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Sample records for dna sierpinski triangles

  1. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  2. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  3. Sierpinski triangles as a tool to introduce fractal geometry to children and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    There are currently two somehow contradictory trends in the public debates involving scientific issues. On the one hand there is a need to address topics of increasing complexity, while on the other hand simple(istic) solutions are suggested by numerous people (including high level ones). Meanwhile there seems to be growing defiance towards science findings. Such problems are faced in numerous fields including geosciences where famous examples are the debates dealing with climate change, or water / air contamination. Such unfortunate trends means that the input of scientists in the society and public debates is strongly required. Although it not actually their job, scientists should get involved as a citizens. They should try to explain the complexity of the issues at stake, and take the necessary time to achieve this; not all problems can be explained with the help of a 140 characters tweet! Rather than hiding the uncertainties, they should try to explain this notion often not well understood, and admit the current limitations of knowledge. In the meantime it would be positive if this dialogue could help children and their parents to get familiarized with science and scientists, show that science is not obscure and actually present in everyday life. Scientists obviously also have the hope of fostering a desire for understanding, enhancing scientific culture and even promoting careers in this field. Fractals and fractal geometry are actually a rather good tool to achieve this. Indeed through numerous iterations of a simple process, one can easily obtain a rather complex shape, exhibiting some of the features observed in the nature. Fractal shapes are scale invariant, i.e. the more you zoom in, the more details you see; a portion of the shape is similar to the full one. This paper aims at presenting a series of activities presenting fractals to young people developed primarily around the famous Sierpinski triangles. Two types of activities were carefully designed

  4. The DNA Triangle and Its Application to Learning Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L. Kate; Catavero, Christina M.; Newman, Dina L.

    2017-01-01

    Although instruction on meiosis is repeated many times during the undergraduate curriculum, many students show poor comprehension even as upper-level biology majors. We propose that the difficulty lies in the complexity of understanding DNA, which we explain through a new model, the DNA triangle. The "DNA triangle" integrates three…

  5. Impact of Heterogeneity and Lattice Bond Strength on DNA Triangle Crystal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Evi; Praetorius, Florian; de Oliveira Mann, Carina C; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-09-07

    One key goal of DNA nanotechnology is the bottom-up construction of macroscopic crystalline materials. Beyond applications in fields such as photonics or plasmonics, DNA-based crystal matrices could possibly facilitate the diffraction-based structural analysis of guest molecules. Seeman and co-workers reported in 2009 the first designed crystal matrices based on a 38 kDa DNA triangle that was composed of seven chains. The crystal lattice was stabilized, unprecedentedly, by Watson-Crick base pairing. However, 3D crystallization of larger designed DNA objects that include more chains such as DNA origami remains an unsolved problem. Larger objects would offer more degrees of freedom and design options with respect to tailoring lattice geometry and for positioning other objects within a crystal lattice. The greater rigidity of multilayer DNA origami could also positively influence the diffractive properties of crystals composed of such particles. Here, we rationally explore the role of heterogeneity and Watson-Crick interaction strengths in crystal growth using 40 variants of the original DNA triangle as model multichain objects. Crystal growth of the triangle was remarkably robust despite massive chemical, geometrical, and thermodynamical sample heterogeneity that we introduced, but the crystal growth sensitively depended on the sequences of base pairs next to the Watson-Crick sticky ends of the triangle. Our results point to weak lattice interactions and high concentrations as decisive factors for achieving productive crystallization, while sample heterogeneity and impurities played a minor role.

  6. Multiple Representations and Connections with the Sierpinski Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J. Vince; Tobias, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    To understand multiple representations in algebra, students must be able to describe relationships through a variety of formats, such as graphs, tables, pictures, and equations. NCTM indicates that varied representations are "essential elements in supporting students' understanding of mathematical concepts and relationships" (NCTM…

  7. On topological properties of sierpinski networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, Muhammad; Sabeel-e-Hafi; Gao, Wei; Reza Farahani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Sierpinski graphs constitute an extensively studied class of graphs of fractal nature applicable in topology, mathematics of Tower of Hanoi, computer science, and elsewhere. A large number of properties like physico-chemical properties, thermodynamic properties, chemical activity, biological activity, etc. are determined by the chemical applications of graph theory. These properties can be characterized by certain graph invariants referred to as topological indices. In QRAR/QSPR study these graph invariants has played a vital role. In this paper, we study the molecular topological properties of Sierpinski networks and derive the analytical closed formulas for the atom-bond connectivity (ABC) index, geometric-arithmetic (GA) index, and fourth and fifth version of these topological indices for Sierpinski networks denoted by S(n, k).

  8. Group structure of the Sierpinski gasket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nencka-Ficek, H.

    1984-08-01

    The group structure of the object with non-integer dimension is investigated. It is shown that some extended group based on the point group of the substructure of the fractal is required. The extended group for the Sierpinski gasket, i.e. the fractal with dimension D approx.= 1.58, is based on the permutation group s 3 . This group of the Sierpinski gasket is a hierarchical and permutational one. It is shown that such a hierarchical structure of the group is caused by the self-similarity of the investigated fractal. (author)

  9. Polarizability of Six-Helix Bundle and Triangle DNA Origami and Their Escape Characteristics from a Dielectrophoretic Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lin; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-12-15

    DNA nanoassemblies, such as DNA origamis, hold promise in biosensing, drug delivery, nanoelectronic circuits, and biological computing, which require suitable methods for migration and precision positioning. Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) has been demonstrated as a powerful migration and trapping tool for μm- and nm-sized colloids as well as DNA origamis. However, little is known about the polarizability of origami species, which is responsible for their dielectrophoretic migration. Here, we report the experimentally determined polarizabilities of the six-helix bundle origami (6HxB) and triangle origami by measuring the migration times through a potential landscape exhibiting dielectrophoretic barriers. The resulting migration times correlate to the depth of the dielectrophoretic potential barrier and the escape characteristics of the origami according to an adapted Kramer's rate model, allowing their polarizabilities to be determined. We found that the 6HxB polarizability is larger than that of the triangle origami, which correlates with the variations in charge density of both origamis. Further, we discuss the orientation of both origami species in the dielectrophoretic trap and discuss the influence of diffusion during the escape process. Our study provides detailed insight into the factors contributing to the migration through dielectrophoretic potential landscapes, which can be exploited for applications with DNA and other nanoassemblies based on dielectrophoresis.

  10. Spectral dimension of elastic Sierpinski gaskets with general elastic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.H.; Liu, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectral dimension is calculated for a Sierpinski gasket with the most general elastic restoring forces allowed by symmetry. The elastic forces consist of bond-stretching and angle-bending components. The spectral dimension is the same as that for the bond-stretching-force (central-force) model. This demonstrates that on the Sierpinski gasket the two types of forces belong to the same universality class

  11. Average geodesic distance of skeleton networks of Sierpinski tetrahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjin; Wang, Songjing; Xi, Lifeng; Ye, Yongchao

    2018-04-01

    The average distance is concerned in the research of complex networks and is related to Wiener sum which is a topological invariant in chemical graph theory. In this paper, we study the skeleton networks of the Sierpinski tetrahedron, an important self-similar fractal, and obtain their asymptotic formula for average distances. To provide the formula, we develop some technique named finite patterns of integral of geodesic distance on self-similar measure for the Sierpinski tetrahedron.

  12. Re-exploration of U's Triangle Brassica Species Based on Chloroplast Genomes and 45S nrDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kug; Seol, Young-Joo; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Jin, Seungwoo; Choi, Beom-Soon; Yu, Yeisoo; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Choi, Ji-Weon; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Sohn, Seong-Han; Parkin, Isobel; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2018-05-09

    The concept of U's triangle, which revealed the importance of polyploidization in plant genome evolution, described natural allopolyploidization events in Brassica using three diploids [B. rapa (A genome), B. nigra (B), and B. oleracea (C)] and derived allotetraploids [B. juncea (AB genome), B. napus (AC), and B. carinata (BC)]. However, comprehensive understanding of Brassica genome evolution has not been fully achieved. Here, we performed low-coverage (2-6×) whole-genome sequencing of 28 accessions of Brassica as well as of Raphanus sativus [R genome] to explore the evolution of six Brassica species based on chloroplast genome and ribosomal DNA variations. Our phylogenomic analyses led to two main conclusions. (1) Intra-species-level chloroplast genome variations are low in the three allotetraploids (2~7 SNPs), but rich and variable in each diploid species (7~193 SNPs). (2) Three allotetraploids maintain two 45SnrDNA types derived from both ancestral species with maternal dominance. Furthermore, this study sheds light on the maternal origin of the AC chloroplast genome. Overall, this study clarifies the genetic relationships of U's triangle species based on a comprehensive genomics approach and provides important genomic resources for correlative and evolutionary studies.

  13. Intersection of the Sierpinski carpet with its rational translate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Meifeng; Tian Lixin

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by Mandelbrot's idea of referring to lacunarity of Cantor sets in terms of departure from translation invariance, Nekka and Li studied the properties of these translation sets and showed how they can be used for a classification purpose. In this paper, we pursue this study on the Sierpinski carpet with its rational translate. We also get the fractal structure of intersection I(x, y) of the Sierpinski carpet with its translate. We find that the packing measure of these sets forms a discrete spectrum whose non-zero values come only from shifting numbers with a finite triadic expansion. Concretely, when x and y have a finite triadic expansion, a very brief calculation formula of the measure is given

  14. AC properties of 3d Sierpinski gaskets: rigorous results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burioni, R; Cassi, D; Neri, F M

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the decimation of a network of impedances on the three-dimensional Sierpinski gasket is solved: the exact map M is given and its asymptotic behaviours are studied. The most significant invariant subspaces of M and the associated submaps are considered. This also allows us to address the problem of small-size phenomena, such as oscillating asymptotic behaviour, on this kind of fractal. The set of the resonances of the system and the frequency dependence of the total impedance are studied both in the thermodynamic limit and in mesoscopic systems

  15. Three Dimensional (3 D) Printed Sierpinski Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    printers, including fused-filament deposition, stereolithography, and laser sintering. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a...part of the additive manufacturing process. PRIME2 seeks to exploit the opportunity to integrate electronic components during the mechanical additive...of an equilateral triangle that is divided into smaller equilateral triangles. When this design is used in antenna theory , the antenna is compared to

  16. Fluctuation behaviors of financial time series by a stochastic Ising system on a Sierpinski carpet lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wang, Jun

    2013-09-01

    We develop a financial market model using an Ising spin system on a Sierpinski carpet lattice that breaks the equal status of each spin. To study the fluctuation behavior of the financial model, we present numerical research based on Monte Carlo simulation in conjunction with the statistical analysis and multifractal analysis of the financial time series. We extract the multifractal spectra by selecting various lattice size values of the Sierpinski carpet, and the inverse temperature of the Ising dynamic system. We also investigate the statistical fluctuation behavior, the time-varying volatility clustering, and the multifractality of returns for the indices SSE, SZSE, DJIA, IXIC, S&P500, HSI, N225, and for the simulation data derived from the Ising model on the Sierpinski carpet lattice. A numerical study of the model’s dynamical properties reveals that this financial model reproduces important features of the empirical data.

  17. Volatility Behaviors of Financial Time Series by Percolation System on Sierpinski Carpet Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Anqi; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The financial time series is simulated and investigated by the percolation system on the Sierpinski carpet lattice, where percolation is usually employed to describe the behavior of connected clusters in a random graph, and the Sierpinski carpet lattice is a graph which corresponds the fractal — Sierpinski carpet. To study the fluctuation behavior of returns for the financial model and the Shanghai Composite Index, we establish a daily volatility measure — multifractal volatility (MFV) measure to obtain MFV series, which have long-range cross-correlations with squared daily return series. The autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model is used to analyze the MFV series, which performs better when compared to other volatility series. By a comparative study of the multifractality and volatility analysis of the data, the simulation data of the proposed model exhibits very similar behaviors to those of the real stock index, which indicates somewhat rationality of the model to the market application.

  18. Graphing trillions of triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Paul

    2017-07-01

    The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.

  19. The Incompatibility Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Amarița

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Launch of the euro in the late 90s, can be interpreted as a first step towards the monetarysystem outlined by Mundell. Economists have noted the incompatibility of fixed exchange regime,perfect mobility of capital and the independence of monetary policy, the so-called triangle ofincompatibility, which was highlighted by Robert Mundell since 1968. Tommaso Padoa - Schioppacontinued his research on the harmonization and convergence required to economic policies in“Financial Europe". The author shows that the triangle is the freedom of movement of capital, theexchange rate stability and the autonomy of national monetary policies. The triangle ofincompatibility stems from the fact that they can be combined in their entirety, but only two. Theautonomy of monetary policy is the freedom of states to choose the appropriate monetary policyand take appropriate measures in case of recessions.

  20. Magnetization of the Ising model on the Sierpinski pastry-shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chame, Anna; Branco, N. S.

    1992-02-01

    Using a real-space renormalization group approach, we calculate the approximate magnetization in the Ising model on the Sierpinski Pastry-shell. We consider, as an approximation, only two regions of the fractal: the internal surfaces, or walls (sites on the border of eliminated areas), with coupling constants JS, and the bulk (all other sites), with coupling constants Jv. We obtain the mean magnetization of the two regions as a function of temperature, for different values of α= JS/ JV and different geometric parameters b and l. Curves present a step-like behavior for some values of b and l, as well as different universality classes for the bulk transition.

  1. Rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.R.

    1993-10-01

    We have exactly calculated the rigorous spin-spin correlation function of Ising model on a special kind of Sierpinski Carpets (SC's) by means of graph expansion and a combinatorial approach and investigated the asymptotic behaviour in the limit of long distance. The result show there is no long range correlation between spins at any finite temperature which indicates no existence of phase transition and thus finally confirms the conclusion produced by the renormalization group method and other physical arguments. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  2. A discrete model on Sierpinski gasket substrate for a conserved current equation with a conservative noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Jin Min

    2012-09-01

    A conserved discrete model on the Sierpinski gasket substrate is studied. The interface width W in the model follows the Family-Vicsek dynamic scaling form with growth exponent β ≈ 0.0542, roughness exponent α ≈ 0.240 and dynamic exponent z ≈ 4.42. They satisfy a scaling relation α + z = 2zrw, where zrw is the random walk exponent of the fractal substrate. Also, they are in a good agreement with the predicted values of a fractional Langevin equation \\frac{\\partial h}{\\partial t}={\

  3. A discrete model on Sierpinski gasket substrate for a conserved current equation with a conservative noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Kim, Jin Min

    2012-01-01

    A conserved discrete model on the Sierpinski gasket substrate is studied. The interface width W in the model follows the Family–Vicsek dynamic scaling form with growth exponent β ≈ 0.0542, roughness exponent α ≈ 0.240 and dynamic exponent z ≈ 4.42. They satisfy a scaling relation α + z = 2z rw , where z rw is the random walk exponent of the fractal substrate. Also, they are in a good agreement with the predicted values of a fractional Langevin equation where η c is a conservative noise. (paper)

  4. Triangle in a triangle : on a problem of Steinhaus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition on the sidesp, q, r of a trianglePQR and the sidesa, b, c of a triangleABC in order thatABC contains a congruent copy ofPQR is the following: At least one of the 18 inequalities obtained by cyclic permutation of {a, b, c} and arbitrary permutation of {itp, q, r}

  5. Modified Sierpinski Gasket Patch Antenna for UMTS and 2.4/5.2 WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified Sierpinski Gasket fractal antenna for multiband application is proposed in this paper. The modified ground plane and the microstrip feed are used to obtain the wider bandwidth at the resonance frequency. The antenna is designed and printed on two layers FR-4 substrate (ϵr=4.4 and h=1.6 mm to cover the UMTS and 2.4/5.2 WLAN. The radiation pattern of the proposed antenna is similar to an omnidirectional. The proposed antenna has maximum gain of 1.88, 1.6, 4.31 dB at 2, 2.4, 5.2 GHz, respectively The properties of the antenna such as return losses, radiation pattern, input resistance and gain are determined via numerical CST Microwave Studio 2010 software.

  6. Leptonic unitary triangles and boomerangs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, Alexander; Rodejohann, Werner; Petcov, Serguey T.

    2010-01-01

    We review the idea of leptonic unitary triangles and extend the concept of the recently proposed unitary boomerangs to the lepton sector. Using a convenient parametrization of the lepton mixing, we provide approximate expressions for the side lengths and the angles of the six different triangles and give examples of leptonic unitary boomerangs. Possible applications of the leptonic unitary boomerangs are also briefly discussed.

  7. Is it a triangle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason.   A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty.  It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...

  8. Triangles: Shapes in Math, Science and Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine Sheldrick

    This book examines everything having to do with the triangle. It begins with a basic definition of the triangle and continues with discussions on tetrahedrons, triangular prisms, and pyramid shapes. Some ideas addressed include how triangles are used to measure heights and distances, the importance of triangles to builders, Alexander Graham Bell's…

  9. Visualizing Elections Using Saari Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Ricardo; Han, Lixing; Schilling, Kenneth; Birgen, Mariah

    2010-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty calculating the result of a voting system applied to a particular set of voter preference lists. Saari triangles offer a way to visualize the result of an election and make this calculation easier in the case of several important voting systems.

  10. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  11. On Generalizations of the Stirling Number Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Wolfdieter

    2000-09-01

    Sequences of generalized Stirling numbers of both kinds are introduced. These sequences of triangles (i.e. infinite-dimensional lower triangular matrices) of numbers will be denoted by S2(k;n,m) and S1(k;n,m) with k in Z. The original Stirling number triangles of the second and first kind arise when k = 1. S2(2;n,m) is identical with the unsigned S1(2;n,m) triangle, called S1p(2;n,m), which also represents the triangle of signless Lah numbers. Certain associated number triangles, denoted by s2(k;n,m) and s1(k;n,m), are also defined. Both s2(2;n,m) and s1(2;n + 1, m + 1) form Pascal's triangle, and s2(-1,n,m) turns out to be Catalan's triangle. Generating functions are given for the columns of these triangles. Each S2(k) and S1(k) matrix is an example of a Jabotinsky matrix. Therefore the generating functions for the rows of these triangular arrays constitute exponential convolution polynomials. The sequences of the row sums of these triangles are also considered. These triangles are related to the problem of obtaining finite transformations from infinitesimal ones generated by x^k d/dx, for k in Z.

  12. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. The Weimar Triangle and The Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Romer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activity of Weimar Triangle (Germany, France, Poland during Ukrainian crisis (2013-2014 as an efficient, but still largely underestimated negotiation force of the European Union. The evolution of role of Weimar Triangle in post-bipolar era is indicated, as well as the role of this specific structure during Ukrainian crisis.

  14. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  15. Circumcenter, Circumcircle and Centroid of a Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    We introduce, using the Mizar system [1], some basic concepts of Euclidean geometry: the half length and the midpoint of a segment, the perpendicular bisector of a segment, the medians (the cevians that join the vertices of a triangle to the midpoints of the opposite sides) of a triangle.

  16. Partitioning Pythagorean Triangles Using Pythagorean Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carl E.; Yandl, Andre L.

    2012-01-01

    Inside any Pythagorean right triangle, it is possible to find a point M so that drawing segments from M to each vertex of the triangle yields angles whose sines and cosines are all rational. This article describes an algorithm that generates an infinite number of such points.

  17. Circumcenter, Circumcircle and Centroid of a Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, using the Mizar system [1], some basic concepts of Euclidean geometry: the half length and the midpoint of a segment, the perpendicular bisector of a segment, the medians (the cevians that join the vertices of a triangle to the midpoints of the opposite sides of a triangle.

  18. The Fermat point for a taxicab triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. R.

    2015-04-01

    The Fermat point P for a triangle ABC is the point P the sum of whose distances from the vertices A, B and C is a minimum. This note will show how to find the Fermat point for any triangle using the taxicab metric.

  19. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  2. Analyzing the photonic band gaps in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure based on the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng, E-mail: hanlor@163.com [College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210023 ,China (China); Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Liu, Shao-Bin [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics (Nanjing Univ. Aeronaut. Astronaut.), Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in two types of two-dimensional plasma-dielectric photonic crystals (2D PPCs) under a transverse-magnetic (TM) wave are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method where Monte Carlo method is introduced. The proposed PWE method can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PPCs which possess arbitrary-shaped filler and any lattice. The efficiency and convergence of the present method are discussed by a numerical example. The configuration of 2D PPCs is the square lattices with fractal Sierpinski gasket structure whose constituents are homogeneous and isotropic. The type-1 PPCs is filled with the dielectric cylinders in the plasma background, while its complementary structure is called type-2 PPCs, in which plasma cylinders behave as the fillers in the dielectric background. The calculated results reveal that the enough accuracy and good convergence can be obtained, if the number of random sampling points of Monte Carlo method is large enough. The band structures of two types of PPCs with different fractal orders of Sierpinski gasket structure also are theoretically computed for a comparison. It is demonstrate that the PBGs in higher frequency region are more easily produced in the type-1 PPCs rather than in the type-2 PPCs. Sierpinski gasket structure introduced in the 2D PPCs leads to a larger cutoff frequency, enhances and induces more PBGs in high frequency region. The effects of configurational parameters of two types of PPCs on the PBGs are also investigated in detail. The results show that the PBGs of the PPCs can be easily manipulated by tuning those parameters. The present type-1 PPCs are more suitable to design the tunable compacted devices.

  3. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...

  4. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  5. On dispersive derivation of triangle anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horejsi, J.

    1985-01-01

    A straightforward generalization of the results of some previous treatments, in which the Adler-Bell-Jachiw triangle anomaly has been recovered with the help of dispersion relation is presented. The absorptive part of the VVA triangle diagram with the external momenta k, p at vector vertices such as K 2 =p 2 =0 is considered. An integral of the imaginary part of the relevant invariant amplitude is calculated explicitly. It is shown that the anomalous contribution to the axial Ward identity is reproduced. This also enables one to demonstrate the delta-like behaviour of sich an imaginary part in k 2 → 0, m → 0 limit

  6. Building Intuitive Arguments for the Triangle Congruence Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The triangle congruence conditions are a central focus to nearly any course in Euclidean geometry. The author presents a hands-on activity that uses straws and pipe cleaners to explore and justify the triangle congruence conditions. (Contains 4 figures.)

  7. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  8. Transfinite C2 interpolant over triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfeld, P.; Barnhill, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A transfinite C 2 interpolant on a general triangle is created. The required data are essentially C 2 , no compatibility conditions arise, and the precision set includes all polynomials of degree less than or equal to eight. The symbol manipulation language REDUCE is used to derive the scheme. The scheme is discretized to two different finite dimensional C 2 interpolants in an appendix

  9. A survey of numerical cubature over triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J.N.; Cools, R.

    1993-12-31

    This survey collects together theoretical results in the area of numerical cubature over triangles and is a vehicle for a current bibliography. We treat first the theory relating to regular integrands and then the corresponding theory for singular integrands with emphasis on the ``full comer singularity.`` Within these two sections we treat successively approaches based on transforming the triangle into a square, formulas based on polynomial moment fitting, and extrapolation techniques. Within each category we quote key theoretical results without proof, and relate other results and references to these. Nearly all the references we have found may be readily placed in one of these categories. This survey is theoretical in character and does not include recent work in adaptive and automatic integration.

  10. Classical square-plus-triangle well fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boghdadi, M.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified model for the intermolecular-potential function which consists of a hard core and a square-plus-triangle well is proposed. The square width is taken to be lambda 1 -1 and the triangle width is lambda 2 -lambda 1 , where the diameter of the molecules is assumed to be epsilon. Under the restriction that the area under the potential well should be equal to 0.5epsilon, which has its own reason, it is shown that the appropriate choice of lambda 1 and lambda 2 that best mimics the Lennard-Jones (LJ) cut-off results is 1.15 and 1.85 respectively. With this choice for lambda 1 and lambda 2 , the proposed model is effective and satisfactory

  11. "The Dreaded Black Triangle" - Orthodontics : The Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Janardhanam

    2010-01-01

    The black triangle that resulted due to orthodontic treatment in a 15 year old female patient had been alleviated by using both orthodontic and periodontic means. This report explains the various treatment modalities that can be adopted to avoid embarrassing post-treatment results. Several methods of managing patients with gingival diastemas exist, but the interdisciplinary aspects of treatment must be emphasized to achieve best results. The orthodontist can play a significant role in helping to manage these cases.

  12. State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...

  13. Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.

  14. Electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric terahertz metamaterials with triangle microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Yanping; Qian, Yunan; Lin, Xingyue; Tang, Yunhai; Cheng, Xinli; Qin, Changfa; Shen, Jiaoyan; Zang, Taocheng; Ma, Chunlan

    2018-05-01

    We investigate terahertz transmission properties and electromagnetic resonance modes in the asymmetric triangle structures with the change of asymmetric distance and the direction of electric field. When the THz electric field is perpendicular to the split gap of triangle, the electric field can better excite the THz absorption in the triangle structures. Importantly, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) characteristics are observed in the triangle structures due to the destructive interference of the different excited modes. The distributions of electric field and surface current density simulated by finite difference time domain indicate that the bright mode is excited by the side of triangle structures and dark mode is excited by the gap-side of triangle. The present study is helpful to understand the electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric triangular metamaterials.

  15. Polarized targets at triangle universities nuclear laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, M.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Gould, C.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Haase, D.G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huffman, P.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Keith, C.D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Roberson, N.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wilburn, W.S. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A summary of the polarized and aligned nuclear targets which have been constructed and used at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory is given. Statically polarized targets, typically operating at a temperature of 12 mK and a magnetic field of 7 T, have provided significant nuclear polarization in {sup 1}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 27}Al, {sup 93}Nb and {sup 165}Ho. A rotating, aligned {sup 165}Ho target is also in use. A {sup 3}He melting curve thermometer has been developed for use in statically polarized targets. A dynamically polarized proton target is under construction. ((orig.))

  16. Star-Triangle Relation of the Chiral Potts Model Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Horibe, M.; Shigemoto, K.

    2001-01-01

    We give the simple proof of the star-triangle relation of the chiral Potts model. We also give the constructive way to understand the star-triangle relation of the chiral Potts model, which may give the hint to give the new integrable models.

  17. Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must sati...

  18. Uses of systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes uses of the systemic chemistry triangle [SCT] in which we get the benefits of both systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and learning chemistry. SCT creates active learning environment enable students to gain high mental and professional skills, correct cognition, positive attitudes ...

  19. Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2005-01-01

    Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.

  20. Angle bisectors of a triangle in $I_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar-Begović, Zdenka; Kolar_Šuper, Ružica; Volenec, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The concept of an angle bisector of the triangle will be introduced in an isotropic plane. Some statements about relationships between the introduced concepts and some other previously studied geometric concepts about triangles will be investigated in an isotropic plane. A number of these statements seems to be new, and some of them are known in Euclidean geometry.

  1. Relations between Some Characteristic Lengths in a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, Wolfram; Brede, Markus

    2005-01-01

    The paper's aim is to note a remarkable (and apparently unknown) relation for right triangles, its generalisation to arbitrary triangles and the possibility to derive these and some related relations by elimination using Groebner basis computations with a modern computer algebra system. (Contains 9 figures.)

  2. Pascal-Like Triangle and Pascal-Like Functional Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper we shall first introduce the Pascal-like triangle, using a generalization of the recurrence relation for arrays of Pascal triangle. Then we define the Pascal-like functional and Fermat-like matrices and investigate their algebraic properties. Finally, we obtain some binomial identities, using these matrices

  3. The CKM matrix and the unitarity triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Buras, A.J.; Gambino, P.; Stocchi, A.; Abbaneo, D.; Ali, A.; Amaral, P.; Andreev, V.; Artuso, M.; Barberio, E.; Bauer, C.; Becirevic, D.; Beneke, M.; Bigi, I.; Bozzi, C.; Brandt, T.; Buchalla, G.; Calvi, M.; Cassel, D.; Cirigliano, V.; Ciuchini, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e + e - machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the 'CKM Lattice Working Group', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. These proceedings are organized as a coherent document with chapters covering the domains of

  4. The CKM Matrix and the unitarity triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e + e - machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. These proceedings are organized as a coherent document with chapters covering the domains

  5. Update of the Unitarity Triangle Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, A.J.; Ciuchini, M.; Derkach, D.; Stocchi, A.; Franco, E.; Silvestrini, L.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, Cecilia; Martinelli, G.; Parodi, F.; Schiavi, C.; Pierini, M.; Sordini, V.; Vagnoni, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present the status of the Unitarity Triangle Analysis (UTA), within the Standard Model (SM) and beyond, with experimental and theoretical inputs updated for the ICHEP 2010 conference. Within the SM, we find that the general consistency among all the constraints leaves space only to some tension (between the UTA prediction and the experimental measurement) in BR(B -> tau nu), sin(2 beta) and epsilon_K. In the UTA beyond the SM, we allow for New Physics (NP) effects in (Delta F)=2 processes. The hint of NP at the 2.9 sigma level in the B_s-\\bar B_s mixing turns out to be confirmed by the present update, which includes the new D0 result on the dimuon charge asymmetry but not the new CDF measurement of phi_s, being the likelihood not yet released.

  6. Economic Analysis of Asian Growth Triangles : The Johor-Singapore-Riau Growth Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Glenn G.

    2000-01-01

    In looking at the Asian economy, particularly the Growth Triangle which includes Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, one can infer a great deal. With the Asian monetary crisis affecting the world, and certainly the Asian region in particular, some economists believe it is a mistake to evaluate such matters based on tradition. Rather, a school of thought dubbed the New Institutional Economics has come into being and while not everyone considers it to be a truly new approach, the bottom line is ...

  7. Grouper: a compact, streamable triangle mesh data structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffel, Mark; Gurung, Topraj; Lindstrom, Peter; Rossignac, Jarek

    2014-01-01

    We present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. As a part of this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle--i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format--Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  8. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  9. Sense and Sensibility:The Erotic Triangle in Shakespearean Sonnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒畅

    2017-01-01

    The male-female-male relationship is a recurrent theme in William Shakespeare's sonnets. In Eve Sedgwick's influen-tial queer study book Between Men:English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire, she first interpreted the relationship within the model of erotic triangle. On the basis of Sedgwick's theory, the triangle relationship in the Sonnets is analyzed—Shakespeare con-structs an erotic triangle where males by identifying, cooperating, and competing with each other, maintain their homosocial bond upon heterosexual but misogynous desires towards a female. The contradictory relationship reflects Shakespeare 's struggle vis-à-vis a Renaissance literary theme:rationality versus passion, with the former mounting over the latter.

  10. Sense and Sensibility:The Erotic Triangle in Shakespearean Sonnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒畅

    2017-01-01

    The male-female-male relationship is a recurrent theme in William Shakespeare's sonnets. In Eve Sedgwick's influen-tial queer study book Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire, she first interpreted the relationship within the model of erotic triangle. On the basis of Sedgwick's theory, the triangle relationship in the Sonnets is analyzed—Shakespeare con-structs an erotic triangle where males by identifying, cooperating, and competing with each other, maintain their homosocial bond upon heterosexual but misogynous desires towards a female. The contradictory relationship reflects Shakespeare's struggle vis-à-vis a Renaissance literary theme: rationality versus passion, with the former mounting over the latter.

  11. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....

  12. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  13. Update of the Unitarity Triangle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantino, C.; Bona, M.; Sordini, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present the update of the Unitarity Triangle (UT) analysis within the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. Within the SM, combining the direct measurements on sides and angles, the UT turns out to be overconstraint in a consistent way, showing that the CKM matrix is the dominant source of flavour mixing and CP-violation and that New Physics (NP) effects can appear at most as small corrections to the CKM picture. Generalizing the UT analysis to investigate NP effects, constraints on b → s transitions are also included and both CKM and NP parameters are fitted simultaneously. While no evidence of NP effects is found in K - (bar) K and B d - (bar) B d mixing, in the B s - (bar) B s mixing an hint of NP is found. The UT analysis beyond the SM also allows us to derive bounds on the coefficients of the most general ΔF = 2 effective Hamiltonian, that can be translated into bounds on the NP scale. (authors)

  14. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang; Jiang, Caigui; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals

  15. Exploring fraud triangle in understanding ethics pre-cautionary: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring fraud triangle in understanding ethics pre-cautionary: a Malaysian ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Various reports on the involvement of government officials in fraud cases indicate the lacking of ethical systems.

  16. Metrical relationships in a standard triangle in an isotropic plane

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar-Šuper, R.; Kolar-Begović, Z.; Volenec, V.; Beban-Brkić, J.

    2005-01-01

    Each allowable triangle of an isotropic plane can be set in a standard position, in which it is possible to prove geometric properties analytically in a simplified and easier way by means of the algebraic theory developed in this paper.

  17. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  18. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  19. On degree sums of a triangle-free graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l-c...

  20. Trigonometric solutions of triangle equations. Simple Lie superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhanov, V.V.; Shadrikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Trigonometric solutions of the graded triangle equation are constructed for the fundamental representations of all simple (nonexceptional) Lie superalgebras with nondegenerate metric. In Sec. 1, we introduce the concept of Z 2 graded spaces and give the basic definitions. In Sec. 2, we determine fundamental representations of the Lie superalgebras sl(mn) and osp(2rs) and give explicit realizations of the Coxeter automorphisms. In secs. 3 and 4, we give the trigonometric solutions of the graded triangle equation (quantum R matrices)

  1. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph of ge...

  2. Moving triangle singularities: the possibilities for observation in deuteron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolybasov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    If the amplitude of direct reaction is dominated by the triangle graph then it can be identified observing the picture corresponding to so-called moving triangle singularity: the form of the distribution with respect to the invariant mass of several final particles must change with momentum transferred from initial fast particle to final one. The possibilities for observation are discussed using two reactions, namely deuteron break up and η-meson production pd → pdη [ru

  3. Rapid Separation of Disconnected Triangle Meshes Based on Graph Traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S J; Wang, Y

    2006-01-01

    In recent year, The STL file become a de facto standard on the file presentation in CAD/CAM, computer graph and reverse engineering. When point cloud which is obtained by scanning object body using optical instrument is used to reconstruct an original model, the points cloud is presented by the STL file. Usually, datum of several separated and relative objects are stored in a single STL file, when such a file is operated by a computer, the datum in the file is firstly separated and then each element of every triangle pitch on the triangle mesh is traversed and visited and is calculated. The problem is analyzed and studied by many experts, but there is still a lack of a simple and quick algorithm. An algorithm which uses graph traversal to traverse each element of the triangle meshes and separate several disconnected triangle meshes is presented by the paper, the searching and calculating speed of the data on the triangle meshes is enhanced, memory size of the computer is reduced, complexity of the data structure is simplified and powerful guarantee is made for the next process by using this algorithm

  4. Triangle inequalities in coherence measures and entanglement concurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; You, Wenlong; Dong, Yuli; Zhang, Chengjie

    2017-12-01

    We provide detailed proofs of triangle inequalities in coherence measures and entanglement concurrence. If a rank-2 state ϱ can be expressed as a convex combination of two pure states, i.e., ϱ =p1| ψ1〉〈 ψ1|+ p2| ψ2〉〈 ψ2| , a triangle inequality can be established as |E (|Ψ1〉 )-E (|Ψ2〉 )|≤E (ϱ ) ≤E (|Ψ1〉 )+E (|Ψ2〉 ) , where | Ψ1〉= √{p1}|ψ1〉 and | Ψ2〉= √{p2}|ψ2〉 ; E can be considered either coherence measures or entanglement concurrence. This inequality displays mathematical beauty for its similarity to the triangle inequality in plane geometry. An illustrative example is given after the proof.

  5. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...... value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009...

  6. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, Chen Huey, E-mail: chenhv@utar.edu.my; Hui, Liew How, E-mail: liewhh@utar.edu.my; How, Yim Kheng, E-mail: tidusyimhome@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematical and Actuarial Sciences, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-06-02

    Let mK{sub 3} = (V{sub m}, E{sub m}) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K{sub 3}, where V{sub m} is the set of vertices, E{sub m} is the set of edges and both V{sub m} and E{sub m} are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK{sub 3} is a function f which maps the elements in V{sub m} and E{sub m} to positive integer values, i.e. f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V{sub m} and an edge xy ∈ E{sub m} joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  7. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voon, Chen Huey; Hui, Liew How; How, Yim Kheng

    2016-01-01

    Let mK_3 = (V_m, E_m) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K_3, where V_m is the set of vertices, E_m is the set of edges and both V_m and E_m are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK_3 is a function f which maps the elements in V_m and E_m to positive integer values, i.e. f : V_m ∪ E_m → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V_m ∪ E_m → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V_m and an edge xy ∈ E_m joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  8. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-12

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ʼnormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.

  9. A New and Very Long Proof of the Pythagoras Theorem By Way of a Proposition on Isosceles Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a new proof of the Pythagoras Theorem on right-angled triangles via two new lemmas pertaining to, respectively, isosceles triangles and right-angled triangles, which are of pedagogical value in themselves.

  10. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi; Campbell, Stuart J.; Hoey, Andrew; Fadli, Nur; Linkie, Matthew; Baird, Andrew Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral

  11. Knowledge triangles in the Netherlands : an entrepreneurial ecosystem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, E.; Romme, A.G.L.; Roso, M.; van den Toren, J.P.; van der Starre, B.T.

    2016-01-01

    This is a study of the knowledge triangles of research-education-innovation in several Dutch regional ecosystems. It draws on case studies of the Amsterdam, Twente and Eindhoven regions as well as the analysis of secondary data regarding a larger set of regional ecosystems in the Netherlands.

