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Sample records for dna replication protein

  1. Replication of adenovirus DNA-protein complex with purified proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, J E; Enomoto, T.; Hurwitz, J

    1981-01-01

    A protein fraction isolated from the cytosol of adenovirus-infected HeLa cells, which contained DNA polymerase alpha, catalyzed adenoviral DNA replication in the presence of adenovirus DNA binding protein, eukaryotic DNA polymerase beta, ATP, all four dNTPs, and MgCl2. DNA replication started at either end of exogenously added adenoviral DNA and was totally dependent on the presence of terminal 55,000-dalton proteins on the DNA template. The replicaton of adenovirus DNA in the system was sens...

  2. The role of the adenovirus DNA binding protein in DNA replication and recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Replication of adenovirus DNA in infected cells is an efficient process that, compared to cellular replication, has the use of a protein primer as a hallmark. The mechanism of this DNA replication process and especially the role of one of the replication proteins, the DNA binding protein DBP, is the

  3. DNA-Binding Proteins Essential for Protein-Primed Bacteriophage Φ29 DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Margarita; Holguera, Isabel; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; de Vega, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5' ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP), is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP) that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3'-5' exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding and localization of the

  4. Specificity and function of Archaeal DNA replication initiator proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Rachel Y.; Xu, Yanqun; Gadelha, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    to investigate the role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in initiator function in vivo and in vitro. We find that the ATP-bound form of Orc1-1 is proficient for replication and implicates hydrolysis of ATP in downregulation of origin activity. Finally, we reveal that ATP and DNA binding by Orc1-1 remodels...... the protein's structure rather than that of the DNA template....

  5. Archaeal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  6. Evolution of DNA replication protein complexes in eukaryotes and Archaea.

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    Nicholas Chia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The replication of DNA in Archaea and eukaryotes requires several ancillary complexes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, replication factor C (RFC, and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM complex. Bacterial DNA replication utilizes comparable proteins, but these are distantly related phylogenetically to their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts at best. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While the structures of each of the complexes do not differ significantly between the archaeal and eukaryotic versions thereof, the evolutionary dynamic in the two cases does. The number of subunits in each complex is constant across all taxa. However, they vary subtly with regard to composition. In some taxa the subunits are all identical in sequence, while in others some are homologous rather than identical. In the case of eukaryotes, there is no phylogenetic variation in the makeup of each complex-all appear to derive from a common eukaryotic ancestor. This is not the case in Archaea, where the relationship between the subunits within each complex varies taxon-to-taxon. We have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of these relationships in order to better understand the gene duplications and divergences that gave rise to the homologous subunits in Archaea. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This domain level difference in evolution suggests that different forces have driven the evolution of DNA replication proteins in each of these two domains. In addition, the phylogenies of all three gene families support the distinctiveness of the proposed archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota.

  7. A Polycomb complex remains bound through DNA replication in the absence of other eukaryotic proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Lengsfeld, Bettina M.

    2012-09-17

    Propagation of chromatin states through DNA replication is central to epigenetic regulation and can involve recruitment of chromatin proteins to replicating chromatin through interactions with replication fork components. Here we show using a fully reconstituted T7 bacteriophage system that eukaryotic proteins are not required to tether the Polycomb complex PRC1 to templates during DNA replication. Instead, DNA binding by PRC1 can withstand passage of a simple replication fork.

  8. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

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    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  9. The escherichia coli chromosome replication initiator protein, DnaA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Malene

    The experimental work presented in this thesis involve mutational analysis of the DNA binding domain of the DnaA protein and analysis of the A184V substitution in the ATP area of domain III and other amino acid substitutions found in the DnaA5 and DnaA4G proteins....

  10. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 proteins associate in a complex and colocalize at replication factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vago, Riccardo; Leva, Valentina; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2009-08-15

    DNA ligase I is the main DNA ligase activity involved in eukaryotic DNA replication acting in the joining of Okazaki fragments. This enzyme is also implicated in nucleotide excision repair and in the long-patch base excision repair while its role in the recombinational repair pathways is poorly understood. DNA ligase I is phosphorylated during cell cycle at several serine and threonine residues that regulate its participation in different DNA transactions by modulating the interaction with different protein partners. Here we use an antibody-based array method to identify novel DNA ligase-interacting partners. We show that DNA ligase I participates in several multiprotein complexes with proteins involved in DNA replication and repair, cell cycle control, and protein modification. In particular we demonstrate that DNA ligase I complexes with Nbs1, a core component of the MRN complex critical for detection, processing and repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. The analysis of epitope tagged DNA ligase I mutants demonstrates that the association is mediated by the catalytic fragment of the enzyme. DNA ligase I and Nbs1 colocalize at replication factories during unperturbed replication and after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Since MRN complex is involved in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination at stalled replication forks our data support the notion that DNA ligase I participates in homology dependent pathways that deal with replication-associated lesions generated when replication fork encounters DNA damage.

  11. Monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of proteins at replication forks and in assembled chromatin using isolation of proteins on nascent DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Bianca M; Couch, Frank B; Cortez, David

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the processes of DNA replication, chromatin assembly and maturation, and the replication stress response requires the ability to monitor protein dynamics at active and damaged replication forks. Detecting protein accumulation at replication forks or damaged sites has primarily relied on immunofluorescence imaging, which is limited in resolution and antibody sensitivity. Here we describe a procedure to isolate proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND) that permits a high-resolution spatiotemporal analysis of proteins at replication forks or on chromatin following DNA replication in cultured cells. iPOND relies on labeling of nascent DNA with the nucleoside analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Biotin conjugation to EdU-labeled DNA using click chemistry facilitates a single-step streptavidin purification of proteins bound to the nascent DNA. iPOND permits an interrogation of any cellular process linked to DNA synthesis using a 3- to 4-d protocol.

  12. Identification of putative DnaN-binding motifs in plasmid replication initiation proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Brian P; Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Wijffels, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Recently the plasmid RK2 replication initiation protein, TrfA, has been shown to bind to the beta subunit of DNA Polymerase III (DnaN) via a short pentapeptide with the consensus QL[S/D]LF. A second consensus peptide, the hexapeptide QLxLxL, has also been demonstrated to mediate binding to DnaN. Here we describe the results of a comprehensive survey of replication initiation proteins encoded by bacterial plasmids to identify putative DnaN-binding sites. Both pentapeptide and hexapeptide motifs have been identified in a number of families of replication initiation proteins. The distribution of sites is sporadic and closely related families of proteins may differ in the presence, location, or type of putative DnaN-binding motif. Neither motif has been identified in replication initiation proteins encoded by plasmids that replicate via rolling circles or strand displacement. The results suggest that the recruitment of DnaN to the origin of replication of a replisome by plasmid replication initiation proteins is not generally required for plasmid replication, but that in some cases it may be beneficial for efficiency of replication initiation.

  13. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  14. The origin of replication, oriC, and the dnaA protein are dispensable in stable DNA replication (sdrA) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogoma, T; von Meyenburg, K

    1983-01-01

    The sdrA224 mutants of Escherichia coli K-12, capable of continued DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis (stable DNA replication), tolerate inactivation of the dnaA gene by insertion of transposon Tn10. Furthermore, oriC, the origin of E. coli chromosome replication, can be deleted from the chromosome of sdrA mutants without loss of viability. The results suggest the presence of a second, normally repressed, initiation system for chromosome replication alternative to the 'normal' dnaA+ oriC+-dependent initiation mechanism.

  15. Characteristics of DNA replication in isolated nuclei initiated by an aprotinin-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Hameed, M; Cohen, S

    1993-02-01

    Isolated cell nuclei were used as the source of template DNA to investigate the role of a cytosolic aprotinin-binding protein (ADR) in the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Computerized image cytometry demonstrated that the DNA content of individual nuclei increased significantly following incubation with ADR-containing preparations, and the extent of DNA synthesis is consistent with that allowed by the limiting concentration of dTTP. Thus, dTTP incorporation into isolated nuclei represents DNA synthesis and not parent strand repair. We found that dTTP incorporation into the isolated nuclei is dependent on DNA polymerase alpha (a principal polymerase in DNA replication) but that DNA polymerase beta (a principal polymerase in DNA repair processes) does not play a significant role in this system. Finally, neither aprotinin nor a previously described cytosolic ADR inhibitor can block the replication of nuclease-treated calf thymus DNA, while both strongly inhibit replication of DNA in isolated nuclei. This result, coupled with the relative ineffectiveness of nuclease-treated DNA compared with nuclear DNA to serve as a replicative template in this assay, argues against a significant contribution from repair or synthesis which initiates at a site of DNA damage. These data indicate that ADR-mediated incorporation of 3H-dTTP into isolated nuclei results from DNA replicative processes that are directly relevant to in vivo S phase events.

  16. Replication protein A and more: single-stranded DNA-binding proteins in eukaryotic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Liu; Jun Huang

    2016-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) play essential roles in DNA replication,recombinational repair,and maintenance of genome stability.In human,the major SSB,replication protein A (RPA),is a stable heterotrimer composed of subunits of RPA1,RPA2,and RPA3,each df which is conserved not only in mammals but also in all other eukaryotic species.In addition to RPA,other SSBs have also been identified in the human genome,including sensor of single-stranded DNA complexes 1 and 2 (SOSS1/2).In this review,we summarize our current understanding of how these SSBs contribute to the maintenance of genome stability.

  17. Crystal structure of the homology domain of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins Sld3/Treslin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Sachiko; Shirakihara, Yasuo; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-02

    The initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication requires the formation of an active replicative helicase at the replication origins of chromosomal DNA. Yeast Sld3 and its metazoan counterpart Treslin are the hub proteins mediating protein associations critical for the helicase formation. Here, we show the crystal structure of the central domain of Sld3 that is conserved in Sld3/Treslin family of proteins. The domain consists of two segments with 12 helices and is sufficient to bind to Cdc45, the essential helicase component. The structure model of the Sld3-Cdc45 complex, which is crucial for the formation of the active helicase, is proposed.

  18. Regulated Transport into the Nucleus of Herpesviridae DNA Replication Core Proteins

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    Alessandro Ripalti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Herpesvirdae family comprises several major human pathogens belonging to three distinct subfamilies. Their double stranded DNA genome is replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by a number of host and viral products. Among the latter the viral replication complex, whose activity is strictly required for viral replication, is composed of six different polypeptides, including a two-subunit DNA polymerase holoenzyme, a trimeric primase/helicase complex and a single stranded DNA binding protein. The study of herpesviral DNA replication machinery is extremely important, both because it provides an excellent model to understand processes related to eukaryotic DNA replication and it has important implications for the development of highly needed antiviral agents. Even though all known herpesviruses utilize very similar mechanisms for amplification of their genomes, the nuclear import of the replication complex components appears to be a heterogeneous and highly regulated process to ensure the correct spatiotemporal localization of each protein. The nuclear transport process of these enzymes is controlled by three mechanisms, typifying the main processes through which protein nuclear import is generally regulated in eukaryotic cells. These include cargo post-translational modification-based recognition by the intracellular transporters, piggy-back events allowing coordinated nuclear import of multimeric holoenzymes, and chaperone-assisted nuclear import of specific subunits. In this review we summarize these mechanisms and discuss potential implications for the development of antiviral compounds aimed at inhibiting the Herpesvirus life cycle by targeting nuclear import of the Herpesvirus DNA replicating enzymes.

  19. Damage-induced DNA replication stalling relies on MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köpper, Frederik; Bierwirth, Cathrin; Schön, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    DNA damage can obstruct replication forks, resulting in replicative stress. By siRNA screening, we identified kinases involved in the accumulation of phosphohistone 2AX (γH2AX) upon UV irradiation-induced replication stress. Surprisingly, the strongest reduction of phosphohistone 2AX followed...... replication impaired by gemcitabine or by Chk1 inhibition. This rescue strictly depended on translesion DNA polymerases. In conclusion, instead of being an unavoidable consequence of DNA damage, alterations of replication speed and origin firing depend on MK2-mediated signaling....... knockdown of the MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a kinase currently implicated in p38 stress signaling and G2 arrest. Depletion or inhibition of MK2 also protected cells from DNA damage-induced cell death, and mice deficient for MK2 displayed decreased apoptosis in the skin upon UV irradiation...

  20. Adenovirus DNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, Rob C.; Uil, Taco G.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses have attracted much attention as probes to study biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and cellular transformation. More recently these viruses have been used as gene-transfer vectors and oncolytic agents. On the other hand, adenoviruses are notorious pathogens in people with compromised immune functions. This article will briefly summarize the basic replication strategy of adenoviruses and the key proteins involved and will deal with the new deve...

  1. Multiple DNA binding proteins contribute to timing of chromosome replication in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. Dna...... replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology...... in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on ori...

  2. Identification of Proteins at Active, Stalled, and Collapsed Replication Forks Using Isolation of Proteins on Nascent DNA (iPOND) Coupled with Mass Spectrometry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Bianca M.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Dungrawala, Huzefa; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Kavanaugh, Gina M.; Chen, Yaoyi; Tabb, David L.; Cortez, David

    2013-01-01

    Both DNA and chromatin need to be duplicated during each cell division cycle. Replication happens in the context of defects in the DNA template and other forms of replication stress that present challenges to both genetic and epigenetic inheritance. The replication machinery is highly regulated by replication stress responses to accomplish this goal. To identify important replication and stress response proteins, we combined isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND) with quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified 290 proteins enriched on newly replicated DNA at active, stalled, and collapsed replication forks. Approximately 16% of these proteins are known replication or DNA damage response proteins. Genetic analysis indicates that several of the newly identified proteins are needed to facilitate DNA replication, especially under stressed conditions. Our data provide a useful resource for investigators studying DNA replication and the replication stress response and validate the use of iPOND combined with mass spectrometry as a discovery tool. PMID:24047897

  3. p53 represses human papillomavirus type 16 DNA replication via the viral E2 protein

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    Morgan Iain M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV DNA replication can be inhibited by the cellular tumour suppressor protein p53. However, the mechanism through which p53 inhibits viral replication and the role that this might play in the HPV life cycle are not known. The papillomavirus E2 protein is required for efficient HPV DNA replication and also regulates viral gene expression. E2 represses transcription of the HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes and can thereby modulate indirectly host cell proliferation and survival. In addition, the E2 protein from HPV 16 has been shown to bind p53 and to be capable of inducing apoptosis independently of E6 and E7. Results Here we use a panel of E2 mutants to confirm that mutations which block the induction of apoptosis via this E6/E7-independent pathway, have little or no effect on the induction of apoptosis by the E6/E7-dependent pathway. Although these mutations in E2 do not affect the ability of the protein to mediate HPV DNA replication, they do abrogate the repressive effects of p53 on the transcriptional activity of E2 and prevent the inhibition of E2-dependent HPV DNA replication by p53. Conclusion These data suggest that p53 down-regulates HPV 16 DNA replication via the E2 protein.

  4. DNA replication restart and cellular dynamics of Hef helicase/nuclease protein in Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestini, Roxane; Delpech, Floriane; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how frequently spontaneous replication arrests occur and how archaea deal with these arrests are very interesting and challenging research topics. Here we will described how genetic and imaging studies have revealed the central role of the archaeal helicase/nuclease Hef belonging to the XPF/MUS81/FANCM family of endonucleases in repair of arrested replication forks. Special focus will be on description of a recently developed combination of genetic and imaging tools to study the dynamic localization of a functional Hef::GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) fusion protein in the living cells of halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii. As Archaea provide an excellent and unique model for understanding how DNA replication is regulated to allow replication of a circular DNA molecule either from single or multiple replication origins, we will also summarize recent studies that have revealed peculiar features regarding DNA replication, particularly in halophilic archaea. We strongly believe that fundamental knowledge of our on-going studies will shed light on the evolutionary history of the DNA replication machinery and will help to establish general rules concerning replication restart and the key role of recombination proteins not only in bacteria, yeast and higher eukaryotes but also in archaea.

  5. A bridging model for persistence of a polycomb group protein complex through DNA replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Stanley M; Follmer, Nicole E; Lengsfeld, Bettina M; Madamba, Egbert V; Seong, Samuel; Grau, Daniel J; Francis, Nicole J

    2012-06-29

    Epigenetic regulation may involve heritable chromatin states, but how chromatin features can be inherited through DNA replication is incompletely understood. We address this question using cell-free replication of chromatin. Previously, we showed that a Polycomb group complex, PRC1, remains continuously associated with chromatin through DNA replication. Here we investigate the mechanism of persistence. We find that a single PRC1 subunit, Posterior sex combs (PSC), can reconstitute persistence through DNA replication. PSC binds nucleosomes and self-interacts, bridging nucleosomes into a stable, oligomeric structure. Within these structures, individual PSC-chromatin contacts are dynamic. Stable association of PSC with chromatin, including through DNA replication, depends on PSC-PSC interactions. Our data suggest that labile individual PSC-chromatin contacts allow passage of the DNA replication machinery while PSC-PSC interactions prevent PSC from dissociating, allowing it to rebind to replicated chromatin. This mechanism may allow inheritance of chromatin proteins including PRC1 through DNA replication to maintain chromatin states.

  6. Bromodomain protein Brd4 plays a key role in Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA replication.

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    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV is the first human polyomavirus to be definitively linked to cancer. The mechanisms of MCV-induced oncogenesis and much of MCV biology are largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4 interacts with MCV large T antigen (LT and plays a critical role in viral DNA replication. Brd4 knockdown inhibits MCV replication, which can be rescued by recombinant Brd4. Brd4 colocalizes with the MCV LT/replication origin complex in the nucleus and recruits replication factor C (RFC to the viral replication sites. A dominant negative inhibitor of the Brd4-MCV LT interaction can dissociate Brd4 and RFC from the viral replication complex and abrogate MCV replication. Furthermore, obstructing the physiologic interaction between Brd4 and host chromatin with the chemical compound JQ1(+ leads to enhanced MCV DNA replication, demonstrating that the role of Brd4 in MCV replication is distinct from its role in chromatin-associated transcriptional regulation. Our findings demonstrate mechanistic details of the MCV replication machinery; providing novel insight to elucidate the life cycle of this newly discovered oncogenic DNA virus.

  7. The quaternary structure of the eukaryotic DNA replication proteins Sld7 and Sld3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Hiroshi; Shirakihara, Yasuo; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    The initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication requires the formation of an active replicative helicase at the replication origins of chromosomes. Yeast Sld3 and its metazoan counterpart treslin are the hub proteins mediating protein associations critical for formation of the helicase. The Sld7 protein interacts with Sld3, and the complex formed is thought to regulate the function of Sld3. Although Sld7 is a non-essential DNA replication protein that is found in only a limited range of yeasts, its depletion slowed the growth of cells and caused a delay in the S phase. Recently, the Mdm2-binding protein was found to bind to treslin in humans, and its depletion causes defects in cells similar to the depletion of Sld7 in yeast, suggesting their functional relatedness and importance during the initiation step of DNA replication. Here, the crystal structure of Sld7 in complex with Sld3 is presented. Sld7 comprises two structural domains. The N-terminal domain of Sld7 binds to Sld3, and the C-terminal domains connect two Sld7 molecules in an antiparallel manner. The quaternary structure of the Sld3-Sld7 complex shown from the crystal structures appears to be suitable to activate two helicase molecules loaded onto replication origins in a head-to-head manner.

  8. A Network of Multi-Tasking Proteins at the DNA Replication Fork Preserves Genome Stability.

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    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the network that maintains high fidelity genome replication, we have introduced two conditional mutant alleles of DNA2, an essential DNA replication gene, into each of the approximately 4,700 viable yeast deletion mutants and determined the fitness of the double mutants. Fifty-six DNA2-interacting genes were identified. Clustering analysis of genomic synthetic lethality profiles of each of 43 of the DNA2-interacting genes defines a network (consisting of 322 genes and 876 interactions whose topology provides clues as to how replication proteins coordinate regulation and repair to protect genome integrity. The results also shed new light on the functions of the query gene DNA2, which, despite many years of study, remain controversial, especially its proposed role in Okazaki fragment processing and the nature of its in vivo substrates. Because of the multifunctional nature of virtually all proteins at the replication fork, the meaning of any single genetic interaction is inherently ambiguous. The multiplexing nature of the current studies, however, combined with follow-up supporting experiments, reveals most if not all of the unique pathways requiring Dna2p. These include not only Okazaki fragment processing and DNA repair but also chromatin dynamics.

