies in vivo hypermutability induced by a ubiquitous environmental agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chan

    Full Text Available Chromosomal DNA must be in single-strand form for important transactions such as replication, transcription, and recombination to occur. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA is more prone to damage than double-strand DNA (dsDNA, due to greater exposure of chemically reactive moieties in the nitrogenous bases. Thus, there can be agents that damage regions of ssDNA in vivo while being inert toward dsDNA. To assess the potential hazard posed by such agents, we devised an ssDNA-specific mutagenesis reporter system in budding yeast. The reporter strains bear the cdc13-1 temperature-sensitive mutation, such that shifting to 37°C results in telomere uncapping and ensuing 5' to 3' enzymatic resection. This exposes the reporter region, containing three closely-spaced reporter genes, as a long 3' ssDNA overhang. We validated the ability of the system to detect mutagenic damage within ssDNA by expressing a modified human single-strand specific cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G induced a high density of substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in frequent, simultaneous inactivation of two reporter genes. We then examined the mutagenicity of sulfites, a class of reactive sulfur oxides to which humans are exposed frequently via respiration and food intake. Sulfites, at a concentration similar to that found in some foods, induced a high density of mutations, almost always as substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in simultaneous inactivation of at least two reporter genes. Furthermore, sulfites formed a long-lived adducted 2'-deoxyuracil intermediate in DNA that was resistant to excision by uracil-DNA N-glycosylase. This intermediate was bypassed by error-prone translesion DNA synthesis, frequently involving Pol ζ, during repair synthesis. Our results suggest that sulfite-induced lesions in DNA can be particularly deleterious, since cells might not possess the means to repair or bypass such lesions

  1. A novel technique using DNA denaturation to detect multiply induced single-strand breaks in a hydrated plasmid DNA molecule by X-ray and 4He2+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoya, A.; Shikazono, N.; Fujii, K.; Noguchi, M.; Urushibara, A.

    2011-01-01

    To detect multiple single-strand breaks (SSBs) produced in plasmid DNA molecules by direct energy deposition from radiation tracks, we have developed a novel technique using DNA denaturation by which irradiated DNA is analysed as single-strand DNA (SS-DNA). The multiple SSBs that arise in both strands of DNA, but do not induce a double-strand break, are quantified as loss of SS-DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis. We have applied this method to X-ray and 4 He 2+ ion-irradiated samples of fully hydrated pUC18 plasmid DNA. The fractions of both SS-DNA and closed circular DNA (CC-DNA) exponentially decrease with the increasing dose of X rays and 4 He 2+ ions. The efficiency of the loss of SS-DNA was half that of CC-DNA for both types of irradiation, indicating that one of two strands in DNA is not broken when one SSB is produced in CC-DNA by irradiation. Contrary to our initial expectation, these results indicate that SSBs are not multiply induced even by high linear energy transfer radiation distributed in both strands. (authors)

  2. Protein kinase CK2 localizes to sites of DNA double-strand break regulating the cellular response to DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Birgitte B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK is a nuclear complex composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs and a heterodimeric DNA-targeting subunit Ku. DNA-PK is a major component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ repair mechanism, which is activated in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation, reactive oxygen species and radiomimetic drugs. We have recently reported that down-regulation of protein kinase CK2 by siRNA interference results in enhanced cell death specifically in DNA-PKcs-proficient human glioblastoma cells, and this event is accompanied by decreased autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at S2056 and delayed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Results In the present study, we show that CK2 co-localizes with phosphorylated histone H2AX to sites of DNA damage and while CK2 gene knockdown is associated with delayed DNA damage repair, its overexpression accelerates this process. We report for the first time evidence that lack of CK2 destabilizes the interaction of DNA-PKcs with DNA and with Ku80 at sites of genetic lesions. Furthermore, we show that CK2 regulates the phosphorylation levels of DNA-PKcs only in response to direct induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Conclusions Taken together, these results strongly indicate that CK2 plays a prominent role in NHEJ by facilitating and/or stabilizing the binding of DNA-PKcs and, possibly other repair proteins, to the DNA ends contributing to efficient DNA damage repair in mammalian cells.

  3. A neutral glyoxal gel electrophoresis method for the detection and semi-quantitation of DNA single-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Single-strand breaks are among the most prevalent lesions found in DNA. Traditional electrophoretic methods (e.g., the Comet assay) used for investigating these lesions rely on alkaline conditions to denature DNA prior to electrophoresis. However, the presence of alkali-labile sites in DNA can result in the introduction of additional single-strand breaks upon alkali treatment during DNA sample processing. Herein, we describe a neutral glyoxal gel electrophoresis assay which is based on alkali-free DNA denaturation and is suitable for qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of single-strand breaks in DNA isolated from different organisms.

  4. Assembling of G-strands into novel tetra-molecular parallel G4-DNA nanostructures using avidin-biotin recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovok, Natalia; Iram, Natalie; Zikich, Dragoslav; Ghabboun, Jamal; Livshits, Gideon I; Porath, Danny; Kotlyar, Alexander B

    2008-09-01

    We describe a method for the preparation of novel long (hundreds of nanometers), uniform, inter-molecular G4-DNA molecules composed of four parallel G-strands. The only long continuous G4-DNA reported so far are intra-molecular structures made of a single G-strand. To enable a tetra-molecular assembly of the G-strands we developed a novel approach based on avidin-biotin biological recognition. The steps of the G4-DNA production include: (i) Enzymatic synthesis of long poly(dG)-poly(dC) molecules with biotinylated poly(dG)-strand; (ii) Formation of a complex between avidin-tetramer and four biotinylated poly(dG)-poly(dC) molecules; (iii) Separation of the poly(dC) strands from the poly(dG)-strands, which are connected to the avidin; (iv) Assembly of the four G-strands attached to the avidin into tetra-molecular G4-DNA. The average contour length of the formed structures, as measured by AFM, is equal to that of the initial poly(dG)-poly(dC) molecules, suggesting a tetra-molecular mechanism of the G-strands assembly. The height of tetra-molecular G4-nanostructures is larger than that of mono-molecular G4-DNA molecules having similar contour length. The CD spectra of the tetra- and mono-molecular G4-DNA are markedly different, suggesting different structural organization of these two types of molecules. The tetra-molecular G4-DNA nanostructures showed clear electrical polarizability. This suggests that they may be useful for molecular electronics.

  5. Reconstitution of DNA strand exchange mediated by Rhp51 recombinase and two mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kurokawa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, genetic evidence suggests that two mediators, Rad22 (the S. pombe Rad52 homolog and the Swi5-Sfr1 complex, participate in a common pathway of Rhp51 (the S. pombe Rad51 homolog-mediated homologous recombination (HR and HR repair. Here, we have demonstrated an in vitro reconstitution of the central step of DNA strand exchange during HR. Our system consists entirely of homogeneously purified proteins, including Rhp51, the two mediators, and replication protein A (RPA, which reflects genetic requirements in vivo. Using this system, we present the first robust biochemical evidence that concerted action of the two mediators directs the loading of Rhp51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA precoated with RPA. Dissection of the reaction reveals that Rad22 overcomes the inhibitory effect of RPA on Rhp51-Swi5-Sfr1-mediated strand exchange. In addition, Rad22 negates the requirement for a strict order of protein addition to the in vitro system. However, despite the presence of Rad22, Swi5-Sfr1 is still essential for strand exchange. Importantly, Rhp51, but neither Rad22 nor the Swi5-Sfr1 mediator, is the factor that displaces RPA from ssDNA. Swi5-Sfr1 stabilizes Rhp51-ssDNA filaments in an ATP-dependent manner, and this stabilization is correlated with activation of Rhp51 for the strand exchange reaction. Rad22 alone cannot activate the Rhp51 presynaptic filament. AMP-PNP, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, induces a similar stabilization of Rhp51, but this stabilization is independent of Swi5-Sfr1. However, hydrolysis of ATP is required for processive strand transfer, which results in the formation of a long heteroduplex. Our in vitro reconstitution system has revealed that the two mediators have indispensable, but distinct, roles for mediating Rhp51 loading onto RPA-precoated ssDNA.

  6. Formation of plasmid DNA strand breaks induced by low-energy ion beam: indication of nuclear stopping effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Jiang Bingyao; Chen Youshan; Ding Xingzhao; Liu Xianghuai; Chen Ceshi; Guo Xinyou; Yin Guanglin

    1998-01-01

    Plasmid pGEM 3zf(+) was irradiated by nitrogen ion beam with energies between 20 and 100 keV and the fluence kept as 1 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 . The irradiated plasmid was assayed by neutral electrophoresis and quantified by densitometry. The yields of DNA with single-strand and double-strand breaks first increased then decreased with increasing ion energy. There was a maximal yield value in the range of 20-100 keV. The relationship between DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) cross-section and linear energy transfer (LET) also showed a peak-shaped distribution. To understand the physical process during DNA strand breaks, a Monte Carlo calculation code known as TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) was used to simulate energy losses due to nuclear stopping and to electronic stopping. It can be assumed that nuclear stopping plays a more important role in DNA strand breaks than electronic stopping in this energy range. The physical mechanisms of DNA strand breaks induced by a low-energy ion beam are also discussed. (orig.)

  7. Autophosphorylation of DNA-PKCS regulates its dynamics at DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Naoya; Weterings, Eric; Yano, Ken-ichi; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Jakob, Burkhard; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Mari, Pierre-Olivier; van Gent, Dik C; Chen, Benjamin P C; Chen, David J

    2007-04-23

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PK(CS)) plays an important role during the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). It is recruited to DNA ends in the early stages of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) process, which mediates DSB repair. To study DNA-PK(CS) recruitment in vivo, we used a laser system to introduce DSBs in a specified region of the cell nucleus. We show that DNA-PK(CS) accumulates at DSB sites in a Ku80-dependent manner, and that neither the kinase activity nor the phosphorylation status of DNA-PK(CS) influences its initial accumulation. However, impairment of both of these functions results in deficient DSB repair and the maintained presence of DNA-PK(CS) at unrepaired DSBs. The use of photobleaching techniques allowed us to determine that the kinase activity and phosphorylation status of DNA-PK(CS) influence the stability of its binding to DNA ends. We suggest a model in which DNA-PK(CS) phosphorylation/autophosphorylation facilitates NHEJ by destabilizing the interaction of DNA-PK(CS) with the DNA ends.

  8. DNA-mediated strand displacement facilitates sensitive electronic detection of antibodies in human serums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Shi, Kai; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun

    2016-09-15

    We describe here the development of a sensitive and convenient electronic sensor for the detection of antibodies in human serums. The sensor is constructed by self-assembly formation of a mixed monolayer containing the small molecule epitope conjugated double stranded DNA probes on gold electrode. The target antibody binds the epitope on the dsDNA probe and lowers the melting temperature of the duplex, which facilitates the displacement of the antibody-linked strand of the duplex probe by an invading methylene blue-tagged single stranded DNA (MB-ssDNA) through the strand displacement reaction and leads to the capture of many MB-ssDNA on the sensor surface. Subsequent electrochemical oxidation of the methylene blue labels results in amplified current response for sensitive monitoring of the antibodies. The antibody assay conditions are optimized and the sensor exhibits a linear range between 1.0 and 25.0nM with a detection limit of 0.67nM for the target antibody. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to detect the target antibodies in human serum samples. With the advantages of using small molecule epitope as the antibody recognition element over traditional antigen, the versatile manipulability of the DNA probes and the unique properties of the electrochemical transduction technique, the developed sensor thus hold great potential for simple and sensitive detection of different antibodies and other proteins in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Visualization of DNA double-strand break repair: From molecules to cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Przemek M.; Stap, Jan; Aten, Jacob A.

    2008-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) signaling and repair processes are positioned at the crossroad of nuclear pathways that regulate DNA replication, cell division, senescence and apoptosis. Importantly, errors in DSB repair may lead to lethal or potentially tumorigenic chromosome rearrangements.

  10. Purification of Single-Stranded cDNA Based on RNA Degradation Treatment and Adsorption Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Esquivel, Elías; Franco, Bernardo; Flores-Martínez, Alberto; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-08-02

    Analysis of gene expression is a common research tool to study networks controlling gene expression, the role of genes with unknown function, and environmentally induced responses of organisms. Most of the analytical tools used to analyze gene expression rely on accurate cDNA synthesis and quantification to obtain reproducible and quantifiable results. Thus far, most commercial kits for isolation and purification of cDNA target double-stranded molecules, which do not accurately represent the abundance of transcripts. In the present report, we provide a simple and fast method to purify single-stranded cDNA, exhibiting high purity and yield. This method is based on the treatment with RNase H and RNase A after cDNA synthesis, followed by separation in silica spin-columns and ethanol precipitation. In addition, our method avoids the use of DNase I to eliminate genomic DNA from RNA preparations, which improves cDNA yield. As a case report, our method proved to be useful in the purification of single-stranded cDNA from the pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii.

  11. DNA single strand break in fibroblast from Down syndrome patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozga, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of tree trisomic (trisomia +21) strains of human fibroblasts to gamma radiation has been investigated in vitro and the causes of induction and repair of single strand DNA breaks in these cells have been estimated. The single strand breaks in DNA of normal and trisomic cells have been found to be ameliorated with an approximately equal efficiency. Repair has been found to be three times slower in trisomic cells compared to their normal relevant, most likely due to their elevated sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the following mortality of trisomic cells, and/or the potential occurrence of a great number of chromosome aberrations in cells irradiated in vitro. (author). 28 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  12. Double strand breaks in DNA in vivo and in vitro after 60Co-γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huelsewede, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The questions of what the correlation is between double strand breaks in DNA in the cell and lethal radiation damage and by means of which possible mechanisms DNA double strand breaks could occur were studied. E. coli served as test system. In addition to this the molecular weight of the DNA from irradiated E. coli as a function of the radiation dose under various conditions was measured. This data was compared on the one hand to the survival of the cell and on the other hand to the formation of DNA double strand breaks in an aqueous buffer system, which in its ionic characteristics was similar to cell fluids. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Preparation of a differentially expressed, full-length cDNA expression library by RecA-mediated triple-strand formation with subtractively enriched cDNA fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, T. B.; Spijkers, J. A.; Vermeulen, J. L.; Lamers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a fast and general method to obtain an enriched, full-length cDNA expression library with subtractively enriched cDNA fragments. The procedure relies on RecA-mediated triple-helix formation of single-stranded cDNA fragments with a double-stranded cDNA plasmid library. The complexes

  14. Destabilized SMC5/6 complex leads to chromosome breakage syndrome with severe lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Hennus, Marije P; McGregor, Grant A; Ritter, Deborah I; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Wells, Owen S; Harakalova, Magdalena; Chinn, Ivan K; Alt, Aaron; Vondrova, Lucie; Hochstenbach, Ron; van Montfrans, Joris M; Terheggen-Lagro, Suzanne W; van Lieshout, Stef; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Hennekam, Eric; Orange, Jordan S; van Hasselt, Peter M; Wheeler, David A; Palecek, Jan J; Lehmann, Alan R; Oliver, Antony W; Pearl, Laurence H; Plon, Sharon E; Murray, Johanne M; van Haaften, Gijs

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins supports mitotic proliferation, meiosis, and DNA repair to control genomic stability. Impairments in chromosome maintenance are linked to rare chromosome breakage disorders. Here, we have identified a chromosome breakage syndrome

  15. What is DNA damage? Risk of double-strand break and its individual variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanaoka, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses about the title subject in an aspect of possible spreading of Fukushima radioactive substances mainly in eastern north area of Japan where carcinogenic incidence may be increased as the ionizing radiation injures the gene (DNA). At first, explained is that cancer is a disease of genes with infinitive proliferation of cells, there are systems to prevent it by repairing the damaged DNA and by other mechanisms like exclusion of cells damaged too much or killing cancer cells with immunity, and individual difference of the repairing capability exists. DNA is always damaged even under ordinary living conditions by sunlight UV ray, cosmic radiation and chemicals externally and by active oxygen species and thermal water movement internally. Concomitantly, DNA damaged by many mechanisms like deletion, dimmer formation, chemical modification of bases, single and double strand breaks is always repaired by concerned enzymes. Double-strand damage by high-energy radiation like gamma ray is quite risky because its repair sometimes accompanies error as concerned enzymes are from more multiple genes. There are many syndromes derived from gene deficit of those repairing enzymes. The diseases concerned with repair of the double-strand damage teach that fetus and infant are more sensitive to radiation than adult as their young body cells are more actively synthesizing DNA, during which, if DNA is injured by radiation, risk of repairing error is higher as the double strand break more frequently occurs. It cannot be simply said that a certain radiation dose limit is generally permissible. There is an individual difference of radiation sensitivity and a possible method to find out an individual weak to radiation is the lymphocyte screening in vitro using anticancer bleomycin which breaks the double strand. (T.T.)

  16. RADX interacts with single-stranded DNA to promote replication fork stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Lisa; Ho, Teresa; Hoffmann, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) regions form as an intermediate in many DNA-associated transactions. Multiple cellular proteins interact with ssDNA via the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain. The heterotrimeric, multi-OB fold domain-containing Replication Protein A (RPA) complex...... ssDNA-binding activities is critical for avoiding these defects. Our findings establish RADX as an important component of cellular pathways that promote DNA replication integrity under basal and stressful conditions by means of multiple ssDNA-binding proteins....

  17. Chromatin mobility is increased at sites of DNA double-strand breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, P. M.; Borovski, T.; Stap, J.; Cijsouw, T.; ten Cate, R.; Medema, J. P.; Kanaar, R.; Franken, N. A. P.; Aten, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can efficiently kill cancer cells, but they can also produce unwanted chromosome rearrangements when DNA ends from different DSBs are erroneously joined. Movement of DSB-containing chromatin domains might facilitate these DSB interactions and promote the formation of

  18. CMG helicase and DNA polymerase ε form a functional 15-subunit holoenzyme for eukaryotic leading-strand DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Lance D; Zhang, Dan; Yurieva, Olga; Georgescu, Roxana E; Finkelstein, Jeff; Yao, Nina Y; Indiani, Chiara; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2014-10-28

    DNA replication in eukaryotes is asymmetric, with separate DNA polymerases (Pol) dedicated to bulk synthesis of the leading and lagging strands. Pol α/primase initiates primers on both strands that are extended by Pol ε on the leading strand and by Pol δ on the lagging strand. The CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase surrounds the leading strand and is proposed to recruit Pol ε for leading-strand synthesis, but to date a direct interaction between CMG and Pol ε has not been demonstrated. While purifying CMG helicase overexpressed in yeast, we detected a functional complex between CMG and native Pol ε. Using pure CMG and Pol ε, we reconstituted a stable 15-subunit CMG-Pol ε complex and showed that it is a functional polymerase-helicase on a model replication fork in vitro. On its own, the Pol2 catalytic subunit of Pol ε is inefficient in CMG-dependent replication, but addition of the Dpb2 protein subunit of Pol ε, known to bind the Psf1 protein subunit of CMG, allows stable synthesis with CMG. Dpb2 does not affect Pol δ function with CMG, and thus we propose that the connection between Dpb2 and CMG helps to stabilize Pol ε on the leading strand as part of a 15-subunit leading-strand holoenzyme we refer to as CMGE. Direct binding between Pol ε and CMG provides an explanation for specific targeting of Pol ε to the leading strand and provides clear mechanistic evidence for how strand asymmetry is maintained in eukaryotes.

  19. Double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase Irc3p is directly involved in mitochondrial genome maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedman, Tiina; Gaidutšik, Ilja; Villemson, Karin; Hou, YingJian; Sedman, Juhan

    2014-12-01

    Nucleic acid-dependent ATPases are involved in nearly all aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism. Previous studies have described a number of mitochondrial helicases. However, double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPases, including translocases or enzymes remodeling DNA-protein complexes, have not been identified in mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Here, we demonstrate that Irc3p is a mitochondrial double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase of the Superfamily II. In contrast to the other mitochondrial Superfamily II enzymes Mss116p, Suv3p and Mrh4p, which are RNA helicases, Irc3p has a direct role in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. Specific Irc3p-dependent mtDNA metabolic intermediates can be detected, including high levels of double-stranded DNA breaks that accumulate in irc3Δ mutants. irc3Δ-related topology changes in rho- mtDNA can be reversed by the deletion of mitochondrial RNA polymerase RPO41, suggesting that Irc3p counterbalances adverse effects of transcription on mitochondrial genome stability. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Lead-induced DNA damage in Vicia faba root cells: Potential involvement of oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pourrut, Bertrand; Jean, Séverine; Silvestre, Jérôme; Pinelli, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Genotoxic effects of lead (0–20 µM) were investigated in whole-plant roots of Vicia faba L., grown hydroponically under controlled conditions. Lead-induced DNA damage in V. faba roots was evaluated by use of the comet assay, which allowed the detection of DNA strand-breakage and with the V. faba micronucleus test, which revealed chromosome aberrations. The results clearly indicate that lead induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependant manner with a maximum effect at 10 µM. In addition, at th...

  1. Helical filaments of human Dmc1 protein on single-stranded DNA: a cautionary tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins in the RecA/Rad51/RadA family form nucleoprotein filaments on DNA that catalyze a strand exchange reaction as part of homologous genetic recombination. Because of the centrality of this system to many aspects of DNA repair, the generation of genetic diversity, and cancer when this system fails or is not properly regulated, these filaments have been the object of many biochemical and biophysical studies. A recent paper has argued that the human Dmc1 protein, a meiotic homolog of bacterial RecA and human Rad51, forms filaments on single stranded DNA with ∼ 9 subunits per turn in contrast to the filaments formed on double stranded DNA with ∼ 6.4 subunits per turn, and that the stoichiometry of DNA binding is different between these two filaments. We show using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that the Dmc1 filament formed on single stranded DNA has a mass per unit length expected from ∼ 6.5 subunits per turn. More generally, we show how ambiguities in helical symmetry determination can generate incorrect solutions, and why one sometimes must use other techniques, such as biochemistry, metal shadowing, or STEM to resolve these ambiguities. While three-dimensional reconstruction of helical filaments from EM images is a powerful tool, the intrinsic ambiguities that may be present with limited resolution are not sufficiently appreciated. PMID:20600108

  2. RPA Stabilization of Single-Stranded DNA Is Critical for Break-Induced Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Patrick; Donnianni, Roberto A; Glancy, Eleanor; Oh, Julyun; Symington, Lorraine S

    2016-12-20

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytotoxic lesions that must be accurately repaired to maintain genome stability. Replication protein A (RPA) plays an important role in homology-dependent repair of DSBs by protecting the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates formed by end resection and by facilitating Rad51 loading. We found that hypomorphic mutants of RFA1 that support intra-chromosomal homologous recombination are profoundly defective for repair processes involving long tracts of DNA synthesis, in particular break-induced replication (BIR). The BIR defects of the rfa1 mutants could be partially suppressed by eliminating the Sgs1-Dna2 resection pathway, suggesting that Dna2 nuclease attacks the ssDNA formed during end resection when not fully protected by RPA. Overexpression of Rad51 was also found to suppress the rfa1 BIR defects. We suggest that Rad51 binding to the ssDNA formed by excessive end resection and during D-loop migration can partially compensate for dysfunctional RPA. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiobiological study on DNA strand breaks and repair using single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1994-01-01

    Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) provides a novel method to measure DNA damage in individual cells and more importantly, to assess heterogeneity in response within a mixed population of cells. Cells embedded in agarose are lysed, subjected to electrophoresis, stained with a fluorescent DNA-specific dye, and viewed under a fluorescence microscope. Damaged cells display 'comets', broken DNA migrating farther to the anode in the electric field. We have previously used this technique to quantify DNA damage induced by moderate doses of low and high LET radiations in cultured Chinese hamster cells. The assay has been optimized in terms of lysing and electrophoresis conditions, and applied to analyse the DNA strand breaks, their repair kinetics and heterogeneity in response in individual Chinese hamster cells exposed to gamma-rays, and to KUR thermal neutrons with and without 10 B or to KEK PF monochromatic soft X-rays as well as to a radio-mimetic agent, neocarzinostatin. The DNA double-strand breaks induced by boron-neutron captured reactions were repaired at a slower rate, but a heterogeneity in response might not contribute to the difference. The neocarzinostatin-induced DNA damage were efficiently repaired in a dose-dependent fashion. The initial amount of gamma-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks was not significantly altered in cells pre-exposed to very low adapting dose. (author)

  4. DNA template strand sequencing of single-cells maps genomic rearrangements at high resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer, Ester; Hills, Mark; Naumann, Ulrike; Poon, Steven S. S.; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Sanders, Ashley D.; Zhao, Yongjun; Hirst, Martin; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    DNA rearrangements such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) are sensitive indicators of genomic stress and instability, but they are typically masked by single-cell sequencing techniques. We developed Strand-seq to independently sequence parental DNA template strands from single cells, making it possible to map SCEs at orders-of-magnitude greater resolution than was previously possible. On average, murine embryonic stem (mES) cells exhibit eight SCEs, which are detected at a resolution of up...

  5. Compound Poisson Processes and Clustered Damage of Radiation Induced DNA Double Strand Breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowska-Nowak, E.; Ritter, S.; Taucher-Scholz, G.; Kraft, G.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experimental data have demonstrated that DNA damage induced by densely ionizing radiation in mammalian cells is distributed along the DNA molecule in the form of clusters. The principal constituent of DNA damage are double-strand breaks (DSB) which are formed when the breaks occur in both DNA strands and are directly opposite or separated by only a few base pairs. DSBs are believed to be most important lesions produced in chromosomes by radiation; interaction between DSBs can lead to cell killing, mutation or carcinogenesis. The paper discusses a model of clustered DSB formation viewed in terms of compound Poisson process along with the predictive essay of the formalism in application to experimental data. (author)

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of a DNA containing a single strand break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Siebers, G.; Furukawa, A.; Otagiri, N.; Osman, R

    2002-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a dodecamer DNA containing a single strand break (SSB), which has been represented by a 3'-OH deoxyribose and 5'-OH phosphate in the middle of the strand. Molecular force field parameters of the 5'-OH phosphate region were determined from an ab initio calculation at the HF/6-31G level using the program package GAMESS. The DNA was placed in a periodic boundary box with water molecules and Na+ counter-ions to produce a neutralised system. After minimisation, the system was heated to 300 K, equilibrated and a production run at constant NTP was executed for 1 ns using AMBER 4.1. Snapshots of the SSB-containing DNA and a detailed analysis of the equilibriated average structure revealed surprisingly small conformational changes compared to normal DNA. However, dynamic properties calculated using the essential dynamics method showed some features that may be important for the recognition of this damage by repair enzymes. (author)

  7. Alkaline gel electrophoresis assay to detect DNA strand breaks and repair mechanisms in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Jose Carlos Pelielo de; Motta, Ellen Serri da; Oliveira, Marcia Betania Nunes de; Dantas, Flavio Jose da Silva; Araujo, Adriano Caldeira de

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce lesions in different cellular targets, including DNA. Stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) is a ROS generator, leading to lethality in Escherichia coli (E. coli), with the base excision repair (BER) mechanism playing a role in this process. Many techniques have been developed to detect genotoxicity, as comet assay, in eukaryotic cells, and plasmid DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. In this study, an adaptation of the alkaline gel electrophoresis method was carried out to ascertain the induction of strand breaks by SnCl 2 in bacterial DNA, from E. coli BER mutants, and its repair pathway. Results obtained show that SnCl 2 was able to induce DNA strand breaks in all strains tested. Moreover, endonuclease IV and exonuclease III play a role in DNA repair. On the whole, data has shown that the alkaline gel electrophoresis assay could be used both for studying DNA strand breaks induction and for associated repair mechanisms. (author)

  8. Alkaline gel electrophoresis assay to detect DNA strand breaks and repair mechanisms in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Jose Carlos Pelielo de; Motta, Ellen Serri da; Oliveira, Marcia Betania Nunes de; Dantas, Flavio Jose da Silva; Araujo, Adriano Caldeira de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria. Lab. de Radio e Fotobiologia]. E-mail: jcmattos@uerj.br

    2008-12-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce lesions in different cellular targets, including DNA. Stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) is a ROS generator, leading to lethality in Escherichia coli (E. coli), with the base excision repair (BER) mechanism playing a role in this process. Many techniques have been developed to detect genotoxicity, as comet assay, in eukaryotic cells, and plasmid DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. In this study, an adaptation of the alkaline gel electrophoresis method was carried out to ascertain the induction of strand breaks by SnCl{sub 2} in bacterial DNA, from E. coli BER mutants, and its repair pathway. Results obtained show that SnCl{sub 2} was able to induce DNA strand breaks in all strains tested. Moreover, endonuclease IV and exonuclease III play a role in DNA repair. On the whole, data has shown that the alkaline gel electrophoresis assay could be used both for studying DNA strand breaks induction and for associated repair mechanisms. (author)

  9. Temperature-dependent conformations of exciton-coupled Cy3 dimers in double-stranded DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringle, Loni; Sawaya, Nicolas P. D.; Widom, Julia; Adams, Carson; Raymer, Michael G.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the properties of electronically interacting molecular chromophores, which involve internally coupled electronic-vibrational motions, is important to the spectroscopy of many biologically relevant systems. Here we apply linear absorption, circular dichroism, and two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy to study the polarized collective excitations of excitonically coupled cyanine dimers (Cy3)2 that are rigidly positioned within the opposing sugar-phosphate backbones of the double-stranded region of a double-stranded (ds)-single-stranded (ss) DNA fork construct. We show that the exciton-coupling strength of the (Cy3)2-DNA construct can be systematically varied with temperature below the ds-ss DNA denaturation transition. We interpret spectroscopic measurements in terms of the Holstein vibronic dimer model, from which we obtain information about the local conformation of the (Cy3)2 dimer, as well as the degree of static disorder experienced by the Cy3 monomer and the (Cy3)2 dimer probe locally within their respective DNA duplex environments. The properties of the (Cy3)2-DNA construct we determine suggest that it may be employed as a useful model system to test fundamental concepts of protein-DNA interactions and the role of electronic-vibrational coherence in electronic energy migration within exciton-coupled bio-molecular arrays.