  12. Triangle of Safety Technique: A New Approach to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman F. M. S. Almutairi

    2009-01-01

    dissection of the Calot's triangle can lead to such injuries. The aim of the authors in this study is to present a new safe triangle of dissection. Patients and Method. 501 patients under went LC in the following approach; The cystic artery is identified and mobilized from the gall bladder (GB medial wall down towards the cystic duct which would simultaneously divide the medial GB peritoneal attachment. This is then followed by dividing the lateral peritoneal attachment. The GB will be unfolded and the borders of the triangle of safety (TST are achieved: cystic artery medially, cystic duct laterally and the gallbladder wall superiorly. The floor of the triangle is then divided to delineate both cystic duct and artery in an area relatively far from CBD. Results. There were little significant immediate or delayed complications. The mean operating time was 68 minutes, nearly equivalent to the conventional method. Conclusions. Dissection at TST appears to be a safe procedure which clearly demonstrates the cystic duct and may help to reduce the CBD injuries.

  13. The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...

  14. Rates of convergence of Brezier net over triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuyu.

    1986-12-01

    It is well known (Farin, 1979) that the sequence of Bezier nets f-circumflex n (x) associated with Bernstein-Bezier surface over a triangle converges to the surface uniformly as n goes to infinity. In this paper the precise rates of convergence are given. The pointwise convergence result and saturation theorem are presented. (author). 7 refs

  15. Enriching Triangle Mesh Animations with Physically Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijing; Xu, Hongyi; Barbic, Jernej

    2017-10-01

    We present a system to combine arbitrary triangle mesh animations with physically based Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, enabling control over the combination both in space and time. The input is a triangle mesh animation obtained using any method, such as keyframed animation, character rigging, 3D scanning, or geometric shape modeling. The input may be non-physical, crude or even incomplete. The user provides weights, specified using a minimal user interface, for how much physically based simulation should be allowed to modify the animation in any region of the model, and in time. Our system then computes a physically-based animation that is constrained to the input animation to the amount prescribed by these weights. This permits smoothly turning physics on and off over space and time, making it possible for the output to strictly follow the input, to evolve purely based on physically based simulation, and anything in between. Achieving such results requires a careful combination of several system components. We propose and analyze these components, including proper automatic creation of simulation meshes (even for non-manifold and self-colliding undeformed triangle meshes), converting triangle mesh animations into animations of the simulation mesh, and resolving collisions and self-collisions while following the input.

  16. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Calculus of variations, shape optimization, isoperimetric prob- lems. Figure 1. Starting from the triangle inequality, we will dis- cuss a series of shape optimization problems us- ing elementary geometry and ultimately derive the classical isoperimetric inequality in the plane. One of the important results we learn in plane geom ...

  17. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear ...

  18. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 135-148. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M

    2013-05-24

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  20. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  1. Mycoplasmas, plants, insect vectors: a matrimonial triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, M; Foissac, X; Gaurivaud, P; Laigret, F; Renaudin, J; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2001-10-01

    Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas were discovered by electron microscopy, in 1967, long after the discovery and culture in 1898 of the first pathogenic mycoplasma of animal origin, Mycoplasma mycoides. Mycoplasmas are Eubacteria of the class Mollicutes, a group of organisms phylogenetically related to Gram-positive bacteria. Their more characteristic features reside in the small size of their genomes, the low guanine (G) plus cytosine (C) content of their genomic DNA and the lack of a cell wall. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are responsible for several hundred diseases and belong to two groups: the phytoplasmas and the spiroplasmas. The phytoplasmas (previously called MLOs, for mycoplasma like organisms) were discovered first; they are pleiomorphic, and have so far resisted in vitro cultivation. Phytoplasmas represent the largest group of plant pathogenic Mollicutes. Only three plant pathogenic spiroplasmas are known today. Spiroplasma citri, the agent of citrus stubborn was discovered and cultured in 1970 and shown to be helical and motile. S. kunkelii is the causal agent of corn stunt. S. phoeniceum, responsible for periwinkle yellows, was discovered in Syria. There are many other spiroplasmas associated with insects and ticks. Plant pathogenic mycoplasmas are restricted to the phloem sieve tubes in which circulates the photosynthetically-enriched sap, the food for many phloem-feeding insects (aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids, etc.). Interestingly, phytopathogenic mycoplasmas are very specifically transmitted by leafhoppers or psyllid species. In this paper, the most recent knowledge on phytopathogenic mycoplasmas in relation with their insect and plant habitats is presented as well as the experiments carried out to control plant mycoplasma diseases, by expression of mycoplasma-directed-antibodies in plants (plantibodies).

  2. Topological chiral phonons in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xifang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Lifa

    2018-06-01

    Since chiral phonons were found in an asymmetric two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, there has been growing interest in the study of phonon chirality, which were experimentally verified very recently in monolayer tungsten diselenide (2018 Science 359 579). In this work, we find chiral phonons with nontrivial topology in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices. At the Brillouin-zone corners, (), circularly polarized phonons and nonzero phonon Berry curvature are observed. Moreover, we find that the phonon chirality remain robust with changing sublattice mass ratio and interlayer coupling. The chiral phonons at the valleys are demonstrated in doubler-layer sodium chloride along the [1 1 1] direction. We believe that the findings on topological chiral phonons in triangle lattices will give guidance in the study of chiral phonons in real materials and promote the phononic applications.

  3. Visualization on triangle concept using Adobe Flash Professional SC6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Laela; Ratih Kusumarini, Adha

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop teaching aids using Adobe Flash Professional CS6 emphasize on Triangle concept. A new alternative way to deliver a basic concept in geometry with visualization is software Adobe Flash Professional CS 6. Research method is research and development with 5 phase of Ploom’s model, namely (1) preliminary, (2) design, (3) realization/ construction, (4) test, evaluation and revision, and 5) implementation. The results showed that teaching aids was valid, practice, and effective. Validity: expert judgement for material score is 3.95 and media expert judgement produce an average score of 3,2, both in the category are valid. Practically: the average of questionnaire response is 4,04 (good). Effectiveness: n-gain test value is 0,36 (medium). It concluded that developed of teaching aids using Adobe Flash CS6 on triangle can improve student achievement.

  4. Freud, Ferenczi, and Rosmersholm: incestuous triangles and analytic thirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnytsky, Peter L

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing a field theory of unconscious communication, and in particular the concept of the analytic third, this paper situates Freud's interpretation of Ibsen's 1886 Rosmersholm, presented in the section of his essay "Some Character-Types Met with in Psycho-Analytic Work" (1916) entitled "Those Wrecked by Success," in the context of his relationship with Ferenczi. Both in his interpretation of Rosmersholm and in his earlier papers on the psychology of love, it is argued, Freud may be seen to commenting both on Ferenczi's incestuous love triangle with Gizella and Elma Pálos and on his equally incestuous triangle with Martha and Minna Bernays. In a postscript, the challenge offered by Groddeck to Freud's oedipal reading of Rosmersholm is assessed.

  5. Anatomic Assessment of Variations in Kambin's Triangle: A Surgical and Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Suzer, Tuncer; Can, Halil; Falsafi, Mani; Aydin, Murat; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc

    2017-04-01

    The relationship of exiting root and Kambin's triangle is discussed in this article. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery as the gold standard of less invasive lumbar disc surgeries is performed through Kambin's triangle. Existing root damage is one of the most important complication for this type of surgery. Anatomic variations in Kambin's triangle may be the main reason for nerve root damage during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery. Kambin's triangle was investigated with surgical views and cadaver studies. Thirty-four patients with far lateral disc herniation were treated with an extraforaminal approach under the microscope. On the other hand, 48 Kambin's triangles were dissected on 8 cadavers. Three main types of triangle were identified, and patients were grouped according to these 3 types of the triangle. Only 6 of the 34 patients had type 3 triangles, which is the wide classical triangle described by Kambin; however, 17 patients had type 2, with a narrow space in the triangle, and 11 patients had type 1, with no space inside the triangle. Cadaver results were similar; only 10 of the 48 specimens had the type 3 classical triangle, whereas 23 specimens had type 2, and 15 specimens had type 1 triangles. Our results disclosed narrowed or no space in 82.4% of the patients and 79.2% of the cadavers. We observed that a wide and safe room of the triangle may not be exist in some patients. Therefore, more care must be taken during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery to avoid nerve damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical problems with the Pascal triangle in moment computation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kautsky, J.; Flusser, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 306, č. 1 (2016), s. 53-68 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : moment computation * Pascal triangle * appropriate polynomial basis * numerical problems Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0459096.pdf

  7. Sequential Triangle Strip Generator based on Hopfield Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Lněnička, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2009), s. 583-617 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : sequential triangle strip * combinatorial optimization * Hopfield network * minimum energy * simulated annealing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2009

  8. Seismic interpretation of the triangle zone at Jumping Pound, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotboom, R. T. [Amerada Hess Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone at Jumping Point, Alberta was characterized using seismic survey data as a NW-SE-trending antiformal stack of thrust sheets involving Cretaceous rocks that have been wedged into the foreland between two detachments. Three major thrust sheets of Lower and Upper Cretaceous strata have been stacked to form the main extremity of the wedge. The structure is tightly folded at Jumping Point, and broadens northwest along the strike. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  9. The phases of large networks with edge and triangle constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Based on numerical simulation and local stability analysis we describe the structure of the phase space of the edge/triangle model of random graphs. We support simulation evidence with mathematical proof of continuity and discontinuity for many of the phase transitions. All but one of the many phase transitions in this model break some form of symmetry, and we use this model to explore how changes in symmetry are related to discontinuities at these transitions.

  10. Lattice QCD inputs to the CKM unitarity triangle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiho, Jack; Lunghi, E.; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global fit to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle using the latest experimental and theoretical constraints. Our emphasis is on the hadronic weak matrix elements that enter the analysis, which must be computed using lattice QCD or other nonperturbative methods. Realistic lattice QCD calculations which include the effects of the dynamical up, down, and strange quarks are now available for all of the standard inputs to the global fit. We therefore present lattice averages for all of the necessary hadronic weak matrix elements. We attempt to account for correlations between lattice QCD results in a reasonable but conservative manner: whenever there are reasons to believe that an error is correlated between two lattice calculations, we take the degree of correlation to be 100%. These averages are suitable for use as inputs both in the global Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle fit and other phenomenological analyses. In order to illustrate the impact of the lattice averages, we make standard model predictions for the parameters B-circumflex K , |V cb |, and |V ub |/|V cb |. We find a (2-3)σ tension in the unitarity triangle, depending upon whether we use the inclusive or exclusive determination of |V cb |. If we interpret the tension as a sign of new physics in either neutral kaon or B mixing, we find that the scenario with new physics in kaon mixing is preferred by present data.

  11. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P; Nel, R [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  12. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  13. Patterns of species range evolution in Indo-Pacific reef assemblages reveal the Coral Triangle as a net source of transoceanic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sean M; McKenna, Caroline; Simpson, Stephen D; Tournois, Jennifer; Genner, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    The Coral Triangle in the Indo-Pacific is a region renowned for exceptional marine biodiversity. The area could have acted as a 'centre of origin' where speciation has been prolific or a 'centre of survival' by providing refuge during major environmental shifts such as sea-level changes. The region could also have acted as a 'centre of accumulation' for species with origins outside of the Coral Triangle, owing to it being at a central position between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Here, we investigated support for these hypotheses using population-level DNA sequence-based reconstructions of the range evolution of 45 species (314 populations) of Indo-Pacific reef-associated organisms. Our results show that populations undergoing the most ancient establishment were significantly more likely to be closer to the centre of the Coral Triangle than to peripheral locations. The data are consistent with the Coral Triangle being a net source of coral-reef biodiversity for the Indo-Pacific region, suggesting that the region has acted primarily as a centre of survival, a centre of origin or both. These results provide evidence of how a key location can influence the large-scale distributions of biodiversity over evolutionary timescales. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  15. A triangle voting algorithm based on double feature constraints for star sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiaoyun; Zhong, Xuyang

    2018-02-01

    A novel autonomous star identification algorithm is presented in this study. In the proposed algorithm, each sensor star constructs multi-triangle with its bright neighbor stars and obtains its candidates by triangle voting process, in which the triangle is considered as the basic voting element. In order to accelerate the speed of this algorithm and reduce the required memory for star database, feature extraction is carried out to reduce the dimension of triangles and each triangle is described by its base and height. During the identification period, the voting scheme based on double feature constraints is proposed to implement triangle voting. This scheme guarantees that only the catalog star satisfying two features can vote for the sensor star, which improves the robustness towards false stars. The simulation and real star image test demonstrate that compared with the other two algorithms, the proposed algorithm is more robust towards position noise, magnitude noise and false stars.

  16. Colouring the triangles determined by a point set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Fabila-Monroy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. We study the chromatic number of the intersection graph of the open triangles determined by P. It is known that this chromatic number is at least n3/27+O(n2 and, if P is in convex position, the answer is n3/24+O(n2. We prove that for arbitrary P, the chromatic number is at most n3/19.259+O(n2.

  17. Valuation of Non-Life Liabilities from Claims Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lindholm

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete program for the valuation of aggregate non-life insurance liability cash flows based on claims triangle data. The valuation is fully consistent with the principle of valuation by considering the costs associated with a transfer of the liability to a so-called reference undertaking subject to capital requirements throughout the runoff of the liability cash flow. The valuation program includes complete details on parameter estimation, bias correction and conservative estimation of the value of the liability under partial information. The latter is based on a new approach to the estimation of mean squared error of claims reserve prediction.

  18. Triangle identity and free differential algebra of massless higher spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1989-09-25

    In terms of Berezins's theory of symbols of operators, the integral formulation is suggested for the free differential algebra which gives rise to consistent equations of motion of interacting massless fields of all spins 0{le}s<{infinity} in the frameworks of gravity. In the first nontrivial order of the expansion in powers of curvatures, Frobenius consistency conditions for higher-spin equations of motion are shown to reduce to the simple geometrical fast that there are two ways for splitting any quadrangle in two triangles. To clarify our construction, we illustrate how it works in the simplest case of pure gravity. (orig.).

  19. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory annual report - TUNL XXIV, 1 July 1984-31 August 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Research programs of the Triangle Nuclear Laboratory are discussed. These studies are based on reactions induced by polarized beam, protons, deuterons and neutrons. Individual programs are cataloged separately

  20. The Surgical Anatomy of the Lumbosacroiliac Triangle: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Patel, Apar S; Walter, Christina M; Avila, Mauricio J; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Demitri, Silvio; Baaj, Ali A

    2016-04-01

    The anatomic area delineated medially by the lateral part of the L4-L5 vertebral bodies, distally by the anterior-superior surface of the sacral wing, and laterally by an imaginary line joining the base of the L4 transverse process to the proximal part of the sacroiliac joint, is of particular interest to spine surgeons. We are referring to this area as the lumbo-sacro-iliac triangle (LSIT). Knowledge of LSIT anatomy is necessary during approaches for L5 vertebral and sacral fractures, sacral and iliac tumors, and extraforaminal decompression of the L5 nerve roots. We performed an anatomic dissection of the LSIT in 3 embalmed cadavers (6 triangles), using an anterior and posterior approach. We identified 3 key tissue planes: the neurological plexus plane, constituted by L4 and L5 nerve roots; an intermediate level constituted by the ileosacral tunnel; and posteriorly, by the lumbosacral ligament, and the posterior muscular plane. Improving anatomic knowledge of the LSIT may help surgeons decrease the risk of possible complications. When LSIT pathology is present, a lateral approach corresponding to the tip of the L4 transverse process, medially, is suggested to decrease the risk of vessel and nerve root damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. STRATEGIC PLACE TRIANGLE PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI KAWASAN PARIWISATA BOJONEGERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Nurif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Bojonegoro ditetapkan sebagai salah satu Daerah Tujuan Wisata (DTW di Jawa Timur karena memiliki potensi obyek wisata alam dan budaya yang telah mendapatkan perhatian wisatawan nusantara pada umumnya. Dalam kebijakan pengembangan yang tertuang dalam Rencana Induk Pengembangan Pariwisata (RIPP Jawa Timur 1999-2015 Kabupaten Bojonegoro meskipun bukan sebagai gerbang utama namun memiliki peran strategis untuk mendorong pertumbuhan kawasan di sekitarnya. Dalam penelitian, peneliti melakukan pemetakan perubahan lingkungan eksternal, pemetakan pesaing dan pelanggan, analisis internal, dan analisis TOWS. Selanjutnya akan dirumuskan Strategic Place Triangle. Yang dimaksud dengan Strategic Place Triangle adalah suatu pendekatan strategi pemasaran wilayah yang mencakup tiga hal kunci, yaitu (1 Strategi yang mencakup Segmentasi-Targeting-Positioning, (2 Taktik yang mencakup Diferensiasi-Marketing Mix-Selling, (3 Value yang mencakup Brand-Servis-Proses. Analisis pemetaan terhadap lingkungan eksternal dan internal dengan menggunakan pendekatan Strategi Pemasaran Wilayah (Marketing Places tersebut akan menghasilkan Positioning, Diferensiasi, dan Brand, bagi potensi kawasan pariwisata Bojonegoro. Positioning- nya adalah ibarat Bali bagi Jawa Timur dengan kekhasan tetap memegang nilai-nilai religi dan kultur lokal setempat. Diferensiasi-nya adalah one-stop-shopping services, pesona wisata yang tak berakhir, cantik alami, penduduknya yang santun, ramah dan mempesona. Brand-nya adalah Pesona Wisata Bojonegoro.

  2. Electronic confining effects in Sierpiński triangle fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xue; Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Yongfeng; Hou, Shimin

    2018-03-01

    Electron confinement in fractal Sierpiński triangles (STs) on Ag(111) is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and theoretically simulated by employing an improved two-dimensional (2D) multiple scattering theory in which the energy-dependent phase shifts are explicitly calculated from the electrostatic potentials of the molecular building block of STs. Well-defined bound surface states are observed in three kinds of triangular cavities with their sides changing at a scale factor of 2. The decrease in length of the cavities results in an upshift of the resonances that deviates from an expected inverse quadratic dependence on the cavity length due to the less efficient confinement of smaller triangular cavities. Differential conductance maps at some specific biases present a series of alternative bright and dark rounded triangles preserving the symmetry of the boundary. Our improved 2D multiple scattering model reproduces the characteristics of the standing wave patterns and all features in the differential conductance spectra measured in experiments, illustrating that the elastic loss boundary scattering dominates the resonance broadening in these ST quantum corrals. Moreover, the self-similar structure of STs, that a larger central cavity is surrounded by three smaller ones with a half side length, gives rise to interactions of surface states confined in neighboring cavities, which are helpful for the suppression of the linewidth in differential conductance spectra.

  3. Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Sur, Christine; Abbott, Jessica M; Limbong, Steven R

    2017-11-07

    Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region. Here we demonstrate that species diversity can set the trajectory of restoration. In a seagrass restoration experiment in the heart of the Coral Triangle (Sulawesi, Indonesia), plant survival and coverage increased with the number of species transplanted. Our results highlight the positive role biodiversity can play in ecosystem restoration and call for revision of the common restoration practice of establishing a single target species, particularly in regions having high biodiversity. Coastal ecosystems affect human well-being in many important ways, and restoration will become ever more important as conservation efforts cannot keep up with their loss. Published under the PNAS license.

  4. [Cysts in the posterior triangle of the neck in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea-Álvarez, Beatriz; Roldán-Hidalgo, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the posterior triangle are a pathologic entity whose diagnosis is made in the first two years of life. Its presentation in adulthood is an incidental finding and the differential diagnosis includes cystic lymphangioma, lymphatic metastasis of thyroid cancer and branchial cyst. Often with the finding of a cervical lump, FNA is made before diagnostic imaging is performed, however, this procedure is not always advisable. We reviewed the cases of patients who came last year to our department with a cystic mass in this location and correlating the imaging findings with pathologic specimen. We show characteristic findings of these lesions in order to make an early diagnosis and thus to get the approach and treatment appropriate of adult patients with a cystic lesion in the posterior cervical triangle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  5. Triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid; Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Akbar-ashrafi, Nafiseh; Boghrati, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Programmable Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessors are capable of doing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 50 MHz. This combined with their low expense, ease of use and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal option for spectrometer data acquisition systems. For this generation of spectrometers, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the field programmable gate array (FPGA). This will not only reduce the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilized to add considerable signal processing power to produce higher resolution spectra. In this paper we report on an all-digital triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction algorithm that is being developed for the DSP. The pileup mitigation algorithm will allow the spectrometers to run at higher count rates or with multiple sources without imposing large data losses due to the overlapping of scintillation signals. This correction technique utilizes a very narrow bipolar triangle digital pulse shaping algorithm to extract energy information for most pileup events.

  6. Triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Akbar-ashrafi, Nafiseh; Boghrati, Behzad [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    Programmable Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessors are capable of doing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 50 MHz. This combined with their low expense, ease of use and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal option for spectrometer data acquisition systems. For this generation of spectrometers, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the field programmable gate array (FPGA). This will not only reduce the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilized to add considerable signal processing power to produce higher resolution spectra. In this paper we report on an all-digital triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction algorithm that is being developed for the DSP. The pileup mitigation algorithm will allow the spectrometers to run at higher count rates or with multiple sources without imposing large data losses due to the overlapping of scintillation signals. This correction technique utilizes a very narrow bipolar triangle digital pulse shaping algorithm to extract energy information for most pileup events.

  7. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  8. The number of colorings of planar graphs with no separating triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    A classical result of Birkhoff and Lewis implies that every planar graph with . n vertices has at least . 152n-1 distinct 5-vertex-colorings. Equality holds for planar triangulations with . n-4 separating triangles. We show that, if a planar graph has no separating triangle, then it has at least ...

  9. 75 FR 61788 - Triangle Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... to the issuers of such securities. 2. TMF, a North Carolina limited liability limited partnership, is... same investment objectives and strategies as Triangle. Triangle owns a 99.9% limited partnership... persons who are interested persons of TMF. 3. SBIC II, a Delaware limited partnership, is an SBIC licensed...

  10. Construction of optimal 3-node plate bending triangles by templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippa, C. A.; Militello, C.

    A finite element template is a parametrized algebraic form that reduces to specific finite elements by setting numerical values to the free parameters. The present study concerns Kirchhoff Plate-Bending Triangles (KPT) with 3 nodes and 9 degrees of freedom. A 37-parameter template is constructed using the Assumed Natural Deviatoric Strain (ANDES). Specialization of this template includes well known elements such as DKT and HCT. The question addressed here is: can these parameters be selected to produce high performance elements? The study is carried out by staged application of constraints on the free parameters. The first stage produces element families satisfying invariance and aspect ratio insensitivity conditions. Application of energy balance constraints produces specific elements. The performance of such elements in benchmark tests is presently under study.

  11. Climate, bleaching and connectivity in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchitser, E. N.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Drenkard, E.; Thompson, D. M.; Pinsky, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Coral Triangle (CT) is the apex of marine biodiversity and supports the livelihoods of millions of people. It is also one of the most threatened of all reef regions in the world. We present results from a series of high-resolution, numerical ocean models designed to address physical and ecological questions relevant to the region's coral communities. The hierarchy of models was designed to optimize the model performance in addressing questions ranging from the role of internal tides in larval connectivity to distinguishing the role of interannual variability from decadal trends in thermal stress leading to mass bleaching events. In this presentation we will show how combining ocean circulation with models of larval dispersal leads to new insights into the interplay of physics and ecology in this complex oceanographic region, which can ultimately be used to inform conservation efforts.

  12. [Patient - doctor relationship from perspective of the Karpman drama triangle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Sablik, Zbigniew

    2016-11-25

    Patients' confidence in doctors has been decreased for last years despite successes of Polish medicine. It seems to be related to particular conditions of patient - doctor relationship and patient's negative emotions may frequently burden it from the beginning. They may allow an interpersonal game, the Drama Triangle, to appear in the relationship. 3 persons are typically involved in the game: a victim, a persecutor and a rescuer. All of them neither feel guilty about the situation nor their activities are aimed at solving the crucial problem. It maintains continuation of the game. Both patient and doctor are capable to attend the game as any of the person mentioned above. Authors of the article think frameworks of organization of the health care system should permit doctors not only to tackle main disease but also to devote time individually tailored to patient's emotional problems. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  13. 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    CKM2016

    2016-01-01

    The 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle (CKM 2016) will be held during November 28 to December 3, 2016 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. The CKM series is a well-established international meeting in the field of quark-flavour physics that brings both experimenters and theorists on a common platform. On the experimental front, we bridge borders between neutron, kaon, charm and beauty hadron, and top quark physics. The theory program tries to cover a wide range of approaches. We shall discuss how this marriage of the two can indirectly probe physics beyond the standard model, taking into account the interplay with high-pT collider searches.

  14. Comparing MapReduce and Pipeline Implementations for Counting Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira Pasarella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common method to define a parallel solution for a computational problem consists in finding a way to use the Divide and Conquer paradigm in order to have processors acting on its own data and scheduled in a parallel fashion. MapReduce is a programming model that follows this paradigm, and allows for the definition of efficient solutions by both decomposing a problem into steps on subsets of the input data and combining the results of each step to produce final results. Albeit used for the implementation of a wide variety of computational problems, MapReduce performance can be negatively affected whenever the replication factor grows or the size of the input is larger than the resources available at each processor. In this paper we show an alternative approach to implement the Divide and Conquer paradigm, named dynamic pipeline. The main features of dynamic pipelines are illustrated on a parallel implementation of the well-known problem of counting triangles in a graph. This problem is especially interesting either when the input graph does not fit in memory or is dynamically generated. To evaluate the properties of pipeline, a dynamic pipeline of processes and an ad-hoc version of MapReduce are implemented in the language Go, exploiting its ability to deal with channels and spawned processes. An empirical evaluation is conducted on graphs of different topologies, sizes, and densities. Observed results suggest that dynamic pipelines allows for an efficient implementation of the problem of counting triangles in a graph, particularly, in dense and large graphs, drastically reducing the execution time with respect to the MapReduce implementation.

  15. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; Hinder, Stephanie L; Bodger, Owen G; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C

    2014-01-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security. (letter)

  16. Triangle islands and cavities on the surface of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se2 absorber layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Anjun; Zhang Yi; Liu Wei; Li Boyan; Sun Yun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 thin films. ► Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu atom diffusion from Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 grains brings the epitaxial triangle island. ► The triangle islands grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. ► The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. ► The performance of solar cell without triangle islands is improved. - Abstract: Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films are co-evaporated at a constant substrate temperature of 500 °C on the Mo/soda lime glass substrates. The structural properties and chemical composition of the CIGS films are studied by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and an X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (XRF), respectively. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology. Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on some planes of the CIGS thin films. We investigate the formation mechanism of these triangle islands. It is found that the planes with the triangle islands are (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms. Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu diffusion from CIGS grains brings the epitaxial triangle islands which grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. The film with Cu/(Ga + In) = 0.94–0.98 is one key of the formation of these islands. The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. The growth of triangle islands brings a compact surface with large layered grains and many jagged edges, but no triangle cavity. Finally, we compare the performance of solar cell with triangle islands and layered gains. It is found that the performance of solar cell with large layered gains is improved.

  17. Influence of Blocker Distance Variations in form of Triangle in Front of Cylinder toward Drag Coefficien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Putu Gede Gunawan Tista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to reduce energy consumption on the air plane and the other bluff bodies are by decreasing the drag. Drag isclosely related to the flow separation. The earlier separation, then the drag will increase more. Based of the fact the effort todecrease drag is conducted by manipulating the field of fluid flow. Stream manipulation was be done by installing Triangleobstacle in front of cylinder. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of various distance triangle obstacle in front ofcylinder on drag. The present experiment was done by placing triangle rod in front of the cylinder. In the present research, theexperiment was conducted in the wind tunnel, which consisted of blower, pitot pipe, manometer, cylinder pipe, and triangle rod.The triangle was positioned at L/D = 1.19, L/D = 1.43, L/D = 1.67, L/D = 1.9, L/D = 2.14, L/D = 2.38, L/D = 2.62, and L/D =2.86 by upstream from the cylinder. The triangle was 8 mm uniform side. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter (D= 42 mm was Re = 1.81 x 104. The research results showed that the triangle rod could decrease the drag of cylinder. Coefficientdrag for cylinder without triangle rod was 0.1276 while the biggest decrease of coefficient of drag with triangle rod washappened at L/D = 1.43 which was 0.0188. It means that the drag of cylinder with triangle rod was 85.25% lower than thecylinder alone.

  18. Energy, economy and development (EED) triangle: Concerns for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, A.; Samdarshi, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss issues involving energy security with economic growth and development that brings out (i) the dimension of physical security alternative, (ii) framework for a pan South East Asian platform to support energy security and (iii) requirement of promoting regional energy cooperation and specific energy peace initiatives. Sustaining projected economic growth rate coupled with energy security in future is a concern for all developing countries like India. The energy security of these nations is threatened by the disruption of energy supplies by ongoing energy terrorism and geopolitical conflicts in the region. India's geo-strategic position and increasing energy dependence raises concerns for its energy security. We discuss energy security, examine factors and approaches to attempt the energy security in the light of economic growth and development. - Highlights: → India's perspective on evolving energy security concepts and risks analysed. → Model in the form of EED triangle proposed. → New potential energy security alternatives proposed in the light of the model.

  19. Energy, economy and development (EED) triangle: Concerns for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A. [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Samdarshi, S.K., E-mail: drsksamdarshi@rediffmail.com [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we discuss issues involving energy security with economic growth and development that brings out (i) the dimension of physical security alternative, (ii) framework for a pan South East Asian platform to support energy security and (iii) requirement of promoting regional energy cooperation and specific energy peace initiatives. Sustaining projected economic growth rate coupled with energy security in future is a concern for all developing countries like India. The energy security of these nations is threatened by the disruption of energy supplies by ongoing energy terrorism and geopolitical conflicts in the region. India's geo-strategic position and increasing energy dependence raises concerns for its energy security. We discuss energy security, examine factors and approaches to attempt the energy security in the light of economic growth and development. - Highlights: > India's perspective on evolving energy security concepts and risks analysed. > Model in the form of EED triangle proposed. > New potential energy security alternatives proposed in the light of the model.

  20. Experimental realization of the quantum metrological triangle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenaud, B; Devoille, L; Steck, B; Feltin, N; Gonzalez-Cano, A; Poirier, W; Schopfer, F; Spengler, G; Djordjevic, S; Seron, O; Piquemal, F [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais (LNE), Trappes (France); Lotkhov, S [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: laurent.devoille@lne.fr

    2009-02-01

    The quantum metrological triangle experiment (QMTE) consists in realizing Ohm's law with Josephson (JE), quantum Hall (QHE) and single electron tunneling (SET) effects. The aim is to check the consistency of the link among the phenomenological constants K {sub J}, R{sub K} and Q {sub X} involved in these effects and theoretically expressed with the fundamental constants e and h. Such an experiment could be a contribution for a new definition of the systeme international d'unites (SI) base units. In the QMTE, a current generated by a SET device flows through a resistor calibrated against QHE standard and the voltage induced at its terminals is compared to the metrological voltage generated by a Josephson junctions array. At LNE, the studied SET devices are 3 junctions single electron pumps with on chip resistors. The quantized current generated by this pump is theoretically equal to ef (f is the frequency of the driving signals applied on the gates) and is measured through a cryogenic current comparator (CCC), which allows to amplify the low pumping current with a metrological accuracy. We will present and discuss the experimental set-up developed at LNE and the first results. In addition to the main aim of QMTE described above, these preliminary results are also a first step towards a determination of e.

  1. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandez

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians.

  3. College geometry an introduction to the modern geometry of the triangle and the circle

    CERN Document Server

    Altshiller-Court, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The standard university-level text for decades, this volume offers exercises in construction problems, harmonic division, circle and triangle geometry, and other areas. 1952 edition, revised and enlarged by the author.

  4. Fact Sheet on EPA's Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (STEM) Outreach Program in Research Triangle Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employees from EPA’s Research Triangle Park (RTP) campus serve as guest speakers at local schools and in the community. Hands-on activities and interactive discussions supplement classroom instruction and promote environmental awareness

  5. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  6. Transmission probability method based on triangle meshes for solving unstructured geometry neutron transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hongchun [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)]. E-mail: hongchun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu Pingping [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zhou Yongqiang [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Cao Liangzhi [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2007-01-15

    In the advanced reactor, the fuel assembly or core with unstructured geometry is frequently used and for calculating its fuel assembly, the transmission probability method (TPM) has been used widely. However, the rectangle or hexagon meshes are mainly used in the TPM codes for the normal core structure. The triangle meshes are most useful for expressing the complicated unstructured geometry. Even though finite element method and Monte Carlo method is very good at solving unstructured geometry problem, they are very time consuming. So we developed the TPM code based on the triangle meshes. The TPM code based on the triangle meshes was applied to the hybrid fuel geometry, and compared with the results of the MCNP code and other codes. The results of comparison were consistent with each other. The TPM with triangle meshes would thus be expected to be able to apply to the two-dimensional arbitrary fuel assembly.

  7. Airspora concentrations in the Vaal-triangle-monitoring and potential health-effects.2, fungal spores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vismer, HF

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fungal spores were monitored in Vanderbijlpark for the period 1991-92 as part of the Vaal triangle air pollution health study of the medical research council and the CSIR. Cladosporium, Aspergillus/ Penicillium, Alternaria and Epicoccum...

  8. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Research Triangle Park Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #09-P-0227, August 31, 2009. Vulnerability testing conducted in April 2009 of EPA’s Research Triangle Park Finance Center network identified Internet Protocol addresses with several highrisk vulnerabilities.

  9. Future travel demand and its implications for transportation infrastructure investments in the Texas Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This study takes a megaregion approach to project future travel demand and choice of transport : modes in the Texas Triangle, which is encompassed by four major metropolitan areas, Dallas-Fort : Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Austin. The model was ...

  10. Three-coloring graphs with no induced seven-vertex path II : using a triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Maria; Maceli, Peter; Zhong, Mingxian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we give a polynomial time algorithm which determines if a given graph containing a triangle and no induced seven-vertex path is 3-colorable, and gives an explicit coloring if one exists. In previous work, we gave a polynomial time algorithm for three-coloring triangle-free graphs with no induced seven-vertex path. Combined, our work shows that three-coloring a graph with no induced seven-vertex path can be done in polynomial time.

  11. Dose-response relationship of sertindole and haloperidol using the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Tanghøj, P; Andreasson, K

    2011-01-01

    Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains.......Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains....

  12. Functioning of the knowledge triangle in the example of IT education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVITSKAYA H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the interactions between knowledge triangle components in IT-education in the Republic of Belarus is described. This paper describes the results of research in the framework of the program of the European Union Tempus IV «Fostering the Knowledge Triangle in Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova» - «FKTBUM». The analysis of the obstacles to the effective integration of higher education, research and innovation is performed.

  13. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi

    2012-10-01

    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral Triangle risks overlooking other areas of high conservation significance. One region of potential significance, Aceh, Indonesia, has not been visited by coral taxonomists since the Dutch colonial period. Here we document the species richness of scleractinian corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh. We also compare the species richness of the genus Acropora at 3-5 sites in each of nine regions in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Although dominated by widespread Indo-Pacific species, the coral fauna of Pulau Weh is also the eastern and western boundary for many Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean species, respectively. We identified a total of 133 scleractinian species, of which three have been previously recorded only in the western Indian Ocean and five are presently undescribed. The mean species richness of the Acropora at Pulau Weh is similar to regions within the Coral Triangle. This high species richness plus the high proportion of endemics suggests that the Andaman Sea is of similarly high conservation value to the Coral Triangle. We suggest that an international initiative similar to the Coral Triangle Initiative is required to conserve this region, which includes the territorial waters of six countries. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  14. Lost-in-Space Star Identification Using Planar Triangle Principal Component Analysis Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging task for a star sensor to implement star identification and determine the attitude of a spacecraft in the lost-in-space mode. Several algorithms based on triangle method are proposed for star identification in this mode. However, these methods hold great time consumption and large guide star catalog memory size. The star identification performance of these methods requires improvements. To address these problems, a star identification algorithm using planar triangle principal component analysis is presented here. A star pattern is generated based on the planar triangle created by stars within the field of view of a star sensor and the projection of the triangle. Since a projection can determine an index for a unique triangle in the catalog, the adoption of the k-vector range search technique makes this algorithm very fast. In addition, a sharing star validation method is constructed to verify the identification results. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more robust than the planar triangle and P-vector algorithms under the same conditions.

  15. Triangle network motifs predict complexes by complementing high-error interactomes with structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Bill; Winter, Christof; Labudde, Dirk; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-06-27

    A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs) representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS). PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that relatively little structural information would be sufficient

  16. Triangle network motifs predict complexes by complementing high-error interactomes with structural information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labudde Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. Results We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS. PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Conclusion Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that

  17. The subatlantic triangle: gateway to early localization of the atlantoaxial vertebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Gandhi, Sirin; Preul, Mark C; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-04-27

    OBJECTIVE Exposure of the vertebral artery (VA) between C-1 and C-2 vertebrae (atlantoaxial VA) may be necessary in a variety of pathologies of the craniovertebral junction. Current methods to expose this segment of the VA entail sharp dissection of muscles close to the internal jugular vein and the spinal accessory nerve. The present study assesses the technique of exposing the atlantoaxial VA through a newly defined muscular triangle at the craniovertebral junction. METHODS Five cadaveric heads were prepared for surgical simulation in prone position, turned 30°-45° toward the side of exposure. The atlantoaxial VA was exposed through the subatlantic triangle after reflecting the sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles inferiorly. The subatlantic triangle was formed by 3 groups of muscles: 1) the levator scapulae and splenius cervicis muscles inferiorly and laterally, 2) the longissimus capitis muscle inferiorly and medially, and 3) the inferior oblique capitis superiorly. The lengths of the VA exposed through the triangle before and after unroofing the C-2 transverse foramen were measured. RESULTS The subatlantic triangle consistently provided access to the whole length of atlantoaxial VA. The average length of the VA exposed via the subatlantic triangle was 19.5 mm. This average increased to 31.5 mm after the VA was released at the C-2 transverse foramen. CONCLUSIONS The subatlantic triangle provides a simple and straightforward pathway to expose the atlantoaxial VA. The proposed method may be useful during posterior approaches to the craniovertebral junction should early exposure and control of the atlantoaxial VA become necessary.