  9. A network of multi-tasking proteins at the DNA replication fork preserves genome stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin E Budd

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the network that maintains high fidelity genome replication, we have introduced two conditional mutant alleles of DNA2, an essential DNA replication gene, into each of the approximately 4,700 viable yeast deletion mutants and determined the fitness of the double mutants. Fifty-six DNA2-interacting genes were identified. Clustering analysis of genomic synthetic lethality profiles of each of 43 of the DNA2-interacting genes defines a network (consisting of 322 genes and 876 interactions whose topology provides clues as to how replication proteins coordinate regulation and repair to protect genome integrity. The results also shed new light on the functions of the query gene DNA2, which, despite many years of study, remain controversial, especially its proposed role in Okazaki fragment processing and the nature of its in vivo substrates. Because of the multifunctional nature of virtually all proteins at the replication fork, the meaning of any single genetic interaction is inherently ambiguous. The multiplexing nature of the current studies, however, combined with follow-up supporting experiments, reveals most if not all of the unique pathways requiring Dna2p. These include not only Okazaki fragment processing and DNA repair but also chromatin dynamics.

  10. The heat-shock DnaK protein is required for plasmid R1 replication and it is dispensable for plasmid ColE1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Suárez, R; Fernández-Tresguerres, E; Díaz-Orejas, R; Malki, A; Kohiyama, M

    1993-01-01

    Plasmid R1 replication in vitro is inactive in extracts prepared from a dnaK756 strain but is restored to normal levels upon addition of purified DnaK protein. Replication of R1 in extracts of a dnaKwt strain can be specifically inhibited with polyclonal antibodies against DnaK. RepA-dependent replication of R1 in dnaK756 extracts supplemented with DnaKwt protein at maximum concentration is partially inhibited by rifampicin and it is severely inhibited at sub-optimal concentrations of DnaK protein. The copy number of a run-away R1 vector is reduced in a dnaK756 background at 30 degrees C and at 42 degrees C the amplification of the run-away R1 vector is prevented. However a runaway R1 vector containing dnaK gene allows the amplification of the plasmid at high temperature. These data indicate that DnaK is required for both in vitro and in vivo replication of plasmid R1 and show a partial compensation for the low level of DnaK by RNA polymerase. In contrast ColE1 replication is not affected by DnaK as indicated by the fact that ColE1 replicates with the same efficiency in extracts from dnaKwt and dnaK756 strains. Images PMID:8265367

  11. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, Chris; Yan, Chunli; Tsutakawa, Susan; Heller, William; Rambo, Robert; Tainer, John; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Chazin, Walter

    2013-01-17

    By coupling the protection and organization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, replication protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA coordinates biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA's DNA-binding activity, combining small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA's DNA-binding core. The scattering data reveal compaction promoted by DNA binding; DNA-free RPA exists in an ensemble of states with inter-domain mobility and becomes progressively more condensed and less dynamic on binding ssDNA. Our results contrast with previous models proposing RPA initially binds ssDNA in a condensed state and becomes more extended as it fully engages the substrate. Moreover, the consensus view that RPA engages ssDNA in initial, intermediate and final stages conflicts with our data revealing that RPA undergoes two (not three) transitions as it binds ssDNA with no evidence for a discrete intermediate state. These results form a framework for understanding how RPA integrates the ssDNA substrate into DNA processing machinery, provides substrate access to its binding partners and promotes the progression and selection of DNA processing pathways.

  12. DNA replication catalyzed by herpes simplex virus type 1 proteins reveals trombone loops at the fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermek, Oya; Willcox, Smaranda; Griffith, Jack D

    2015-01-30

    Using purified replication factors encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 and a 70-base minicircle template, we obtained robust DNA synthesis with leading strand products of >20,000 nucleotides and lagging strand fragments from 600 to 9,000 nucleotides as seen by alkaline gel electrophoresis. ICP8 was crucial for the synthesis on both strands. Visualization of the deproteinized products using electron microscopy revealed long, linear dsDNAs, and in 87%, one end, presumably the end with the 70-base circle, was single-stranded. The remaining 13% had multiple single-stranded segments separated by dsDNA segments 500 to 1,000 nucleotides in length located at one end. These features are diagnostic of the trombone mechanism of replication. Indeed, when the products were examined with the replication proteins bound, a dsDNA loop was frequently associated with the replication complex located at one end of the replicated DNA. Furthermore, the frequency of loops correlated with the fraction of DNA undergoing Okazaki fragment synthesis.

  13. Defects of mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William C

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase γ in concert with accessory proteins such as the mitochondrial DNA helicase, single-stranded DNA binding protein, topoisomerase, and initiating factors. Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication or nucleotide metabolism can cause mitochondrial genetic diseases due to mitochondrial DNA deletions, point mutations, or depletion, which ultimately cause loss of oxidative phosphorylation. These genetic diseases include mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes such as Alpers or early infantile hepatocerebral syndromes, and mitochondrial DNA deletion disorders, such as progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia-neuropathy, or mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. This review focuses on our current knowledge of genetic defects of mitochondrial DNA replication (POLG, POLG2, C10orf2, and MGME1) that cause instability of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial disease.

  14. Crosslinking of DNA repair and replication proteins to DNA in cells treated with 6-thioguanine and UVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueranger, Quentin; Kia, Azadeh; Frith, David; Karran, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The DNA of patients taking immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory thiopurines contains 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and their skin is hypersensitive to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. DNA 6-TG absorbs UVA and generates reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and proteins. Here, we show that the DNA damage includes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. An oligonucleotide containing a single 6-TG is photochemically crosslinked to cysteine-containing oligopeptides by low doses of UVA. Crosslinking is significantly more efficient if guanine sulphonate (G(SO3))--an oxidized 6-TG and a previously identified UVA photoproduct--replaces 6-TG, suggesting that G(SO3) is an important reaction intermediate. Crosslinking occurs via oligopeptide sulphydryl and free amino groups. The oligonucleotide-oligopeptide adducts are heat stable but are partially reversed by reducing treatments. UVA irradiation of human cells containing DNA 6-TG induces extensive heat- and reducing agent-resistant covalent DNA-protein crosslinks and diminishes the recovery of some DNA repair and replication proteins from nuclear extracts. DNA-protein crosslinked material has an altered buoyant density and can be purified by banding in cesium chloride (CsCl) gradients. PCNA, the MSH2 mismatch repair protein and the XPA nucleotide excision repair (NER) factor are among the proteins detectable in the DNA-crosslinked material. These findings suggest that the 6-TG/UVA combination might compromise DNA repair by sequestering essential proteins.

  15. PriC-mediated DNA replication restart requires PriC complex formation with the single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Sarah R; Marceau, Aimee H; Massoni, Shawn C; Zhou, Ruobo; Ha, Taekjip; Sandler, Steven J; Keck, James L

    2013-06-14

    Frequent collisions between cellular DNA replication complexes (replisomes) and obstacles such as damaged DNA or frozen protein complexes make DNA replication fork progression surprisingly sporadic. These collisions can lead to the ejection of replisomes prior to completion of replication, which, if left unrepaired, results in bacterial cell death. As such, bacteria have evolved DNA replication restart mechanisms that function to reload replisomes onto abandoned DNA replication forks. Here, we define a direct interaction between PriC, a key Escherichia coli DNA replication restart protein, and the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB), a protein that is ubiquitously associated with DNA replication forks. PriC/SSB complex formation requires evolutionarily conserved residues from both proteins, including a pair of Arg residues from PriC and the C terminus of SSB. In vitro, disruption of the PriC/SSB interface by sequence changes in either protein blocks the first step of DNA replication restart, reloading of the replicative DnaB helicase onto an abandoned replication fork. Consistent with the critical role of PriC/SSB complex formation in DNA replication restart, PriC variants that cannot bind SSB are non-functional in vivo. Single-molecule experiments demonstrate that PriC binding to SSB alters SSB/DNA complexes, exposing single-stranded DNA and creating a platform for other proteins to bind. These data lead to a model in which PriC interaction with SSB remodels SSB/DNA structures at abandoned DNA replication forks to create a DNA structure that is competent for DnaB loading.

  16. Interplay between human high mobility group protein 1 and replication protein A on psoralen-cross-linked DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Madhava C; Christensen, Jesper; Vasquez, Karen M

    2005-01-01

    Human high mobility group box (HMGB) 1 and -2 proteins are highly conserved and abundant chromosomal proteins that regulate chromatin structure and DNA metabolism. HMGB proteins bind preferentially to DNA that is bent or underwound and to DNA damaged by agents such as cisplatin, UVC radiation......, and benzo[a]pyrenediol epoxide (BPDE). Binding of HMGB1 to DNA adducts is thought to inhibit nucleotide excision repair (NER), leading to cell death, but the biological roles of these proteins remain obscure. We have used psoralen-modified triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) to direct a psoralen-DNA...... interstrand cross-link (ICL) to a specific site to determine the effect of HMGB proteins on recognition of these lesions. Our results reveal that human HMGB1 (but not HMGB2) binds with high affinity and specificity to psoralen ICLs, and interacts with the essential NER protein, replication protein A (RPA...

  17. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  18. A new structural framework for integrating replication protein A into DNA processing machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, Chris A [Vanderbilt University; Yan, Chunli [Georgia State University, Atlanta; Tsutakawa, Susan E [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Heller, William T [ORNL; Rambo, Robert P [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Tainer, John A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, The Scripps Research Institite and The Skaggs Institute; Ivanov, Ivaylo [Georgia State University, Atlanta; Chazin, Walter J [Vanderbilt University

    2013-01-01

    By coupling the protection and organization of ssDNA with the recruitment and alignment of DNA processing factors, Replication Protein A (RPA) lies at the heart of dynamic multi-protein DNA processing machinery. Nevertheless, how RPA manages to coordinate the biochemical functions of its eight domains remains unknown. We examined the structural biochemistry of RPA s DNA binding activity, combining small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the architecture of RPA s DNA-binding core. It has been long held that RPA engages ssDNA in three stages, but our data reveal that RPA undergoes two rather than three transitions as it binds ssDNA. In contrast to previous models, RPA is more compact when fully engaged on 20-30 nucleotides of ssDNA than when DNA-free, and there is no evidence for significant population of a highly compacted structure in the initial 8-10 nucleotide binding mode. These results provide a new framework for understanding the integration of ssDNA into DNA processing machinery and how binding partners may manipulate RPA architecture to gain access to the substrate.

  19. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  20. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein Zta co-opts mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein to promote viral and inhibit mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Andreas; Wang, Pu; Zhou, Jing; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo; Lieberman, Paul M

    2008-05-01

    Disruption of cellular metabolic processes and usurpation of host proteins are hallmarks of herpesvirus lytic infection. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication is initiated by the immediate-early protein Zta. Zta is a multifunctional DNA binding protein that stimulates viral gene transcription, nucleates a replication complex at the viral origin of lytic replication, and inhibits cell cycle proliferation. To better understand these functions and identify cellular collaborators of Zta, we purified an epitope-tagged version of Zta in cells capable of supporting lytic replication. FLAG-tagged Zta was purified from a nuclear fraction using FLAG antibody immunopurification and peptide elution. Zta-associated proteins were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. The Zta-associated proteins included members of the HSP70 family and various single-stranded DNA and RNA binding proteins. The nuclear replication protein A subunits (RPA70 and RPA32) and the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein (mtSSB) were confirmed by Western blotting to be specifically enriched in the FLAG-Zta immunopurified complex. mtSSB coimmunoprecipitated with endogenous Zta during reactivation of EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Small interfering RNA depletion of mtSSB reduced Zta-induced lytic replication of EBV but had only a modest effect on transcription activation function. A point mutation in the Zta DNA binding domain (C189S), which is known to reduce lytic cycle replication, eliminated mtSSB association with Zta. The predominantly mitochondrial localization of mtSSB was shifted to partly nuclear localization in cells expressing Zta. Mitochondrial DNA synthesis and genome copy number were reduced by Zta-induced EBV lytic replication. We conclude that Zta interaction with mtSSB serves the dual function of facilitating viral and blocking mitochondrial DNA replication.

  1. Autoregulation of the dnaA-dnaN operon and effects of DnaA protein levels on replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Y; Imai, Y; Ogasawara, N; Moriya, S

    2001-07-01

    In Escherichia coli, the DnaA protein level appears to play a pivotal role in determining the timing of replication initiation. To examine the effects on replication initiation in B. subtilis, we constructed a strain in which a copy of the dnaA gene was integrated at the purA locus on the chromosome under the control of an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoter. However, increasing the DnaA level resulted in cell elongation and inhibition of cell growth by induction of the SOS response. Transcription of the native dnaA-dnaN operon was greatly reduced at high DnaA levels, but it was increased in a dnaA-null mutant, indicating autoregulation of the operon by DnaA. When a copy of the dnaN gene was added downstream of the additional dnaA gene at purA, the cells grew at high DnaA levels, suggesting that depletion of DnaN (beta subunit of DNA polymerase III) within the cell by repression of the native dnaA-dnaN operon at high DnaA levels was the cause of the SOS induction. Flow cytometry of the cells revealed that the cell mass at initiation of replication increased at a lower DnaA level and decreased at DnaA levels higher than those of the wild type. Proper timing of replication initiation was observed at DnaA levels nearly comparable to the wild-type level. These results suggest that if the DnaA level increases with progression of the replication cycle, it could act as a rate-limiting factor of replication initiation in B. subtilis.

  2. Replication protein A: single-stranded DNA's first responder: dynamic DNA-interactions allow replication protein A to direct single-strand DNA intermediates into different pathways for synthesis or repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Wold, Marc S

    2014-12-01

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major single-stranded DNA-binding protein in eukaryotic cells, is required for processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediates found in replication, repair, and recombination. Recent studies have shown that RPA binding to ssDNA is highly dynamic and that more than high-affinity binding is needed for function. Analysis of DNA binding mutants identified forms of RPA with reduced affinity for ssDNA that are fully active, and other mutants with higher affinity that are inactive. Single molecule studies showed that while RPA binds ssDNA with high affinity, the RPA complex can rapidly diffuse along ssDNA and be displaced by other proteins that act on ssDNA. Finally, dynamic DNA binding allows RPA to prevent error-prone repair of double-stranded breaks and promote error-free repair. Together, these findings suggest a new paradigm where RPA acts as a first responder at sites with ssDNA, thereby actively coordinating DNA repair and DNA synthesis. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Protein Phosphatase 1 Recruitment by Rif1 Regulates DNA Replication Origin Firing by Counteracting DDK Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoushka Davé

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The firing of eukaryotic origins of DNA replication requires CDK and DDK kinase activities. DDK, in particular, is involved in setting the temporal program of origin activation, a conserved feature of eukaryotes. Rif1, originally identified as a telomeric protein, was recently implicated in specifying replication timing in yeast and mammals. We show that this function of Rif1 depends on its interaction with PP1 phosphatases. Mutations of two PP1 docking motifs in Rif1 lead to early replication of telomeres in budding yeast and misregulation of origin firing in fission yeast. Several lines of evidence indicate that Rif1/PP1 counteract DDK activity on the replicative MCM helicase. Our data suggest that the PP1/Rif1 interaction is downregulated by the phosphorylation of Rif1, most likely by CDK/DDK. These findings elucidate the mechanism of action of Rif1 in the control of DNA replication and demonstrate a role of PP1 phosphatases in the regulation of origin firing.

  4. Biochemical analysis of DNA polymerase η fidelity in the presence of replication protein A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C Suarez

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase η (pol η synthesizes across from damaged DNA templates in order to prevent deleterious consequences like replication fork collapse and double-strand breaks. This process, termed translesion synthesis (TLS, is an overall positive for the cell, as cells deficient in pol η display higher mutation rates. This outcome occurs despite the fact that the in vitro fidelity of bypass by pol η alone is moderate to low, depending on the lesion being copied. One possible means of increasing the fidelity of pol η is interaction with replication accessory proteins present at the replication fork. We have previously utilized a bacteriophage based screening system to measure the fidelity of bypass using purified proteins. Here we report on the fidelity effects of a single stranded binding protein, replication protein A (RPA, when copying the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine(8-oxoG and the UV-induced cis-syn thymine-thymine cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (T-T CPD. We observed no change in fidelity dependent on RPA when copying these damaged templates. This result is consistent in multiple position contexts. We previously identified single amino acid substitution mutants of pol η that have specific effects on fidelity when copying both damaged and undamaged templates. In order to confirm our results, we examined the Q38A and Y52E mutants in the same full-length construct. We again observed no difference when RPA was added to the bypass reaction, with the mutant forms of pol η displaying similar fidelity regardless of RPA status. We do, however, observe some slight effects when copying undamaged DNA, similar to those we have described previously. Our results indicate that RPA by itself does not affect pol η dependent lesion bypass fidelity when copying either 8-oxoG or T-T CPD lesions.

  5. Bi-directional routing of DNA mismatch repair protein human exonuclease 1 to replication foci and DNA double strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberti, Sascha E; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Wang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA metabolism, including replication, recombination and repair, substantiated by its interactions with PCNA, DNA helicases BLM and WRN, and several DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. We investigated the sub-nuclear localization of hEXO1 during S......-phase progression and in response to laser-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). We show that hEXO1 and PCNA co-localize in replication foci. This apparent interaction is sustained throughout S-phase. We also demonstrate that hEXO1 is rapidly recruited to DNA DSBs. We have identified a PCNA interacting protein...... (PIP-box) region on hEXO1 located in its COOH-terminal ((788)QIKLNELW(795)). This motif is essential for PCNA binding and co-localization during S-phase. Recruitment of hEXO1 to DNA DSB sites is dependent on the MMR protein hMLH1. We show that two distinct hMLH1 interaction regions of hEXO1 (residues...

  6. ‘The octet’: eight protein kinases that control mammalian DNA replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin L. Depamphilis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of a fertilized human egg into an average sized adult requires about 29 trillion cell divisions, thereby producing enough DNA to stretch to the Sun and back 200 times (DePamphilis and Bell, 2011! Even more amazing is the fact that throughout these mitotic cell cycles, the human genome is duplicated once and only once each time a cell divides. If a cell accidentally begins to re-replicate its nuclear DNA prior to cell division, checkpoint pathways trigger apoptosis. And yet, some cells are developmentally programmed to respond to environmental cues by switching from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles, a process in which multiple S phases occur in the absence of either mitosis or cytokinesis. Endocycles allow production of viable, differentiated, polyploid cells that no longer proliferate. What is surprising is that among the 516 (Manning et al., 2002 to 557 (BioMart web site protein kinases encoded by the human genome, only eight regulate nuclear DNA replication directly. These are Cdk1, Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6, Cdk7, Cdc7, Chk1 and Chk2. Even more remarkable is the fact that only four of these enzymes (Cdk1, Cdk7, Cdc7 and Chk1 are essential for mammalian development. Here we describe how these protein kinases determine when DNA replication occurs during mitotic cell cycles, how mammalian cells switch from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles, and how cancer cells can be selectively targeted for destruction by inducing them to begin a second S phase before mitosis is complete.

  7. A prophage-encoded actin-like protein required for efficient viral DNA replication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Catriona; Heyer, Antonia; Pfeifer, Eugen; Polen, Tino; Wittmann, Anja; Krämer, Reinhard; Frunzke, Julia; Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-05-26

    In host cells, viral replication is localized at specific subcellular sites. Viruses that infect eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells often use host-derived cytoskeletal structures, such as the actin skeleton, for intracellular positioning. Here, we describe that a prophage, CGP3, integrated into the genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum encodes an actin-like protein, AlpC. Biochemical characterization confirms that AlpC is a bona fide actin-like protein and cell biological analysis shows that AlpC forms filamentous structures upon prophage induction. The co-transcribed adaptor protein, AlpA, binds to a consensus sequence in the upstream promoter region of the alpAC operon and also interacts with AlpC, thus connecting circular phage DNA to the actin-like filaments. Transcriptome analysis revealed that alpA and alpC are among the early induced genes upon excision of the CGP3 prophage. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of mutant strains revealed that both AlpA and AlpC are required for efficient phage replication. Altogether, these data emphasize that AlpAC are crucial for the spatio-temporal organization of efficient viral replication. This is remarkably similar to actin-assisted membrane localization of eukaryotic viruses that use the actin cytoskeleton to concentrate virus particles at the egress sites and provides a link of evolutionary conserved interactions between intracellular virus transport and actin.

  8. Identification of the DNA-Binding Domains of Human Replication Protein A That Recognize G-Quadruplex DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication protein A (RPA, a key player in DNA metabolism, has 6 single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA- binding domains (DBDs A-F. SELEX experiments with the DBDs-C, -D, and -E retrieve a 20-nt G-quadruplex forming sequence. Binding studies show that RPA-DE binds preferentially to the G-quadruplex DNA, a unique preference not observed with other RPA constructs. Circular dichroism experiments show that RPA-CDE-core can unfold the G-quadruplex while RPA-DE stabilizes it. Binding studies show that RPA-C binds pyrimidine- and purine-rich sequences similarly. This difference between RPA-C and RPA-DE binding was also indicated by the inability of RPA-CDE-core to unfold an oligonucleotide containing a TC-region 5′ to the G-quadruplex. Molecular modeling studies of RPA-DE and telomere-binding proteins Pot1 and Stn1 reveal structural similarities between the proteins and illuminate potential DNA-binding sites for RPA-DE and Stn1. These data indicate that DBDs of RPA have different ssDNA recognition properties.