  10. X-ray-induced breakage and rejoining of human interphase chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornforth, M.N.; Bedford, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A method was developed for the high-resolution measurement of breaks in prematurely condensed chromosomes at the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. The dose response for fragments (breaks) produced immediately after x-irradiation of confluent cultures of normal human cells was linear down to 10.9 rad (0.109 Gy) and extrapolated to zero effect at zero dose. The curve had a slope of 0.063 breaks per cell per rad, which is at least an order of magnitude greater than that for breaks scored in the same cells after they have progressed to mitosis following subculture. When incubated at 37 0 C half of the breaks disappeared in 2 hours. A slower, perhaps nonrejoining component was apparent at later incubation times. The initial rate of break rejoining was similar to the rate of increase in survival after incubation because of the repair of potentially lethal damage and is also in close agreement with recently reported values for the rejoining of double-strand breakage in DNA

  11. Radiation-induced DNA damage in halogenated pyrimidine incorporated cells and its correlation with radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, R.; Nikjoo, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cells with DNA containing 5-halogenated pyrimidines in place of thymidine show significant reductions of slope (Do) and shoulder (Dq) of their radiation survival curves. Similar radiosensitization has also been observed in the yield of DNA strand breaks. The purpose of this study is to obtain an insight into the mechanism of cell lethality by examining the relationship between the spectrum of DNA damage and the cell survival. In this study we estimated the enhancement of strand breaks due to incorporation of halogenated pyrimidine, the complexity of DNA damage and the probability of the initial DNA damage leading to cell inactivation. Monte Carlo track structure methods were used to model and simulate the induction of strand breakage by X-rays. The increase of DNA strand break was estimated by assuming the excess strand break was caused by the highly reactive uracil radicals at the halouracil substituted sites. The assumption of the enhancement mechanism of strand breaks was examined and verified by comparison with experimental data for induction of SSB and DSB. The calculated DNA damage spectrum shows the increase in complexity of strand breaks is due to incorporation of halogenated pyrimidines. The increase in the yield of DSB and cell lethality show similar trend at various degrees of halogenated pyrimidine substitution. We asked the question whether this agreement supports the hypothesis that DSB is responsible for cell lethality? The estimated number of lethal damage from the cell survival using a linear-quadratic model is much less than the initial yield of DSB. This work examines the correlation of cell lethality as a function of frequencies of complex form of double strand breaks

  12. The impact of base stacking on the conformations and electrostatics of single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Alex; Meisburger, Steve P; Andresen, Kurt; Pollack, Lois

    2017-04-20

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is notable for its interactions with ssDNA binding proteins (SSBs) during fundamentally important biological processes including DNA repair and replication. Previous work has begun to characterize the conformational and electrostatic properties of ssDNA in association with SSBs. However, the conformational distributions of free ssDNA have been difficult to determine. To capture the vast array of ssDNA conformations in solution, we pair small angle X-ray scattering with novel ensemble fitting methods, obtaining key parameters such as the size, shape and stacking character of strands with different sequences. Complementary ion counting measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy are employed to determine the composition of the ion atmosphere at physiological ionic strength. Applying this combined approach to poly dA and poly dT, we find that the global properties of these sequences are very similar, despite having vastly different propensities for single-stranded helical stacking. These results suggest that a relatively simple mechanism for the binding of ssDNA to non-specific SSBs may be at play, which explains the disparity in binding affinities observed for these systems. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshisuke; Miyanaga, Kumiko; Sato, Sei-ichi; Inui, Naomichi

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with 60 Co γ-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for γ-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than γ-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author)

  14. DNA damage induced in mouse peritoneal exudate cells after in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents as determined by alkaline elution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Yoshisuke (Japan Tobacco Inc., Yokohama (Japan). Central Research Inst.); Miyanaga, Kumiko; Sato, Sei-ichi (Japan Tobacco Inc., Hatano, Kanagawa (Japan). Toxicology Research Lab.); Inui, Naomichi (Japan Tobacco Inc., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Pharmaceutical Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline elution technique for detecting DNA strand breaks has been applied to the study of DNA damage in mouse peritoneal exudate cells resulting from the in vivo administration of chemical and physical agents. The direct methylating agents methyl methanesulphonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced extensive breakage in samples taken 2 h after administration. The direct ethylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea also induced DNA strand breaks, but to a lesser extent than the methylating agents. The indirect methylating agent dimethylnitrosamine showed hardly any effect in this system. A weak but positive response was observed upon treatment with the anti-neoplastic alkylating agent procarbazine hydrochloride. The whole-body irradiation of mice with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays also induced DNA strand breaks. The elution profiles for {gamma}-ray irradiation were different from those of alkylating agents, and indicate that alkylating agents produce many more secondary lesions leading to DNA strand breaks than {gamma}-rays. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea produced slightly more DNA strand breaks in mutagen-sensitive mice, which are derived from the CD-1 strain, than in ICR mice. (Author).

  15. Analysis of DNA polymerase activity in Petunia protoplasts treated with clastogenic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benediktsson, I.; Spampinato, C.P.; Andreo, C.S.; Schieder, O.

    1994-01-01

    Clastogenic agents, i.e. agents that can induce chromosome or DNA breakage, have been shown to enhance the role of direct gene transfer to protoplasts. The effect was analysed at the enzymatic level using protoplast homogenates as well as intact protoplasts. For that purpose existing procedures were modified to enable measurement of DNA polymerase in vivo. In the system used, external DNA was able to enter the cells without the addition of membrane-permeabilizing compounds. When comparing total DNA polymerase activity of protoplasts irradiated with X-rays or UV-light with that of untreated cells we did not observe significant differences. Incubation of protoplasts with high doses of bleomycin affected total DNA polymerase activity negatively. but dideoxythymidine triphosphate-sensitive activity was not influenced. We conclude that the DNA strand-breaks induced by low doses of X-rays. UV-light or bleomycin do not increase the total or the repair-DNA polymerase activity and. therefore. that the increase in the transformation rates after DNA strand-breaking is not preceded by enhanced DNA polymerase activity. (author)

  16. Sites of termination of in vitro DNA synthesis on psoralen phototreated single-stranded templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, J.; Hearst, J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA has been photochemically induced to react with 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (HMT) and used as substrate for DNA replication with E. coli DNA polymerase I large fragment. By using the dideoxy sequencing procedure, it is possible to map the termination sites on the template photoreacted with HMT. These sites occur at the nucleotides preceding each thymine residue (and a few cytosine residues), emphasizing the fact that in a single-stranded stretch of DNA, HMT reacts with each thymine residue without any specificity regarding the flanking base sequence of the thymine residues. In addition, termination of DNA synthesis due to psoralen-adducted thymine is not influenced by the efficiency of the 3'-5' exonuclease proof-reading activity of the DNA polymerase. (author)

  17. Radiation-induced DNA single-strand scission and its rejoining in spermatogonia and spermatozoa of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, T.; Okada, S.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-ray-induced DNA single-strand scissions and the ability to repair the scissions in spermatogonia from young mice and in spermatozoa from adult mice were studied quantitatively by an alkaline sucrose density-gradient centrifugation method. The average size of DNAs in non-irradiated spermatogonia was 2.6-3.0xx10 8 daltons, similar to those of a spermatid-rich population, and the size of DNA in non-irradiated spermatozoa was 1.2x10 8 daltons. In spermatogonia, the radiosensitivity of DNA was 0.42 single-strand breaks/10 12 daltons of DNA/rad in oxic conditions and only 0.24 under anoxic conditions. In spermatozoa the break efficiency of DNA was 0.22 single-strand breaks/10 12 daltons of DNA/rad under oxic conditions and altered little under anoxic irradiation. The DNA scissions were efficiently repaired in spermatogonia within 10 min, whereas the breaks in spermatozoa were not rejoined at all even after two days of post-irradiation time. The radiosensitivities of DNA, repair capability and non- and/or slowreparable DNA scissions were compared in spermatogonium-rich, spermatid-rich and spermatozoanrich populations

  18. DNA and chromosome breaks induced by 123I-estrogen in CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the Auger electron-emitting isotope I-123, covalently bound to estrogen, on DNA single- and double-strand breakage and on chromosome breakage was determined in estrogen positive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-ER) cells. Exposure to the 123 I-estrogen induced both single- and double-strand breaks with a ratio of single- to double-strand breaks of 2.2. The corresponding ratio with 60 Co gamma rays was 15.6. The dose-response was biphasic suggesting that either receptor sites are saturated at high does, or that there is a nonrandom distribution of breaks induced by the 123 I-estrogen. The 123 I-estrogen treatment induced chromosome aberrations with an efficiency of about 1 aberration for each 1,000 disintegrations per cell. This corresponds to the mean lethal dose of 123 I-estrogen for these cells suggesting that the lethal event induced by the Auger electron emitter bound to estrogen is a chromosome aberration. Most of the chromosome-type aberrations were dicentrics and rings, suggesting that 123 I-estrogen-induced chromosome breaks are rejoined. The F-ratio, the ratio of dicentrics to centric rings, was 5.8 ± 1.7, which is similar to that seen with high LET radiations. Their results suggest that I-123 bound to estrogen is an efficient clastogenic agent, that the cytotoxic damage produced by I-123 bound to estrogen is very like high LET-induced damage, and the I-123 in the estrogen-receptor-DNA complex is probably in close proximity to the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA

  19. Meta-analysis of DNA double-strand break response kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochan, Jakub A.; Desclos, Emilie C. B.; Bosch, Ruben; Meister, Luna; Vriend, Lianne E. M.; Attikum, Haico V.; Krawczyk, Przemek M.

    2017-01-01

    Most proteins involved in the DNA double-strand break response (DSBR) accumulate at the damage sites, where they perform functions related to damage signaling, chromatin remodeling and repair. Over the last two decades, studying the accumulation of many DSBR proteins provided information about their

  20. Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1 is not involved in DNA double-strand break recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernet Marie

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytotoxicity and the rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks induced by γ-rays, H2O2 and neocarzinostatin, were investigated in normal and PARP-1 knockout mouse 3T3 fibroblasts to determine the role of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1 in DNA double-strand break repair. Results PARP-1-/- were considerably more sensitive than PARP-1+/+ 3T3s to induced cell kill by γ-rays and H2O2. However, the two cell lines did not show any significant difference in the susceptibility to neocarzinostatin below 1.5 nM drug. Restoration of PARP-1 expression in PARP-1-/- 3T3s by retroviral transfection of the full PARP-1 cDNA did not induce any change in neocarzinostatin response. Moreover the incidence and the rejoining kinetics of neocarzinostatin-induced DNA double-strand breaks were identical in PARP-1+/+ and PARP-1-/- 3T3s. Poly(ADP-ribose synthesis following γ-rays and H2O2 was observed in PARP-1-proficient cells only. In contrast neocarzinostatin, even at supra-lethal concentration, was unable to initiate PARP-1 activation yet it induced H2AX histone phosphorylation in both PARP1+/+ and PARP-1-/- 3T3s as efficiently as γ-rays and H2O2. Conclusions The results show that PARP-1 is not a major determinant of DNA double-strand break recovery with either strand break rejoining or cell survival as an endpoint. Even though both PARP-1 and ATM activation are major determinants of the cell response to γ-rays and H2O2, data suggest that PARP-1-dependent poly(ADP-ribose synthesis and ATM-dependent H2AX phosphorylation, are not inter-related in the repair pathway of neocarzinostatin-induced DNA double-strand breaks.

  1. Variation in normal and tumor tissue sensitivity of mice to ionizing radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, R.E.; Jenkins, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The efficiency of DNA strand break formation in normal and tumor tissues of mice was measured using the technique of alkaline elution coupled with a microfluorometric determination of DNA. This methodology allowed measurement of the DNA strand breaks produced in tissues irradiated in vivo with doses of radiation comparable to those used in radiotherapy (i.e., 1.0 gray) without the necessity for the cells to be dividing and incorporating radioactive precursors to label the DNA. The results showed that substantial differences existed among various tissues in terms of the amount of DNA strand break damage produced for a given dose of radiation. Of the normal tissues, the most breaks were produced in bone marrow and the least were produced in gut. Furthermore, strand break production was relatively inefficient in the tumor compared to the normal tissues. The efficiency of DNA strand break formation measured in the cells from the tissues irradiated in vitro was much more uniform and considerably greater than that measured in vivo, suggesting that the normal tissues in the animal may be radiobiologically hypoxic

  2. Ca2+ improves organization of single-stranded DNA bases in human Rad51 filament, explaining stimulatory effect on gene recombination.

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H

    2012-02-22

    Human RAD51 protein (HsRad51) catalyses the DNA strand exchange reaction for homologous recombination. To clarify the molecular mechanism of the reaction in vitro being more effective in the presence of Ca(2+) than of Mg(2+), we have investigated the effect of these ions on the structure of HsRad51 filament complexes with single- and double-stranded DNA, the reaction intermediates. Flow linear dichroism spectroscopy shows that the two ionic conditions induce significantly different structures in the HsRad51/single-stranded DNA complex, while the HsRad51/double-stranded DNA complex does not demonstrate this ionic dependence. In the HsRad51/single-stranded DNA filament, the primary intermediate of the strand exchange reaction, ATP/Ca(2+) induces an ordered conformation of DNA, with preferentially perpendicular orientation of nucleobases relative to the filament axis, while the presence of ATP/Mg(2+), ADP/Mg(2+) or ADP/Ca(2+) does not. A high strand exchange activity is observed for the filament formed with ATP/Ca(2+), whereas the other filaments exhibit lower activity. Molecular modelling suggests that the structural variation is caused by the divalent cation interfering with the L2 loop close to the DNA-binding site. It is proposed that the larger Ca(2+) stabilizes the loop conformation and thereby the protein-DNA interaction. A tight binding of DNA, with bases perpendicularly oriented, could facilitate strand exchange.

  3. Human FAN1 promotes strand incision in 5'-flapped DNA complexed with RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Koichi; Hirayama, Emiko; Takata, Minoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a human infantile recessive disorder. Seventeen FA causal proteins cooperatively function in the DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair pathway. Dual DNA strand incisions around the crosslink are critical steps in ICL repair. FA-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1) is a DNA structure-specific endonuclease that is considered to be involved in DNA incision at the stalled replication fork. Replication protein A (RPA) rapidly assembles on the single-stranded DNA region of the stalled fork. However, the effect of RPA on the FAN1-mediated DNA incision has not been determined. In this study, we purified human FAN1, as a bacterially expressed recombinant protein. FAN1 exhibited robust endonuclease activity with 5'-flapped DNA, which is formed at the stalled replication fork. We found that FAN1 efficiently promoted DNA incision at the proper site of RPA-coated 5'-flapped DNA. Therefore, FAN1 possesses the ability to promote the ICL repair of 5'-flapped DNA covered by RPA. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Mouse RAD54 affects DNA double-strand break repair and sister chromatid exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.B. Beverloo (Berna); R.D. Johnson (Roger); M. Jasin (Maria); R. Kanaar (Roland); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); M.L.G. Dronkert (Mies)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractCells can achieve error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination through gene conversion with or without crossover. In contrast, an alternative homology-dependent DSB repair pathway, single-strand annealing (SSA), results in deletions. In this study, we

  5. UVA-induced DNA double-strand breaks result from the repair of clustered oxidative DNA damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, R.; Volkmer, B.; Henning, S.; Breitbart, E. W.; Greulich, K. O.; Cardoso, M. C.; Rapp, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    UVA (320–400 nm) represents the main spectral component of solar UV radiation, induces pre-mutagenic DNA lesions and is classified as Class I carcinogen. Recently, discussion arose whether UVA induces DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs). Only few reports link the induction of dsbs to UVA exposure and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the Comet-assay and γH2AX as markers for dsb formation, we demonstrate the dose-dependent dsb induction by UVA in G1-synchronized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and primary human skin fibroblasts. The number of γH2AX foci increases when a UVA dose is applied in fractions (split dose), with a 2-h recovery period between fractions. The presence of the anti-oxidant Naringin reduces dsb formation significantly. Using an FPG-modified Comet-assay as well as warm and cold repair incubation, we show that dsbs arise partially during repair of bi-stranded, oxidative, clustered DNA lesions. We also demonstrate that on stretched chromatin fibres, 8-oxo-G and abasic sites occur in clusters. This suggests a replication-independent formation of UVA-induced dsbs through clustered single-strand breaks via locally generated reactive oxygen species. Since UVA is the main component of solar UV exposure and is used for artificial UV exposure, our results shine new light on the aetiology of skin cancer. PMID:22941639

  6. Analytical model of the critical current of a bent Nb3Sn strand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Norikiyo; Murakami, Haruyuki; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The critical current performance of a large Nb 3 Sn cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) was degraded by periodic bending of strands due to a large transverse electromagnetic force. The degradation of each strand due to this bending should be evaluated in calculations of the critical current of a CICC, but a suitable model has not been developed yet. Therefore, the authors have developed a new analytical model which takes into account plastic deformation of copper and bronze and filament breakage. The calculated results were compared with test results for uniformly bent Nb 3 Sn bronze-route strands. The calculated results assuming a high transverse resistance model (HTRM) show good agreement with the test results, a finding which confirms the validity of the model. Because of a much shorter calculation time than for numerical simulation, the developed model seems much more practical for use in calculating the critical current performance of a Nb 3 Sn CICC. In addition, simulation results show that since the neutral axis of a bent strand shifts to the compressive side due to plastic deformation of the copper and bronze, and/or filament breakage, the strand is elongated by bending. This elongation may enhance the strand's critical current performance. Moreover, the calculated results indicate that the dependence of the critical current on the bending strain is affected by the bending history if the strand is excessively bent, especially when filaments are broken. In a real magnet, since a strand in a CICC is normally subject to the maximum electromagnetic force prior to an evaluation of its performance at a lower electromagnetic force, the effect of over-bending should be taken into account in calculations of its critical current performance, especially when filament breakage occurs.

  7. Nick translation detection in situ of cellular DNA strand break induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Y.; Anai, H.; Kusumoto, T.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Sugimachi, K.

    1989-01-01

    DNA strand break in HeLa cells induced by radiation was detected using the in situ nick translation method. The cells were exposed to radiation of 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 Gy in Lab-Tek tissue culture chamber/slides and were fixed with ethanol/acetic acid on the slide glass. The break sites in DNA were translated artificially in the presence of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and [ 3 H]-labeled dTTP. Autoradiographic observation was made of the level of break sites in the DNA. The DNA strand break appeared even with a 3 Gy exposure, increased 8.6 times at 24 Gy compared with the control cells, and this level correlated reciprocally to change in cell viability. This nick translation method provides a rapid in situ assay for determining radiation-induced DNA damage of cultured cells, in a semi-quantitative manner

  8. Double strand DNA breaks response in Huntington´s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolc, Petr; Valášek, Jan; Rausová, Petra; Juhásová, Jana; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 15-15 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington ´s disease * DNA damage * double strand DNA breaks Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  9. A conserved MCM single-stranded DNA binding element is essential for replication initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Clifford A; Kang, Sukhyun; Epling, Leslie B; Bell, Stephen P; Enemark, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    The ring-shaped MCM helicase is essential to all phases of DNA replication. The complex loads at replication origins as an inactive double-hexamer encircling duplex DNA. Helicase activation converts this species to two active single hexamers that encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The molecular details of MCM DNA interactions during these events are unknown. We determined the crystal structure of the Pyrococcus furiosus MCM N-terminal domain hexamer bound to ssDNA and define a conserved MCM-ssDNA binding motif (MSSB). Intriguingly, ssDNA binds the MCM ring interior perpendicular to the central channel with defined polarity. In eukaryotes, the MSSB is conserved in several Mcm2-7 subunits, and MSSB mutant combinations in S. cerevisiae Mcm2-7 are not viable. Mutant Mcm2-7 complexes assemble and are recruited to replication origins, but are defective in helicase loading and activation. Our findings identify an important MCM-ssDNA interaction and suggest it functions during helicase activation to select the strand for translocation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01993.001.

  10. Theoretical investigation of the production of strand breaks in DNA by water radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Magee, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A calculation has been made of the indirect action of radiation on SV40 DNA in dilute aqueous solution, including the extent of OH reaction with both the sugar moiety and the bases. A realistic DNA model is used along with a track model that gives the correct decay rates of hydrated electrons and OH radicals in pure water with the same calculational techniques. It was found, in agreement with experiment, that 80% of the OH attack on DNA is on the bases and 20% is on the sugar. It is estimated that the probability is almost non-existent ( -6 ) for two OH radicals from the same track or from two tracks to reach sugars on opposite strands within 12 base pairs from each other. Thus double strand breaks that depend linearly on the dose (as we find in a companion experimental programme) must arise from some other mechanism. The calculated single strand break probabilities are in good agreement with experiment. (author)

  11. Cisplatin enhances the formation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks by hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Sanche, Léon; Hunting, Darel J

    2013-03-01

    The synergistic interaction of cisplatin with ionizing radiation is the clinical rationale for the treatment of several cancers including head and neck, cervical and lung cancer. The underlying molecular mechanism of the synergy has not yet been identified, although both DNA damage and repair processes are likely involved. Here, we investigate the indirect effect of γ rays on strand break formation in a supercoiled plasmid DNA (pGEM-3Zf-) covalently modified by cisplatin. The yields of single- and double-strand breaks were determined by irradiation of DNA and cisplatin/DNA samples with (60)Co γ rays under four different scavenging conditions to examine the involvement of hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals in inducing the DNA damage. At 5 mM tris in an N2 atmosphere, the presence of an average of two cisplatins per plasmid increased the yields of single- and double-strand breaks by factors of 1.9 and 2.2, respectively, relative to the irradiated unmodified DNA samples. Given that each plasmid of 3,200 base pairs contained an average of two cisplatins, this represents an increase in radiosensitivity of 3,200-fold on a per base pair basis. When hydrated electrons were scavenged by saturating the samples with N2O, these enhancement factors decreased to 1.5 and 1.2, respectively, for single- and double-strand breaks. When hydroxyl radicals were scavenged using 200 mM tris, the respective enhancement factors were 1.2 and 1.6 for single- and double-strand breaks, respectively. Furthermore, no enhancement in DNA damage by cisplatin was observed after scavenging both hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons. These findings show that hydrated electrons can induce both single- and double-strand breaks in the platinated DNA, but not in unmodified DNA. In addition, cisplatin modification is clearly an extremely efficient means of increasing the formation of both single- and double-strand breaks by the hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals created by ionizing

  12. Some aspects of the mechanism of bacteriophage function. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifelder, D.

    1977-01-01

    Data are summarized from a ten-year study on the radiobiology of phages. The results showed that: phages are inactivated principally by damage to DNA; DNA damage is of two types, base damage and double-strand breakage; double-strand breakage may be lethal because of interruption within a gene, however in phage systems the damage is more fundamental in that only a single DNA fragment is injected into the host; E. coli phage T4 is relatively resistant to inactivation by x-rays; and the rate of production of strand breaks and base damage is nearly the same in bacteriophage and bacteria

  13. Single-strand breaks in supercoiled DNA induced by vacuum-UV radiation in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Hieda, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Ito, Atsushi; Ito, Takashi

    1986-09-01

    The induction of single-strand breaks in the DNA of plasmid pBR 322 by vacuum-UV radiation above 145 nm in aqueous solutions was studied in relation to the production of OH-radicals in water. The similarity and dissimilarity were examined on the wavelength dependence between the two effects. The maximum of single strand breaks at 150 nm could be explained by the action of OH-radicals derived from direct water photolysis: the maximum at 180 nm remains unexplained. There was no indication that the direct absorption of photon by the DNA molecule plays an important role in the production of single-strand breaks.

  14. Single-strand breaks in supercoiled DNA induced by vacuum-UV radiation in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Hieda, Kotaro; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Ito, Atsushi; Ito, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    The induction of single-strand breaks in the DNA of plasmid pBR 322 by vacuum-UV radiation above 145 nm in aqueous solutions was studied in relation to the production of OH-radicals in water. The similarity and dissimilarity were examined on the wavelength dependence between the two effects. The maximum of single strand breaks at 150 nm could be explained by the action of OH-radicals derived from direct water photolysis: the maximum at 180 nm remains unexplained. There was no indication that the direct absorption of photon by the DNA molecule plays an important role in the production of single-strand breaks. (author)

  15. SAMHD1 Sheds Moonlight on DNA Double-Strand Break Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Lobato, Maria Jose; Wang, Siyue; Schmidt, Christine Katrin

    2017-12-01

    SAMHD1 (sterile α motif and histidine (H) aspartate (D) domain-containing protein 1) is known for its antiviral activity of hydrolysing deoxynucleotides required for virus replication. Daddacha et al. identify a hydrolase-independent, moonlighting function of SAMHD1 that facilitates homologous recombination of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by promoting recruitment of C-terminal binding protein interacting protein (CTIP), a DNA-end resection factor, to damaged DNA. These findings could benefit anticancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Overproduction of single-stranded-DNA-binding protein specifically inhibits recombination of UV-irradiated bacteriophage DNA in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    Overproduction of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein (SSB) in uvr Escherichia coli mutants results in a wide range of altered phenotypes. (i) Cell survival after UV irradiation is decreased; (ii) expression of the recA-lexA regulon is slightly reduced after UV irradiation, whereas it is increased without irradiation; and (iii) recombination of UV-damaged lambda DNA is inhibited, whereas recombination of nonirradiated DNA is unaffected. These results are consistent with the idea that in UV-damaged bacteria, SSB is first required to allow the formation of short complexes of RecA protein and ssDNA that mediate cleavage of the LexA protein. However, in a second stage, SSB should be displaced from ssDNA to permit the production of longer RecA-ssDNA nucleoprotein filaments that are required for strand pairing and, hence, recombinational repair. Since bacteria overproducing SSB appear identical in physiological respects to recF mutant bacteria, it is suggested that the RecF protein (alone or with other proteins of the RecF pathway) may help RecA protein to release SSB from ssDNA

  17. Targeted detection of in vivo endogenous DNA base damage reveals preferential base excision repair in the transcribed strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, António M C; Mills, Wilbur K; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Friedberg, Errol C; Thompson, David; Queimado, Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous DNA damage is removed mainly via base excision repair (BER), however, whether there is preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage is still under intense debate. We developed a highly sensitive primer-anchored DNA damage detection assay (PADDA) to map and quantify in vivo endogenous DNA damage. Using PADDA, we documented significantly higher levels of endogenous damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase than in exponential phase. We also documented that yeast BER-defective cells have significantly higher levels of endogenous DNA damage than isogenic wild-type cells at any phase of growth. PADDA provided detailed fingerprint analysis at the single-nucleotide level, documenting for the first time that persistent endogenous nucleotide damage in CAN1 co-localizes with previously reported spontaneous CAN1 mutations. To quickly and reliably quantify endogenous strand-specific DNA damage in the constitutively expressed CAN1 gene, we used PADDA on a real-time PCR setting. We demonstrate that wild-type cells repair endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. In contrast, yeast BER-defective cells accumulate endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. These data provide the first direct evidence for preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage and documents the major role of BER in this process.

  18. Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrzanowska Krystyna H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome of chromosomal instability mainly characterized by microcephaly at birth, combined immunodeficiency and predisposition to malignancies. Due to a founder mutation in the underlying NBN gene (c.657_661del5 the disease is encountered most frequently among Slavic populations. The principal clinical manifestations of the syndrome are: microcephaly, present at birth and progressive with age, dysmorphic facial features, mild growth retardation, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and, in females, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Combined cellular and humoral immunodeficiency with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, a strong predisposition to develop malignancies (predominantly of lymphoid origin and radiosensitivity are other integral manifestations of the syndrome. The NBN gene codes for nibrin which, as part of a DNA repair complex, plays a critical nuclear role wherever double-stranded DNA ends occur, either physiologically or as a result of mutagenic exposure. Laboratory findings include: (1 spontaneous chromosomal breakage in peripheral T lymphocytes with rearrangements preferentially involving chromosomes 7 and 14, (2 sensitivity to ionizing radiation or radiomimetics as demonstrated in vitro by cytogenetic methods or by colony survival assay, (3 radioresistant DNA synthesis, (4 biallelic hypomorphic mutations in the NBN gene, and (5 absence of full-length nibrin protein. Microcephaly and immunodeficiency are common to DNA ligase IV deficiency (LIG4 syndrome and severe combined immunodeficiency with microcephaly, growth retardation, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation due to NHEJ1 deficiency (NHEJ1 syndrome. In fact, NBS was most commonly confused with Fanconi anaemia and LIG4 syndrome. Genetic counselling should inform parents of an affected child of the 25% risk for further children to be affected. Prenatal molecular genetic diagnosis is possible if disease

  19. Arranging eukaryotic nuclear DNA polymerases for replication: Specific interactions with accessory proteins arrange Pols α, δ, and ϵ in the replisome for leading-strand and lagging-strand DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A; Burgers, Peter M J

    2017-08-01

    Biochemical and cryo-electron microscopy studies have just been published revealing interactions among proteins of the yeast replisome that are important for highly coordinated synthesis of the two DNA strands of the nuclear genome. These studies reveal key interactions important for arranging DNA polymerases α, δ, and ϵ for leading and lagging strand replication. The CMG (Mcm2-7, Cdc45, GINS) helicase is central to this interaction network. These are but the latest examples of elegant studies performed in the recent past that lead to a much better understanding of how the eukaryotic replication fork achieves efficient DNA replication that is accurate enough to prevent diseases yet allows evolution. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Sequence-specific RNA Photocleavage by Single-stranded DNA in Presence of Riboflavin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Gangyi; Yuan, Yi; Li, Na; Dong, Juan; Huang, Xin; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    Constant efforts have been made to develop new method to realize sequence-specific RNA degradation, which could cause inhibition of the expression of targeted gene. Herein, by using an unmodified short DNA oligonucleotide for sequence recognition and endogenic small molecue, vitamin B2 (riboflavin) as photosensitizer, we report a simple strategy to realize the sequence-specific photocleavage of targeted RNA. The DNA strand is complimentary to the target sequence to form DNA/RNA duplex containing a G•U wobble in the middle. The cleavage reaction goes through oxidative elimination mechanism at the nucleoside downstream of U of the G•U wobble in duplex to obtain unnatural RNA terminal, and the whole process is under tight control by using light as switch, which means the cleavage could be carried out according to specific spatial and temporal requirements. The biocompatibility of this method makes the DNA strand in combination with riboflavin a promising molecular tool for RNA manipulation.

  1. Evaluation of the neutral comet assay for detection of alpha-particle induced DNA-double-strand-breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofbauer, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study was to differentiate DNA-double-strand-breaks from DNA-single-strand-breaks on a single cell level, using the comet assay after α- and γ-irradiation. Americium-241 was used as a alpha-irradiation-source, Caesium-137 was used for γ-irradiation. Because of technical problems with both the neutral and alkaline comet assay after irradiation of gastric cancer cells and human lymphocytes, no definite differentiation of DNA-damage was possible.

  2. Replication of UV-irradiated single-stranded DNA by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of Escherichia coli: evidence for bypass of pyrimidine photodimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livneh, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Replication of UV-irradiated circular single-stranded phage M13 DNA by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (EC 2.7.7.7) in the presence of single-stranded DNA binding protein yielded full-length as well as partially replicated products. A similar result was obtained with phage G4 DNA primed with E. coli DNA primase, and phage phi X174 DNA primed with a synthetic oligonucleotide. The fraction of full-length DNA was several orders of magnitude higher than predicted if pyrimidine photodimers were to constitute absolute blocks to DNA replication. Recent models have suggested that pyrimidine photodimers are absolute blocks to DNA replication and that SOS-induced proteins are required to allow their bypass. Our results demonstrate that, under in vitro replication conditions, E. coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme can insert nucleotides opposite pyrimidine dimers to a significant extent, even in the absence of SOS-induced proteins

  3. Enzymatic production of 'monoclonal stoichiometric' single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducani, Cosimo; Kaul, Corinna; Moche, Martin; Shih, William M; Högberg, Björn

    2013-07-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides are important as research tools, as diagnostic probes, in gene therapy and in DNA nanotechnology. Oligonucleotides are typically produced via solid-phase synthesis, using polymer chemistries that are limited relative to what biological systems produce. The number of errors in synthetic DNA increases with oligonucleotide length, and the resulting diversity of sequences can be a problem. Here we present the 'monoclonal stoichiometric' (MOSIC) method for enzyme-mediated production of DNA oligonucleotides. We amplified oligonucleotides from clonal templates derived from single bacterial colonies and then digested cutter hairpins in the products, which released pools of oligonucleotides with precisely controlled relative stoichiometric ratios. We prepared 14-378-nucleotide MOSIC oligonucleotides either by in vitro rolling-circle amplification or by amplification of phagemid DNA in Escherichia coli. Analyses of the formation of a DNA crystal and folding of DNA nanostructures confirmed the scalability, purity and stoichiometry of the produced oligonucleotides.