  18. Perceptual grouping without awareness: superiority of Kanizsa triangle in breaking interocular suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    Full Text Available Much information could be processed unconsciously. However, there is no direct evidence on whether perceptual grouping could occur without awareness. To answer this question, we investigated whether a Kanizsa triangle (an example of perceptual grouping is processed differently from stimuli with the same local components but are ungrouped or weakly grouped. Specifically, using a suppression time paradigm we tested whether a Kanizsa triangle would emerge from interocular continuous flash suppression sooner than control stimuli. Results show a significant advantage of the Kanizsa triangle: the Kanizsa triangle emerged from suppression noise significantly faster than the control stimulus with the local Pacmen randomly rotated (t(9 = -2.78, p = 0.02; and also faster than the control stimulus with all Pacmen rotated 180° (t(11 = -3.20, p<0.01. Additional results demonstrated that the advantage of the grouped Kanizsa triangle could not be accounted for by the faster detection speed at the conscious level for the Kanizsa figures on a dynamic noise background. Our results indicate that certain properties supporting perceptual grouping could be processed in the absence of awareness.

  19. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Orish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P<0.05 higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was 71.09±0.56 and 61.68±3.35 mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was 69.73±0.49 and 60.92±2.10 mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals.

  20. Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR environment in order to investigate participants’ in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants’ evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.

  1. Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Fuxing; Spence, Charles; Wan, Xiaoang

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR) environment in order to investigate participants' in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS) effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants' evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.

  2. A Dissimilarity Measure for Clustering High- and Infinite Dimensional Data that Satisfies the Triangle Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovsky, Eduardo A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The cosine or correlation measures of similarity used to cluster high dimensional data are interpreted as projections, and the orthogonal components are used to define a complementary dissimilarity measure to form a similarity-dissimilarity measure pair. Using a geometrical approach, a number of properties of this pair is established. This approach is also extended to general inner-product spaces of any dimension. These properties include the triangle inequality for the defined dissimilarity measure, error estimates for the triangle inequality and bounds on both measures that can be obtained with a few floating-point operations from previously computed values of the measures. The bounds and error estimates for the similarity and dissimilarity measures can be used to reduce the computational complexity of clustering algorithms and enhance their scalability, and the triangle inequality allows the design of clustering algorithms for high dimensional distributed data.

  3. A mechanism for the downturn in inverse susceptibility in triangle-based frustrated spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, M

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism for the downturn of inverse magnetic susceptibility below an intermediate temperature, recently observed in many experiments, is proposed as an intrinsic feature of lattices with triangle-based frustrated geometries. The temperature at the bending of the inverse susceptibility curve may be related to the features of other thermodynamic properties; the hump of the specific heat and the emergence of a 1/3 plateau in magnetization under a magnetic field. This fact is derived through a Monte Carlo simulation study of the Ising model on triangular and kagome lattices, and the exact calculation for the single and small-sized triangle clusters, on both the Ising and Heisenberg models. These results may indicate the dominance of S(S z ) = 1/2 quantum (classical) trimer formation in the intermediate-energy regime in two-dimensional triangle-based lattices

  4. Performance Comparison Of Triangle Antenna of 60 GHz for 5G Wireless Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishah A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper microstrip triangle with slot antenna for 5G wireless communication network are proposed. The microstip triangle antenna is design and operating 60 GHz milimeter-wave frequency band and it's suitable for 5G wireless communication. The substrates are chosen in the design, which are RogerRT5880 with copper thickness 0.035 mm to analyze their effect toward milimeter-wave performance on the designed. The designed and analysis is performed by using CST Microwave Studio. The lowest return loss of the antenna is -24.75dB which is triangle with slot and the maximum gain obtained is 6.82 db at the 59.68GHz for this antenna. The antenna is considering the gain, return loss and size, the microstrip antenna can be a suitable candidate for the 5G wireless application for short range high speed communication.

  5. Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandez

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is a rapid assessment tool that uses only visual and auditory clues, requires no equipment, and takes 30-60 s to perform. It's being used internationally in different emergency settings, but few studies have assessed its performance. The aim of this narrative biomedical review is to summarize the literature available regarding the usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in clinical practice. Sources: The authors carried out a non-systematic review in the PubMed®, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® databases, searching for articles published between 1999-2016 using the keywords “pediatric assessment triangle,” “pediatric triage,” “pediatric assessment tools,” and “pediatric emergency department.” Summary of the findings: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle has demonstrated itself to be useful to assess sick children in the prehospital setting and make transport decisions. It has been incorporated, as an essential instrument for assessing sick children, into different life support courses, although little has been written about the effectiveness of teaching it. Little has been published about the performance of this tool in the initial evaluation in the emergency department. In the emergency department, the Pediatric Assessment Triangle is useful to identify the children at triage who require more urgent care. Recent studies have assessed and proved its efficacy to also identify those patients having more serious health conditions who are eventually admitted to the hospital. Conclusions: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians.

  6. A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Garcia-Gonzalez, Ulises; Agrawal, Abhishek; Tavares, Paulo L M S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2010-07-01

    The lower cranial nerves must be identified to avoid iatrogenic injury during skull base and high cervical approaches. Prompt recognition of these structures using basic landmarks could reduce surgical time and morbidity. The anterior triangle of the neck was dissected in 30 cadaveric head sides. The most superficial segments of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and its superior laryngeal nerves, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves were exposed and designated into smaller anatomic triangles. The midpoint of each nerve segment inside the triangles was correlated to the angle of the mandible (AM), mastoid tip (MT), and bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A triangle bounded by the styloglossus muscle, external carotid artery, and facial artery housed the glossopharyngeal nerve. This nerve segment was 0.06 ± 0.71 cm posterior to the AM and 2.50 ± 0.59 cm inferior to the MT. The vagus nerve ran inside the carotid sheath posterior to internal carotid artery and common carotid artery bifurcation in 48.3% of specimens. A triangle formed by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and internal jugular vein housed the accessory nerve, 1.90 ± 0.60 cm posterior to the AM and 2.30 ± 0.57 cm inferior to the MT. A triangle outlined by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, internal jugular vein, and common facial vein housed the hypoglossal nerve, which was 0.82 ± 0.84 cm posterior to the AM and 3.64 ± 0.70 cm inferior to the MT. Comprehensible landmarks can be defined to help expose the lower cranial nerves to avoid injury to this complex region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  8. New solutions of the star-triangle relation with discrete and continuous spin variables

    OpenAIRE

    Kels, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    A new solution to the star-triangle relation is given, for an Ising type model that involves interacting spins, that contain integer and real valued components. Boltzmann weights of the model are given in terms of the lens elliptic-gamma function, and are based on Yamazaki's recently obtained solution of the star-star relation. The star-triangle given here, implies Seiberg duality for the $4\\!-\\!d$ $\\mathcal{N}=1$ $S_1\\times S_3/\\mathbb{Z}_r$ index of the $SU(2)$ quiver gauge theory, and the ...

  9. On the chromatic number of triangle-free graphs of large minimum degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c <1/3.......We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c

  10. The Effect of Internet-Based Education on Student Success in Teaching of 8th Grade Triangles Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…

  11. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H

    2012-01-01

    vs. buspirone in the acute therapy of major depression in the STAR*D study. The triangle provides a composite view in three domains of antidepressive activity, side effects, and quality of life. Method: Within the pharmacopsychometric triangle, the short six-item subscales of the Hamilton Depression...

  12. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  13. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  14. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  15. Uniform phases in fluids of hard isosceles triangles: One-component fluid and binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Díaz-De Armas, Ariel; Velasco, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    We formulate the scaled particle theory for a general mixture of hard isosceles triangles and calculate different phase diagrams for the one-component fluid and for certain binary mixtures. The fluid of hard triangles exhibits a complex phase behavior: (i) the presence of a triatic phase with sixfold symmetry, (ii) the isotropic-uniaxial nematic transition is of first order for certain ranges of aspect ratios, and (iii) the one-component system exhibits nematic-nematic transitions ending in critical points. We found the triatic phase to be stable not only for equilateral triangles but also for triangles of similar aspect ratios. We focus the study of binary mixtures on the case of symmetric mixtures: equal particle areas with aspect ratios (κi) symmetric with respect to the equilateral one, κ1κ2=3 . For these mixtures we found, aside from first-order isotropic-nematic and nematic-nematic transitions (the latter ending in a critical point): (i) a region of triatic phase stability even for mixtures made of particles that do not form this phase at the one-component limit, and (ii) the presence of a Landau point at which two triatic-nematic first-order transitions and a nematic-nematic demixing transition coalesce. This phase behavior is analogous to that of a symmetric three-dimensional mixture of rods and plates.

  16. 76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... responsibility to provide a safe environment for all American workers. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President... since the Triangle factory fire, we are still fighting to provide adequate working conditions for all... collective bargaining as a tool to give workers a seat at the tables of power. Working Americans are the...

  17. The V-Flex, Triangle Orientation, and Catalan Numbers in Hexaflexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Ionut E.; McLean, T. Bruce; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Regular hexaflexagons mysteriously change faces as you pinch flex them. This paper describes a different flex, the V-flex, which allows the hexahexaflexagon (with only 9 faces under the pinch flex) to have 3420 faces. The article goes on to explain the classification of triangle orientations in a hexaflexagon and gives an example of the…

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH OUTCOMES WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS -RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NC, 7/30-31/2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better define ORD's Environmental Public Health Outcomes (EPHO) research agenda, a workshop was held 7/30-31/2002 at EPA facilities in Research Triangle Park, NC. The intent of this workshop was to engage federal and other organizations in a dialog that will assist ORD in deve...

  19. Constructing Geometric Properties of Rectangle, Square, and Triangle in the Third Grade of Indonesian Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Rizkianto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.414.160-171

  20. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A; Samirov, D V

    2014-01-01

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles

  1. Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel gra...

  2. A BPTTF-based self-assembled electron-donating triangle capable of C60 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeb, Sébastien; Bivaud, Sébastien; Dron, Paul Ionut; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Chas, Marcos; Sallé, Marc

    2012-03-25

    A kinetically stable self-assembled redox-active triangle is isolated. The resulting electron-donating cavity, which incorporates three BPTTF units, exhibits a remarkable binding ability for electron-deficient C(60), supported by a favorable combination of structural and electronic features.

  3. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  4. MODEL PENDETEKSIAN KECURANGAN LAPORAN KEUANGAN OLEH AUDITOR SPESIALIS INDUSTRI DENGAN ANALISIS FRAUD TRIANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reskino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Model Pendeteksian Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan dengan Analisis Fraud Triangle. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat model dalam mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Penelitian ini menguji variabel fraud triangle dan auditor spesialis industri dengan kecurangan laporan keuangan. Sampel penelitian adalah 30 perusahaan fraud dan 30 perusahaan non-fraudyang listing di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI serta terkena sanksi dan kasus oleh Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan financial targetsdapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan, sedangkan financial stabililty tidak dapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Abstract: Financial Statement Fraud Detection Model with Fraud Triangle Analysis. The research purposes is to create a model to detect financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. Samples were 30 companies of fraud and 30 non-fraud companies that were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX and sanctioned by the Financial Services Authority (FSA. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.

  5. Combining the triangle method with thermal inertia to estimate regional evapotranspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Simon; Sandholt, Inge; Nørgaard, Anette

    2008-01-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of evaporative fraction and actual evapotranspiration are pursued using a simple remote sensing technique based on a remotely sensed vegetation index (NDVI) and diurnal changes in land surface temperature. The technique, known as the triangle method, is improved by...

  6. Some Nice Relations between Right-Angled Triangles and the Golden Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The international debate about experimental approaches to the teaching and learning mathematics is very current. While number theory lends itself naturally to such approaches, elementary geometry can also provide interesting starting points for creative work in class. This article shows how simple considerations about right triangles and the…

  7. Decompositions, partitions, and coverings with convex polygons and pseudo-triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aichholzer, O.; Huemer, C.; Kappes, S.; Speckmann, B.; Tóth, Cs.D.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel subdivision of the plane that consists of both convex polygons and pseudo-triangles. This pseudo-convex decomposition is significantly sparser than either convex decompositions or pseudo-triangulations for planar point sets and simple polygons. We also introduce pseudo-convex

  8. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhi-Shen; Pan Jian; Chen Zhuo; Zhan Peng; Min Nai-Ben; Wang Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase. For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays. Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Member and Affiliate Contact Directory. Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, College Park, MD.

    This directory is designed to assist local action groups (existing local alliances; science mathematics, and technology teachers; superintendents, principals, and supervisors; guidance counselors and resource specialists; and university and college professors) in making contact with the local structure of the Triangle Coalition for Science and…

  10. Pre-Metric Spaces Along with Different Types of Triangle Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chung Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The T 1 -spaces induced by the pre-metric spaces along with many forms of triangle inequalities are investigated in this paper. The limits in pre-metric spaces are also studied to demonstrate the consistency of limit concept in the induced topologies.

  11. Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui

    Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow

  12. Fermat Point for a Triangle in Three Dimensions Using the Taxicab Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the process of finding the Fermat point for a triangle ABC in three dimensions. Three examples are presented in detail using geometrical methods. A delightfully simple general method is then presented that requires only the comparison of coordinates of the vertices A, B and C.

  13. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336

  14. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-10-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  15. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Szekely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  16. Hybrid Methods in Designing Sierpinski Gasket Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudrik Alaydrus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sierpinki gasket antennas as example of fractal antennas show multiband characteristics. The computer simulation of Sierpinksi gasket monopole with finite ground needs prohibitively large computer memory and more computational time. Hybrid methods consist of surface integral equation method and physical optics or uniform geometrical theory of diffraction should alleviate this computational burdens. The so-called full hybridization of the different methods with modifying the incoming electromagnetic waves in case of hybrid method surface integral equation method and physical optics and modification of the Greens function for hybrid method surface integral equation method and uniform geometrical theory of diffraction plays the central role in the observation. Comparison between results of different methods are given and also measurements of three Sierpinksi gasket antennas. The multiband characteristics of the antennas still can be seen with some reduction and enhancement of resonances.

  17. A Universal Ts-VI Triangle Method for the Continuous Retrieval of Evaporative Fraction From MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Jia, Shaofeng; Lv, Aifeng

    2017-10-01

    The triangle method based on the spatial relationship between remotely sensed land surface temperature (Ts) and vegetation index (VI) has been widely used for the estimates of evaporative fraction (EF). In the present study, a universal triangle method was proposed by transforming the Ts-VI feature space from a regional scale to a pixel scale. The retrieval of EF is only related to the boundary conditions at pixel scale, regardless of the Ts-VI configuration over the spatial domain. The boundary conditions of each pixel are composed of the theoretical dry edge determined by the surface energy balance principle and the wet edge determined by the average air temperature of open water. The universal triangle method was validated using the EF observations collected by the Energy Balance Bowen Ratio systems in the Southern Great Plains of the United States of America (USA). Two parameterization schemes of EF were used to demonstrate their applicability with Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products over the whole year 2004. The results of this study show that the accuracy produced by both of these two parameterization schemes is comparable to that produced by the traditional triangle method, although the universal triangle method seems specifically suited to the parameterization scheme proposed in our previous research. The independence of the universal triangle method from the Ts-VI feature space makes it possible to conduct a continuous monitoring of evapotranspiration and soil moisture. That is just the ability the traditional triangle method does not possess.

  18. Obligations, internalization, and excuse making: integrating the triangle model and self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Schachtman, Todd R

    2007-04-01

    Schlenker's triangle model (Schlenker, Britt, Pennington, Murphy, & Doherty, 1994, Schlenker, Pontari, & Christopher, 2001) identifies three excuses people use to avoid taking responsibility after failure: that one had no control in the situation, that the obligation was unclear, and that it was not really one's obligation. Three retrospective studies tested the presumed negative association between excuse making and responsibility taking. The studies also examined the effects of self-determination theory's concept of motivational internalization (Deci & Ryan, 2000) upon these variables. A complex but replicable pattern emerged, such that responsibility taking and motivational internalization correlated with adaptive outcomes such as future commitment and positive expectancy and excuse making did not. Of particular interest, perceiving that the person levying the obligation internalized motivation predicted responsibility taking, in all three studies. Implications for the triangle model, as well as for theories of maturity and personality development, are considered.

  19. Prediction accident triangle in maintenance of underground mine facilities using Poisson distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuluqi, M. H.; Prapdito, R. R.; Sambodo, F. P.

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, mining is categorized as a hazardous industry. In recent years, a dramatic increase of mining equipment and technological complexities had resulted in higher maintenance expectations that accompanied by the changes in the working conditions, especially on safety. Ensuring safety during the process of conducting maintenance works in underground mine is important as an integral part of accident prevention programs. Accident triangle has provided a support to safety practitioner to draw a road map in preventing accidents. Poisson distribution is appropriate for the analysis of accidents at a specific site in a given time period. Based on the analysis of accident statistics in the underground mine maintenance of PT. Freeport Indonesia from 2011 through 2016, it is found that 12 minor accidents for 1 major accident and 66 equipment damages for 1 major accident as a new value of accident triangle. The result can be used for the future need for improving the accident prevention programs.

  20. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  1. Surface charge method for molecular surfaces with curved areal elements I. Spherical triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Parametrizing a curved surface with flat triangles in electrostatics problems creates a diverging electric field. One way to avoid this is to have curved areal elements. However, charge density integration over curved patches appears difficult. This paper, dealing with spherical triangles, is the first in a series aiming to solve this problem. Here, we lay the ground work for employing curved patches for applying the surface charge method to electrostatics. We show analytically how one may control the accuracy by expanding in powers of the the arc length (multiplied by the curvature). To accommodate not extremely small curved areal elements, we have provided enough details to include higher order corrections that are needed for better accuracy when slightly larger surface elements are used.

  2. Analysing Diagnostic Assessment on the Ratio of Sine in a Right Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika, R.; Juandi, D.; Rosjanuardi, R.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop diagnostic assessment with the special topic of the ratio of sinus in a right triangle and analyze the result whether the students are ready to continue to the next lesson of trigonometry specially the sinus rule. The methodology that use in this study is a design research of Plomp model which is it comprises of 3 phases: (a) preliminary research; (b) prototyping phase; and (c) assessment phase. The findings show that almost half of students made a mistake in determining the ratio of sin in a right triangle, consequently the procedure for solving the problem went wrong. In strategic competency and adaptive communication most of students did not solve the problem that was given. According to the result, the students have to get remedial program before to the next lesson, the rule of sin.

  3. Remarks on the P{sub c} structures and triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Science, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Nieves, Juan [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Yang, Zhi [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It was proposed that the narrow P{sub c}(4450) structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction Λ{sub b} → J/ψpK might be due to a triangle singularity around the χ{sub c1}-proton threshold at 4.45 GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the J/ψp invariant mass distribution for the decay Λ{sub b} → J/ψpπ, which could explain the bump around 4.45 GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the P{sub c} structures. (orig.)

  4. Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties. (paper)

  5. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hongcai

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs. PMID:24759118

  6. Spinning and tumbling of micron-sized triangles in a micro-channel shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, J.; Kumar, M. Vijay; Mihiretie, B. Mekonnen; Hanstorp, D.; Mehlig, B.

    2018-03-01

    We report on measurements of the angular dynamics of micron-sized equilaterally triangular platelets suspended in a micro-channel shear flow. Our measurements confirm that such particles spin and tumble like a spheroid in a simple shear. Since the triangle has corners, we can observe the spinning directly. In general, the spinning frequency is different from the tumbling frequency and the spinning is affected by tumbling. This gives rise to doubly periodic angular dynamics.

  7. North Carolina State University Nuclear Structure Research at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagondollar, L.W.; Waltner, A.W.; Mitchell, G.E.; Tilley, D.R.; Gould, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of nuclear structure research completed at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab for the period 9/1/74 to 8/31/75. Included are abstracts and titles for studies of electromagnetic transitions in low-medium mass nuclei, high resolution studies, accelerator induced x-ray investigations, and energy related neutron and charged particle cross section measurements. (U.S.)

  8. Modification of Duval Triangle for Diagnostic Transformer Fault through a Procedure of Dissolved Gases Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy Serry Dessouky

    2016-08-01

        The evaluation is carried out on DGA data obtained from three different groups of transformers. A Matlab program was developed to automate the evaluation of  Duval Triangle graph to numerical modification, Also the fault gases can be generated due to oil decomposing effected by transformer over excitation which increasing thetransformer exciting current lead to rising the temperature inside transformer core beside the other causes.

  9. Triangles, tricks and tics: Hyper-mentalizing in response to animated shapes in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviours. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g., dancing) or more complex (e.g., one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random movement animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behaviour, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Concept of Triangle: Examples of Mathematical Abstraction in Two Different Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Nurhasanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In attempt to explain how students learning geometry in concept of triangle, this study explore the learning process of students and the process of solving geometry problems in the topic of triangle.  As known as one of the domain in school of mathematics, geometry has abstract notions to be learnt so that all those notions cannot be just transferred into students’ mind like a bunch of information that should be memorized. Students need to construct those concepts during their learning process. This process of knowledge construction can be considered as an abstraction process. This study aimed to qualitatively compare students’ abstraction process who learn topic of triangle in conventional method of teaching and in van Hiele model of teaching aided by Geometers’ sketchpad. Subjects of this study were junir high school students in grade 7. Based on the aims of this study, this is a qualitative study with grounded theory design. Data were collected through classroom observation, test, and task-based interview. Results of the study show that theoretical abstraction processes tend to dominate classrom with conventional method of teaching while classroom with van Hiele model of teaching aided by Geometers’ sketchpad accommodated empirical abstraction process of the students

  11. Cressey’s fraud triangle (1953 and agency theory: study applied to brazilian banking institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rílany Rodrigues Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examined if Cressey’s (1953 fraud triangle and the agency theory, jointly, enables investigate corporate fraud occurrence in Brazilian banking institutions. It was formulated  six research hypotheses were segregated in fraud triangle – pressure,  opportunity and rationalization – and measured by variables taken from the agency theory, criminology and empirical papers on corporate fraud. The identification of probability of fraud occurrence was operationalized from multinomial logistic model, applied to data of 44 banking, for the period between January 2001 and December 2012. For element pressure, hypotheses No. 01 was confirmed, since this showed that the lower an institution’s previous performance, the greater probability there is of fraudulent events occurring in the future.  In the element of opportunity, the hypothesis No. 03 was confirmed, which showed that low corporate governance indicators increased the possibility of fraud occurrences.  In rationalization element, the hypothesis No. 08 was confirmed, therefore, the predominance of women in management reduces the probability of fraud.  We thereby conclude that Cressey’s Triangle, when combined with the theory of agency is an appropriate research instrument to use when carrying out an investigation into corporate fraud occurrence in banking institutions.

  12. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  13. Assessing the plasmonics of gold nano-triangles with higher order laser modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Hennemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular arrays of metallic nano-triangles – so called Fischer patterns – are fabricated by nano-sphere lithography. We studied such gold nano-triangle arrays on silicon or glass substrates. A series of different samples was investigated with a parabolic mirror based confocal microscope where the sample is scanned through the laser focus. By employing higher order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarised laser beams, we can excite the Fischer patterns using either a pure in-plane (x,y electric field or a strongly z-directional (optical axis of the optical microscope electric field. We collected and evaluated the emitted luminescence and thereby investigated the respectively excited plasmonic modes. These varied considerably: firstly with the light polarisation in the focus, secondly with the aspect ratio of the triangles and thirdly with the employed substrate. Moreover, we obtained strongly enhanced Raman spectra of an adenine (sub-monolayer on gold Fischer patterns on glass. We thus showed that gold Fischer patterns are promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates.

  14. Available pressure amplitude of linear compressor based on phasor triangle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, C. X.; Jiang, X.; Zhi, X. Q.; You, X. K.; Qiu, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The linear compressor for cryocoolers possess the advantages of long-life operation, high efficiency, low vibration and compact structure. It is significant to study the match mechanisms between the compressor and the cold finger, which determines the working efficiency of the cryocooler. However, the output characteristics of linear compressor are complicated since it is affected by many interacting parameters. The existing matching methods are simplified and mainly focus on the compressor efficiency and output acoustic power, while neglecting the important output parameter of pressure amplitude. In this study, a phasor triangle model basing on analyzing the forces of the piston is proposed. It can be used to predict not only the output acoustic power, the efficiency, but also the pressure amplitude of the linear compressor. Calculated results agree well with the measurement results of the experiment. By this phasor triangle model, the theoretical maximum output pressure amplitude of the linear compressor can be calculated simply based on a known charging pressure and operating frequency. Compared with the mechanical and electrical model of the linear compressor, the new model can provide an intuitionistic understanding on the match mechanism with faster computational process. The model can also explain the experimental phenomenon of the proportional relationship between the output pressure amplitude and the piston displacement in experiments. By further model analysis, such phenomenon is confirmed as an expression of the unmatched design of the compressor. The phasor triangle model may provide an alternative method for the compressor design and matching with the cold finger.

  15. Quantum mechanical analysis of the equilateral triangle billiard: Periodic orbit theory and wave packet revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncheski, M.A.; Robinett, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Using the fact that the energy eigenstates of the equilateral triangle infinite well (or billiard) are available in closed form, we examine the connections between the energy eigenvalue spectrum and the classical closed paths in this geometry, using both periodic orbit theory and the short-term semi-classical behavior of wave packets. We also discuss wave packet revivals and show that there are exact revivals, for all wave packets, at times given by T rev =9μa 2 /4(h/2π) where a and μ are the length of one side and the mass of the point particle, respectively. We find additional cases of exact revivals with shorter revival times for zero-momentum wave packets initially located at special symmetry points inside the billiard. Finally, we discuss simple variations on the equilateral (60 deg. -60 deg. -60 deg. ) triangle, such as the half equilateral (30 deg. -60 deg. -90 deg.) triangle and other 'foldings', which have related energy spectra and revival structures

  16. Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of "nonparametric" measures of sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D

    1996-06-01

    Can accuracy and response bias in two-stimulus, two-response recognition or detection experiments be measured nonparametrically? Pollack and Norman (1964) answered this question affirmatively for sensitivity, Hodos (1970) for bias: Both proposed measures based on triangular areas in receiver-operating characteristic space. Their papers, and especially a paper by Grier (1971) that provided computing formulas for the measures, continue to be heavily cited in a wide range of content areas. In our sample of articles, most authors described triangle-based measures as making fewer assumptions than measures associated with detection theory. However, we show that statistics based on products or ratios of right triangle areas, including a recently proposed bias index and a not-yetproposed but apparently plausible sensitivity index, are consistent with a decision process based on logistic distributions. Even the Pollack and Norman measure, which is based on non-right triangles, is approximately logistic for low values of sensitivity. Simple geometric models for sensitivity and bias are not nonparametric, even if their implications are not acknowledged in the defining publications.

  17. 3D DNA Origami Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hartl, Caroline; Frank, Kilian; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Fischer, Stefan; Nickels, Philipp C; Nickel, Bert; Liedl, Tim

    2018-05-18

    3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1.83 × 10 5 nm 3 , which would also suffice to accommodate ribosome-sized macromolecules. The accurate assembly of the DNA origami lattice itself, as well as the precise incorporation of gold particles, is validated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The results show that it is possible to create DNA building blocks that assemble into lattices with customized geometry. Site-specific hosting of nano objects in the optically transparent DNA lattice sets the stage for metamaterial and structural biology applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks

  19. Phylogeography of the reef fish Cephalopholis argus (Epinephelidae indicates Pleistocene isolation across the indo-pacific barrier with contemporary overlap in the coral triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Juan A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Coral Triangle (CT, bounded by the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and New Guinea, is the epicenter of marine biodiversity. Hypotheses that explain the source of this rich biodiversity include 1 the center of origin, 2 the center of accumulation, and 3 the region of overlap. Here we contribute to the debate with a phylogeographic survey of a widely distributed reef fish, the Peacock Grouper (Cephalopholis argus; Epinephelidae at 21 locations (N = 550 using DNA sequence data from mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (gonadotropin-releasing hormone and S7 ribosomal protein. Results Population structure was significant (ΦST = 0.297, P FST = 0.078, P FST = 0.099, P P = 0.001 and the combined nuclear loci (r = 0.715, P d = 0.008, corresponding to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, with a low level of introgression observed outside a mixing zone at the Pacific-Indian boundary. Conclusions We conclude that the Indo-Pacific Barrier, operating during low sea level associated with glaciation, defines the primary phylogeographic pattern in this species. These data support a scenario of isolation on the scale of 105 year glacial cycles, followed by population expansion toward the CT, and overlap of divergent lineages at the Pacific-Indian boundary. This pattern of isolation, divergence, and subsequent overlap likely contributes to species richness at the adjacent CT and is consistent with the region of overlap hypothesis.

  20. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observations...... of land surface temperature and a vegetation index. Among other methodologies, this approach has been commonly used as an approximation to estimate LE, mainly over large semi-arid areas with uniform landscape features. In this study, an interpretation of the triangular space has been applied over...

  1. The World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on China-US-Russia Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Dmitrievich Voskressenski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of relations in the triangle of Russia-US-China after the late-2000s global financial crisis from the point of view of their national interests, East Asian policy of the USA, China's growth and the strengthening of Russia in Asia. The author critically examines the existing approaches, foreign policy concepts and the latest initiatives which could shift the balance of power in the post-crisis period. According to the author, Russia still has all the chances to reshape its relations with China and the United States.

  2. Vulnerability classification in man-land territorial system of mining cities based on triangle methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin Xin; Ping-Yu Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology

    2009-02-15

    The vulnerabilities of 40 mining cities were classified into 6 types by triangle methodology and corresponding sustainable development suggestions were proposed. Most mining cities in east China are: resource and environment and social (RS) type and economy, resource, environment and social (ERS) type, with low vulnerability. In central China, most mining cities are economy and resource and environment (ER), RS and ERS types. The vulnerability in most west mining cities is high. Coal mining cities are mostly ER, RS and ERS types, while metal mining cities are almost ERS type. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Historical and commercial triangle of Athens. Patrimonalization through imaginary urban projects, rhetoric and rediscovery of tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Polychroniadi

    2016-01-01

    Athens has both famous and infamous identities. A city immersed in history surrounded by an"ugly"contemporary urban environment. A city which people love to ‘hate’ exactly due to this dense urban environment and fast pace, but which at the same time is celebrated for its lively everyday (and night) life and creativity. In this paper we focus on the so called "historical and commercial triangle", the city’s downtown in which the historic image of Athens juxtaposes to (coexists with) the most i...

  4. Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm

  5. A Bony Landmark 'RAI Triangle' to Prevent 'Misplaced and Misdirected' Medial Cut in SSRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Arakeri, Gururaj; Khaji, Shahanavaj I

    2011-03-01

    'Rai triangle', a new anatomic landmark on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible which when identified and taken into consideration, may have a definite advantage. This is especially in terms of performing the medial horizontal cut which is an important and integral part of the sagittal split ramus osteotomy so as to avoid a bad split. The objective of this article is to propose an easily identifiable bony land mark, which is closely related to lingula of mandible that may ease the procedure of osteotomy and avoid bad splits.

  6. On the Adsorption of DNA Origami Nanostructures in Nanohole Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassat, Katharina; Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Bürger, Julius; Hanke, Marcel; Doostdar, Mahnaz; Lindner, Jörg K N; Grundmeier, Guido; Keller, Adrian

    2018-05-22

    DNA origami nanostructures are versatile substrates for the controlled arrangement of molecular capture sites with nanometer precision and thus have many promising applications in single-molecule bioanalysis. Here, we investigate the adsorption of DNA origami nanostructures in nanohole arrays which represent an important class of biosensors and may benefit from the incorporation of DNA origami-based molecular probes. Nanoholes with well-defined diameter that enable the adsorption of single DNA origami triangles are fabricated in Au films on Si wafers by nanosphere lithography. The efficiency of directed DNA origami adsorption on the exposed SiO 2 areas at the bottoms of the nanoholes is evaluated in dependence of various parameters, i.e., Mg 2+ and DNA origami concentrations, buffer strength, adsorption time, and nanohole diameter. We observe that the buffer strength has a surprisingly strong effect on DNA origami adsorption in the nanoholes and that multiple DNA origami triangles with 120 nm edge length can adsorb in nanoholes as small as 120 nm in diameter. We attribute the latter observation to the low lateral mobility of once adsorbed DNA origami on the SiO 2 surface, in combination with parasitic adsorption to the Au film. Although parasitic adsorption can be suppressed by modifying the Au film with a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer, the limited surface mobility of the adsorbed DNA origami still leads to poor localization accuracy in the nanoholes and results in many DNA origami crossing the boundary to the Au film even under optimized conditions. We discuss possible ways to minimize this effect by varying the composition of the adsorption buffer, employing different fabrication conditions, or using other substrate materials for nanohole array fabrication.

  7. Design and Assembly of DNA Nano-Objects and 2D DNA Origami Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenyan

    DNA, which plays a central role in biology as the carrier of genetic information, is also an excellent candidate for structural nanotechnology. Researches have proven that a variety of complicated DNA assemblies, such as objects, 2D & 3D crystals, and nanomechanical devices, can be fabricated through the combination of robust branched DNA motifs and sticky ends. This dissertation focuses on the design and construction of DNA nano--objects and 2D DNA origami arrays. In this dissertation, we first describe the formation of a triangular species that has four strands per edge, held together by PX interactions. We demonstrate by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis and by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that we can combine a partial triangle with other strands to form a robust four--stranded molecule. By combining them with a novel three--domain molecule, we also demonstrate by AFM that these triangles can be self--assembled into a linear array. Second, we demonstrate our attempts to design and self--assemble 2D DNA origami arrays using several different strategies. Specifically, we introduce the self--assembly of 2D DNA origami lattices using a symmetric cross--like design. This design strategy resulted in a well--ordered woven latticework array with edge dimensions of 2--3 mum. This size is likely to be large enough to connect bottom-up methods of patterning with top--down approaches. Third, we illustrate the design and construction of DNA nano--objects for exploring the substrate preferences of topoisomerase (topo) II. We designed and fabricated four double rhombus--like DNA molecules, each of which contains a different conformation of crossover in the middle, as possible substrates to establish the structural preferences for topo II. We characterized the formation of each substrate molecule by gel electrophoresis. Finally, we study the effect of M13 DNA knotting on the formation of the DNA origami tiles. We demonstrate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that knotted M13

  8. [Regional ecological planning and ecological network construction: a case study of "Ji Triangle" Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2009-05-01

    By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built.

  9. The semiosis of the Anthropocene geological era. Reflections between geoethics and semiotics starting from Peirce's triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Dattilo, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the first formulation of a theoretical proposal which aims to reconcile, or better, to work together, two different approaches: geoethics and the semiotic tradition of Peirce, on the basis of some important affinities. We will refer to geoethics, discipline that deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geological and geographical practice, at the intersection of Geoscience, Geography, Philosophy, Sociology and Economy. The proposal of this work is to try to explain the new processes of the Anthropocene era through geoethics and semiotics, using as a "translator mechanism" one of the key notions of Peirce semiotics: the semiotic triangle. On the one hand, we employ the geoethical paradigm as a possible interpretative framework for such processes (in other words, we identify in the geoethical paradigm a significant exemplification of hippocratic type, according to some scientists); on the other hand, we use the triangle "geology / geography - planet illness - society", as a metaphor of the principles and the processes inherent Anthropocene era, able to return them in a particularly random way through the semiotic triangulation of Peirce.

  10. Estimating actual evapotranspiration from remote sensing imagery using R: the package 'TriangleMethod'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, David; Huber García, Verena; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Actual evaporation (Eta) is an essential variable to assess water availability, drought risk and food security, among others. Measurements of Eta are however limited to a small footprint, hampering a spatially explicit analysis and application and are very often not available at all. To overcome the problem of data scarcity, Eta can be assessed by various remote sensing approaches such as the Triangle Method (Jiang & Islam, 1999). Here, Eta is estimated by using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST). In this study, the R-package 'TriangleMethod' was compiled to efficiently perform the calculations of NDVI and processing LST to finally derive Eta from the applied data set. The package contains all necessary calculation steps and allows easy processing of a large data base of remote sensing images. By default, the parameterization for the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors are implemented, however, the algorithms can be easily extended to additional sensors. The auxiliary variables required to estimate Eta with this method, such as elevation, solar radiation and air temperature at the overpassing time, can be processed as gridded information to allow for a better representation of the study area. The package was successfully applied in various studies in Spain, Palestine, Costa Rica and Canada.

  11. Bermuda Triangle: a subsystem of the 168/E interfacing scheme used by Group B at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Levinson, L.J.; Trang, Q.H.

    1979-12-01

    The Bermuda Triangle system is a method of interfacing several 168/E microprocessors to a central system for control of the processors and overlaying their memories. The system is a three-way interface with I/O ports to a large buffer memory, a PDP11 Unibus and a bus to the 168/E processors. Data may be transferred bidirectionally between any two ports. Two Bermuda Triangles are used, one for the program memory and one for the data memory. The program buffer memory stores the overlay programs for the 168/E, and the data buffer memory, the incoming raw data, the data portion of the overlays, and the outgoing processed events. This buffering is necessary since the memories of 168/E microprocessors are small compared to the main program and the amount of data being processed. The link to the computer facility is via a Unibus to IBM channel interface. A PDP11/04 controls the data flow. 7 figures, 4 tables

  12. Right unitarity triangles and tri-bimaximal mixing from discrete symmetries and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, S.; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Spinrath, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose new classes of models which predict both tri-bimaximal lepton mixing and a right-angled Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle, α∼90 o . The ingredients of the models include a supersymmetric (SUSY) unified gauge group such as SU(5), a discrete family symmetry such as A 4 or S 4 , a shaping symmetry including products of Z 2 and Z 4 groups as well as spontaneous CP violation. We show how the vacuum alignment in such models allows a simple explanation of α∼90 o by a combination of purely real or purely imaginary vacuum expectation values (vevs) of the flavons responsible for family symmetry breaking. This leads to quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros that satisfy the 'phase sum rule' and lepton mass matrices that satisfy the 'lepton mixing sum rule' together with a new prediction that the leptonic CP violating oscillation phase is close to either 0 o , 90 o , 180 o , or 270 o depending on the model, with neutrino masses being purely real (no complex Majorana phases). This leads to the possibility of having right-angled unitarity triangles in both the quark and lepton sectors.