  9. The catalytic subunit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) facilitates recovery from radiation-induced inhibition of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, J; DiBiase, S; Iliakis, G

    2000-03-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation inhibits DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner. The dose response is biphasic and the initial steep component reflects inhibition of replicon initiation thought to be mediated by activation of the S-phase checkpoint. In mammalian cells, inhibition of replicon initiation requires the ataxia telagiectasia mutated ( ATM ) gene, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol kinase-like (PIKL) family of protein kinases. We studied the effect on replicon initiation of another member of the PI-3 family of protein kinases, the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) by measuring either total DNA synthesis, or size distribution of nascent DNA using alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. Exposure of human cells proficient in DNA-PKcs (HeLa or M059-K) to 10 Gy inhibited replicon initiation in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition was at a maximum 1 h after irradiation and recovered at later times. Similar treatment of human cells deficient in DNA-PKcs (M059-J) inhibited replicon initiation to a similar level and with similar kinetics; however, no evidence for recovery, or only limited recovery, was observed for up to 8 h after irradiation. In addition a defect was observed in the maturation of nascent DNA. Similarly, a Chinese hamster cell line deficient in DNA-PKcs (irs-20) showed little evidence for recovery of DNA replication inhibition up to 6 h after irradiation, whereas the parental CHO cells showed significant recovery and an irs-20 derivative expressing the human DNA-PKcs complete recovery within 4 h. Normal kinetics of recovery were observed in xrs-5 cells, deficient in Ku80; in 180BR cells, deficient in DNA ligase IV; as well as XR-1 cells, deficient in XRCC4, an accessory factor of DNA ligase IV. Since all these cell lines share the DNA double strand break rejoining defect of M059-J and irs20 cells, the lack of recovery of DNA replication in the latter cells may not be attributed entirely to the prolonged

  10. Nucleotide Metabolism and DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F; Evans, Joanna C; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    The development and application of a highly versatile suite of tools for mycobacterial genetics, coupled with widespread use of "omics" approaches to elucidate the structure, function, and regulation of mycobacterial proteins, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of mycobacteria. In this article, we provide an update on nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in mycobacteria, highlighting key findings from the past 10 to 15 years. In the first section, we focus on nucleotide metabolism, ranging from the biosynthesis, salvage, and interconversion of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides to the formation of deoxyribonucleotides. The second part of the article is devoted to DNA replication, with a focus on replication initiation and elongation, as well as DNA unwinding. We provide an overview of replication fidelity and mutation rates in mycobacteria and summarize evidence suggesting that DNA replication occurs during states of low metabolic activity, and conclude by suggesting directions for future research to address key outstanding questions. Although this article focuses primarily on observations from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is interspersed, where appropriate, with insights from, and comparisons with, other mycobacterial species as well as better characterized bacterial models such as Escherichia coli. Finally, a common theme underlying almost all studies of mycobacterial metabolism is the potential to identify and validate functions or pathways that can be exploited for tuberculosis drug discovery. In this context, we have specifically highlighted those processes in mycobacterial DNA replication that might satisfy this critical requirement.

  11. DNA ligase I, the replicative DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Timothy R L; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2012-01-01

    Multiple DNA ligation events are required to join the Okazaki fragments generated during lagging strand DNA synthesis. In eukaryotes, this is primarily carried out by members of the DNA ligase I family. The C-terminal catalytic region of these enzymes is composed of three domains: a DNA binding domain, an adenylation domain and an OB-fold domain. In the absence of DNA, these domains adopt an extended structure but transition into a compact ring structure when they engage a DNA nick, with each of the domains contacting the DNA. The non-catalytic N-terminal region of eukaryotic DNA ligase I is responsible for the specific participation of these enzymes in DNA replication. This proline-rich unstructured region contains the nuclear localization signal and a PCNA interaction motif that is critical for localization to replication foci and efficient joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I initially engages the PCNA trimer via this interaction motif which is located at the extreme N-terminus of this flexible region. It is likely that this facilitates an additional interaction between the DNA binding domain and the PCNA ring. The similar size and shape of the rings formed by the PCNA trimer and the DNA ligase I catalytic region when it engages a DNA nick suggest that these proteins interact to form a double-ring structure during the joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I also interacts with replication factor C, the factor that loads the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA. This interaction, which is regulated by phosphorylation of the non-catalytic N-terminus of DNA ligase I, also appears to be critical for DNA replication.

  12. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Cotmore, Susan F. [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tattersall, Peter [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Departments of Genetics, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Zhao, Haiyan, E-mail: zhaohy@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tangl@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.

  13. Binding of Multiple Rap1 Proteins Stimulates Chromosome Breakage Induction during DNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy H Goto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, have a specialized chromatin structure that provides a stable chromosomal terminus. In budding yeast Rap1 protein binds to telomeric TG repeat and negatively regulates telomere length. Here we show that binding of multiple Rap1 proteins stimulates DNA double-stranded break (DSB induction at both telomeric and non-telomeric regions. Consistent with the role of DSB induction, Rap1 stimulates nearby recombination events in a dosage-dependent manner. Rap1 recruits Rif1 and Rif2 to telomeres, but neither Rif1 nor Rif2 is required for DSB induction. Rap1-mediated DSB induction involves replication fork progression but inactivation of checkpoint kinase Mec1 does not affect DSB induction. Rap1 tethering shortens artificially elongated telomeres in parallel with telomerase inhibition, and this telomere shortening does not require homologous recombination. These results suggest that Rap1 contributes to telomere homeostasis by promoting chromosome breakage.

  14. DNA-binding proteins regulating pIP501 transfer and replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Grohmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available pIP501 is a Gram-positive broad-host-range model plasmid intensively used for studying plasmid replication and conjugative transfer. It is a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid frequently found in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. Replication of pIP501 proceeds unidirectionally by a theta mechanism. The minimal replicon of pIP501 is composed of the repR gene encoding the essential rate-limiting replication initiator protein RepR and the origin of replication, oriR, located downstream of repR. RepR is similar to RepE of related streptococcal plasmid pAMβ1, which has been shown to possess RNase activity cleaving free RNA molecules in close proximity of the initiation site of DNA synthesis. Replication of pIP501 is controlled by the concerted action of a small protein, CopR, and an antisense RNA, RNAIII. CopR has a dual role: It acts as transcriptional repressor at the repR promoter and prevents convergent transcription of RNAIII and repR mRNA (RNAII, thereby indirectly increasing RNAIII synthesis. CopR binds asymmetrically as a dimer at two consecutive binding sites upstream of and overlapping with the repR promoter. RNAIII induces transcriptional attenuation within the leader region of the repR mRNA (RNAII. Deletion of either control component causes a 10- to 20-fold increase of plasmid copy number, while simultaneous deletions have no additional effect. Conjugative transfer of pIP501 depends on a type IV secretion system (T4SS encoded in a single operon. Its transfer host-range is considerably broad, as it has been transferred to virtually all Gram-positive bacteria including filamentous streptomycetes and even the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Expression of the 15 genes encoding the T4SS is tightly controlled by binding of the relaxase TraA, the transfer initiator protein, to the operon promoter, which overlaps with the origin of transfer (oriT. The T4SS operon encodes the DNA-binding proteins TraJ (VirD4

  15. DNA-Binding Proteins Regulating pIP501 Transfer and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Elisabeth; Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    pIP501 is a Gram-positive broad-host-range model plasmid intensively used for studying plasmid replication and conjugative transfer. It is a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid frequently detected in clinical Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium strains. Replication of pIP501 proceeds unidirectionally by a theta mechanism. The minimal replicon of pIP501 is composed of the repR gene encoding the essential rate-limiting replication initiator protein RepR and the origin of replication, oriR, located downstream of repR. RepR is similar to RepE of related streptococcal plasmid pAMβ1, which has been shown to possess RNase activity cleaving free RNA molecules in close proximity of the initiation site of DNA synthesis. Replication of pIP501 is controlled by the concerted action of a small protein, CopR, and an antisense RNA, RNAIII. CopR has a dual function: It acts as transcriptional repressor at the repR promoter and, in addition, prevents convergent transcription of RNAIII and repR mRNA (RNAII), which indirectly increases RNAIII synthesis. CopR binds asymmetrically as a dimer at two consecutive binding sites upstream of and overlapping with the repR promoter. RNAIII induces transcriptional attenuation within the leader region of the repR mRNA (RNAII). Deletion of either control component causes a 10- to 20-fold increase of plasmid copy number, while simultaneous deletions have no additional effect. Conjugative transfer of pIP501 depends on a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded in a single operon. Its transfer host-range is considerably broad, as it has been transferred to virtually all Gram-positive bacteria including Streptomyces and even the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Expression of the 15 genes encoding the T4SS is tightly controlled by binding of the relaxase TraA, the transfer initiator protein, to the operon promoter overlapping with the origin of transfer (oriT). The T4SS operon encodes the DNA-binding proteins TraJ (VirD4-like coupling

  16. Archaeal Genome Guardians Give Insights into Eukaryotic DNA Replication and Damage Response Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the third domain of life, archaea, like the eukarya and bacteria, must have robust DNA replication and repair complexes to ensure genome fidelity. Archaea moreover display a breadth of unique habitats and characteristics, and structural biologists increasingly appreciate these features. As archaea include extremophiles that can withstand diverse environmental stresses, they provide fundamental systems for understanding enzymes and pathways critical to genome integrity and stress responses. Such archaeal extremophiles provide critical data on the periodic table for life as well as on the biochemical, geochemical, and physical limitations to adaptive strategies allowing organisms to thrive under environmental stress relevant to determining the boundaries for life as we know it. Specifically, archaeal enzyme structures have informed the architecture and mechanisms of key DNA repair proteins and complexes. With added abilities to temperature-trap flexible complexes and reveal core domains of transient and dynamic complexes, these structures provide insights into mechanisms of maintaining genome integrity despite extreme environmental stress. The DNA damage response protein structures noted in this review therefore inform the basis for genome integrity in the face of environmental stress, with implications for all domains of life as well as for biomanufacturing, astrobiology, and medicine.

  17. Polycomb proteins control proliferation and transformation independently of cell cycle checkpoints by regulating DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piunti, Andrea; Rossi, Alessandra; Cerutti, Aurora;

    2014-01-01

    that PRCs regulate cellular proliferation and transformation independently of the Ink4a/Arf-pRb-p53 pathway. We provide evidence that PRCs localize at replication forks, and that loss of their function directly affects the progression and symmetry of DNA replication forks. Thus, we have identified a novel...

  18. Rapid Exchange of Bound ADP on the Staphylococcus aureus Replication Initiation Protein DnaA*

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, regulatory inactivation of the replication initiator DnaA occurs after initiation as a result of hydrolysis of bound ATP to ADP, but it has been unknown how DnaA is controlled to coordinate cell growth and chromosomal replication in Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study examined the roles of ATP binding and its hydrolysis in the regulation of the S. aureus DnaA activity. In vitro, S. aureus DnaA melted S. aureus oriC in the presence of ATP but n...

  19. Single strand DNA binding proteins 1 and 2 protect newly replicated telomeres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peili Gu; Wei Deng; Ming Lei; Sandy Chang

    2013-01-01

    Human single-strand (ss) DNA binding proteins 1 and 2 (hSSB1 and 2) are components of the hSSB1/2-INTS3-C9orf80 heterotrimeric protein complex shown to participate in DNA damage response and maintenance of genome stability.However,their roles at telomeres remain unknown.Here,we generated murine SSB1 conditional knockout mice and cells and found that mSSB1 plays a critical role in telomere end protection.Both mSSB1 and mSSB2 localize to a subset of telomeres and are required to repair TRF2-deficient telomeres.Deletion of mSSB1 resulted in increased chromatid-type fusions involving both leading-and lagging-strand telomeric DNA,suggesting that it is required for the protection of G-overhangs.mSSB1's interaction with INTS3 is required for its localization to damaged DNA.mSSB1 interacts with Potla,but not Potlb,and its association with telomeric ssDNA requires Potla.mSSB1△/△ mice die at birth with developmental abnormalities,while mice with the hypomorphic mSSB1F/F allele are born alive and display increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR).Our results suggest that mSSB1 is required to maintain genome stability,and document a previously unrecognized role for mSSB1/2 in the protection of newly replicated leading-and lagging-strand telomeres.

  20. A New Direct Single-Molecule Observation Method for DNA Synthesis Reaction Using Fluorescent Replication Protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Takahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a single-stranded region tracing system, single-molecule DNA synthesis reactions were directly observed in microflow channels. The direct single-molecule observations of DNA synthesis were labeled with a fusion protein consisting of the ssDNA-binding domain of a 70-kDa subunit of replication protein A and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (RPA-YFP. Our method was suitable for measurement of DNA synthesis reaction rates with control of the ssλDNA form as stretched ssλDNA (+flow and random coiled ssλDNA (−flow via buffer flow. Sequentially captured photographs demonstrated that the synthesized region of an ssλDNA molecule monotonously increased with the reaction time. The DNA synthesis reaction rate of random coiled ssλDNA (−flow was nearly the same as that measured in a previous ensemble molecule experiment (52 vs. 50 bases/s. This suggested that the random coiled form of DNA (−flow reflected the DNA form in the bulk experiment in the case of DNA synthesis reactions. In addition, the DNA synthesis reaction rate of stretched ssλDNA (+flow was approximately 75% higher than that of random coiled ssλDNA (−flow (91 vs. 52 bases/s. The DNA synthesis reaction rate of the Klenow fragment (3’-5’exo– was promoted by DNA stretching with buffer flow.

  1. [The effects of TorR protein on initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yao; Jiaxin, Qiao; Jing, Li; Hui, Li; Morigen, Morigen

    2015-03-01

    The two-component systems, which could sense and respond to environmental changes, widely exist in bacteria as a signal transduction pathway. The bacterial CckA/CtrA, ArcA/ArcB and PhoP/PhoQ two-component systems are associated with initiation of DNA replication and cell division, however, the effects of the TorS/TorR system on cell cycle and DNA replication remains unknown. The TorS/TorR system in Escherichia coli can sense changes in trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) concentration around the cells. However, it is unknown if it also affects initiation of DNA replication. We detected DNA replication patterns in ΔtorS and ΔtorR mutant strains by flow cytometry. We found that the average number of replication origins (oriCs) per cell and doubling time in ΔtorS mutants were the same while the average number of oriCs in ΔtorR mutants was increased compared with that in wild-type cells. These results indicated that absence of TorR led to an earlier initiation of DNA replication than that in wild-type cells. Strangely, neither overexpression of TorR nor co-expression of TorR and TorS could restore ΔtorR mutant phenotype to the wild type. However, overexpression of SufD in both wild type and ΔtorR mutants promoted initiation of DNA replication, while mutation of SufD delayed it in ΔtorR mutants. Thus, TorR may affect initiation of DNA replication indirectly through regulating gene expression of sufD.

  2. Initiation of adenovirus DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, T; Fütterer, J; Weingärtner, B; Winnacker, E L

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to study the mechanism of initiation of adenovirus DNA replication, an assay was developed to investigate the pattern of DNA synthesis in early replicative intermediates of adenovirus DNA. By using wild-type virus-infected cells, it was possible to place the origin of adenovirus type 2 DNA replication within the terminal 350 to 500 base pairs from either of the two molecular termini. In addition, a variety of parameters characteristic of adenovirus DNA replication were compared ...

  3. Use of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to study binding interactions between a replication terminator protein and DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Kapur, Amit; Beck, Jennifer L.; Brown, Susan E.; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Sheil, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Tus protein binds tightly to specific DNA sequences (Ter) on the Escherichia coli chromosome halting replication. We report here conditions for detecting the 1 : 1 Tus–Ter complex by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). ESI mass spectra of a mixture of Tus and nonspecific DNA showed ions predominantly from uncomplexed Tus protein, indicating that the Tus–Ter complex observed in the gas phase was the result of a specific interaction rather than nonspecific associations in the io...

  4. Rif1 controls DNA replication by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 to reverse Cdc7-mediated phosphorylation of the MCM complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Alvino, Gina M; Chang, Fujung; Lian, Hui-Yong; Sridhar, Akila; Kubota, Takashi; Brewer, Bonita J; Weinreich, Michael; Raghuraman, M K; Donaldson, Anne D

    2014-02-15

    Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires phosphorylation of the MCM complex by Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), composed of Cdc7 kinase and its activator, Dbf4. We report here that budding yeast Rif1 (Rap1-interacting factor 1) controls DNA replication genome-wide and describe how Rif1 opposes DDK function by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-mediated dephosphorylation of the MCM complex. Deleting RIF1 partially compensates for the limited DDK activity in a cdc7-1 mutant strain by allowing increased, premature phosphorylation of Mcm4. PP1 interaction motifs within the Rif1 N-terminal domain are critical for its repressive effect on replication. We confirm that Rif1 interacts with PP1 and that PP1 prevents premature Mcm4 phosphorylation. Remarkably, our results suggest that replication repression by Rif1 is itself also DDK-regulated through phosphorylation near the PP1-interacting motifs. Based on our findings, we propose that Rif1 is a novel PP1 substrate targeting subunit that counteracts DDK-mediated phosphorylation during replication. Fission yeast and mammalian Rif1 proteins have also been implicated in regulating DNA replication. Since PP1 interaction sites are evolutionarily conserved within the Rif1 sequence, it is likely that replication control by Rif1 through PP1 is a conserved mechanism.

  5. Rif1 controls DNA replication by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 to reverse Cdc7-mediated phosphorylation of the MCM complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Shin-ichiro; Alvino, Gina M.; Chang, FuJung; Lian, Hui-yong; Sridhar, Akila; Kubota, Takashi; Brewer, Bonita J.; Weinreich, Michael; Raghuraman, M.K.; Donaldson, Anne D.

    2014-01-01

    Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires phosphorylation of the MCM complex by Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), composed of Cdc7 kinase and its activator, Dbf4. We report here that budding yeast Rif1 (Rap1-interacting factor 1) controls DNA replication genome-wide and describe how Rif1 opposes DDK function by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-mediated dephosphorylation of the MCM complex. Deleting RIF1 partially compensates for the limited DDK activity in a cdc7-1 mutant strain by allowing increased, premature phosphorylation of Mcm4. PP1 interaction motifs within the Rif1 N-terminal domain are critical for its repressive effect on replication. We confirm that Rif1 interacts with PP1 and that PP1 prevents premature Mcm4 phosphorylation. Remarkably, our results suggest that replication repression by Rif1 is itself also DDK-regulated through phosphorylation near the PP1-interacting motifs. Based on our findings, we propose that Rif1 is a novel PP1 substrate targeting subunit that counteracts DDK-mediated phosphorylation during replication. Fission yeast and mammalian Rif1 proteins have also been implicated in regulating DNA replication. Since PP1 interaction sites are evolutionarily conserved within the Rif1 sequence, it is likely that replication control by Rif1 through PP1 is a conserved mechanism. PMID:24532715

  6. Regulation of Unperturbed DNA Replication by Ubiquitylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Priego Moreno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modification of proteins by means of attachment of a small globular protein ubiquitin (i.e., ubiquitylation represents one of the most abundant and versatile mechanisms of protein regulation employed by eukaryotic cells. Ubiquitylation influences almost every cellular process and its key role in coordination of the DNA damage response is well established. In this review we focus, however, on the ways ubiquitylation controls the process of unperturbed DNA replication. We summarise the accumulated knowledge showing the leading role of ubiquitin driven protein degradation in setting up conditions favourable for replication origin licensing and S-phase entry. Importantly, we also present the emerging major role of ubiquitylation in coordination of the active DNA replication process: preventing re-replication, regulating the progression of DNA replication forks, chromatin re-establishment and disassembly of the replisome at the termination of replication forks.

  7. The catalytic subunit DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) facilitates recovery from radiation-induced inhibition of DNA replication

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Jun; DiBiase, Steven; Iliakis, George

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation inhibits DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner. The dose response is biphasic and the initial steep component reflects inhibition of replicon initiation thought to be mediated by activation of the S-phase checkpoint. In mammalian cells, inhibition of replicon initiation requires the ataxia telagiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol kinase-like (PIKL) family of protein kinases. We studied the effect on replicon initiatio...

  8. Interaction of the retinoblastoma protein with Orc1 and its recruitment to human origins of DNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Mendoza-Maldonado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The retinoblastoma protein (Rb is a crucial regulator of cell cycle progression by binding with E2F transcription factor and repressing the expression of a variety of genes required for the G1-S phase transition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that Rb and E2F1 directly participate in the control of initiation of DNA replication in human HeLa, U2OS and T98G cells by specifically binding to origins of DNA replication in a cell cycle regulated manner. We show that, both in vitro and inside the cells, the largest subunit of the origin recognition complex (Orc1 specifically binds hypo-phosphorylated Rb and that this interaction is competitive with the binding of Rb to E2F1. The displacement of Rb-bound Orc1 by E2F1 at origins of DNA replication marks the progression of the G1 phase of the cell cycle toward the G1-S border. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The participation of Rb and E2F1 in the formation of the multiprotein complex that binds origins of DNA replication in mammalian cells appears to represent an effective mechanism to couple the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression to the activation of DNA replication.