  4. Sequence-based separation of single-stranded DNA using nucleotides in capillary electrophoresis: focus on phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueru; McGown, Linda B

    2013-06-01

    DNA analysis has widespread applicability in biology, medicine, biotechnology, and forensics. DNA separation by length is readily achieved using sieving gels in electrophoresis. Separation by sequence is less simple, generally requiring adequate differences in native or induced conformation or differences in thermal or chemical stability of the strands that are hybridized prior to measurement. We previously demonstrated separation of four single-stranded DNA 76-mers that differ by only a few A-G substitutions based solely on sequence using guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP) in the running buffer. We attributed separation to the unique self-assembly of GMP to form higher order structures. Here, we examine an expanded set of 76-mers designed to probe the mechanism of the separation and effects of experimental conditions. We were surprised to find that other ribonucleotides achieved the similar separation to GMP, and that some separation was achieved using sodium phosphate instead of GMP. Potassium phosphate achieved almost as good separations as the ribonucleotides. This suggests that the separation medium provides a physicochemical environment for the DNA that effects strand migration in a sequence-selective manner. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the mechanism involves specific interactions between the phosphates and the DNA strands or is a result of other properties of the separation medium. Phosphate generally has been avoided in DNA separations by capillary gel electrophoresis because its high ionic strength exacerbates Joule heating. Our results suggest that phosphate compounds should be examined for separation of DNA based on sequence. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Oxygen-independent direct deoxyribonucleic acid backbone breakage caused by rose bengal and visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peak, M J; Peak, J G; Foote, C S; Krinsky, N I

    1984-01-01

    An oxygen enhancement ratio of 10 for the induction of backbone single-strand breaks (SSBs) in purified deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by monochromatic 365 nm UV radiation was obtained. Similarly, a dose reduction factor of 10 was observed when the DNA was irradiated in the presence of 0.1 M diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (DABCO). To determine whether this breakage of DNA was due to the action of a reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, we used the photosensitizing dye Rose Bengal and visible light as a system for generating singlet oxygen. Treatment of the DNA with Rose Bengal and 545 nm monochromatic light enhanced the rate of induction of SSBs six times, compared with the rate we obtained when the light was used alone. Elimination of oxygen or addition of 0.1 M DABCO during the 545 nm irradiation in the presence of Rose Bengal did not alter the enhancement of SSBs in the DNA caused by Rose Bengal and 545 nm radiation. The induction of SSBs in the DNA caused by irradiation of the DNA by 545 nm light in the presence of Rose Bengal was not enhanced by the use of D/sub 2/O instead of H/sub 2/O as a solvent. The results indicate that Rose Bengal plus visible light can cause biological damage without the intermediacy of reactive oxygen species, i.e. Rose Bengal and visible light can react directly with biological material, in reactions that appear to be type I photosensitized processes, independent of singlet oxygen as an intermediate.

  6. Mycobacteria exploit three genetically distinct DNA double-strand break repair pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Barkan, Daniel; Redelman-Sidi, Gil; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on their DNA repair pathways to resist genomic damage inflicted by the host. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are especially threatening to bacterial viability. DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR) requires nucleases that resect DSB ends and a strand exchange protein that facilitates homology search. RecBCD and RecA perform these functions in Escherichia coli and constitute the major pathway of error-free DSB repair. Mycobacteria, including the human pathogen M. tuberculosis, elaborate an additional error-prone pathway of DSB repair via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) catalysed by Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD). Little is known about the relative contributions of HR and NHEJ to mycobacterial chromosome repair, the factors that dictate pathway choice, or the existence of additional DSB repair pathways. Here we demonstrate that Mycobacterium smegmatis has three DSB repair pathway options: HR, NHEJ and a novel mechanism of single-strand annealing (SSA). Inactivation of NHEJ or SSA is compensated by elevated HR. We find that mycobacterial RecBCD does not participate in HR or confer resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), but is required for the RecA-independent SSA pathway. In contrast, the mycobacterial helicase-nuclease AdnAB participates in the RecA-dependent HR pathway, and is a major determinant of resistance to IR and oxidative DNA damage. These findings reveal distinctive features of mycobacterial DSB repair, most notably the dedication of the RecBCD and AdnAB helicase-nuclease machines to distinct repair pathways. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The adsorption-desorption transition of double-stranded DNA interacting with an oppositely charged dendrimer induced by multivalent anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yangwei; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Yaoyang; Deng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Linxi

    2014-05-28

    The adsorption-desorption transition of DNA in DNA-dendrimer solutions is observed when high-valence anions, such as hexavalent anions, are added to the DNA-dendrimer solutions. In the DNA-dendrimer solutions with low-valence anions, dendrimers bind tightly with the V-shaped double-stranded DNA. When high-valence anions, such as pentavalent or hexavalent anions, are added to the DNA-dendrimer solutions, the double-stranded DNA chains can be stretched straightly and the dendrimers are released from the double-stranded DNA chains. In fact, adding high-valence anions to the solutions can change the charge spatial distribution in the DNA-dendrimer solutions, and weaken the electrostatic interactions between the positively charged dendrimers and the oppositely charged DNA chains. Adsorption-desorption transition of DNA is induced by the overcharging of dendrimers. This investigation is capable of helping us understand how to control effectively the release of DNA in gene/drug delivery because an effective gene delivery for dendrimers includes non-covalent DNA-dendrimer binding and the effective release of DNA in gene therapy.

  8. Next-generation sequencing offers new insights into DNA degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Willerslev, Eske

    2012-01-01

    The processes underlying DNA degradation are central to various disciplines, including cancer research, forensics and archaeology. The sequencing of ancient DNA molecules on next-generation sequencing platforms provides direct measurements of cytosine deamination, depurination and fragmentation...... rates that previously were obtained only from extrapolations of results from in vitro kinetic experiments performed over short timescales. For example, recent next-generation sequencing of ancient DNA reveals purine bases as one of the main targets of postmortem hydrolytic damage, through base...... elimination and strand breakage. It also shows substantially increased rates of DNA base-loss at guanosine. In this review, we argue that the latter results from an electron resonance structure unique to guanosine rather than adenosine having an extra resonance structure over guanosine as previously suggested....

  9. Electrophoresis examination of strand breaks in plasmid DNA induced by low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yong; Tan Zheng; Du Yanhua; Qiu Guanying

    2003-01-01

    To study the effect on plasmid DNA of heavy ion in the energy range of keV where nuclear stopping interaction becomes more important or even predominant, thin film of plasmid pGEM-3Zf(-) DNA was prepared on aluminum surface and irradiated in vacuum ( -3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with energy of 30 keV (LET=285 keV/μm) at various fluence ranging from 2 x 10 10 to 8.2 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. Low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation induced single-, double- and multiple double-strand breaks (DSB) and multiple DSB as the dominating form of DNA damages. Moreover, the linear fluence-response relationship at a low fluence range suggests that DSBs are induced predominantly by single ion track. However, strand break production is limited to a short range in the irradiated samples

  10. Measurement of anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in major immunoglobulin classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aotsuka, S; Okawa, M; Ikebe, K; Yokohari, R [Division of Clinical Immunology, Clinical Research Institute, National Medical Center Hospital, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan

    1979-07-10

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for quantitating anti-double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid antibodies (anti-dsDNA) in IgG, IgM and IgA classes has been devised. A distinct feature of the method is an application of polystyrene tubes coated with poly-L-lysine, through which dsDNA could be bound firmly to a solid phase. Studies on patients sera as well as normal sera revealed that anti-dsDNA was not qualitatively but quantitatively characteristic of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and that IgG anti-dsDNA levels correlated well with the disease activity.

  11. Analysis of DNA strand break induction and repair in plants from the vicinity of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syomov, A.B.; Ptitsyna, S.N.; Sergeeva, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    For 3 years following the Chernobyl accident DNA repair efficiency was studied in irradiated and control populations of various plan species. Compared with the control populations, some irradiated populations exhibited increases in the yield of DNA single-strand breaks per unit dose of challenge radiation. The effect was registered in low-dose-rate alpha-irradiated populations, but was absent in plant populations growing in conditions of low-dose-rate beta-irradiation. The efficiency of single-strand DNA repair was identical in control and irradiated populations and approximated 100%. (author). 12 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  12. Single-strand DNA binding protein SSB1 facilitates TERT recruitment to telomeres and maintains telomere G-overhangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Raj K.; Chow, Tracy T.; Udayakumar, Durga; Bain, Amanda L.; Cubeddu, Liza; Hunt, Clayton R.; Shi, Wei; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Zhao, Yong; Wright, Woodring E.; Khanna, Kum Kum; Shay, Jerry W.; Pandita, Tej K.

    2015-01-01

    Proliferating mammalian stem and cancer cells express telomerase (TERT) in an effort to extend chromosomal G-overhangs and maintain telomere ends. Telomerase-expressing cells also have higher levels of the single-stranded DNA binding protein SSB1, which has a critical role in DNA double-strand break repair. Here we report that SSB1 binds specifically to G-strand telomeric DNA in vitro and associates with telomeres in vivo. SSB1 interacted with the TERT catalytic subunit and regulates its interaction with telomeres. Deletion of SSB1 reduced TERT interaction with telomeres and lead to G-overhang loss. While SSB1 was recruited to DSB sites, we found no corresponding change in TERT levels at these sites, implying that SSB1-TERT interaction relied upon a specific chromatin structure or context. Our findings offer an explanation for how telomerase is recruited to telomeres to facilitate G-strand DNA extension, a critical step in maintaining telomere ends and cell viability in all cancer cells. PMID:25589350

  13. APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in double-strand DNA break repair and cancer promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Kotler, Moshe

    2013-06-15

    High frequency of cytidine to thymidine conversions was identified in the genome of several types of cancer cells. In breast cancer cells, these mutations are clustered in long DNA regions associated with single-strand DNA (ssDNA), double-strand DNA breaks (DSB), and genomic rearrangements. The observed mutational pattern resembles the deamination signature of cytidine to uridine carried out by members of the APOBEC3 family of cellular deaminases. Consistently, APOBEC3B (A3B) was recently identified as the mutational source in breast cancer cells. A3G is another member of the cytidine deaminases family predominantly expressed in lymphoma cells, where it is involved in mutational DSB repair following ionizing radiation treatments. This activity provides us with a new paradigm for cancer cell survival and tumor promotion and a mechanistic link between ssDNA, DSBs, and clustered mutations. Cancer Res; 73(12); 3494-8. ©2013 AACR. ©2013 AACR.

  14. Thermodynamics for the Formation of Double-Stranded DNA-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Akiko; Toshimitsu, Fumiyuki; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, the thermodynamics are described for the formation of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA)-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids. This treatment is applied to the exchange reaction of sodium cholate (SC) molecules on SWNTs and the ds-DNAs d(A)20 -d(T)20 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB decoy. UV/Vis/near-IR spectroscopy with temperature variations was used for analyzing the exchange reaction on the SWNTs with four different chiralities: (n,m)=(8,3), (6,5), (7,5), and (8,6). Single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs), including d(A)20 and d(T)20, are also used for comparison. The d(A)20-d(T)20 shows a drastic change in its thermodynamic parameters around the melting temperature (Tm ) of the DNA oligomer. No such Tm dependency was measured, owing to high Tm in the NF-κB decoy DNA and no Tm in the ss-DNA. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Assessment of evidence for nanosized titanium dioxide-generated DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA in cells and animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Wils, Regitze Sølling

    2017-01-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been investigated in numerous studies on genotoxicity, including comet assay endpoints and oxidatively damaged DNA in cell cultures and animal models. The results have been surprisingly mixed, which might be attributed to physico-chemical differences...... culture studies also demonstrate increased levels of oxidatively damaged DNA after exposure to TiO2. There are relatively few studies on animal models where DNA strand breaks and oxidatively damaged DNA have been tested with reliable methods. Collectively, this review shows that exposure to nanosized TiO2...... of the tested TiO2. In the present review, we assess the role of certain methodological issues and publication bias. The analysis shows that studies on DNA strand breaks without proper assay controls or very low intra-group variation tend to show statistically significant effects. Levels of oxidatively damaged...

  16. Transcription and recombination: when RNA meets DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Andrés; Gaillard, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    A particularly relevant phenomenon in cell physiology and proliferation is the fact that spontaneous mitotic recombination is strongly enhanced by transcription. The most accepted view is that transcription increases the occurrence of double-strand breaks and/or single-stranded DNA gaps that are repaired by recombination. Most breaks would arise as a consequence of the impact that transcription has on replication fork progression, provoking its stalling and/or breakage. Here, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the cross talk between transcription and recombination, with emphasis on (1) the transcription-replication conflicts as the main source of recombinogenic DNA breaks, and (2) the formation of cotranscriptional R-loops as a major cause of such breaks. The new emerging questions and perspectives are discussed on the basis of the interference between transcription and replication, as well as the way RNA influences genome dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  17. Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the daughter DNA strands in uv-irradiated human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, A R; Kirk-Bell, S [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK)

    1978-03-01

    Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the newly-synthesized DNA were detected during post-replication repair of DNA in uv-irradiated human fibroblasts. These pyrimidine dimer sites were inferred from a decrease in the molecular weight of pulse-labelled DNA after treatment with an extract of Micrococcus luteus containing uv-specific endonuclease activity. In DNA synthesized immediately after irradiation, the frequency of these daughter strand dimer sites was 7 to 20% of that in the parental DNA. Such sites were found in fibroblasts from normal donors and from xeroderma pigmentosum patients (with defects in excision-repair or post-replication repair). They were excised from the DNA of normal cells. As the time between uv irradiation and pulse-labelling was increased, the frequency of dimer sites associated with the labelled DNA decreased. If the pulse-label was delivered 6 h after irradiation of normal cells or excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cells, no dimer sites were detected in the labelled DNA. It has usually been assumed that daughter-strand dimer sites were the result of recombinational exchanges. The assay procedure used in these experiments and in similar experiments of others did not distinguish between labelled DNA containing pyrimidine dimers within the labelled section, and labelled DNA which did not contain pyrimidine dimers but was attached to unlabelled DNA which did contain dimers. The latter structures would arise during normal replication immediately following uv irradiation of mammalian cells. Calculations are presented which suggest that a significant proportion and conceivably all of the dimer sites associated with the daughter strands may have arisen in this way, rather than from recombinational exchanges as has been generally assumed.

  18. Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the daughter DNA strands in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, A.R.; Kirk-Bell, S.

    1978-01-01

    Pyrimidine dimer sites associated with the newly-synthesized DNA were detected during post-replication repair of DNA in UV-irradiated human fibroblasts. These pyrimidine dimer sites were inferred from a decrease in the molecular weight of pulse-labelled DNA after treatment with an extract of Micrococcus luteus containing UV-specific endonuclease activity. In DNA synthesized immediately after irradiation the frequency of these daughter strand dimer sites was 7-20% of that in the parental DNA. Such sites were found in fibroblasts from normal donors and from xeroderma pigmentosum patients (with defects in excision-repair or post-replication repair). They were excised from the DNA of normal cells. As the time between UV-irradiation and pulse-labelling was increased, the frequency of dimer sites associated with the labelled DNA decreased. If the pulse-label was delivered 6 h after irradiation of normal cells or excision-defective xeroderma pigmentosum cells, no dimer sites were detected in the labelled DNA. It has usually been assumed that daughter-strand dimer sites were the result of recombinational exchanges. The assay procedure used in these experiments and in similar experiments of others did not distinguish between labelled DNA containing pyrimidine dimers within the labelled section, and labelled DNA which did not contain pyrimidine dimers but was attached to unlabelled DNA which did contain dimers. The latter structures would arise during normal replication immediately following UV-irradiation of mammalian cells. Calculations are presented which suggest that a significant proportion and conceivably all of the dimer sites associated with the daughter strands may have arisen in this way, rather than from recombinational exchanges as has been generally assumed. (author)

  19. Analysis of native cellular DNA after heavy ion irradiation: DNA double-strand breaks in CHO-K1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, J.; Taucher-Scholz, G.; Kraft, G.

    1994-11-01

    A fast assay for the detection of DNA double-strand breaks was developed involving constant field gel electrophoresis (Taucher-Scholz et al., 1994) and densitometric scanning of agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. With this technique, DSB induction was investigated after irradiation of CHO cells with carbon ions with LET values between 14 keV/μm and 400 keV/μm. In parallel, a computer code was developed to simulate both the principle of the electrophoretic detection of DNA double-strand breaks and the action of radiations of different ionization density. The results of the experiments and the calculations are presented here and compared with each other. (orig./HSI)

  20. SIRT6 stabilizes DNA-dependent protein kinase at chromatin for DNA double-strand break repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCord, Ronald A; Michishita, Eriko; Hong, Tao

    2009-01-01

    -PKcs) to chromatin in response to DNA damage and stabilizes DNA-PKcs at chromatin adjacent to an induced site-specific DSB. Abrogation of these SIRT6 activities leads to impaired resolution of DSBs. Together, these findings elucidate a mechanism whereby regulation of dynamic interaction of a DNA repair factor......-dependent protein kinase) and promotes DNA DSB repair. In response to DSBs, SIRT6 associates dynamically with chromatin and is necessary for an acute decrease in global cellular acetylation levels on histone H3 Lysine 9. Moreover, SIRT6 is required for mobilization of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA......, and SIRT6 knockout cells exhibit genomic instability and DNA damage hypersensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not fully understood. Here, we show that SIRT6 forms a macromolecular complex with the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor DNA-PK (DNA...

  1. Correlation between γ-ray-induced DNA double-strand breakage and cell killing after biologically relevant doses: analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the degree of correlation between γ-ray-induced lethality and DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) after biologically relevant doses of radiation. Radiation lethality was modified by treating 14 C-labelled Chinese hamster ovary cells with either of two aminothiols (WR-1065 or WR-255591) and the associated effect on dsb induction was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The use of phosphorimaging to analyse the distribution of 14 C-activity in the gel greatly improved the low-dose resolution of the PFGE assay. Both WR-1065 and WR-255591 protected against dsb induction and lethality to a similar extent after low doses of radiation. although this correlation broke down when supralethal doses were used to induce dsbs. Thus, the level of dsbs induced in these cells as measured by PFGE after survival-curve doses of γ-radiation is consistently predictive of the degree of lethality obtained, implying a cause-effect relationship between these two parameters and confirming previous results obtained using the neutral filter elution assay for dsbs. (author)

  2. Radiolysis of chromatin extracted from cultured mammalian cells: production of alkali-labile strand damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.K.; Adelstein, S.J.; Stein, G.

    1978-01-01

    Chromatin has been isolated from cultured Chinese-hamster lung fibroblasts as an expanded aqueous gel. The DNA in isolated chromatin has been examined by sedimentation on alkaline sucrose gradients. The average molecular weight of the DNA has been determined to be 50 million. γ -irradiation of isolated chromatin degraded the DNA to lower molecular weight. The yield of single-strand breaks in the DNA was 0.02 single-strand breaks per krad-10 6 dalton, calculated from a dose-range of 1 to 400 krad and covering a DNA molecular weight range of 2 x 10 7 to 1.4 x 10 5 . There was a considerable difference in the efficiency of the formation of single-strand breaks in DNA irradiated as isolated chromatin compared with chromatin irradiated in whole cells before isolation. For isolated chromatin, values of 6 eV per break have been calculated compared with about 80 eV per break for chromatin irradiated in whole cells, which suggest a large contribution from indirect action by aqueous radicals in isolated chromatin. (author)

  3. Destabilized SMC5/6 complex leads to chromosome breakage syndrome with severe lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Hennus, Marije P.; McGregor, Grant A.; Ritter, Deborah I.; Nagamani, Sandesh C.S.; Wells, Owen S.; Harakalova, Magdalena; Chinn, Ivan K.; Alt, Aaron; Vondrova, Lucie; Hochstenbach, Ron; van Montfrans, Joris M.; Terheggen-Lagro, Suzanne W.; van Lieshout, Stef; van Roosmalen, Markus J.; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen; Nijman, Isaac J.; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Hennekam, Eric; van Hasselt, Peter M.; Wheeler, David A.; Palecek, Jan J.; Lehmann, Alan R.; Oliver, Antony W.; Pearl, Laurence H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Murray, Johanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins supports mitotic proliferation, meiosis, and DNA repair to control genomic stability. Impairments in chromosome maintenance are linked to rare chromosome breakage disorders. Here, we have identified a chromosome breakage syndrome associated with severe lung disease in early childhood. Four children from two unrelated kindreds died of severe pulmonary disease during infancy following viral pneumonia with evidence of combined T and B cell immunodeficiency. Whole exome sequencing revealed biallelic missense mutations in the NSMCE3 (also known as NDNL2) gene, which encodes a subunit of the SMC5/6 complex that is essential for DNA damage response and chromosome segregation. The NSMCE3 mutations disrupted interactions within the SMC5/6 complex, leading to destabilization of the complex. Patient cells showed chromosome rearrangements, micronuclei, sensitivity to replication stress and DNA damage, and defective homologous recombination. This work associates missense mutations in NSMCE3 with an autosomal recessive chromosome breakage syndrome that leads to defective T and B cell function and acute respiratory distress syndrome in early childhood. PMID:27427983

  4. TH-CD-201-11: Optimizing the Response and Cost of a DNA Double-Strand Break Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeidat, M; Cline, K; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N; Rasmussen, K; Gutierrez, A; Ha, CS; Lee, SE; Shim, EY; Kirby, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A DNA double-strand break (DSB) dosimeter was developed to measure the biological effect of radiation. The goal here is to refine the fabrication method of this dosimeter to reproducibly create a low coefficient of variation (CoV) and reduce the cost for the dosimeter. Methods: Our dosimeter consists of 4 kilo-base pair DNA strands (labeled on one end with biotin and on the other with fluorescein) attached to streptavidin magnetic beads. The final step of the DNA dosimeter fabrication is to suspend these attached beads in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The amount of PBS used to suspend the attached beads and the relative volume of the DNA strands to the beads both affect the CoV and dosimeter cost. We diluted the beads attached with DNA in different volumes of PBS (100, 200, and 400 µL) to create different concentrations of the DNA dosimeter. Then we irradiated these dosimeters (50 µL samples) in a water-equivalent plastic phantom at 25 and 50 Gy (three samples per dose) and calculated the CoV for each dosimeter concentration. Also, we used different masses of DNA strands (1, 2, 8, 16, 24, and 32 µg) to attach to the same volume of magnetic beads (100 µL) to explore how this affects the cost of the dosimeter. Results: The lowest CoV was produced for the highest concentration of dosimeter (100 µL of PBS), which created CoV of 2.0 and 1.0% for 25 and 50 Gy, respectively. We found that the lowest production cost for the dosimeter occurs by attaching 16 µg of DNA strands with 100 µL of beads. Conclusion: : We optimized the fabrication of the DNA dosimeter to produce low CoV and cost, but we still need to explore ways to further improve the dosimeter for use at lower doses. This work was supported in part by Yarmouk University (Irbid, Jordan) and CPRIT (RP140105)

  5. Transcription blockage by homopurine DNA sequences: role of sequence composition and single-strand breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, Boris P.; Neil, Alexander J.; Saleh, Syed Shayon; Shin, Jane Hae Soo; Mirkin, Sergei M.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of DNA to adopt non-canonical structures can affect transcription and has broad implications for genome functioning. We have recently reported that guanine-rich (G-rich) homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences cause significant blockage of transcription in vitro in a strictly orientation-dependent manner: when the G-rich strand serves as the non-template strand [Belotserkovskii et al. (2010) Mechanisms and implications of transcription blockage by guanine-rich DNA sequences., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 12816–12821]. We have now systematically studied the effect of the sequence composition and single-stranded breaks on this blockage. Although substitution of guanine by any other base reduced the blockage, cytosine and thymine reduced the blockage more significantly than adenine substitutions, affirming the importance of both G-richness and the homopurine-homopyrimidine character of the sequence for this effect. A single-strand break in the non-template strand adjacent to the G-rich stretch dramatically increased the blockage. Breaks in the non-template strand result in much weaker blockage signals extending downstream from the break even in the absence of the G-rich stretch. Our combined data support the notion that transcription blockage at homopurine-homopyrimidine sequences is caused by R-loop formation. PMID:23275544

  6. Repair of single-strand breaks induced in the DNA of Proteus mirabilis by excision repair after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.; Mund, C.

    1977-01-01

    Single-strand breaks have been produced in the DNA of P. mirabilis after UV-irradiation in dependence on the incident UV-doses. It has been found that there exists a discrepancy between the single-strand breaks estimated from sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients and the expected single-strand breaks approximated from measurements of dimer excision. The low number in incision breaks observed by sedimentation experiments is an indication that the cells are able to repair the excision-induced breaks as fast as they are formed. Toluenized cells have been used for investigation of the incision step independently of subsequent repair processes. In presence of NMN the appearance of more single-strand breaks in the DNA has been observed. Furthermore, the number of incision breaks in toluenized cells increased in presence of exogenous ATP. The completion of the excision repair process has been investigated by observing the rejoining of incision breaks. After irradiation with UV-doses higher than approximately 240 erg/mm 2 the number of single-strand breaks remaining unrepaired in the DNA increased. Studies of the influence of nutrition conditions on the repair process have shown approximately the same capacity for repair of single-strand breaks in growth medium as well as in buffer. Progress in the excision repair was also followed by investigation of the DNA synthesized at the template-DNA containing the pyrimidine dimers. In comparison with E. coli, P. mirabilis showed a somewhat lower efficiency for the repair of single-strand breaks during the excision repair. (author)

  7. Automated methods for single-stranded DNA isolation and dideoxynucleotide DNA sequencing reactions on a robotic workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardis, E.R.; Roe, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Automated procedures have been developed for both the simultaneous isolation of 96 single-stranded M13 chimeric template DNAs in less than two hours, and for simultaneously pipetting 24 dideoxynucleotide sequencing reactions on a commercially available laboratory workstation. The DNA sequencing results obtained by either radiolabeled or fluorescent methods are consistent with the premise that automation of these portions of DNA sequencing projects will improve the reproducibility of the DNA isolation and the procedures for these normally labor-intensive steps provides an approach for rapid acquisition of large amounts of high quality, reproducible DNA sequence data

  8. The prion protein has DNA strand transfer properties similar to retroviral nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, C; Auxilien, S; Péchoux, C; Dormont, D; Swietnicki, W; Morillas, M; Surewicz, W; Nandi, P; Darlix, J L

    2001-04-06

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the cellular prion protein (PrP). Although PrP is highly conserved and widely expressed in vertebrates, its function remains a matter of speculation. Indeed PrP null mice develop normally and are healthy. Recent results show that PrP binds to nucleic acids in vitro and is found associated with retroviral particles. Furthermore, in mice the scrapie infectious process appears to be accelerated by MuLV replication. These observations prompted us to further investigate the interaction between PrP and nucleic acids, and compare it with that of the retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC). As the major nucleic acid-binding protein of the retroviral particle, NC protein is tightly associated with the genomic RNA in the virion nucleocapsid, where it chaperones proviral DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase. Our results show that the human prion protein (huPrP) functionally resembles NCp7 of HIV-1. Both proteins form large nucleoprotein complexes upon binding to DNA. They accelerate the hybridization of complementary DNA strands and chaperone viral DNA synthesis during the minus and plus DNA strand transfers necessary to generate the long terminal repeats. The DNA-binding and strand transfer properties of huPrP appear to map to the N-terminal fragment comprising residues 23 to 144, whereas the C-terminal domain is inactive. These findings suggest that PrP could be involved in nucleic acid metabolism in vivo. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Deficiency of Double-Strand DNA Break Repair Does Not Impair Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence in Multiple Animal Models of Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Brook E.; Barkan, Daniel; Bongiorno, Paola; Karakousis, Petros C.; Glickman, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence within its human host requires mechanisms to resist the effector molecules of host immunity, which exert their bactericidal effects through damaging pathogen proteins, membranes, and DNA. Substantial evidence indicates that bacterial pathogens, including M. tuberculosis, require DNA repair systems to repair the DNA damage inflicted by the host during infection, but the role of double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair systems is unclear. Double-strand DNA bre...

  10. Virtual Cross-Linking of the Active Nemorubicin Metabolite PNU-159682 to Double-Stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Matteo; Quintieri, Luigi; Palumbo, Manlio; Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Gatto, Barbara

    2017-02-20

    The DNA alkylating mechanism of PNU-159682 (PNU), a highly potent metabolite of the anthracycline nemorubicin, was investigated by gel-electrophoretic, HPLC-UV, and micro-HPLC/mass spectrometry (MS) measurements. PNU quickly reacted with double-stranded oligonucleotides, but not with single-stranded sequences, to form covalent adducts which were detectable by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (DPAGE). Ion-pair reverse-phase HPLC-UV analysis on CG rich duplex sequences having a 5'-CCCGGG-3' central core showed the formation of two types of adducts with PNU, which were stable and could be characterized by micro-HPLC/MS. The first type contained one alkylated species (and possibly one reversibly bound species), and the second contained two alkylated species per duplex DNA. The covalent adducts were found to produce effective bridging of DNA complementary strands through the formation of virtual cross-links reminiscent of those produced by classical anthracyclines in the presence of formaldehyde. Furthermore, the absence of reactivity of PNU with CG-rich sequence containing a TA core (CGTACG), and the minor reactivity between PNU and CGC sequences (TACGCG·CGCGTA) pointed out the importance of guanine sequence context in modulating DNA alkylation.

  11. A soluble RecN homologue provides means for biochemical and genetic analysis of DNA double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jane I; Wood, Stuart R; Briggs, Geoffrey S; Oldham, Neil J; Lloyd, Robert G

    2009-12-03

    RecN is a highly conserved, SMC-like protein in bacteria. It plays an important role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and is therefore a key factor in maintaining genome integrity. The insolubility of Escherichia coli RecN has limited efforts to unravel its function. We overcame this limitation by replacing the resident coding sequence with that of Haemophilus influenzae RecN. The heterologous construct expresses Haemophilus RecN from the SOS-inducible E. coli promoter. The hybrid gene is fully functional, promoting survival after I-SceI induced DNA breakage, gamma irradiation or exposure to mitomycin C as effectively as the native gene, indicating that the repair activity is conserved between these two species. H. influenzae RecN is quite soluble, even when expressed at high levels, and is readily purified. Its analysis by ionisation-mass spectrometry, gel filtration and glutaraldehyde crosslinking indicates that it is probably a dimer under physiological conditions, although a higher multimer cannot be excluded. The purified protein displays a weak ATPase activity that is essential for its DNA repair function in vivo. However, no DNA-binding activity was detected, which contrasts with RecN from Bacillus subtilis. RecN proteins from Aquifex aeolicus and Bacteriodes fragilis also proved soluble. Neither binds DNA, but the Aquifex RecN has weak ATPase activity. Our findings support studies indicating that RecN, and the SOS response in general, behave differently in E. coli and B. subtilis. The hybrid recN reported provides new opportunities to study the genetics and biochemistry of how RecN operates in E. coli.

  12. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gosálvez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL, 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL, and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  13. 5-bp Classical Satellite DNA Loci from Chromosome-1 Instability in Cervical Neoplasia Detected by DNA Breakage Detection/Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (DBD-FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Ortíz-Hernández, Brenda L; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Fernández, José Luis; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2013-02-19

    We aimed to evaluate the association between the progressive stages of cervical neoplasia and DNA damage in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 in cervical epithelium and in peripheral blood lymphocytes using DNA breakage detection/fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 30 women grouped according to disease stage and selected according to histological diagnosis; 10 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL), 10 with high-grade SIL (HG-SIL), and 10 with no cervical lesions, from the Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad of The Mexican Social Security Institute, IMSS, Mexico. Specific chromosome damage levels in 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 were evaluated in cervical epithelium and peripheral blood lymphocytes using the DBD-FISH technique. Whole-genome DNA hybridization was used as a reference for the level of damage. Results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant increase according to neoplastic development in both tissues. The instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1 was evidenced using chromosome-orientation FISH. In conclusion, we suggest that the progression to malignant transformation involves an increase in the instability of 5-bp classical satellite DNA sequences from chromosome-1.