  13. S-duality, triangle groups and modular anomalies in N=2 SQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, S. K.; Dell’Aquila, E.; Lerda, A.; Raman, M.

    2016-01-01

    We study N=2 superconformal theories with gauge group SU(N) and 2N fundamental flavours in a locus of the Coulomb branch with a ℤ_N symmetry. In this special vacuum, we calculate the prepotential, the dual periods and the period matrix using equivariant localization. When the flavors are massless, we find that the period matrix is completely specified by [(N/2)] effective couplings. On each of these, we show that the S-duality group acts as a generalized triangle group and that its hauptmodul can be used to write a non-perturbatively exact relation between each effective coupling and the bare one. For N=2,3,4 and 6, the generalized triangle group is an arithmetic Hecke group which contains a subgroup that is also a congruence subgroup of the modular group PSL(2,ℤ). For these cases, we introduce mass deformations that respect the symmetries of the special vacuum and show that the constraints arising from S-duality make it possible to resum the instanton contributions to the period matrix in terms of meromorphic modular forms which solve modular anomaly equations.

  14. S-duality, triangle groups and modular anomalies in N=2 SQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashok, S. K.; Dell’Aquila, E. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus,Taramani, Chennai, 600113 (India); Lerda, A. [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica,and INFN - Gruppo Collegato di Alessandria, Sezione di Torino,Viale T. Michel 11, I-15121 Alessandria (Italy); Raman, M. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus,Taramani, Chennai, 600113 (India)

    2016-04-19

    We study N=2 superconformal theories with gauge group SU(N) and 2N fundamental flavours in a locus of the Coulomb branch with a ℤ{sub N} symmetry. In this special vacuum, we calculate the prepotential, the dual periods and the period matrix using equivariant localization. When the flavors are massless, we find that the period matrix is completely specified by [(N/2)] effective couplings. On each of these, we show that the S-duality group acts as a generalized triangle group and that its hauptmodul can be used to write a non-perturbatively exact relation between each effective coupling and the bare one. For N=2,3,4 and 6, the generalized triangle group is an arithmetic Hecke group which contains a subgroup that is also a congruence subgroup of the modular group PSL(2,ℤ). For these cases, we introduce mass deformations that respect the symmetries of the special vacuum and show that the constraints arising from S-duality make it possible to resum the instanton contributions to the period matrix in terms of meromorphic modular forms which solve modular anomaly equations.

  15. Right unitarity triangles, stable CP-violating phases and approximate quark-lepton complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhizhong

    2009-01-01

    Current experimental data indicate that two unitarity triangles of the CKM quark mixing matrix V are almost the right triangles with α∼90 deg. We highlight a very suggestive parametrization of V and show that its CP-violating phase φ is nearly equal to α (i.e., φ-α∼1.1 deg.). Both φ and α are stable against the renormalizaton-group evolution from the electroweak scale M Z to a superhigh energy scale M X or vice versa, and thus it is impossible to obtain α=90 deg. at M Z from φ=90 deg. at M X . We conjecture that there might also exist a maximal CP-violating phase φ∼90 deg. in the MNS lepton mixing matrix U. The approximate quark-lepton complementarity relations, which hold in the standard parametrizations of V and U, can also hold in our particular parametrizations of V and U simply due to the smallness of |V ub | and |V e3 |.

  16. The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle--development and validation with air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, K Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Peter; Winkler, Hildegard; Vormayr, Elisabeth M

    2010-02-01

    The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle (TEST) was developed as a new computerised scaling tool for quickly visualising changes in and trade-offs between the three critical factors that determine the work situation of air traffic management (ATM), i.e. taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers. Based on a task analysis of ATM and backed up by the stress-strain model, an easy-to-interpret triangle was constructed and validated both in simulated and real ATM workplaces. Results from the validation studies show that TEST does not only reflect the most relevant task characteristics, but also provides additional insights in the controllers' working styles. The TEST tool can make ATM safety surveys more efficient and help supervisors to decide about optimal times for opening or closing additional sectors. Statement of Relevance: TEST is a new tool to assess taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers in a joint scaling. It reflects increases in taskload and effects of taskload on safety-buffers and efficiency, as well as trade-offs in opposite directions. This tool might be very useful to check sector capacity in ATM and other high risk environments.

  17. Exact many-electron ground states on diamond and triangle Hubbard chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulacsi, Zsolt; Kampf, Arno; Vollhardt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    We construct exact ground states of interacting electrons on triangle and diamond Hubbard chains. The construction requires (1) a rewriting of the Hamiltonian into positive semidefinite form, (2) the construction of a many-electron ground state of this Hamiltonian, and (3) the proof of the uniqueness of the ground state. This approach works in any dimension, requires no integrability of the model, and only demands sufficiently many microscopic parameters in the Hamiltonian which have to fulfill certain relations. The scheme is first employed to construct exact ground state for the diamond Hubbard chain in a magnetic field. These ground states are found to exhibit a wide range of properties such as flat-band ferromagnetism and correlation induced metallic, half-metallic or insulating behavior, which can be tuned by changing the magnetic flux, local potentials, or electron density. Detailed proofs of the uniqueness of the ground states are presented. By the same technique exact ground states are constructed for triangle Hubbard chains and a one-dimensional periodic Anderson model with nearest-neighbor hybridization. They permit direct comparison with results obtained by variational techniques for f-electron ferromagnetism due to a flat band in CeRh 3 B 2 . (author)

  18. The Support of MPA (Marine Protected Area) in Coral Triangle Area: Evidence from Kei Islands, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Syahibul K.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Rahantoknam, Meyske A.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Kei Islands located inside the coral triangle. Therefore, the biodiversity level on the sea in this area is considered high. United nation has proposed for water that included in the coral triangle has to apply marine protected area (MPA) to preserve the area. The main problem is most of the community especially in Kei Islands have depended on the sea as their sources of the economy even fisheries commodity like fish play a large part on the inflation rate and other prosperity indicators likes school and housing. Also, Kei Islands practice on form local wisdom for owning areal of the sea which calls “petuanan laut” by certain of villages or group of villages in one area. This study aimed to map the cluster of catching fisheries area based on the quantity of fish supply on a local market in Kei Islands and measure each cluster on their support and perspective on Marine Protected Area (MPA). We conducted a focus group discussion and collecting additional data by questionnaires with descriptive and quantitative analysis with logistic regression. The implication of this study can provide a clear view of coastal communities view on MPA program also to identify an area that has marine resources, human resources, and equipment to provide government an empirical view on catching fisheries in Kei Islands to issued better policy to develop fishing industry in Kei Islands.

  19. Sub-Pixel Accuracy Crack Width Determination on Concrete Beams in Load Tests by Triangle Mesh Geometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with the determination of crack widths of concrete beams during load tests from monocular image sequences. The procedure starts in a reference image of the probe with suitable surface texture under zero load, where a large number of points is defined by an interest operator. Then a triangulated irregular network is established to connect the points. Image sequences are recorded during load tests with the load increasing continuously or stepwise, or at intermittently changing load. The vertices of the triangles are tracked through the consecutive images of the sequence with sub-pixel accuracy by least squares matching. All triangles are then analyzed for changes by principal strain calculation. For each triangle showing significant strain, a crack width is computed by a thorough geometric analysis of the relative movement of the vertices.

  20. The Abstraction Ability in Constructing Relation Within Triangles by The Seventh Grade Students of Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, Suwardi; Djadir; Mutmainna Hasma, Sitti

    2018-01-01

    on is an activity to organize a mathematical concept that has been previously owned into a new mathematical structure. Activites in abstraction are recognizing, organizing and constructing. Recognizing is a process of identifying a mathematical structure that had existed before. Organizing is a process of using structural knowledge to be assembled into a solution of a problem and constructing is a process of organizing the characteristics of the object into a new structure that does not exist. In abstraction process, the students use attributes to address the object, including routine attribute, nonroutine attributes, and meaningless attributes. This research applied descriptive qualitative research which aimed to describe the abstraction ability of students from high, moderate, and low groups to construct a relation within triangle. In collecting the data, this research used students’ pre-ability math test, abstraction test, and guided interview. The sampling technique in this research was based on the students’ scores in pre-ability math test, which were divided into three groups. Two students from each group were opted as the subjects of this research. Questions of the test are based on the indicators of steps in abstraction activity. Thus, based on the data gained in this research, researcher determined the tendency of attributes used in each abstraction activity. The result of this research revealed that students from high, moderate and low groups were prone to use routine attributes in recognizing triangles. In organizing the characteristics within triangles, high group tended to organize the triangle correctly, while the moderate and low groups tended to organize the triangle incorrectly. In constructing relation within triangles, students in high, moderate and low groups construct it incompletely.

  1. The Oldman River triangle zone: a complicated tectonic wedge delineated by new structural mapping and seismic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmal, G. S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology; Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; MacKay, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone exposed along and adjacent to the Alberta Foothills was characterized on the basis of new structural mapping and seismic surveys. Results indicate that the zone is comprised of a complicated structure involving significant deformation in the hanging wall of the upper detachment, including orogenic thrusts and large orogen-vergent folds, as well as secondary orogen-directed tectonic wedging. This structure is considered to be an example of a `nested` triangle zone, where an `outer` tectonic wedge with modest shortening encases an `inner` counterpart with substantially more shortening. Both of these wedges show evidence of synchronous deformation. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Self-Assembly of 3D DNA Crystals Containing a Torsionally Stressed Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Carina; Birktoft, Jens J; Ohayon, Yoel P; Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard; Abdallah, Hatem; Sha, Ruojie; Stojanoff, Vivian; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C

    2017-11-16

    There is an increasing appreciation for structural diversity of DNA that is of interest to both DNA nanotechnology and basic biology. Here, we have explored how DNA responds to torsional stress by building on a previously reported two-turn DNA tensegrity triangle and demonstrating that we could introduce an extra nucleotide pair (np) into the original sequence without affecting assembly and crystallization. The extra np imposes a significant torsional stress, which is accommodated by global changes throughout the B-DNA duplex and the DNA lattice. The work reveals a near-atomic structure of naked DNA under a torsional stress of approximately 14%, and thus provides an example of DNA distortions that occur without a requirement for either an external energy source or the free energy available from protein or drug binding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogeography of the reef fish Cephalopholis argus (Epinephelidae) indicates Pleistocene isolation across the Indo-Pacific Barrier with contemporary overlap in The Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Michelle R; Bowen, Brian W; Bordenave, Tiana-Rae; Rocha, Luiz A; Newman, Stephen J; Gomez, Juan A; van Herwerden, Lynne; Craig, Matthew T

    2011-07-01

    The Coral Triangle (CT), bounded by the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and New Guinea, is the epicenter of marine biodiversity. Hypotheses that explain the source of this rich biodiversity include 1) the center of origin, 2) the center of accumulation, and 3) the region of overlap. Here we contribute to the debate with a phylogeographic survey of a widely distributed reef fish, the Peacock Grouper (Cephalopholis argus; Epinephelidae) at 21 locations (N = 550) using DNA sequence data from mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (gonadotropin-releasing hormone and S7 ribosomal protein). Population structure was significant (ΦST = 0.297, P Pacific (Line Islands to northeastern Australia), Indo-Pacific boundary (Bali and Rowley Shoals), eastern Indian Ocean (Cocos/Keeling and Christmas Island), and western Indian Ocean (Diego Garcia, Oman, and Seychelles). A strong signal of isolation by distance was detected in both mtDNA (r = 0.749, P = 0.001) and the combined nuclear loci (r = 0.715, P Pacific and Indian Oceans, with a low level of introgression observed outside a mixing zone at the Pacific-Indian boundary. We conclude that the Indo-Pacific Barrier, operating during low sea level associated with glaciation, defines the primary phylogeographic pattern in this species. These data support a scenario of isolation on the scale of 105 year glacial cycles, followed by population expansion toward the CT, and overlap of divergent lineages at the Pacific-Indian boundary. This pattern of isolation, divergence, and subsequent overlap likely contributes to species richness at the adjacent CT and is consistent with the region of overlap hypothesis.

  4. The CKM matrix and the unitarity triangle. Proceedings, workshop, Geneva, Switzerland, February 13-16, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2004-04-02

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e{sup +}e{sup -} machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. This report is organized as a coherent document with chapters

  5. Fuzzy Risk Analysis for a Production System Based on the Nagel Point of a Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Akyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordering and ranking fuzzy numbers and their comparisons play a significant role in decision-making problems such as social and economic systems, forecasting, optimization, and risk analysis problems. In this paper, a new method for ordering triangular fuzzy numbers using the Nagel point of a triangle is presented. With the aid of the proposed method, reasonable properties of ordering fuzzy numbers are verified. Certain comparative examples are given to illustrate the advantages of the new method. Many papers have been devoted to studies on fuzzy ranking methods, but some of these studies have certain shortcomings. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the existing methods in the literature. The suggested method can order triangular fuzzy numbers as well as crisp numbers and fuzzy numbers with the same centroid point. An application to the fuzzy risk analysis problem is given, based on the suggested ordering approach.

  6. 2000 CKM-triangle analysis a critical review with updated experimental inputs and theoretical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; D'Agostini, G.; Franco, E.; Martinelli, G.; Parodi, F.

    2000-12-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the sides and angles of the CKM unitarity triangle is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |ε K |, |V ub /V cb |, Δm d and from the limit on Δm s , available in September 2000. Results from the experimental search for B 0 s -B-bar 0 s oscillations are introduced in the present analysis using the likelihood. Special attention is devoted to the determination of the theoretical uncertainties. The purpose of the analysis is to infer regions where the parameters of interest lie with given probabilities. The BaBar '95% C.L. scanning' method is also commented. (authors)

  7. Linear Characteristic Spatial Quadrature for Discrete Ordinates Neutral Particle Transport on Arbitrary Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1•) + ) •,(v)(•,L) = ()(Q)+ sEXT (F). (4) The scalar flux, 0, is related to the angular flux, W, by (F)= f (dQ Vh) (5) and the particle current, J...J," v,p’) u +at(U, v) w(u, U, p’)= as(u, v) O(u, v) + SEXT (uv)] (92) 0 Ul,(V) I Assuming the area of the triangle is sufficiently small that cross...M + SEXT () (98) Wvn and WoUT are angular flux averages along the input and output edges, respectively, and are defined by WD Iv = f- ds. V(s.v) (99

  8. A Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a Ball and Rigid Triangle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguilar-Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of linear flatness control along with active disturbance rejection control (ADRC for the local stabilization and trajectory tracking problems in the underactuated ball and rigid triangle system. To this end, an observer-based linear controller of the ADRC type is designed based on the flat tangent linearization of the system around its corresponding unstable equilibrium rest position. It was accomplished through two decoupled linear extended observers and a single linear output feedback controller, with disturbance cancelation features. The controller guarantees locally exponentially asymptotic stability for the stabilization problem and practical local stability in the solution of the tracking error. An advantage of combining the flatness and the ADRC methods is that it possible to perform online estimates and cancels the undesirable effects of the higher-order nonlinearities discarded by the linearization approximation. Simulation indicates that the proposed controller behaves remarkably well, having an acceptable domain of attraction.

  9. Three-dimensional object recognition using similar triangles and decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    1993-01-01

    A system, TRIDEC, that is capable of distinguishing between a set of objects despite changes in the objects' positions in the input field, their size, or their rotational orientation in 3D space is described. TRIDEC combines very simple yet effective features with the classification capabilities of inductive decision tree methods. The feature vector is a list of all similar triangles defined by connecting all combinations of three pixels in a coarse coded 127 x 127 pixel input field. The classification is accomplished by building a decision tree using the information provided from a limited number of translated, scaled, and rotated samples. Simulation results are presented which show that TRIDEC achieves 94 percent recognition accuracy in the 2D invariant object recognition domain and 98 percent recognition accuracy in the 3D invariant object recognition domain after training on only a small sample of transformed views of the objects.

  10. The star-triangle relation, lens partition function, and hypergeometric sum/integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute),Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Radiation Problems ANAS,B. Vahabzade 9, AZ1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Department of Mathematics, Khazar University,Mehseti St. 41, AZ1096 Baku (Azerbaijan); Kels, Andrew P. [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo,Komaba, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2017-02-08

    The aim of the present paper is to consider the hyperbolic limit of an elliptic hypergeometric sum/integral identity, and associated lattice model of statistical mechanics previously obtained by the second author. The hyperbolic sum/integral identity obtained from this limit, has two important physical applications in the context of the so-called gauge/YBE correspondence. For statistical mechanics, this identity is equivalent to a new solution of the star-triangle relation form of the Yang-Baxter equation, that directly generalises the Faddeev-Volkov models to the case of discrete and continuous spin variables. On the gauge theory side, this identity represents the duality of lens (S{sub b}{sup 3}/ℤ{sub r}) partition functions, for certain three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories.

  11. A finite element formulation of the Darwin electromagnetic PIC model for unstructured meshes of triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnendrucker, E.; Ambrosiano, J.; Brandon, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Darwin model for electromagnetic simulation is a reduced form of the Maxwell-Vlasov system that retains all essential physical processes except the propagation of light waves. It is useful in modeling systems for which the light-transit timescales are less important than Alfven wave propagation, or quasistatic effects. The Darwin model is elliptic rather than hyperbolic as are the full set of Maxwell's equations. Appropriate boundary conditions must be chosen for the problems to be well-posed. Using finite element techniques to apply this method for unstructured triangular meshes, a mesh made up of unstructured triangles allows realistic device geometries to be modeled without the necessity of using a large number of mesh points. Analyzing the dispersion relation allows us to validate the code as well as the Darwin approximation

  12. Determination of the elementary charge and the quantum metrological triangle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltin, N.; Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), 78 - Trappes (France)

    2009-06-15

    The elementary charge e is of fundamental importance in physics. The determination of its value, which is closely linked to progress of the measurement techniques, started in the beginning of the twentieth century and is still on-going. Today, in the frame of the CODATA adjustment, the evaluation of the fundamental constant, e, is derived from a complex calculation and is no more related to a single experiment. But the development of single electron tunneling (SET) devices, started in the early nineties, has opened the path towards modern metrological systems as quantum current sources. Thus a new direct determination of e is possible by implementing an electron pump and the set-up of the quantum metrological triangle (QMT) in combination with the experiments linking mechanical and electrical units. Furthermore, we show how the QMT experiment can contribute to the establishment of a new system of units based on fundamental constants of physics. (authors)

  13. The star-triangle relation, lens partition function, and hypergeometric sum/integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar; Kels, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to consider the hyperbolic limit of an elliptic hypergeometric sum/integral identity, and associated lattice model of statistical mechanics previously obtained by the second author. The hyperbolic sum/integral identity obtained from this limit, has two important physical applications in the context of the so-called gauge/YBE correspondence. For statistical mechanics, this identity is equivalent to a new solution of the star-triangle relation form of the Yang-Baxter equation, that directly generalises the Faddeev-Volkov models to the case of discrete and continuous spin variables. On the gauge theory side, this identity represents the duality of lens (S b 3 /ℤ r ) partition functions, for certain three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories.

  14. Strain-induced tunable negative differential resistance in triangle graphene spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Wenguan; He, Xiujie; Zhao, Mingwen

    2018-05-01

    Using non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with density functional theory calculations, we investigate the significant changes in electronic and transport properties of triangle graphene spirals (TGSs) in response to external strain. Tunable negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior is predicted. The NDR bias region, NDR width, and peak-to-valley ratio can be well tuned by external strain. Further analysis shows that these peculiar properties can be attributed to the dispersion widths of the p z orbitals. Moreover, the conductance of TGSs is very sensitive to the applied stress, which is promising for applications in nanosensor devices. Our findings reveal a novel approach to produce tunable electronic devices based on graphene spirals.

  15. Was Pythagoras Chinese? An Examination of Right Triangle Theory in Ancient China. The Pennsylvania State University Studies No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.; Kao, T. I.

    This book is primarily a scholarly monograph on ancient Chinese theory and application concerning the right triangle, based on evidence contained in classical mathematics texts and scrolls. It is also the first complete English translation of the ninth chapter of the Chiu chang suan chu, the richest source of problems from antiquity dealing with…

  16. Tributes beyond Words: Art Educators' Use of Textiles to Memorialize the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Mia Lynn; Randall, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Through the study of The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, pre-service art teachers learn the about interdisciplinary design and the importance of using discipline-specific literacy strategies alongside the materials and methods of their craft. The creativity and enthusiasm with which these preservice teachers approached the work convinced us that…

  17. Hyperbolic Cosines and Sines Theorems for the Triangle Formed by Arcs of Intersecting Semicircles on Euclidean Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Yamaleev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperbolic cosines and sines theorems for the curvilinear triangle bounded by circular arcs of three intersecting circles are formulated and proved by using the general complex calculus. The method is based on a key formula establishing a relationship between exponential function and the cross-ratio. The proofs are carried out on Euclidean plane.

  18. Hybrid GPU-CPU adaptive precision ray-triangle intersection tests for robust high-performance GPU dosimetry computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotte, Lancelot; Bodin, Bruno; Chodorge, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Before an intervention on a nuclear site, it is essential to study different scenarios to identify the less dangerous one for the operator. Therefore, it is mandatory to dispose of an efficient dosimetry simulation code with accurate results. One classical method in radiation protection is the straight-line attenuation method with build-up factors. In the case of 3D industrial scenes composed of meshes, the computation cost resides in the fast computation of all of the intersections between the rays and the triangles of the scene. Efficient GPU algorithms have already been proposed, that enable dosimetry calculation for a huge scene (800000 rays, 800000 triangles) in a fraction of second. But these algorithms are not robust: because of the rounding caused by floating-point arithmetic, the numerical results of the ray-triangle intersection tests can differ from the expected mathematical results. In worst case scenario, this can lead to a computed dose rate dramatically inferior to the real dose rate to which the operator is exposed. In this paper, we present a hybrid GPU-CPU algorithm to manage adaptive precision floating-point arithmetic. This algorithm allows robust ray-triangle intersection tests, with very small loss of performance (less than 5 % overhead), and without any need for scene-dependent tuning. (author)

  19. A unified triangle carrier based PWM strategy for three-phase N-level diode clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kai; Xie, Chuan; Wei, Min

    2017-01-01

    The triangle carrier based pulse width modulation (TCB-PWM) can be functionally equivalent to space vector base PWM (SVB-PWM). For multi-level inverter, it is very difficult to realize the SVB-PWM because its vector space is very complex. In this paper, a unified TCB-PWM strategy for three-phase ...

  20. Recombination of the steering vector of the triangle grid array in quaternions and the reduction of the MUSIC algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chen; Han, Dongjuan

    2018-04-01

    MUSIC is widely used on DOA estimation. Triangle grid is a common kind of the arrangement of array, but it is more complicated than rectangular array in calculation of steering vector. In this paper, the quaternions algorithm can reduce dimension of vector and make the calculation easier.

  1. Tourism Based on the Model of Strategic Place Triangle (A Case Study in Wisata Bahari Lamongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismuhadi Heru Wijayanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a very promising prospects to support the economic development of a region. We assess Wisata Bahari Lamongan (WBL as a tourism object. WBL was having significant decreased visitors in the last six years, thus a strategic plan is need to re-increase the number of visitors. Thisstudy used Strategic Triangle Place (SPT model as an analysis tool to assess the strategic planning in WBL. SPT is an approach that includes three key components, namely: Positioning, Differentiation and Brand (PDB. This research used Soft System Methodology (SSM which relevant to analyzethe strategic plan model which is expected to be recommendations from tourists on problems in WBL.The result of this showed that the strategic planning of WBL did not completely accordance with the SPT model. Positioning and differentiation elements were still weak, and the brand was not well developed. Therefore, we recommend WBL to set targeted segmentation of all social backgrounds and ages, especially children. WBL shouldmade ​​the sea as main differentiated factor, thus it has marine tourism potential. WBL should build an image by providing best service quality, security, comfortness, cleanliness, and best quality rides. Keywords: Strategic Planning, Strategic Place Triangle, Positioning, Differentiation, Brand

  2. Biomass assessment and small scale biomass fired electricity generation in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Coal fired electricity is a major factor in Australia's greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions. The country has adopted a mandatory renewable energy target (MRET) to ensure that 20% of electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020. In order to support the MRET, a market scheme of tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) has been implemented since 2001. Generators using biomass from eligible sources are able to contribute to GHG emission reduction through the substitution of coal for electricity production and are eligible to create and trade RECs. This paper quantifies the potential biomass resources available for energy generation from forestry and agriculture in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian Regions for biomass production. We analyse the cost of electricity generation using direct firing of biomass, and estimate the required REC prices to make it competitive with coal fired electricity generation. Major findings suggest that more than 2.6 million tonnes of biomass are produced every year within 200 km of the regional hub of Mount Gambier and biomass fired electricity is viable using feedstock with a plant gate cost of 46 Australian Dollars (AUD) per tonne under the current REC price of 34 AUD per MWh. These findings are then discussed in the context of regional energy security and existing targets and incentives for renewable energies. -- Highlights: → We assessed the biomass production in the Green Triangle. → 2.6 million tonnes of biomass per year are produced within 200 km from Mt Gambier. → Renewable Energy Certificates makes bioenergy competitive with coal electricity. → At a REC price of 34 AUD, biomass of up to 46 AUD/tonne might be used for bionergy

  3. Barriers to e-marketing adoption among small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the Vaal Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dlodlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study is to complement existing literature by examining the relevant barriers contributing to the non-adoption of electronic marketing practices by SMEs in the Vaal Triangle. Methodology: Primary data was collected using a quantitative research technique with the use of a structured questionnaire as the survey instrument. A total of 168 businesses were selected randomly and visited within the various municipal areas in the Vaal Triangle. These businesses were visited between August and November 2008. Thirty-two small, medium and medium enterprises SMEs refused to participate resulting in 123 usable questionnaires for the purposes of the analysis. Factor analysis was used to examine the robustness of the factor structure using principal component analysis. Findings: A five-dimensional structure was established comprising a 16 item-scale. The major impediments towards the non-adoption of e-marketing include technology incompatibility with target markets, lack of knowledge, stakeholder unreadiness, technology disorientation and technology perception. The reliability analysis, reflected coefficient values ranging from 0.70 to 0.88 indicating satisfactory internal consistency amongst variables within each dimension. Implications: By analysing the barriers that inhibit the adoption of e-marketing strategies among SMEs, marketers are presented with recommended strategies and implications on how to approach the challenges presented by Internet technological advancements. Internet capacities of SMEs may be strengthened through nurturing e-marketing awareness and providing adequate information tools through diverse Internet Marketing training programmes. Originality/Value: SMEs can prove to be a major source of economic growth for many African countries if sufficient guidance and support on how best to overcome the challenges of adopting advanced marketing practices is available.

  4. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  5. Triangulating the Sociohydrology of Water Supply, Quality and Forests in the Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    The North Carolina Research Triangle is among the most rapidly growing metropolitan areas in the United States, with decentralized governance split among several different municipalities, counties and water utilities. Historically smaller populations, plentiful rainfall, and riparian rights based water law provided both a sense of security for water resources and influenced the development of separate infrastructure systems across the region. The growth of water demand with rising populations with typical suburban sprawl, the development of multi-use reservoirs immediately downstream of urban areas, and increased hydroclimate variability have raised the potential for periodic water scarcity coupled with increasing eutrophication of water supplies. We discuss the interactions and tradeoffs between management of emerging water scarcity, quality and forest biodiversity in the Triangle as a model for the US Southeast. Institutional stakeholders include water supply and stormwater utilities, environmental NGOs, federal, state, county and municipal governments, developers and home owner associations. We emphasize principles of ecohydrologic resilience learned in heavily instrumented research watersheds, adapted to rapidly developing urban systems, and including socioeconomic and policy dynamics. Significant 20th century reforestation of central North Carolina landscapes have altered regional water balances, while providing both flood and water quality mitigation. The regrowth forest is dynamic and heterogeneous in water use based on age class and species distribution, with substantial plantation and natural regeneration. Forecasts of land use and forest structural and compositional change are based on scenario socioeconomic development, climate change and forecast wood product markets. Urban forest and green infrastructure has the potential to mediate the trade-offs and synergies of these goals, but is in a very nascent state. Computational tools to assess policy

  6. Biofuel excision and the viability of ethanol production in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; Farine, Damien; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The promotion and use of renewable energy sources are established priorities worldwide as a way to reduce emissions of Greenhouse Gases and promote energy security. Australia is committed to reach a target of 350 ML of biofuels per year by 2010, and incentives targeted to producers and consumers have been placed. These incentives include zero excise until 2011 for the ethanol produced in Australia and gradual increase of the taxation rates reaching the full excise of 0.125 AUD per litre by 2015. This paper analyses the viability of the second generation ethanol industry in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian regions for biomass production, by comparing the energy adjusted pump prices of petrol and the produced ethanol under different taxation rates and forecasted oil prices. Major findings suggest that under the current conditions of zero fuel excise and oil prices around 80US$ per barrel ethanol production is viable using biomass with a plant gate cost of up to 74 AUD per ton. Moreover, the forecasted increase in oil prices have a higher impact on the price of petrol than the increased ethanol excise on the pump price of the biofuel. Thus, by 2016 feedstock with a plant gate cost of up to 190 AUD per ton might be used for ethanol production, representing a flow of 1.7 million tons of biomass per year potentially mitigating 1.2 million tons of CO 2 by replacing fossil fuels with ethanol. - Research highlights: →We assessed the potential for ethanol production in the Green Triangle. → Despite of increased ethanol taxation, higher oil prices promote ethanol production. → Currently, ethanol from biomass with a plant gate cost of up to 74 AUD/ton is viable. →Forecasted oil prices suggest biomass of 190 AUD/ton might be used by 2016.

  7. Emerging marine protected area networks in the coral triangle: Lessons and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks are valuable tools for protecting coral reef habitats and managing near-shore fisheries, while playing an essential role in the overall conservation of marine biodiversity. In addition, MPAs and their networks are often the core strategy for larger scale and more integrated forms of marine resource management that can lead to ecosystem-based management regimes for seascapes and eco-regions. This study conducted in 2008 documents the status of selected MPAs and MPA networks in Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea, to better understand development and their level of success in the Coral Triangle. Findings reveal that substantial gaps exist between the theory and practice of creating functional MPA networks. Across these sites, biophysical and social science knowledge, required to build functional and effective MPAs or MPA networks, lagged behind substantially. Aspects that appeared to require the most attention to improve MPA network effectiveness included essential management systems, institutional arrangements, governance and sustainable financing. Common indicators of success such as increased fish catch and habitat quality parameters were consistently associated with several independent variables: sustainable financing for management, clarity of MPA network rules, enforcement by community level enforcers, local skills development, and involvement in management by local elected politicians, a functional management board, multi-stakeholder planning mechanisms and participatory biophysical assessments. Conclusions are that although considerable investments have been made in MPAs and potential MPA networks in the Coral Triangle, management effectiveness is generally poor throughout the region and that not many large, formally declared MPAs are well managed.

  8. Interfascial technique for vertebral artery exposure in the suboccipital triangle: the road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A Samy; Uribe, Juan S; Ramos, Edwin; Janjua, Rashid; Thomas, L Brannon; van Loveren, Harry

    2010-12-01

    The extradural portion of the vertebral artery (VA-V3) has a unique anatomy at the craniovertebral junction. The exposure of V3 can be accompanied by profuse bleeding from the venous plexus in addition to the potential risk of inadvertent injury of the VA during surgery at the craniovertebral junction. The natural tissue planes represent a road map to the safe exposure of the VA in the suboccipital triangle. To describe the microsurgical anatomy of the tissue planes in the suboccipital region. The suboccipital region was bilaterally dissected in 6 fresh silicone-injected cadaver heads. An interfascial technique was used to expose the VA-V3 following a tissue plane between the deep suboccipital muscular fascia dorsally and posterior atlantooccipital membrane, the C1 periosteal membrane, and the membrane covering the VA and venous plexus ventrally. The craniovertebral junction was harvested from 2 heads and prepared for histological sections. The same technique was applied in 25 operative cases. The anatomic dissections confirmed the existence of an interfascial plane that can be dissected in a blunt fashion to reach as far lateral as the transverse processes of C1 and C2. Application of the dissection technique did not require diathermy coagulation in the operating room. In 25 cases, there was no injury of the VA or bleeding from the venous plexus. Vertebral artery exposure in the suboccipital triangle (V3) can be achieved safely with minimal blood loss using a technique that follows the natural tissue plane between the deep suboccipital muscle fascia, the posterior atlantooccipital membrane, the membrane covering VA/venous plexus, and the periosteum of the C1 and C2 laminae.

  9. Modeling DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  10. Structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures in the presence of chaotropic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Krainer, Georg; Grundmeier, Guido; Schlierf, Michael; Keller, Adrian

    2016-05-21

    DNA origami represent powerful platforms for single-molecule investigations of biomolecular processes. The required structural integrity of the DNA origami may, however, pose significant limitations regarding their applicability, for instance in protein folding studies that require strongly denaturing conditions. Here, we therefore report a detailed study on the stability of 2D DNA origami triangles in the presence of the strong chaotropic denaturing agents urea and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and its dependence on concentration and temperature. At room temperature, the DNA origami triangles are stable up to at least 24 h in both denaturants at concentrations as high as 6 M. At elevated temperatures, however, structural stability is governed by variations in the melting temperature of the individual staple strands. Therefore, the global melting temperature of the DNA origami does not represent an accurate measure of their structural stability. Although GdmCl has a stronger effect on the global melting temperature, its attack results in less structural damage than observed for urea under equivalent conditions. This enhanced structural stability most likely originates from the ionic nature of GdmCl. By rational design of the arrangement and lengths of the individual staple strands used for the folding of a particular shape, however, the structural stability of DNA origami may be enhanced even further to meet individual experimental requirements. Overall, their high stability renders DNA origami promising platforms for biomolecular studies in the presence of chaotropic agents, including single-molecule protein folding or structural switching.

  11. Connecting Majorana phases to the geometric parameters of the Majorana unitarity triangle in a neutrino mass matrix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surender; Bhardwaj, Shankita

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated a possible connection between the Majorana phases and geometric parameters of Majorana unitarity triangle (MT) in two-texture zero neutrino mass matrix. Such analytical relations can, also, be obtained for other theoretical models viz. hybrid textures, neutrino mass matrix with vanishing minors and have profound implications for geometric description of C P violation. As an example, we have considered the two-texture zero neutrino mass model to obtain a relation between Majorana phases and MT parameters that may be probed in various lepton number violating processes. In particular, we find that Majorana phases depend on only one of the three interior angles of the MT in each class of two-texture zero neutrino mass matrix. We have also constructed the MT for class A , B , and C neutrino mass matrices. Nonvanishing areas and nontrivial orientations of these Majorana unitarity triangles indicate nonzero C P violation as a generic feature of this class of mass models.

  12. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  13. Integrating ethical values into fraud triangle theory in assessing employee fraud: Evidence from the Malaysian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaliah Said

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to integrate ethical values into the fraud triangle theory in the context of Malaysian banking industry. Primary data were collected through the survey of 108 questionnaires administered to the employees of the top three largest banks in Malaysia. The findings revealed that ethical values were negatively related to employee fraud, and two elements of fraud triangle theory, namely, opportunity and rationalization, were positively related to employee fraud. This implies that high ethical value is crucial to mitigate employee fraud. To minimize employee fraud, the banking industry should reduce opportunities and employee negative rationalization through strong internal control. This study contributes to literature on the occurrences of employee fraud, which is not widely discussed, especially in the context of the banking industry in developing countries.

  14. HTCRL: A Range-Free Location Algorithm Based on Homothetic Triangle Cyclic Refinement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN have become a significant technology in recent years. They can be widely used in many applications. WSNs consist of a large number of sensor nodes and each of them is energy-constrained and low-power dissipation. Most of the sensor nodes are tiny sensors with small memories and do not acquire their own locations. This means determining the locations of the unknown sensor nodes is one of the key issues in WSN. In this paper, an improved APIT algorithm HTCRL (Homothetic Triangle Cyclic Refinement Location is proposed, which is based on the principle of the homothetic triangle. It adopts perpendicular median surface cutting to narrow down target area in order to decrease the average localization error rate. It reduces the probability of misjudgment by adding the conditions of judgment. It can get a relatively high accuracy compared with the typical APIT algorithm without any additional hardware equipment or increasing the communication overhead.

  15. Infinite projected entangled-pair state algorithm for ruby and triangle-honeycomb lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Saeed S.; Orús, Román; Kargarian, Mehdi; Langari, Abdollah

    2018-03-01

    The infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm is one of the most efficient techniques for studying the ground-state properties of two-dimensional quantum lattice Hamiltonians in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we show how the algorithm can be adapted to explore nearest-neighbor local Hamiltonians on the ruby and triangle-honeycomb lattices, using the corner transfer matrix (CTM) renormalization group for 2D tensor network contraction. Additionally, we show how the CTM method can be used to calculate the ground-state fidelity per lattice site and the boundary density operator and entanglement entropy (EE) on an infinite cylinder. As a benchmark, we apply the iPEPS method to the ruby model with anisotropic interactions and explore the ground-state properties of the system. We further extract the phase diagram of the model in different regimes of the couplings by measuring two-point correlators, ground-state fidelity, and EE on an infinite cylinder. Our phase diagram is in agreement with previous studies of the model by exact diagonalization.