  9. A leucine zipper motif determines different functions in a DNA replication protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Viedma, D; Giraldo, R; Rivas, G; Fernández-Tresguerres, E; Diaz-Orejas, R

    1996-01-01

    RepA is the replication initiator protein of the Pseudomonas plasmid pPS10 and is also able to autoregulate its own synthesis. Here we report a genetic and functional analysis of a leucine zipper-like (LZ) motif located at the N-terminus of RepA. It is shown that the LZ motif modulates the equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric forms of the protein and that monomers of RepA interact with sequences at the origin of replication, oriV, while dimers are required for interactions of RepA at the repA promoter. Further, different residues of the LZ motif are seen to have different functional roles. Leucines at the d positions of the putative alpha-helix are relevant in the formation of RepA dimers required for transcriptional autoregulation. They also modulate other RepA-RepA interactions that result in cooperative binding of protein monomers to the origin of replication. The residues at the b/f positions of the putative helix play no relevant role in RepA-RepA interactions. These residues do not affect RepA autoregulation but do influence replication, as demonstrated by mutants that, without affecting binding to oriV, either increase the host range of the plasmid or are inactive in replication. It is proposed that residues in b/f positions play a relevant role in interactions between RepA and host replication factors. Images PMID:8631313

  10. KSHV encoded LANA recruits Nucleosome Assembly Protein NAP1L1 for regulating viral DNA replication and transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Namrata; Thakker, Suhani; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-09-01

    The establishment of latency is an essential for lifelong persistence and pathogenesis of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is the most abundantly expressed protein during latency and is important for viral genome replication and transcription. Replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is a major step in packaging the newly synthesized DNA into chromatin, but the mechanism of KSHV genome chromatinization post-replication is not understood. Here, we show that nucleosome assembly protein 1-like protein 1 (NAP1L1) associates with LANA. Our binding assays revealed an association of LANA with NAP1L1 in KSHV-infected cells, which binds through its amino terminal domain. Association of these proteins confirmed their localization in specific nuclear compartments of the infected cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays from NAP1L1-depleted cells showed LANA-mediated recruitment of NAP1L1 at the terminal repeat (TR) region of the viral genome. Presence of NAP1L1 stimulated LANA-mediated DNA replication and persistence of a TR-containing plasmid. Depletion of NAP1L1 led to a reduced nucleosome positioning on the viral genome. Furthermore, depletion of NAP1L1 increased the transcription of viral lytic genes and overexpression decreased the promoter activities of LANA-regulated genes. These results confirmed that LANA recruitment of NAP1L1 helps in assembling nucleosome for the chromatinization of newly synthesized viral DNA.

  11. Bacillus subtilis strain deficient for the protein-tyrosine kinase PtkA exhibits impaired DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petranovic, Dina; Michelsen, Ole; Zahradka, K

    2007-01-01

    in this study. We were unable to identify any striking phenotypes related to control of UDP-glucose dehydrogenases, natural competence and DNA lesion repair; however, a very strong phenotype of ΔptkA emerged with respect to DNA replication and cell cycle control, as revealed by flow cytometry and fluorescent...... microscopy. B. subtilis cells lacking the kinase PtkA accumulated extra chromosome equivalents, exhibited aberrant initiation mass for DNA replication and an unusually long D period.......A/PtpZ was previously shown to regulate the phosphorylation state of UDP-glucose dehydrogenases and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. This promiscuity towards substrates is reminiscent of eukaryal kinases and has prompted us to investigate possible physiological effects of ptkA and ptpZ gene inactivations...

  12. The sporulation protein SirA inhibits the binding of DnaA to the origin of replication by contacting a patch of clustered amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn-Lee, Lilah; Merrikh, Houra; Grossman, Alan D; Losick, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Bacteria regulate the frequency and timing of DNA replication initiation by controlling the activity of the replication initiator protein DnaA. SirA is a recently discovered regulator of DnaA in Bacillus subtilis whose synthesis is turned on at the start of sporulation. Here, we demonstrate that SirA contacts DnaA at a patch of 3 residues located on the surface of domain I of the replication initiator protein, corresponding to the binding site used by two unrelated regulators of DnaA found in other bacteria. We show that the interaction of SirA with domain I inhibits the ability of DnaA to bind to the origin of replication. DnaA mutants containing amino acid substitutions of the 3 residues are functional in replication initiation but are immune to inhibition by SirA.

  13. DNA replication origins in archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenfang eWu; Jingfang eLiu; Haibo eYang; Hua eXiang

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins), is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB) that are located adjacent to ...

  14. DNA and heparin chaperone the refolding of purified recombinant replication protein A subunit 1 from Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, C B B; Gui, K E; Perez, A M; da Silveira, R C V; Gava, L M; Ramos, C H I; Cano, M I N

    2009-02-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that has been implicated in DNA metabolism and telomere maintenance. Subunit 1 of RPA from Leishmania amazonensis (LaRPA-1) has previously been affinity-purified on a column containing a G-rich telomeric DNA. LaRPA-1 binds and co-localizes with parasite telomeres in vivo. Here we describe the purification and characterization of native recombinant LaRPA-1 (rLaRPA-1). The protein was initially re-solubilized from inclusion bodies by using urea. After dialysis, rLaRPA-1 was soluble but contaminated with DNA, which was removed by an anion-exchange chromatography of the protein solubilized in urea. However, rLaRPA-1 precipitated after dialysis to remove urea. To investigate whether the contaminating DNA was involved in chaperoning the refolding of rLaRPA-1, salmon sperm DNA or heparin was added to the solution before dialysis. The addition of either of these substances prevented the precipitation of rLaRPA-1. The resulting rLaRPA-1 was soluble, correctly folded, and able to bind telomeric DNA. This is the first report showing the characterization of rLaRPA1 and of the importance of additives in chaperoning the refolding of this protein. The availability of rLaRPA-1 should be helpful in assessing the importance of this protein as a potential drug target.

  15. The C-terminal Domain (CTD) of Human DNA Glycosylase NEIL1 Is Required for Forming BERosome Repair Complex with DNA Replication Proteins at the Replicating Genome: DOMINANT NEGATIVE FUNCTION OF THE CTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Pavana M; Dutta, Arijit; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Joy; Adhikari, Sanjay; Tomkinson, Alan E; Li, Guo-Min; Boldogh, Istvan; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2015-08-21

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 was recently demonstrated to initiate prereplicative base excision repair (BER) of oxidized bases in the replicating genome, thus preventing mutagenic replication. A significant fraction of NEIL1 in cells is present in large cellular complexes containing DNA replication and other repair proteins, as shown by gel filtration. However, how the interaction of NEIL1 affects its recruitment to the replication site for prereplicative repair was not investigated. Here, we show that NEIL1 binarily interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamp loader replication factor C, DNA polymerase δ, and DNA ligase I in the absence of DNA via its non-conserved C-terminal domain (CTD); replication factor C interaction results in ∼8-fold stimulation of NEIL1 activity. Disruption of NEIL1 interactions within the BERosome complex, as observed for a NEIL1 deletion mutant (N311) lacking the CTD, not only inhibits complete BER in vitro but also prevents its chromatin association and reduced recruitment at replication foci in S phase cells. This suggests that the interaction of NEIL1 with replication and other BER proteins is required for efficient repair of the replicating genome. Consistently, the CTD polypeptide acts as a dominant negative inhibitor during in vitro repair, and its ectopic expression sensitizes human cells to reactive oxygen species. We conclude that multiple interactions among BER proteins lead to large complexes, which are critical for efficient BER in mammalian cells, and the CTD interaction could be targeted for enhancing drug/radiation sensitivity of tumor cells.

  16. Spatial regulation and organization of DNA replication within the nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal DNA is a temporally and spatially regulated process. The timing of DNA replication initiation at various origins is highly coordinated; some origins fire early and others late during S phase. Moreover, inside the nuclei, the bulk of DNA replication is physically organized in replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. In this review article, we discuss how DNA replication is organized and regulated spatially within the nucleu...

  17. ABAP1 is a novel plant Armadillo BTB protein involved in DNA replication and transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda,Hana Paula; Cabral, Luiz Mors; De Veylder, Lieven; Tanurdzic, Milos; de Almeida Engler, Janice; Geelen, Danny; Inzé, Dirk; Martienssen, Robert A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Hemerly, Adriana S

    2008-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, organogenesis requires a tight control of the balance between cell division and cell differentiation. Distinct signalling pathways that connect both cellular processes with developmental cues might have evolved to suit different developmental plans. Here, we identified and characterized a novel protein that interacts with pre-replication complex (pre-RC) subunits, designated Armadillo BTB Arabidopsis protein 1 (ABAP1). Overexpression of ABAP1 in plants limited mito...

  18. Spatial regulation and organization of DNA replication within the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U

    2010-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal DNA is a temporally and spatially regulated process. The timing of DNA replication initiation at various origins is highly coordinated; some origins fire early and others late during S phase. Moreover, inside the nuclei, the bulk of DNA replication is physically organized in replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. In this review article, we discuss how DNA replication is organized and regulated spatially within the nucleus and how this spatial organization is linked to temporal regulation. We focus on DNA replication in budding yeast and fission yeast and, where applicable, compare yeast DNA replication with that in bacteria and metazoans.

  19. EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION, AND SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING OF DNA REPLICATION AND REPAIR PROTEINS FROM THE HYPERTHERMOPHILE SULFOLOBUS SOLFATARICUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, S.M.; Hatherill, J.R.; Hammel, M.; Hura, G.L.; Tainer, J.A.; Yannone, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Vital molecular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, and maintenance occur through transient protein interactions. Elucidating the mechanisms by which these protein complexes and interactions function could lead to treatments for diseases related to DNA damage and cell division control. In the recent decades since its introduction as a third domain, Archaea have shown to be simpler models for complicated eukaryotic processes such as DNA replication, repair, transcription, and translation. Sulfolobus solfataricus is one such model organism. A hyperthermophile with an optimal growth temperature of 80°C, Sulfolobus protein-protein complexes and transient protein interactions should be more stable at moderate temperatures, providing a means to isolate and study their structure and function. Here we provide the initial steps towards characterizing three DNA-related Sulfolobus proteins with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS): Sso0257, a cell division control and origin recognition complex homolog, Sso0768, the small subunit of the replication factor C, and Sso3167, a Mut-T like protein. SAXS analysis was performed at multiple concentrations for both short and long exposure times. The Sso0257 sample was determined to be either a mixture of monomeric and dimeric states or a population of dynamic monomers in various conformational states in solution, consistent with a fl exible winged helix domain. Sso0768 was found to be a complex mixture of multimeric states in solution. Finally, molecular envelope reconstruction from SAXS data for Sso3167 revealed a novel structural component which may function as a disordered to ordered region in the presence of its substrates and/or protein partners.

  20. Recruitment of DNA replication and damage response proteins to viral replication centers during infection with NS2 mutants of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Zandra; Mihaylov, Ivailo S; Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2011-02-20

    MVM NS2 is essential for viral DNA amplification, but its mechanism of action is unknown. A classification scheme for autonomous parvovirus-associated replication (APAR) center development, based on NS1 distribution, was used to characterize abnormal APAR body maturation in NS2null mutant infections, and their organization examined for defects in host protein recruitment. Since acquisition of known replication factors appeared normal, we looked for differences in invoked DNA damage responses. We observed widespread association of H2AX/MDC1 damage response foci with viral replication centers, and sequestration and complex hyperphosphorylation of RPA(32), which occurred in wildtype and mutant infections. Quantifying these responses by western transfer indicated that both wildtype and NS2 mutant MVM elicited ATM activation, while phosphorylation of ATR, already basally activated in asynchronous A9 cells, was downregulated. We conclude that MVM infection invokes multiple damage responses that influence the APAR environment, but that NS2 does not modify the recruitment of cellular proteins.

  1. Replication-Uncoupled Histone Deposition during Adenovirus DNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-01-01

    In infected cells, the chromatin structure of the adenovirus genome DNA plays critical roles in its genome functions. Previously, we reported that in early phases of infection, incoming viral DNA is associated with both viral core protein VII and cellular histones. Here we show that in late phases of infection, newly synthesized viral DNA is also associated with histones. We also found that the knockdown of CAF-1, a histone chaperone that functions in the replication-coupled deposition of his...

  2. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel G Gauthier

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  3. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-15

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen the yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  4. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanpin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns.Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer inHCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis.

  5. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guili Wang; Gaowei Ren; Xin Cui; Yanpin Ma; Ying Qi; Yujing Huang; Zhongyang Liu; Zhengrong Sun; Qiang Ruan

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns. Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer in HCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis.

  6. The Caenorhabditis elegans Werner syndrome protein functions upstream of ATR and ATM in response to DNA replication inhibition and double-strand DNA breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Jin Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available WRN-1 is the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the human Werner syndrome protein, a RecQ helicase, mutations of which are associated with premature aging and increased genome instability. Relatively little is known as to how WRN-1 functions in DNA repair and DNA damage signaling. Here, we take advantage of the genetic and cytological approaches in C. elegans to dissect the epistatic relationship of WRN-1 in various DNA damage checkpoint pathways. We found that WRN-1 is required for CHK1 phosphorylation induced by DNA replication inhibition, but not by UV radiation. Furthermore, WRN-1 influences the RPA-1 focus formation, suggesting that WRN-1 functions in the same step or upstream of RPA-1 in the DNA replication checkpoint pathway. In response to ionizing radiation, RPA-1 focus formation and nuclear localization of ATM depend on WRN-1 and MRE-11. We conclude that C. elegans WRN-1 participates in the initial stages of checkpoint activation induced by DNA replication inhibition and ionizing radiation. These functions of WRN-1 in upstream DNA damage signaling are likely to be conserved, but might be cryptic in human systems due to functional redundancy.

  7. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep׳ proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2015-07-01

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep׳, in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replication) and generates the single-stranded circular (ssc) genome from the displaced DNA strand. In the process, a minus-genome primer (MGP) necessary for complementary-strand synthesis, from ssc to ccc, is synthesized. Rep׳ cleaves the growing nascent-strand to regenerate the parent ccc molecule. In the process, a Rep׳-DNA hybrid containing the right palindromic sequence (at the origin of DNA replication) is generated. Analysis of the virus particle showed that it is composed of four components: ssc, MGP, capsid protein and a novel Rep-related protein (designated Protein-3).

  8. Direct Binding to Replication Protein A (RPA)-coated Single-stranded DNA Allows Recruitment of the ATR Activator TopBP1 to Sites of DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Julyana; Yan, Shan; Michael, W Matthew

    2016-06-17

    A critical event for the ability of cells to tolerate DNA damage and replication stress is activation of the ATR kinase. ATR activation is dependent on the BRCT (BRCA1 C terminus) repeat-containing protein TopBP1. Previous work has shown that recruitment of TopBP1 to sites of DNA damage and stalled replication forks is necessary for downstream events in ATR activation; however, the mechanism for this recruitment was not known. Here, we use protein binding assays and functional studies in Xenopus egg extracts to show that TopBP1 makes a direct interaction, via its BRCT2 domain, with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA. We identify a point mutant that abrogates this interaction and show that this mutant fails to accumulate at sites of DNA damage and that the mutant cannot activate ATR. These data thus supply a mechanism for how the critical ATR activator, TopBP1, senses DNA damage and stalled replication forks to initiate assembly of checkpoint signaling complexes.

  9. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-20

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation.

  10. Regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication and nuclear structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUJIARUI

    1999-01-01

    In eukaryote,nuclear structure is a key component for the functions of eukaryotic cells.More and more evidences show that the nuclear structure plays important role in regulating DNA replication.The nuclear structure provides a physical barrier for the replication licensing,participates in the decision where DNA replication initiates,and organizes replication proteins as replication factory for DNA replication.Through these works,new concepts on the regulation of DNA replication have emerged,which will be discussed in this minireview.

  11. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep' proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep', in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replica...

  12. Downregulation of Aedes aegypti chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7/Kismet by Wolbachia and its effect on dengue virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Sultan; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Asgari, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus imposing a significant burden on human health around the world. Since current control strategies are not sufficient, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control DENV transmission. It has been demonstrated that introduction of Wolbachia pipientis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can impede DENV transmission with the mechanism(s) not fully understood. Recently, a number of studies have found the involvement of chromodomain DNA binding helicases in case of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Influenza A virus infection. In this study, we have identified three chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein (CHD) genes in Ae. aegypti and looked at their response in the case of Wolbachia and DENV infections. Foremost amongst them we have found that AeCHD7/Kismet is significantly downregulated in the presence of Wolbachia infection only in female mosquitoes. Furthermore, AeCHD7 levels showed significant increase during DENV infection, and AeCHD7 depletion led to severe reduction in the replication of DENV. Our data have identified AeCHD7 as a novel Ae. aegypti host factor that is important for DENV replication, and Wolbachia downregulates it, which may contribute towards the mechanism(s) of limiting DENV replication. PMID:27827425

  13. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by adeno-associated virus rep proteins depends on their combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Daniel L; Seyffert, Michael; Strasser, Regina; Franchini, Marco; Laimbacher, Andrea S; Dresch, Christiane; de Oliveira, Anna Paula; Vogel, Rebecca; Büning, Hildegard; Salvetti, Anna; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2010-04-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has previously been shown to inhibit the replication of its helper virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and the inhibitory activity has been attributed to the expression of the AAV Rep proteins. In the present study, we assessed the Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication using a panel of wild-type and mutant Rep proteins lacking defined domains and activities. We found that the inhibition of HSV-1 replication required Rep DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities but not endonuclease activity. The Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication precisely coincided with the activities that were responsible for induction of cellular DNA damage and apoptosis, suggesting that these three processes are closely linked. Notably, the presence of Rep induced the hyperphosphorylation of a DNA damage marker, replication protein A (RPA), which has been reported not to be normally hyperphosphorylated during HSV-1 infection and to be sequestered away from HSV-1 replication compartments during infection. Finally, we demonstrate that the execution of apoptosis is not required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication and that the hyperphosphorylation of RPA per se is not inhibitory for HSV-1 replication, suggesting that these two processes are not directly responsible for the inhibition of HSV-1 replication by Rep.

  14. An interaction between teh DNA repair factor XPA and replication protein A appears essential for nucleotide excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei; Lu, Xiaoyan; Peterson, C.A.; Legerski, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is required for simian virus 40-directed DNA replication in vitro and for nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here we report that RPA and the human repair protein XPA specifically interact both in vitro and in vivo. Mapping of the RPA-interactive domains in XPA revealed that both of the largest subunits of RPA, RPA-70 and RPA-34, interact with XPA at distinct sites. A domain involved in mediating the interaction with RPA-70 was located between XPA residues 153 and 176. Deletion of highly conserved motifs within this region identified two mutants that were deficient in binding RPA in vitro and highly defective in NER both in vitro and in vivo. The second domain mediating the interaction with RPA-34 was identified within the first 58 residues in XPA. Deletion of this region, however, only moderately affects the complementing activity of XPA in vivo. Finally, the XPA-RPA complex is shown to have a greater affinity for damaged DNA than XPA alone. Taken together, these results indicate that the interaction between XPA and RPA is required for NER but that only the interaction with RPA-70 is essential. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Oncogene v-jun modulates DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylyk, C; Schneikert, J; Wasylyk, B

    1990-07-01

    Cell transformation leads to alterations in both transcription and DNA replication. Activation of transcription by the expression of a number of transforming oncogenes is mediated by the transcription factor AP1 (Herrlich & Ponta, 1989; Imler & Wasylyk, 1989). AP1 is a composite transcription factor, consisting of members of the jun and fos gene-families. c-jun and c-fos are progenitors of oncogenes, suggestion that an important transcriptional event in cell transformation is altered activity of AP1, which may arise either indirectly by oncogene expression or directly by structural modification of AP1. We report here that the v-jun oncogene and its progenitor c-jun, as fusion proteins with the lex-A-repressor DNA binding domain, can activate DNA replication from the Polyoma virus (Py) origin of replication, linked to the lex-A operator. The transcription-activation region of v-jun is required for activation of replication. When excess v-jun is expressed in the cell, replication is inhibited or 'squelched'. These results suggest that one consequence of deregulated jun activity could be altered DNA replication and that there are similarities in the way v-jun activates replication and transcription.

  16. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  17. Molecular architecture of the preinitiation complex in adenovirus DNA replication

    OpenAIRE

    Mysiak, Monika Elzbieta

    2004-01-01

    After infection of a host cell, adenovirus (Ad) aims for generation of progeny viruses, and thus it rapidly replicates its genomic DNA. The replication process starts with the assembly of the preinitiation complex (PIC) on the origin DNA. The PIC consists of three viral proteins, DNA polymerase (pol), precursor terminal protein (pTP), DNA binding protein (DBP) and two transcription factors of the host cell, Nuclear Factor I (NFI) and Octamer binding protein (Oct-1). Both transcription factors...