  14. Defective double-strand DNA break repair and chromosomal translocations by MYC overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Asa; Deb-Basu, Debabrita; Cherry, Athena; Turner, Stephanie; Ford, James; Felsher, Dean W

    2003-08-19

    DNA repair mechanisms are essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Disruption of gene products responsible for DNA repair can result in chromosomal damage. Improperly repaired chromosomal damage can result in the loss of chromosomes or the generation of chromosomal deletions or translocations, which can lead to tumorigenesis. The MYC protooncogene is a transcription factor whose overexpression is frequently associated with human neoplasia. MYC has not been previously implicated in a role in DNA repair. Here we report that the overexpression of MYC disrupts the repair of double-strand DNA breaks, resulting in a several-magnitude increase in chromosomal breaks and translocations. We found that MYC inhibited the repair of gamma irradiation DNA breaks in normal human cells and blocked the repair of a single double-strand break engineered to occur in an immortal cell line. By spectral karyotypic analysis, we found that MYC even within one cell division cycle resulted in a several-magnitude increase in the frequency of chromosomal breaks and translocations in normal human cells. Hence, MYC overexpression may be a previously undescribed example of a dominant mutator that may fuel tumorigenesis by inducing chromosomal damage.

  15. Micronuclei, DNA single-strand breaks and DNA-repair activity in mice exposed to 1,3-butadiene by inhalation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vodička, Pavel; Štětina, R.; Šmerák, P.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Bárta, I.; Hemminki, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 608, - (2006), s. 49-57 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/01/0802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Single-strand DNA breaks * Micronucleus formation * DNA-repair activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2006

  16. The Ku Heterodimer and the Metabolism of Single-Ended DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Balestrini (Alessia); D. Ristic (Dejan); I. Dionne (Isabelle); X.Z. Liu (Xiao); C. Wyman (Claire); R.J. Wellinger (Raymund); J.H.J. Petrini (John)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSingle-ended double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a common form of spontaneous DNA break, generated when the replisome encounters a discontinuity in the DNA template. Given their prevalence, understanding the mechanisms governing the fate(s) of single-ended DSBs is important. We describe the

  17. Assembly and function of DNA double-strand break repair foci in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2010-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most cytotoxic types of DNA damage, which if left unrepaired can lead to mutations or gross chromosomal aberrations, and promote the onset of diseases associated with genomic instability such as cancer. One of the most discernible hallmarks...

  18. Regulation of DNA double-strand break repair by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwertman, Petra; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions. The swift recognition and faithful repair of such damage is crucial for the maintenance of genomic stability, as well as for cell and organismal fitness. Signalling by ubiquitin, SUMO and other ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs...

  19. A model treating the DNA double-strand break repair inhibition by damage clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, M.; Abel, H.; Regel, K.

    1992-01-01

    A microdosimetric model for the interpretation of radiation induced irreparable DNA double-strand breaks was applied to the biological endpoint of chromosomal aberrations. The model explains irreparable DNA double-strand breaks in terms of break clustering in DNA subunits. The model predicts quite good chromosomal aberrations in gamma- and X-ray irradiated V79 cells and human lymphocytes. In the case of α-particle irradiation the presumption had to be made, that only the cells with indirect events in the nucleus (due to delta-electrons) reach the metaphase and are analysed. With the help of this model we are able to explain the peculiar effectiveness of ultrasoft C-X-rays in human lymphocytes. In addition, an interpretation of experiments with accelerated and spatially correlated particles is given. (author)

  20. Extensive and equivalent repair in both radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive E. coli determined by a DNA-unwinding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnstroem, G.; George, A.M.; Cramp, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of strand breakage and repair in irradiated E. coli B/r and Bsub(s-l) was studied using a DNA-unwinding technique in denaturing conditions of weak alkali. Although these two strains showed widely different response to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation, they both had an equal capacity to repair radiation-induced breaks in DNA. Oxygen enhancement ratios for the killing of B/r and Bsub(s-l) were respectively 4 and 2; but after repair in non-nutrient or nutrient post-irradiation conditions, the oxygen enhancement values for the residual strand breaks were always the same for the two strains. The equal abilities of E.coli B/r and E.coli Bsub(s-l) to remove the strand breaks measured by this weak-alkali technqiue has led to the suggestion that some other type of damage to either DNA or another macromolecule may play a major role in determining whether or not the cells survive to proliferate. (author)

  1. Extensive and equivalent repair in both radiation-resistant and radiation-sensitive E. coli determined by a DNA-unwinding technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnstroem, G [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); George, A M; Cramp, W A

    1978-10-01

    The extent of strand breakage and repair in irradiated E. coli B/r and Bsub(s-l) was studied using a DNA-unwinding technique in denaturing conditions of weak alkali. Although these two strains showed widely different response to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation, they both had an equal capacity to repair radiation-induced breaks in DNA. Oxygen enhancement ratios for the killing of B/r and Bsub(s-l) were respectively 4 and 2; but after repair in non-nutrient or nutrient post-irradiation conditions, the oxygen enhancement values for the residual strand breaks were always the same for the two strains. The equal abilities of E.coli B/r and E.coli Bsub(s-l) to remove the strand breaks measured by this weak-alkali technqiue has led to the suggestion that some other type of damage to either DNA or another macromolecule may play a major role in determining whether or not the cells survive to proliferate.

  2. In-stem labelling allows visualization of DNA strand displacements by distinct fluorescent colour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrois, Sebastian; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2013-05-21

    The combination of thiazole orange (TO) and thiazole red (TR) as an internal pair of fluorescent DNA base surrogates ("DNA traffic lights") allows us to follow at least two consecutive DNA strand displacements in real time through a distinct fluorescence colour change from green to red and vice versa.

  3. Detection of DNA damage based on metal-mediated molecular beacon and DNA strands displacement reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanxiang; Wei, Min; Wei, Wei; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Liu, Songqin

    2014-01-01

    DNA hairpin structure probes are usually designed by forming intra-molecular duplex based on Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. In this paper, a molecular beacon based on silver ions-mediated cytosine-Ag+-cytosine base pairs was used to detect DNA. The inherent characteristic of the metal ligation facilitated the design of functional probe and the adjustment of its binding strength compared to traditional DNA hairpin structure probes, which make it be used to detect DNA in a simple, rapid and easy way with the help of DNA strands displacement reaction. The method was sensitive and also possesses the good specificity to differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was also successfully applied to study the damage effect of classic genotoxicity chemicals such as styrene oxide and sodium arsenite on DNA, which was significant in food science, environmental science and pharmaceutical science.

  4. Alterations in the nuclear matrix protein mass correlate with heat-induced inhibition of DNA single-strand-break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warters, R.L.; Brizgys, L.M.; Lyons, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The total protein mass co-isolating with the nuclear matrix or nucleoid from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was observed to increase in heated cells as a function of increasing exposure temperature between 43 0 C and 45 0 C or of exposure time at any temperature. The sedimentation distance of the CHO cell nucleoid in sucrose gradients increased with increasing exposure time at 45 0 C. Both these nuclear alterations correlated in a log-linear manner with heat-induced inhibition of DNA strand break repair. A two-fold threshold increase in nuclear matrix protein mass preceded any substantial inhibition of repair of DNA single-strand breaks. When preheated cells were incubated at 37 0 C the nuclear matrix protein mass and nucleoid sedimentation recovered with a half-time of about 5 h, while DNA single-strand-break repair recovered with a half-time of about 2 h. When preheated cells were placed at 41 0 C a further increase was observed in the nuclear matrix protein mass and the half-time of DNA strand break repair, while nucleoid sedimentation recovered toward control values. These results implicate alterations in the protein mass of the nuclear matrix in heat-induced inhibition of repair of DNA single-strand breaks. (author)

  5. Single-strand DNA-binding protein SSB1 facilitates TERT recruitment to telomeres and maintains telomere G-overhangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Raj K; Chow, Tracy T; Udayakumar, Durga; Bain, Amanda L; Cubeddu, Liza; Hunt, Clayton R; Shi, Wei; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Zhao, Yong; Wright, Woodring E; Khanna, Kum Kum; Shay, Jerry W; Pandita, Tej K

    2015-03-01

    Proliferating mammalian stem and cancer cells express telomerase [telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)] in an effort to extend chromosomal G-overhangs and maintain telomere ends. Telomerase-expressing cells also have higher levels of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein SSB1, which has a critical role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we report that SSB1 binds specifically to G-strand telomeric DNA in vitro and associates with telomeres in vivo. SSB1 interacts with the TERT catalytic subunit and regulates its interaction with telomeres. Deletion of SSB1 reduces TERT interaction with telomeres and leads to G-overhang loss. Although SSB1 is recruited to DSB sites, we found no corresponding change in TERT levels at these sites, implying that SSB1-TERT interaction relies upon a specific chromatin structure or context. Our findings offer an explanation for how telomerase is recruited to telomeres to facilitate G-strand DNA extension, a critical step in maintaining telomere ends and cell viability in all cancer cells. Cancer Res; 75(5); 858-69. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. DNA damage produced by exposure of supercoiled plasmid DNA to high- and low-LET ionizing radiation: Effects of hydroxyl radical quenchers. DNA breakage, neutrons, OH radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, J.G.; Ito, T.; Peak, M.J.; Robb, F.T.

    1994-01-01

    A supercoiled plasmid of 7300 base pairs was isolated and exposed in an aqueous environment to 60 Co γ rays and JANUS 0.85 MeV fission-spectrum neutrons. Dose responses for the production of single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs) and alkali-labile sites (ALSs) were compared with computations made from the conversion of the supercoil to its relaxed and linear forms. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for production of SSBs and DSBs was similar to that previously measured in the cellular environment. The RBE for destruction of genetic transforming activity of M13 viral DNA followed that for DNA damage. This is in contrast to the situation for biological effects such as lethality, mutagenesis, and cellular transformation measured in mammalian cells, where the RBE values are reversed. The role of hydroxyl (OH) radical in DNA damage induction by neutrons was investigated by exposure of plasmid in the presence of known quenchers of this species. Of four quenchers tested, all were able to reduce the yields of both SSBs and DSBs. These findings are consistent with a model for SSB and DSB induction by high linear energy transfer that involves OH radical mediation

  7. DNA polymerase I-mediated repair of 365 nm-induced single-strand breaks in the DNA of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, R D; Sedita, B A; Boye, E [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)

    1978-03-01

    Irradiation of closed circular phage lambda DNA in vivo at 365 nm results in the induction of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile lesions at rates of 1.1 x 10/sup -14/ and 0.2 x 10/sup -14//dalton/J/m/sup 2/, respectively. The sum of the induction rates is similar to the rate of induction of single-strand breaks plus alkali-labile lesions (1 x 10/sup -14//dalton/J/m/sup 2/) observed in the E. coli genome. Postirradiation incubation of wild-type cells in buffer results in rapid repair of the breaks (up to 80% repaired in 10 min). No repair was observed in a DNA polymerase I-deficient mutant of E.coli.

  8. Rolling replication of UV-irradiated duplex DNA in the phi X174 replicative-form----single-strand replication system in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavitt, O.; Livneh, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Cloning of the phi X174 viral origin of replication into phage M13mp8 produced an M13-phi X174 chimera, the DNA of which directed efficient replicative-form----single-strand rolling replication in vitro. This replication assay was performed with purified phi X174-encoded gene A protein, Escherichia coli rep helicase, single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. The nicking of replicative-form I (RFI) DNA by gene A protein was essentially unaffected by the presence of UV lesions in the DNA. However, unwinding of UV-irradiated DNA by the rep helicase was inhibited twofold as compared with unwinding of the unirradiated substrate. UV irradiation of the substrate DNA caused a strong inhibition in its ability to direct DNA synthesis. However, even DNA preparations that contained as many as 10 photodimers per molecule still supported the synthesis of progeny full-length single-stranded DNA. The appearance of full-length radiolabeled products implied at least two full rounds of replication, since the first round released the unlabeled plus viral strand of the duplex DNA. Pretreatment of the UV-irradiated DNA substrate with purified pyrimidine dimer endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, which converted photodimer-containing supercoiled RFI DNA into relaxed, nicked RFII DNA and thus prevented its replication, reduced DNA synthesis by 70%. Analysis of radiolabeled replication products by agarose gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed that this decrease was due to a reduction in the synthesis of progeny full-length single-stranded DNA. This implies that 70 to 80% of the full-length DNA products produced in this system were synthesized on molecules that carried photodimers

  9. Fragile DNA Motifs Trigger Mutagenesis at Distant Chromosomal Loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Natalie; Zhang, Yu; Nishida, Yuri; Sheng, Ziwei; Choudhury, Shilpa; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Lobachev, Kirill S.

    2013-01-01

    DNA sequences capable of adopting non-canonical secondary structures have been associated with gross-chromosomal rearrangements in humans and model organisms. Previously, we have shown that long inverted repeats that form hairpin and cruciform structures and triplex-forming GAA/TTC repeats induce the formation of double-strand breaks which trigger genome instability in yeast. In this study, we demonstrate that breakage at both inverted repeats and GAA/TTC repeats is augmented by defects in DNA replication. Increased fragility is associated with increased mutation levels in the reporter genes located as far as 8 kb from both sides of the repeats. The increase in mutations was dependent on the presence of inverted or GAA/TTC repeats and activity of the translesion polymerase Polζ. Mutagenesis induced by inverted repeats also required Sae2 which opens hairpin-capped breaks and initiates end resection. The amount of breakage at the repeats is an important determinant of mutations as a perfect palindromic sequence with inherently increased fragility was also found to elevate mutation rates even in replication-proficient strains. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism for mutagenesis induced by fragile motifs involves the formation of long single-stranded regions in the broken chromosome, invasion of the undamaged sister chromatid for repair, and faulty DNA synthesis employing Polζ. These data demonstrate that repeat-mediated breaks pose a dual threat to eukaryotic genome integrity by inducing chromosomal aberrations as well as mutations in flanking genes. PMID:23785298

  10. RNA polymerase gate loop guides the nontemplate DNA strand in transcription complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NandyMazumdar, Monali; Nedialkov, Yuri; Svetlov, Dmitri; Sevostyanova, Anastasia; Belogurov, Georgiy A; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2016-12-27

    Upon RNA polymerase (RNAP) binding to a promoter, the σ factor initiates DNA strand separation and captures the melted nontemplate DNA, whereas the core enzyme establishes interactions with the duplex DNA in front of the active site that stabilize initiation complexes and persist throughout elongation. Among many core RNAP elements that participate in these interactions, the β' clamp domain plays the most prominent role. In this work, we investigate the role of the β gate loop, a conserved and essential structural element that lies across the DNA channel from the clamp, in transcription regulation. The gate loop was proposed to control DNA loading during initiation and to interact with NusG-like proteins to lock RNAP in a closed, processive state during elongation. We show that the removal of the gate loop has large effects on promoter complexes, trapping an unstable intermediate in which the RNAP contacts with the nontemplate strand discriminator region and the downstream duplex DNA are not yet fully established. We find that although RNAP lacking the gate loop displays moderate defects in pausing, transcript cleavage, and termination, it is fully responsive to the transcription elongation factor NusG. Together with the structural data, our results support a model in which the gate loop, acting in concert with initiation or elongation factors, guides the nontemplate DNA in transcription complexes, thereby modulating their regulatory properties.

  11. Repair pathways for heavy ion-induced complex DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Hirohiko; Nakajima, Nakako; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Murakami, Takeshi; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Fujimori, Akira

    2012-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) is a deleterious damage leading to cell death and genome instability if not properly repaired. It is well known that DSB is repaired by two major pathways, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). It is also known that NHEJ is dominant throughout the cell cycle after X- or gamma-ray irradiation in mammalian cells, Meanwhile, it is thought that heavy-ion radiation (e.g., carbon-ions, iron-ions) gives rise to clustered DNA damages consisting of not only strand breaks but also aberrant bases in the vicinity of DSBs (complex DSBs). Our previous work suggested that the efficiency of NHEJ is diminished for repair of complex DSBs induced by heavy-ion radiation. We thought that this difficulty in NHEJ process associated with heavy ion induced complex DNA damage might be extended to HR process in cells exposed to heavy ions. In order to find out if this notion is true or not, exposed human cells to X-rays and heavy-ions, and studied HR associated processes at the molecular level. Our result indicates that complex DSBs induced by heavy ions effectively evoke DNA end resection activity during the HR process. Together with our results, a relevant recent progress in the field of DNA DSB repair will be discussed. (author)

  12. Strand breaks, base release and post-irradiation changes in DNA γ-irradiated in dilute O2-saturated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.F.; Kuo, I.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of DNA in dilute O 2 -saturated aqueous solution releases free bases and damaged bases from the macromolecule. The yields of these products were measured after column chromatographic separation. For double stranded DNA the immediate yield of bases varies from G = 0.012 for cytosine to G = 0.033 for adenine. The yields of released bases increase with post-irradiation time (the majority of the increase occurs in the first 2 hrs.) to yields in the range of G = 0.07 +- 0.012. Yields of two released damaged thymine radiation products from γ-irradiated 3 H thymine labelled DNA also increased with post-irradiation time. Strand breaks were measured in γ-irradiated single stranded DNA the initial yield G = 0.02 was low but increased with time to G = 0.07. No direct correlation between strand-break production and release of low molecular weight products is possible. The findings are discussed in terms of damage to DNA in vivo and its enzymatic repair

  13. Diagnosis of Fanconi Anemia: Chromosomal Breakage Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Anneke B.; Nieuwint, Aggie W. M.; Joenje, Hans; de Winter, Johan P.

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited syndrome with diverse clinical symptoms including developmental defects, short stature, bone marrow failure, and a high risk of malignancies. Fifteen genetic subtypes have been distinguished so far. The mode of inheritance for all subtypes is autosomal recessive, except for FA-B, which is X-linked. Cells derived from FA patients are—by definition—hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, such as mitomycin C, diepoxybutane, or cisplatinum, which becomes manifest as excessive growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and chromosomal breakage upon cellular exposure to these drugs. Here we provide a detailed laboratory protocol for the accurate assessment of the FA diagnosis as based on mitomycin C-induced chromosomal breakage analysis in whole-blood cultures. The method also enables a quantitative estimate of the degree of mosaicism in the lymphocyte compartment of the patient. PMID:22693659

  14. Enzymatic Production of Monoclonal Stoichiometric Single-Stranded DNA Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducani, Cosimo; Kaul, Corinna; Moche, Martin; Shih, William M.; Högberg, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Single-stranded oligonucleotides are important as research tools as probes for diagnostics and gene therapy. Today, production of oligonucleotides is done via solid-phase synthesis. However, the capabilities of current polymer chemistry are limited in comparison to what can be produced in biological systems. The errors in synthetic DNA increases with oligonucleotide length, and sequence diversity can often be a problem. Here, we present the Monoclonal Stoichiometric (MOSIC) method for enzymatic DNA oligonucleotide production. Using this method, we amplify oligonucleotides from clonal templates followed by digestion of a cutter-hairpin, resulting in pools of monoclonal oligonucleotides with precisely controlled relative stoichiometric ratios. We present data where MOSIC oligonucleotides, 14–378 nt long, were prepared either by in vitro rolling-circle amplification, or by amplification in Escherichia coli in the form of phagemid DNA. The formation of a DNA crystal and folding of DNA nanostructures confirmed the scalability, purity and stoichiometry of the produced oligonucleotides. PMID:23727986

  15. Evidence for multiple repair pathways of double-strand DNA breaks in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaccia, A.J.; Weistein, R.; Stamato, T.D.; Roosa, R.

    1984-01-01

    XR-1 is a mutant of the Chinese hamster cell (CHO-K1) which is abnormally sensitive to killing by gamma rays in G/sub 1/ (D37 = 27 rads vs. 318 for parent) and early S phases of the cell cycle but has near normal resistance in late S and early G/sub 2/ (Somatic Cell Genetics, 9:165-173, 1983). Complementation studies between XR-1 and its parent indicate that this sensitivity to gamma rays is a recessive phenotype. Both the XR-1 and its parent cell are able to repair single strand DNA breaks. However, in comparison to its parental cell, the XR-1 cell is markedly deficient in the repair of double strand DNA breaks introduced by gamma irradiation during the sensitive G/sub 1/-early S period, while in the late S-G/sub 2/ resistant period the repair is similar in both cells. This correlation suggests that an unrepaired double strand DNA break is the lethal lesion and that at least two pathways for the repair of these lesions exist in mammalian cells

  16. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemi...

  17. Requirements for DNA strand transfer during reverse transcription in mutant HIV-1 virions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; van Wamel, J.; Klaver, B.

    1995-01-01

    Retroviruses convert their RNA genome into a DNA form by means of reverse transcription. According to the current model of reverse transcription, two strand transfer reactions are needed to synthesize a full-length DNA genome. Because reverse transcription is initiated close to the 5' end of the RNA

  18. Swi5-Sfr1 protein stimulates Rad51-mediated DNA strand exchange reaction through organization of DNA bases in the presynaptic filament.

    KAUST Repository

    Fornander, Louise H; Renodon-Corniè re, Axelle; Kuwabara, Naoyuki; Ito, Kentaro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Nordé n, Bengt; Takahashi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    The Swi5-Sfr1 heterodimer protein stimulates the Rad51-promoted DNA strand exchange reaction, a crucial step in homologous recombination. To clarify how this accessory protein acts on the strand exchange reaction, we have analyzed how the structure

  19. Double-stranded DNA translocase activity of transcription factor TFIIH and the mechanism of RNA polymerase II open complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, James; Tomko, Eric; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2015-03-31

    Formation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) open complex (OC) requires DNA unwinding mediated by the transcription factor TFIIH helicase-related subunit XPB/Ssl2. Because XPB/Ssl2 binds DNA downstream from the location of DNA unwinding, it cannot function using a conventional helicase mechanism. Here we show that yeast TFIIH contains an Ssl2-dependent double-stranded DNA translocase activity. Ssl2 tracks along one DNA strand in the 5' → 3' direction, implying it uses the nontemplate promoter strand to reel downstream DNA into the Pol II cleft, creating torsional strain and leading to DNA unwinding. Analysis of the Ssl2 and DNA-dependent ATPase activity of TFIIH suggests that Ssl2 has a processivity of approximately one DNA turn, consistent with the length of DNA unwound during transcription initiation. Our results can explain why maintaining the OC requires continuous ATP hydrolysis and the function of TFIIH in promoter escape. Our results also suggest that XPB/Ssl2 uses this translocase mechanism during DNA repair rather than physically wedging open damaged DNA.

  20. Yield of DNA strand breaks and their relationship to DNA polymerase I-dependent repair synthesis and ligation following x-ray exposure of toluene-treated Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, D.

    1981-01-01

    In Escherichia coli made permeable to nucleotides by toluene treatment, a DNA polymerase I-directed repair synthesis is observed. This is an exaggerated repair synthesis which can be abruptly terminated by the addition of the DNA ligase cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. This communication describes experiments which bear on the relationship between measurable strand breaks, DNA polymerase I-directed, exaggerated repair synthesis, and strand-break repair

  1. Solubilization of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes with Single- stranded DNA Generated from Asymmetric PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhai Fan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs can be effectively dispersed and functionalized bywrapping with long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA synthesized by asymmetric PCR. ThessDNA-CNTs attached on surface of glass carbon electrode made it possible forelectrochemical analysis and sensing, which was demonstrated by reduction of H2O2 onhemoglobin/ssDNA-CNTs modified electrodes. This research showed the potentialapplication of DNA-functionalised CNTs in construction of future electrochemicalbiosensors.

  2. Electroporation and microinjection successfully deliver single-stranded and duplex DNA into live cells as detected by FRET measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A Bamford

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET technology relies on the close proximity of two compatible fluorophores for energy transfer. Tagged (Cy3 and Cy5 complementary DNA strands forming a stable duplex and a doubly-tagged single strand were shown to demonstrate FRET outside of a cellular environment. FRET was also observed after transfecting these DNA strands into fixed and live cells using methods such as microinjection and electroporation, but not when using lipid based transfection reagents, unless in the presence of the endosomal acidification inhibitor bafilomycin. Avoiding the endocytosis pathway is essential for efficient delivery of intact DNA probes into cells.

  3. Radiation-chemical discussion on inverse dose-rate effect observed in radiation-induced strand breaks of plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Takahiro

    1994-01-01

    Experimental results of inverse dose-rate effect, so-called Kada Effects, which was published by Takakura and her coworkers on radiation-induced strand breaks of plasmid DNA in aerated aqueous solution, have been kinetically analyzed and discussed on the basis of radiation chemistry. the kinetic analysis indicates that there are two possible mechanisms; 1) equilibrium mixture of O 2 - and HO 2 is responsible for strand breaks of DNA, and 2) peroxyl radical produced from citrate is effective for the strand breaks. However, the detailed kinetic analysis revealed that the latter is improbable because unimolecular decay of the peroxyl radical must be assumed to be negligible for its participation despite fast decay of analogous organic peroxyl radicals. The analysis has also given 9.93±0.10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 per nucleotide unit, which corresponds to 7.62 x 10 4 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 per DNA molecule, as the rate constant for the reaction of the equilibrium mixture with plasmid pBR 322 DNA. Furthermore the probability that the reaction of the mixture with a nucleotide unit of DNA leads to strand breaks was obtained to be 3.36 x 10 -3 for gamma-irradiated system and 1.98 x 10 -3 for beta-irradiated system, respectively. (author)

  4. Epidermal growth factor stimulating reparation of γ-ray-induced single-strand breaks predominantly in untranscribed DNA of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igusheva, O.A.; Bil'din, V.N.; Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggest that genomic DNA undergoes reparation unevenly because of different transcription activities of its particular sequence. It is highly probably that transcriptional factors are necessary for postion stages of excision reparation and for reparation of single-strand DNA breaks caused by ionizing radiation. There is evidence suggesting that DNA lesions inflicted by γ-radiation is preferentially initiated in transcribed rather than in untranscribed DNA species. This paper looks at the relationship between stimulatory effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on reparation of single-strand DNA breaks and reparation of the damage done to active and inert fragments of chromatin. The results show that EGF stimulates reparation of single-strand DNA breaks induced by γ-radiation more effectively in untranscribed than in transcribed DNA. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Immortal DNA strand cosegregation requires p53/IMPDH-dependent asymmetric self-renewal associated with adult stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambhatla, Lakshmi; Ram-Mohan, Sumati; Cheng, Jennifer J; Sherley, James L

    2005-04-15

    Because they are long-lived and cycle continuously, adult stem cells (ASCs) are predicted as the most common precursor for cancers in adult mammalian tissues. Two unique attributes have been proposed to restrict the carcinogenic potential of ASCs. These are asymmetric self-renewal that limits their number and immortal DNA strand cosegregation that limits their accumulation of mutations due to DNA replication errors. Until recently, the molecular basis and regulation of these important ASC-specific functions were unknown. We developed engineered cultured cells that exhibit asymmetric self-renewal and immortal DNA strand cosegregation. These model cells were used to show that both ASC-specific functions are regulated by the p53 cancer gene. Previously, we proposed that IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was an essential factor for p53-dependent asymmetric self-renewal. We now confirm this proposal and provide quantitative evidence that asymmetric self-renewal is acutely sensitive to even modest changes in IMPDH expression. These analyses reveal that immortal DNA strand cosegregation is also regulated by IMPDH and confirm the original implicit precept that immortal DNA strand cosegregation is specific to cells undergoing asymmetric self-renewal (i.e., ASCs). With IMPDH being the rate-determining enzyme for guanine ribonucleotide (rGNP) biosynthesis, its requirement implicates rGNPs as important regulators of ASC asymmetric self-renewal and immortal DNA strand cosegregation. An in silico analysis of global gene expression data from human cancer cell lines underscored the importance of p53-IMPDH-rGNP regulation for normal tissue cell kinetics, providing further support for the concept that ASCs are key targets for adult tissue carcinogenesis.

  6. DNA strand breaks detected in embryos of the adult snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, and in neonates exposed to genotoxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent-Hubert, Françoise; Revel, Messika; Garric, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    We tested the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, which is a species that has already been used for endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) to determine whether early life stages of aquatic organisms are sensitive to genotoxic chemicals. For this purpose, we first developed the alkaline comet assay on adults, embryos, and neonates. The comet assay protocol was validated on both embryonic cells exposed in vitro to hydrogen peroxide and adult snails in the reproducing stage exposed to methyl methane sulfonate. During the latter experiment, DNA strand breaks were investigated on both embryonic cells and on adult gill cells. The second part of this study investigated the stability of DNA strand breaks in adult reproducing snails and neonates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and bisphenol A for 8 days. Hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA strand breaks in vitro in isolated embryonic cells. Exposure of adult reproducing snails to methyl methane sulfonate for 24 h induced DNA strand breaks in embryos. Bisphenol A induced a significant increase in the DNA strand-break level in whole embryonic cells and whole neonate cells. Cd was genotoxic for both embryos and neonates during the exposure time and also after 7 days of depuration, suggesting that Cd could inhibit DNA repair enzymes. These preliminary results on this original model have encouraged us to consider the impact of genotoxic environmental contaminants on the F1 generation.

  7. DNA strand breaks detected in embryos of the adult snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, and in neonates exposed to genotoxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent-Hubert, Francoise, E-mail: francoise.vincent-hubert@irstea.fr [Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, equipe BELCA, IRSTEA/CEMAGREF, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, CS10030, 92761 Antony cedex, 92163 Antony (France); Revel, Messika [Unite de Recherche Hydrosystemes et Bioprocedes, equipe BELCA, IRSTEA/CEMAGREF, 1 rue Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, CS10030, 92761 Antony cedex, 92163 Antony (France); Garric, Jeanne [MALY Laboratoire d' ecotoxicologie, IRSTEA/CEMAGREF, 23 bis Quai Chauveau, 69006 Lyon (France)

    2012-10-15

    We tested the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, which is a species that has already been used for endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) to determine whether early life stages of aquatic organisms are sensitive to genotoxic chemicals. For this purpose, we first developed the alkaline comet assay on adults, embryos, and neonates. The comet assay protocol was validated on both embryonic cells exposed in vitro to hydrogen peroxide and adult snails in the reproducing stage exposed to methyl methane sulfonate. During the latter experiment, DNA strand breaks were investigated on both embryonic cells and on adult gill cells. The second part of this study investigated the stability of DNA strand breaks in adult reproducing snails and neonates exposed to cadmium (Cd) and bisphenol A for 8 days. Hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA strand breaks in vitro in isolated embryonic cells. Exposure of adult reproducing snails to methyl methane sulfonate for 24 h induced DNA strand breaks in embryos. Bisphenol A induced a significant increase in the DNA strand-break level in whole embryonic cells and whole neonate cells. Cd was genotoxic for both embryos and neonates during the exposure time and also after 7 days of depuration, suggesting that Cd could inhibit DNA repair enzymes. These preliminary results on this original model have encouraged us to consider the impact of genotoxic environmental contaminants on the F1 generation.

  8. Mechanical behaviors of multi-filament twist superconducting strand under tensile and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    The superconducting strand, serving as the basic unit cell of the cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs), is a typical multi-filament twist composite which is always subjected to a cyclic loading under the operating condition. Meanwhile, the superconducting material Nb3Sn in the strand is sensitive to strain frequently relating to the performance degradation of the superconductivity. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the strand helps understanding the superconducting performance of the strained Nb3Sn strands. To address this issue, taking the LMI (internal tin) strand as an example, a three-dimensional structural finite element model, named as the Multi-filament twist model, of the strand with the real configuration of the LMI strand is built to study the influences of the plasticity of the component materials, the twist of the filament bundle, the initial thermal residual stress and the breakage and its evolution of the filaments on the mechanical behaviors of the strand. The effective properties of superconducting filament bundle with random filament breakage and its evolution versus strain are obtained based on the damage theory of fiber-reinforced composite materials proposed by Curtin and Zhou. From the calculation results of this model, we find that the occurrence of the hysteresis loop in the cyclic loading curve is determined by the reverse yielding of the elastic-plastic materials in the strand. Both the initial thermal residual stress in the strand and the pitch length of the filaments have significant impacts on the axial and hysteretic behaviors of the strand. The damage of the filaments also affects the axial mechanical behavior of the strand remarkably at large axial strain. The critical current of the strand is calculated by the scaling law with the results of the Multi-filament twist model. The predicted results of the Multi-filament twist model show an acceptable agreement with the experiment.