  16. Multi-scale ocean and climate drivers of widespread bleaching in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, E.; Curchitser, E. N.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Maritime Continent is home to the Coral Triangle (CT): the global pinnacle of tropical coral biodiversity. Historically, extensive bleaching-induced mortality (caused by thermal stress) among corals in the CT has been associated with extremes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), particularly years when a strong El Niños transitions to a La Niña state (i.e., 1998 and 2010). Similarities in the spatial distribution of satellite-derived indices, and the multi-scale environmental drivers of elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during the 1998 and 2010 bleaching events suggests a potential predictability that has important implications for reef conservation. Using numerical models and ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products, we discuss the roles of ENSO-associated anomalies in both large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (e.g., South Asian Monsoon) and regional ocean-cooling mechanisms such as coastal upwelling, tropical storm activity, and divergent (i.e., upwelling) circulation patterns (e.g., the Mindanao Eddy) in determining SSTs and, consequently projected patterns of reef ecosystem vulnerability to thermal stress. Conditions associated with the recent and ongoing 2015/2016 coral bleaching and mortality will be compared/contrasted.

  17. Linear triangle finite element formulation for multigroup neutron transport analysis with anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures.

  18. Linear triangle finite element formulation for multigroup neutron transport analysis with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures

  19. The star-triangle relation and the inversion relation in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    The plan of this paper is the following: we give a definition of the star-triangle relation (S.T.R.); we also define another very simple relation which occurs simultaneously with the S.T.R. for the two-dimensional (2-d) exact models: the inversion relation (I.R.); we study the connection between the S.T.R. and the I.R.: we see that the S.T.R. is deeply connected to the I.R., but, on the contrary, we see that the I.R. can exist even when no S.T.R. exists, as we show for the 2-d anisotropic Potts model by exhibiting an inverse functional equation satisfied by the partition function; having recognized the I.R. as an interesting concept, we use it by looking at the analytical consequences of this I.R. and, at last, we come back to the S.T.R., examining some consequences of the I.R. on the S.T.R

  20. Ecological Risk Assessment of the Southern Fujian Golden Triangle in China Based on Regional Transportation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional transportation development (RTD is an important stressor of urban agglomeration ecosystems. Groundwater recharge potential may be adversely affected when natural soil is replaced by impervious materials. To systematically identify the urban agglomeration ecological risk (UAER of RTD in the southern Fujian Golden Triangle, water regulation was used as an assessment endpoint, and RTD was considered the stressor. We used the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (SCS-CN to analyze the internal relationship between the assessment endpoint and the stressor factors. Then, a multi-level risk characterization method was used to show the evolutionary process of risk, and to provide a scientific basis for the management of UAER. Based on the current RTD plan, the UAER assessment shows that there is a 0.90 probability of that the risk distribution results will occur by 2030. The intensity of stress from arterial roads on the urban agglomeration ecosystem is greater than that of the railway system. By considering the development of the railway system as a factor in the stress of RTD, this study of UAER assessment differs from past studies of urban ecological risk assessment, since the latter considers only highways. We also propose a systematic method of risk assessment simulation-prediction.

  1. The Supply Chain Triangle: How Synchronisation, Stability, and Productivity of Material Flows Interact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Klug

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence created a commonly accepted understanding that synchronisation and stability of material flows impact its productivity. This crucial link between synchronous and stable material flows by time and quantity to create a supply chain with the highest throughput rates is at the heart of lean thinking. Although this supply chain triangle has generally been acknowledged over many years, it is necessary to reach a finer understanding of these dynamics. Therefore, we will develop and study supply chains with the help of fluid dynamics. A multistage, continuous material flow is modelled through a conservation law for material density. Unlike similar approaches, our model is not based on some quasi steady-state assumptions about the stochastic behaviour of the involved supply chain but rather on a simple deterministic rule for material flow density. These models allow us to take into account the nonlinear, dynamical interactions of different supply chain echelons and to test synchronised and stable flow with respect to its potential impacts. Numerical simulations verify that the model is able to simulate transient supply chain phenomena. Moreover, a quantification method relating to the fundamental link between synchronisation, stability, and productivity of supply chains has been found.

  2. Analysis of students’ incorrect answers at triangle materials in the fifth-grade of primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintawati, E.; Jupri, Al

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to analyse the comparison of the predictions made by the author between learning methods with the reality that occur in the class and to analyse students' responses toward questions given by teachers at triangle materials. The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. The subjects of this research are all fifth-grade students from a primary school in the city of Bandung. The results of this research indicated that there are some influences between learning methods and students' responses shown by the way students answer the question. In reality, there are many students’ responses produced beyond the predictions of the author. It shows that as the good teachers, besides setting up learning methods, they should also make predictions toward the responses of the students in answering the questions given. The results of the predictions could be used as a lesson for teachers to run the learning processes as good as possible so the students' responses could being accordance with the concept of materials presented and could also achieve the expected learning goals. Based on this research’s results, as a teacher must have techniques and strategies to overcome things that are not expected during the learning so that learning can be conducive so that students can focus on learning and enjoy learning so that learning outcomes is the ability of students to increase in understanding the material and can construct the concept of material provided.

  3. The Triangle of Sensory Marketing Model: Does it Stimulate Brand Experience and Loyalty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fahrur Riza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the framework of brand experience associating with customer loyalty. Sensory marketing effectiveness is recognized in business contexts but only little research has been conducted on sensory marketing. This study contribute to filling this gap by proposing a model that explains how sensory stimulation influences loyalty. Brand experience is expected to mediate this relationship. This study applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigate the sensory marketing concept and examine the framework brand experience in association with customer loyalty. Data is collected using online survey. Respondents are individual who had experience in consuming product at restaurant or cafe that has been using the five senses stimulus. Conceptually, this study found interesting relationship between sensory marketing, brand experience, and customer loyalty then called as triangle sensory marketing. The findings offer an additional insight to managers on sensory marketing strategy to stimulate brand experience that can establish customer loyalty.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.6058 

  4. Standard Model updates and new physics analysis with the Unitarity Triangle fit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, A.; Bona, M.; Ciuchini, M.; Derkach, D.; Franco, E.; Silvestrini, L.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, C.; Martinelli, G.; Parodi, F.; Schiavi, C.; Pierini, M.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Vagnoni, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present the summer 2012 update of the Unitarity Triangle (UT) analysis performed by the UTfit Collaboration within the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. The increased accuracy on several of the fundamental constraints is now enhancing some of the tensions amongst and within the constraint themselves. In particular, the long standing tension between exclusive and inclusive determinations of the V ub and V cb CKM matrix elements is now playing a major role. Then we present the generalisation the UT analysis to investigate new physics (NP) effects, updating the constraints on NP contributions to ΔF=2 processes. In the NP analysis, both CKM and NP parameters are fitted simultaneously to obtain the possible NP effects in any specific sector. Finally, based on the NP constraints, we derive upper bounds on the coefficients of the most general ΔF=2 effective Hamiltonian. These upper bounds can be translated into lower bounds on the scale of NP that contributes to these low-energy effective interactions

  5. Quantifying Diastolic Function: From E-Waves as Triangles to Physiologic Contours via the 'Geometric Method'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Mikhail; Padovano, William; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovács, Sándor J

    2018-03-01

    Conventional echocardiographic diastolic function (DF) assessment approximates transmitral flow velocity contours (Doppler E-waves) as triangles, with peak (E peak ), acceleration time (AT), and deceleration time (DT) as indexes. These metrics have limited value because they are unable to characterize the underlying physiology. The parametrized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism provides a physiologic, kinematic mechanism based characterization of DF by extracting chamber stiffness (k), relaxation (c), and load (x o ) from E-wave contours. We derive the mathematical relationship between the PDF parameters and E peak , AT, DT and thereby introduce the geometric method (GM) that computes the PDF parameters using E peak , AT, and DT as input. Numerical experiments validated GM by analysis of 208 E-waves from 31 datasets spanning the full range of clinical diastolic function. GM yielded indistinguishable average parameter values per subject vs. the gold-standard PDF method (k: R 2  = 0.94, c: R 2  = 0.95, x o : R 2  = 0.95, p PDF method to quantify DF in terms of physiologic chamber properties.

  6. THE "E TRIANGLE": EMPLOYMENT, EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest forces of the European Union is its people, people living and working within this Union. This stands not only for the European Union but for every state, as it is well known that people are the ones that can make a state great or poor. For this reason, the matters regarding labor are a continuous concern both for European Union common institutions as well as for every individual state of the European Union. The main interest, on both sides, is to ensure the best for every part involved in labor process because this means, in the end, added value for everyone. The article focuses on the realities as well as on the expectations regarding the labor field highlighting the most preeminent aspects of the so called "E triangle": employment, employee and employer starting with the most needed definition for each and every one of the above going towards even to proposing remedies for the "spots" needing improvement.

  7. Characterization of the Shielded Neutron Source at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Chad; Finch, Sean; Howell, Calvin; Malone, Ron; Tornow, Wernew

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory rebuilt its shielded neutron source (SNS) with the goal of improving neutron beam collimation and reducing neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds. Neutrons are produced via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction and then collimated by heavy shielding to form a beam. The SNS has the ability to produce both a rectangular and circular neutron beam through use of two collimators with different beam apertures. Our work characterized both the neutron beam profiles as well as the neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds at various locations around the SNS. This characterization was performed to provide researchers who use the SNS with beam parameters necessary to plan and conduct an experiment. Vertical and horizontal beam profiles were measured at two different distances from the neutron production cell by scanning a small plastic scintillator across the face of the beam at various energies for each collimator. Background neutron and gamma-ray intensities were measured using time-of-flight techniques at 10 MeV and 16 MeV with the rectangular collimator. We present results on the position and size of neutron beam as well as on the structure and magnitude of the backgrounds.

  8. Persistent current in triangle silicene rings with spin–orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ning, E-mail: nxu@ycit.cn [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Zhang, Haiyang; Wu, Xiuqiang; Bai, Yujie [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Ding, Jianwen, E-mail: jwding@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2017-06-28

    The energy spectrum and magnetic response of triangle silicene rings (TSRs) are investigated within the tight-binding model. It is shown that the flux-dependent energy spectrum is divided into bands, with three levels per band, owing to the three-fold rotational symmetry structure of TSRs. The zigzag TSRs are metallic, exhibiting either diamagnetic or paramagnetic response depending on the size of inner ring radius. Armchair TSRs are semiconducting, exhibiting diamagnetic response. Taking into account the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise around the TSRs and the spin-down electrons flow clockwise around the TSRs. Additionally, paramagnetism–diamagnetism or diamagnetism–paramagnetism transitions are observed with the increase of exchange field. The results may be very helpful for the design and application of TSR-based nanodevices. - Highlights: • The zigzag TSRs are metallic. • Armchair TSRs which exhibit diamagnetic response are semiconducting. • The spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise around the rings.

  9. Importance of clothing brands on the purchasing decisions of Generation Y in the Vaal Triangle area / Mothapo, M.N.

    OpenAIRE

    Mothapo, Moshibudi Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the importance of clothing brands on the purchasing decisions of Generation Y individuals. The research concentrates specifically on university students aged between 17 to 26 years, located in the Vaal Triangle Area. This study aims to determine if this group of Generation Y members are brand conscious in their choices of clothing brands and what influences or motivates them to buy clothing brands. The findings suggest that Generation Y students are brand conscious, in t...

  10. The spin-charge-family theory offers understanding of the triangle anomalies cancellation in the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankoc Borstnik, N.S. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nielsen, H.B.F. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-12-15

    The standard model has for massless quarks and leptons ''miraculously'' no triangle anomalies due to the fact that the sum of all possible traces T r[τ{sup Ai}τ{sup Bj}τ{sup Ck}] - where τ{sup Ai}, τ{sup Bi} and τ{sup Ck} are the generators of one, of two or of three of the groups SU(3), SU(2) and U(1) - over the representations of one family of the left handed fermions and anti-fermions (and separately of the right handed fermions and anti-fermions), contributing to the triangle currents, is equal to zero.{sup [1-4]} It is demonstrated in this paper that this cancellation of the standard model triangle anomaly follows straightforwardly if the SO(3, 1), SU(2), U(1) and SU(3) are the subgroups of the orthogonal group SO(13, 1), as it is in the spin-charge-family theory.{sup [5-22]} We comment on the SO(10) anomaly cancellation, which works if handedness and charges are related ''by hand''. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the “Triangle of Death”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Triassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the “triangle of death”, bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms “waste”, “Campania”, “Naples”, “triangle of death” and “human biomonitoring”. Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.

  12. Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Weeks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement.

  13. Adoption of Small-Scale Irrigation Farming as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice and Its Influence on Household Income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Mango; Clifton Makate; Lulseged Tamene; Powell Mponela; Gift Ndengu

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of s...

  14. DNA Camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    1 DNA Camouflage Supplementary Information Bijan Zakeri1,2*, Timothy K. Lu1,2*, Peter A. Carr2,3* 1Department of Electrical Engineering and...ll.mit.edu). Distribution A: Public Release   2 Supplementary Figure 1 DNA camouflage with the 2-state device. (a) In the presence of Cre, DSD-2[α...10 1 + Cre 1 500 1,000 length (bp) chromatogram alignment template − Cre   4 Supplementary Figure 3 DNA camouflage with a switchable

  15. The measurements of angle γ of the unitarity triangle with the BaBar detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, D.

    2010-06-01

    In this thesis, we present studies of the B mesons system performed using the full dataset collected by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II collider at SLAC. The first analysis presented here is the search of the rare V ub mediated decays B + → D + K *0 . The experimental analysis is performed looking at several D + decay modes. No signals have been found and upper limits have been set to be: Br(B + → D + K 0 ) -6 at 90% prob.; Br(B + → D + K *0 ) -6 at 90% prob. In the second part we present the CP violation studies in the B-meson system, and in particular the measurements of the γ angle of the unitarity triangle. The γ angle is the relative weak phase between the V ub and V cb elements of the CKM matrix. We present and describe the analysis using the charged B meson decays: B + → D 0 K + . These decays are studied through the ADS method, where the neutral D mesons are reconstructed into Kππ 0 final states. Combining this analysis with a similar one that used Kπ as a D 0 final state, we have obtained the following values: ratio r(DK) 0.083+0.028-0.043; γ angle = (86+51-45) degrees. If the results of this thesis are used in the full system of the B → DK and B → DK * decay amplitudes, other interesting results can be obtained. The error on the ratio r(DK * ) for the charged B decays is improved by a factor 3 resulting in r(DK * ) = (0.08 ± 0.03). The ration between the V ub mediated annihilation (A) and the color suppressed (C) amplitudes is obtained to be A/C 0 ) for neutral B decays is found to be (0.27 ± 0.09)

  16. Digit recognition for Arabic/Jawi and Roman using features from triangle geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohd Sanusi; Omar, Khairuddin; Nasrudin, Mohamad Faidzul; Idrus, Bahari; Wan Mohd Ghazali, Khadijah

    2013-04-01

    A novel method is proposed to recognize the Arab/Jawi and Roman digits. This new method is based on features from the triangle geometry, normalized into nine features. The features are used for zoning which results in five and 25 zones. The algorithm is validated by using three standard datasets which are publicly available and used by researchers in this field. The first dataset is HODA that contains 60,000 images for training and 20,000 images for testing. The second dataset is IFHCDB. This dataset has 52,380 isolated characters and 17,740 digits. Only the 17,740 images of digits are used for this research. For the roman digit, MNIST are chosen. MNIST dataset has 60,000 images for training and 10,000 images for testing. Supervised (SML) and Unsupervised Machine Learning (UML) are used to test the nine features. The SML used are Neural Network (NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Whereas the UML uses Euclidean Distance Method with data mining algorithms; namely Mean Average Precision (eMAP) and Frequency Based (eFB). Results for SML testing for HODA dataset are 98.07% accuracy for SVM, and 96.73% for NN. For IFHCDB and MNIST the accuracy are 91.75% and 93.095% respectively. For the UML tests, HODA dataset is 93.91%, IFHCDB 85.94% and MNIST 86.61%. The train and test images are selected using both random and the original dataset's distribution. The results show that the accuracy of proposed algorithm is over 90% for each SML trained datasets where the highest result is the one that uses 25 zones features.

  17. Antioxidant responses of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii exposed to harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Menghong; Wu, Fangli; Yuan, Mingzhe; Li, Qiongzhen; Gu, Yedan; Wang, Youji; Liu, Qigen

    2015-11-01

    Bloom forming algae and hypoxia are considered to be two main co-occurred stressors associated with eutrophication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia on an ecologically important mussel species inhabiting lakes and reservoirs, the triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii, which is generally considered as a bio-management tool for eutrophication. A set of antioxidant enzymes involved in immune defence mechanisms and detoxification processes, i.e. glutathione-S-transferases (GST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lysozyme (LZM) in mussel haemolymph were analyzed during 14days exposure along with 7days depuration duration period. GST, GSH, SOD, GPX and LZM were elevated by toxic M. aeruginosa exposure, while CAT activities were inhibited by such exposure. Hypoxia influenced the immune mechanisms through the activation of GSH and GPX, and the inhibition of SOD, CAT, and LZM activities. Meanwhile, some interactive effects of M. aeruginosa, hypoxia and time were observed. Independently of the presence or absence of hypoxia, toxic algal exposure generally increased the five tested enzyme activities of haemolymph, except CAT. Although half of microcystin could be eliminated after 7days depuration, toxic M. aeruginosa or hypoxia exposure history showed some latent effects on most parameters. These results revealed that toxic algae play an important role on haemolymph parameters alterations and its toxic effects could be affected by hypoxia. Although the microcystin depuration rate of H. cumingii is quick, toxic M. aeruginosa and/or hypoxia exposure history influenced its immunological mechanism recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relationship between Growth-Inequality-Poverty Triangle and Environmental Degradation: Unveiling the Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Anam Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognize that increase in well-being is no longer dependent on further economic growth, but on economic and social well-being, which means that the decline in carbon dioxide emission without reducing real wellbeing and growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the main driving forces affecting short and long-run carbon emissions pattern due to changes in growth, inequality and poverty triangle in Pakistan over the period 1980 – 2011 by using multivariate cointegration approach. This study uses five different models i.e., each model have an important policy implication in the context of Pakistan. The results indicate that, on the short run, there is a significant negative relationship between economic growth & carbon emissions and economic growth & poverty while there is a positive relationship between i economic growth & income inequality; and ii poverty & income inequality. On the long-run, there is a significant positive relationship between GDP & income inequality, carbon dioxide emissions & income inequality, and poverty & income inequality in Pakistan. On the other side, there is a negative relationship between carbon emissions & economic growth, carbon emissions & income inequality, and economic growth & income inequality. The results of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis show an inverted U-shaped trajectory in relation to economic growth in Pakistan. This study contributes to the debate on the existence and policy relevance of the EKC for Pakistan. The conclusion ensures the sustainability of an urgent need to look beyond the EKC by adopting courageous policy measures of environmental preservation in Pakistan irrespective of the country's level of income. For reduction of CO2 emission, environmental progressive management policies, economic transport system regulations, and low emit fuel consumption by industries are the need of the world.

  19. An Australian government dental scheme: Doctor-dentist-patient tensions in the triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, Arosha; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Porter, Suzette

    2014-11-30

    Autonomy of participants is challenged when legislation to provide a public health service is weakly designed and implemented. Australia's Chronic Disease Dental Scheme was instigated to provide a government subsidy for private dental treatment for people suffering chronic illness impacting their oral health or vice versa. They were allocated AUD$4250 towards comprehensive treatment over 2 years with their eligibility determined by their general medical doctor. A qualitative research study was conducted to explore the experiences from the perspectives of the patient, medical and dental practitioner. One of the research outcomes identified a frequently reported level of discomfort in the patient/doctor/dentist triangle. Doctors and dentists reported feeling forced by patients into positions that compromised their autonomy in obeying the intent (if not the law) of the scheme. Additionally, dentists felt under pressure from doctors and patients to provide subsidized treatment to those eligible. In turn, the patients reported difficulties in gaining access to the scheme and in some cases, experiencing full or partially unmet oral health needs. REASON FOR CONFLICT: Poor inter-professional communication and lack of understanding about profession-unique patient-driven pressures, ultimately contributed to dissonance. Ill-defined eligibility guidelines rendered the doctor's ability to gate-keep challenging. OUTCOME OF CONFLICT: Inefficient gate-keeping led to exponential increase in referrals, resulting in unprecedented cost blow-outs. Ensuing government-led audits caused political tensions and contributed to the media-induced vilification of dentists. In December 2013, government financing of dental treatment through Chronic Disease Dental Scheme was discontinued, leaving many Australians without a viable alternative. There is a need for qualitative research methods to help identify social issues that affect public health policy process. In order to succeed, new health

  20. Correlation of ultrasound appearance, gross anatomy, and histology of the femoral nerve at the femoral triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchena, Tiffany K; McFadden, Kathryn; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Correlation between ultrasound appearance, gross anatomic characteristics, and histologic structure of the femoral nerve (FN) is lacking. Utilizing cadavers, we sought to characterize the anatomy of the FN, and provide a quantitative measure of its branching. We hypothesize that at the femoral crease, the FN exists as a group of nerve branches, rather than a single nerve structure, and secondarily, that this transition into many branches is apparent on ultrasonography. Nineteen preserved cadavers were investigated. Ultrasonography was sufficient to evaluate the femoral nerve in nine specimens; gross dissection was utilized in all 19. Anatomic characteristics were recorded, including distances from the inguinal ligament to femoral crease, first nerve branch, and complete arborization of the nerve. The nerves from nine specimens were excised for histologic analysis. On ultrasound, the nerve became more flattened, widened, and less discrete as it coursed distally. Branching of the nerve was apparent in 12 of 18 images, with mean distance from inguinal ligament of 3.9 (1.0) cm. However, upon dissection, major branching of the femoral nerve occurred at 3.1 (1.0) cm distal to the inguinal ligament, well proximal to the femoral crease. Histologic analysis was consistent with findings at dissection. The femoral nerve arborizes into multiple branches between the inguinal ligament and the femoral crease. Initial branching is often high in the femoral triangle. As hypothesized, the FN exists as a closely associated group of nerve branches at the level of the femoral crease; however, the termination of the nerve into multiple branches is not consistently apparent on ultrasonography.

  1. Increasing the stability of DNA nanostructure templates by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 and its application in imprinting lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyojeong Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to increase the stability of DNA nanostructure templates through conformal coating with a nanometer-thin protective inorganic oxide layer created using atomic layer deposition (ALD. DNA nanotubes and origami triangles were coated with ca. 2 nm to ca. 20 nm of Al2O3. Nanoscale features of the DNA nanostructures were preserved after the ALD coating and the patterns are resistive to UV/O3 oxidation. The ALD-coated DNA templates were used for a direct pattern transfer to poly(L-lactic acid films.

  2. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.

    2008-01-01

    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  3. Hyperstretching DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenraad, Koen; Biebricher, Andreas S.; Sebregts, Maarten; Ten Bensel, Brian; Peterman, Erwin J.G.; Wuite, Gijs J L; Heller, Iddo; Storm, Cornelis; Van Der Schoot, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of DNA is highly susceptible to changes by mechanical and biochemical cues in vivo and in vitro. In particular, large increases in base pair spacing compared to regular B-DNA are effected by mechanical (over)stretching and by intercalation of compounds that are widely

  4. Programmed self-assembly of DNA/RNA for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei

    Three self-assembly strategies were utilized for assembly of novel functional DNA/RNA nanostructures. RNA-DNA hybrid origami method was developed to fabricate nano-objects (ribbon, rectangle, and triangle) with precisely controlled geometry. Unlike conventional DNA origami which use long DNA single strand as scaffold, a long RNA single strand was used instead, which was folded by short DNA single strands (staples) into prescribed objects through sequence specific hybridization between RNA and DNA. Single stranded tiles (SST) and RNA-DNA hybrid origami were utilized to fabricate a variety of barcode-like nanostructures with unique patterns by expanding a plain rectangle via introducing spacers (10-bp dsDNA segment) between parallel duplexes. Finally, complex 2D array and 3D polyhedrons with multiple patterns within one structure were assembled from simple DNA motifs. Two demonstrations of biomedical applications of DNA nanotechnology were presented. Firstly, lambda-DNA was used as template to direct the fabrication of multi-component magnetic nanoparticle chains. Nuclear magnetic relaxation (NMR) characterization showed superb magnetic relaxativity of the nanoparticle chains which have large potential to be utilized as MRI contrast agents. Secondly, DNA nanotechnology was introduced into the conformational study of a routinely used catalytic DNAzyme, the RNA-cleaving 10-23 DNAzyme. The relative angle between two flanking duplexes of the catalytic core was determined (94.8°), which shall be able to provide a clue to further understanding of the cleaving mechanism of this DNAzyme from a conformational perspective.

  5. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  6. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  7. A New Temperature-Vegetation Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE for Satellite-Based Actual Evapotranspiration Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of spatially-variable actual evapotranspiration (AET is a critical challenge to regional water resources management. We propose a new remote sensing method, the Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE, to generate daily AET estimates based on satellite-derived land surface temperature and the vegetation index NDVI. The TAVE captures heterogeneity in AET across elevation zones and permits variability in determining local values of wet and dry end-member classes (known as edges. Compared to traditional triangle methods, TAVE introduces three unique features: (i the discretization of the domain as overlapping elevation zones; (ii a variable wet edge that is a function of elevation zone; and (iii variable values of a combined-effect parameter (that accounts for aerodynamic and surface resistance, vapor pressure gradient, and soil moisture availability along both wet and dry edges. With these features, TAVE effectively addresses the combined influence of terrain and water stress on semi-arid environment AET estimates. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in one of the driest countries in the world—Jordan, and compare it to a traditional triangle method (TA and a global AET product (MOD16 over different land use types. In irrigated agricultural lands, TAVE matched the results of the single crop coefficient model (−3%, in contrast to substantial overestimation by TA (+234% and underestimation by MOD16 (−50%. In forested (non-irrigated, water consuming regions, TA and MOD16 produced AET average deviations 15.5 times and −3.5 times of those based on TAVE. As TAVE has a simple structure and low data requirements, it provides an efficient means to satisfy the increasing need for evapotranspiration estimation in data-scarce semi-arid regions. This study constitutes a much needed step towards the satellite-based quantification of agricultural water consumption in Jordan.

  8. Eternal triangle: the interaction of light source, electrical control gear, and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'heeren, Griet

    1998-04-01

    should guarantee the best system performance. This paper sets out to provide some guidelines on attempting to achieve a harmonious relationship between the three partners in this particular eternal triangle.

  9. Non-linear triangle-based polynomial expansion nodal method for hexagonal core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Young; Cho, Byung Oh; Joo, Han Gyu; Zee, Sung Qunn; Park, Sang Yong

    2000-09-01

    This report is for the implementation of triangle-based polynomial expansion nodal (TPEN) method to MASTER code in conjunction with the coarse mesh finite difference(CMFD) framework for hexagonal core design and analysis. The TPEN method is a variation of the higher order polynomial expansion nodal (HOPEN) method that solves the multi-group neutron diffusion equation in the hexagonal-z geometry. In contrast with the HOPEN method, only two-dimensional intranodal expansion is considered in the TPEN method for a triangular domain. The axial dependence of the intranodal flux is incorporated separately here and it is determined by the nodal expansion method (NEM) for a hexagonal node. For the consistency of node geometry of the MASTER code which is based on hexagon, TPEN solver is coded to solve one hexagonal node which is composed of 6 triangular nodes directly with Gauss elimination scheme. To solve the CMFD linear system efficiently, stabilized bi-conjugate gradient(BiCG) algorithm and Wielandt eigenvalue shift method are adopted. And for the construction of the efficient preconditioner of BiCG algorithm, the incomplete LU(ILU) factorization scheme which has been widely used in two-dimensional problems is used. To apply the ILU factorization scheme to three-dimensional problem, a symmetric Gauss-Seidel Factorization scheme is used. In order to examine the accuracy of the TPEN solution, several eigenvalue benchmark problems and two transient problems, i.e., a realistic VVER1000 and VVER440 rod ejection benchmark problems, were solved and compared with respective references. The results of eigenvalue benchmark problems indicate that non-linear TPEN method is very accurate showing less than 15 pcm of eigenvalue errors and 1% of maximum power errors, and fast enough to solve the three-dimensional VVER-440 problem within 5 seconds on 733MHz PENTIUM-III. In the case of the transient problems, the non-linear TPEN method also shows good results within a few minute of

  10. The contribution of axial-anomaly triangle diagrams for the π0→2γ process in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Ru-Keng; Qian Zhi-Xin; Bin Wang; Yu, P.K.N.; Young, E.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the real time Green's function method, the decay width of the π 0 →2γ process through axial anomaly triangle diagram at finite temperature and finite density is calculated and its effect on the evolution of the universe is discussed. It was found that the decay width increases with temperature but decreases with density. At the beginning of the lepton era, the decay width at zero temperature. A critical density at which the decay width becomes zero is given. The contribution of axial anomaly to the cosmic background γ-radiation is considered

  11. How to determine all the angles of the unitarity triangle from Bd0 → DKS and Bs0 → Dφ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.; London, D.

    1990-10-01

    We consider within the standard model the time-dependent decay rates of the three processes B d 0 → D 0 Ks.anti D 0 Ks and D 1 0 Ks, where D 1 0 is a neutral D meson CP-eigenstate. We show that it is possible to derive from these processes, in which two weak amplitudes are involved, two of the three angles in the unitarity triangle of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The third angle can be determined from B s 0 → DΦ. All three angles are obtained free of hadronic final-state uncertainties. (orig.)

  12. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  13. DNA data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  14. DNA nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  15. A device that operates within a self-assembled 3D DNA crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yudong; Kristiansen, Martin; Sha, Ruojie; Birktoft, Jens J.; Hernandez, Carina; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2017-08-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology finds applications in numerous areas, but the construction of objects, 2D and 3D crystalline lattices and devices is prominent among them. Each of these components has been developed individually, and most of them have been combined in pairs. However, to date there are no reports of independent devices contained within 3D crystals. Here we report a three-state 3D device whereby we change the colour of the crystals by diffusing strands that contain dyes in or out of the crystals through the mother-liquor component of the system. Each colouring strand is designed to pair with an extended triangle strand by Watson-Crick base pairing. The arm that contains the dyes is quite flexible, but it is possible to establish the presence of the duplex proximal to the triangle by X-ray crystallography. We modelled the transition between the red and blue states through a simple kinetic model.

  16. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  17. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  18. Smallholder Farmers’ Perceptions on Climate Change and the Use of Sustainable Agricultural Practices in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Makate

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing regions with high levels of poverty and a dependence on climate sensitive agriculture, studies focusing on climate change adaptation, planning, and policy processes, have gained relative importance over the years. This study assesses the impact of farmer perceptions regarding climate change on the use of sustainable agricultural practices as an adaptation strategy in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa. In this empirical approach, we adopt methods that account for the plausibility that unmeasured characteristics exist, which are correlated with perceptions and the adoption of Sustainable Agricultural Practices. We use a unique and representative dataset collected in December 2012 and June 2013, from smallholder farmers in the Chinyanja Triangle. The results indicate that farmer’s perceptions significantly influence the use of sustainable agricultural practices. Specifically, we established that farmer perceptions considerably impact the use of grain legume rotations, inorganic fertilizers, compost, and farmyard manure. Our results highlight the need for a serious and perhaps equal consideration of farmer perceptions regarding climate change, as important inputs to climate change adaptation policies targeted at enhancing climatic resilience in smallholder farming communities. This is plausible as the adaptation and pliability of farmers to the effects of climate change should be a social process involving the collective efforts from various stakeholders.

  19. Development of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Module on Topic of Reaction Rate for Senior High School Level Grade XI Chemistry Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. R.; Hardeli; Bayharti

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to produce chemistry triangle oriented module on topic of reaction rate, and to reveal the validity and practicality level of the generated module. The type of research used is EducationalDesign Research (EDR) with development model is Plompmodel. This model consists of three phases, which are preliminary research, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. The instrument used in this research is questionnaire validity and practicality. The data of the research were analyzed by using Kappa Cohen formula. The chemistry triangle oriented module validation sheet was given to 5 validators consisting of 3 chemistry lecturers and 2 high school chemistry teachers, while the practicality sheet was given to 2 chemistry teachers, 6 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 5 on the small groupevaluation and 25 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 6 on the field test. Based on the questionnaire validity analysis, the validity level of the module is very high with the value of kappa moment 0.87. The level of practicality based on teacher questionnaire response is very high category with a kappa moment value 0.96. Based on the questionnaire of student responses on small group evaluation, the level of practicality is very high category with a kappa moment 0.81, and the practicality is very high category with kappa moment value 0.83 based on questionnaire of student response on field test.

  20. REMARKS ON A GENERALIZATION OF A QUESTION RAISED BY PÁL ERDOS CONCERNING A GEOMETRIC INEQUALITY IN ˝ ACUTE TRIANGLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla FINTA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a negative answer to a possible generalization of an open question raised by Pál Erd˝os, concerning an inequality in acute triangles. We prove here that from a < b < c does not follow a 2k + l 2k a < b2k + l 2k b < c2k + l 2k c in every acute triangle ABC, nor the opposite chain of inequalities, where k ∈ N, k ≥ 2, and a, b, c denotes the length of the triangles sites , while la, lb, lc denotes the length of the interior angle bisectors, as usual. We achieve this by constructing effectively two counterexamples, one for each type of inequalities

  1. Remarks on a Generalization of a Question Raised by Pál Erdős Concerning a Geometric Inequality in Acute Triangles II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla FINTA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a negative answer to a possible generalization of an open question raised by Pál Erd ˝os, concerning an inequality in acute triangles. We prove here that from a < b < c does not follow a 2k+1 + (la 2k+1 < b2k+1 + l 2k+1 b < c 2k+1 + l 2k+1 c in every acute triangle ABC, nor the opposite chain of inequalities, where k ∈ N, k ≥ 2, and a, b, c denotes the length of the triangles sites, while la, lb, lc denotes the length of the interior angle bisectors, as usual. We achieve this by constructing effectively two counterexamples, one for each type of inequalities.

  2. modified edge fed sierpinski carpet miniaturized microstrip patch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... growth recorded by wireless communication is the antenna. Antenna ... transmission cannot be carried out without the use of an antenna. Low cost and ..... for electromagnetic. EM energy scavenging,” Proceedings of the 34th.

  3. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL .... tein vaccines require expensive virus/protein purification tech- niques as ... sphere continue to remain major health hazards in developing nations. ... significance since it can be produced at a very low cost and can be stored ...

  4. DNA Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ellen S.; Bertino, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity that allow students to work through the exercise of DNA profiling and to grapple with some analytical and ethical questions involving a couple arranging with a surrogate mother to have a baby. Can be used to teach the principles of restriction enzyme digestion, gel electrophoresis, and probe hybridization. (MDH)

  5. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkus Kristen A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  6. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FRAUD TRIANGLE ON DETECTING FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL STATEMENT: USING BENEISH MODEL AND THE CASE OF SPECIAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprillia Aprillia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fraudulent financial statement is a serious problem and to be a threat to stakeholders, especially for investor. The thing is happened because there is illegal action done intentionally, such as disclosing financial information that doesn’t match with the real condition. The purpose of this research is to acquire a effectiveness of empirical proof of fraud triangle consisting of Pressure, Opportunity, and Rationalization in detecting financial statement fraud that are indicated by using Beneish Model. The sample of this research consists of 39 companies are indicated doing fraud and 57 companies aren’t indicated doing fraud listing at BEI (Bursa Efek Indonesia in 2012 – 2014. Test of this research uses logistic regression method. Based on the result and conclusion, this research shows that opportunity (independent commissioner ownership has significant effect to fraudulent financial statement while pressure (AGROW, financial target (ROA, and rationalization (Total accrual don’t have significant effect to fraudulent financial statement.

  7. The Vertex of the Triangle: Dom Casmurro, Gender and Sexuality during Brazilian Fin-de-siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Miskolci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a Queer theoretical approach, this article explores transformations on gender and sexual relations in Brazilian society at the end of XIX century. This work associates a sociological analysis of the love triangle in the novel Dom Casmurro to a historical reconstitution of the period, as a way to give elements to a non-heteronormative comprehension of Brazilian social history. The focus on Machado de Assis´s most famous work allows exploring the fear and the violent refusal of any transgression of the gender and sexual order. The triangle’s vertex is always an Other and even if we identify s/he with a character, it is only the symbol of what that time and society rejected as a danger for the current structure of love and power relations.

  8. School Integration Partner Triangle in Educational and Cultural Activities of U.E.E. "Hilarion Alberto Viloria"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer José Pérez Rojas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop an action plan for the integration of the school triangle to educational and socio-cultural activities of the U. E. E. Hilarion Alberto Viloria. diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation: To achieve this objective the methodology proposed by Pérez (2000, in its four phases are discussed. It was concluded that teachers are the key element for social change in the paradigm shifts of education which will provide a number of opportunities to produce changes and transformations not only in organizational strategies, but values embedded in teaching practices. With regard to planning, taking into account the results obtained in the diagnosis, it became necessary to plan action plans grounded in the participation of social actors. Should promote the inclusion of securities ownership and sustainability among members of the school and community, social actors favoring a change in attitude conducive cultures of the good citizen towards sustainable lifestyles.

  9. Laser cutting of triangular geometry into 2024 aluminum alloy: Influence of triangle size on thermal stress field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Akhtar, Syed Sohail [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Keles, Omer; Boran, Kurtulus [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    Laser cutting of a triangular geometry into aluminum 2024 alloy is carried out. Thermal stress field in the cutting section is predicted using the finite element code ABAQUS. Surface temperature predictions are validated through the thermocouple data. Morphological changes in the cut section are examined incorporating optical and electron scanning microscopes. The effects of the size of the triangular geometry on thermal stress field are also examined. It is found that surface temperature predictions agree well with thermocouple data. von Mises stress remains high in the region close to the corners of the triangular geometry, which is more pronounced for the small size triangle. This behavior is associated with the occurrence of the high cooling rates in this region. Laser cut edges are free from large scale sideways burning and large size burr attachments. However, some locally scattered dross attachments are observed at the kerf exit.