  18. The Role of Cdkn1A-Interacting Zinc Finger Protein 1 (CIZ1 in DNA Replication and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cdkn1A-interacting zinc finger protein 1 (CIZ1 was first identified in a yeast-2-hybrid system searching for interacting proteins of CDK2 inhibitor p21Cip1/Waf1. Ciz1 also binds to CDK2, cyclin A, cyclin E, CDC6, PCNA, TCF4 and estrogen receptor-α. Recent studies reveal numerous biological functions of CIZ1 in DNA replication, cell proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, splicing variants of CIZ1 mRNA is associated with a variety of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease, and mutations of the CIZ1 gene lead to cervical dystonia. CIZ1 expression is increased in cancers and rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we will summarize the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of CIZ1 in these physiological and pathological processes.

  19. Baculovirus DNA replication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.

    1994-01-01

    Baculoviruses are attractive biological agents for the control of insect pests. They are highly specific for insects and cause a fatal disease (Granados and Federici, 1986). in addition, baculoviruses are successfully exploited as expression vectors for the production of heterologous proteins for va

  20. Visualizing Single-molecule DNA Replication with Fluorescence Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple fluorescence microscopy-based real-time method for observing DNA replication at the single-molecule level. A circular, forked DNA template is attached to a functionalized glass coverslip and replicated extensively after introduction of replication proteins and nucleotides. The

  1. Visualizing Single-molecule DNA Replication with Fluorescence Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple fluorescence microscopy-based real-time method for observing DNA replication at the single-molecule level. A circular, forked DNA template is attached to a functionalized glass coverslip and replicated extensively after introduction of replication proteins and nucleotides. The g

  2. Requirement of the N-terminal residues of human cytomegalovirus UL112-113 proteins for viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Eui; Park, Mi Young; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Han, Tae Hee; Lee, Chan Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The UL112-113 region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome encodes four phosphoproteins of 34, 43, 50, and 84 kDa that promote viral DNA replication. Co-transfection assays have demonstrated that self-interaction of these proteins via the shared N-termini is necessary for their intranuclear distribution as foci and for the efficient relocation of a viral DNA polymerase processivity factor (UL44) to the viral replication sites. However, the requirement of UL112-113 N-terminal residues for viral growth and DNA replication has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of deletion of the N-terminal regions of UL112-113 proteins on viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. A deletion of the entire UL112 region or the region encoding the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues from the HCMV (Towne strain) bacmid impaired viral growth in bacmid-transfected human fibroblast cells, indicating their requirement for viral growth. In co-immunoprecipitation assays using the genomic gene expressing the four UL112-113 proteins together, the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues were found to be necessary for stable expression of UL112-113 proteins and their self-interaction. These residues were also required for efficient binding to and relocation of UL44, but not for interaction with IE2, an origin-binding transcription factor. In co-transfection/replication assays, replication of the oriLyt-containing plasmid was promoted by expression of intact UL112-113 proteins, but not by the expression of 25-amino-acid residue-deleted proteins. Our results demonstrate that the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues of UL112-113 proteins that mediate self-interaction contribute to viral growth by promoting their binding to UL44 and the initiation of oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

  3. Baculovirus DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, M.

    1994-01-01

    Baculoviruses are attractive biological agents for the control of insect pests. They are highly specific for insects and cause a fatal disease (Granados and Federici, 1986). in addition, baculoviruses are successfully exploited as expression vectors for the production of heterologous proteins for various applications (Luckow and Summers, 1988; Luckow, 1991). In both cases large-scale systems for the production of baculoviruses are important. Production in insect larvae is difficult to scale u...

  4. The yeast PUF protein Puf5 has Pop2-independent roles in response to DNA replication stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Traven

    Full Text Available PUFs are RNA binding proteins that promote mRNA deadenylation and decay and inhibit translation. Yeast Puf5 is the prototype for studying PUF-dependent gene repression. Puf5 binds to the Pop2 subunit of the Ccr4-Pop2-NOT mRNA deadenylase, recruiting the deadenylase and associated translational repressors to mRNAs. Here we used yeast genetics to show that Puf5 has additional roles in vivo that do not require Pop2. Deletion of PUF5 caused increased sensitivity to DNA replication stress in cells lacking Pop2, as well as in cells mutated for two activities recruited to mRNAs by the Puf5-Pop2 interaction, the deadenylase Ccr4 and the translational repressor Dhh1. A functional Puf5 RNA binding domain was required, and Puf5 cytoplasmic localisation was sufficient for resistance to replication stress, indicating posttranscriptional gene expression control is involved. In contrast to DNA replication stress, in response to the cell wall integrity pathway activator caffeine, PUF5 and POP2 acted in the same genetic pathway, indicating that functions of Puf5 in the caffeine response are mediated by Pop2-dependent gene repression. Our results support a model in which Puf5 uses multiple, Pop2-dependent and Pop2-independent mechanisms to control mRNA expression. The Pop2-independent roles for Puf5 could involve spatial control of gene expression, a proposition supported by our data indicating that the active form of Puf5 is localised to cytoplasmic foci.

  5. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  6. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  7. The DNA replication inhibitor microcin B17 is a forty-three-amino-acid protein containing sixty percent glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davagnino, J; Herrero, M; Furlong, D; Moreno, F; Kolter, R

    1986-11-01

    Microcin B17 is a low-molecular-weight protein that inhibits DNA replication in a number of enteric bacteria. It is produced by bacterial strains which harbor a 70-kilobase plasmid called pMccB17. Four plasmid genes (named mcbABCD) are required for its production. The product of the mcbA gene was identified by labelling minicells. The mcbA gene product was slightly larger when a mutation in any of the other three production genes was present. This indicates that these genes are involved in processing the primary mcbA product to yield the active molecule. The mcbA gene product predicted from the nucleotide sequence has 69 amino acids including 28 glycine residues. Microcin B17 was extracted from the cells by boiling in 100 mM acetic acid, 1 mM EDTA, and purified to homogeneity in a single step by high-performance liquid chromatography through a C18 column. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and amino acid composition demonstrated that mcbA is the structural gene for microcin B17. The active molecule is a processed product lacking the first 26 N-terminal residues. The 43 remaining residues include 26 glycines. While microcin B17 is an exported protein, the cleaved N-terminal peptide does not have the characteristic properties of a "signal sequence", which suggests that it is secreted by a mechanism different from that used by most secreted proteins of E. coli.

  8. Mechanism of chromosomal DNA replication initiation and replication fork stabilization in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, LiHong; Liu, Yang; Kong, DaoChun

    2014-05-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication is one of the central biological events occurring inside cells. Due to its large size, the replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotes initiates at hundreds to tens of thousands of sites called DNA origins so that the replication could be completed in a limited time. Further, eukaryotic DNA replication is sophisticatedly regulated, and this regulation guarantees that each origin fires once per S phase and each segment of DNA gets duplication also once per cell cycle. The first step of replication initiation is the assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC). Since 1973, four proteins, Cdc6/Cdc18, MCM, ORC and Cdt1, have been extensively studied and proved to be pre-RC components. Recently, a novel pre-RC component called Sap1/Girdin was identified. Sap1/Girdin is required for loading Cdc18/Cdc6 to origins for pre-RC assembly in the fission yeast and human cells, respectively. At the transition of G1 to S phase, pre-RC is activated by the two kinases, cyclindependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and subsequently, RPA, primase-polα, PCNA, topoisomerase, Cdc45, polδ, and polɛ are recruited to DNA origins for creating two bi-directional replication forks and initiating DNA replication. As replication forks move along chromatin DNA, they frequently stall due to the presence of a great number of replication barriers on chromatin DNA, such as secondary DNA structures, protein/DNA complexes, DNA lesions, gene transcription. Stalled forks must require checkpoint regulation for their stabilization. Otherwise, stalled forks will collapse, which results in incomplete DNA replication and genomic instability. This short review gives a concise introduction regarding the current understanding of replication initiation and replication fork stabilization.

  9. Identification of the replication origins from Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and their interactions with the DnaA protein: from in silico to in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He eHuang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the complete genome of Cyanothece ATCC 51142, the oriCs of both the circular and linear chromosomes in Cyanothece ATCC 51142 have been predicted by utilizing a web-based system Ori-Finder. Here, we provide the experimental supports for the results of Ori-Finder to identify the origins of replication of Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and their interactions with initiator protein DnaA . The two replication origins are both composed of three characteristically arranged DnaA boxes, and an AT-rich stretch, and the oriC in circular chromosome is followed by the dnaN gene. The dnaA gene is located downstream of the origin of circular chromosome and expresses a typical DnaA protein that follows the division into four domains (I, II, III, IV, as with other members of the DnaA protein family. Here, we report the purification of DnaA (IV and characterize the interaction of the purified protein with the replication origins, in order to offer experimental supports for the prediction. Combined with experimental validation, we identified the oriCs of Cyanothece ATCC 51142. The results of EMSA and DNase I footprint assay demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of Cyanothece ATCC 51142 DnaA protein specifically binds the oriCs of both the circular and linear chromosomes, and DNase I footprint assay demonstrates that DnaA (IV has a hypersensitive affinity interaction with DnaA boxes in both oriCs. The results also confirm the results predicted by Ori-Finder.

  10. Control of DNA replication by anomalous reaction-diffusion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Gauthier, Michel

    2010-03-01

    DNA replication requires two distinct processes: the initiation of pre-licensed replication origins and the propagation of replication forks away from the fired origins. Experiments indicate that these origins are triggered over the whole genome at a rate I(t) (the number of initiations per unreplicated length per time) that increases throughout most of the synthesis (S) phase, before rapidly decreasing to zero at the end of the replication process. We propose a simple model for the control of DNA replication in which the rate of initiation of replication origins is controlled by protein-DNA interactions. Analyzing recent data from Xenopus frog embryos, we find that the initiation rate is reaction limited until nearly the end of replication, when it becomes diffusion limited. Initiation of origins is suppressed when the diffusion-limited search time dominates. To fit the experimental data, we find that the interaction between DNA and the rate-limiting protein must be subdiffusive.

  11. Molecular cloning of MSSP-2, a c-myc gene single-strand binding protein: characterization of binding specificity and DNA replication activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Toshiki; Nishita, Yoshinori; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported the human cDNA encoding MSSP-1, a sequence-specific double- and single-stranded DNA binding protein [Negishi, Nishita, Saëgusa, Kakizaki, Galli, Kihara, Tamai, Miyajima, Iguchi-Ariga and Ariga (1994) Oncogene, 9, 1133-1143]. MSSP-1 binds to a DNA replication origin/transcriptional enhancer of the human c-myc gene and has turned out to be identical with Scr2, a human protein which complements the defect of cdc2 kinase in S.pombe [Kataoka and Nojima (1994) Nucleic Ac...

  12. Specific interaction of the nonstructural protein NS1 of minute virus of mice (MVM) with [ACCA](2) motifs in the centre of the right-end MVM DNA palindrome induces hairpin-primed viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willwand, Kurt; Moroianu, Adela; Hörlein, Rita; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Rommelaere, Jean

    2002-07-01

    The linear single-stranded DNA genome of minute virus of mice (MVM) is replicated via a double-stranded replicative form (RF) intermediate DNA. Amplification of viral RF DNA requires the structural transition of the right-end palindrome from a linear duplex into a double-hairpin structure, which serves for the repriming of unidirectional DNA synthesis. This conformational transition was found previously to be induced by the MVM nonstructural protein NS1. Elimination of the cognate NS1-binding sites, [ACCA](2), from the central region of the right-end palindrome next to the axis of symmetry was shown to markedly reduce the efficiency of hairpin-primed DNA replication, as measured in a reconstituted in vitro replication system. Thus, [ACCA](2) sequence motifs are essential as NS1-binding elements in the context of the structural transition of the right-end MVM palindrome.

  13. Werner's syndrome protein is phosphorylated in an ATR/ATM-dependent manner following replication arrest and DNA damage induced during the S phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichierri, Pietro; Rosselli, Filippo; Franchitto, Annapaola

    2003-03-13

    Werner's syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized at the cellular level by genomic instability in the form of variegated translocation mosaicism and extensive deletions. Individuals with WS prematurely develop multiple age-related pathologies and exhibit increased incidence of cancer. WRN, the gene defective in WS, encodes a 160-kDa protein (WRN), which has 3'-5'exonuclease, DNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase activities. WRN-defective cells are hypersensitive to certain genotoxic agents that cause replication arrest and/or double-strand breaks at the replication fork, suggesting a pivotal role for WRN in the protection of the integrity of the genoma during the DNA replication process. Here, we show that WRN is phosphorylated through an ATR/ATM dependent pathway in response to replication blockage. However, we provide evidence that WRN phosphorylation is not essential for its subnuclear relocalization after replication arrest. Finally, we show that WRN and ATR colocalize after replication fork arrest, suggesting that WRN and the ATR kinase collaborate to prevent genome instability during the S phase.

  14. Replication of a pathogenic non-coding RNA increases DNA methylation in plants associated with a bromodomain-containing viroid-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dian-Qiu; Liu, Shang-Wu; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Bang-Jun; Wang, Shao-Peng; Guo, Hui-Shan; Fang, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Viroids are plant-pathogenic molecules made up of single-stranded circular non-coding RNAs. How replicating viroids interfere with host silencing remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of a nuclear-replicating Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) on interference with plant RNA silencing. Using transient induction of silencing in GFP transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants (line 16c), we found that PSTVd replication accelerated GFP silencing and increased Virp1 mRNA, which encodes bromodomain-containing viroid-binding protein 1 and is required for PSTVd replication. DNA methylation was increased in the GFP transgene promoter of PSTVd-replicating plants, indicating involvement of transcriptional gene silencing. Consistently, accelerated GFP silencing and increased DNA methylation in the of GFP transgene promoter were detected in plants transiently expressing Virp1. Virp1 mRNA was also increased upon PSTVd infection in natural host potato plants. Reduced transcript levels of certain endogenous genes were also consistent with increases in DNA methylation in related gene promoters in PSTVd-infected potato plants. Together, our data demonstrate that PSTVd replication interferes with the nuclear silencing pathway in that host plant, and this is at least partially attributable to Virp1. This study provides new insights into the plant-viroid interaction on viroid pathogenicity by subverting the plant cell silencing machinery. PMID:27767195

  15. Limiting DNA replication to once and only once

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    In Escherichia coli cells, the origin of chromosomal replication is temporarily inactivated after initiation has occurred. Origin sequestration is the first line of defence against over-initiation, providing a time window during which the initiation potential can be reduced by: (i) titration of DnaA proteins to newly replicated chromosomal elements; (ii) regulation of the activity of the DnaA initiator protein; and (iii) sequestration of the dnaA gene promoter. This review represents the firs...

  16. DNA replication stress: causes, resolution and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Velimezi, Georgia; Loizou, Joanna I

    2014-11-15

    DNA replication is a fundamental process of the cell that ensures accurate duplication of the genetic information and subsequent transfer to daughter cells. Various pertubations, originating from endogenous or exogenous sources, can interfere with proper progression and completion of the replication process, thus threatening genome integrity. Coordinated regulation of replication and the DNA damage response is therefore fundamental to counteract these challenges and ensure accurate synthesis of the genetic material under conditions of replication stress. In this review, we summarize the main sources of replication stress and the DNA damage signaling pathways that are activated in order to preserve genome integrity during DNA replication. We also discuss the association of replication stress and DNA damage in human disease and future perspectives in the field. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. USP7 is a SUMO deubiquitinase essential for DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecona, Emilio; Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; Specks, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers regulates DNA replication. We have previously shown that chromatin around replisomes is rich in SUMO and poor in Ub, whereas mature chromatin exhibits an opposite pattern. How this SUMO-rich, Ub-poor environment...... is maintained at sites of DNA replication in mammalian cells remains unexplored. Here we identify USP7 as a replisome-enriched SUMO deubiquitinase that is essential for DNA replication. By acting on SUMO and SUMOylated proteins, USP7 counteracts their ubiquitination. Inhibition or genetic deletion of USP7 leads...... to the accumulation of Ub on SUMOylated proteins, which are displaced away from replisomes. Our findings provide a model explaining the differential accumulation of SUMO and Ub at replication forks and identify an essential role of USP7 in DNA replication that should be considered in the development of USP7...

  18. USP7 is a SUMO deubiquitinase essential for DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecona, Emilio; Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; Specks, Julia; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Ruppen, Isabel; Murga, Matilde; Muñoz, Javier; Mendez, Juan; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers regulates DNA replication. We have previously shown that chromatin around replisomes is rich in SUMO and poor in Ub, whereas mature chromatin exhibits an opposite pattern. How this SUMO-rich, Ub-poor environment is maintained at sites of DNA replication in mammalian cells remains unexplored. Here we identify USP7 as a replisome-enriched SUMO deubiquitinase that is essential for DNA replication. By acting on SUMO and SUMOylated proteins, USP7 counteracts their ubiquitination. Inhibition or genetic deletion of USP7 leads to the accumulation of Ub on SUMOylated proteins, which are displaced away from replisomes. Our findings provide a model explaining the differential accumulation of SUMO and Ub at replication forks and identify an essential role of USP7 in DNA replication that should be considered in the development of USP7 inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  19. Protein-Primed Mechanism of DNA Virus Replication%蛋白质起始的 DNA病毒复制机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢亚丽; 司亚运; 袁戈; 张清; 姚勤; 陈克平

    2015-01-01

    DNA聚合酶在DNA合成过程中需要的引物包括RNA引物、DNA自我引物和蛋白质引物3种类型。新DNA链(如冈崎片段)的复制多是在DNA模板上合成一段RNA引物,细小病毒利用其基因组末端的反向末端重复序列( ITRs)自我折叠成DNA引物,而一些DNA、RNA病毒及真菌质粒起始复制反应的引物则是蛋白质。以感染原核生物的噬菌体Phi29和真核DNA病毒腺病毒为例,从复制过程所涉及的蛋白质、对复制原点的识别、复制起始反应、新链的延伸、复制终止过程等方面详细阐述DNA病毒由蛋白质引发的复制机制,并对已商品化的Phi29 DNA聚合酶产品多重置换扩增及单细胞测序等的应用以及基于噬菌体Phi29蛋白质起始的最小复制系统体外扩增异源DNA等最新的应用研究作相关总结介绍。%DNA polymerase essential for the process of DNA synthesis comprises RNA primer, DNA self-primer, and protein primer three types of primers.The replication of new DNA strands ( e.g.Okazaki fragments) are mostly initia-ted with the synthesis of an RNA primer on the DNA template, Parvovirus using inverted terminal repeats ( ITRs) at the end of its genome which self fold into a DNA primer, while some of the DNA, RNA viruses and fungal plasmids starting replication reaction with a protein primer.In this article, phage Phi29 and eukaryotic DNA virus adenovirus that infected prokaryote were taken as models and elaborate on their DNA virus replication mechanism primed by pro-tein, ranging from proteins involved in the replication process, recognition of the replication origin, initiation of repli-cation, DNA-primed elongation and termination of TP-DNA replication.The commercialized Phi29 DNA polymerase products applied for multiple displacement whole genome amplification ( WGA) and single-cell sequencing, amplifica-tion of heterologous DNA with a minimal replication system based on phage Phi29 in vitro and other new

  20. DNA Replication via Entanglement Swapping

    CERN Document Server

    Pusuluk, Onur

    2010-01-01

    Quantum effects are mainly used for the determination of molecular shapes in molecular biology, but quantum information theory may be a more useful tool to understand the physics of life. Molecular biology assumes that function is explained by structure, the complementary geometries of molecules and weak intermolecular hydrogen bonds. However, both this assumption and its converse are possible if organic molecules and quantum circuits/protocols are considered as hardware and software of living systems that are co-optimized during evolution. In this paper, we try to model DNA replication as a multiparticle entanglement swapping with a reliable qubit representation of nucleotides. In the model, molecular recognition of a nucleotide triggers an intrabase entanglement corresponding to a superposition state of different tautomer forms. Then, base pairing occurs by swapping intrabase entanglements with interbase entanglements.

  1. Synchronization of DNA array replication kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we discuss the features of the DNA replication kinetics at the case of multiplicity of simultaneously elongated DNA fragments. The interaction between replicated DNA fragments is carried out by free protons that appears at the every nucleotide attachment at the free end of elongated DNA fragment. So there is feedback between free protons concentration and DNA-polymerase activity that appears as elongation rate dependence. We develop the numerical model based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) for DNA elongation process with conditions pointed above and we study the possibility of the DNA polymerases movement synchronization. The results obtained numerically can be useful for DNA polymerase movement detection and visualization of the elongation process in the case of massive DNA replication, eg, under PCR condition or for DNA "sequencing by synthesis" sequencing devices evaluation.