  9. Ku recruits XLF to DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ken-ichi; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Wang, Shih-Ya; Uematsu, Naoya; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Weterings, Eric; Chen, David J

    2008-01-01

    XRCC4-like factor (XLF)--also known as Cernunnos--has recently been shown to be involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which is the main pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells. XLF is likely to enhance NHEJ by stimulating XRCC4-ligase IV-mediated joining of DSBs. Here, we report mechanistic details of XLF recruitment to DSBs. Live cell imaging combined with laser micro-irradiation showed that XLF is an early responder to DSBs and that Ku is essential for XLF recruitment to DSBs. Biochemical analysis showed that Ku-XLF interaction occurs on DNA and that Ku stimulates XLF binding to DNA. Unexpectedly, XRCC4 is dispensable for XLF recruitment to DSBs, although photobleaching analysis showed that XRCC4 stabilizes the binding of XLF to DSBs. Our observations showed the direct involvement of XLF in the dynamic assembly of the NHEJ machinery and provide mechanistic insights into DSB recognition.

  10. Cyclic perylene diimide: Selective ligand for tetraplex DNA binding over double stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasimalla, Suresh; Sato, Shinobu; Takenaka, Fuminori; Kurose, Yui; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2017-12-15

    Synthesized cyclic perylene diimide, cPDI, showed the binding constant of 6.3 × 10 6  M -1 with binding number of n = 2 with TA-core as a tetraplex DNA in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 7.4) containing 100 mM KCl using Schatchard analysis and showed a higher preference for tetraplex DNA than for double stranded DNA with over 10 3 times. CD spectra showed that TA-core induced its antiparallel conformation upon addition of cPDI in the absence or presence of K + or Na + ions. The cPDI inhibits the telomerase activity with IC 50 of 0.3 µM using TRAP assay which is potential anti-cancer drug with low side effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) localizes to mitochondria and interacts with mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Barbara; Samson, Leona D

    2013-03-01

    Due to a harsh environment mitochondrial genomes accumulate high levels of DNA damage, in particular oxidation, hydrolytic deamination, and alkylation adducts. While repair of alkylated bases in nuclear DNA has been explored in detail, much less is known about the repair of DNA alkylation damage in mitochondria. Alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) recognizes and removes numerous alkylated bases, but to date AAG has only been detected in the nucleus, even though mammalian mitochondria are known to repair DNA lesions that are specific substrates of AAG. Here we use immunofluorescence to show that AAG localizes to mitochondria, and we find that native AAG is present in purified human mitochondrial extracts, as well as that exposure to alkylating agent promotes AAG accumulation in the mitochondria. We identify mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) as a novel interacting partner of AAG; interaction between mtSSB and AAG is direct and increases upon methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) treatment. The consequence of this interaction is specific inhibition of AAG glycosylase activity in the context of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), but not a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) substrate. By inhibiting AAG-initiated processing of damaged bases, mtSSB potentially prevents formation of DNA breaks in ssDNA, ensuring that base removal primarily occurs in dsDNA. In summary, our findings suggest the existence of AAG-initiated BER in mitochondria and further support a role for mtSSB in DNA repair. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Accurate quantification of microRNA via single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs.

  13. Accurate Quantification of microRNA via Single Strand Displacement Reaction on DNA Origami Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs. PMID:23990889

  14. Accurate quantification of microRNA via single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Feng, Xiaolu; Lou, Jingyu; Li, Weidong; Li, Sheng; Zhu, Hongxin; Yang, Lun; Zhang, Aiping; He, Lin; Li, Can

    2013-01-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology that assembles hundreds of staple strands and one single-strand DNA into certain nanopattern. It has been widely used in various fields including detection of biological molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene repression as well as many other biological processes such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations of miRNAs' expression contribute to many human diseases. However, it is still a challenge to quantitatively detect miRNAs by origami technology. In this study, we developed a novel approach based on streptavidin and quantum dots binding complex (STV-QDs) labeled single strand displacement reaction on DNA origami to quantitatively detect the concentration of miRNAs. We illustrated a linear relationship between the concentration of an exemplary miRNA as miRNA-133 and the STV-QDs hybridization efficiency; the results demonstrated that it is an accurate nano-scale miRNA quantifier motif. In addition, both symmetrical rectangular motif and asymmetrical China-map motif were tested. With significant linearity in both motifs, our experiments suggested that DNA Origami motif with arbitrary shape can be utilized in this method. Since this DNA origami-based method we developed owns the unique advantages of simple, time-and-material-saving, potentially multi-targets testing in one motif and relatively accurate for certain impurity samples as counted directly by atomic force microscopy rather than fluorescence signal detection, it may be widely used in quantification of miRNAs.

  15. Temporary electron localization and scattering in disordered single strands of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, Laurent; Sanche, Leon

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the effect of structural and base sequence disorders on the transport properties of nonthermal electron scattering within and from single strands of DNA. The calculations are based on our recently developed formalism to treat multiple elastic scattering from simplified pseudomolecular DNA subunits. Structural disorder is shown to increase both the elastic scattering cross section and the attachment probability on the bases at low energy. Sequence disorder, however, has no significant effect

  16. Force-induced rupture of double-stranded DNA in the absence and presence of covalently bonded anti-tumor drugs: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Anurag; Nath, Shesh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-06-01

    DNA intra-strand cross-link (ICL) agents are widely used in the treatment of cancer. ICLs are thought to form a link between the same strand (intra-strand) or complimentary strand (inter-strand) and thereby increase the stability of DNA, which forbids the processes like replication and transcription. As a result, cell death occurs. In this work, we have studied the enhanced stability of a double stranded DNA in the presence of ICLs and compared our findings with the results obtained in the absence of these links. Using atomistic simulations with explicit solvent, a force is applied along and perpendicular to the direction of the helix and we measured the rupture force and the unzipping force of DNA-ICL complexes. Our results show that the rupture and the unzipping forces increase significantly in the presence of these links. The ICLs bind to the minor groove of DNA, which enhance the DNA stabilisation. Such information may be used to design alternative drugs that can stall replication and transcription that are critical to a growing number of anticancer drug discovery efforts.

  17. Adaptive response of DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes to low dose and γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Su Liaoyuan; Kong Xiangrong; Tian Hailin

    1996-01-01

    Fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding was used to study the adaptive response of DNA strand breaks induced by low dose γ-rays and the effect of pADPRT inhibitor-3-AB on the adaptive response. The results indicated that 0.5-4 cGy γ-rays could induce adaptive response of DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes, especially at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 cGy. This response was not obvious after 8.0 cGy γ-rays irradiation. A challenge dose of 5-20 Gy could make the response expressed, 15 Gy was the best one and 30 Gy was too high to give an adaptive response . 0.5 mM 3-AB could inhibit the response vigorously. As the concentration increased, the adaptive response could be inhibited completely

  18. Chemo-mechanical pushing of proteins along single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloski, Joshua E; Kozlov, Alexander G; Galletto, Roberto; Lohman, Timothy M

    2016-05-31

    Single-stranded (ss)DNA binding (SSB) proteins bind with high affinity to ssDNA generated during DNA replication, recombination, and repair; however, these SSBs must eventually be displaced from or reorganized along the ssDNA. One potential mechanism for reorganization is for an ssDNA translocase (ATP-dependent motor) to push the SSB along ssDNA. Here we use single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to detect such pushing events. When Cy5-labeled Escherichia coli (Ec) SSB is bound to surface-immobilized 3'-Cy3-labeled ssDNA, a fluctuating FRET signal is observed, consistent with random diffusion of SSB along the ssDNA. Addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1, a 5' to 3' ssDNA translocase, results in the appearance of isolated, irregularly spaced saw-tooth FRET spikes only in the presence of ATP. These FRET spikes result from translocase-induced directional (5' to 3') pushing of the SSB toward the 3' ssDNA end, followed by displacement of the SSB from the DNA end. Similar ATP-dependent pushing events, but in the opposite (3' to 5') direction, are observed with EcRep and EcUvrD (both 3' to 5' ssDNA translocases). Simulations indicate that these events reflect active pushing by the translocase. The ability of translocases to chemo-mechanically push heterologous SSB proteins along ssDNA provides a potential mechanism for reorganization and clearance of tightly bound SSBs from ssDNA.

  19. Genetic recombination induced by DNA double-strand break in bacteriophage T4: nature of the left/right bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor P; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Plugina, Lidiya; Sizova, Svetlana; Kudryashova, Elena; Granovsky, Igor

    2008-06-01

    The experimental system combining double-strand breaks (DSBs), produced site-specifically by SegC endonuclease, with the famous advantages of the bacteriophage T4 rII mutant recombination analysis was used here to elucidate the origin of the recombination bias on two sides of the DSB, especially pronounced in gene 39 (topoisomerase II) and gene 59 (41-helicase loader) mutants. Three sources were found to contribute to the bias: (1) the SegC endonuclease may remain bound to the end of the broken DNA and thus protect it from exonuclease degradation; (2) in heteroduplex heterozygotes (HHs), arising as the recombinant products in the left-hand crosses, the transcribed strands are of rII mutant phenotype, so they, in contrast to the right-hand HHs, do not produce plaques on the lawn of the lambda-lysogenic host; and (3) the intrinsic polarity of T4 chromosome, reflected in transcription, may be a cause for discrimination of promoter-proximal and promoter-distal DNA sequences. It is shown that the apparent recombination bias does not imply one-sidedness of the DSB repair but just reflects a different depth of the end processing. It is inferred that the cause, underlying the "intrinsic" bias, might be interference between strand exchange and transcription. Topoisomerase and helicase functions are necessary to turn the process in favor of strand exchange. The idea is substantiated that the double-stranded to single-stranded DNA transition edge (not ss-DNA tip) serves as an actual recombinogenic element.

  20. FBH1 co-operates with MUS81 in inducing DNA double-strand breaks and cell death following replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Chu, Wai Kit; Haahr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The molecular events occurring following the disruption of DNA replication forks are poorly characterized, despite extensive use of replication inhibitors such as hydroxyurea in the treatment of malignancies. Here, we identify a key role for the FBH1 helicase in mediating DNA double-strand break...... formation following replication inhibition. We show that FBH1-deficient cells are resistant to killing by hydroxyurea, and exhibit impaired activation of the pro-apoptotic factor p53, consistent with decreased DNA double-strand break formation. Similar findings were obtained in murine ES cells carrying...... of replication stress. Our data suggest that FBH1 helicase activity is required to eliminate cells with excessive replication stress through the generation of MUS81-induced DNA double-strand breaks....

  1. Programming chemical kinetics: engineering dynamic reaction networks with DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan

    Over the last century, the silicon revolution has enabled us to build faster, smaller and more sophisticated computers. Today, these computers control phones, cars, satellites, assembly lines, and other electromechanical devices. Just as electrical wiring controls electromechanical devices, living organisms employ "chemical wiring" to make decisions about their environment and control physical processes. Currently, the big difference between these two substrates is that while we have the abstractions, design principles, verification and fabrication techniques in place for programming with silicon, we have no comparable understanding or expertise for programming chemistry. In this thesis we take a small step towards the goal of learning how to systematically engineer prescribed non-equilibrium dynamical behaviors in chemical systems. We use the formalism of chemical reaction networks (CRNs), combined with mass-action kinetics, as our programming language for specifying dynamical behaviors. Leveraging the tools of nucleic acid nanotechnology (introduced in Chapter 1), we employ synthetic DNA molecules as our molecular architecture and toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement as our reaction primitive. Abstraction, modular design and systematic fabrication can work only with well-understood and quantitatively characterized tools. Therefore, we embark on a detailed study of the "device physics" of DNA strand displacement (Chapter 2). We present a unified view of strand displacement biophysics and kinetics by studying the process at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1-dimensional energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps, and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates three-dimensional geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for

  2. Measurement of intracellular DNA double-strand break induction and rejoining along the track of carbon and neon particle beams in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, Johannes; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Haberer, Thomas; Scholz, Michael; Kraft, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The study was aimed at the measurement of effect-depth distributions of intracellularly induced DNA damage in water as tissue equivalent after heavy ion irradiation with therapy particle beams. Methods and Materials: An assay involving embedding of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in large agarose plugs and electrophoretic elution of radiation induced DNA fragments by constant field gel electrophoresis was developed. Double-strand break production was quantified by densitometric analysis of DNA-fluorescence after staining with ethidium-bromide and determination of the fraction of DNA eluted out of the agarose plugs. Intracellular double-strand break induction and the effect of a 3 h rejoining incubation were investigated following irradiation with 250 kV x-rays and 190 MeV/u carbon- and 295 MeV/u neon-ions. Results and Conclusion: While the DNA damage induced by x-irradiation decreased continuously with penetration depth, a steady increase in the yield of double-strand breaks was observed for particle radiation, reaching distinct maxima at the position of the physical Bragg peaks. Beyond this, the extent of radiation damage dropped drastically. From comparison of DNA damage and calculated dose profiles, relative biological efficiencies (RBEs) for both double-strand break induction and unrejoined strand breaks after 3 h were determined. While RBE for the induction of DNA double-strand breaks decreased continuously with penetration depth, RBE maxima greater than unity were found with carbon- and neon-ions for double-strand break rejoining near the maximum range of the particles. The method presented here allows for a fast and accurate determination of depth profiles of relevant radiobiological effects for mixed particle fields in tissue equivalent

  3. Normal rejoining of DNA strand breaks in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblast lines after low x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariharan, P.V.; Eleczko, S.; Smith, B.P.; Paterson, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    The alkaline elution method was used to measure the enzymatic repair of x-ray-induced DNA strand breaks in skin fibroblasts derived from human subjects afflicted with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Monolayer cultures of normal control and AT cell lines were exposed acutely to moderately lethal (250-rad) and highly lethal (1250-rad) doses of 250-kV x rays under aerobic conditions. Upon receiving 250 rad, the control fibroblasts from a clinically normal donor rejoined all detectable single-strand breaks (plus alkali-labile bonds) within 30 to 60 min of incubation. When challenged with 1250 rad the kinetics of strand rejoining by the normal control cells were biphasic. For both exposures, no significant difference in either the rate or the extent of strand rejoining was detected between the normal cell line (GM38) and three mutant cell lines (AT2BE, AT3BI, AT4BI) belonging to the three known genetic complementation groups in AT. It would thus appear that the enhanced radiosensitivity of cultured AT cells does not stem from faulty rejoining of radiogenic DNA strand breaks

  4. Bacillus subtilis single-stranded DNA-binding protein SsbA is phosphorylated at threonine 38 by the serine/threonine kinase YabT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derouiche, Abderahmane; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins participate in all stages of DNA metabolism that involve single-stranded DNA, from replication, recombination, repair of DNA damage, to natural competence in species such as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis single-stranded DNA......-binding proteins have previously been found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine and arginine residues. While tyrosine phosphorylation was shown to enhance the DNA-binding properties of SsbA, arginine phosphorylation was not functionally characterized.Materials and methods: We used mass spectrometry analysis to detect...... phosphorylation of SsbA purified from B. subtilis cells. The detected phosphorylation site was assessed for its influence on DNA-binding in vitro, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The ability of B. subtilis serine/threonine kinases to phosphorylate SsbA was assessed using in vitro phosphorylation...

  5. Radiation dose response of strand breaks in SINPV-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunxiang; Luo Daling; Li Mianfeng; Liu Xiaowei; Zeng Rong; Wang Xunzhang

    1995-01-01

    The Spodoplera litura Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses (SINPV) is a kind of insectile virus with a simple structure, in which a double helix DNA is encapsulated in a protein coat and there is no function of enzymatic repair. The SINPV samples in dry powdered form held in sealed plastic tube were irradiated by 1-100 kGy gamma rays. The single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) induced in SINPV after irradiation were measured by neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. A dose-response function combining the responses of one-hit and two-hit events was used to describe the SSB and DSB dose-response curves. It is shown that the SSB are one-hit events and the DSB are the combination of both one-hit, and two-hit events, and two-hit events are predominant in the DSB process

  6. hnRNP-U is a specific DNA-dependent protein kinase substrate phosphorylated in response to DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Fredrik M.; Clarke, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular responses to DNA damage are orchestrated by the large phosphoinositol-3-kinase related kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK. We have developed a cell-free system to dissect the biochemical mechanisms of these kinases. Using this system, we identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP-U), also termed scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), as a specific substrate for DNA-PK. We show that hnRNP-U is phosphorylated at Ser59 by DNA-PK in vitro and in cells in response to DNA double-strand breaks. Phosphorylation of hnRNP-U suggests novel functions for DNA-PK in the response to DNA damage.

  7. Alkali-labile sites and post-irradiation effects in single-stranded DNA induced by H radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, M.V.M.; Heuvel, N. van; Woldhuis, J.; Loman, H.

    1978-01-01

    Single-stranded phiX174 DNA in aqueous solutions has been irradiated in the absence of oxygen, under conditions in which H radicals react with the DNA. It was shown that H radical reactions result in breaks, which contribute approximately 10 per cent inactivation. Further, two types of alkali-labile sites were formed. One was lethal and gave rise to single-strand breaks by alkali and was most probably identical with post-irradiation heat damage and contributed about 33 per cent to the inactivation mentioned above. The other consisted of non-lethal damage, partly dihydropyrimidine derivatives, and was converted to lethal damage by alkali. This followed from experiments in which the DNA was treated with osmium-tetroxide, which oxidized thymine to 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine. Treatment with alkali of this DNA gave the same temperature dependence as found for the non-lethal alkali-labile sites in irradiated DNA. A similar temperature dependence was found for dihydrothymine and irradiated pyrimidines with alkali. (author)

  8. Single-Molecule Manipulation of Double-Stranded DNA Using Optical Tweezers: Interaction Studies of DNA with RecA and YOYO-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Martin L.; Scharer, Orlando D.; Kanaar, Ronald; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Schins, J.M.; Kanger, Johannes S.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1999-01-01

    By using optical tweezers and a specially designed flow cell with an integrated glass micropipette, we constructed a setup similar to that of Smith et al. (Science 271:795-799, 1996) in which an individual double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule can be captured between two polystyrene beads. The first

  9. Human RECQ5 helicase promotes repair of DNA double-strand breaks by synthesis-dependent strand annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paliwal, S.; Kanagaraj, R.; Sturzenegger, A.; Burdová, Kamila; Janščák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2014), s. 2380-2390 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0565; GA ČR GAP305/10/0281 Grant - others:Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A-129747; Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A_146206 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Human RECQ5 helicase * DNA double-strand breaks * mitotic homologous recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  10. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break signaling and repair pathway in infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, S.; Collin-Faure, V.; Gidrol, X.; Lemercier, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highly hazardous DNA double-strand breaks can be induced in eukaryotic cells by a number of agents including pathogenic bacterial strains. We have investigated the genotoxic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen causing devastating nosocomial infections in cystic fibrosis or immunocompromised patients. Our data revealed that infection of immune or epithelial cells by P. aeruginosa triggered DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks. Moreover, it induced formation of discrete nuclear repair foci similar to gamma-irradiation-induced foci, and containing γH2AX and 53BP1, an adaptor protein mediating the DNA-damage response pathway. Gene deletion, mutagenesis, and complementation in P. aeruginosa identified ExoS bacterial toxin as the major factor involved in γH2AX induction. Chemical inhibition of several kinases known to phosphorylate H2AX demonstrated that Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) was the principal kinase in P. aeruginosa-induced H2AX phosphorylation. Finally, infection led to ATM kinase activation by an auto-phosphorylation mechanism. Together, these data show for the first time that infection by P. aeruginosa activates the DNA double-strand break repair machinery of the host cells. This novel information sheds new light on the consequences of P. aeruginosa infection in mammalian cells. As pathogenic Escherichia coli or carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori can alter genome integrity through DNA double-strand breaks, leading to chromosomal instability and eventually cancer, our findings highlight possible new routes for further investigations of P. aeruginosa in cancer biology and they identify ATM as a potential target molecule for drug design. (authors)

  11. QUANTITATION OF INTRACELLULAR NAD(P)H IN LIVING CELLS CAN MONITOR AN IMBALANCE OF DNA SINGLE STRAND BREAK REPAIR IN REAL TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitation of intracellular NAD(P)H in living cells can monitor an imbalance of DNA single strand break repair in real time.ABSTRACTDNA single strand breaks (SSBs) are one of the most frequent DNA lesions in genomic DNA generated either by oxidative stress or du...

  12. Radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks in radiology; Strahleninduzierte DNA-Doppelstrangbrueche in der Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuefner, M.A. [Dornbirn Hospital (Austria). Dept. of Radiology; Brand, M.; Engert, C.; Uder, M. [Erlangen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Schwab, S.A. [Radiologis, Oberasbach (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Shortly after the discovery of X-rays, their damaging effect on biological tissues was observed. The determination of radiation exposure in diagnostic and interventional radiology is usually based on physical measurements or mathematical algorithms with standardized dose simulations. γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy is a reliable and sensitive method for the quantification of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in blood lymphocytes. The detectable amount of these DNA damages correlates well with the dose received. However, the biological radiation damage depends not only on dose but also on other individual factors like radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity. Iodinated contrast agents can enhance the x-ray induced DNA damage level. After their induction DSB are quickly repaired. A protective effect of antioxidants has been postulated in experimental studies. This review explains the principle of the γ-H2AX technique and provides an overview on studies evaluating DSB in radiologic examinations.

  13. Induction of double-strand breaks in DNA of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their repair. 1. Application of elastoviscosimetry for studying double-strand breaks in DNA of Escherichia coli induced by. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, S E; Noskin, L A; Suslov, A V [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1980-11-01

    It is shown that the method of elastoviscosimetry gives a possibility to record the formation of DNA double-strand breaks in Escherichia coli cells induced by ..gamma.. irradiation at doses close to D/sub 37/. The dependence of changes of elastoviscosity parameter on the dose (tau/sub 0/) passes through the maximum. It is shown that the ascending section of this curve (at minimum ..gamma.. irradiation doses) characterizes the relaxation process of the superspiralised chromosome in nucleotide of the E. coli. This relaxation is observed due to ..gamma.. induced damages which are not double-strand breaks. By the maximum position one can judge on a dose yield of the first DNA double-strand break, the descending part of the dose curve describes the kinetics of accumulation of breaks with the dose increase. The analysis of the data obtained gives the possibility to come to the conclusion that when applying a usual technique of irradiation and lysis of cells not providing for special measures on inhibition of endo-and exonuclease activity in ..gamma.. irradiated cells, the dose yield of double-strand breaks noticeably increases (by 4.2 times). In the case of an essential, though incomplete, inhibition of nuclease activities in ..gamma.. irradiated cells the dose yield of breaks approximately corresponds to the dose curve of inactivation of these cells (D/sub 37/12.5+-3.0 krad, the first double-strand break -at 14.5+-2.4 krad).

  14. Induction of double-strand breaks in DNA of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their repair. 1. Application of elastoviscosimetry for studying double-strand breaks in DNA of Escherichia coli induced by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresler, S.E.; Noskin, L.A.; Suslov, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the method of elastoviscosimetry gives a possibility to record the formation of DNA double-strand breaks in Escherichia coli cells induced by γ irradiation at doses close to D 37 . The dependence of changes of elastoviscosity parameter on the dose (tau 0 ) passes through the maximum. It is shown that the ascending section of this curve (at minimum γ irradiation doses) characterizes the relaxation process of the superspiralised chromosome in nucleotide of the E. coli. This relaxation is observed due to γ induced damages which are not double-strand breaks. By the maximum position one can judge on a dose yield of the first DNA double-strand break, the descending part of the dose curve describes the kinetics of accumulation of breaks with the dose increase. The analysis of the data obtained gives the possibility to come to the conclusion that when applying a usual technique of irradiation and lysis of cells not providing for special measures on inhibition of endo-and exonuclease activity in γ irradiated cells, the dose yield of double-strand breaks noticeably increases (by 4.2 times). In the case of an essential, though incomplete, inhibition of nuclease activities in γ irradiated cells the dose yield of breaks approximately corresponds to the dose curve of inactivation of these cells (D 37 12.5+-3.0 krad, the first double-strand break -at 14.5+-2.4 krad)

  15. The influence of chromatin structure on the frequency of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks: a study using nuclear and nucleoid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungman, M.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the influence of chromatin structure on the frequency of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks, the alkaline unwinding technique was applied to nuclear and nucleoid monolayers. These chromatin substrates were prepared by treating human fibroblasts grown as monolayers with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 and varying concentrations of cations. The chromatin structure was modified either by a stepwise removal of DNA-bound proteins by extraction in increasing concentrations of monovalent salt, or by the addition or deletion of mono- and divalent cations to condense or decondense the chromatin, respectively. It was found that the stepwise removal of DNA-bound proteins from the chromatin dramatically increased the frequency of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. The DNA-bound proteins showed a qualitative difference in their ability to protect the DNA where proteins removed by salt concentrations above 1.0 M exerted the greatest protection. Furthermore, the frequency of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks was found to be 6 times lower in condensed chromatin than in decondensed chromatin and about 80 times lower than in protein-depleted chromatin. It is concluded that the presence of DNA-bound proteins and the folding of the chromatin into higher-order structures protect the DNA against radiation-induced strand breaks

  16. Different responses to muon implantation in single- and double-stranded DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Penny L.; Tani, Akiko; Oganesyan, Vasily S.; Butt, Julea N.; Cottrell, Stephen P.; Jayasooriya, Upali A.

    2006-01-01

    A model-free analysis of the longitudinal muon spin relaxation of muons implanted into single- and double-stranded DNA samples is reported. These samples show distinctly different responses to implanted muons with discontinuities of the integrated asymmetries at temperatures where these molecules are likely to have onset of molecular and electron dynamics

  17. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a single-stranded DNA binding protein from Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernal, Javier; Serpa, Viviane I; Tavares, Carolina; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Terenzi, Hernán

    2007-05-01

    An open reading frame encoding a protein similar in size and sequence to the Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB protein) was identified in the Herbaspirillum seropedicae genome. This open reading frame was cloned into the expression plasmid pET14b. The SSB protein from H. seropedicae, named Hs_SSB, was overexpressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity. Mass spectrometry data confirmed the identity of this protein. The apparent molecular mass of the native Hs_SSB was estimated by gel filtration, suggesting that the native protein is a tetramer made up of four similar subunits. The purified protein binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a similar manner to other SSB proteins. The production of this recombinant protein in good yield opens up the possibility of obtaining its 3D-structure and will help further investigations into DNA metabolism.

  18. Targeting abnormal DNA double strand break repair in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rassool, Feyruz V.; Tomkinson, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer treatment is the development of therapies that target cancer cells with little or no toxicity to normal tissues and cells. Alterations in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair in cancer cells include both elevated and reduced levels of key repair proteins and changes in the relative contributions of the various DSB repair pathways. These differences can result in increased sensitivity to DSB-inducing agents and increased genomic instability. The development of agent...

  19. An alternative mechanism for radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide. Possible facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashino, Genro; Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been known for many years, and the suppression of hydroxyl (OH) radicals induced by ionizing radiation has been thought to be the main cause of this effect. However, the DMSO concentration used was very high, and might be toxic, in earlier studies. In the present study, we administered a lower, non-toxic concentration (0.5%, id est (i.e.), 64 mM) of DMSO before irradiation and examined its radioprotective effects. Colony formation assay and micronucleus assay showed significant radioprotective effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), but not in xrs5, which is defective in the repair function of DNA double-strand breaks. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and the formation of 53BP1 foci 15 minutes after irradiation, which might reflect initial DNA double-strand breaks, in DMSO-treated CHO cells were similar to those in non-treated cells, suggesting that the radioprotective effects were not attributable to the suppression of general indirect action in the lower concentration of DMSO. On the other hand, 2 hours after irradiation, the average number of 53BP1 foci, which might reflect residual DNA double-strand breaks, was significantly decreased in DMSO-treated CHO cells compared to non-treated cells. The results indicated that low concentration of DMSO exerts radioprotective effects through the facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair rather than through the suppression of indirect action. (author)

  20. An alternative mechanism for radioprotection by dimethyl sulfoxide; possible facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, Genro; Liu, Yong; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji; Tano, Keizo; Watanabe, Masami

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been known for many years, and the suppression of hydroxyl (OH) radicals induced by ionizing radiation has been thought to be the main cause of this effect. However, the DMSO concentration used was very high, and might be toxic, in earlier studies. In the present study, we administered a lower, non-toxic concentration (0.5%, i.e., 64 mM) of DMSO before irradiation and examined its radioprotective effects. Colony formation assay and micronucleus assay showed significant radioprotective effects in CHO, but not in xrs5, which is defective in the repair function of DNA double-strand breaks. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and the formation of 53BP1 foci 15 minutes after irradiation, which might reflect initial DNA double-strand breaks, in DMSO-treated CHO cells were similar to those in non-treated cells, suggesting that the radioprotective effects were not attributable to the suppression of general indirect action in the lower concentration of DMSO. On the other hand, 2 hours after irradiation, the average number of 53BP1 foci, which might reflect residual DNA double-strand breaks, was significantly decreased in DMSO-treated CHO cells compared to non-treated cells. The results indicated that low concentration of DMSO exerts radioprotective effects through the facilitation of DNA double-strand break repair rather than through the suppression of indirect action.

  1. The role of DNA double-strand breaks in spontaneous homologous recombination in S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettier, Gaëlle; Feng, Q.; Mayolo, A.A. de

    2006-01-01

    of meiosis and result from the induction of a large number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By analogy, it is generally believed that the rare spontaneous mitotic HR events are due to repair of DNA DSBs that accidentally occur during mitotic growth. Here we provide the first direct evidence that most...

  2. scid mutation in mice confers hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and a deficiency in DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedermann, K.A.; Sun, J.R.; Giaccia, A.J.; Tosto, L.M.; Brown, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice carry the scid mutation and are severely deficient in both T cell- and B cell-mediated immunity, apparently as a result of defective V(D)J joining of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene elements. In the present studies, we have defined the tissue, cellular, and molecular basis of another characteristic of these mice: their hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation. Bone marrow stem cells, intestinal crypt cells, and epithelial skin cells from scid mice are 2- to 3-fold more sensitive when irradiated in situ than are congenic BALB/c or C.B-17 controls. Two independently isolated embryo fibroblastic scid mouse cell lines display similar hypersensitivities to gamma-rays. In addition, these cell lines are sensitive to cell killing by bleomycin, which also produces DNA strand breaks, but not by the DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C or UV irradiation. Measurement of the rejoining of gamma-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicates that these animals are defective in this repair system. This suggests that the gamma-ray sensitivity of the scid mouse fibroblasts could be the result of reduced repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Therefore, a common factor may participate in both the repair of DNA double-strand breaks as well as V(D)J rejoining during lymphocyte development. This murine autosomal recessive mutation should prove extremely useful in fundamental studies of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair

  3. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zengquan; Zhou Guangming; Wang Jufang; He Jing; Li Qiang; Li Wenjian; Xie Hongmei; Cai Xichen; Tao Huang; Dang Bingrong; Han Guangwu

    1997-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B 16 induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B 16 . Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau ∝85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  4. Combined Triplex/Duplex Invasion of Double-Stranded DNA by "Tail-Clamp" Peptide Nucleic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Larsen, H. J.; Nielsen, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    as determined by T-m measurements. Binding to double-stranded (ds) DNA occurred by combined triplex and duplex invasion as analyzed by permanganate probing. Furthermore, C-50 measurements revealed that tail-clamp PNAs consistently bound the dsDNA target more efficiently, and kinetics experiments revealed...