  10. The role of ergodicity and mixing in the central limit theorem for Casati-Prosen triangle map variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiros, S.M. Duarte [Unilever R and D Port Sunlight, Quarry Road East, CH63 3JW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: silvio.queiros@unilever.com

    2009-04-13

    In this Letter we analyse the behaviour of the probability density function of the sum of N deterministic variables generated from the triangle map of Casati-Prosen. For the case in which the map is both ergodic and mixing the resulting probability density function quickly concurs with the Normal distribution. However, when the map is weakly chaotic, and fuzzily not mixing, the resulting probability density functions are described by power-laws. Moreover, contrarily to what it would be expected, as the number of added variables N increases the distance to Gaussian distribution increases. This behaviour goes against standard central limit theorem. By extrapolation of our finite size results we preview that in the limit of N going to infinity the distribution has the same asymptotic decay as a Lorentzian (or a q=2-Gaussian)

  11. Prospects for the measurement of the unitarity triangle angle γ from B0→DK+π- decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershon, Tim; Williams, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The potential for a precise measurement of the unitarity triangle angle γ in future experiments from the decay B 0 →DK* 0 is well known. It has recently been suggested that the sensitivity can be significantly enhanced by analyzing the B 0 →DK + π - Dalitz plot to extract amplitudes relative to those of the flavor-specific decay B 0 →D 2 * - K + . An extension to this method which includes the case where the neutral D meson is reconstructed in suppressed final states is presented. The sensitivity to γ is estimated using this method and compared to that obtained using the B 0 →DK* 0 decay alone. Experimental effects, such as background contamination, are also considered. This approach appears to be a highly attractive addition to the family of methods that can be used to determine γ.

  12. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus,

  13. Survey of the respiratory health status of 10-year-old children exposed to air pollution in the Vaal Triangle priority area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mundackal, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available found a relatively high prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases, especially in children. The sources of air pollution in the Vaal Triangle, together with the potential for exceedances of air quality guidelines, led to the area being declared...

  14. Genesis of a growth triangle in Southeast Asia : a study of economic connections between Singapore, Johor and the Riau Islands, 1870s – 1970s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the history of a regional cooperation framework, the SIJORI Growth Triangle with a focus on the mutual economic connections between Singapore, Johor and the Riau Islands. These long-exiting connections formed the initial shape of local networks which were enlarged, intensified

  15. A Fast Exact k-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm for High Dimensional Search Using k-Means Clustering and Triangle Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyi

    2012-02-08

    The k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) algorithm is a widely used machine learning method that finds nearest neighbors of a test object in a feature space. We present a new exact k-NN algorithm called kMkNN (k-Means for k-Nearest Neighbors) that uses the k-means clustering and the triangle inequality to accelerate the searching for nearest neighbors in a high dimensional space. The kMkNN algorithm has two stages. In the buildup stage, instead of using complex tree structures such as metric trees, kd-trees, or ball-tree, kMkNN uses a simple k-means clustering method to preprocess the training dataset. In the searching stage, given a query object, kMkNN finds nearest training objects starting from the nearest cluster to the query object and uses the triangle inequality to reduce the distance calculations. Experiments show that the performance of kMkNN is surprisingly good compared to the traditional k-NN algorithm and tree-based k-NN algorithms such as kd-trees and ball-trees. On a collection of 20 datasets with up to 10(6) records and 10(4) dimensions, kMkNN shows a 2-to 80-fold reduction of distance calculations and a 2- to 60-fold speedup over the traditional k-NN algorithm for 16 datasets. Furthermore, kMkNN performs significant better than a kd-tree based k-NN algorithm for all datasets and performs better than a ball-tree based k-NN algorithm for most datasets. The results show that kMkNN is effective for searching nearest neighbors in high dimensional spaces.

  16. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  17. Examining Factors that Influence the Existence of Heinrich's Safety Triangle Using Site-Specific H&S Data from More than 25,000 Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorio, Patrick L; Moore, Susan M

    2018-04-01

    In the 1930s, Heinrich established one of the most prominent and enduring accident prevention theories when he concluded that high severity occupational safety and health (OSH) incidents are preceded by numerous lower severity incidents and near misses. Seventy-five years of theory expansion/interpretation includes two fundamental tenets: (1) the ratio of lower to higher severity incidents exists in the form of a "safety-triangle" and (2) similar causes underlie both high and low severity events. Although used extensively to inform public policy and establishment-level health and safety priorities, recent research challenges the validity of the two tenets. This study explored the validity of the first tenet, the existence of the safety triangle. The advantage of the current study is the use of a detailed, establishment-specific data set that evaluated over 25,000 establishments over a 13-year time period, allowing three specific questions to be explored: (1) Are an increased number of lower severity incidents at an establishment significantly associated with the probability of a fatal event over time? (2) At the establishment level, do the effects of OSH incidents on the probability of a fatality over time decrease as the degree of severity decreases-thereby taking the form of a triangle? and (3) Do distinct methods for delineating incidents by severity affect the existence of the safety triangle form? The answer to all three questions was yes with the triangle form being dependent upon how severity was delineated. The implications of these findings in regard to Heinrich's theory and OSH policy and management are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a series of DNA repair pathways are discussed which are available to the cell to cope with the problem of DNA damaged by chemical or physical agents. In the case of microorganisms our knowledge about the precise mechanism of each DNA repair pathway and the regulation of it has been improved considerably when mutants deficient in these repair mechanisms became available. In the case of mammalian cells in culture, until recently there were very little repair deficient mutants available, because in almost all mammalian cells in culture at least the diploid number of chromosomes is present. Therefore the frequency of repair deficient mutants in such populations is very low. Nevertheless because replica plating techniques are improving some mutants from Chinese hamsters ovary cells and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells are now available. In the case of human cells, cultures obtained from patients with certain genetic diseases are available. A number of cells appear to be sensitive to some chemical or physical mutagens. These include cells from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, Ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome. However, only in the case of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, has the sensitivity to ultraviolet light been clearly correlated with a deficiency in excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore the work with strains obtained from biopsies from man is difficult because these cells generally have low cloning efficiencies and also have a limited lifespan in vitro. It is therefore very important that more repair deficient mutants will become available from established cell lines from human or animal origin

  19. Time lapse microscopy of temperature control during self-assembly of 3D DNA crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Fiona W.; Jong, Michael Alexander; Tan, Andre; Tseng, Robert; Park, Eunice; Ohayon, Yoel P.; Sha, Ruojie; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2017-10-01

    DNA nanostructures are created by exploiting the high fidelity base-pairing interactions of double-stranded branched DNA molecules. These structures present a convenient medium for the self-assembly of macroscopic 3D crystals. In some self-assemblies in this system, crystals can be formed by lowering the temperature, and they can be dissolved by raising it. The ability to monitor the formation and melting of these crystals yields information that can be used to monitor crystal formation and growth. Here, we describe the development of an inexpensive tool that enables direct observation of the crystal growth process as a function of both time and temperature. Using the hanging-drop crystallization of the well-characterized 2-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif for our model system, its response to temperature has been characterized visually.

  20. DNA origami as an in vivo drug delivery vehicle for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Qiao; Li, Na; Dai, Luru; Liu, Qing; Song, Linlin; Wang, Jinye; Li, Yaqian; Tian, Jie; Ding, Baoquan; Du, Yang

    2014-07-22

    Many chemotherapeutics used for cancer treatments encounter issues during delivery to tumors in vivo and may have high levels of systemic toxicity due to their nonspecific distribution. Various materials have been explored to fabricate nanoparticles as drug carriers to improve delivery efficiency. However, most of these materials suffer from multiple drawbacks, such as limited biocompatibility and inability to engineer spatially addressable surfaces that can be utilized for multifunctional activity. Here, we demonstrate that DNA origami possessed enhanced tumor passive targeting and long-lasting properties at the tumor region. Particularly, the triangle-shaped DNA origami exhibits optimal tumor passive targeting accumulation. The delivery of the known anticancer drug doxorubicin into tumors by self-assembled DNA origami nanostructures was performed, and this approach showed prominent therapeutic efficacy in vivo. The DNA origami carriers were prepared through the self-assembly of M13mp18 phage DNA and hundreds of complementary DNA helper strands; the doxorubicin was subsequently noncovalently intercalated into these nanostructures. After conducting fluorescence imaging and safety evaluation, the doxorubicin-containing DNA origami exhibited remarkable antitumor efficacy without observable systemic toxicity in nude mice bearing orthotopic breast tumors labeled with green fluorescent protein. Our results demonstrated the potential of DNA origami nanostructures as innovative platforms for the efficient and safe drug delivery of cancer therapeutics in vivo.

  1. NuFact muon storage ring: study of a triangle design based on solenoid focusing decay straights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Service Accelerateurs, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)]|[Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, 31-33, rue de la Federation (Paris 15e), BP 510, 75752 Paris Cedex 15 (France); Reesy, G. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Properties of acceptance and beam transmission in a triangle design of the neutrino factory muon decay ring, with decay straights based on solenoidal focusing, are reported.The muon storage ring in the neutrino factory, NuFact, is located at the high energy end of the muon acceleration chain. It delivers the {mu}{sup +}/{mu}{sup -} decay neutrinos to physics detectors. The design of concern here, is a triangle geometry 20 GeV storage ring, upgradable to 50 GeV, (the parameters are given), which features two decay straight sections, each one aiming at a distant detector. The third straight section of the ring is devoted to tuning, collimation and RF. A particularity of the proposed design, is in its being based on solenoid focusing decay straights, which has the virtue of minimizing the betatron amplitudes, compared to equivalent quadrupole focusing. The solenoidal focusing ensures the requested ratio, for the r.m.s. divergences of the 20 GeV muon and the neutrino beam, of 0.1 for an assumed muon normalized r.m.s. emittance of 4800 {pi} mm mr (3 {pi} cm, total). The goal of the present work is to show the viability of this design, in particular as concerns the impact of the solenoid focusing on machine behavior. It addresses the questions of residual coupling, machine acceptance, and concludes with a computation of beam transmission over 1000 turns. The paper has the following structure: 1. Introduction; 2. Working hypothesis; 3. Building-up ray-tracing data; 3.1. Arcs; 3.2. Solenoid straight; 3.3. Tuning/Collimation/RF straight; 3.4. Full ring; 3.4.1. Beam envelopes; 3.4.2. Closed orbits; 3.4.3. Momentum dispersion; 3.5 Large amplitude tracking, preliminary tests; 4. Tracking, linear machine; 4.1. Large amplitude tracking; 4.1.1. 2-D horizontal initial conditions; 4.1.2. 2-D vertical initial conditions; 4.1.3. 4-D + {delta}p/p initial conditions; 4.2. Transmission, 4-D + {delta}p/p, no sextupoles; 4.2.1. {epsilon}{sub x} {epsilon}{sub z} = 3 {pi} cm (norm.), {delta

  2. NuFact muon storage ring: study of a triangle design based on solenoid focusing decay straights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meot, F.; Reesy, G.

    2006-06-01

    Properties of acceptance and beam transmission in a triangle design of the neutrino factory muon decay ring, with decay straights based on solenoidal focusing, are reported.The muon storage ring in the neutrino factory, NuFact, is located at the high energy end of the muon acceleration chain. It delivers the μ + /μ - decay neutrinos to physics detectors. The design of concern here, is a triangle geometry 20 GeV storage ring, upgradable to 50 GeV, (the parameters are given), which features two decay straight sections, each one aiming at a distant detector. The third straight section of the ring is devoted to tuning, collimation and RF. A particularity of the proposed design, is in its being based on solenoid focusing decay straights, which has the virtue of minimizing the betatron amplitudes, compared to equivalent quadrupole focusing. The solenoidal focusing ensures the requested ratio, for the r.m.s. divergences of the 20 GeV muon and the neutrino beam, of 0.1 for an assumed muon normalized r.m.s. emittance of 4800 π mm mr (3 π cm, total). The goal of the present work is to show the viability of this design, in particular as concerns the impact of the solenoid focusing on machine behavior. It addresses the questions of residual coupling, machine acceptance, and concludes with a computation of beam transmission over 1000 turns. The paper has the following structure: 1. Introduction; 2. Working hypothesis; 3. Building-up ray-tracing data; 3.1. Arcs; 3.2. Solenoid straight; 3.3. Tuning/Collimation/RF straight; 3.4. Full ring; 3.4.1. Beam envelopes; 3.4.2. Closed orbits; 3.4.3. Momentum dispersion; 3.5 Large amplitude tracking, preliminary tests; 4. Tracking, linear machine; 4.1. Large amplitude tracking; 4.1.1. 2-D horizontal initial conditions; 4.1.2. 2-D vertical initial conditions; 4.1.3. 4-D + δp/p initial conditions; 4.2. Transmission, 4-D + δp/p, no sextupoles; 4.2.1. ε x ε z = 3 π cm (norm.), δp/p = ±1%; 4.2.2. ε x ε z = 6 π cm (norm.), δp/p ±4

  3. From Coalgebra to Bialgebra for the Six-Vertex Model: The Star-Triangle Relation as a Necessary Condition for Commuting Transfer Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Schmidt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the most elementary methods and considerations, the solution of the star-triangle condition (a2+b2-c2/2ab = ((a’^2+(b’^2-(c’^2/2a’b’ is shown to be a necessary condition for the extension of the operator coalgebra of the six-vertex model to a bialgebra. A portion of the bialgebra acts as a spectrum-generating algebra for the algebraic Bethe ansatz, with which higher-dimensional representations of the bialgebra can be constructed. The star-triangle relation is proved to be necessary for the commutativity of the transfer matrices T(a, b, c and T(a’, b’, c’.

  4. Management of anterior triangle swellings in a tertiary vascular centre with emphasis on the roles of duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiogram and magnetic resonance angiogram: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior triangle masses pose an important clinical dilemma. It is very difficult to distinguish the potential pathologies pre operatively by clinical and radiological assessment. CASE REPORT: The first case highlights the management of a bilateral chemodectoma, the second case is a presentation of castleman\\'s disease and the third is that of metastatic tonsillar adenocarcinoma. All three cases had a similar presentation and radiological appearance pre-operatively. CONCLUSION: Anterior triangle masses span the clinical spectrum of pathologies from chemodectoma to castleman\\'s disease to carcinoma. Expert vascular and radiological management is required for optimum patient care and should take place in a tertiary referral centre. Duplex US, CTA and MRA are important pre operative assessment tools to ensure that adequate information regarding the relationship of the lesion to the carotid artery is available to the operating surgeon who should have vascular expertise as deliberate practice volume has been repeatedly shown to result in improved patient outcome.

  5. Thermal-hydraulic performance analysis of a subchannel with square and triangle fuel rod arrangements using the entropy generation approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Talebi; M.M.Valoujerdi

    2017-01-01

    The present paper discusses entropy generation in fully developed turbulent flows through a subchannel,arranged in square and triangle arrays.Entropy generation is due to contribution of both heat transfer and pressure drop.Our main objective is to study the effect of key parameters such as spacer grid,fuel rod power distribution,Reynolds number Re,dimensionless heat power ω,lengthto-fuel-diameter ratio λ,and pitch-to-diameter ratio ξ on subchannel entropy generation.The analysis explicitly shows the contribution of heat transfer and pressure drop to the total entropy generation.An analytical formulation is introduced to total entropy generation for situations with uniform and sinusoidal rod power distribution.It is concluded that power distribution affects entropy generation.A smoother power profile leads to less entropy generation.The entropy generation of square rod array bundles is more efficient than that of triangular rod arrays,and spacer grids generate more entropy.

  6. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1994--31 August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers the second year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas of nuclear physics: parity violation in neutron and charged-particle resonances--the mass and energy dependence of the weak interaction spreading width; chaotic behavior in 30 P from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; studies of few-body systems; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear data evaluation for A = 3--20, for which TUNL is now the international center; high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation in nuclei, involving collaborations at Argonne National Laboratory. Developments in technology and instrumentation have been vital to the research and training program. In this progress report the author describes: a proposed polarized γ-beam facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory; cryogenic systems and microcalorimeter development; continuing development of the Low Energy Beam Facility. The research summaries presented in this progress report are preliminary

  7. Ornamental Marine Species Culture in the Coral Triangle: Seahorse Demonstration Project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L.; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R. Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O.; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species (`OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse ( Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

  8. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1995--31 August 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers parts of the second and third year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas: precision test of parity-invariance violation in resonance neutron scattering at LANSCE/LANL; parity violation measurements using charged-particle resonances in A = 20--40 targets and the A = 4 system at TUNL; chaotic behavior in the nuclei 30 P and 34 Cl from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; search for anomalies in the level density (pairing phase transition) in 1f-2p shell nuclei using GEANIE at LANSCE/LANL; parity-conserving time-reversal noninvariance tests using 166 Ho resonances at Geel, ORELA, or LANSCE/LANL; nuclear astrophysics; few-body nuclear systems; Nuclear Data evaluation for A = 3--20 for which TUNL is now the international center. Developments in technology and instrumentation are vital to the research and training program. Innovative work was continued in: polarized beam development; polarized target development; designing new cryogenic systems; designing new detectors; improving high-resolution beams for the KN and FN accelerators; development of an unpolarized Low-Energy Beam Facility for radiative capture studies of astrophysical interest. Preliminary research summaries are presented

  9. USULAN PERANCANGAN TATA LETAK PENYIMPANAN KOMPONEN BERDASARKAN KRITERIA KOMODITI KOMPONEN (Studi Kasus di PT Triangle Motorindo Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kurang lancarnya suplai komponen ke bagian produksi dapat menyebabkan menurunnya produktivitas dari bagian produksi. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan perancangan tata letak penyimpanan komponen yang lebih baik sehingga dapat mengurangi waktu mencari komponen, mengurangi jarak perjalanan operator dalam pengambilan dan pengiriman komponen, dan meningkatkan pemanfaatan kapasitas gudang.                 PT. Triangle Motorindo merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak dalam usaha perakitan sepeda motor. Secara garis besar, perusahaan dapat dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu bagian gudang dan bagian produksi dimana bagian gudang menjadi pendukung dari bagian produksi. Bagian gudang terdiri dari gudang sortir, gudang rangka, dan gudang mesin. Dalam mengalokasikan komponen yang disimpan, perusahaan menggunakan kebijakan penyimpanan random/acak yang berakibat tidak standarnya waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mencari komponen dan bertambahnya waktu perjalanan operator dalam menyuplai komponen. Penelitian ini memberikan alternatif perancangan tata letak penyimpanan komponen yang dilakukan dengan memperhatikan komponen itu sendiri, dalam hal ini disebut faktor komoditi yang terdiri atas popularity, similarity, characteristic, dan size. Selain berdasarkan komponen yang disimpan, perancangan tata letak penyimpanan ini juga memperhatikan kondisi ruangan yang tersedia. Hasil pengolahan data dan analisis yang dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa tata letak penyimpanan komponen yang terbaik adalah berdasarkan kriteria process similarity. Tata letak penyimpanan komponen berdasarkan kriteria process similarity ini merupakan tata letak penyimpanan komponen terbaik. Kata Kunci : komponen, faktor komoditi, lost time, waktu perjalanan

  10. Effect of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Learning Media on Cooperative, Individual and Conventional Method on Chemistry Learning Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latisma D, L.; Kurniawan, W.; Seprima, S.; Nirbayani, E. S.; Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to see which method are well used with the Chemistry Triangle-oriented learning media. This quasi experimental research involves first grade of senior high school students in six schools namely each two SMA N in Solok city, in Pasaman and two SMKN in Pariaman. The sampling technique was done by Cluster Random Sampling. Data were collected by test and analyzed by one-way anova and Kruskall Wallish test. The results showed that the high school students in Solok learning taught by cooperative method is better than the results of student learning taught by conventional and Individual methods, both for students who have high initial ability and low-ability. Research in SMK showed that the overall student learning outcomes taught by conventional method is better than the student learning outcomes taught by cooperative and individual methods. Student learning outcomes that have high initial ability taught by individual method is better than student learning outcomes that are taught by cooperative method and for students who have low initial ability, there is no difference in student learning outcomes taught by cooperative, individual and conventional methods. Learning in high school in Pasaman showed no significant difference in learning outcomes of the three methods undertaken.

  11. The interdigital brace and other grips for termite nest perforation by chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, Julie J; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2015-06-01

    Studies of chimpanzee termite foraging enlighten our understanding of early hominin tool use not only by modeling the cognitive ability of our ancestors but also by emphasizing the possible role of social insects in the hominin diet. The chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle are known to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported for wild chimpanzees. One tool set habitually used by this population includes a perforating tool to penetrate the hard outer crust of elevated termite nests before fishing for termite prey with an herbaceous stem. Here, we report the variation present in the grips used on the perforating tool. Our analysis of video recordings of chimpanzee visitation to termite nests over a 3-year period shows that these chimpanzees use a variety of grips to navigate the challenges encountered in opening a termite nest. For situations in which the soil is most hardened, perforating requires force and a power grip is often used. When the soil in the passageway is loose, precision grips are suitable for the task. One of the preferred grips reported here is an interdigital brace, which has previously been described in studies of how some people hold a pencil. In this study, for the first time, the interdigital brace has been thoroughly described for chimpanzees. The various strategies and grips used during perforation emphasize the importance of termites as a nutritional resource that should be considered more strongly as a food used by early hominins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from a Suburban Area of Naples, Italy: The "Triangle of Death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Antonella De; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Picazio, Giuseppe; Caiazzo, Marcello; D'auria, Jacopo Luigi; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminated food is a general health concern worldwide; it is necessary to evaluate food safety with respect to contaminants present in the edible parts of major food crops. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn) from 51 potato plantations in the Campania region, inside the area known as the "Triangle of Death," with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Results confirm that the potatoes collected from the suburban area of Naples contained concentrations of trace elements below the safe limits prescribed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The concentrations of elements were similar to those reported for potatoes grown in other countries. Monitoring the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance. The environmental persistence of metals may result in the accumulation of significant levels of these contaminants in plants. They are absorbed to different extents, depending on their source, soil and climatic factors, plant genotype, and agrotechnical conditions, thereby entering the food chain and representing a risk to human health.

  13. Three STATs are involved in the regulation of the expression of antimicrobial peptides in the triangle sail mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun-Jia; Hui, Kai-Min; Zhang, Ying-Hao; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Qing; Zhao, Li-Juan; Lin, Li; Chai, Lian-Qin; Wei, Shun; Lan, Jiang-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Janus kinase (Jak) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is associated in antiviral and antibacterial immune response. Previous studies primarily investigated the function of STATs in mammals. For most invertebrates, only one STAT was found in each species, such as STAT92E was found in Drosophila melanogaster. The studies, which focus on the functional difference between various STATs in the same species of invertebrate, are limited. In the present study, three STATs (HcSTAT1, HcSTAT2 and HcSTAT3) were identified in triangle shell pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HcSTAT1 and HcSTAT3 were clustered with Homo sapiens STAT5, and HcSTAT2 was clustered with Pinctada fucata STAT and Crassostea gigas STAT6. All three STATs could be detected in all tested tissues (hemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, mantle and foot), and were induced expression when challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or Aeromonas hydrophilia in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. HcSTAT1 regulated the expression of HcDef, HcWAP, HcThe and HcTNF. The expression of HcWAP and HcTNF was down-regulated in HcSTAT2-RNAi mussel. And HcSTAT3 affected the expression of HcTNF. The study is the first report of different functions in antibacterial immune responses between STATs in mollusks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined effects of toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia on the physiological responses of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Menghong; Wu, Fangli; Yuan, Mingzhe; Liu, Qigen; Wang, Youji

    2016-04-05

    The single and combined effects of toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia on the energy budget of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii were determined in terms of scope for growth (SfG). Mussels were exposed to different combinations of toxic M. aeruginosa (0%, 50%, and 100% of total dietary dry weight) and dissolved oxygen concentrations (1, 3, and 6.0mg O2l(-1)) with a 3×3 factorial design for 14 days, followed by a recovery period with normal conditions for 7 days. Microcystin contents in mussel tissues increased with the increase in the exposed M. aeruginosa concentration at each sampling time. Adverse physiological responses of H. cumingii under toxic M. aeruginosa and hypoxic exposure were found in terms of clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, and SfG. Results emphasized the importance of combined effects of hypoxia and toxic cyanobacteria on H. cumingii bioenergetic parameters, highlighted the interactive effects of toxic algae and hypoxia, and implied that the two stressors affected H. cumingii during the exposure period and showed carryover effects later. Thus, if H. cumingii is used as a bioremediation tool to eliminate M. aeruginosa, the waters should be oxygenated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurements of direct CP violation and constraints on the CKM triangle in B → K*π decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Andrew Phillips [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We constrain the apex of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle with measurements of B → K*π amplitudes from analyses of B0 → K+π-π0 and B0 → KSπ+π- decays. This constraint is consistent with the world average. The B0 → K+π-π0 decay mode is reconstructed from a sample of 454 million B0$\\bar{B}$ 0 events collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC. We measure direct CP violation in B0 → K*+π- decays at the level of 3σ when measurements from both B0 → K+π-π0 and B0 → KSπ+π- decays are combined.

  16. Exact solution to the problem of nonlinear pulse propagation through random layered media and its connection with number triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolow, Adam; Sen, Surajit

    2007-01-01

    An energy pulse refers to a spatially compact energy bundle. In nonlinear pulse propagation, the nonlinearity of the relevant dynamical equations could lead to pulse propagation that is nondispersive or weakly dispersive in space and time. Nonlinear pulse propagation through layered media with widely varying pulse transmission properties is not wave-like and a problem of broad interest in many areas such as optics, geophysics, atmospheric physics and ocean sciences. We study nonlinear pulse propagation through a semi-infinite sequence of layers where the layers can have arbitrary energy transmission properties. By assuming that the layers are rigid, we are able to develop exact expressions for the backscattered energy received at the surface layer. The present study is likely to be relevant in the context of energy transport through soil and similar complex media. Our study reveals a surprising connection between the problem of pulse propagation and the number patterns in the well known Pascal's and Catalan's triangles and hence provides an analytic benchmark in a challenging problem of broad interest. We close with comments on the relationship between this study and the vast body of literature on the problem of wave localization in disordered systems

  17. Pulsed and monoenergetic beams for neutron cross-section measurements using activation and scattering techniques at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutcheson, A. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)]. E-mail: hutch@tunl.duke.edu; Angell, C.T. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Boswell, M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Crowell, A.S. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Dashdorj, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Fallin, B. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Fotiades, N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Howell, C.R.; Karwowski, H.J.; Kelley, J.H.; Kiser, M. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Macri, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Nelson, R.O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pedroni, R.S. [NC A and T State University, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Tonchev, A.P.; Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Vieira, D.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Penn State Altoona, 3000 Ivyside Park, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States); Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    In support of the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances initiative, an experimental program has been developed at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure (n,xn) cross-sections with both in-beam and activation techniques with the goal of improving the partial cross-section database for the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. First experimental efforts include excitation function measurements on {sup 235,238}U and {sup 241}Am using pulsed and monoenergetic neutron beams with E {sub n} = 5-15 MeV. Neutron-induced partial cross-sections were measured by detecting prompt {gamma} rays from the residual nuclei using various combinations of clover and planar HPGe detectors in the TUNL shielded neutron source area. Complimentary activation measurements using DC neutron beams have also been performed in open geometry in our second target area. The neutron-induced activities were measured in the TUNL low-background counting area. In this presentation, we include detailed information about the irradiation procedures and facilities and preliminary data on first measurements using this capability.

  18. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1994--31 August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers the second year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas of nuclear physics: parity violation in neutron and charged-particle resonances--the mass and energy dependence of the weak interaction spreading width; chaotic behavior in {sup 30}P from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; studies of few-body systems; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear data evaluation for A = 3--20, for which TUNL is now the international center; high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation in nuclei, involving collaborations at Argonne National Laboratory. Developments in technology and instrumentation have been vital to the research and training program. In this progress report the author describes: a proposed polarized {gamma}-beam facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory; cryogenic systems and microcalorimeter development; continuing development of the Low Energy Beam Facility. The research summaries presented in this progress report are preliminary.

  19. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1995--31 August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1996-09-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers parts of the second and third year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas: precision test of parity-invariance violation in resonance neutron scattering at LANSCE/LANL; parity violation measurements using charged-particle resonances in A = 20--40 targets and the A = 4 system at TUNL; chaotic behavior in the nuclei {sup 30}P and {sup 34}Cl from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; search for anomalies in the level density (pairing phase transition) in 1f-2p shell nuclei using GEANIE at LANSCE/LANL; parity-conserving time-reversal noninvariance tests using {sup 166}Ho resonances at Geel, ORELA, or LANSCE/LANL; nuclear astrophysics; few-body nuclear systems; Nuclear Data evaluation for A = 3--20 for which TUNL is now the international center. Developments in technology and instrumentation are vital to the research and training program. Innovative work was continued in: polarized beam development; polarized target development; designing new cryogenic systems; designing new detectors; improving high-resolution beams for the KN and FN accelerators; development of an unpolarized Low-Energy Beam Facility for radiative capture studies of astrophysical interest. Preliminary research summaries are presented.

  20. Adoption of Small-Scale Irrigation Farming as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice and Its Influence on Household Income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice is very important. Through a binary logistic and ordinary least squares regression, this article determines factors that influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on income among smallholder farmers. The results show that off-farm employment, access to irrigation equipment, access to reliable water sources and awareness of water conservation practices, such as rainwater harvesting, have a significant influence on the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming. On the other hand, the farmer’s age, distance travelled to the nearest market and nature of employment negatively influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming decisions. Ordinary least squares regression results showed that the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice has a significant positive influence on agricultural income. We therefore conclude that to empower smallholder farmers to respond quickly to climate variability and change, practices that will enhance the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming in the Chinyanja Triangle are critical, as this will significantly affect agricultural income. In terms of policy, we recommend that the governments of Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, which cover the Chinyanja Triangle, formulate policies that will enhance the adoption of sustainable small scale

  1. Holocene climate and environmental change in the Palliser Triangle: a geoscientific context for evaluating the impacts of climate change on the southern Canadian prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmen, D. S.; Vance, R. E. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Palliser Triangle is the driest portion of the Canadian Prairies, and one of the most climatically sensitive regions in Canada. As proof of that, it has suffered severe droughts in the 1920s, 1930s and the 1980s. General climatic models predict that future global warming will be most pronounced in northern regions and continental interiors, including the Great Plains of North America. Evidence of warming is already present in the regional climate record, suggesting that the Palliser Triangle is likely to become even more arid, and drought frequency may increase. This volume contains 18 papers related to major objectives of a project involving the use of the unique paleoenvironmental records available in the Palliser Triangle to assess the impacts of future climate change. Two major objectives of the project are of particular focus: the reconstruction of the Holocene (post-glacial) climatic and hydrological changes, and the evaluation of the relationship between climate and landscape processes. Each paper is capable of standing on its own as a contribution to a specific geoscience discipline; by bringing them together in one regionally focused volume, the editors intend to highlight the need for interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches to the study of global climate change issues. The first paper provides a broad summary of the major results, followed by nine papers devoted to records of past climate and hydrological change documented in paleolimnological and hydrogeological studies. The remaining eight papers focus on geomorphic processes in the Palliser Triangle, and on explanations of how these processes respond to climate forcing. Since each contribution can stand its own, each paper has its own abstract in English and French and its own bibliography. There is an author index for the volume as whole.

  2. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA molecule which makes it ideal for storage and propagation of genetic information. ... of these errors are broadly referred to as DNA repair. DNA can ... changes occur in the human genome per day. ..... nails, frequent physical and mental.

  3. Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3ly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Weeks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement.

  4. Synthesis of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  5. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Selected Surface-Water Supplies, Triangle Area of North Carolina, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.M .

    2007-01-01

    Selected organic wastewater compounds, such as household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics, were measured at eight sites classified as drinking-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina. From October 2002 through July 2005, seven of the sites were sampled twice, and one site was sampled 28 times, for a total of 42 sets of environmental samples. Samples were analyzed for as many as 126 compounds using three laboratory analytical methods. These methods were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to detect low levels (generally less than or equal to 1.0 microgram per liter) of the target compounds in filtered water. Because analyses were conducted on filtered samples, the results presented in this report may not reflect the total concentration of organic wastewater compounds in the waters that were sampled. Various quality-control samples were used to quality assure the results in terms of method performance and possible laboratory or field contamination. Of the 108 organic wastewater compounds that met method performance criteria, 24 were detected in at least one sample during the study. These 24 compounds included 3 pharmaceutical compounds, 6 fire retardants and plasticizers, 3 antibiotics, 3 pesticides, 6 fragrances and flavorants, 1 disinfectant, and 2 miscellaneous-use compounds, all of which likely originated from a variety of domestic, industrial, and agricultural sources. The 10 most frequently detected compounds included acetyl-hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene and hexahydro-hexamethyl cyclopentabenzopyran (synthetic musks that are widely used in personal-care products and are known endocrine disruptors); tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tri(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate (fire retardants); metolachlor (herbicide); caffeine (nonprescription stimulant); cotinine (metabolite of nicotine); acetaminophen (nonprescription analgesic); and sulfamethoxazole (prescription antibiotic

  6. The relevance of operational skills towards business sustainability: A focus on SMME manufacturers in the Vaal triangle region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Naidoo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Activities in the manufacturing sector are often considered the bedrock of an economy and a key driver of growth and development. Within the South African manufacturing sector, operations skills are reported to be deficient and are often cited as a main cause of failure in small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs. This study explores and tests this fragile relationship between operations skills and SMME sustainability. Empirical investigations are conducted in a high-density SMME manufacturing environment - the Vaal Triangle Region. Design/Methodology/Approach: Building on previously established literature on SMME sustainability and operations skills, various measures are developed and tested for reliability and validity. Factor analysis is used to identify relevant factors in terms of operations skills. Co-relational analysis is then employed to test the hypothesised relationship. The study is cross-sectional in design and relies on trained fieldworkers administering surveys for data collection. Findings: Five clear factors for operations skills are identified through factor analysis with an overall high reliability value. Based on descriptive and co-relational analysis results reveal that operations skills are positively associated with sustainability. Implications: SMME owners, educators and service providers may benefit from the study's findings in terms of the nature and associations that operational skills have on developing sustainable SMME's. Originality/Value: The study focused on a neglected area of SMMEs - the importance of operations towards business sustainability, and made an important contribution towards theory development through empirical explorations. In South Africa, this is the first time an instrument measuring operations skills has been validated and associated with SMMEs in a manufacturing context.

  7. The safety, efficacy and regulatory triangle in drug development: Impact for animal models and the use of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, Peter J K; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-07-15

    Nonclinical studies in animals are conducted to demonstrate proof-of-concept, mechanism of action and safety of new drugs. For a large part, in particular safety assessment, studies are done in compliance with international regulatory guidance. However, animal models supporting the initiation of clinical trials have their limitations, related to uncertainty regarding the predictive value for a clinical condition. The 3Rs principles (refinement, reduction and replacement) are better applied nowadays, with a more comprehensive application with respect to the original definition. This regards also regulatory guidance, so that opportunities exist to revise or reduce regulatory guidance with the perspective that the optimal balance between scientifically relevant data and animal wellbeing or a reduction in animal use can be achieved. In this manuscript we review the connections in the triangle between nonclinical efficacy/safety studies and regulatory aspects, with focus on in vivo testing of drugs. These connections differ for different drugs (chemistry-based low molecular weight compounds, recombinant proteins, cell therapy or gene therapy products). Regarding animal models and their translational value we focus on regulatory aspects and indications where scientific outcomes warrant changes, reduction or replacement, like for, e.g., biosimilar evaluation and safety testing of monoclonal antibodies. On the other hand, we present applications where translational value has been clearly demonstrated, e.g., immunosuppressives in transplantation. Especially for drugs of more recent date like recombinant proteins, cell therapy products and gene therapy products, a regulatory approach that allows the possibility to conduct combined efficacy/safety testing in validated animal models should strengthen scientific outcomes and improve translational value, while reducing the numbers of animals necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of DNA Machineries for the Barcode Patterned Detection of Genes or Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixin; Luo, Guofeng; Wulf, Verena; Willner, Itamar

    2018-06-05

    The study introduces an analytical platform for the detection of genes or aptamer-ligand complexes by nucleic acid barcode patterns generated by DNA machineries. The DNA machineries consist of nucleic acid scaffolds that include specific recognition sites for the different genes or aptamer-ligand analytes. The binding of the analytes to the scaffolds initiate, in the presence of the nucleotide mixture, a cyclic polymerization/nicking machinery that yields displaced strands of variable lengths. The electrophoretic separation of the resulting strands provides barcode patterns for the specific detection of the different analytes. Mixtures of DNA machineries that yield, upon sensing of different genes (or aptamer ligands), one-, two-, or three-band barcode patterns are described. The combination of nucleic acid scaffolds acting, in the presence of polymerase/nicking enzyme and nucleotide mixture, as DNA machineries, that generate multiband barcode patterns provide an analytical platform for the detection of an individual gene out of many possible genes. The diversity of genes (or other analytes) that can be analyzed by the DNA machineries and the barcode patterned imaging is given by the Pascal's triangle. As a proof-of-concept, the detection of one of six genes, that is, TP53, Werner syndrome, Tay-Sachs normal gene, BRCA1, Tay-Sachs mutant gene, and cystic fibrosis disorder gene by six two-band barcode patterns is demonstrated. The advantages and limitations of the detection of analytes by polymerase/nicking DNA machineries that yield barcode patterns as imaging readout signals are discussed.