  2. JC virus small T antigen binds phosphatase PP2A and Rb family proteins and is required for efficient viral DNA replication activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Bollag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV produces five tumor proteins encoded by transcripts alternatively spliced from one precursor messenger RNA. Significant attention has been given to replication and transforming activities of JCV's large tumor antigen (TAg and three T' proteins, but little is known about small tumor antigen (tAg functions. Amino-terminal sequences of tAg overlap with those of the other tumor proteins, but the carboxy half of tAg is unique. These latter sequences are the least conserved among the early coding regions of primate polyomaviruses. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We investigated the ability of wild type and mutant forms of JCV tAg to interact with cellular proteins involved in regulating cell proliferation and survival. The JCV P99A tAg is mutated at a conserved proline, which in the SV40 tAg is required for efficient interaction with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and the C157A mutant tAg is altered at one of two newly recognized LxCxE motifs. Relative to wild type and C157A tAgs, P99A tAg interacts inefficiently with PP2A in vivo. Unlike SV40 tAg, JCV tAg binds to the Rb family of tumor suppressor proteins. Viral DNAs expressing mutant t proteins replicated less efficiently than did the intact JCV genome. A JCV construct incapable of expressing tAg was replication-incompetent, a defect not complemented in trans using a tAg-expressing vector. CONCLUSIONS: JCV tAg possesses unique properties among the polyomavirus small t proteins. It contributes significantly to viral DNA replication in vivo; a tAg null mutant failed to display detectable DNA replication activity, and a tAg substitution mutant, reduced in PP2A binding, was replication-defective. Our observation that JCV tAg binds Rb proteins, indicates all five JCV tumor proteins have the potential to influence cell cycle progression in infected and transformed cells. It remains unclear how these proteins coordinate their unique and overlapping functions.

  3. Functional interactions of DNA topoisomerases with a human replication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Radulescu, Sorina; Sandoval, Oscar; Zahariev, Sotir; Danailov, Miltcho B; Demidovich, Alexander; Santamaria, Laura; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Riva, Silvano; Falaschi, Arturo

    2007-02-21

    The human DNA replication origin, located in the lamin B2 gene, interacts with the DNA topoisomerases I and II in a cell cycle-modulated manner. The topoisomerases interact in vivo and in vitro with precise bonds ahead of the start sites of bidirectional replication, within the pre-replicative complex region; topoisomerase I is bound in M, early G1 and G1/S border and topoisomerase II in M and the middle of G1. The Orc2 protein competes for the same sites of the origin bound by either topoisomerase in different moments of the cell cycle; furthermore, it interacts on the DNA with topoisomerase II during the assembly of the pre-replicative complex and with DNA-bound topoisomerase I at the G1/S border. Inhibition of topoisomerase I activity abolishes origin firing. Thus, the two topoisomerases are closely associated with the replicative complexes, and DNA topology plays an essential functional role in origin activation.

  4. Properties of DnaB helicase in [lambda] DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A tailed nicked-circle DNA substrate was used to measure the rapid replication fork (RF) movement catalyzed by E. Coli DnaB helicase and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (pol III HE) (DnaB-RFs) (30 DnaB hexamers/substrate). The DnaB RFs can efficiently utilize the DNA substrate (60% in 5 min at 30C), and the forks move at a rapid rate (550-780 bp/sec at 30C). The DnaB-RFs have an average maximal processivity of 40,000 nt, and addition of either SSB or primase increase the processivity (150,000 nt + SSB, 70,000-140,000 nt + primase). However, SSB and primase do not affect the rate of fork movement or the amount of substrate utilized in the assay. The [lambda] SS proteins are effective at transferring DnaB onto the DNA substrate (8 DnaB hexamers/substrate). The [lambda] SS proteins do not change the rate of RF movement or the amount of substrate utilized. However, the amount of synthesis measured in the assay is [approximately]2-fold higher in the presence of the [lambda] SS proteins. Therefore, the [lambda] SS proteins increase the processivity of DnaB at the RF (100,000 nt). The [lambda] SS proteins do not appear to play a role in elongation because the processivity of the RF in the presence of SSB and primase is equivalent to the processivity of the [lambda] SS-RFs. [lambda] P protein blocks DnaB helicase activity if added to the RF assay prior to initiation or during elongation. DnaB helicase is more resistant to P inhibition, if the helicase is allowed to bind to the substrate prior to addition of [lambda] P or if primase and rNTPs are included in the assay. These results suggest that the conformation of the RF complex (DNA or nucleoprotein structure) blocks the attack of P on DnaB helicase. The heat shock proteins may play an auxiliary role in mediating the effects of [lambda] P if the concentration of P protein in the cells are high.

  5. Efficient expression and purification of human replication fork-stabilizing factor, Claspin, from mammalian cells: DNA-binding activity and novel protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Syuzi; Masai, Hisao

    2011-08-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins of a large size often poses problems of instability or low expression in bacterial or insect cells. Here, we established a method for a high-level expression of large-sized recombinant proteins in mammalian cells and subsequent purification of the full-length proteins. We applied this method to express human Claspin and Tim-Tipin complex, which play important roles in replication checkpoint responses as fork-stabilizing factors, and successfully purified them in functional forms in amount sufficient for enzymatic characterization. Purified Claspin behaves as a monomer and binds preferentially to fork-like DNA. Over-expression of tagged Claspin in mammalian cells facilitated the detection of its interacting factors. Claspin interacts with many factors involved in checkpoint regulation and replication fork machinery, including ATR, ATM, Chk1, Tim, MCM4, MCM10, Cdc45, DNA polymerases α, δ, ε and Cdc7 kinase. We will discuss the potential implication of these findings in architecture of replication fork. We will also discuss the advantage of this system for purification and characterization of those proteins that are large and have been difficult to deal with.

  6. A highly basic sequence at the N-terminal region is essential for targeting the DNA replication protein ORC1 to the nucleus in Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devanand; Kumar, Diwakar; Saha, Swati

    2012-07-01

    The conserved eukaryotic DNA replication protein ORC1 is one of the constituents of pre-replication complexes that assemble at or very near origins prior to replication initiation. ORC1 has been shown to be constitutively nuclear in Leishmania major. This study investigates the sequences involved in nuclear localization of ORC1 in Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) have been reported in only a few Leishmania proteins. Functional analyses have delineated NLSs to regions of ~60 amino acids in length in the tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase I and type II DNA topoisomerase of L. donovani, and in the L. major kinesin KIN13-1. Using a panel of site-directed mutations we have identified a sequence essential for nuclear import of LdORC1. This sequence at the N terminus of the protein comprises residues 2-5 (KRSR), with K2, R3 and R5 being crucial. Independent mutation of the K2 residue causes exclusion of the protein from the nucleus, while mutating the R5 residue leads to diffusion of the protein throughout the cell. This sequence, however, is insufficient for targeting a heterologous protein (β-galactosidase) to the nucleus. Analysis of additional ORC1 mutations and reporter constructs reveals that while the highly basic tetra-amino acid sequence at the N terminus is essential for nuclear localization, the ORC1 NLS in its entirety is more complex, and of a distributive character. Our results suggest that nuclear localization signalling sequences in Leishmania nuclear proteins are more complex than what is typically seen in higher eukaryotes.

  7. Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro is stimulated by RNA from uninfected HeLa cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P.C. van der; Dam, D. van; Kwant, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Adenovirus DNA replication was studied in a partially reconstituted system consisting of purified viral proteins (DNA-binding protein, precursor terminal protein and Ad DNA polymerase) and a nuclear extract from uninfected HeLa cells. Optimal DNA replication required the presence of a heat-stable, r

  8. Enzymes involved in organellar DNA replication in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eMoriyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plastids and mitochondria possess their own genomes. Although the replication mechanisms of these organellar genomes remain unclear in photosynthetic eukaryotes, several organelle-localized enzymes related to genome replication, including DNA polymerase, DNA primase, DNA helicase, DNA topoisomerase, single-stranded DNA maintenance protein, DNA ligase, primer removal enzyme, and several DNA recombination-related enzymes, have been identified. In the reference Eudicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the replication-related enzymes of plastids and mitochondria are similar because many of them are dual targeted to both organelles, whereas in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, plastids and mitochondria contain different replication machinery components. The enzymes involved in organellar genome replication in green plants and red algae were derived from different origins, including proteobacterial, cyanobacterial, and eukaryotic lineages. In the present review, we summarize the available data for enzymes related to organellar genome replication in green plants and red algae. In addition, based on the type and distribution of replication enzymes in photosynthetic eukaryotes, we discuss the transitional history of replication enzymes in the organelles of plants.

  9. NCOA4 transcriptional coactivator inhibits activation of DNA replication origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, Roberto; Castellone, Maria Domenica; Guida, Teresa; Limongello, Roberto; Dathan, Nina Alayne; Merolla, Francesco; Cirafici, Anna Maria; Affuso, Andrea; Masai, Hisao; Costanzo, Vincenzo; Grieco, Domenico; Fusco, Alfredo; Santoro, Massimo; Carlomagno, Francesca

    2014-07-01

    NCOA4 is a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear hormone receptors that undergoes gene rearrangement in human cancer. By combining studies in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we show here that NCOA4 is a minichromosome maintenance 7 (MCM7)-interacting protein that is able to control DNA replication. Depletion-reconstitution experiments in Xenopus laevis egg extracts indicate that NCOA4 acts as an inhibitor of DNA replication origin activation by regulating CMG (CDC45/MCM2-7/GINS) helicase. NCOA4(-/-) MEFs display unscheduled origin activation and reduced interorigin distance; this results in replication stress, as shown by the presence of fork stalling, reduction of fork speed, and premature senescence. Together, our findings indicate that NCOA4 acts as a regulator of DNA replication origins that helps prevent inappropriate DNA synthesis and replication stress.

  10. The sub-cellular localization of Sulfolobus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristwood, Tamzin; Duggin, Iain G; Wagner, Michaela; Albers, Sonja V; Bell, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Analyses of the DNA replication-associated proteins of hyperthermophilic archaea have yielded considerable insight into the structure and biochemical function of these evolutionarily conserved factors. However, little is known about the regulation and progression of DNA replication in the context of archaeal cells. In the current work, we describe the generation of strains of Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that allow the incorporation of nucleoside analogues during DNA replication. We employ this technology, in conjunction with immunolocalization analyses of replisomes, to investigate the sub-cellular localization of nascent DNA and replisomes. Our data reveal a peripheral localization of replisomes in the cell. Furthermore, while the two replication forks emerging from any one of the three replication origins in the Sulfolobus chromosome remain in close proximity, the three origin loci are separated.

  11. The stress-activated protein kinases p38α/β and JNK1/2 cooperate with Chk1 to inhibit mitotic entry upon DNA replication arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis, Alba; Salvador, Noelia; Ercilla, Amaia; Guaita-Esteruelas, Sandra; Barrantes, Ivan del Barco; Gupta, Jalaj; Gaestel, Matthias; Davis, Roger J; Nebreda, Angel R; Agell, Neus

    2012-10-01

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. To this aim, cells have evolved complex surveillance mechanisms to prevent mitotic entry in the presence of partially replicated DNA. ATR and Chk1 are key elements in the signal transduction pathways of DNA replication checkpoint; however, other kinases also make significant contributions. We show here that the stress kinases p38 and JNK are activated when DNA replication is blocked, and that their activity allows S/M, but not G 2/M, checkpoint maintenance when Chk1 is inhibited. Activation of both kinases by DNA replication inhibition is not mediated by the caffeine-sensitive kinases ATR or ATM. Phosphorylation of MKK3/6 and MKK4, p38 and JNK upstream kinases was also observed upon DNA replication inhibition. Using a genetic approach, we dissected the p38 pathway and showed that both p38α and p38β isoforms collaborate to inhibit mitotic entry. We further defined MKK3/6 and MK2/3 as the key upstream and downstream elements in the p38 signaling cascade after replication arrest. Accordingly, we found that the stress signaling pathways collaborate with Chk1 to keep cyclin B1/Cdk1 complexes inactive when DNA replication is inhibited, thereby preventing cell cycle progression when DNA replication is stalled. Our results show a complex response to replication stress, where multiple pathways are activated and fulfill overlapping roles to prevent mitotic entry with unreplicated DNA.

  12. DNA ligase I selectively affects DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases delta and epsilon suggesting differential functions in DNA replication and repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Mossi, R; Ferrari, E; Hübscher, U

    1998-01-01

    The joining of single-stranded breaks in double-stranded DNA is an essential step in many important processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and genetic recombination. Several data implicate a role for DNA ligase I in DNA replication, probably coordinated by the action of other enzymes and proteins. Since both DNA polymerases delta and epsilon show multiple functions in different DNA transactions, we investigated the effect of DNA ligase I on various DNA synthesis events catalyzed by th...

  13. Functional amyloids as inhibitors of plasmid DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Laura; Gasset-Rosa, Fátima; Moreno-del Álamo, María; Fernández-Tresguerres, M. Elena; Moreno-Díaz de la Espina, Susana; Lurz, Rudi; Giraldo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly regulated to constrain the genetic material within strict spatiotemporal boundaries and copy numbers. Bacterial plasmids are autonomously replicating DNA molecules of much clinical, environmental and biotechnological interest. A mechanism used by plasmids to prevent over-replication is ‘handcuffing’, i.e. inactivating the replication origins in two DNA molecules by holding them together through a bridge built by a plasmid-encoded initiator protein (Rep). Besides being involved in handcuffing, the WH1 domain in the RepA protein assembles as amyloid fibres upon binding to DNA in vitro. The amyloid state in proteins is linked to specific human diseases, but determines selectable and epigenetically transmissible phenotypes in microorganisms. Here we have explored the connection between handcuffing and amyloidogenesis of full-length RepA. Using a monoclonal antibody specific for an amyloidogenic conformation of RepA-WH1, we have found that the handcuffed RepA assemblies, either reconstructed in vitro or in plasmids clustering at the bacterial nucleoid, are amyloidogenic. The replication-inhibitory RepA handcuff assembly is, to our knowledge, the first protein amyloid directly dealing with DNA. Built on an amyloid scaffold, bacterial plasmid handcuffs can bring a novel molecular solution to the universal problem of keeping control on DNA replication initiation. PMID:27147472

  14. A subset of replication proteins enhances origin recognition and lytic replication by the Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman El-Guindy

    Full Text Available ZEBRA is a site-specific DNA binding protein that functions as a transcriptional activator and as an origin binding protein. Both activities require that ZEBRA recognizes DNA motifs that are scattered along the viral genome. The mechanism by which ZEBRA discriminates between the origin of lytic replication and promoters of EBV early genes is not well understood. We explored the hypothesis that activation of replication requires stronger association between ZEBRA and DNA than does transcription. A ZEBRA mutant, Z(S173A, at a phosphorylation site and three point mutants in the DNA recognition domain of ZEBRA, namely Z(Y180E, Z(R187K and Z(K188A, were similarly deficient at activating lytic DNA replication and expression of late gene expression but were competent to activate transcription of viral early lytic genes. These mutants all exhibited reduced capacity to interact with DNA as assessed by EMSA, ChIP and an in vivo biotinylated DNA pull-down assay. Over-expression of three virally encoded replication proteins, namely the primase (BSLF1, the single-stranded DNA-binding protein (BALF2 and the DNA polymerase processivity factor (BMRF1, partially rescued the replication defect in these mutants and enhanced ZEBRA's interaction with oriLyt. The findings demonstrate a functional role of replication proteins in stabilizing the association of ZEBRA with viral DNA. Enhanced binding of ZEBRA to oriLyt is crucial for lytic viral DNA replication.

  15. Mcm10 regulates DNA replication elongation by stimulating the CMG replicative helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõoke, Marko; Maloney, Michael F.; Bell, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the Mcm2–7 replicative DNA helicase is the committed step in eukaryotic DNA replication initiation. Although Mcm2–7 activation requires binding of the helicase-activating proteins Cdc45 and GINS (forming the CMG complex), an additional protein, Mcm10, drives initial origin DNA unwinding by an unknown mechanism. We show that Mcm10 binds a conserved motif located between the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide fold (OB-fold) and A subdomain of Mcm2. Although buried in the interface between these domains in Mcm2–7 structures, mutations predicted to separate the domains and expose this motif restore growth to conditional-lethal MCM10 mutant cells. We found that, in addition to stimulating initial DNA unwinding, Mcm10 stabilizes Cdc45 and GINS association with Mcm2–7 and stimulates replication elongation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we identified a lethal allele of MCM10 that stimulates initial DNA unwinding but is defective in replication elongation and CMG binding. Our findings expand the roles of Mcm10 during DNA replication and suggest a new model for Mcm10 function as an activator of the CMG complex throughout DNA replication. PMID:28270517

  16. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dai, Qun; Park, Dongkyoo; Deng, Xingming

    2016-01-01

    The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR) mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress. PMID:27548226

  17. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress.

  18. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinson, Tormi; Henno, Liisi; Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV) vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research.

  19. Direct observation of enzymes replicating DNA using a single-molecule DNA stretching assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulczyk, A.W.; Tanner, N.A.; Loparo, J.J.; Richardson, C.C.; Oijen, A.M. van

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for observing real time replication of individual DNA molecules mediated by proteins of the bacteriophage replication system. Linearized lambda DNA is modified to have a biotin on the end of one strand, and a digoxigenin moiety on the other end of the same strand. The biotinylat

  20. A quantitative model of DNA replication in Xenopus embryos: reliable replication despite stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Hsin Yang, Scott; Bechhoefer, John

    2008-03-01

    DNA synthesis in Xenopus frog embryos initiates stochastically in time at many sites (origins) along the chromosome. Stochastic initiation implies fluctuations in the replication time and may lead to cell death if replication takes longer than the cell cycle time (˜ 25 min.). Surprisingly, although the typical replication time is about 20 min., in vivo experiments show that replication fails to complete only about 1 in 250 times. How is replication timing accurately controlled despite the stochasticity? Biologists have proposed two mechanisms: the first uses a regular spatial distribution of origins, while the second uses randomly located origins but increases their probability of initiation as the cell cycle proceeds. Here, we show that both mechanisms yield similar end-time distributions, implying that regular origin spacing is not needed for control of replication time. Moreover, we show that the experimentally inferred time-dependent initiation rate satisfies the observed low failure probability and nearly optimizes the use of replicative proteins.

  1. How frog embryos replicate their DNA reliably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Marshall, Brandon

    2007-03-01

    Frog embryos contain three billion base pairs of DNA. In early embryos (cycles 2-12), DNA replication is extremely rapid, about 20 min., and the entire cell cycle lasts only 25 min., meaning that mitosis (cell division) takes place in about 5 min. In this stripped-down cell cycle, there are no efficient checkpoints to prevent the cell from dividing before its DNA has finished replication - a disastrous scenario. Even worse, the many origins of replication are laid down stochastically and are also initiated stochastically throughout the replication process. Despite the very tight time constraints and despite the randomness introduced by origin stochasticity, replication is extremely reliable, with cell division failing no more than once in 10,000 tries. We discuss a recent model of DNA replication that is drawn from condensed-matter theories of 1d nucleation and growth. Using our model, we discuss different strategies of replication: should one initiate all origins as early as possible, or is it better to hold back and initiate some later on? Using concepts from extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication times given a particular scenario for the initiation of origins. We show that the experimentally observed initiation strategy for frog embryos meets the reliability constraint and is close to the one that requires the fewest resources of a cell.

  2. Laser cross-linking of nucleic acids to proteins. Methodology and first applications to the phage T4 DNA replication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockensmith, J W; Kubasek, W L; Vorachek, W R; von Hippel, P H

    1986-03-15

    Single-pulse (approximately 8 ns) ultraviolet laser excitation of protein-nucleic acid complexes can result in efficient and rapid covalent cross-linking of proteins to nucleic acids. The reaction produces no nucleic acid-nucleic acid or protein-protein cross-links, and no nucleic acid degradation. The efficiency of cross-linking is dependent on the wavelength of the exciting radiation, on the nucleotide composition of the nucleic acid, and on the total photon flux. The yield of cross-links/laser pulse is largest between 245 and 280 nm; cross-links are obtained with far UV photons (200-240 nm) as well, but in this range appreciable protein degradation is also observed. The method has been calibrated using the phage T4-coded gene 32 (single-stranded DNA-binding) protein interaction with oligonucleotides, for which binding constants have been measured previously by standard physical chemical methods (Kowalczykowski, S. C., Lonberg, N., Newport, J. W., and von Hippel, P. H. (1981) J. Mol. Biol. 145, 75-104). Photoactivation occurs primarily through the nucleotide residues of DNA and RNA at excitation wavelengths greater than 245 nm, with reaction through thymidine being greatly favored. The nucleotide residues may be ranked in order of decreasing photoreactivity as: dT much greater than dC greater than rU greater than rC, dA, dG. Cross-linking appears to be a single-photon process and occurs through single nucleotide (dT) residues; pyrimidine dimer formation is not involved. Preliminary studies of the individual proteins of the five-protein T4 DNA replication complex show that gene 43 protein (polymerase), gene 32 protein, and gene 44 and 45 (polymerase accessory) proteins all make contact with DNA, and can be cross-linked to it, whereas gene 62 (polymerase accessory) protein cannot. A survey of other nucleic acid-binding proteins has shown that E. coli RNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I, and rho protein can all be cross-linked to various nucleic acids by the laser

  3. Self-replication of DNA rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Junwye; Hamada, Shogo; Murata, Satoshi; Ha Park, Sung

    2015-06-01

    Biology provides numerous examples of self-replicating machines, but artificially engineering such complex systems remains a formidable challenge. In particular, although simple artificial self-replicating systems including wooden blocks, magnetic systems, modular robots and synthetic molecular systems have been devised, such kinematic self-replicators are rare compared with examples of theoretical cellular self-replication. One of the principal reasons for this is the amount of complexity that arises when you try to incorporate self-replication into a physical medium. In this regard, DNA is a prime candidate material for constructing self-replicating systems due to its ability to self-assemble through molecular recognition. Here, we show that DNA T-motifs, which self-assemble into ring structures, can be designed to self-replicate through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions. The inherent design of these rings allows the population dynamics of the systems to be controlled. We also analyse the replication scheme within a universal framework of self-replication and derive a quantitative metric of the self-replicability of the rings.