  5. Cdc45-induced loading of human RPA onto single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szambowska, Anna; Tessmer, Ingrid; Prus, Piotr; Schlott, Bernhard; Pospiech, Helmut; Grosse, Frank

    2017-04-07

    Cell division cycle protein 45 (Cdc45) is an essential component of the eukaryotic replicative DNA helicase. We found that human Cdc45 forms a complex with the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein RPA. Moreover, it actively loads RPA onto nascent ssDNA. Pull-down assays and surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that Cdc45-bound RPA complexed with ssDNA in the 8-10 nucleotide binding mode, but dissociated when RPA covered a 30-mer. Real-time analysis of RPA-ssDNA binding demonstrated that Cdc45 catalytically loaded RPA onto ssDNA. This placement reaction required physical contacts of Cdc45 with the RPA70A subdomain. Our results imply that Cdc45 controlled stabilization of the 8-nt RPA binding mode, the subsequent RPA transition into 30-mer mode and facilitated an ordered binding to ssDNA. We propose that a Cdc45-mediated loading guarantees a seamless deposition of RPA on newly emerging ssDNA at the nascent replication fork. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Effects of DNA double-strand and single-strand breaks on intrachromosomal recombination events in cell-cycle-arrested yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Schiestl, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Intrachromosomal recombination between repeated elements can result in deletion (DEL recombination) events. We investigated the inducibility of such intrachromosomal recombination events at different stages of the cell cycle and the nature of the primary DNA lesions capable of initiating these events. Two genetic systems were constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that select for DEL recombination events between duplicated alleles of CDC28 and TUB2. We determined effects of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-strand breaks (SSBs) between the duplicated alleles on DEL recombination when induced in dividing cells or cells arrested in G1 or G2. Site-specific DSBs and SSBs were produced by overexpression of the I-Sce I endonuclease and the gene II protein (gIIp), respectively. I-Sce I-induced DSBs caused an increase in DEL recombination frequencies in both dividing and cell-cycle-arrested cells, indicating that G1- and G2-arrested cells are capable of completing DSB repair. In contrast, gIIp-induced SSBs caused an increase in DEL recombination frequency only in dividing cells. To further examine these phenomena we used both γ-irradiation, inducing DSBs as its most relevant lesion, and UV, inducing other forms of DNA damage. UV irradiation did not increase DEL recombination frequencies in G1 or G2, whereas γ-rays increased DEL recombination frequencies in both phases. Both forms of radiation, however, induced DEL recombination in dividing cells. The results suggest that DSBsbut not SSBs induce DEL recombination, probably via the single-strand annealing pathway. Further, DSBs in dividing cells may result from the replication of a UV or SSB-damaged template. Alternatively, UV induced events may occur by replication slippage after DNA polymerase pausing in front of the damage. (author)

  7. Non-uniform binding of single-stranded DNA binding proteins to hybrids of single-stranded DNA and single-walled carbon nanotubes observed by atomic force microscopy in air and in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Kazuo, E-mail: meicun2006@163.com; Ishizaka, Kei; Nii, Daisuke; Izumi, Katsuki

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Conjugates of protein, DNA, and SWNTs were observed by AFM in liquid. • Non-uniform binding of proteins was visualized in liquid. • Thickness of DNA molecules on SWNT surfaces was well characterized in liquid. - Abstract: Using atomic force spectroscopy (AFM), we observed hybrids of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with or without protein molecules in air and in an aqueous solution. This is the first report of ssDNA–SWNT hybrids with proteins in solution analyzed by AFM. In the absence of protein, the height of the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was 1.1 ± 0.3 nm and 2.4 ± 0.6 nm in air and liquid, respectively, suggesting that the ssDNA molecules adopted a flexible structure on the SWNT surface. In the presence of single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins, the heights of the hybrids in air and liquid increased to 6.4 ± 3.1 nm and 10.0 ± 4.5 nm, respectively. The AFM images clearly showed binding of the SSB proteins to the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids. The morphology of the SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was non-uniform, particularly in aqueous solution. The variance of hybrid height was quantitatively estimated by cross-section analysis along the long-axis of each hybrid. The SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids showed much larger variance than the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids.

  8. INDUCTION OF DNA STRAND BREAKS BY TRIHALOMETHANES IN PRIMARY HUMAN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Trihalomethanes (TEMs) are disinfection by-products and suspected human carcinogens present in chlorinated drinking water. Previous studies have shown that many THMs induce sister chromatid exchanges and DNA strand breaks in human peripheral blood lymphocyte...

  9. Electronic cigarettes induce DNA strand breaks and cell death independently of nicotine in cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vicky; Rahimy, Mehran; Korrapati, Avinaash; Xuan, Yinan; Zou, Angela E; Krishnan, Aswini R; Tsui, Tzuhan; Aguilera, Joseph A; Advani, Sunil; Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Brumund, Kevin T; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of short- and long-term e-cigarette vapor exposure on a panel of normal epithelial and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. HaCaT, UMSCC10B, and HN30 were treated with nicotine-containing and nicotine-free vapor extract from two popular e-cigarette brands for periods ranging from 48 h to 8 weeks. Cytotoxicity was assessed using Annexin V flow cytometric analysis, trypan blue exclusion, and clonogenic assays. Genotoxicity in the form of DNA strand breaks was quantified using the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX immunostaining. E-cigarette-exposed cells showed significantly reduced cell viability and clonogenic survival, along with increased rates of apoptosis and necrosis, regardless of e-cigarette vapor nicotine content. They also exhibited significantly increased comet tail length and accumulation of γ-H2AX foci, demonstrating increased DNA strand breaks. E-cigarette vapor, both with and without nicotine, is cytotoxic to epithelial cell lines and is a DNA strand break-inducing agent. Further assessment of the potential carcinogenic effects of e-cigarette vapor is urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of DNA-PK in cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are probably the most dangerous of the many different types of DNA damage that occur within the cell. DSBs are generated by exogenous agents such as ionizing radiation (IR) or by endogenously generated reactive oxygen species and occur as intermediates during meiotic and V(D)J recombination. The repair of DSBs is of paramount importance to the cell as misrepair of DSBs can lead to cell death or promote tumorigenesis. In eukaryotes there exists two distinct mechanisms for DNA DSB repair: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). In mammalian cells, however, it is clear that nonhomologous repair of DSBs is highly active and plays a major role in conferring radiation resistance to the cell. The NHEJ machinery minimally consists of the DNA-dependent Protein Kinase (DNA-PK) and a complex of XRCC4 and DNA Ligase IV. The DNA-PK complex is composed of a 470 kDa catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), and the heterodimeric Ku70 and Ku80 DNA end-binding complex. DNA-PKcs is a PI-3 kinase with homology to ATM and ATR in its C-terminal kinase domain. The DNA-PK complex protects and tethers the ends, and directs assembly and, perhaps, the activation of other NHEJ proteins. We have previously demonstrated that the kinase activity of DNA-PK is essential for DNA DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. It is, therefore, of immense interest to determine the in vivo targets of DNA-PKcs and the mechanisms by which phosphorylation of these targets modulates NHEJ. Recent studies have resulted in the identification of a number of protein targets that are phosphorylated by and/or interact with DNA-PKcs. Our laboratory has recently identified autophosphorylation site(s) on DNA-PKcs. We find that phosphorylation at these sites in vivo is an early and essential response to DSBs and demonstrate, for the first time, the localization of DNA-PKcs to the sites of DNA damage in vivo. Furthermore, mutation of these phosphorylation sites in mammalian

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes and glioma susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Peng; Zou, Peng; Zhao, Lin; Yan, Wei; Kang, Chunsheng; Jiang, Tao; You, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variations in DNA double-strand break repair genes can influence the ability of a cell to repair damaged DNA and alter an individual’s susceptibility to cancer. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes are associated with an increased risk of glioma development. We genotyped 10 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 7 DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes (XRCC3, BRCA2, RAG1, XRCC5, LIG4, XRCC4 and ATM) in a case–control study including 384 glioma patients and 384 cancer-free controls in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform. In the single-locus analysis there was a significant association between gliomas and the LIG4 rs1805388 (Ex2 +54C>T, Thr9Ile) TT genotype (adjusted OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.87-5.71), as well as the TC genotype (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20-2.18). We also found that the homozygous variant genotype (GG) of XRCC4 rs1805377 (IVS7-1A>G, splice-site) was associated with a significantly increased risk of gliomas (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.80). Interestingly, we detected a significant additive and multiplicative interaction effect between the LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377 polymorphisms with an increasing risk of gliomas. When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, LIG4 rs1805388 was associated with an increased glioma risk among smokers. These results indicate for the first time that LIG4 rs1805388 and XRCC4 rs1805377, alone or in combination, are associated with a risk of gliomas

  12. Induction and removal of DNA interstrand cross-links in V-79 Chinese hamster cells measured by hydroxylapatite chromatography after treatments with bifunctional furocoumarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardalhon, M.; Averbeck, D.

    1988-01-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (CL) photoinduced by bifunctional furocoumarins in V-79 Chinese hamster cells were measured by alkaline denaturation and hydroxylapatite chromatography. Treatments with 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen (4,5',8-TMP) and 365 nm irradiation (UVA) confer a dose-dependent linear increase in the amount of double-stranded DNA indicating the induction of CL. Determination in alkaline sucrose gradients of the molecular weight of the DNA and estimation of drug-induced strand breakage allowed quantification of the CL induced. 5-MOP was found to be slightly more effective than 8-MOP whereas 4,5',8-TMP was 9 times more effective for the induction of CL. The fate of CL during post-treatment incubation was also followed. Cells in exponential growth phase were found to be efficient in the removal of CL. (Author)

  13. Non-homologous end joining is the responsible pathway for the repair of fludarabine-induced DNA double strand breaks in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos-Nebel, Marcelo de; Larripa, Irene; Gonzalez-Cid, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    Fludarabine (FLU), an analogue of adenosine, interferes with DNA synthesis and inhibits the chain elongation leading to replication arrest and DNA double strand break (DSB) formation. Mammalian cells use two main pathways of DSB repair to maintain genomic stability: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the repair pathways employed in the restoration of DSB formed following replication arrest induced by FLU in mammalian cells. Replication inhibition was induced in human lymphocytes and fibroblasts by FLU. DSB occurred in a dose-dependent manner on early/middle S-phase cells, as detected by γH2AX foci formation. To test whether conservative HR participates in FLU-induced DSB repair, we measured the kinetics of Rad51 nuclear foci formation in human fibroblasts. There was no significant induction of Rad51 foci after FLU treatment. To further confirm these results, we analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in both human cells. We did not find increased frequencies of SCE after FLU treatment. To assess the participation of NHEJ pathway in the repair of FLU-induced damage, we used two chemical inhibitors of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), vanillin and wortmannin. Human fibroblasts pretreated with DNA-PKcs inhibitors showed increased levels of chromosome breakages and became more sensitive to cell death. An active role of NHEJ pathway was also suggested from the analysis of Chinese hamster cell lines. XR-C1 (DNA-PKcs-deficient) and XR-V15B (Ku80-deficient) cells showed hypersensitivity to FLU as evidenced by the increased frequency of chromosome aberrations, decreased mitotic index and impaired survival rates. In contrast, CL-V4B (Rad51C-deficient) and V-C8 (Brca2-deficient) cell lines displayed a FLU-resistant phenotype. Together, our results suggest a major role for NHEJ repair in the preservation of genome integrity against FLU-induced DSB

  14. Non-homologous end joining is the responsible pathway for the repair of fludarabine-induced DNA double strand breaks in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Nebel, Marcelo de [Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R. Castex, Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: mnebel@hematologia.anm.edu.ar; Larripa, Irene; Gonzalez-Cid, Marcela [Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de Investigaciones Hematologicas Mariano R. Castex, Academia Nacional de Medicina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-11-10

    Fludarabine (FLU), an analogue of adenosine, interferes with DNA synthesis and inhibits the chain elongation leading to replication arrest and DNA double strand break (DSB) formation. Mammalian cells use two main pathways of DSB repair to maintain genomic stability: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the repair pathways employed in the restoration of DSB formed following replication arrest induced by FLU in mammalian cells. Replication inhibition was induced in human lymphocytes and fibroblasts by FLU. DSB occurred in a dose-dependent manner on early/middle S-phase cells, as detected by {gamma}H2AX foci formation. To test whether conservative HR participates in FLU-induced DSB repair, we measured the kinetics of Rad51 nuclear foci formation in human fibroblasts. There was no significant induction of Rad51 foci after FLU treatment. To further confirm these results, we analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in both human cells. We did not find increased frequencies of SCE after FLU treatment. To assess the participation of NHEJ pathway in the repair of FLU-induced damage, we used two chemical inhibitors of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), vanillin and wortmannin. Human fibroblasts pretreated with DNA-PKcs inhibitors showed increased levels of chromosome breakages and became more sensitive to cell death. An active role of NHEJ pathway was also suggested from the analysis of Chinese hamster cell lines. XR-C1 (DNA-PKcs-deficient) and XR-V15B (Ku80-deficient) cells showed hypersensitivity to FLU as evidenced by the increased frequency of chromosome aberrations, decreased mitotic index and impaired survival rates. In contrast, CL-V4B (Rad51C-deficient) and V-C8 (Brca2-deficient) cell lines displayed a FLU-resistant phenotype. Together, our results suggest a major role for NHEJ repair in the preservation of genome integrity against FLU

  15. Genetic and Biochemical Identification of a Novel Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Complex in Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Amy; Liddell, Susan; Allers, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins play an essential role in DNA replication and repair. They use oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-folds, a five-stranded β-sheet coiled into a closed barrel, to bind to ssDNA thereby protecting and stabilizing the DNA. In eukaryotes the ssDNA-binding protein (SSB) is known as replication protein A (RPA) and consists of three distinct subunits that function as a heterotrimer. The bacterial homolog is termed SSB and functions as a homotetramer. In the archaeon Haloferax volcanii there are three genes encoding homologs of RPA. Two of the rpa genes (rpa1 and rpa3) exist in operons with a novel gene specific to Euryarchaeota; this gene encodes a protein that we have termed RPA-associated protein (rpap). The rpap genes encode proteins belonging to COG3390 group and feature OB-folds, suggesting that they might cooperate with RPA in binding to ssDNA. Our genetic analysis showed that rpa1 and rpa3 deletion mutants have differing phenotypes; only Δrpa3 strains are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents. Deletion of the rpa3-associated gene rpap3 led to similar levels of DNA damage sensitivity, as did deletion of the rpa3 operon, suggesting that RPA3 and RPAP3 function in the same pathway. Protein pull-downs involving recombinant hexahistidine-tagged RPAs showed that RPA3 co-purifies with RPAP3, and RPA1 co-purifies with RPAP1. This indicates that the RPAs interact only with their respective associated proteins; this was corroborated by the inability to construct rpa1 rpap3 and rpa3 rpap1 double mutants. This is the first report investigating the individual function of the archaeal COG3390 RPA-associated proteins (RPAPs). We have shown genetically and biochemically that the RPAPs interact with their respective RPAs, and have uncovered a novel single-stranded DNA-binding complex that is unique to Euryarchaeota.

  16. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Mutagenesis Using a Highly Sensitive Single-Stranded DNA Reporter System in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kin

    2018-01-01

    Mutations are permanent alterations to the coding content of DNA. They are starting material for the Darwinian evolution of species by natural selection, which has yielded an amazing diversity of life on Earth. Mutations can also be the fundamental basis of serious human maladies, most notably cancers. In this chapter, I describe a highly sensitive reporter system for the molecular genetic analysis of mutagenesis, featuring controlled generation of long stretches of single-stranded DNA in budding yeast cells. This system is ~100- to ~1000-fold more susceptible to mutation than conventional double-stranded DNA reporters, and is well suited for generating large mutational datasets to investigate the properties of mutagens.

  17. Seasonal and PAH impact on DNA strand-break levels in gills of transplanted zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Palais, Frédéric; Geffard, Alain; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of aquatic ecosystems. A caging study on the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha was planned to run over four seasons in the Seine River basin in order to assess whether DNA damage measured in transplanted mussels to polluted area vary according to seasonal changes. Three sites were chosen along the Seine River, one upstream from Paris and two downstream, corresponding to a chemical gradient of water contamination. The DNA strand break (comet assay) and chromosomal damage (micronucleus test) were measured in caged mussels at each site and in winter, spring and summer, along with PAH water contamination, PAH bioaccumulation, the mussel condition index (CI), the gonado-somatic index (GSI) and the filtration rate (FR). The level of DNA strand break measured in winter was low and increased in spring, concomitantly with FR and GSI. Over the same period, micronucleus (MN) frequency and PAH bioaccumulation decreased significantly in caged mussels, with both parameters positively correlated to each other. DNA strand-break levels and MN frequencies showed inter-site variations corresponding to the chemical contamination gradient. These two genotoxicity endpoints usefully complement each other in field studies. These results show that the MN test and comet assay, when applied to gill cells of caged zebra mussels, are sensitive tools for freshwater genotoxicity monitoring. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Calibration of pulsed field gel electrophoresis for measurement of DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ager, D.D.; Dewey, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) assay was calibrated for the measurement of X-ray induced DNA double-strand breaks in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Calibration was conducted by incorporating [ 125 I] deoxyuridine into DNA, which induces one double-strand break for every disintegration that occurs in frozen cells. Based on the percentage of DNA migrating into the gel, the number of breaks/dalton/Gy was estimated to be (9.3±1.0) x 10 -12 . This value is close to (10 to 12) x 10 -12 determined by neutral filter elution using similar cell lysis procedures at 24 o C and at pH8.0. The estimate is in good agreement with the value of (11.7±2) x 10 -12 breaks/dalton/Gy as measured in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells using the neutral sucrose gradient method (Bloecher 1988), and (6 to 9) x 10 -12 breaks/dalton/Gy as measured in mouse L and Chinese hamster V79 cells using neutral filter elution (Radford and Hodgson 1985). (author)

  19. IDN2 Interacts with RPA and Facilitates DNA Double-Strand Break Repair by Homologous Recombination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Ba, Zhaoqing; Costa-Nunes, Pedro; Wei, Wei; Li, Lanxia; Kong, Fansi; Li, Yan; Chai, Jijie; Pontes, Olga; Qi, Yijun

    2017-03-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for the maintenance of genome integrity. We previously showed that DSB-induced small RNAs (diRNAs) facilitate homologous recombination-mediated DSB repair in Arabidopsis thaliana Here, we show that INVOLVED IN DE NOVO2 (IDN2), a double-stranded RNA binding protein involved in small RNA-directed DNA methylation, is required for DSB repair in Arabidopsis. We find that IDN2 interacts with the heterotrimeric replication protein A (RPA) complex. Depletion of IDN2 or the diRNA binding ARGONAUTE2 leads to increased accumulation of RPA at DSB sites and mislocalization of the recombination factor RAD51. These findings support a model in which IDN2 interacts with RPA and facilitates the release of RPA from single-stranded DNA tails and subsequent recruitment of RAD51 at DSB sites to promote DSB repair. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Crosslinks rather than strand breaks determine access to ancient DNA sequences from frozen sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Johannes; Mitchell, D.L.; Wiuf, C.

    2006-01-01

    , and freely exposed sugar, phosphate, and hydroxyl groups. Intriguingly, interstrand crosslinks were found to accumulate about hundred times faster than single stranded breaks, suggesting that crosslinking rather than depurination is the primary limiting factor for ancient DNA amplification under frozen...... conditions. The results question the reliability of the commonly used models relying on depurination kinetics for predicting the long-term survival of DNA under permafrost conditions and suggest that new strategies for repair of ancient DNA must be considered if the yield of amplifiable DNA from permafrost...

  1. Chromosomal Instability and Molecular Defects in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Halevy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS results from the absence of the NBS1 protein, responsible for detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. NBS is characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition. Here, we show successful reprogramming of NBS fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (NBS-iPSCs. Our data suggest a strong selection for karyotypically normal fibroblasts to go through the reprogramming process. NBS-iPSCs then acquire numerous chromosomal aberrations and show a delayed response to DSB induction. Furthermore, NBS-iPSCs display slower growth, mitotic inhibition, a reduced apoptotic response to stress, and abnormal cell-cycle-related gene expression. Importantly, NBS neural progenitor cells (NBS-NPCs show downregulation of neural developmental genes, which seems to be mediated by P53. Our results demonstrate the importance of NBS1 in early human development, shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this severe syndrome, and further expand our knowledge of the genomic stress cells experience during the reprogramming process.

  2. Space Radiation Effects on Human Cells: Modeling DNA Breakage, DNA Damage Foci Distribution, Chromosomal Aberrations and Tissue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Huff, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Future long-tem space travel will face challenges from radiation concerns as the space environment poses health risk to humans in space from radiations with high biological efficiency and adverse post-flight long-term effects. Solar particles events may dramatically affect the crew performance, while Galactic Cosmic Rays will induce a chronic exposure to high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) particles. These types of radiation, not present on the ground level, can increase the probability of a fatal cancer later in astronaut life. No feasible shielding is possible from radiation in space, especially for the heavy ion component, as suggested solutions will require a dramatic increase in the mass of the mission. Our research group focuses on fundamental research and strategic analysis leading to better shielding design and to better understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation damage. We present our recent effort to model DNA damage and tissue damage using computational models based on the physics of heavy ion radiation, DNA structure and DNA damage and repair in human cells. Our particular area of expertise include the clustered DNA damage from high-LET radiation, the visualization of DSBs (DNA double strand breaks) via DNA damage foci, image analysis and the statistics of the foci for different experimental situations, chromosomal aberration formation through DSB misrepair, the kinetics of DSB repair leading to a model-derived spectrum of chromosomal aberrations, and, finally, the simulation of human tissue and the pattern of apoptotic cell damage. This compendium of theoretical and experimental data sheds light on the complex nature of radiation interacting with human DNA, cells and tissues, which can lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis later in human life after the space mission.

  3. Relative frequency of formation of base radioproduct, single and double strand breaks on irradiation of diluted aqueous solution of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryznar, L.; Drasil, V.

    1975-01-01

    Diluted aqueous solution of DNA labelled with 6- 3 H-TdR was irradiated in the absence of oxygen and numbers of formed single and double strand breaks and the 5,6-dihydrothymine (DHT) yield were determined. The results indicate that, under given conditions, a molecule of a base radioproduct is formed approximately 10 times more frequently than one single strand break. The occurence of a single strand break is 20 times higher than that of a double strand break. The DNA labelled with 6- 3 H-TdR was isolated from mice fibroblasts of L-strain according to Marmur (specific activity 3.0 MBq/82 μCi/mg DNA, molecular weight M/sub n/=9.32x10 6 dalton). Solution of DNA was irradiated in the absence of oxygen (180 Gy /1.8x10 4 rads/, absorbed dose rate 0.3 Gy/s). It was lyophilized with an addition of non-labelled thymine, thymidine and DHT and then hydrolysed with 90% formic acid. The dried hydrolysate was chromatographed with irradiated non-labelled thymine added as a carrier. (F.G.)

  4. REV7 counteracts DNA double-strand break resection and affects PARP inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Guotai; Chapman, J. Ross; Brandsma, Inger; Yuan, Jingsong; Mistrik, Martin; Bouwman, Peter; Bartkova, Jirina; Gogola, Ewa; Warmerdam, Daniël; Barazas, Marco; Jaspers, Janneke E.; Watanabe, Kenji; Pieterse, Mark; Kersbergen, Ariena; Sol, Wendy; Celie, Patrick H. N.; Schouten, Philip C.; van den Broek, Bram; Salman, Ahmed; Nieuwland, Marja; de Rink, Iris; de Ronde, Jorma; Jalink, Kees; Boulton, Simon J.; Chen, Junjie; van Gent, Dik C.; Bartek, Jiri; Jonkers, Jos; Borst, Piet; Rottenberg, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is achieved by homologous recombination (HR), and BRCA1 is an important factor for this repair pathway(1). In the absence of BRCA1-mediated HR, the administration of PARP inhibitors induces synthetic lethality of tumour cells of patients with

  5. Asymmetric strand segregation: epigenetic costs of genetic fidelity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane P Genereux

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric strand segregation has been proposed as a mechanism to minimize effective mutation rates in epithelial tissues. Under asymmetric strand segregation, the double-stranded molecule that contains the oldest DNA strand is preferentially targeted to the somatic stem cell after each round of DNA replication. This oldest DNA strand is expected to have fewer errors than younger strands because some of the errors that arise on daughter strands during their synthesis fail to be repaired. Empirical findings suggest the possibility of asymmetric strand segregation in a subset of mammalian cell lineages, indicating that it may indeed function to increase genetic fidelity. However, the implications of asymmetric strand segregation for the fidelity of epigenetic information remain unexplored. Here, I explore the impact of strand-segregation dynamics on epigenetic fidelity using a mathematical-modelling approach that draws on the known molecular mechanisms of DNA methylation and existing rate estimates from empirical methylation data. I find that, for a wide range of starting methylation densities, asymmetric -- but not symmetric -- strand segregation leads to systematic increases in methylation levels if parent strands are subject to de novo methylation events. I found that epigenetic fidelity can be compromised when enhanced genetic fidelity is achieved through asymmetric strand segregation. Strand segregation dynamics could thus explain the increased DNA methylation densities that are observed in structured cellular populations during aging and in disease.

  6. Push back to respond better: regulatory inhibition of the DNA double-strand break response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panier, Stephanie; Durocher, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Single DNA lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can cause cell death or trigger genome rearrangements that have oncogenic potential, and so the pathways that mend and signal DNA damage must be highly sensitive but, at the same time, selective and reversible. When initiated, boundaries must be set to restrict the DSB response to the site of the lesion. The integration of positive and, crucially, negative control points involving post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and acetylation is key for building fast, effective responses to DNA damage and for mitigating the impact of DNA lesions on genome integrity.

  7. Mapping yeast origins of replication via single-stranded DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenyi; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2007-02-01

    Studies in th Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided a framework for understanding how eukaryotic cells replicate their chromosomal DNA to ensure faithful transmission of genetic information to their daughter cells. In particular, S. cerevisiae is the first eukaryote to have its origins of replication mapped on a genomic scale, by three independent groups using three different microarray-based approaches. Here we describe a new technique of origin mapping via detection of single-stranded DNA in yeast. This method not only identified the majority of previously discovered origins, but also detected new ones. We have also shown that this technique can identify origins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, illustrating the utility of this method for origin mapping in other eukaryotes.

  8. Molecular characterization of a complex site-specific radiation-induced DNA double-strand break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, K.; Dizdaroglu, M.; Jaruga, P.; Neumann, R.D.; Winters, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation lethality is a function of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Current models propose the lethality of a DSB to be a function of its structural complexity. We present here for the first time a map of damage associated with a site-specific double-strand break produced by decay of 125 I in a plasmid bound by a 125 I-labeled triplex forming oligonucleotide ( 125 I-TFO). The E. coli DNA repair enzymes, endonuclease IV (endo IV), endonuclease III (endo III), and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), which recognize AP sites, and pyrimidine and purine base damage respectively, were used as probes in this study. 125 I-TFO bound plasmid was incubated with and without DMSO at -80 deg C for 1 month. No significant difference in DSB yield was observed under these conditions. A 32 base pair fragment from the upstream side of the decay site was isolated by restriction digestion and enzymatically probed to identify damage sites. Endo IV treatment of the 5'-end labeled upper strand indicated clustering of AP sites within 3 bases downstream and 7 bases upstream of the targeted base. Also, repeated experiments consistently detected an AP site 4 bases upstream of the 125 Itarget base. This was further supported by complementary results with the 3'-end labeled upper strand. Endo IV analysis of the lower strand also shows clustering of AP sites near the DSB end. Endo III and Fpg probing demonstrated that base damage is also clustered near the targeted break site. DSBs produced in the absence of DMSO displayed a different pattern of enzyme sensitive damage than those produced in the presence of DMSO. Identification of specific base damage types within the restriction fragment containing the DSB end was achieved with GC/MS. Base damage consisted of 8-hydroguanine, 8-hydroxyadenine, and 5-hydroxycytosine. These lesions were observed at relative yields of 8-hydroguanine and 5-hydroxycytosine to 8-hydroxyadenine of 7.4:1 and 4.7:1, respectively, in the absence

  9. Mouse but not human embryonic stem cells are deficient in rejoining of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, C A; Banáth, J P; MacPhail, S H; Zhao, J; Eaves, C A; O'Connor, M D; Lansdorp, P M; Olive, P L

    2008-09-01

    Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells will give rise to all of the cells of the adult mouse, but they failed to rejoin half of the DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) produced by high doses of ionizing radiation. A deficiency in DNA-PK(cs) appears to be responsible since mES cells expressed strand breaks more rapidly. Consistent with more rapid dsb rejoining, H2AX(-/-) mES cells also expressed 6 times more DNA-PK(cs) than wild-type mES cells. Similar results were obtained for ATM(-/-) mES cells. Differentiation of mES cells led to an increase in DNA-PK(cs), an increase in dsb rejoining rate, and a decrease in Ku70/80. Unlike mouse ES, human ES cells were proficient in rejoining of dsb and expressed high levels of DNA-PK(cs). These results confirm the importance of homologous recombination in the accurate repair of double-strand breaks in mES cells, they help explain the chromosome abnormalities associated with deficiencies in H2AX and ATM, and they add to the growing list of differences in the way rodent and human cells deal with DNA damage.

  10. Protective role of 3-nitrotyrosine against gamma radiation-induced DNA strand breaks: A comparison study with tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weiqun; Ni Meinan; Kong Fuquan; Sui Li; Hu Jia; Xu Diandou; Li Yanmei

    2008-01-01

    3-Nitrotyrosine(3-NY) has been reported as a potential source of reactive oxygen species (ROSs). In this work, plasmid pBR322 DNA was irradiated by gamma rays in aqueous solution in presence and absence of 3-NY, DNA strand breaks were analyzed by neutral electrophoresis followed by quantification with image analysis software. It was found that the presence of 3-NY could effectively reduce radiation-induced DNA strand breaks. A side-by-side comparison was performed between 3-NY and tyrosine, the results showed that the protective role 3-NY was comparable with tyrosine, which might imply that protein tyrosine nitration might not significantly decrease its ability as a free radical scavenger

  11. An Analysis of Enzyme Kinetics Data for Mitochondrial DNA Strand Termination by Nucleoside Reverse Transcription Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelsdorf, Katherine V.; Song, Zhuo; Cao, Yang; Samuels, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiretroviral treatment have been associated with mitochondrial toxicity. The polymerase-γ hypothesis states that this toxicity stems from the analogs' inhibition of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase (polymerase-γ) leading to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. We have constructed a computational model of the interaction of polymerase-γ with activated nucleoside and nucleotide analog drugs, based on experimentally measured reaction rates and base excision rates, together with the mtDNA genome size, the human mtDNA sequence, and mitochondrial dNTP concentrations. The model predicts an approximately 1000-fold difference in the activated drug concentration required for a 50% probability of mtDNA strand termination between the activated di-deoxy analogs d4T, ddC, and ddI (activated to ddA) and the activated forms of the analogs 3TC, TDF, AZT, FTC, and ABC. These predictions are supported by experimental and clinical data showing significantly greater mtDNA depletion in cell culture and patient samples caused by the di-deoxy analog drugs. For zidovudine (AZT) we calculated a very low mtDNA replication termination probability, in contrast to its reported mitochondrial toxicity in vitro and clinically. Therefore AZT mitochondrial toxicity is likely due to a mechanism that does not involve strand termination of mtDNA replication. PMID:19132079

  12. Chromatin condensation and differential sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to DNA strand breaks induced by bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Larraza, Daniel M.; Padron, Juan; Ronci, Natalia E.; Vidal Rioja, Lidia A.