  9. Creating Metamaterial Building Blocks with Directed Photochemical Metallization of Silver onto DNA Origami Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Md Mir; Bendickson, Lee; Palo, Pierre; Yao, Zhiqi; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Hillier, Andrew C

    2018-06-07

    DNA origami can be used to create a variety of complex and geometrically unique nanostructures that can be further modified to produce building blocks for applications such as in optical metamaterials. We describe a method for creating metal-coated nanostructures using DNA origami templates and a photochemical metallization technique. Triangular DNA origami were fabricated and coated with a thin metal layer by photochemical silver reduction while either in solution or supported on a surface. The DNA origami template serves as a localized photosensitizer to facilitate reduction of silver ions directly from solution onto the DNA surface. The metallizing process is shown to result in a conformal metal coating, which grows in height to a self-limiting value with increasing photoreduction steps. Although this coating process results in a slight decrease in the triangle dimensions, the overall template shape is retained. Notably, this coating method exhibits characteristics of self-limiting and defect-filling growth, which results in a metal nanostructure that maps the shape of the original origami template with a continuous and uniform metal layer and stops growing once all available DNA sites are exhausted. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. The triangle squared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper attempts to relate the legal basis of hydrocarbon ownership in the United States and elsewhere to a variety of different situations and suggests ways in which host governments, their national oil corporations and international oil companies can seek to resolve or to avoid disputes arising out of situations in which petroleum reservoirs cross international boundary limits. (author)

  11. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  12. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods

  13. The triangle scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to

  14. The Geoboard Triangle Quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kasi C.

    2013-01-01

    In line with the Common Core and Standards for Mathematical Practice that portray a classroom where students are engaged in problem-solving experiences, and where various tools and arguments are employed to grow their strategic thinking, this article is the story of such a student-initiated problem. A seemingly simple question was posed by…

  15. systemic chemistry triangle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    At the end of the learning process by SCT the student gain systemic learning outcomes ... Johnstone and his group [13].have demonstrated the reducing effect of working memory .... Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions, SN2-Mechanism.

  16. Pb4(OH)4(BrO3)3(NO3): An Example of SHG Crystal in Metal Bromates Containing π-Conjugated Planar Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fang; Hu, Chun-Li; Liang, Ming-Li; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2016-01-19

    The first example of SHG crystal in the metal bromates containing π-conjugated planar triangle systems, namely, Pb4(OH)4(BrO3)3(NO3), was successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method. Furthermore, a single crystal of centrosymmetric Pb8O(OH)6(BrO3)6(NO3)2·H2O was also obtained. Both compounds contain similar [Pb4(OH)4] cubane-like tetranuclear clusters, but they display different one-dimensional (1D) chain structures. Pb4(OH)4(BrO3)3(NO3) features a zigzag [Pb4(OH)4(BrO3)3](+) 1D chain, while Pb8O(OH)6(BrO3)6(NO3)2·H2O is composed of two different orthogonal chains: the linear [Pb4(OH)4(BrO3)2](2+) 1D chain along the b-axis and the zigzag [Pb4O2(OH)2(BrO3)4](2-) 1D chain along the a-axis. The NO3 planar triangles of the compounds are all isolated and located in the spaces of the structures. Pb4(OH)4(BrO3)3(NO3) exhibits the first example of SHG crystal in the metal bromates with π-conjugated planar triangle. The second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of Pb4(OH)4(BrO3)3(NO3) is approximately equal to that of KDP and it is phase-matchable. Dipole moment and theory calculations indicate that BrO3, NO3, and PbO4 groups are the origin of its SHG efficiency, although some of the contributions cancel each other out.

  17. Absent mandibular gap in the retronasal triangle view: a clue to the diagnosis of micrognathia in the first trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, W; Wong, A E; Viñals, F; Andreeva, E; Adzehova, N; Martinez-Ten, P

    2012-02-01

    To describe a new ultrasound technique that may be useful for the diagnosis of micrognathia in the first trimester of pregnancy. The retronasal triangle (RNT) view is a technique that captures the coronal plane of the face in which the primary palate and the frontal processes of the maxilla are visualized simultaneously. Normal first-trimester fetuses display a characteristic gap between the right and left body of the mandible in this view (the 'mandibular gap'). The presence or absence of this gap was evaluated and measured prospectively during real-time scanning (n = 154) and retrospectively by analyzing three-dimensional (3D) datasets (n = 50) in normal first-trimester fetuses undergoing screening for aneuploidy at 11-13 weeks' gestation. 3D datasets from 12 fetuses with suspected micrognathia were also collected and examined retrospectively for the same features. The mandibular gap was identified in all 204 normal fetuses and increased linearly with increasing crown-rump length (y = 0.033x + 0.435; R(2) = 0.316), with no statistically significant differences between measurements obtained by two-dimensional ultrasound and 3D offline analysis. Among fetuses with suspected micrognathia, three 3D datasets were excluded from analysis because of poor image quality in one and the diagnosis of a normal chin in two. In the remaining nine fetuses, the mandibular gap was absent and was replaced by a bony structure representing the receding chin in seven (77.8%) cases and was not visualized due to severe retrognathia in the remaining two (22.2%) cases. All fetuses with micrognathia had associated anomalies, including seven with aneuploidy and two with skeletal dysplasia. The RNT view may be a helpful technique for detecting micrognathia in the first trimester. The absence of the mandibular gap or failure to identify the mandible in this view is highly suggestive of micrognathia and should prompt a targeted ultrasound scan to assess for other anomalies. Further research is

  18. Comparison of arthoroscopic findings and high-resolution MRI using a microscopy coil findings for triangle fibrocartilage complex injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satomi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Arai, Takeshi; Izumiyama, Kou; Beppu, Moroe

    2008-01-01

    Triangle fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is very small and can be visualized in MRI. We compared image findings acquired by high-resolution MRI using a 47-mm-diameter microscopy coil with arthroscopic findings and reviewed the availability and possibility of application of both these techniques. The subjects were 16 patients who underwent arthroscopy of the radiocarpal joint and MRI for the diagnosis of pain in the ulnar wrist joint. Based on image evaluation, the impaired site was categorized as follows radius attachment, disc proper, triangular ligament (upper lamina), triangular ligament (lower lamina), lunate bone cartilage face, and triquete bone cartilage face; the findings of both techniques for impaired site around part 6 were compared. Joint morphology was assessed by the gradient-recalled echo (GRE) method with T2-weighted images, and the cartilage side was analyzed the fast SE (FSE) method with proton density-weighted image. Three orthopedic surgeons and 1 radiologist interpreted the results. The impaired site was verified in all 16 patients by high-resolution MRI using a microscopy coil. The MRI findings were as follows radius attachment in 2 patients, disc proper in 4, upper lamina in 7, lower lamina in 5, lunate bone cartilage face in 3, and triquete bone cartilage face in 0. The frequency of injury according to arthroscopic findings was as follows: radius attachment in 2 patients, disc proper in 4, lunate bone cartilage face in 6, and triquete bone cartilage face in 0. The sensibility/specificity of arthroscopic findings in comparison with MRI findings was as follows: radius attachment 100%/100%, disc proper 75%/91.7%, lunate bone cartilage face 50%/100%, and triquete bone cartilage face 0%/100%. Eight of 16 patients had depression of TFCC tone, and the sensibility/specificity of arthroscopic findings in comparison with MRI findings for the depression of site and TFCC tone was as follows: upper lamina 75%/87.5% and lower lamina 50%/87.5%. High

  19. Rosneft, Gazprom and the Government: the Decision-Making Triangle on Russia's Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Russia finds itself exposed to many risks in the fast-moving global revolution in energy affairs, and cannot avail of its opportunities despite its unique combination of natural resources and experience in their exploitation. It has entered the phase of economic stagnation, and the under-performance of the energy sector is one of the key determinants of the durability of this trend. Energy export can no longer be wielded as a heavy-impact instrument of foreign policy, and the squabbles for shrinking oil and gas revenues form a key driver of the evolving crisis of the petro-authoritarian regime built by President Vladimir Putin. Escalating problems in the Russian energy sector are caused by the system of decision-making on oil and gas matters, in which Putin acts as a supreme arbiter in the flexible triangle formed by the government and two super-large state companies-Gazprom and Rosneft. It is the imperative of checking the decline of budget revenues that determines the priority in government policy of greater confiscation of profits and heavier taxation of the energy business. This squeeze on the interests of energy 'oligarchs' provokes them to appeal to Putin for tax breaks, which he is increasingly reluctant to grant, given the need to pursue an active social policy. The constant flow of insoluble issues makes Putin irritable and generally less engaged with the energy business than he used to be. Gazprom's notorious inefficiency in its core business emboldens competitors to capture greater shares of the domestic market and to demand exemptions from its export monopoly. Putin is loath to carry this political liability but remains reluctant to contemplate reforms that would amount to un-bundling of this conglomerate. Rosneft under the control of Igor Sechin has become the champion of the Russian oil industry, executing a series of acquisitions and signing a series of deals with Western 'majors'. Putin's benevolence is the key to the

  20. A Many-Objective Approach to Developing Adaptive Water Supply Portfolios in the 'Research Triangle' Region of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, H. B.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    This study uses many-objective evolutionary optimization to quantify the tradeoffs water utilities face when developing flexible water shortage response plans. Alternatives to infrastructure development, such as temporary demand management programs and inter-utility water transfer agreements, allow local water providers to develop portfolios of water supply options capable of adapting to changing hydrologic conditions and growing water demand. The extent to which these options are implemented will be determined by a number of conflicting operational and financial considerations. An integrated reservoir simulation model including four large water utilities in the 'Research Triangle' region of North Carolina is used to evaluate the potential tradeoffs resulting from regional demands on shared infrastructure, customer concerns, and the financial uncertainty caused by the intermittent and irregular nature of drought. Instead of providing one optimal solution, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) use the concept of non-dominations to discover a set of portfolio options in which no solution is inferior to any other solution in all objectives. Interactive visual analytics enable water providers to explore these tradeoffs and develop water shortage response plans tailored to their individual circumstances. The simulation model is evaluated under a number of different formulations to help identify and visualize the impacts of water efficiency, revenue/cost variability, consumer effects, and inter-utility cooperation. The different problems are formulated by adding portfolio options and objectives in such a way that the lower dimensional problem formulations are sub-sets of the full formulation. The full formulation considers reservoir reliability, water use restriction frequency, total water transfer allotment, total costs, revenue/cost variability, and additional consumer losses during restrictions. The simulation results highlight the inadequacy of lower order

  1. Image Encryption Technology Based on Fractional Two-Dimensional Triangle Function Combination Discrete Chaotic Map Coupled with Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fractional two-dimensional triangle function combination discrete chaotic map (2D-TFCDM with the discrete fractional difference is proposed. We observe the bifurcation behaviors and draw the bifurcation diagrams, the largest Lyapunov exponent plot, and the phase portraits of the proposed map, respectively. On the application side, we apply the proposed discrete fractional map into image encryption with the secret keys ciphered by Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (MVECC. Finally, the image encryption algorithm is analysed in four main aspects that indicate the proposed algorithm is better than others.

  2. DNA preservation in silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yawen; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Gong, He; Liu, Meng; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-27

    The structure of DNA is susceptible to alterations at high temperature and on changing pH, irradiation and exposure to DNase. Options to protect and preserve DNA during storage are important for applications in genetic diagnosis, identity authentication, drug development and bioresearch. In the present study, the stability of total DNA purified from human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as that of plasmid DNA, was studied in silk protein materials. The DNA/silk mixtures were stabilized on filter paper (silk/DNA + filter) or filter paper pre-coated with silk and treated with methanol (silk/DNA + PT-filter) as a route to practical utility. After air-drying and water extraction, 50-70% of the DNA and silk could be retrieved and showed a single band on electrophoretic gels. 6% silk/DNA + PT-filter samples provided improved stability in comparison with 3% silk/DNA + filter samples and DNA + filter samples for DNA preservation, with ∼40% of the band intensity remaining at 37 °C after 40 days and ∼10% after exposure to UV light for 10 hours. Quantitative analysis using the PicoGreen assay confirmed the results. The use of Tris/borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer enhanced the preservation and/or extraction of the DNA. The DNA extracted after storage maintained integrity and function based on serving as a functional template for PCR amplification of the gene for zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750) and for transgene expression of red fluorescence protein (dsRed) in HEK293 cells. The high molecular weight and high content of a crystalline beta-sheet structure formed on the coated surfaces likely accounted for the preservation effects observed for the silk/DNA + PT-filter samples. Although similar preservation effects were also obtained for lyophilized silk/DNA samples, the rapid and simple processing available with the silk-DNA-filter membrane system makes it appealing for future applications.

  3. Force induced DNA melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K

    2009-01-01

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f m , at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  4. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  5. DNA Open states and DNA hydratation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lema-Larre, B. de; Martin-Landrove, M

    1995-01-01

    It is a very well-known fact that an protonic exchange exists among natural DNA filaments and synthetic polynucleotides with the solvent (1--2). The existence of DNA open states, that is to say states for which the interior of the DNA molecule is exposed to the external environment, it has been demonstrated by means of proton-deuterium exchange (3). This work has carried out experiments measuring the dispersion of the traverse relaxation rate (4), as a pulsation rate function in a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulses sequence rate, to determine changes in the moist layer of the DNA molecule. The experiments were carried out under different experimental conditions in order to vary the probability that open states occurs, such as temperature or the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Some theoretical models were supposed to adjust the experimental results including those related to DNA non linear dynamic [es

  6. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparro, F.P.; Santella, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA). (author)

  7. Immunoassay of DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparro, F P; Santella, R M

    1988-09-01

    The direct photomodification of DNA by ultraviolet light or the photo-induced addition of exogenous compounds to DNA components results in alterations of DNA structure ranging from subtle to profound. There are two consequences of these conformational changes. First, cells in which the DNA has been damaged are capable of executing repair steps. Second, the DNA which is usually of very low immunogenicity now becomes highly antigenic. This latter property has allowed the production of a series of monoclonal antibodies that recognize photo-induced DNA damage. Monoclonal antibodies have been generated that recognize the 4',5'-monoadduct and the crosslink of 8-methoxypsoralen in DNA. In addition, another antibody has been prepared which recognizes the furan-side monoadduct of 6,4,4'-trimethylangelicin in DNA. These monoclonal antibodies have been characterized as to sensitivity and specificity using non-competitive and competitive enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

  8. DNA computing models

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In this excellent text, the reader is given a comprehensive introduction to the field of DNA computing. The book emphasizes computational methods to tackle central problems of DNA computing, such as controlling living cells, building patterns, and generating nanomachines.

  9. DNA tagged microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2015-05-05

    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  10. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  11. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...

  12. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  13. Coordination-driven self-assembly of a novel carbonato-bridged heteromolecular neutral nickel(II) triangle by atmospheric CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pampa; Drew, Michael G B; Estrader, Marta; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2008-09-01

    Formation of a quasi-symmetrical mu 3-carbonato-bridged self-assembled heteromolecular triangle of Ni(II), [(mu 3-CO 3){Ni 2(salmeNH) 2(NCS) 2}{Ni(salmeNH 2) 2].Et 2O.H 2O (HsalmeNH = 2-[(3-methylamino-propylimino)-methyl]-phenol) involves atmospheric CO 2 uptake in a neutral medium, by spontaneous self-reorganization of the starting mononuclear Ni(II)-Schiff-base complex, [Ni(salmeNH) 2]. The environment around Ni(II) in two of the subunits is different from the third one. The starting complex, [Ni(salmeNH) 2], and one of the possible intermediate species, [Ni(salmeNH 2) 2(NCS) 2], which has a very similar coordination environment to that in the third Ni(II) center, have been characterized structurally. A plausible mechanism for the formation of such a triangle has also been proposed. The compound shows a very strong antiferromagnetic coupling. Fit as a regular triangular arrangement gave J = -53.1, g = 2.24, and R = 1.5 x 10 (-4).

  14. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  15. Beyond the Coral Triangle: high genetic diversity and near panmixia in Singapore's populations of the broadcast spawning sea star Protoreaster nodosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Y C; Chng, M W P; Sew, W W G; Rheindt, F E; Tun, K P P; Meier, R

    2016-08-01

    The Coral Triangle is widely considered the most important centre of marine biodiversity in Asia while areas on its periphery such as the South China Sea, have received much less interest. Here, we demonstrate that a small population of the knobbly sea star Protoreaster nodosus in Singapore has similarly high levels of genetic diversity as comparable Indonesian populations from the Coral Triangle. The high genetic diversity of this population is remarkable because it is maintained despite decades of continued anthropogenic disturbance. We postulate that it is probably due to broadcast spawning which is likely to maintain high levels of population connectivity. To test this, we analysed 6140 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for Singapore's populations and demonstrate a pattern of near panmixia. We here document a second case of high genetic diversity and low genetic structure for a broadcast spawner in Singapore, which suggests that such species have high resilience against anthropogenic disturbances. The study demonstrates the feasibility and power of using genome-wide SNPs for connectivity studies of marine invertebrates without a sequenced genome.

  16. Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, North Carolina—Summary of monitoring activities, quality assurance, and data, October 2013–September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2017-09-27

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2013 through September 2014 (water year 2014) and October 2014 through September 2015 (water year 2015). Major findings for this period include:More than 5,500 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 15 sites—4 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Thirty water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality thresholds exist for 11 of these.All observations met State water-quality thresholds for temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate plus nitrite.North Carolina water-quality thresholds were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, pH, turbidity, and chlorophyll a.

  17. Vestibular Loss in Older Adults Is Associated with Impaired Spatial Navigation: Data from the Triangle Completion Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVestibular inputs have been shown to play a critical role in spatial navigation. In this study, we sought to evaluate whether vestibular loss due to aging contributes to impaired spatial navigation as measured by the triangle completion task (TCT.Materials and methodsWe recruited three types of participants: young controls <55 years of age, older controls ≥55 years of age, and older patients from a Neurotology Clinic with evidence of vestibular physiologic impairment but who did not have any known vestibular disorder. We performed the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential to evaluate saccular function and video head impulse testing to quantify horizontal semicircular canal vestibulo-ocular reflex gain. To assess spatial navigation ability, we administered the TCT, in which participants were conveyed along two segments of a pre-drawn triangular path and instructed to complete the final segment independently. We measured the angle (degrees and distance (centimeters of deviation from the correct trajectory. We evaluated the influence of vestibular inputs on TCT performance.ResultsForty-eight adults participated in the study (mean age: 62.0 years; 52.1% females, including 9 young controls, 15 older controls, and 24 clinic patients. Clinic patients had the greatest distance of deviation (67.7 cm, followed by older controls (45.4 cm, then young controls (27.8 cm; p < 0.01. Similarly, clinic patients had greater rotational angles (22.1° compared to older (13.3° and younger controls (12.4°; p < 0.01. Following multivariate linear regression adjusting for demographic variables, loss of otolith function was associated with an 18.2 cm increase in distance of deviation (95% CI: 15.2–47.4 and a 9.2° increase in rotational angle (95% CI: 3.0–15.5. Abnormal semicircular canal function was associated with a 26.0 cm increase in distance of deviation (95% CI: 0.2–51.8 and a 10.8° increase in rotational angle

  18. Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Willerslev, Eske

    2008-01-01

    We present a heuristic approach to the DNA assignment problem based on phylogenetic inferences using constrained neighbour joining and non-parametric bootstrapping. We show that this method performs as well as the more computationally intensive full Bayesian approach in an analysis of 500 insect...... DNA sequences obtained from GenBank. We also analyse a previously published dataset of environmental DNA sequences from soil from New Zealand and Siberia, and use these data to illustrate the fact that statistical approaches to the DNA assignment problem allow for more appropriate criteria...... for determining the taxonomic level at which a particular DNA sequence can be assigned....

  19. Radiation and DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riabchenko, N I

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of DNA. Physical and chemical methods of determining radiation damage to the primary (polynucleotide chain and nitrogenous base) and secondary (helical) structure of DNA are discussed, and the effects of ionizing radiation on deoxyribonucleoprotein complexes are considered. The radiolysis of DNA in vitro and in bacterial and mammalian cells is examined and cellular mechanisms for the repair of radiation-damaged DNA are considered, taking into account single-strand and double-strand breaks, gamma-radiation damage and deoxyribonucleoprotein-membrane complex damage. Postradiation DNA degradation in bacteria and lymphatic cells is also discussed.

  20. DNA-Mediated Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Buzzeo, Marisa C.

    2009-01-01

    The base pair stack of DNA has been demonstrated as a medium for long range charge transport chemistry both in solution and at DNA-modified surfaces. This chemistry is exquisitely sensitive to structural perturbations in the base pair stack as occur with lesions, single base mismatches, and protein binding. We have exploited this sensitivity for the development of reliable electrochemical assays based on DNA charge transport at self-assembled DNA monolayers. Here we discuss the characteristic features, applications, and advantages of DNA-mediated electrochemistry. PMID:18980370

  1. Crystal structure of a new polar borate Na{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}[BO{sub 2}(OH)][BO{sub 3}]{sub 2} · H{sub 2}O with isolated boron triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topnikova, A. P.; Belokoneva, E. L., E-mail: elbel@geol.msu.ru; Dimitrova, O. V.; Volkov, A. S. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Crystals of a new polar borate Na{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}[BO{sub 2}(OH)][BO{sub 3}]{sub 2} · H{sub 2}O were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 7.2295(7) Å, b = 11.2523(8) Å, c = 5.1285(6) Å, Z = 2, sp. gr. C2mm (Amm2), R = 0.0253. The formula of the compound was derived from the structure determination. The Ce and Na atoms are coordinated by nine and six O atoms, respectively. The Ce position is split, and a small amount of Ce is incorporated into the Na1 site with the isomorphous substitution for Na. The anionic moieties exist as isolated BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 2}(OH) triangles. The planes of the BO{sub 2}(OH) triangles with mm2 symmetry are parallel to the ab plane. The planes of the BO{sub 3} triangles with m symmetry are perpendicular to the ab plane and are rotated in a diagonal way. The splitting of the Ce positions and the polar arrangement of the BO{sub 2}(OH) triangles, water molecules, and Na atoms are observed along the polar a axis. The new structure is most similar to the new borate NaCa{sub 4}[BO{sub 3}]{sub 3} (sp. gr. Ama2), in which triangles of one type are arranged in a polar fashion along the c axis. Weak nonlinear-optical properties of both polar borates are attributed to the quenching of the second-harmonic generation due to the mutually opposite orientation of two-thirds of B triangles in the unit cell.

  2. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  3. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  4. Comments on Triassi et al. Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the “Triangle of Death”. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1216–1236

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bifulco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent paper was published on Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health addressing the so-called “Triangle of Death” linked to waste crisis in the Southern Italy [1]. Three decades of illegal waste management including uncontrolled disposal of toxic and industrial material, land filling and unauthorized incineration have transformed these Italian areas, into the poisoned dustbin of the country, the “Triangle of Death” also called “Land of Fires” [2,3], characterized by the presence of a widespread organized crime, a huge social and economic disintegration, a high population density with large migration flows. [...

  5. Beyond DNA repair: DNA-PK function in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a pivotal component of the DNA repair machinery that governs the response to DNA damage, serving to maintain genome integrity. However, the DNA-PK kinase component was initially isolated with transcriptional complexes, and recent findings have illuminated the impact of DNA-PK-mediated transcriptional regulation on tumor progression and therapeutic response. DNA-PK expression has also been correlated with poor outcome in selected tumor types, furthe...

  6. Determining the area of influence of depression cone in the vicinity of lignite mine by means of triangle method and LANDSAT TM/ETM+ satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Przeździecki, Karol; Miatkowski, Zygmunt

    2016-01-15

    Problems with lowering of water table are common all over the world. Intensive pumping of water from aquifers for consumption, irrigation, industrial or mining purposes often causes groundwater depletion and results in the formation of cone of depression. This can severely decrease water pressure, even over vast areas, and can create severe problems such as degradation of agriculture or natural environment sometimes depriving people and animals of water supply. In this paper, the authors present a method for determining the area of influence of a groundwater depression cone resulting from prolonged drainage, by means of satellite images in optical, near infrared and thermal infrared bands from TM sensor (Thematic Mapper) and ETM+ sensor (Enhanced Thematic Mapper +) placed on Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites. The research area was Szczercowska Valley (Pol. Kotlina Szczercowska), Central Poland, located within a range of influence of a groundwater drainage system of the lignite coal mine in Belchatow. It is the biggest lignite coal mine in Poland and one of the largest in Europe exerting an enormous impact on the environment. The main method of satellite data analysis for determining soil moisture, was the so-called triangle method. This method, based on TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) was supported by additional spatial analysis including ordinary kriging used in order to combine fragmentary information obtained from areas covered by meadows. The results obtained are encouraging and confirm the usefulness of the triangle method not only for soil moisture determination but also for assessment of the temporal and spatial changes in the area influenced by the groundwater depression cone. The range of impact of the groundwater depression cone determined by means of above-described remote sensing analysis shows good agreement with that determined by ground measurements. The developed satellite method is much faster and cheaper than in-situ measurements

  7. A description of the lumbar interfascial triangle and its relation with the lateral raphe: anatomical constituents of load transfer through the lateral margin of the thoracolumbar fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenke, M D; Vleeming, A; Van Hoof, T; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    Movement and stability of the lumbosacral region is contingent on the balance of forces distributed through the myofascial planes associated with the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). This structure is located at the common intersection of several extremity muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus), as well as hypaxial (e.g. ventral trunk muscles) and epaxial (paraspinal) muscles. The mechanical properties of the fascial constituents establish the parameters guiding the dynamic interaction of muscle groups that stabilize the lumbosacral spine. Understanding the construction of this complex myofascial junction is fundamental to biomechanical analysis and implementation of effective rehabilitation in individuals with low back and pelvic girdle pain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to describe the anatomy of the lateral margin of the TLF, and specifically the interface between the fascial sheath surrounding the paraspinal muscles and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles. The lateral margin of the TLF was exposed via serial reduction dissections from anterior and posterior approaches. Axial sections (cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging) were examined to characterize the region between the TA and IO aponeurosis and the paraspinal muscles. It is confirmed that the paraspinal muscles are enveloped by a continuous paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS), formed by the deep lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF. The PRS extends from the spinous process to transverse process, and is distinct from both the superficial lamina of the posterior layer and middle layer of the TLF. As the aponeurosis approaches the lateral border of the PRS, it appears to separate into two distinct laminae, which join the anterior and posterior walls of the PRS. This configuration creates a previously undescribed fat-filled lumbar interfascial triangle situated along the lateral border of the paraspinal muscles from the 12th

  8. DNA topology and transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is a complex assembly that compacts DNA inside the nucleus while providing the necessary level of accessibility to regulatory factors conscripted by cellular signaling systems. In this superstructure, DNA is the subject of mechanical forces applied by variety of molecular motors. Rather than being a rigid stick, DNA possesses dynamic structural variability that could be harnessed during critical steps of genome functioning. The strong relationship between DNA structure and key genomic processes necessitates the study of physical constrains acting on the double helix. Here we provide insight into the source, dynamics, and biology of DNA topological domains in the eukaryotic cells and summarize their possible involvement in gene transcription. We emphasize recent studies that might inspire and impact future experiments on the involvement of DNA topology in cellular functions. PMID:24755522

  9. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  10. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  11. DNA repair and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Shakuntla; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Gaur, Sudha

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecule that encode it's genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many one million individual molecular lesions per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions include potentially harmful mutation in cell's genome which affect the survival of it's daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure. Inherited mutation that affect DNA repair genes are strongly associated with high cancer risks in humans. Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is strongly associated with specific mutation in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. BRCA1, BRCA2 two famous mutation conferring a hugely increased risk of breast cancer on carrier, are both associated with a large number of DNA repair pathway, especially NHEJ and homologous recombination. Cancer therapy procedures such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy work by overwhelming the capacity of the cell to repair DNA damage, resulting in cell death. Cells that are most rapidly dividing most typically cancer cells are preferentially affected. The side effect is that other non-cancerous but rapidly dividing cells such as stem cells in the bone marrow are also affected. Modern cancer treatment attempt to localize the DNA damage to cells and tissue only associated with cancer, either by physical means (concentrating the therapeutic agent in the region of the tumor) or by biochemical means (exploiting a feature unique to cancer cells in the body). (author)

  12. Nonisotopic DNA probe techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kricka, Larry J

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this book is to bring together descriptions of the principal nonisotopic methods for DNA hybridization assays, together with experimental details of the methods, including labelling...

  13. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  14. Forensic DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  15. Structure of DNA toroids and electrostatic attraction of DNA duplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherstvy, A G

    2005-01-01

    DNA-DNA electrostatic attraction is considered as the driving force for the formation of DNA toroids in the presence of DNA condensing cations. This attraction comes from the DNA helical charge distribution and favours hexagonal toroidal cross-sections. The latter is in agreement with recent cryo-electron microscopy studies on DNA condensed with cobalt hexammine. We treat the DNA-DNA interactions within the modern theory of electrostatic interaction between helical macromolecules. The size and thickness of the toroids is calculated within a simple model; other models of stability of DNA toroids are discussed and compared

  16. Optimizing the parameters of heat transmission in a small heat exchanger with spiral tapes cut as triangles and Aluminum oxide nanofluid using central composite design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Nahid; Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar

    2018-02-01

    The present study aims at optimizing the heat transmission parameters such as Nusselt number and friction factor in a small double pipe heat exchanger equipped with rotating spiral tapes cut as triangles and filled with aluminum oxide nanofluid. The effects of Reynolds number, twist ratio (y/w), rotating twisted tape and concentration (w%) on the Nusselt number and friction factor are also investigated. The central composite design and the response surface methodology are used for evaluating the responses necessary for optimization. According to the optimal curves, the most optimized value obtained for Nusselt number and friction factor was 146.6675 and 0.06020, respectively. Finally, an appropriate correlation is also provided to achieve the optimal model of the minimum cost. Optimization results showed that the cost has decreased in the best case.

  17. Protective Effects of Calcium on Cadmium Accumulation in Co-Cultured Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and Triangle Sail Mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Pi, Jie; Wang, Jianping; Zhu, Pengfei; Lei, Liuping; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Deming

    2016-12-01

    Discovering cost effective strategies to reduce cadmium (Cd) uptake is of great concern for consumer food safety in the aquaculture industry. This study investigated the protective effects of calcium (Ca) on Cd uptake in co-cultured silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and triangle sail mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii). The results show that Ca-depending on its applied concentration-caused a significant decrease in the Cd uptake into muscle (by 48 %-72 %), gills (by 51 %-57 %), liver (by 52 %-81 %) and kidney (by 54 %-81 %) of silver carp (p sail mussels (p sail mussel, the quality of co-cultured edible fish might improve as a consequence of the potentially reduced Cd uptake.

  18. Factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community of the southern triangle macro-region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Michelle Helena Pereira de; Pegorari, Maycon Sousa; Nascimento, Janaína Santos; Santos, Álvaro da Silva

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to establish the socioeconomic and health factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community. An analytical study with a cross-sectional and quantitative approach was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with 3430 senior citizens in 24 municipalities in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. A structured questionnaire was used for socioeconomic and health variables, as well as the Katz scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD). Descriptive, bivariate statistical analysis was performed and a multiple linear regression model (p environmental domain and from the aspect of autonomy, a key influencing factor being negative health perception.

  19. O triângulo da formação docente: seus jogadores e configurações The triangle of teacher education: its players and configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Medeiros Sarti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem por tema a formação dos professores que atuam nos anos iniciais da educação básica, considerando-a como um jogo que assume diferentes configurações em função das relações estabelecidas entre seus jogadores. Essas relações são analisadas por meio de um esquema de triangulação, aqui denominado como triângulo da formação docente. Cada um dos três vértices desse triângulo é ocupado por agentes que, a partir de seus capitais específicos, localizam-se em lugares desiguais no campo da formação docente: os professores e as instâncias que os representam; as universidades, fundações e institutos de pesquisa, com seus especialistas; e o poder público, representado por secretarias de educação e outros órgãos administrativos. Relações privilegiadas entre dois vértices do triângulo da formação docente apontam para diferentes modelos formativos. Explorando esse triângulo como um recurso de análise, o artigo focaliza as configurações assumidas pelo jogo da formação docente na versão brasileira do movimento ora em curso de universitarização do magistério. Atenção especial é conferida ao lugar que os professores atuantes nos anos iniciais da educação básica ocupam nesse jogo, às relações que eles estabelecem com os demais jogadores e, também, às possibilidades que têm de subverter e alterar o jogo em andamento.The article has as its theme the education of teachers working at the initial series of basic education, regarding it as a game that takes on different configurations as a function of the relations established among its players. These relations are analyzed through a triangulation scheme, here denominated the triangle of teacher education. Each vertex of this triangle is occupied by agents that, based on their specific capitals, are placed in uneven locations within the field of teacher education: the teachers and the bodies that represent them; the universities, foundations and

  20. Extended DNA Tile Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Martin; Kryger, Mille; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A dynamic linear DNA tile actuator is expanded to three new structures of higher complexity. The original DNA actuator was constructed from a central roller strand which hybridizes with two piston strands by forming two half-crossover junctions. A linear expansion of the actuator is obtained...

  1. Dna fingerprinting - review paper

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Renald

    2006-01-01

    Before the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was established, DNA fingerprinting technology has relied for years on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Variable Number of Tandom Repeats (VNTR) analysis, a very efficient technique but quite laborious and not suitable for high throughput mapping. Since its, development, PCR has provided a new and powerful tool for DNA fingerprinting.

  2. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial ...

  3. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  4. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2018-05-15

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  5. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange

  6. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  7. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.

    1981-05-27

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange.

  8. Whose DNA is this?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taroni, Franco; Biedermann, Alex; Vuille, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw the attention of researchers and practitioners dealing with forensic DNA profiling analyses to the following question: is a scientist's report, offering support to a hypothesis according to which a particular individual is the source of DNA detected during...... evoked during the international conference "The hidden side of DNA profiles. Artifacts, errors and uncertain evidence" held in Rome (April 27th to 28th, 2012). Indeed, despite the fact that this conference brought together some of the world's leading forensic DNA specialists, it appeared clearly...... talk considerably different languages. It thus is fundamental to address this issue of communication about results of forensic DNA analyses, and open a dialogue with practicing non-scientists at large who need to make meaningful use of scientific results to approach and help solve judicial cases...

  9. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  10. Racemic DNA crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pradeep K; Collie, Gavin W; Kauffmann, Brice; Huc, Ivan

    2014-12-22

    Racemates increase the chances of crystallization by allowing molecular contacts to be formed in a greater number of ways. With the advent of protein synthesis, the production of protein racemates and racemic-protein crystallography are now possible. Curiously, racemic DNA crystallography had not been investigated despite the commercial availability of L- and D-deoxyribo-oligonucleotides. Here, we report a study into racemic DNA crystallography showing the strong propensity of racemic DNA mixtures to form racemic crystals. We describe racemic crystal structures of various DNA sequences and folded conformations, including duplexes, quadruplexes, and a four-way junction, showing that the advantages of racemic crystallography should extend to DNA. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Nanostructures via DNA scaffold metallization

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, C.; Zinchenko, A.; Baigl, D.; Pyshkina, O.; Sergeyev, V.; Endo, Kazunaka; Yoshikawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    The critical role of polymers in process of noble metals nanostructures formation is well known, however, the use of DNA chain template in this process is yet largely unknown. In this study we demonstrate different ways of silver deposition on DNA template and report the influence of silver nanostructures formation on DNA conformational state. Metallization of DNA chain proceeds by two different scenarios depending on DNA conformation. If DNA chain is unfolded (elongated) chain, silver reduct...

  12. DNA damage and polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeremy; Poon, Randy Y C

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that polyploidization triggers chromosomal instability and contributes to tumorigenesis. DNA damage is increasingly being recognized for its roles in promoting polyploidization. Although elegant mechanisms known as the DNA damage checkpoints are responsible for halting the cell cycle after DNA damage, agents that uncouple the checkpoints can induce unscheduled entry into mitosis. Likewise, defects of the checkpoints in several disorders permit mitotic entry even in the presence of DNA damage. Forcing cells with damaged DNA into mitosis causes severe chromosome segregation defects, including lagging chromosomes, chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges. The presence of these lesions in the cleavage plane is believed to abort cytokinesis. It is postulated that if cytokinesis failure is coupled with defects of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint pathway, cells can enter S phase and become polyploids. Progress in the past several years has unraveled some of the underlying principles of these pathways and underscored the important role of DNA damage in polyploidization. Furthermore, polyploidization per se may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to DNA damage, thereby may offer an opportunity for novel therapies.

  13. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  14. Three newly identified galectin homologues from triangle sail mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii) function as potential pattern-recognition receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling-Ling; Hui, Kaimin; Wang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Yue; Ren, Qian; Li, Xin-Cang

    2018-05-01

    Galactoside-binding lectins, also known as galectins, play crucial roles in innate immune response in invertebrates. In this study, three cDNA sequences from Hyriopsis cumingii were identified and collectively called HcGalec genes. Each of the three deduced HcGalec proteins contained a galactose-binding lectin domain or a GLECT domain. All the three HcGalec genes are mainly present in the hepatopancreas and gills, and their expression is induced at 24 h after bacterial challenge. Three recombinant HcGalec proteins can bind and agglutinate (Ca 2+ -dependent) various microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These proteins can attach to mannan and peptidoglycan. Meanwhile, the expression of the three HcGalec genes in the gills were significantly down-regulated after dsRNA interference (HcGalec1-RNAi, HcGalec2-RNAi, and HcGalec3-RNAi) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus injection. The expression levels of some antimicrobial peptides, including lysozyme 1 and lysozyme 2, were also markedly decreased after dsRNA interference. Overall, these results suggested that these three HcGalec proteins may function as potential receptors participating in the innate immune responses of H. cumingii against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulating DNA Self-assembly by DNA-Surface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Yulin; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Jianwei; Mao, Chengde

    2017-12-14

    DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and involves only DNA-DNA interactions. When confined to surfaces, DNA-surface interactions become an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, the way in which DNA-surface interactions influence DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we showed that weak DNA-DNA interactions could be stabilized by DNA-surface interactions to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as little as 5 seconds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  17. "Artifactual" arsenate DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    The recent claim by Wolfe-Simon et al. that the Halomonas bacterial strain GFAJ-1 when grown in arsenate-containing medium with limiting phosphate is able to substitute phosphate with arsenate in biomolecules including nucleic acids and in particular DNA(1) arose much skepticism, primarily due...... to the very limited chemical stability of arsenate esters (see ref. 2 and references therein). A major part of the criticisms was concerned with the insufficient (bio)chemical evidence in the Wolfe-Simon study for the actual chemical incorporation of arsenate in DNA (and/or RNA). Redfield et al. now present...... evidence that the identification of arsenate DNA was artifactual....