  4. Comparative Immunization in BALB/c Mice with Recombinant Replication-Defective Adenovirus Vector and DNA Plasmid Expressing a SARS-CoV Nucleocapsid Protein Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunling Ma; Kun Yao; Feng Zhou; Minsheng Zhu

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate immunogenicity in the induction of humoral and cellular immune responses, severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-N gene recombinant replication-defective adenoviral vector, rAd-N, was generated and immunized BALB/c mice in a pcDNA3.1-N prime-rAd-N boost regimen. After humoral and cellular immune response detection, different levels of SARS-CoV N protein specific antibodies and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion are shown compared to controls. The humoral immune response was induced more effectively by the DNA priming and recombinant adenovirus boosting regimen. There is a significant difference between heterogeneous and homologous vaccinations. The heterogeneous combinations were all higher than those of the homologous combinations in the induction of anti-N antibody response. Among the three heterogeneous combinations, pcDNA3.1-N/pcDNA3.1-N/pcDNA3.1-N/rAd-N induced the strongest antibody response. In the induction of IFN-γ production, the homologous combination of rAd-N/rAd-N/rAd-N/rAd- N was significantly stronger than that of pcDNA3.1-N/pcDNA3. 1-N/pcDNA3.1-N/pcDNA3.1-N, but was relatively weaker than the heterogeneous combination of pcDAN3.1-N/pcDAN3.1-N/pcDAN3.1-N/rAd-N. This combination was a most efficient immunization regimen in induction of SARS-CoV-N-specific (IFN-γ) secretion just as the antibody response. These results suggest that DNA immunization followed by recombinant adenovirus boosting could be used as a potential SARS-CoV vaccine.

  5. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus K-bZIP Protein Is Necessary for Lytic Viral Gene Expression, DNA Replication, and Virion Production in Primary Effusion Lymphoma Cell Lines▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort, Sylvain; Flamand, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of three human proliferative disorders, namely, Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease. Lytic DNA replication of KSHV, which is essential for viral propagation, requires the binding of at least two KSHV proteins, replication and transactivation activator (RTA) and K-bZIP, on the lytic origin of replication. Moreover, K-bZIP physically interacts with RTA and represses its tra...

  6. DNA replication at the single-molecule level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratmann, S.A.; Oijen, A.M. van

    2014-01-01

    A cell can be thought of as a highly sophisticated micro factory: in a pool of billions of molecules – metabolites, structural proteins, enzymes, oligonucleotides – multi-subunit complexes assemble to perform a large number of basic cellular tasks, such as DNA replication, RNA/protein synthesis or i

  7. DNA replication at the single-molecule level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratmann, S A; van Oijen, A M

    2014-01-01

    A cell can be thought of as a highly sophisticated micro factory: in a pool of billions of molecules - metabolites, structural proteins, enzymes, oligonucleotides - multi-subunit complexes assemble to perform a large number of basic cellular tasks, such as DNA replication, RNA/protein synthesis or i

  8. Replication, checkpoint suppression and structure of centromeric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Francesco; Falbo, Lucia; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication. We also showed that centromeric chromatin forms condensins enriched and topologically constrained DNA loops, which likely contribute to the overall structure of the centromere. These findings have important implications on how chromosomes are organized and genome stability is maintained in mammalian cells.

  9. Chromatin challenges during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Rocha, Walter; Verreault, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inheritance and maintenance of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are central for eukaryotic life. To orchestrate DNA-replication and -repair processes in the context of chromatin is a challenge, both in terms of accessibility and maintenance of chromatin organization. To meet...... the challenge of maintenance, cells have evolved efficient nucleosome-assembly pathways and chromatin-maturation mechanisms that reproduce chromatin organization in the wake of DNA replication and repair. The aim of this Review is to describe how these pathways operate and to highlight how the epigenetic...

  10. Mitochondrial swinger replication: DNA replication systematically exchanging nucleotides and short 16S ribosomal DNA swinger inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2014-11-01

    Assuming systematic exchanges between nucleotides (swinger RNAs) resolves genomic 'parenthood' of some orphan mitochondrial transcripts. Twenty-three different systematic nucleotide exchanges (bijective transformations) exist. Similarities between transcription and replication suggest occurrence of swinger DNA. GenBank searches for swinger DNA matching the 23 swinger versions of human and mouse mitogenomes detect only vertebrate mitochondrial swinger DNA for swinger type AT+CG (from five different studies, 149 sequences) matching three human and mouse mitochondrial genes: 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Exchange AT+CG conserves self-hybridization properties, putatively explaining swinger biases for rDNA, against protein coding genes. Twenty percent of the regular human mitochondrial 16S rDNA consists of short swinger repeats (from 13 exchanges). Swinger repeats could originate from recombinations between regular and swinger DNA: duplicated mitochondrial genes of the parthenogenetic gecko Heteronotia binoei include fewer short AT+CG swinger repeats than non-duplicated mitochondrial genomes of that species. Presumably, rare recombinations between female and male mitochondrial genes (and in parthenogenetic situations between duplicated genes), favors reverse-mutations of swinger repeat insertions, probably because most inserts affect negatively ribosomal function. Results show that swinger DNA exists, and indicate that swinger polymerization contributes to the genesis of genetic material and polymorphism.

  11. APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Abby M; Landry, Sébastien; Budagyan, Konstantin; Avgousti, Daphne C; Shalhout, Sophia; Bhagwat, Ashok S; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    The human APOBEC3 family of DNA-cytosine deaminases comprises 7 members (A3A-A3H) that act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition. Recent evidence suggests that APOBEC3 enzymes can also cause damage to the cellular genome. Mutational patterns consistent with APOBEC3 activity have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of tumor genome sequences. These mutational signatures include clusters of base substitutions that are proposed to occur due to APOBEC3 deamination. It has been suggested that transiently exposed ssDNA segments provide substrate for APOBEC3 deamination leading to mutation signatures within the genome. However, the mechanisms that produce single-stranded substrates for APOBEC3 deamination in mammalian cells have not been demonstrated. We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells. Upon A3A expression, cycling cells activate the DNA replication checkpoint and undergo cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we find that replication stress leaves cells vulnerable to A3A-induced DNA damage. We propose a model to explain A3A-induced damage to the cellular genome in which cytosine deamination at replication forks and other ssDNA substrates results in mutations and DNA breaks. This model highlights the risk of mutagenesis by A3A expression in replicating progenitor cells, and supports the emerging hypothesis that APOBEC3 enzymes contribute to genome instability in human tumors.

  12. Focus on DNA Repair Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gourdin (Audrey)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The crucial factor for the survival of an organism resides in genetic stability. In fact the integrity of the DNA sequence, that carries out and regulates genetic information, can be impaired by inaccurate maintenance processes, endogenous metabolites or

  13. Regulation of DNA Replication in Early Embryonic Cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chames Kermi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early embryonic cleavages are characterized by short and highly synchronous cell cycles made of alternating S- and M-phases with virtually absent gap phases. In this contracted cell cycle, the duration of DNA synthesis can be extraordinarily short. Depending on the organism, the whole genome of an embryo is replicated at a speed that is between 20 to 60 times faster than that of a somatic cell. Because transcription in the early embryo is repressed, DNA synthesis relies on a large stockpile of maternally supplied proteins stored in the egg representing most, if not all, cellular genes. In addition, in early embryonic cell cycles, both replication and DNA damage checkpoints are inefficient. In this article, we will review current knowledge on how DNA synthesis is regulated in early embryos and discuss possible consequences of replicating chromosomes with little or no quality control.

  14. Assembling semiconductor nanocomposites using DNA replication technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon W.; Crown, Kevin K.; Bachand, George David

    2005-11-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules represent Nature's genetic database, encoding the information necessary for all cellular processes. From a materials engineering perspective, DNA represents a nanoscale scaffold with highly refined structure, stability across a wide range of environmental conditions, and the ability to interact with a range of biomolecules. The ability to mass-manufacture functionalized DNA strands with Angstrom-level resolution through DNA replication technology, however, has not been explored. The long-term goal of the work presented in this report is focused on exploiting DNA and in vitro DNA replication processes to mass-manufacture nanocomposite materials. The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) develop methods for replicating DNA strands that incorporate nucleotides with ''chemical handles'', and (2) demonstrate attachment of nanocrystal quantum dots (nQDs) to functionalized DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer extension methodologies were used to successfully synthesize amine-, thiol-, and biotin-functionalized DNA molecules. Significant variability in the efficiency of modified nucleotide incorporation was observed, and attributed to the intrinsic properties of the modified nucleotides. Noncovalent attachment of streptavidin-coated nQDs to biotin-modified DNA synthesized using the primer extension method was observed by epifluorescence microscopy. Data regarding covalent attachment of nQDs to amine- and thiol-functionalized DNA was generally inconclusive; alternative characterization tools are necessary to fully evaluate these attachment methods. Full realization of this technology may facilitate new approaches to manufacturing materials at the nanoscale. In addition, composite nQD-DNA materials may serve as novel recognition elements in sensor devices, or be used as diagnostic tools for forensic analyses. This report summarizes the results obtained over the course of this 1-year

  15. c-myc protein can be substituted for SV40 T antigen in SV40 DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Itani, Teru; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Replicating activity of SV40 origin-containing plasmid was tested in human cells as well as in monkey CosI cells. All the plasmids possessing SV40 ori sequences could replicate, even in the absence of SV40 T antigen, in human HL-60 and Raji cells which are expressing c-myc gene at high level. The copy numbers of the replicated plasmids in these human cells were 1/100 as high as in monkey CosI cells which express SV40 T antigen constitutively. Exactly the same plasmids as the transfected origi...

  16. Insights into the Initiation of Eukaryotic DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Irina; Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Colbert, Max K; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated event in eukaryotic cells to ensure that the entire genome is copied once and only once during S phase. The primary target of cellular regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase, the 11-subunit assembly that unwinds DNA at a replication fork. The replication fork helicase, called CMG for Cdc45-Mcm2-7, and GINS, assembles in S phase from the constituent Cdc45, Mcm2-7, and GINS proteins. The assembly and activation of the CMG replication fork helicase during S phase is governed by 2 S-phase specific kinases, CDK and DDK. CDK stimulates the interaction between Sld2, Sld3, and Dpb11, 3 initiation factors that are each required for the initiation of DNA replication. DDK, on the other hand, phosphorylates the Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 subunits of the Mcm2-7 complex. Sld3 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2-7 in a manner that depends on DDK, and recent work suggests that Sld3 binds directly to Mcm2-7 and also to single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, recent work demonstrates that Sld3 and its human homolog Treslin substantially stimulate DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. These data suggest that the initiation factor Sld3/Treslin coordinates the assembly and activation of the eukaryotic replication fork helicase by recruiting Cdc45 to Mcm2-7, stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, and binding directly to single-stranded DNA as the origin is melted.

  17. Insights into the Initiation of Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Irina; Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Colbert, Max K; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated event in eukaryotic cells to ensure that the entire genome is copied once and only once during S phase. The primary target of cellular regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase, the 11-subunit assembly that unwinds DNA at a replication fork. The replication fork helicase, called CMG for Cdc45-Mcm2–7, and GINS, assembles in S phase from the constituent Cdc45, Mcm2–7, and GINS proteins. The assembly and activation of the CMG replication fork helicase during S phase is governed by 2 S-phase specific kinases, CDK and DDK. CDK stimulates the interaction between Sld2, Sld3, and Dpb11, 3 initiation factors that are each required for the initiation of DNA replication. DDK, on the other hand, phosphorylates the Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 subunits of the Mcm2–7 complex. Sld3 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2–7 in a manner that depends on DDK, and recent work suggests that Sld3 binds directly to Mcm2–7 and also to single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, recent work demonstrates that Sld3 and its human homolog Treslin substantially stimulate DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. These data suggest that the initiation factor Sld3/Treslin coordinates the assembly and activation of the eukaryotic replication fork helicase by recruiting Cdc45 to Mcm2–7, stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, and binding directly to single-stranded DNA as the origin is melted. PMID:26710261

  18. Partial Purification of a Megadalton DNA Replication Complex by Free Flow Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caroline M.; Miao, Yunan; Lingeman, Robert G.; Hickey, Robert J.; Malkas, Linda H.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a gentle and rapid method to purify the intact multiprotein DNA replication complex using free flow electrophoresis (FFE). In particular, we applied FFE to purify the human cell DNA synthesome, which is a multiprotein complex that is fully competent to carry-out all phases of the DNA replication process in vitro using a plasmid containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of DNA replication and the viral large tumor antigen (T-antigen) protein. The isolated native DNA synthesome can be of use in studying the mechanism by which mammalian DNA replication is carried-out and how anti-cancer drugs disrupt the DNA replication or repair process. Partially purified extracts from HeLa cells were fractionated in a native, liquid based separation by FFE. Dot blot analysis showed co-elution of many proteins identified as part of the DNA synthesome, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), DNA polymerase ɛ (Pol ɛ), replication protein A (RPA) and replication factor C (RFC). Previously identified DNA synthesome proteins co-eluted with T-antigen dependent and SV40 origin-specific DNA polymerase activity at the same FFE fractions. Native gels show a multiprotein PCNA containing complex migrating with an apparent relative mobility in the megadalton range. When PCNA containing bands were excised from the native gel, mass spectrometric sequencing analysis identified 23 known DNA synthesome associated proteins or protein subunits. PMID:28036377

  19. SMARCAL1 maintains telomere integrity during DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lisa A; Zhao, Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G; Lovejoy, Courtney A; Eischen, Christine M; Cortez, David

    2015-12-01

    The SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent, regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like 1) DNA translocase is one of several related enzymes, including ZRANB3 (zinc finger, RAN-binding domain containing 3) and HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor), that are recruited to stalled replication forks to promote repair and restart replication. These enzymes can perform similar biochemical reactions such as fork reversal; however, genetic studies indicate they must have unique cellular activities. Here, we present data showing that SMARCAL1 has an important function at telomeres, which present an endogenous source of replication stress. SMARCAL1-deficient cells accumulate telomere-associated DNA damage and have greatly elevated levels of extrachromosomal telomere DNA (C-circles). Although these telomere phenotypes are often found in tumor cells using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway for telomere elongation, SMARCAL1 deficiency does not yield other ALT phenotypes such as elevated telomere recombination. The activity of SMARCAL1 at telomeres can be separated from its genome-maintenance activity in bulk chromosomal replication because it does not require interaction with replication protein A. Finally, this telomere-maintenance function is not shared by ZRANB3 or HLTF. Our results provide the first identification, to our knowledge, of an endogenous source of replication stress that requires SMARCAL1 for resolution and define differences between members of this class of replication fork-repair enzymes.

  20. Physiological consequences of blocked Caulobacter crescentus dnaA expression, an essential DNA replication gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatyuk, B; Marczynski, G T

    2001-04-01

    Caulobacter crescentus chromosome replication is precisely coupled to a developmental cell cycle. Like most eubacteria, C. crescentus has a DnaA homologue that is presumed to initiate chromosome replication. However, the C. crescentus replication origin (Cori) lacks perfect consensus Escherichia coli DnaA boxes. Instead, the Cori strong transcription promoter (Ps) may regulate chromosome replication through the CtrA cell cycle response regulator. We therefore created a conditional dnaA C. crescentus strain. Blocking dnaA expression immediately decreased DNA synthesis, which stopped after approximately one doubling period. Fluorescent flow cytometry confirmed that DNA synthesis is blocked at the initiation stage. Cell division also stopped, but not swarmer to stalked cell differentiation. All cells became stalked cells that grew as long filaments. Therefore, general transcription and protein synthesis continued, whereas DNA synthesis stopped. However, transcription was selectively blocked from the flagellar fliQ and fliL and methyltransferase ccrM promoters, which require CtrA and are blocked by different DNA synthesis inhibitors. Interestingly, transcription from Cori Ps continued unaltered. Therefore, Ps transcription is not sufficient for chromosome replication. Approximately 6-8 h after blocked dnaA expression, cells lost viability exponentially. Coincidentally, beta-galactosidase was induced from one transcription reporter, suggesting an altered physiology. We conclude that C. crescentus DnaA is essential for chromosome replication initiation, and perhaps also has a wider role in cell homeostasis.

  1. The DNA/RNA-dependent RNA polymerase QDE-1 generates aberrant RNA and dsRNA for RNAi in a process requiring replication protein A and a DNA helicase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Chi Lee

    Full Text Available The production of aberrant RNA (aRNA is the initial step in several RNAi pathways. How aRNA is produced and specifically recognized by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs to generate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA is not clear. We previously showed that in the filamentous fungus Neurospora, the RdRP QDE-1 is required for rDNA-specific aRNA production, suggesting that QDE-1 may be important in aRNA synthesis. Here we show that a recombinant QDE-1 is both an RdRP and a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (DdRP. Its DdRP activity is much more robust than the RdRP activity and occurs on ssDNA but not dsDNA templates. We further show that Replication Protein A (RPA, a single-stranded DNA-binding complex that interacts with QDE-1, is essential for aRNA production and gene silencing. In vitro reconstitution assays demonstrate that QDE-1 can produce dsRNA from ssDNA, a process that is strongly promoted by RPA. Furthermore, the interaction between QDE-1 and RPA requires the RecQ DNA helicase QDE-3, a homolog of the human Werner/Bloom Syndrome proteins. Together, these results suggest a novel small RNA biogenesis pathway in Neurospora and a new mechanism for the production of aRNA and dsRNA in RNAi pathways.

  2. The crystal structure of a replicative hexameric helicase DnaC and its complex with single-stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Yu-Hua; Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Chen, Wei-Ti; Huang, Cheng-Yang; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng

    2008-01-01

    DNA helicases are motor proteins that play essential roles in DNA replication, repair and recombination. In the replicative hexameric helicase, the fundamental reaction is the unwinding of duplex DNA; however, our understanding of this function remains vague due to insufficient structural information. Here, we report two crystal structures of the DnaB-family replicative helicase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkDnaC) in the apo-form and bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The GkDnaC–...

  3. Entropy involved in fidelity of DNA replication

    CERN Document Server

    Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Information has an entropic character which can be analyzed within the Statistical Theory in molecular systems. R. Landauer and C.H. Bennett showed that a logical copy can be carried out in the limit of no dissipation if the computation is performed sufficiently slowly. Structural and recent single-molecule assays have provided dynamic details of polymerase machinery with insight into information processing. We introduce a rigorous characterization of Shannon Information in biomolecular systems and apply it to DNA replication in the limit of no dissipation. Specifically, we devise an equilibrium pathway in DNA replication to determine the entropy generated in copying the information from a DNA template in the absence of friction. Both the initial state, the free nucleotides randomly distributed in certain concentrations, and the final state, a polymerized strand, are mesoscopic equilibrium states for the nucleotide distribution. We use empirical stacking free energies to calculate the probabilities of incorpo...

  4. Replicative DNA polymerase mutations in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Ellen; Tomlinson, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Three DNA polymerases - Pol α, Pol δ and Pol ɛ - are essential for DNA replication. After initiation of DNA synthesis by Pol α, Pol δ or Pol ɛ take over on the lagging and leading strand respectively. Pol δ and Pol ɛ perform the bulk of replication with very high fidelity, which is ensured by Watson-Crick base pairing and 3'exonuclease (proofreading) activity. Yeast models have shown that mutations in the exonuclease domain of Pol δ and Pol ɛ homologues can cause a mutator phenotype. Recently, we identified germline exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in human POLD1 and POLE that predispose to 'polymerase proofreading associated polyposis' (PPAP), a disease characterised by multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma, with high penetrance and dominant inheritance. Moreover, somatic EDMs in POLE have also been found in sporadic colorectal and endometrial cancers. Tumors with EDMs are microsatellite stable and show an 'ultramutator' phenotype, with a dramatic increase in base substitutions.