    2006-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. By nucleoid sedimentation assay and digestions of nuclei with DNAse I, untreated mosquito cells (no BLM; no NaB) were shown to have more chromatin condensation than untreated CHO cells. By alkaline unwinding ATC-15 cells treated with NaB showed more BLM-induced DNA strand breaks than NaB-untreated CHO cells. The time-course of BLM-induced DNA damage to nuclear DNA was similar for NaB-untreated mammalian and insect cells, but with mosquito cells showing less DNA strand breaks, both at physiological temperatures and at 4 o C. However, when DNA repair was inhibited by low temperatures and chromatin was decondensed by NaB treatments, differences in BLM-induced DNA damage between these cells lines were no longer observed. In both cell lines, NaB did not affect BLM action on cell growth and viability. On the other hand, the low sensitivity of ATC-15 cells to BLM was reflected in their better growth efficiency. These cells exhibited a satisfactory growth at BLM doses that produced a permanent arrest of growth in CHO cells. The data suggest that mosquito cells might have linker DNAs shorter than those of mammalian cells, which would result in the observed both greater chromatin condensation and greater resistance to DNA damage induced by BLM as compared to CHO cells

  13. Chromatin condensation and differential sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to DNA strand breaks induced by bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Larraza, Daniel M. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: danielop@imbice.org.ar; Padron, Juan [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ronci, Natalia E. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Vidal Rioja, Lidia A. [IMBICE, C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2006-08-30

    Bleomycin (BLM) induces DNA damage in living cells. In this report we analyzed the role of chromatin compactness in the differential response of mosquito (ATC-15) and mammalian (CHO) cells to DNA strand breaks induced by BLM. We used cells unexposed and exposed to sodium butyrate (NaB), which induces chromatin decondensation. By nucleoid sedimentation assay and digestions of nuclei with DNAse I, untreated mosquito cells (no BLM; no NaB) were shown to have more chromatin condensation than untreated CHO cells. By alkaline unwinding ATC-15 cells treated with NaB showed more BLM-induced DNA strand breaks than NaB-untreated CHO cells. The time-course of BLM-induced DNA damage to nuclear DNA was similar for NaB-untreated mammalian and insect cells, but with mosquito cells showing less DNA strand breaks, both at physiological temperatures and at 4 {sup o}C. However, when DNA repair was inhibited by low temperatures and chromatin was decondensed by NaB treatments, differences in BLM-induced DNA damage between these cells lines were no longer observed. In both cell lines, NaB did not affect BLM action on cell growth and viability. On the other hand, the low sensitivity of ATC-15 cells to BLM was reflected in their better growth efficiency. These cells exhibited a satisfactory growth at BLM doses that produced a permanent arrest of growth in CHO cells. The data suggest that mosquito cells might have linker DNAs shorter than those of mammalian cells, which would result in the observed both greater chromatin condensation and greater resistance to DNA damage induced by BLM as compared to CHO cells.

  14. Cytotoxicity of an 125I-labelled DNA ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannis, T.C.; Lobachevsky, P.N.; Martin, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The subcellular distribution and cytotoxicity of a DNA-binding ligand [ 125 I]-Hoechst 33258 following incubation of K562 cells with the drug was investigated. The ability of a radical scavenger, dimethyl sulphoxide, to protect cells from the 125 I-decay induced cell death was also studied. Three different concentrations and specific activities of the drug were used to provide different ligand : DNA binding ratios. The results demonstrated a trend toward improved delivery of the ligand to the nucleus and to chromatin at higher ligand concentrations, with concomitant increased sensitivity to 125 I-decay induced cytotoxicity and decreased protection by dimethyl sulphoxide. This correlation of radiobiological parameters with subcellular drug distribution is consistent with the classical dogma that attributes cytotoxicity to DNA double-stranded breakage in the vicinity of the site of decay, where the high LET nature of the damage confers minimal sensitivity to radical scavenging

  15. Alkaline gel electrophoresis assay to detect DNA strand breaks and repair mechanisms in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pelielo de Mattos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS can induce lesions in different cellular targets, including DNA. Stannous chloride (SnCl2 is a ROS generator, leading to lethality in Escherichia coli (E. coli, with the base excision repair (BER mechanism playing a role in this process. Many techniques have been developed to detect genotoxicity, as comet assay, in eukaryotic cells, and plasmid DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. In this study, an adaptation of the alkaline gel electrophoresis method was carried out to ascertain the induction of strand breaks by SnCl2 in bacterial DNA, from E. coli BER mutants, and its repair pathway. Results obtained show that SnCl2 was able to induce DNA strand breaks in all strains tested. Moreover, endonuclease IV and exonuclease III play a role in DNA repair. On the whole, data has shown that the alkaline gel electrophoresis assay could be used both for studying DNA strand breaks induction and for associated repair mechanisms.Espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO podem induzir lesões em diferentes alvos celulares, incluindo o DNA. O cloreto estanoso (SnCl2 é um gerador de ERO que induz letalidade em E. coli, sendo o reparo por excisão de bases (BER um mecanismo importante neste processo. Técnicas como o ensaio cometa (em eucariotos e a eletroforese de DNA plasmidial em gel de agarose têm sido utilizadas para detectar genotoxicidade. No presente estudo, uma adaptação do método de eletroforese em gel alcalino de agarose foi usada para verificar a indução de quebras, pelo SnCl2, no DNA de E. coli, bem como a participação de enzimas do BER na restauração das lesões. Os resultados mostraram que o SnCl2 induziu quebras no DNA de todas as cepas testadas. Além disso, endonuclease IV e exonuclease III estão envolvidas na reparação dos danos. Em resumo, os dados obtidos indicam que a metodologia de eletroforese em gel alcalino de agarose pode ser empregada tanto para o estudo de quebras no DNA, quanto para avaliação dos

  16. Molecular dynamics study of some non-hydrogen-bonding base pair DNA strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rakesh K.; Ojha, Rajendra P.; Tiwari, Gargi; Pandey, Vishnudatt; Mall, Vijaysree

    2018-05-01

    In order to elucidate the structural activity of hydrophobic modified DNA, the DMMO2-D5SICS, base pair is introduced as a constituent in different set of 12-mer and 14-mer DNA sequences for the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in explicit water solvent. AMBER 14 force field was employed for each set of duplex during the 200ns production-dynamics simulation in orthogonal-box-water solvent by the Particle-Mesh-Ewald (PME) method in infinite periodic boundary conditions (PBC) to determine conformational parameters of the complex. The force-field parameters of modified base-pair were calculated by Gaussian-code using Hartree-Fock /ab-initio methodology. RMSD Results reveal that the conformation of the duplex is sequence dependent and the binding energy of the complex depends on the position of the modified base-pair in the nucleic acid strand. We found that non-bonding energy had a significant contribution to stabilising such type of duplex in comparison to electrostatic energy. The distortion produced within strands by such type of base-pair was local and destabilised the duplex integrity near to substitution, moreover the binding energy of duplex depends on the position of substitution of hydrophobic base-pair and the DNA sequence and strongly supports the corresponding experimental study.

  17. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Saatci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  18. Cascade of chromosomal rearrangements caused by a heterogeneous T-DNA integration supports the double-stranded break repair model for T-DNA integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yufei; Chen, Zhiyu; Zhuang, Chuxiong; Huang, Jilei

    2017-06-01

    Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be integrated into the plant genome. The double-stranded break repair (DSBR) pathway is a major model for T-DNA integration. From this model, we expect that two ends of a T-DNA molecule would invade into a single DNA double-stranded break (DSB) or independent DSBs in the plant genome. We call the later phenomenon a heterogeneous T-DNA integration, which has never been observed. In this work, we demonstrated it in an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant seb19. To resolve the chromosomal structural changes caused by T-DNA integration at both the nucleotide and chromosome levels, we performed inverse PCR, genome resequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and linkage analysis. We found, in seb19, a single T-DNA connected two different chromosomal loci and caused complex chromosomal rearrangements. The specific break-junction pattern in seb19 is consistent with the result of heterogeneous T-DNA integration but not of recombination between two T-DNA insertions. We demonstrated that, in seb19, heterogeneous T-DNA integration evoked a cascade of incorrect repair of seven DSBs on chromosomes 4 and 5, and then produced translocation, inversion, duplication and deletion. Heterogeneous T-DNA integration supports the DSBR model and suggests that two ends of a T-DNA molecule could be integrated into the plant genome independently. Our results also show a new origin of chromosomal abnormalities. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of radiation on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braddock, M.

    1985-07-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH radical) is the most damaging radical produced by the effect of ionizing radiation in water. The rate of reaction of the OH radical with purified, native and isodisperse DNA has been determined as compared with calf thymus DNA. This has been achieved by direct observation of the rate of formation of the DNA-OH radical adduct, and by competition with SCN - . Results obtained from direct observation are consistent with calculations which have been performed using the encounter frequency model of Braams and Ebert. However, results obtained for OH radical with DNA derived from competition plots suggest a rate constant somewhat lower than that obtained from direct observation. The relative merits of both techniques are discussed. In order to study the effect of energy deposited directly in the DNA, dry films of purified plasmid DNA have been irradiated in a system where the indirect effects of radical interaction have been minimized. The present results indicate that with different molecular lengths of plasmid DNA, non-random breakage may occur, and that additional damage may be brought about at sites of previously existing damage. Differences in the sensitivity of plasmid DNA molecules of varying lengths to radiation induced double strand breaks have been demonstrated. (author)

  20. Current topics in DNA double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Junya; Takata, Minoru; Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Tauchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    DNA double strand break (DSB) is one of the most critical types of damage which is induced by ionizing radiation. In this review, we summarize current progress in investigations on the function of DSB repair-related proteins. We focused on recent findings in the analysis of the function of proteins such as 53BP1, histone H2AX, Mus81-Eme1, Fanc complex, and UBC13, which are found to be related to homologous recombination repair or to non-homologous end joining. In addition to the function of these proteins in DSB repair, the biological function of nuclear foci formation following DSB induction is discussed. (author)

  1. RPA-coated single-stranded DNA as a platform for post-translational modifications in the DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Alexandre; Zou, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Replication Protein A (RPA) complex is an essential regulator of eukaryotic DNA metabolism. RPA avidly binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) through multiple oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding folds and coordinates the recruitment and exchange of genome maintenance factors to regulate DNA replication, recombination and repair. The RPA-ssDNA platform also constitutes a key physiological signal which activates the master ATR kinase to protect and repair stalled or collapsed replication forks during replication stress. In recent years, the RPA complex has emerged as a key target and an important regulator of post-translational modifications in response to DNA damage, which is critical for its genome guardian functions. Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of the RPA complex, and more recently RPA-regulated ubiquitination, have all been shown to control specific aspects of DNA damage signaling and repair by modulating the interactions between RPA and its partners. Here, we review our current understanding of the critical functions of the RPA-ssDNA platform in the maintenance of genome stability and its regulation through an elaborate network of covalent modifications.

  2. Mechanism of resistance of noncycling mammalian cells to 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide: comparison of uptake, metabolism, and DNA breakage in log- and plateau-phase Chinese hamster fibroblast cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbie, M.A.; Baguley, B.C.; Denny, W.A.; Gavin, J.B.; Wilson, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Resistance of noncycling cells to amsacrine (m-AMSA) has been widely reported and may limit the activity of this drug against solid tumors. The biochemical mechanism(s) for this resistance have been investigated using spontaneously transformed Chinese hamster fibroblasts (AA8 cells, a subline of Chinese hamster ovary-cells) in log- and plateau-phase spinner cultures. In early plateau phase most cells entered a growth-arrested state with a G1-G0 DNA content and showed a marked decrease in sensitivity to cytotoxicity induced by a 1-h exposure to m-AMSA or to its solid tumor-active analogue, CI-921. Studies with radiolabeled m-AMSA established that similar levels of drug were accumulated by log- and plateau-phase cells and that there was no significant drug metabolism in either of these cultures after 1 h. However, marked differences in sensitivity to m-AMSA-induced DNA breakage were observed using a fluorescence assay for DNA unwinding. Changes in sensitivity to DNA breakage occurred in parallel with changes in sensitivity to m-AMSA-induced cell killing. DNA breaks disappeared rapidly after drug removal (half-time approximately 4 min), suggesting that these lesions were probably mediated by DNA topoisomerase II. Resistance to m-AMSA may therefore be associated with changes in topoisomerase II activity in noncycling cells

  3. DN2 Thymocytes Activate a Specific Robust DNA Damage Response to Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Calvo-Asensio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT, a preconditioning regime involving chemo and radiotherapy is used that results in DNA damage to both hematopoietic and stromal elements. Following radiation exposure, it is well recognized that a single wave of host-derived thymocytes reconstitutes the irradiated thymus, with donor-derived thymocytes appearing about 7 days post BMT. Our previous studies have demonstrated that, in the presence of donor hematopoietic cells lacking T lineage potential, these host-derived thymocytes are able to generate a polyclonal cohort of functionally mature peripheral T cells numerically comprising ~25% of the peripheral T cell pool of euthymic mice. Importantly, we demonstrated that radioresistant CD44+ CD25+ CD117+ DN2 progenitors were responsible for this thymic auto-reconstitution. Until recently, the mechanisms underlying the radioresistance of DN2 progenitors were unknown. Herein, we have used the in vitro “Plastic Thymus” culture system to perform a detailed investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the high radioresistance of DN2 cells compared with radiosensitive hematopoietic stem cells. Our results indicate that several aspects of DN2 biology, such as (i rapid DNA damage response (DDR activation in response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage, (ii efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and (iii induction of a protective G1/S checkpoint contribute to promoting DN2 cell survival post-irradiation. We have previously shown that hypoxia increases the radioresistance of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro, at least in part by enhancing their DNA double-strand break (DNA DSB repair capacity. Since the thymus is also a hypoxic environment, we investigated the potential effects of hypoxia on the DDR of DN2 thymocytes. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that de novo DN2 thymocytes are able to rapidly repair DNA DSBs following thymic irradiation in vivo.

  4. Sequence-selective topoisomerase II inhibition by anthracycline derivatives in SV40 DNA: Relationship with DNA binding affinity and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capranico, G.; Kohn, K.W.; Pommier, Y.; Zunino, F.

    1990-01-01

    Topoisomerase II mediated double-strand breaks produced by anthracycline analogues were studied in SV40 DNA. The compounds included doxorubicin, daunorubicin, two doxorubicin stereoisomers (4'-epimer and β-anomer), and five chromophore-modified derivatives, with a wide range of cytotoxic activity and DNA binding affinity. Cleavage of 32 P-end-labeled DNA fragments was visualized by autoradiography of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Structure-activity relationships indicated that alterations in the chromophore structure greatly affected drug action on topoisomerase II. In particular, removal of substituents on position 4 of the D ring resulted in more active inducers of cleavage with lower DNA binding affinity. The stereochemistry between the sugar and the chromophore was also essential for activity. All the active anthracyclines induced a single region of prominent cleavage in the entire SV40 DNA, which resulted from a cluster of sites between nucleotides 4237 and 4294. DNA cleavage intensity patterns exhibited differences among analogues and were also dependent upon drug concentration. Intensity at a given site dependent on both stimulatory and suppressive effects depending upon drug concentration and DNA sequence. A good correlation was found between cytotoxicity and intensity of topoisomerase II mediated DNA breakage

  5. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B{sub 16}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengquan, Wei; Guangming, Zhou; Jufang, Wang; Jing, He; Qiang, Li; Wenjian, Li; Hongmei, Xie; Xichen, Cai; Huang, Tao; Bingrong, Dang; Guangwu, Han [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Qingxiang, Gao [Lanzhou Univ. (China)

    1997-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B{sub 16} induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B{sub 16}. Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau {proportional_to}85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  6. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase IV: possible involvement in double strand break DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, S H; Ropp, P A; Sugino, A

    1994-08-11

    We identified and purified a new DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase IV), which is similar to mammalian DNA polymerase beta, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and suggested that it is encoded by YCR14C (POLX) on chromosome III. Here, we provided a direct evidence that the purified DNA polymerase IV is indeed encoded by POLX. Strains harboring a pol4 deletion mutation exhibit neither mitotic growth defect nor a meiosis defect, suggesting that DNA polymerase IV participates in nonessential functions in DNA metabolism. The deletion strains did not exhibit UV-sensitivity. However, they did show weak sensitivity to MMS-treatment and exhibited a hyper-recombination phenotype when intragenic recombination was measured during meiosis. Furthermore, MAT alpha pol4 delta segregants had a higher frequency of illegitimate mating with a MAT alpha tester strain than that of wild-type cells. These results suggest that DNA polymerase IV participates in a double-strand break repair pathway. A 3.2kb of the POL4 transcript was weakly expressed in mitotically growing cells. During meiosis, a 2.2 kb POL4 transcript was greatly induced, while the 3.2 kb transcript stayed at constant levels. This induction was delayed in a swi4 delta strain during meiosis, while no effect was observed in a swi6 delta strain.

  7. Stabilization of Pt nanoparticles by single stranded DNA and the binary assembly of Au and Pt nanoparticles without hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.; Lee, Jim Yang; Too, Heng-Phon; Chow, Gan-Moog; Gan, Leong M.

    2006-01-01

    The non-specific interaction between single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and 12 nm Pt nanoparticles is investigated in this work. The data show a strong and non-specific interaction between the two which can be exploited for the stabilization of Pt nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. Based on the experimental findings, a non-hybridization based protocol to assemble 17 nm Au and Pt nanoparticles (12 nm cubic and 3.6 nm spherical) by single-stranded DNA was developed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed that Au and Pt nanoparticles could be assembled by the non-specific interaction in an orderly manner. The experimental results also caution against the potential pitfalls in using DNA melting point analysis to infer metal nanoparticle assembly by DNA hybridization

  8. Dissimilar kinetic behavior of electrically manipulated single- and double-stranded DNA tethered to a gold surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Tornow, Marc; Kim, Yong Woon; Netz, Roland R; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2006-05-15

    We report on the electrical manipulation of single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides that are end tethered to gold surfaces in electrolyte solution. The response to alternating repulsive and attractive electric surface fields is studied by time-resolved fluorescence measurements, revealing markedly distinct dynamics for the flexible single-stranded and stiff double-stranded DNA, respectively. Hydrodynamic simulations rationalize this finding and disclose two different kinetic mechanisms: stiff polymers undergo rotation around the anchoring pivot point; flexible polymers, on the other hand, are pulled onto the attracting surface segment by segment.

  9. Managing Single-Stranded DNA during Replication Stress in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Sabatinos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication fork stalling generates a variety of responses, most of which cause an increase in single-stranded DNA. ssDNA is a primary signal of replication distress that activates cellular checkpoints. It is also a potential source of genome instability and a substrate for mutation and recombination. Therefore, managing ssDNA levels is crucial to chromosome integrity. Limited ssDNA accumulation occurs in wild-type cells under stress. In contrast, cells lacking the replication checkpoint cannot arrest forks properly and accumulate large amounts of ssDNA. This likely occurs when the replication fork polymerase and helicase units are uncoupled. Some cells with mutations in the replication helicase (mcm-ts mimic checkpoint-deficient cells, and accumulate extensive areas of ssDNA to trigger the G2-checkpoint. Another category of helicase mutant (mcm4-degron causes fork stalling in early S-phase due to immediate loss of helicase function. Intriguingly, cells realize that ssDNA is present, but fail to detect that they accumulate ssDNA, and continue to divide. Thus, the cellular response to replication stalling depends on checkpoint activity and the time that replication stress occurs in S-phase. In this review we describe the signs, signals, and symptoms of replication arrest from an ssDNA perspective. We explore the possible mechanisms for these effects. We also advise the need for caution when detecting and interpreting data related to the accumulation of ssDNA.

  10. Plant polyphenols mobilize nuclear copper in human peripheral lymphocytes leading to oxidatively generated DNA breakage: implications for an anticancer mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Uzma; Hanif, Sarmad; Ullah, M F; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhat, Showket H; Hadi, S M

    2008-08-01

    It was earlier proposed that an important anti-cancer mechanism of plant polyphenols may involve mobilization of endogenous copper ions, possibly chromatin-bound copper and the consequent pro-oxidant action. This paper shows that plant polyphenols are able to mobilize nuclear copper in human lymphocytes, leading to degradation of cellular DNA. A cellular system of lymphocytes isolated from human peripheral blood and comet assay was used for this purpose. Incubation of lymphocytes with neocuproine (a cell membrane permeable copper chelator) inhibited DNA degradation in intact lymphocytes. Bathocuproine, which is unable to permeate through the cell membrane, did not cause such inhibition. This study has further shown that polyphenols are able to degrade DNA in cell nuclei and that such DNA degradation is inhibited by neocuproine as well as bathocuproine (both of which are able to permeate the nuclear pore complex), suggesting that nuclear copper is mobilized in this reaction. Pre-incubation of lymphocyte nuclei with polyphenols indicates that it is capable of traversing the nuclear membrane. This study has also shown that polyphenols generate oxidative stress in lymphocyte nuclei which is inhibited by scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neocuproine. These results indicate that the generation of ROS occurs through mobilization of nuclear copper resulting in oxidatively generated DNA breakage.

  11. Strand breaks and alkali-labile bonds induced by ultraviolet light in DNA with 5-bromouracil in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasin, F; Hutchinson, F

    1978-01-01

    Supercircular gamma phage DNA with 10 bromouracils/100 thymine bases, irradiated with 313 nm light in Tris buffer and sedimented on alkaline and neutral gradients, showed 4.6 alkali-labile bonds per true single-strand break, in agreement with Hewitt and Marburger (1975 Photochem. Photobiol. 21:413). The same DNA irradiated in Escherichia coli host cells showed about the same number of breaks in alkaline gradients for equal fluence, but only 0.5 alkali-labile bond per true break. Similarly, E. coli DNA with bromouracil irradiated in the cells showed only 10--20% more breaks when denatured with 0.1 M NaOH than under neutral conditions with 9 M sodium perchlorate at 50 degrees C. These results show that true single-strand breaks occur more frequently than alkali-labile bonds after ultraviolet irradiation of DNA containing bromouracil in cells. PMID:367462

  12. Turbulent breakage of ductile aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioli, Cristian; Soldati, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we study breakage rate statistics of small colloidal aggregates in nonhomogeneous anisotropic turbulence. We use pseudospectral direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow and Lagrangian tracking to follow the motion of the aggregates, modeled as sub-Kolmogorov massless particles. We focus specifically on the effects produced by ductile rupture: This rupture is initially activated when fluctuating hydrodynamic stresses exceed a critical value, σ>σ(cr), and is brought to completion when the energy absorbed by the aggregate meets the critical breakage value. We show that ductile rupture breakage rates are significantly reduced with respect to the case of instantaneous brittle rupture (i.e., breakage occurs as soon as σ>σ(cr)). These discrepancies are due to the different energy values at play as well as to the statistical features of energy distribution in the anisotropic turbulence case examined.

  13. In Vivo Alkaline Comet Assay and Enzyme-modified Alkaline Comet Assay for Measuring DNA Strand Breaks and Oxidative DNA Damage in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Bishop, Michelle E; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles E; Davis, Kelly J; Manjanatha, Mugimane G

    2016-05-04

    Unrepaired DNA damage can lead to genetic instability, which in turn may enhance cancer development. Therefore, identifying potential DNA damaging agents is important for protecting public health. The in vivo alkaline comet assay, which detects DNA damage as strand breaks, is especially relevant for assessing the genotoxic hazards of xenobiotics, as its responses reflect the in vivo absorption, tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of chemicals, as well as DNA repair process. Compared to other in vivo DNA damage assays, the assay is rapid, sensitive, visual and inexpensive, and, by converting oxidative DNA damage into strand breaks using specific repair enzymes, the assay can measure oxidative DNA damage in an efficient and relatively artifact-free manner. Measurement of DNA damage with the comet assay can be performed using both acute and subchronic toxicology study designs, and by integrating the comet assay with other toxicological assessments, the assay addresses animal welfare requirements by making maximum use of animal resources. Another major advantage of the assays is that they only require a small amount of cells, and the cells do not have to be derived from proliferating cell populations. The assays also can be performed with a variety of human samples obtained from clinically or occupationally exposed individuals.

  14. Quantification and genome-wide mapping of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Marie-Chantal; Massonneau, Julien; Leduc, Frédéric; Arguin, Mélina; Brazeau, Marc-André; Boissonneault, Guylain

    2016-12-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent a major threat to the genetic integrity of the cell. Knowing both their genome-wide distribution and number is important for a better assessment of genotoxicity at a molecular level. Available methods may have underestimated the extent of DSBs as they are based on markers specific to those undergoing active repair or may not be adapted for the large diversity of naturally occurring DNA ends. We have established conditions for an efficient first step of DNA nick and gap repair (NGR) allowing specific determination of DSBs by end labeling with terminal transferase. We used DNA extracted from HeLa cells harboring an I-SceI cassette to induce a targeted nick or DSB and demonstrated by immunocapture of 3'-OH that a prior step of NGR allows specific determination of loci-specific or genome wide DSBs. This method can be applied to the global determination of DSBs using radioactive end labeling and can find several applications aimed at understanding the distribution and kinetics of DSBs formation and repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Strand exchange of telomeric DNA catalyzed by the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) is specifically stimulated by TRF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Deanna N.; Orren, David K.; Machwe, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS), caused by loss of function of the RecQ helicase WRN, is a hereditary disease characterized by premature aging and elevated cancer incidence. WRN has DNA binding, exonuclease, ATPase, helicase and strand annealing activities, suggesting possible roles in recombination-related processes. Evidence indicates that WRN deficiency causes telomeric abnormalities that likely underlie early onset of aging phenotypes in WS. Furthermore, TRF2, a protein essential for telomere protection, interacts with WRN and influences its basic helicase and exonuclease activities. However, these studies provided little insight into WRN's specific function at telomeres. Here, we explored the possibility that WRN and TRF2 cooperate during telomeric recombination processes. Our results indicate that TRF2, through its interactions with both WRN and telomeric DNA, stimulates WRN-mediated strand exchange specifically between telomeric substrates; TRF2's basic domain is particularly important for this stimulation. Although TRF1 binds telomeric DNA with similar affinity, it has minimal effects on WRN-mediated strand exchange of telomeric DNA. Moreover, TRF2 is displaced from telomeric DNA by WRN, independent of its ATPase and helicase activities. Together, these results suggest that TRF2 and WRN act coordinately during telomeric recombination processes, consistent with certain telomeric abnormalities associated with alteration of WRN function. PMID:24880691

  16. DNA double-strand break rejoining in human follicular lymphoma and glioblastoma tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macann, AMJ; Britten, RA; Poppema, S; Pearcey, R; Rosenberg, E; Allalunis-Turner, MJ; Murray, D

    2000-01-01

    Follicle center cell lymphoma is among the most radioresponsive of human cancers. To assess whether this radioresponsiveness might be a result of a compromised ability of the tumor cells to accomplish the biologically-effective repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), we have measured i) the

  17. RecO protein initiates DNA recombination and strand annealing through two alternative DNA binding mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhikov, Mikhail; Gupta, Richa; Glickman, Michael; Korolev, Sergey

    2014-10-17

    Recombination mediator proteins (RMPs) are important for genome stability in all organisms. Several RMPs support two alternative reactions: initiation of homologous recombination and DNA annealing. We examined mechanisms of RMPs in both reactions with Mycobacterium smegmatis RecO (MsRecO) and demonstrated that MsRecO interacts with ssDNA by two distinct mechanisms. Zinc stimulates MsRecO binding to ssDNA during annealing, whereas the recombination function is zinc-independent and is regulated by interaction with MsRecR. Thus, different structural motifs or conformations of MsRecO are responsible for interaction with ssDNA during annealing and recombination. Neither annealing nor recombinase loading depends on MsRecO interaction with the conserved C-terminal tail of single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding protein (SSB), which is known to bind Escherichia coli RecO. However, similarly to E. coli proteins, MsRecO and MsRecOR do not dismiss SSB from ssDNA, suggesting that RMPs form a complex with SSB-ssDNA even in the absence of binding to the major protein interaction motif. We propose that alternative conformations of such complexes define the mechanism by which RMPs initiate the repair of stalled replication and support two different functions during recombinational repair of DNA breaks. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Gener: a minimal programming module for chemical controllers based on DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahramanoğulları, Ozan; Cardelli, Luca

    2015-09-01

    : Gener is a development module for programming chemical controllers based on DNA strand displacement. Gener is developed with the aim of providing a simple interface that minimizes the opportunities for programming errors: Gener allows the user to test the computations of the DNA programs based on a simple two-domain strand displacement algebra, the minimal available so far. The tool allows the user to perform stepwise computations with respect to the rules of the algebra as well as exhaustive search of the computation space with different options for exploration and visualization. Gener can be used in combination with existing tools, and in particular, its programs can be exported to Microsoft Research's DSD tool as well as to LaTeX. Gener is available for download at the Cosbi website at http://www.cosbi.eu/research/prototypes/gener as a windows executable that can be run on Mac OS X and Linux by using Mono. ozan@cosbi.eu. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Fumarase is involved in DNA double-strand break resection through a functional interaction with Sae2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leshets, Michael; Ramamurthy, Dharanidharan; Lisby, Michael

    2018-01-01

    One of the most severe forms of DNA damage is the double-strand break (DSB). Failure to properly repair the damage can cause mutation, gross chromosomal rearrangements and lead to the development of cancer. In eukaryotes, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are the......One of the most severe forms of DNA damage is the double-strand break (DSB). Failure to properly repair the damage can cause mutation, gross chromosomal rearrangements and lead to the development of cancer. In eukaryotes, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ......) are the main DSB repair pathways. Fumarase is a mitochondrial enzyme which functions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Intriguingly, the enzyme can be readily detected in the cytosolic compartment of all organisms examined, and we have shown that cytosolic fumarase participates in the DNA damage response...

  20. Determination and analysis of site-specific 125I decay-induced DNA double-strand break end-group structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Kamal; Weinfeld, Michael; Neumann, Ronald D; Winters, Thomas A

    2007-02-01

    End groups contribute to the structural complexity of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). As such, end-group structures may affect a cell's ability to repair DSBs. The 3'-end groups of strand breaks caused by gamma radiation, or oxidative processes, under oxygenated aqueous conditions have been shown to be distributed primarily between 3'-phosphoglycolate and 3'-phosphate, with 5'-phosphate ends in both cases. In this study, end groups of the high-LET-like DSBs caused by 125I decay were investigated. Site-specific DNA double-strand breaks were produced in plasmid pTC27 in the presence or absence of 2 M DMSO by 125I-labeled triplex-forming oligonucleotide targeting. End-group structure was assessed enzymatically as a function of the DSB end to serve as a substrate for ligation and various forms of end labeling. Using this approach, we have demonstrated 3'-hydroxyl (3'-OH) and 3'-phosphate (3'-P) end groups and 5'-ends (> or = 42%) terminated by phosphate. A 32P postlabeling assay failed to detect 3'-phosphoglycolate in a restriction fragment terminated by the 125I-induced DNA double-strand break, and this is likely due to restricted oxygen diffusion during irradiation as a frozen aqueous solution. Even so, end-group structure and relative distribution varied as a function of the free radical scavenging capacity of the irradiation buffer.