  18. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    2011-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  19. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  20. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  1. Retroviral DNA Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into host chromatin is the defining step of retroviral replication. This enzymatic process is catalyzed by the virus-encoded integrase protein, which is conserved among retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons. Retroviral integration proceeds via two integrase activities: 3′-processing of the viral DNA ends, followed by the strand transfer of the processed ends into host cell chromosomal DNA. Herein we review the molecular mechanism of retroviral DNA integration, with an emphasis on reaction chemistries and architectures of the nucleoprotein complexes involved. We additionally discuss the latest advances on anti-integrase drug development for the treatment of AIDS and the utility of integrating retroviral vectors in gene therapy applications. PMID:27198982

  2. DNA damage and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelow, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Although cancer may arise as a result of many different types of molecular changes, there is little reason to doubt that changes to DNA are one of the more important ones in cancer initiation. Although DNA repair mechanisms seem able to eliminate a very large fraction of deleterious changes to DNA, we not only have little insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in such repair, but have a negligible amount of information to permit us to estimate the shape of dose response relations at low doses. The case of skin cancer is a special one, in that the average population is exposed to sufficient solar uv so that the effects of small increments in uv dose may be estimated. An approximate 85% reduction in DNA repair increases skin cancer incidence 10 4 fold

  3. DNA-Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Niels Vinther; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2010-01-01

    DNA-nanostrukturer giver nye muligheder for studier af individuelle molekyler. Ved at udnytte DNAs unikke selvsamlende egenskaber kan man designe systemer, hvorpå der kan studeres kemiske reaktioner, fluoroforer og biiomolekyler på enkeltmolekyle-niveau....

  4. DNA Microarray Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content DNA Microarray Technology Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  5. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  6. Close encounters with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeo, C.; Yoo, J.; Comer, J.; Wells, D. B.; Luan, B.; Aksimentiev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena and we review the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field. PMID:25238560

  7. Gomphid DNA sequence data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — DNA sequence data for several genetic loci. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It's already publicly available on GenBank. It can be accessed through...

  8. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  9. Close encounters with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeo, C; Yoo, J; Comer, J; Wells, D B; Luan, B; Aksimentiev, A

    2014-10-15

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena. We also discuss the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field.

  10. FBI's DNA analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John R.

    1994-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling technology is a significant law enforcement tool due to its superior discriminating power. Applying the principles of population genetics to the DNA profile obtained in violent crime investigations results in low frequency of occurrence estimates for the DNA profile. These estimates often range from a frequency of occurrence of 1 in 50 unrelated individuals to 1 in a million unrelated individuals or even smaller. It is this power to discriminate among individuals in the population that has propelled forensic DNA technology to the forefront of forensic testing in violent crime cases. Not only is the technology extremely powerful in including or excluding a criminal suspect as the perpetrator, but it also gives rise to the potential of identifying criminal suspects in cases where the investigators of unknown suspect cases have exhausted all other available leads.

  11. Making DNA Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunley, Kathie F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  12. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  13. DNA to DNA transcription might exist in eukaryotic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gao-De

    2016-01-01

    Till now, in biological sciences, the term, transcription, mainly refers to DNA to RNA transcription. But our recently published experimental findings obtained from Plasmodium falciparum strongly suggest the existence of DNA to DNA transcription in the genome of eukaryotic cells, which could shed some light on the functions of certain noncoding DNA in the human and other eukaryotic genomes.

  14. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  15. Das DNA-Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  16. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  17. Racemic DNA Crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal , Pradeep K.; Collie , Gavin W.; Kauffmann , Brice; Huc , Ivan

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Racemates increase the chances of crystallization by allowing molecular contacts to be formed in a greater number of ways. With the advent of protein synthesis, the production of protein racemates and racemic-protein crystallography are now possible. Curiously, racemic DNA crystallography had not been investigated despite the commercial availability of Land D-deoxyribo-oligonucleotides. Here, we report a study into racemic DNA crystallography showing the strong propens...

  18. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-03

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-02: Estimation of the Dosimetric Error Caused by the Voxelization of Hybrid Computational Phantoms Using Triangle Mesh-Based Monte Carlo Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Badal, A [U.S. Food ' Drug Administration (CDRH/OSEL), Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Computational voxel phantom provides realistic anatomy but the voxel structure may result in dosimetric error compared to real anatomy composed of perfect surface. We analyzed the dosimetric error caused from the voxel structure in hybrid computational phantoms by comparing the voxel-based doses at different resolutions with triangle mesh-based doses. Methods: We incorporated the existing adult male UF/NCI hybrid phantom in mesh format into a Monte Carlo transport code, penMesh that supports triangle meshes. We calculated energy deposition to selected organs of interest for parallel photon beams with three mono energies (0.1, 1, and 10 MeV) in antero-posterior geometry. We also calculated organ energy deposition using three voxel phantoms with different voxel resolutions (1, 5, and 10 mm) using MCNPX2.7. Results: Comparison of organ energy deposition between the two methods showed that agreement overall improved for higher voxel resolution, but for many organs the differences were small. Difference in the energy deposition for 1 MeV, for example, decreased from 11.5% to 1.7% in muscle but only from 0.6% to 0.3% in liver as voxel resolution increased from 10 mm to 1 mm. The differences were smaller at higher energies. The number of photon histories processed per second in voxels were 6.4×10{sup 4}, 3.3×10{sup 4}, and 1.3×10{sup 4}, for 10, 5, and 1 mm resolutions at 10 MeV, respectively, while meshes ran at 4.0×10{sup 4} histories/sec. Conclusion: The combination of hybrid mesh phantom and penMesh was proved to be accurate and of similar speed compared to the voxel phantom and MCNPX. The lowest voxel resolution caused a maximum dosimetric error of 12.6% at 0.1 MeV and 6.8% at 10 MeV but the error was insignificant in some organs. We will apply the tool to calculate dose to very thin layer tissues (e.g., radiosensitive layer in gastro intestines) which cannot be modeled by voxel phantoms.

  20. Introduction to DNA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this session is to discuss the various possibilities for detecting modifications in DNA after irradiation and whether these changes can be utilized as an indicator for the irradiation treatment of foods. The requirement to be fulfilled is that the method be able to distinguish irradiated food without the presence of a control sample, thus the measured response after irradiation must be large enough to supersede background levels from other treatments. Much work has been performed on the effects of radiation on DNA, particularly due to its importance in radiation biology. The main lesions of DNA as a result of irradiation are base damage, damage of the sugar moiety, single strand and double strand breaks. Crosslinking between bases also occurs, e.g. production of thymine dimers, or between DNA and protein. A valuable review on how to utilize these DNA changes for detection purposes has already appeared. Tables 1, 2 and 3 list the proposed methods of detecting changes in irradiated DNA, some identified products as examples for a possible irradiation indicator, in the case of immunoassay the substance used as antigen, and some selected literature references. In this short review, it is not intended to provide a complete literature survey

  1. Variations in brain DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eAvila

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that DNA sequences are conserved in the diverse cell types present in a multicellular organism like the human being. Thus, in order to compare the sequences in the genome of DNA from different individuals, nucleic acid is commonly isolated from a single tissue. In this regard, blood cells are widely used for this purpose because of their availability. Thus blood DNA has been used to study genetic familiar diseases that affect other tissues and organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain. While this approach is valid for the identification of familial diseases in which mutations are present in parental germinal cells and, therefore, in all the cells of a given organism, it is not suitable to identify sporadic diseases in which mutations might occur in specific somatic cells. This review addresses somatic DNA variations in different tissues or cells (mainly in the brain of single individuals and discusses whether the dogma of DNA invariance between cell types is indeed correct. We will also discuss how single nucleotide somatic variations arise, focusing on the presence of specific DNA mutations in the brain.

  2. Blood extracellular DNA after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Tishchenko, L.I.; Surkova, E.A.; Vasil'eva, I.N.

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that blood extracellular DNA of irradiated rats largely consists of the low-molecular DNA and its oligomers. Molecular masses of oligomers are multiple to molecular mass of monomer fragment with nucleosome size. The low-molecular DNA has linear form. The average content of GC-pairs in low-molecular DNA is higher than in total rat's DNA (48.5% against 41.5%). The low-molecular DNA is a part of complex containing RNA, acidic proteins and lipids. It is assumed that the formation of low-molecular DNA is a result of Ca/Mg - dependent nuclear endonuclease action

  3. DNA Knots: Theory and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumners, D. W.

    Cellular DNA is a long, thread-like molecule with remarkably complex topology. Enzymes that manipulate the geometry and topology of cellular DNA perform many vital cellular processes (including segregation of daughter chromosomes, gene regulation, DNA repair, and generation of antibody diversity). Some enzymes pass DNA through itself via enzyme-bridged transient breaks in the DNA; other enzymes break the DNA apart and reconnect it to different ends. In the topological approach to enzymology, circular DNA is incubated with an enzyme, producing an enzyme signature in the form of DNA knots and links. By observing the changes in DNA geometry (supercoiling) and topology (knotting and linking) due to enzyme action, the enzyme binding and mechanism can often be characterized. This paper will discuss some personal research history, and the tangle model for the analysis of site-specific recombination experiments on circular DNA.

  4. Triangle bracing system to reduce the vibration level of cooling tower – case study in PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd – Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodical control and measurement revealed that vibration level of motor and gearbox which was supported by Cooling Tower Unit 1 at PT Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd was significantly increasing since 2013. The vibration was not caused by machinery component failure, but induced by resonance of process flow. Decreasing stiffness of cooling tower structure was suspected causing the increasing vibration level. The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of wood was deteriorated. The residual strength of the wood had been measured and the data was used to perform dynamic structural analysis on the cooling tower. Several scenarios of structure modification were modelled and drawn, and the best one which the most effectively reducing the vibration level among others was constructed in the field. Triangle inner structure was chosen and applied to modify the cooling tower structure to achieve stiffer and more rigid structure. The vibration level before and after structure modification were measured, and it was proved that the vibration level was significantly reduced after structure modification. Furthermore the cooling tower was not in zone D (danger anymore and the vibration level was accepted according to ISO 10816-3. Keywords: Cooling tower, Dynamic structural analysis, Geothermal power plant, Structural failure, Vibration level

  5. Effects of reduced surface tension on two-phase diversion cross-flow between subchannels simplifying triangle tight lattice rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Akimaro; Sadatomi, Michio; Higuchi, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase diversion cross-flow between tight lattice subchannels has been investigated experimentally and analytically. For hydraulically non-equilibrium flows with the pressure difference between the subchannels, experiments were conducted using a vertical multiple-channel with two subchannels simplifying a triangle tight lattice rod bundle. To know the effects of the reduced surface tension on the diversion cross-flow, water and water with a surfactant were used as the test liquids. Data were obtained on the axial variations in the pressure difference between the subchannels, gas and liquid flow rates and void fraction in each subchannel for slug-churn and annular flows. In the analysis, flow redistribution processes due to the diversion cross-flow have been calculated by our subchannel analysis code based on a two-fluid model. From a comparison between the experiment and the code calculation, the code was found to be valid against the present data if the improved constitutive equations of wall and interfacial friction reported in our previous paper were incorporated to account for the reduced surface tension effects. (author)

  6. Platinum triangles in the Pt/Al framework of the intermetallic REPt6Al3 (RE = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Stegemann, Frank; Renner, Konstantin; Janka, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    The compounds of the REPt 6 Al 3 series (RE = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) were obtained by reaction of the elements via arc-melting. They were characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (NdPt 6 Al 3 : wR = 0.0432, 759 F 2 values, 33 variables) as well as by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The isostructural compounds crystallize with a new structure type in the trigonal crystal system with space group R anti 3c, twelve formula units in the unit cell, and lattice parameters of a = 752-755 and c = 3882-3945 pm. The crystal structure can be described by different slabs stacked along [001]. One layer features Pt 3 triangles, centering the cavities of a flat honeycomb RE layer that are arranged in a..ABCA ' B ' C ' .. sequence. The other layer consists of condensed hexagonal [Pt 6 Al 6 ] prisms, centered by Pt atoms, separating the before mentioned slabs. Magnetic measurements revealed that all rare-earth atoms are in the trivalent oxidation state, however, due to the low lanthanoide content magnetic ordering phenomena were observed only at low temperatures [SmPt 6 Al 3 : T C = 5.0(1) K; GdPt 6 Al 3 : T C = 7.3(1) K; TbPt 6 Al 3 : T N = 3.6(1) K]. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Transcription-induced DNA supercoiling: New roles of intranucleosomal DNA loops in DNA repair and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, N S; Pestov, N A; Kulaeva, O I; Clark, D J; Studitsky, V M

    2016-05-26

    RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through chromatin is accompanied by formation of small intranucleosomal DNA loops. Pol II captured within a small loop drives accumulation of DNA supercoiling, facilitating further transcription. DNA breaks relieve supercoiling and induce Pol II arrest, allowing detection of DNA damage hidden in chromatin structure.

  8. Eukaryotic DNA Replicases

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.; Oke, Muse; Hamdan, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The current model of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork includes three replicative DNA polymerases, polymerase α/primase complex (Pol α), polymerase δ (Pol δ), and polymerase ε (Pol ε). The primase synthesizes 8–12 nucleotide RNA primers that are extended by the DNA polymerization activity of Pol α into 30–35 nucleotide RNA-DNA primers. Replication factor C (RFC) opens the polymerase clamp-like processivity factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and loads it onto the primer-template. Pol δ utilizes PCNA to mediate highly processive DNA synthesis, while Pol ε has intrinsic high processivity that is modestly stimulated by PCNA. Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand in a division of labor that is not strict. The three polymerases are comprised of multiple subunits and share unifying features in their large catalytic and B subunits. The remaining subunits are evolutionarily not related and perform diverse functions. The catalytic subunits are members of family B, which are distinguished by their larger sizes due to inserts in their N- and C-terminal regions. The sizes of these inserts vary among the three polymerases, and their functions remain largely unknown. Strikingly, the quaternary structures of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ε are arranged similarly. The catalytic subunits adopt a globular structure that is linked via its conserved C-terminal region to the B subunit. The remaining subunits are linked to the catalytic and B subunits in a highly flexible manner.

  9. Eukaryotic DNA Replicases

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.

    2014-11-21

    The current model of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork includes three replicative DNA polymerases, polymerase α/primase complex (Pol α), polymerase δ (Pol δ), and polymerase ε (Pol ε). The primase synthesizes 8–12 nucleotide RNA primers that are extended by the DNA polymerization activity of Pol α into 30–35 nucleotide RNA-DNA primers. Replication factor C (RFC) opens the polymerase clamp-like processivity factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and loads it onto the primer-template. Pol δ utilizes PCNA to mediate highly processive DNA synthesis, while Pol ε has intrinsic high processivity that is modestly stimulated by PCNA. Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand in a division of labor that is not strict. The three polymerases are comprised of multiple subunits and share unifying features in their large catalytic and B subunits. The remaining subunits are evolutionarily not related and perform diverse functions. The catalytic subunits are members of family B, which are distinguished by their larger sizes due to inserts in their N- and C-terminal regions. The sizes of these inserts vary among the three polymerases, and their functions remain largely unknown. Strikingly, the quaternary structures of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ε are arranged similarly. The catalytic subunits adopt a globular structure that is linked via its conserved C-terminal region to the B subunit. The remaining subunits are linked to the catalytic and B subunits in a highly flexible manner.

  10. Triangle singularities in B{sup -} → D{sup *0}π{sup -}π{sup 0}η and B{sup -} → D{sup *0}π{sup -}π{sup 0}π{sup -}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavao, R.; Sakai, S.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    The possible role of the triangle mechanism in the B{sup -} decay into D{sup *0}π{sup -}π{sup 0}η and D{sup *0}π{sup -}π{sup 0}π{sup -} is investigated. In this process, the triangle singularity appears from the decay of B{sup -} into D{sup *0}K{sup -}K{sup *0} followed by the decay of K{sup *0} into π{sup -}K{sup +} and the fusion of the K{sup +}K{sup -}, which forms the a{sub 0}(980) or f{sub 0}(980), which finally decay into π{sup 0}η or π{sup +}π{sup -}, respectively. The triangle mechanism from the anti K{sup *}K anti K loop generates a peak around 1420 MeV in the invariant mass of π{sup -}a{sub 0} or π{sup -}f{sub 0}, and it gives sizable branching fractions, Br(B{sup -} → D{sup *0}π{sup -}a{sub 0}; a{sub 0} → π{sup 0}η) = (1.66 ± 0.45) x 10{sup -6} and Br(B{sup -} → D{sup *0}π{sup -}f{sub 0}; f{sub 0} → π{sup +}π{sup -}) = (2.82 ± 0.75) x 10{sup -6}. (orig.)

  11. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237

  12. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  13. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Salim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  14. DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts requires DNA polymerase delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, C.; Reinhard, P.; Linn, S.

    1988-01-01

    When UV-irradiated cultured diploid human fibroblasts were permeabilized with Brij-58 then separated from soluble material by centrifugation, conservative DNA repair synthesis could be restored by a soluble factor obtained from the supernatant of similarly treated HeLa cells. Extensive purification of this factor yielded a 10.2 S, 220,000-dalton polypeptide with the DNA polymerase and 3'- to 5'-exonuclease activities reported for DNA polymerase delta II. Monoclonal antibody to KB cell DNA polymerase alpha, while binding to HeLa DNA polymerase alpha, did not bind to the HeLa DNA polymerase delta. Moreover, at micromolar concentrations N2-(p-n-butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (BuPdGTP) and 2-(p-n-butylanilino)-2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (BuAdATP) were potent inhibitors of DNA polymerase alpha, but did not inhibit the DNA polymerase delta. Neither purified DNA polymerase alpha nor beta could promote repair DNA synthesis in the permeabilized cells. Furthermore, under conditions which inhibited purified DNA polymerase alpha by greater than 90%, neither monoclonal antibodies to DNA polymerase alpha, BuPdGTP, nor BuAdATP was able to inhibit significantly the DNA repair synthesis mediated by the DNA polymerase delta. Thus, it appears that a major portion of DNA repair synthesis induced by UV irradiation might be catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta. When xeroderma pigmentosum human diploid fibroblasts were utilized, DNA repair synthesis dependent upon ultraviolet light could be restored by addition of both T4 endonuclease V and DNA polymerase delta, but not by addition of either one alone

  15. Principles of DNA architectonics: design of DNA-based nanoobjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, O A; Pyshnyi, D V

    2012-01-01

    The methods of preparation of monomeric DNA blocks that serve as key building units for the construction of complex DNA objects are described. Examples are given of the formation of DNA blocks based on native and modified oligonucleotide components using hydrogen bonding and nucleic acid-specific types of bonding and also some affinity interactions with RNA, proteins, ligands. The static discrete and periodic two- and three-dimensional DNA objects reported to date are described systematically. Methods used to prove the structures of DNA objects and the prospects for practical application of nanostructures based on DNA and its analogues in biology, medicine and biophysics are considered. The bibliography includes 195 references.

  16. DNA Topoisomerases in Transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Morten Terpager

    2015-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the main results of my studies on the interplay between DNA topoisomerases and transcription. The work was performed from 2011 to 2015 at Aarhus University in the Laboratory of Genome Research, and was supervised by associate professor Anni H. Andersen. Most of the ex......This Ph.D. thesis summarizes the main results of my studies on the interplay between DNA topoisomerases and transcription. The work was performed from 2011 to 2015 at Aarhus University in the Laboratory of Genome Research, and was supervised by associate professor Anni H. Andersen. Most...... topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex. The second study is an investigation of how topoisomerases influence gene regulation by keeping the genome in an optimal topological state....

  17. Duplication in DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masami; Kari, Lila; Kincaid, Zachary; Seki, Shinnosuke

    The duplication and repeat-deletion operations are the basis of a formal language theoretic model of errors that can occur during DNA replication. During DNA replication, subsequences of a strand of DNA may be copied several times (resulting in duplications) or skipped (resulting in repeat-deletions). As formal language operations, iterated duplication and repeat-deletion of words and languages have been well studied in the literature. However, little is known about single-step duplications and repeat-deletions. In this paper, we investigate several properties of these operations, including closure properties of language families in the Chomsky hierarchy and equations involving these operations. We also make progress toward a characterization of regular languages that are generated by duplicating a regular language.

  18. DNA methylation in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pokrywka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes, have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described.

  19. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  20. DNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinit; Palazzolo, Stefano; Bayda, Samer; Corona, Giuseppe; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology is an emerging and exciting field, and represents a forefront frontier for the biomedical field. The specificity of the interactions between complementary base pairs makes DNA an incredible building material for programmable and very versatile two- and three-dimensional nanostructures called DNA origami. Here, we analyze the DNA origami and DNA-based nanostructures as a drug delivery system. Besides their physical-chemical nature, we dissect the critical factors such as stability, loading capability, release and immunocompatibility, which mainly limit in vivo applications. Special attention was dedicated to highlighting the boundaries to be overcome to bring DNA nanostructures closer to the bedside of patients. PMID:27022418

  1. DNA profiling of trace DNA recovered from bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Susan F; Bright, Jo-Anne; Cockerton, Sarah L

    2006-05-25

    Trace DNA is often detected on handled items and worn clothing examined in forensic laboratories. In this study, the potential transfer of trace DNA to bedding by normal contact, when an individual sleeps in a bed, is examined. Volunteers slept one night on a new, lower bed sheet in their own bed and one night in a bed foreign to them. Samples from the sheets were collected and analysed by DNA profiling. The results indicate that the DNA profile of an individual can be obtained from bedding after one night of sleeping in a bed. The DNA profile of the owner of the bed could also be detected in the foreign bed experiments. Since mixed DNA profiles can be obtained from trace DNA on bedding, caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions from DNA profiling results obtained from such samples. This transfer may have important repercussions in sexual assault investigations.

  2. DNA tagged microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George R.; Leif, Roald N.; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2016-03-22

    In one embodiment, a product includes a plurality of particles, each particle including: a carrier that includes a non-toxic material; and at least one DNA barcode coupled to the carrier, where the particles each have a diameter in a range from about 1 nanometer to about 100 microns.

  3. The dynamic interplay between DNA topoisomerases and DNA topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C

    2016-11-01

    Topological properties of DNA influence its structure and biochemical interactions. Within the cell, DNA topology is constantly in flux. Transcription and other essential processes, including DNA replication and repair, not only alter the topology of the genome but also introduce additional complications associated with DNA knotting and catenation. These topological perturbations are counteracted by the action of topoisomerases, a specialized class of highly conserved and essential enzymes that actively regulate the topological state of the genome. This dynamic interplay among DNA topology, DNA processing enzymes, and DNA topoisomerases is a pervasive factor that influences DNA metabolism in vivo. Building on the extensive structural and biochemical characterization over the past four decades that has established the fundamental mechanistic basis of topoisomerase activity, scientists have begun to explore the unique roles played by DNA topology in modulating and influencing the activity of topoisomerases. In this review we survey established and emerging DNA topology-dependent protein-DNA interactions with a focus on in vitro measurements of the dynamic interplay between DNA topology and topoisomerase activity.

  4. Triangle singularity enhancing isospin violation in {\\bar{{\\rm{B}}}}_{{\\rm{s}}}^{0}\\to {\\rm{J}}/{\\rm{\\psi }}{\\pi }^{0}{{\\rm{f}}}_{0}(980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-Hong; Sakai, S.; Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, E.

    2018-04-01

    We perform calculations for the {\\bar{{{B}}}}{{s}}0\\to {{J}}/{{\\psi }}{π }0{{{f}}}0(980) and {\\bar{{{B}}}}{{s}}0\\to {{J}}/{{\\psi }}{π }0{{{a}}}0(980) reactions, showing that the first is isospin-suppressed while the second is isospin-allowed. The reaction proceeds via a triangle mechanism, with {\\bar{{{B}}}}{{s}}0\\to {{J}}/{{\\psi }}{{{K}}}{{* }}\\bar{{{K}}}+{{c}}.{{c}}., followed by the decay K* → Kπ and a further fusion of {{K}}\\bar{{{K}}} into the {{{f}}}0(980) or a0(980). We show that the mechanism develops a singularity around the π0 f0(980) or π0 a0(980) invariant mass of 1420 MeV, where the π0 f0 and π0 a0 decay modes are magnified and also the ratio of π0 f0 to π0 a0 production. Using experimental information for the {\\bar{{{B}}}}{{s}}0\\to {{J}}/{{\\psi }}{{{K}}}{{* }}\\bar{{{K}}}+{{c}}.{{c}}. decay, we are able to obtain absolute values for the reactions studied which fall into the experimentally accessible range. The reactions proposed and the observables evaluated, when contrasted with actual experiments, should be very valuable to obtain information on the nature of the low lying scalar mesons. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11565007, 11747307, 11647309, 11735003, 11475227), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (2016367). This work is also partly supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Com- petitividad and European FEDER funds (FIS2011-28853-C02-01, FIS2011-28853-C02-02, FIS2014-57026-REDT, FIS2014-51948-C2-1-P, FIS2014-51948-C2-2-P) and the Generalitat Valenciana in the program Prometeo (II-2014/068)

  5. Mitochondrial Function, Dynamics, and Permeability Transition: A Complex Love Triangle as A Possible Target for the Treatment of Brain Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Carola; Eckert, Schamim; Eckert, Gunter P; Friedland-Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E

    2018-02-28

    Because of the failure of all amyloid-β directed treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the concept of mitochondrial dysfunction as a major pathomechanism of the cognitive decline in aging and AD has received substantial support. Accordingly, improving mitochondrial function as an alternative strategy for new drug development became of increasing interest and many different compounds have been identified which improve mitochondrial function in preclinical in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, very few if any have been investigated in clinical trials, representing a major drawback of the mitochondria directed drug development. To overcome these problems, we used a top-down approach by investigating several older antidementia drugs with clinical evidence of therapeutic efficacy. These include EGb761® (standardized ginkgo biloba extract), piracetam, and Dimebon. All improve experimentally many aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction including mitochondrial dynamics and also improve cognition and impaired neuronal plasticity, the functionally most relevant consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction. All partially inhibit opening events of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) which previously has mainly been discussed as a mechanism relevant for the induction of apoptosis. However, as more recent work suggests, the mPTP as a master regulator of many mitochondrial functions, our data suggest the mPTP as a possible relevant drug target within the love triangle between mPTP regulation, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial function including regulation of neuronal plasticity. Drugs interfering with mPTP function will improve not only mitochondrial impairment in aging and AD but also will have beneficial effects on impaired neuronal plasticity, the pathomechanism which correlates best with functional deficits (cognition, behavior) in aging and AD.

  6. Detection of pelagic habitat hotspots for skipjack tuna in the Gulf of Bone-Flores Sea, southwestern Coral Triangle tuna, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Mukti; Farhum, Aisjah; Safruddin, Safruddin; Selamat, Muhammad Banda; Sudirman, Sudirman; Nurdin, Nurjannah; Syamsuddin, Mega; Ridwan, Muhammad; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Using remote sensing of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) together with catch data, we investigated the detection and persistence of important pelagic habitat hotspots for skipjack tuna in the Gulf of Bone-Flores Sea, Indonesia. We analyzed the data for the period between the northwest and southeast monsoon 2007-2011. A pelagic hotspot index was constructed from a model of multi-spectrum satellite-based oceanographic data in relation to skipjack fishing performance. Results showed that skipjack catch per unit efforts (CPUEs) increased significantly in areas of highest pelagic hotspot indices. The distribution and dynamics of habitat hotspots were detected by the synoptic measurements of SST, SSHA and Chl-a ranging from 29.5° to 31.5°C, from 2.5 to 12.5 cm and from 0.15 to 0.35 mg m-3, respectively. Total area of hotspots consistently peaked in May. Validation of skipjack CPUE predicted by our model against observed data from 2012 was highly significant. The key pelagic habitat corresponded with the Chl-a front, which could be related to the areas of relatively high prey abundance (enhanced feeding opportunity) for skipjack. We found that the area and persistence of the potential skipjack habitat hotspots for the 5 years were clearly identified by the 0.2 mg m-3 Chl-a isopleth, suggesting that the Chl-a front provides a key oceanographic indicator for global understanding on skipjack tuna habitat hotspots in the western tropical Pacific Ocean, especially within Coral Triangle tuna.

  7. The Sexual and Mating System of the Shrimp Odontonia katoi (Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae), a Symbiotic Guest of the Ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, J. Antonio; Hemphill, Carrie A.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in the shrimp Odontonia katoi, which inhabits the atrial chamber of the ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle. Preliminary observations in O. katoi indicated that males were smaller than females, which is suggestive of sex change (protandry) in some symbiotic organisms. Thus, we first investigated the sexual system of O. katoi to determine if this shrimp was sequentially hermaphroditic. Morphological identification and size frequency distributions indicated that the population comprised males that, on average, were smaller than females. Gonad dissections demonstrated the absence of transitional individuals. Thus, O. katoi is a gonochoric species with reverse sexual dimorphism. The population distribution of O. katoi in its ascidian host did not differ significantly from a random distribution and shrimps inhabiting the same host individual as pairs were found with a frequency similar to that expected by chance alone. This is in contrast to that reported for other socially monogamous crustaceans in which pairs of heterosexual conspecifics are found in host individuals more frequently than expected by chance alone. Thus, the available information argues against monogamy in O. katoi. Furthermore, that a high frequency of solitary females were found brooding embryos and that the sex ratio was skewed toward females suggests that males might be roaming among hosts in search of receptive females in O. katoi. Symbiotic crustaceans can be used as a model system to understand the adaptive value of sexual and mating systems in marine invertebrates. PMID:25799577

  8. Platinum triangles in the Pt/Al framework of the intermetallic REPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3} (RE = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Stegemann, Frank; Renner, Konstantin [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Janka, Oliver [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Institut fuer Chemie, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg (Germany)

    2017-12-13

    The compounds of the REPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3} series (RE = Ce-Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb) were obtained by reaction of the elements via arc-melting. They were characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (NdPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3}: wR = 0.0432, 759 F{sup 2} values, 33 variables) as well as by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The isostructural compounds crystallize with a new structure type in the trigonal crystal system with space group R anti 3c, twelve formula units in the unit cell, and lattice parameters of a = 752-755 and c = 3882-3945 pm. The crystal structure can be described by different slabs stacked along [001]. One layer features Pt{sub 3} triangles, centering the cavities of a flat honeycomb RE layer that are arranged in a..ABCA{sup '}B{sup '}C{sup '}.. sequence. The other layer consists of condensed hexagonal [Pt{sub 6}Al{sub 6}] prisms, centered by Pt atoms, separating the before mentioned slabs. Magnetic measurements revealed that all rare-earth atoms are in the trivalent oxidation state, however, due to the low lanthanoide content magnetic ordering phenomena were observed only at low temperatures [SmPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3}: T{sub C} = 5.0(1) K; GdPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3}: T{sub C} = 7.3(1) K; TbPt{sub 6}Al{sub 3}: T{sub N} = 3.6(1) K]. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Estimation of carotenoid content at the canopy scale using the carotenoid triangle ratio index from in situ and simulated hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiping; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhou, Xianfeng; Song, Xiaoyu; Casa, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Precise estimation of carotenoids (Car) content in plants, from remotely sensed data, is challenging due to their small proportion in the overall total pigment content and to the overlapping of spectral absorption features with chlorophyll (Chl) in the blue region of the spectrum. The use of narrow band vegetation indices (VIs) obtained from hyperspectral data has been considered an effective way to estimate Car content. However, VIs have proved to lack sensitivity to low or high Car content in a number of studies. In this study, the carotenoid triangle ratio index (CTRI), derived from the existing modified triangular vegetation index and a single band reflectance at 531 nm, was proposed and employed to estimate Car canopy content. We tested the potential of three categories of hyperspectral indices earlier proposed for Car, Chl, Car/Chl ratio estimation, and the new CTRI index, for Car canopy content assessment in winter wheat and corn. Spectral reflectance representing plant canopies were simulated using the PROSPECT and SAIL radiative transfer model, with the aim of analyzing saturation effects of these indices, as well as Chl effects on the relationship between spectral indices and Car content. The result showed that the majority of the spectral indices tested, saturated with the increase of Car canopy content above 28 to 64 μg/cm2. Conversely, the CTRI index was more robust and was linearly and highly sensitive to Car content in winter wheat and corn datasets, with coefficients of determination of 0.92 and 0.75, respectively. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction were 6.01 and 9.70 μg/cm2, respectively. Furthermore, the CTRI index did not show a saturation effect and was not greatly influenced by changes of Chl values, outperforming all the other indices tested. Estimation of Car canopy content using the CTRI index provides an insight into diagnosing plant physiological status and environmental stress.

  10. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  11. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  12. An Introduction to DNA Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepfer, Carol Ely; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Provides background information on DNA fingerprinting, and describes exercises for introducing general biology students at the high school or college level to the methodology and applications of DNA fingerprinting. (PR)

  13. Esitleti kakskeelset luulekogu "Luule DNA"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Magrelli, Valerio. Luule DNA = Il DNA della poesia / tõlkinud [ja saatesõna:] Maarja Kangro ja Kalju Kruusa. Tallinn : Koma, 2006. Sisaldab autori teksti. Esitlus 24. jaan. Kirjanike majas Tallinnas

  14. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-06-21

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg(2+) ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg(2+) or Na(+), benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg(2+) bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.

  15. Alterations of ultraviolet irradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila, C.; Garces, F.

    1980-01-01

    Thymine dimers production has been studied in several DNA- 3 H irradiated at various wave lenght of U.V. Light. The influence of dimers on the hydrodynamic and optic properties, thermal structural stability and transformant capacity of DNA have been studied too. At last the recognition and excision of dimers by the DNA-UV-Endonuclease and DNA-Polimerase-I was also studied. (author)

  16. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    in biology and biomedicine acting as a molecular ‘nanorobot’ or smart drug interacting with the cellular machinery. In this review, we will explore and examine the perspective of DNA nanotechnology for such use. We summarize which requirements DNA nanostructures must fulfil to function in cellular...... environments and inside living organisms. In addition, we highlight recent advances in interfacing DNA nanostructures with biology....

  17. Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA Resources with of the DNA double helix during April 2003. James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were company Celera announced the completion of a "working draft" reference DNA sequence of the human

  18. My journey to DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    I completed my medical studies at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm but have always been devoted to basic research. My longstanding interest is to understand fundamental DNA repair mechanisms in the fields of cancer therapy, inherited human genetic disorders and ancient DNA. I initially measured DNA decay, including rates of base loss and cytosine deamination. I have discovered several important DNA repair proteins and determined their mechanisms of action. The discovery of uracil-DNA glycosylase defined a new category of repair enzymes with each specialized for different types of DNA damage. The base excision repair pathway was first reconstituted with human proteins in my group. Cell-free analysis for mammalian nucleotide excision repair of DNA was also developed in my laboratory. I found multiple distinct DNA ligases in mammalian cells, and led the first genetic and biochemical work on DNA ligases I, III and IV. I discovered the mammalian exonucleases DNase III (TREX1) and IV (FEN1). Interestingly, expression of TREX1 was altered in some human autoimmune diseases. I also showed that the mutagenic DNA adduct O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)mG) is repaired without removing the guanine from DNA, identifying a surprising mechanism by which the methyl group is transferred to a residue in the repair protein itself. A further novel process of DNA repair discovered by my research group is the action of AlkB as an iron-dependent enzyme carrying out oxidative demethylation. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. DNA Origami-Graphene Hybrid Nanopore for DNA Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati Farimani, Amir; Dibaeinia, Payam; Aluru, Narayana R

    2017-01-11

    DNA origami nanostructures can be used to functionalize solid-state nanopores for single molecule studies. In this study, we characterized a nanopore in a DNA origami-graphene heterostructure for DNA detection. The DNA origami nanopore is functionalized with a specific nucleotide type at the edge of the pore. Using extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we computed and analyzed the ionic conductivity of nanopores in heterostructures carpeted with one or two layers of DNA origami on graphene. We demonstrate that a nanopore in DNA origami-graphene gives rise to distinguishable dwell times for the four DNA base types, whereas for a nanopore in bare graphene, the dwell time is almost the same for all types of bases. The specific interactions (hydrogen bonds) between DNA origami and the translocating DNA strand yield different residence times and ionic currents. We also conclude that the speed of DNA translocation decreases due to the friction between the dangling bases at the pore mouth and the sequencing DNA strands.

  20. Efficient Sleeping Beauty DNA Transposition From DNA Minicircles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynne Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA transposon-based vectors have emerged as new potential delivery tools in therapeutic gene transfer. Such vectors are now showing promise in hematopoietic stem cells and primary human T cells, and clinical trials with transposon-engineered cells are on the way. However, the use of plasmid DNA as a carrier of the vector raises safety concerns due to the undesirable administration of bacterial sequences. To optimize vectors based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB DNA transposon for clinical use, we examine here SB transposition from DNA minicircles (MCs devoid of the bacterial plasmid backbone. Potent DNA transposition, directed by the hyperactive SB100X transposase, is demonstrated from MC donors, and the stable transfection rate is significantly enhanced by expressing the SB100X transposase from MCs. The stable transfection rate is inversely related to the size of circular donor, suggesting that a MC-based SB transposition system benefits primarily from an increased cellular uptake and/or enhanced expression which can be observed with DNA MCs. DNA transposon and transposase MCs are easily produced, are favorable in size, do not carry irrelevant DNA, and are robust substrates for DNA transposition. In accordance, DNA MCs should become a standard source of DNA transposons not only in therapeutic settings but also in the daily use of the SB system.