  1. Adaptation of the neutral bacterial comet assay to assess antimicrobial-mediated DNA double-strand breaks in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLANKY, DIPESH; HAYDEL, SHELLEY E.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the mechanism of action of a natural antibacterial clay mineral mixture, designated CB, by investigating the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Escherichia coli. To quantify DNA damage upon exposure to soluble antimicrobial compounds, we modified a bacterial neutral comet assay, which primarily associates the general length of an electrophoresed chromosome, or comet, with the degree of DSB-associated DNA damage. To appropriately account for antimicrobial-mediated strand fragmentation, suitable control reactions consisting of exposures to water, ethanol, kanamycin, and bleomycin were developed and optimized for the assay. Bacterial exposure to the CB clay resulted in significantly longer comet lengths, compared to water and kanamycin exposures, suggesting that the induction of DNA DSBs contributes to the killing activity of this antibacterial clay mineral mixture. The comet assay protocol described herein provides a general technique for evaluating soluble antimicrobial-derived DNA damage and for comparing DNA fragmentation between experimental and control assays. PMID:22940101

  2. Effects of 3-Deoxyadenosine (Cordycepin) on the repair of X-ray-induced DNA single- and double-strand breaks in chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Wakako; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Sato, Fumiaki

    1990-01-01

    The ability of cordycepin to inhibit the repair of DNA strand breaks was examined with X-irradiated Chinese hamster V79 cells in log-phase culture. A filter elution technique revealed that 70 μM cordycepin did not inhibit the repair of single-strand breaks but inhibited the repair of double-strand breaks. These findings confirmed the fact that the increase in the lethality of cordycepin in X-irradiated cultured mammalian cells was attributable to unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks. (author)

  3. Yield of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks in Escherichia coli and superinfecting phage lambda at different dose rates. Repair of strand breaks in different buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, E.; Johansen, I.; Brustad, T.

    1976-01-01

    Cells of E. coli K-12 strain AB 1886 were irradiated in oxygenated phosphate buffered saline at 2 0 C with electrons from a 4-MeV linear accelerator. The yield of DNA single-strand breaks was determined as a function of the dose rate between 2.5 and 21,000 krad/min. For dose rates over 100 krad/min the yield was found to be constant. Below 10 krad/min the yield of breaks decreases drastically. This is explained by rejoining of breaks during irradiation. Twenty percent of the breaks induced by acute exposure are repaired within 3 min at 2 0 C. Superinfecting phage lambda DNA is repaired at the same rate as chromosomal DNA. In contrast to the results obtained with phosphate-buffered saline, an increase in the number of breaks after irradiation is observed when the bacteria are suspended in tris buffer. It is suggested that buffers of low ionic strength facilitate the leakage through the membrane of a small-molecular-weight component(s) necessary for DNA strand rejoining

  4. Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus Genomes Recovered from Chimpanzee Feces Sampled from the Mambilla Plateau in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Matthew; Bawuro, Musa; Christopher, Alfred; Knight, Alexander; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Chapman, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metagenomic approaches are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the diversity of viruses. In the fecal matter of Nigerian chimpanzees we recovered three gokushovirus genomes, one circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA virus (CRESS), and a CRESS DNA molecule. PMID:28254982

  5. DNA double strand breaks in the acute phase after synchrotron pencilbeam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Palomo, C; Trippel, M; Schroll, C; Nikkhah, G; Schültke, E; Bräuer-Krisch, E; Requardt, H; Bartzsch, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. At the biomedical beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), we have established a method to study pencilbeam irradiation in-vivoin small animal models. The pencilbeam irradiation technique is based on the principle of microbeam irradiation, a concept of spatially fractionated high-dose irradiation. Using γH2AX as marker, we followed the development of DNA double strand breaks over 48 hrs after whole brain irradiation with the pencilbeam technique. Method. Almost square pencilbeams with an individual size of 51 × 50 μm were produced with an MSC collimator using a step and shoot approach, while the animals were moved vertically through the beam. The center-to-center distance (ctc) was 400 μm, with a peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) of about 400. Five groups of healthy adult mice received peak irradiation doses of either 330 Gy or 2,460 Gy and valley doses of 0.82 Gy and 6.15 Gy, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 12 and 48 hrs after irradiation. Results. DNA double strand breaks are observed in the path of the pencilbeam. The size of the damaged volume undergoes changes within the first 48 hours after irradiation. Conclusions. The extent of DNA damage caused by pencilbeam irradiation, as assessed by H2AX antibody staining, is dose- dependent

  6. The use of ultraviolet light in the fractionation of chromatin containing unsubstituted and bromodeoxyuridine-substituted DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taichman, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    Two procedures are described for the fractionation of chromatin containing unsubstituted (LL) DNA and DNA unifilarly substituted with bromodeoxyuridine (HL). The two procedures rely upon the sensitivity of bromodeoxyuridine-containing DNA to UV light to induce either strand breakage or protein crosslinking. When a mixture of LL and HL chromatin is irradiated with UV light, the HL DNA fragments into molecules of smaller molecular weight than the LL DNA and crosslinks more chromosomal protein than the LL DNA. LL and HL chromatin can be fractionated on the basis of size by centrifuging through a neutral sucrose gradient. The HL DNA-protein adducts that are generated by the UV light have a unique buoyant density and may be isolated by isopycnic centrifugation in Cs 2 S0 4 . The ability to fractionate LL and HL chromatin permits certain studies on the structure of replicating chromatin. (author)

  7. ATR Prohibits Replication Catastrophe by Preventing Global Exhaustion of RPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo Lazaro, Luis Ignacio; Altmeyer, Matthias; Rask, Maj-Britt

    2013-01-01

    origin firing generates an excess of single-stranded DNA that exhausts the nuclear pool of RPA. Partial reduction of RPA accelerated fork breakage, and forced elevation of RPA was sufficient to delay such "replication catastrophe" even in the absence of ATR activity. Conversely, unscheduled origin firing...... induced breakage of stalled forks even in cells with active ATR. Thus, ATR-mediated suppression of dormant origins shields active forks against irreversible breakage via preventing exhaustion of nuclear RPA. This study elucidates how replicating genomes avoid destabilizing DNA damage. Because cancer cells...

  8. Multicopy Single-Stranded DNA Directs Intestinal Colonization of Enteric Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Ansong, Charles; Brewer, Heather M.; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Adams, L. Garry; McClelland, Michael; Adkins, Joshua N.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Fang, Ferric C.

    2015-09-14

    Multicopy single-stranded DNAs (msDNAs) are hybrid RNA-DNA molecules encoded on retroelements called retrons and produced by the action of retron reverse transcriptases. Retrons are widespread in bacteria but the natural function of msDNA has remained elusive despite 30 years of study. The major roadblock to elucidation of the function of these unique molecules has been the lack of any identifiable phenotypes for mutants unable to make msDNA. We report that msDNA of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is necessary for colonization of the intestine. Similarly, we observed a defect in intestinal persistence in an enteropathogenic E. coli mutant lacking its retron reverse transcriptase. Under anaerobic conditions in the absence of msDNA, proteins of central anaerobic metabolism needed for Salmonella colonization of the intestine are dysregulated. We show that the msDNA-deficient mutant can utilize nitrate but not other alternate electron acceptors in anaerobic conditions. Consistent with the availability of nitrate in the inflamed gut, a neutrophilic inflammatory response partially rescued the ability of a mutant lacking msDNA to colonize the intestine. These findings together indicate that the mechanistic basis of msDNA function during Salmonella colonization of the intestine is proper production of proteins needed for anaerobic metabolism. We further conclude that a natural function of msDNA is to regulate protein abundance, the first attributable function for any msDNA. Our data provide novel insight into the function of this mysterious molecule that likely represents a new class of regulatory molecules.

  9. A method for filling in the cohesive ends of double-stranded DNA using Pfu DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohui; Li, Xin; Ding, Dongfeng; Hou, Jianhua; Jin, Zhaoxia; Yu, Xinchun; Bo, Tao; Li, Weidong; Li, Minggang

    2005-12-01

    The present paper reports a highly efficient method of making blunt ends from cohesive ends of double-stranded DNA. Klenow fragment and Pfu DNA polymerases were used to fill in the cohesive ends. Since the transformation efficiency can directly reflect the filling-in efficiency, similar ligation and transformation conditions were used, and the filling-in efficiency was compared with the corresponding transformation efficiency. The results indicate that the filling-in efficiency of Pfu DNA polymerase was 1.96 times that of Klenow fragment and its efficiency was markedly higher than that of Klenow fragment (P<0.01). The optimization experiments on reaction conditions indicate, when the pH is 8.5 and the temperature is 74 degrees C, that the filling-in efficiency was highest upon using a buffer containing 3 mM MgSO4 and 300 microM dNTP.

  10. DNA hybrids suggesting a recombination process repairing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in Ehrlich Ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The results presented suggest the possibility of repair of DNA double-strand breaks by recombination, at least in the S and G 2 -phases of the cell cycle, in mammalian cells. Further experiments with synchronized cell cultures will have to show whether this process may also occur in the G 1 -phase of the cell cycle. (orig./AJ) [de

  11. Single and double strand breaks induced by 3H incorporated in DNA of cultured human kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisljar-Lentulis, G.; Henneberg, P.; Mielke, T.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of the investigations of the biological effects of radionuclides incorporated in DNA single (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) caused tritium-decay were measured and compared with respective data resulting from 125 I. Tritium bound to thymidine and iododeoxyuridine seems to be more effective than tritium bound to other DNA-precursors. On the basis of decay, methyl- 3 H thymidine appears to be more effective with regard to the production of strand breaks than 3 H in position 6 of the pyrimidine ring. Based on the numbers of strand-breaks per rad, position 6 is more effective in accordance with data obtained by F. Krasin et al. The ratio of SSBs to DSBs per tritium decay appears to be approximately 8 in mammlian cells. Not only SSBs but also DSBs induced by 3 H in mammalian cells are reapairable. (orig./AJ) [de

  12. The importance of becoming double-stranded: Innate immunity and the kinetic model of HIV-1 central plus strand synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschla, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Central initiation of plus strand synthesis is a conserved feature of lentiviruses and certain other retroelements. This complication of the standard reverse transcription mechanism produces a transient “central DNA flap” in the viral cDNA, which has been proposed to mediate its subsequent nuclear import. This model has assumed that the important feature is the flapped DNA structure itself rather than the process that produces it. Recently, an alternative kinetic model was proposed. It posits that central plus strand synthesis functions to accelerate conversion to the double-stranded state, thereby helping HIV-1 to evade single-strand DNA-targeting antiviral restrictions such as APOBEC3 proteins, and perhaps to avoid innate immune sensor mechanisms. The model is consistent with evidence that lentiviruses must often synthesize their cDNAs when dNTP concentrations are limiting and with data linking reverse transcription and uncoating. There may be additional kinetic advantages for the artificial genomes of lentiviral gene therapy vectors. - Highlights: • Two main functional models for HIV central plus strand synthesis have been proposed. • In one, a transient central DNA flap in the viral cDNA mediates HIV-1 nuclear import. • In the other, multiple kinetic consequences are emphasized. • One is defense against APOBEC3G, which deaminates single-stranded DNA. • Future questions pertain to antiviral restriction, uncoating and nuclear import

  13. A Tool for Determining the Number of Contributors: Interpreting Complex, Compromised Low-Template Dna Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Ph.D. Catherine Grgicak Phone: (617) 638-1968 STEM Degrees: STEM Participants: RPPR Final Report as of 17-Oct-2017 Agreement Number: W911NF-14-C...to degrade into increasingly smaller fragments over time. The mechanism inducing DNA damage can include strand breakage, formation of pyrimidine...in this example ⌊(7.8⁡10−4)(48⁡103) 63⁄ ⌋ = ⌊5.94⌋ = 5. Note that 48 µL stems from the knowledge that typically 2 of 50 µL of the extract is

  14. Radioimmunoassay of single-stranded DNA antibodies for control of diagnosis and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meffert, H; Boehm, F; Soennichsen, N; Gens, J [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite)

    1980-10-01

    Several years experience in quantitative determination of single-stranded DNA antibodies is reported and the normal range as well as the diagnostic hit rate of the method is outlined. In the controls the mean DNA attachment rate was 1.5% and the upper normal range limit was 12.8%, the risk of erroneous rejection being 1%. The DNA binding rate was greater than 12.8% in 74.7% of untreated patients suffering from lupus erythematodes visceralis, in 47.6% of patients with circumscribed sclerodermia, in 14.4% of patients with progressive sclerodermia, and in 10.3% of those suffering from lupus erythematodes chronicus. The findings emphasize the importance of regulatory mechanisms of the immune system to the process of autosensitization.

  15. Radioimmunoassay of single-stranded DNA antibodies for control of diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meffert, H.; Boehm, F.; Soennichsen, N.; Gens, J.

    1980-01-01

    Several years experience in quantitative determination of single-stranded DNA antibodies is reported and the normal range as well as the diagnostic hit rate of the method is outlined. In the controls the mean DNA attachment rate was 1.5% and the upper normal range limit was 12.8%, the risk of erroneous rejection being 1%. The DNA binding rate was greater than 12.8% in 74.7% of untreated patients suffering from lupus erythematodes visceralis, in 47.6% of patients with circumscribed sclerodermia, in 14.4% of patients with progressive sclerodermia, and in 10.3% of those suffering from lupus erythematodes chronicus. The findings emphasize the importance of regulatory mechanisms of the immune system to the process of autosensitization

  16. CdS nanowires formed by chemical synthesis using conjugated single-stranded DNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, S. N.; Sahu, S. N.; Nozaki, S.

    2018-03-01

    CdS nanowires were successfully grown by chemical synthesis using two conjugated single-stranded (ss) DNA molecules, poly G (30) and poly C (30), as templates. During the early stage of the synthesis with the DNA molecules, the Cd 2+ interacts with Poly G and Poly C and produces the (Cd 2+)-Poly GC complex. As the growth proceeds, it results in nanowires. The structural analysis by grazing angle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the zinc-blende CdS nanowires with the growth direction of . Although the nanowires are well surface-passivated with the DNA molecules, the photoluminescence quenching was caused by the electron transfer from the nanowires to the DNA molecules. The quenching can be used to detect and label the DNAs.

  17. Increased chromosomal breakage in Tourette syndrome predicts the possibility of variable multiple gene involvement in spectrum phenotypes: Preliminary findings and hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gericke, G.S.; Simonic, I.; Cloete, E.; Buckle, C. [Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Increased chromosomal breakage was found in 12 patients with DSM-IV Tourette syndrome (TS) as compared with 10 non-TS control individuals with respect to untreated, modified RPM1-, and BrdU treated lymphocyte cultures (P < 0.001 in each category). A hypothesis is proposed that a major TS gene is probably connected to genetic instability, and associated chromosomal marker sites may be indicative of the localization of secondary genes whose altered expression could be responsible for associated comorbid conditions. This concept implies that genes influencing higher brain functions may be situated at or near highly recombigenic areas allowing enhanced amplification, duplication and recombination following chromosomal strand breakage. Further studies on a larger sample size are required to confirm the findings relating to chromosomal breakage and to analyze the possible implications for a paradigmatic shift in linkage strategy for complex disorders by focusing on areas at or near unstable chromosomal marker sites. 32 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Study on DNA damages induced by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Hong Van; Dinh Ba Tuan; Tran Tuan Anh; Nguyen Thuy Ngan; Ta Bich Thuan; Vo Thi Thuong Lan; Tran Minh Quynh; Nguyen Thi Thom

    2015-01-01

    DNA damages in Escherichia coli (E. coli) exposed to UV radiation have been investigated. After 30 min of exposure to UV radiation of 5 mJ/cm"2, the growth of E. coli in LB broth medium was about only 10% in compared with non-irradiated one. This results suggested that the UV radiation caused the damages for E. coli genome resulted in reduction in its growth and survival, and those lesions can be somewhat recovered. For both solutions of plasmid DNAs and E. coli cells containing plasmid DNA, this dose also caused the breakage on single and double strands of DNA, shifted the morphology of DNA plasmid from supercoiled to circular and linear forms. The formation of pyrimidine dimers upon UV radiation significantly reduced when the DNA was irradiated in the presence of Ganoderma lucidum extract. Thus, studies on UV-induced DNA damage at molecular level are very essential to determine the UV radiation doses corresponding to the DNA damages, especially for creation and selection of useful radiation-induced mutants, as well as elucidation the protective effects of the specific compounds against UV light. (author)

  19. DNA replication and the repair of DNA strand breaks in nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. Terminal report, August 1, 1978-March 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, E.N.; Evans, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclei isolated from Physarum are able to replicate approximately 15% of the total genome in a manner which is qualitatively similar to the DNA replication process occurring in the intact organism. Such nuclei, however, are defective in the joining of Okazaki intermediates in vitro. Two DNA polymerase species, isolated from nuclei or intact plasmodia of this organism, can be separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Total DNA polymerase activity is low in nuclei isolated during mitosis. A heat-stable glycoprotein material present in aqueous nuclear extracts stimulates DNA synthesis in well-washed nuclei. A sub-nuclear preparation active in DNA synthesis in vitro has been obtained from isolated nuclei of Physarum. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks are rejoined in intact plasmodia and isolated nuclei of Physarum in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This phenomenon does not appear to be due to an intrinsic difference in nuclear DNA endonuclease activity at different times of the mitotic cycle. DNA strand breaks and repair induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide is similar in several respects to that resulting from exposure of the organism to ionizing radiation. Temperature sensitive strains of Physarum have been constructed and preliminary genetical and biochemical characterizations have been carried out. Two of the strains appear to be conditionally defective in DNA metabolism. An isogenic ploidal series of amoebae has been prepared and characterized as to uv and ionizing radiation sensitivity (in terms of cell survival). There is a direct relationship between ploidy and resistance to uv whereas ploidal change does not appear to affect the response to ionizing radiation

  20. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker.......A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  1. Inhibition of DNA-double strand break repair by antimony compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Sentaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Utsumi, Hiroshi; Bedford, Joel S.; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2002-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by γ-irradiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells, were used to examine whether antimony compounds affect the repair of DNA damage. The cells were first incubated with antimony trichloride or antimony potassium tartrate (both Sb(III)) for 2 h, and then irradiated with γ-rays at a dose of 40 Gy. The DNA DSB was quantified with pulsed field gel electrophoresis immediately after irradiation (non-repair group) as well as at 30 min post-irradiation (repair group). The degree of repair inhibition was determined by the differences in the amount of DNA DSB between non-repair and repair groups. Both antimony compounds inhibited repair of DNA DSB in a dose dependent manner. In trichloride, 0.2 mM antimony significantly inhibited the rejoining of DSB, while 0.4 mM was necessary in potassium antimony tartrate. The mean lethal doses, D 0 , for the treatment with antimony trichloride and antimony potassium tartrate, were approximately 0.21 and 0.12 mM, respectively. This indicates that the repair inhibition by antimony trichloride occurred in the dose range near D 0 , but the antimony potassium tartrate inhibited the repair at doses where most cells lost their proliferating ability. This is the first report to indicate that antimony compounds may inhibit the repair of radiation-induced DNA DSB

  2. Bioelectrochemical sensing of promethazine with bamboo-type multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersed in calf-thymus double stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano N; Oviedo, M Belén; Sánchez, Cristián G; Rubianes, María D; Rivas, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    We report the quantification of promethazine (PMZ) using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with bamboo-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes (bCNT) dispersed in double stranded calf-thymus DNA (dsDNA) (GCE/bCNT-dsDNA). Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrated that PMZ presents a thin film-confined redox behavior at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA, opposite to the irreversibly-adsorbed behavior obtained at GCE modified with bCNT dispersed in ethanol (GCE/bCNT). Differential pulse voltammetry-adsorptive stripping with medium exchange experiments performed with GCE/bCNT-dsDNA and GCE modified with bCNTs dispersed in single-stranded calf-thymus DNA (ssDNA) confirmed that the interaction between PMZ and bCNT-dsDNA is mainly hydrophobic. These differences are due to the intercalation of PMZ within the dsDNA that supports the bCNTs, as evidenced from the bathochromic displacement of UV-Vis absorption spectra of PMZ and quantum dynamics calculations at DFTB level. The efficient accumulation of PMZ at GCE/bCNT-dsDNA made possible its sensitive quantification at nanomolar levels (sensitivity: (3.50±0.05)×10(8) μA·cm(-2)·M(-1) and detection limit: 23 nM). The biosensor was successfully used for the determination of PMZ in a pharmaceutical product with excellent correlation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective role of OH scavengers and DNA/chromatin organization in the induction of DNA breaks: mechanistic models and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarini, F.; Rossetti, M.; Scannicchio, D.; Jacob, P.; Molinelli, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Volata, A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced DNA damage can be modulated by various factors, including the environment scavenging capacity (SC) and the DNA organization within the cell nucleus (chromatin compactness, DNA-binding proteins etc.). In this context the induction of ssb and dsb by photons and light ions of different energies impinging on different DNA structures (e.g. linear DNA, SV40 'minichromosomes' and cellular DNA) at different OH-radical SC values was modelled with the Monte Carlo PARTRAC code. Presently PARTRAC can transport electrons, photons, protons and alpha particles in liquid water with an 'event-by-event' approach, and can simulate the DNA content of mammalian cells with an 'atom-by-atom' description, from nucleotide pairs to chromatin fibre loops and chromosome territories. Energy depositions in the sugar-phosphate were considered as potential (direct) ssb. The production, diffusion and reaction of chemical species were explicitly simulated; reactions of OH radicals with the sugar-phosphate were assumed to lead to 'indirect' ssb with probability 65%. Two ssb on opposite strands within 10 bp were considered as a dsb. Yields of ssb and dsb/Gy/Dalton were calculated for different DNA structures as a function of the OH mean life time. By Zyuzikov, N.; Michael, B.D. (Gray Cancer Institute, (GB)); Wu, L. (Ch Zyuzdirect damage yields. In general, also depending on radiation quality, linear DNA was found to be more susceptible to strand breakage than SV40 minichromosomes, which in turn showed higher damage yields with respect to cellular DNA. The very good agreement found with available experimental data provided a validation of the model and allowed us to quantify separately the protective effect of OH scavengers and DNA/chromatin organization. Comparisons with data on nucleoids (DNA unfolded and depleted of histones) suggested that the experimental procedures used to obtain such targets might lower the environment SC, due to the loss of cellular scavenging compounds

  4. Methylproamine protects against ionizing radiation by preventing DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, Carl N.; Vasireddy, Raja S.; Karagiannis, Tom C.; Loveridge, Shanon J.; Martin, Roger F.; McKay, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of cancer patients will receive radiotherapy (RT), therefore, investigations into advances of this modality are important. Conventional RT dose intensities are limited by adverse responses in normal tissues and a primary goal is to ameliorate adverse normal tissue effects. The aim of these experiments is to further our understanding regarding the mechanism of radioprotection by the DNA minor groove binder, methylproamine, in a cellular context at the DNA level. Materials and methods: We used immunocytochemical methods to measure the accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci following ionizing radiation (IR) in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells exposed to methylproamine. Furthermore, we performed pulsed field gel electrophoresis DNA damage and repair assays to directly interrogate the action of methylproamine on DNA in irradiated cells. Results: We found that methylproamine-treated cells had fewer γH2AX foci after IR compared to untreated cells. Also, the presence of methylproamine decreased the amount of lower molecular weight DNA entering the gel as shown by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis assay. Conclusions: These results suggest that methylproamine acts by preventing the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) and support the hypothesis that radioprotection by methylproamine is mediated, at least in part, by decreasing initial DNA damage.

  5. The logic of DNA replication in double-stranded DNA viruses: insights from global analysis of viral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Darius; Krupovic, Mart; Venclovas, Česlovas

    2016-06-02

    Genomic DNA replication is a complex process that involves multiple proteins. Cellular DNA replication systems are broadly classified into only two types, bacterial and archaeo-eukaryotic. In contrast, double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses feature a much broader diversity of DNA replication machineries. Viruses differ greatly in both completeness and composition of their sets of DNA replication proteins. In this study, we explored whether there are common patterns underlying this extreme diversity. We identified and analyzed all major functional groups of DNA replication proteins in all available proteomes of dsDNA viruses. Our results show that some proteins are common to viruses infecting all domains of life and likely represent components of the ancestral core set. These include B-family polymerases, SF3 helicases, archaeo-eukaryotic primases, clamps and clamp loaders of the archaeo-eukaryotic type, RNase H and ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We also discovered a clear correlation between genome size and self-sufficiency of viral DNA replication, the unanticipated dominance of replicative helicases and pervasive functional associations among certain groups of DNA replication proteins. Altogether, our results provide a comprehensive view on the diversity and evolution of replication systems in the DNA virome and uncover fundamental principles underlying the orchestration of viral DNA replication. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Effect of Wortmannin on the repair profiles of DNA double-strand breaks in the whole genome and in interstitial telomeric sequences of Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, Raquel; Rivero, Maria Teresa; Slijepcevic, Predrag; Goyanes, Vicente; Fernandez, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    The DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) procedure was applied to analyze the effect of Wortmannin (WM) in the rejoining kinetics of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the whole genome and in the long interstitial telomeric repeat sequence (ITRS) blocks from Chinese hamster cell lines. The results indicate that the ITRS blocks from wild-type Chinese hamster cell lines, CHO9 and V79B, exhibit a slower initial rejoining rate of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs than the genome overall. Neither Rad51C nor the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) activities, involved in homologous recombination (HR) and in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways of DSB repair respectively, influenced the rejoining kinetics within ITRS in contrast to DNA sequences in the whole genome. Nevertheless, DSB removal rate within ITRS was decreased in the absence of Ku86 activity, though at a lower affectation level than in the whole genome, thus homogenizing both rejoining kinetics rates. WM treatment slowed down the DSB rejoining kinetics rate in ITRS, this effect being more pronounced in the whole genome, resulting in a similar pattern to that of the Ku86 deficient cells. In fact, no WM effect was detected in the Ku86 deficient Chinese hamster cells, so probably WM does not add further impairment in DSB rejoining than that resulted as a consequence of absence of Ku activity. The same slowing effect was also observed after treatment of Rad51C and DNA-PKcs defective hamster cells by WM, suggesting that: (1) there is no potentiation of the HR when the NHEJ is impaired by WM, either in the whole genome or in the ITRS, and (2) that this impairment may probably involve more targets than DNA-PKcs. These results suggest that there is an intragenomic heterogeneity in DSB repair, as well as in the effect of WM on this process

  7. The Molecular Basis of Double-Strand DNA Break Repair: The Critical Structure of the RAD52/RPA Complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Dobra

    2001-01-01

    .... RAD52 has specific interactions with RAD51, RPA and DNA (1,2,3). The binding of RAD52 to ends of double-strand breaks has been found to be a key initiation step to DNA repair by homologous recombination...

  8. The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 preventsmutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jen-Yeu; Sarker, Altaf Hossain; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Volkert, Michael R.

    2004-02-01

    Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional coactivator with a highly conserved single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding domain of unknown function. We identified PC4 as a suppressor of the oxidative mutator phenotype of the Escherichia coli fpg mutY mutant and demonstrate that this suppression requires its ssDNA binding activity. Yeast mutants lacking their PC4 ortholog Sub1 are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and exhibit spontaneous and peroxide induced hypermutability. PC4 expression suppresses the peroxide sensitivity of the yeast sub l{Delta} mutant, suggesting that the human protein has a similar function. A role for yeast and human proteins in DNA repair is suggested by the demonstration that Sub1 acts in a peroxide-resistance pathway involving Rad2 and by the physical interaction of PC4 with the human Rad2 homolog XPG. We show XPG recruits PC4 to a bubble-containing DNA substrate with resulting displacement of XPG and formation of a PC4-DNA complex. We discuss the possible requirement for PC4 in either global or transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage to mediate the release of XPG bound to its substrate.

  9. The radiation hypersensitivity of cells at mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, C C; Park, S J; Chapman, J D

    2002-12-01

    Mitotic cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation, exhibiting single-hit inactivation coefficients near to those of repair deficient cell lines and lymphocytes. To elucidate possible mechanisms for this hypersensitivity, the kinetics of oxygen radiosensitization, the proportion of indirect effect by OH radicals and the kinetics of radiation-induced DNA strand breakage in the chromatin of mitotic cells were investigated. Synchronized populations of >90% mitotic HT-29 cells were obtained by the mitotic shake-off method. Cells were irradiated at indirect effect of OH radicals was investigated with the radical scavenger, DMSO. DNA strand breakage was measured by the comet assay. Mitotic HT-29 cell inactivation is well described by a single-hit inactivation coefficient (alpha) of 1.14 +/- 0.06 Gy(-1). The oxygen enhancement ratio of mitotic cells (at 10% survival) was found to be approximately 2.0, significantly lower than the value of 2.8 measured for interphase (asynchronous) cells. More than 60% of mitotic cell killing was eliminated when the media contained 2 M DMSO, indicating that indirect effect is as important in the killing of mitotic cells as it is for interphase cells. The chromatin in mitotic cells was found to be ~2.8 times more sensitive to radiation-induced DNA single-strand breakage than the chromatin of interphase cells. The alpha-inactivation coefficient of mitotic HT-29 cells was ~30 times larger than that of interphase cells. Mitotic cell chromatin appears to contain intrinsic DNA breaks that are not lethal. In addition, chromatin in mitotic cells was found to be more susceptible to radiation-induced DNA strand-breakage than the dispersed chromatin of interphase cells. How the enhanced production of these simple DNA lesions (that are usually reparable) translates into the lethal (non-reparable) events associated with alpha-inactivation is not known. The compaction/dispersion status of DNA throughout the cell cycle appears to be an important

  10. Delayed repair of DNA single-strand breaks does not increase cytogenetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Djordjevic, M.C.; Jostes, R.F.; Pantelias, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    DNA damage and cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. DNA damage and repair were analysed by alkaline elution under conditions that predominantly measured DNA single-strand breaks (ssb). X-radiation (2.5 Gy) induced ssb in both CHO cells and unstimulated lymphocytes, and the breaks were repaired within 30 and 90 min, respectively. This rapid repair was delayed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide (3AB). The cytogenetic effects of the 3AB-induced delay in DNA repair were examined by analysing sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in CHO cells and fragmentation of prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) in unstimulated human lymphocytes after 2.5 Gy of X-rays. Although 3AB delayed the rejoining of DNA ssb, this delay did not result in increased cytogenetic damage manifested as either SCE or fragmentation of PCC. These results indicate that the rapidly rejoining DNA ssb are not important in the production of chromosome damage. (author)

  11. Investigation of DNA strand breaks induced by 7Li and 12C ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Li; Zhao Kui; Ni Meinan; Guo Jiyu; Luo Hongbing; Mei Junping; Lu Xiuqin; Zhou Ping

    2004-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is an important biomacromolecule. It is a carrier of genetic information and a critical target for radiobiological effects. Numerous lesions have been identified in irradiated DNA. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are considered as the most important initial damage of all biological effects induced by ionizing radiation. In this experiment, DNA DSBs induced by heavy ions in the early period were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Choosing 7 Li and 12 C heavy ions with different LET values delivered by HI-13 tandem accelerator respectively, purified plasmid DNA samples in aqueous solution were irradiated at different doses. AFM was used for nanometer-level-structure analysis of DNA damage induced by these two kinds of heavy ions. Measurement of the DNA fragment lengths was accomplished with the Scion Image analyzed soft-ware. Change laws of three forms of DNA, supercoils, open circular and linear form as dose increased were obtained. Distributed function of DNA fragment length was also obtained, and fitted with Tsallis entropy statistical theory. (author)

  12. Detecting single-abasic residues within a DNA strand immobilized in a biological nanopore using an integrated CMOS sensor.