  5. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  6. Species radiation by DNA replication that systematically exchanges nucleotides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2014-12-21

    RNA and DNA syntheses share many properties. Therefore, the existence of 'swinger' RNAs, presumed 'orphan' transcripts matching genomic sequences only if transcription systematically exchanged nucleotides, suggests replication producing swinger DNA. Transcripts occur in many short-lived copies, the few cellular DNA molecules are long-lived. Hence pressures for functional swinger DNAs are greater than for swinger RNAs. Protein coding properties of swinger sequences differ from original sequences, suggesting rarity of corresponding swinger DNA. For genes producing structural RNAs, such as tRNAs and rRNAs, three exchanges (AT, CG and AT+CG) conserve self-hybridization properties. All nuclear eukaryote swinger DNA sequences detected in GenBank are for rRNA genes assuming AT+CG exchanges. In brachyuran crabs, 25 species had AT+CG swinger 18S rDNA, all matching the reverse-exchanged version of regular 18S rDNA of a related species. In this taxon, swinger replication of 18S rDNA apparently associated with, or even resulted in species radiation. AT+CG transformation doesn't invert sequence direction, differing from inverted repeats. Swinger repeats (detectable only assuming swinger transformations, AT+CG swinger repeats most frequent) within regular human rRNAs, independently confirm swinger polymerizations for most swinger types. Swinger replication might be an unsuspected molecular mechanism for ultrafast speciation.

  7. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1988-01-01

    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  8. Analysis of a temperature-sensitive mutation in Uba1: Effects of the click reaction on subsequent immunolabeling of proteins involved in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimihiko; Ishihara, Yoshie; Inoue, Sonoe

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, a Met-to-Ile substitution at amino acid 256 in the catalytic domain of Uba1 was determined in temperature-sensitive CHO-K1 mutant tsTM3 cells, which exhibited chromosomal instability and cell-cycle arrest in the S to G2 phases with decreased DNA synthesis at the nonpermissive temperature, 39 °C. Mutant cells were also characterized by a significant decrease of Uba1 in the nucleus with decreased ubiquitination activity at 39 °C. Defects of ubiquitination activity in the nucleus resulted in an inappropriate balance between Cdt1 and geminin, a licensing factor of DNA replication and its inhibitor. In the present study, we found that the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition (click) reaction inhibits the subsequent indirect immunolabeling of Cdt1 but allows for the detection of PCNA with nascent DNA. Using a procedure without the click reaction, we also demonstrated that Cdt1 remained close to active replication sites in tsTM3 cells at the nonpermissive temperature. Analysis of genome replication by DNA fiber spreading revealed that DNA synthesis continues for at least 10 h after incubation at 39 °C, suggesting that impaired ubiquitination in the nucleus, caused by the defect of Uba1, affected DNA replication only after a long delay.

  9. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) origin of DNA replication oriS influences origin-dependent DNA replication and flanking gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Sommer, Marvin H; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T; Arvin, Ann M

    2015-07-01

    The VZV genome has two origins of DNA replication (oriS), each of which consists of an AT-rich sequence and three origin binding protein (OBP) sites called Box A, C and B. In these experiments, the mutation in the core sequence CGC of the Box A and C not only inhibited DNA replication but also inhibited both ORF62 and ORF63 expression in reporter gene assays. In contrast the Box B mutation did not influence DNA replication or flanking gene transcription. These results suggest that efficient DNA replication enhances ORF62 and ORF63 transcription. Recombinant viruses carrying these mutations in both sites and one with a deletion of the whole oriS were constructed. Surprisingly, the recombinant virus lacking both copies of oriS retained the capacity to replicate in melanoma and HELF cells suggesting that VZV has another origin of DNA replication.

  10. USP7/HAUSP: A SUMO deubiquitinase at the heart of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Veronique A J; Freire, Raimundo

    2016-09-01

    DNA replication is both highly conserved and controlled. Problematic DNA replication can lead to genomic instability and therefore carcinogenesis. Numerous mechanisms work together to achieve this tight control and increasing evidence suggests that post-translational modifications (phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation) of DNA replication proteins play a pivotal role in this process. Here we discuss such modifications in the light of a recent article that describes a novel role for the deubiquitinase (DUB) USP7/HAUSP in the control of DNA replication. USP7 achieves this function by an unusual and novel mechanism, namely deubiquitination of SUMOylated proteins at the replication fork, making USP7 also a SUMO DUB (SDUB). This work extends previous observations of increased levels of SUMO and low levels of ubiquitin at the on-going replication fork. Here, we discuss this novel study, its contribution to the DNA replication and genomic stability field and what questions arise from this work.

  11. Proteasome-dependent degradation of replisome components regulates faithful DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseaulin, Laura C; Noguchi, Chiaki; Noguchi, Eishi

    2013-08-15

    The replication machinery, or the replisome, collides with a variety of obstacles during the normal process of DNA replication. In addition to damaged template DNA, numerous chromosome regions are considered to be difficult to replicate owing to the presence of DNA secondary structures and DNA-binding proteins. Under these conditions, the replication fork stalls, generating replication stress. Stalled forks are prone to collapse, posing serious threats to genomic integrity. It is generally thought that the replication checkpoint functions to stabilize the replisome and replication fork structure upon replication stress. This is important in order to allow DNA replication to resume once the problem is solved. However, our recent studies demonstrated that some replisome components undergo proteasome-dependent degradation during DNA replication in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our investigation has revealed the involvement of the SCF(Pof3) (Skp1-Cullin/Cdc53-F-box) ubiquitin ligase in replisome regulation. We also demonstrated that forced accumulation of the replisome components leads to abnormal DNA replication upon replication stress. Here we review these findings and present additional data indicating the importance of replisome degradation for DNA replication. Our studies suggest that cells activate an alternative pathway to degrade replisome components in order to preserve genomic integrity.

  12. Links between DNA Replication, Stem Cells and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vassilev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers can be categorized into two groups: those whose frequency increases with age, and those resulting from errors during mammalian development. The first group is linked to DNA replication through the accumulation of genetic mutations that occur during proliferation of developmentally acquired stem cells that give rise to and maintain tissues and organs. These mutations, which result from DNA replication errors as well as environmental insults, fall into two categories; cancer driver mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and genome destabilizing mutations that promote aneuploidy through excess genome duplication and chromatid missegregation. Increased genome instability results in accelerated clonal evolution leading to the appearance of more aggressive clones with increased drug resistance. The second group of cancers, termed germ cell neoplasia, results from the mislocation of pluripotent stem cells during early development. During normal development, pluripotent stem cells that originate in early embryos give rise to all of the cell lineages in the embryo and adult, but when they mislocate to ectopic sites, they produce tumors. Remarkably, pluripotent stem cells, like many cancer cells, depend on the Geminin protein to prevent excess DNA replication from triggering DNA damage-dependent apoptosis. This link between the control of DNA replication during early development and germ cell neoplasia reveals Geminin as a potential chemotherapeutic target in the eradication of cancer progenitor cells.

  13. Links between DNA Replication, Stem Cells and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L

    2017-01-25

    Cancers can be categorized into two groups: those whose frequency increases with age, and those resulting from errors during mammalian development. The first group is linked to DNA replication through the accumulation of genetic mutations that occur during proliferation of developmentally acquired stem cells that give rise to and maintain tissues and organs. These mutations, which result from DNA replication errors as well as environmental insults, fall into two categories; cancer driver mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and genome destabilizing mutations that promote aneuploidy through excess genome duplication and chromatid missegregation. Increased genome instability results in accelerated clonal evolution leading to the appearance of more aggressive clones with increased drug resistance. The second group of cancers, termed germ cell neoplasia, results from the mislocation of pluripotent stem cells during early development. During normal development, pluripotent stem cells that originate in early embryos give rise to all of the cell lineages in the embryo and adult, but when they mislocate to ectopic sites, they produce tumors. Remarkably, pluripotent stem cells, like many cancer cells, depend on the Geminin protein to prevent excess DNA replication from triggering DNA damage-dependent apoptosis. This link between the control of DNA replication during early development and germ cell neoplasia reveals Geminin as a potential chemotherapeutic target in the eradication of cancer progenitor cells.

  14. A role for the weak DnaA binding sites in bacterial replication origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    DnaA initiates the chromosomal DNA replication in nearly all bacteria, and replication origins are characterized by binding sites for the DnaA protein (DnaA-boxes) along with an ‘AT-rich’ region. However, great variation in number, spatial organization and specificity of DnaA-boxes is observed...... between species. In the study by Taylor et al. (2011), new and unexpectedly weak DnaA-boxes were identified within the Caulobacter crescentus origin of replication (Cori). The position of weak and stronger DnaA-boxes follows a pattern seen in Escherichia coli oriC. This raises the possibility...

  15. Involvement of DNA ligase III and ribonuclease H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhanen, Heini; Ushakov, Kathy; Yasukawa, Takehiro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis operates in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, but the factors involved in lagging strand synthesis are largely uncharacterised. We investigated the effect of knockdown of the candidate proteins in cultured human cells under conditions where mtDNA appears to replicate chiefly via coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis to restore the copy number of mtDNA to normal levels after transient mtDNA depletion. DNA ligase III knockdown attenuated the recovery of mtDNA copy number and appeared to cause single strand nicks in replicating mtDNA molecules, suggesting the involvement of DNA ligase III in Okazaki fragment ligation in human mitochondria. Knockdown of ribonuclease (RNase) H1 completely prevented the mtDNA copy number restoration, and replication intermediates with increased single strand nicks were readily observed. On the other hand, knockdown of neither flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) nor DNA2 affected mtDNA replication. These findings imply that RNase H1 is indispensable for the progression of mtDNA synthesis through removing RNA primers from Okazaki fragments. In the nucleus, Okazaki fragments are ligated by DNA ligase I, and the RNase H2 is involved in Okazaki fragment processing. This study thus proposes that the mitochondrial replication system utilises distinct proteins, DNA ligase III and RNase H1, for Okazaki fragment maturation.

  16. The Escherichia coli cryptic prophage protein YfdR binds to DnaA and initiation of chromosomal replication is inhibited by overexpression of the gene cluster yfdQ-yfdR-yfdS-yfdT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaunori eNoguchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The initiation of bacterial chromosomal replication is regulated by multiple pathways. To explore novel regulators, we isolated multicopy suppressors for the cold-sensitive hda-185 ΔsfiA(sulA mutant. Hda is crucial for the negative regulation of the initiator DnaA and the hda-185 mutation causes severe replication overinitiation at the replication origin oriC. The SOS-associated division inhibitor SfiA inhibits FtsZ ring formation, an essential step for cell division during the SOS response, and ΔsfiA enhances the cold sensitivity of hda-185 cells in colony formation. One of the suppressors comprised the yfdQ-yfdR-yfdS-yfdT gene cluster carried on a cryptic prophage. Increased copy numbers of yfdQRT or yfdQRS inhibited not only hda-185-dependent overinitiation, but also replication overinitiation in a hyperactive dnaA mutant, and in a mutant lacking an oriC-binding initiation-inhibitor SeqA. In addition, increasing the copy number of the gene set inhibited the growth of cells bearing specific, initiation-impairing dnaA mutations. In wild-type cells, multicopy supply of yfdQRT or yfdQRS also inhibited replication initiation and increased hydroxyurea (HU-resistance, as seen in cells lacking DiaA, a stimulator of DnaA assembly on oriC. Deletion of the yfdQ-yfdR-yfdS-yfdT genes did not affect either HU resistance or initiation regulation. Furthermore, we found that DnaA bound specifically to YfdR in soluble protein extracts oversupplied with YfdQRST. Purified YfdR also bound to DnaA, and DnaA Phe46, an amino acid residue crucial for DnaA interactions with DiaA and DnaB replicative helicase was important for this interaction. Consistently, YfdR moderately inhibited DiaA-DnaA and DnaB-DnaA interactions. In addition, protein extracts oversupplied with YfdQRST inhibited replication initiation in vitro. Given the roles of yfdQ and yfdS in cell tolerance to specific environmental stresses, the yfdQ-yfdR-yfdS-yfdT genes might downregulate the initiator

  17. Synthetic peptide inhibitors of DNA replication in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Kjelstrup, Susanne

    of clinically important pathogens and is essential for bacterial proliferation. The bacterial replication apparatus fulfill the requirements for a good drug target. The replisome of S. aureus consists of 5 different subunits (2, PolC2, 4, δ and δ`) who’s organization depends on multiple protein......-protein interactions. Centrally in the replisome is the -clamp where to multiple proteins binds through a conserved motif. We have identified the protein-protein interactions in the replisome of S. aureus by use of a bacterial two-hybrid system. A reverse bacterial two-hybrid system (R-BTH) based on Pyr......N (), DnaB and DnaX (). Three peptides identified as inhibitors of DnaN have been purified. Two of these peptides inhibited growth as well as DNA replication in S. aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the peptides was approximately 50 g/ml. Overexpression of DnaN reduced the inhibitory...

  18. Chromatin Dynamics During DNA Replication and Uncharacterized Replication Factors determined by Nascent Chromatin Capture (NCC) Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabert, Constance; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Lee, Sung-Bau; Kustatscher, Georg; Nakamura, Kyosuke; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Menard, Patrice; Mejlvang, Jakob; Rappsilber, Juri; Groth, Anja

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY To maintain genome function and stability, DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin must be duplicated during cell division. Understanding how entire chromosomes are copied remains a major challenge. Here, we use Nascent Chromatin Capture (NCC) to profile chromatin proteome dynamics during replication in human cells. NCC relies on biotin-dUTP labelling of replicating DNA, affinity-purification and quantitative proteomics. Comparing nascent chromatin with mature post-replicative chromatin, we provide association dynamics for 3995 proteins. The replication machinery and 485 chromatin factors like CAF-1, DNMT1, SUV39h1 are enriched in nascent chromatin, whereas 170 factors including histone H1, DNMT3, MBD1-3 and PRC1 show delayed association. This correlates with H4K5K12diAc removal and H3K9me1 accumulation, while H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 remain unchanged. Finally, we combine NCC enrichment with experimentally derived chromatin probabilities to predict a function in nascent chromatin for 93 uncharacterized proteins and identify FAM111A as a replication factor required for PCNA loading. Together, this provides an extensive resource to understand genome and epigenome maintenance. PMID:24561620

  19. DNA polymerase beta can substitute for DNA polymerase I in the initiation of plasmid DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mammalian DNA polymerase beta can substitute for DNA polymerase I of Escherichia coli in DNA replication and in base excision repair. We have now obtained genetic evidence suggesting that DNA polymerase beta can substitute for E. coli DNA polymerase I in the initiation of replication of a plasmid containing a pMB1 origin of DNA replication. Specifically, we demonstrate that a plasmid with a pMB1 origin of replication can be maintained in an E. coli polA mutant ...

  20. Role of preterminal protein processing in adenovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A; Leith, I R; Nicholson, J; Hounsell, J; Hay, R T

    1997-09-01

    Preterminal protein (pTP), the protein primer for adenovirus DNA replication, is processed at two sites by the virus-encoded protease to yield mature terminal protein (TP). Here we demonstrate that processing to TP, via an intermediate (iTP), is conserved in all serotypes sequenced to date; and in determining the sites cleaved in Ad4 pTP, we extend the previously published substrate specificity of human adenovirus proteases to include a glutamine residue at P4. Furthermore, using monoclonal antibodies raised against pTP, we show that processing to iTP and TP are temporally separated in the infectious cycle, with processing to iTP taking place outside the virus particles. In vitro and in vivo studies of viral DNA replication reveal that iTP can act as a template for initiation and elongation and argue against a role for virus-encoded protease in switching off DNA replication. Virus DNA with TP attached to its 5' end (TP-DNA) has been studied extensively in in vitro DNA replication assays. Given that in vivo pTP-DNA, not TP-DNA, is the template for all but the first round of replication, the two templates were compared in vitro and shown to have different properties. Immunofluorescence studies suggest that a region spanning the TP cleavage site is involved in defining the subnuclear localization of pTP. Therefore, a likely role for the processing of pTP-DNA is to create a distinct template for early transcription (TP-DNA), while the terminal protein moiety, be it TP or pTP, serves to guide the template to the appropriate subcellular location through the course of infection.

  1. Linking DNA replication to heterochromatin silencing and epigenetic inheritance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Li; Zhiguo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin is organized into distinct functional domains.During mitotic cell division,both genetic information encoded in DNA sequence and epigenetic information embedded in chromatin structure must be faithfully duplicated.The inheritance of epigenetic states is critical in maintaining the genome integrity and gene expression state.In this review,we will discuss recent progress on how proteins known to be involved in DNA replication and DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly impact on the inheritance and maintenance of heterochromatin,a tightly compact chromatin structure that silences gene transcription.As heterochromatin is important in regulating gene expression and maintaining genome stability,understanding how heterochromatin states are inherited during S phase of the cell cycle is of fundamental importance.

  2. Novel Mutant AAV2 Rep Proteins Support AAV2 Replication without Blocking HSV-1 Helpervirus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyffert, Michael; Glauser, Daniel L.; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; de Oliveira, Anna-Paula; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Vogt, Bernd; Büning, Hildegard; Linden, R. Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    As their names imply, parvoviruses of the genus Dependovirus rely for their efficient replication on the concurrent presence of a helpervirus, such as herpesvirus, adenovirus, or papilloma virus. Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is such an example, which in turn can efficiently inhibit the replication of each helpervirus by distinct mechanisms. In a previous study we have shown that expression of the AAV2 rep gene is not compatible with efficient replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In particular, the combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities of the Rep68/78 proteins have been shown to exert opposite effects on the replication of AAV2 and HSV-1. While essential for AAV2 DNA replication these protein activities account for the Rep-mediated inhibition of HSV-1 replication. Here, we describe a novel Rep mutant (Rep-D371Y), which displayed an unexpected phenotype. Rep-D371Y did not block HSV-1 replication, but still supported efficient AAV2 replication, at least when a double-stranded AAV2 genome template was used. We also found that the capacity of Rep-D371Y to induce apoptosis and a Rep-specific DNA damage response was significantly reduced compared to wild-type Rep. These findings suggest that AAV2 Rep-helicase subdomains exert diverging activities, which contribute to distinct steps of the AAV2 life cycle. More important, the novel AAV2 mutant Rep-D371Y may allow deciphering yet unsolved activities of the AAV2 Rep proteins such as DNA second-strand synthesis, genomic integration or packaging, which all involve the Rep-helicase activity. PMID:28125695

  3. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-08-13

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress.

  4. DnaA and ORC : more than DNA replication initiators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholefield, Graham; Veening, Jan-Willem; Murray, Heath

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in DNA replication initiator genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes lead to a pleiotropic array of phenotypes, including defects in chromosome segregation, cytokinesis, cell cycle regulation and gene expression. For years, it was not clear whether these diverse effects were indirect cons

  5. DnaA and ORC : more than DNA replication initiators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholefield, Graham; Veening, Jan-Willem; Murray, Heath

    Mutations in DNA replication initiator genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes lead to a pleiotropic array of phenotypes, including defects in chromosome segregation, cytokinesis, cell cycle regulation and gene expression. For years, it was not clear whether these diverse effects were indirect

  6. DnaA and ORC : more than DNA replication initiators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholefield, Graham; Veening, Jan-Willem; Murray, Heath

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in DNA replication initiator genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes lead to a pleiotropic array of phenotypes, including defects in chromosome segregation, cytokinesis, cell cycle regulation and gene expression. For years, it was not clear whether these diverse effects were indirect cons

  7. Fork rotation and DNA precatenation are restricted during DNA replication to prevent chromosomal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalbetter, Stephanie A; Mansoubi, Sahar; Chambers, Anna L; Downs, Jessica A; Baxter, Jonathan

    2015-08-18

    Faithful genome duplication and inheritance require the complete resolution of all intertwines within the parental DNA duplex. This is achieved by topoisomerase action ahead of the replication fork or by fork rotation and subsequent resolution of the DNA precatenation formed. Although fork rotation predominates at replication termination, in vitro studies have suggested that it also occurs frequently during elongation. However, the factors that influence fork rotation and how rotation and precatenation may influence other replication-associated processes are unknown. Here we analyze the causes and consequences of fork rotation in budding yeast. We find that fork rotation and precatenation preferentially occur in contexts that inhibit topoisomerase action ahead of the fork, including stable protein-DNA fragile sites and termination. However, generally, fork rotation and precatenation are actively inhibited by Timeless/Tof1 and Tipin/Csm3. In the absence of Tof1/Timeless, excessive fork rotation and precatenation cause extensive DNA damage following DNA replication. With Tof1, damage related to precatenation is focused on the fragile protein-DNA sites where fork rotation is induced. We conclude that although fork rotation and precatenation facilitate unwinding in hard-to-replicate contexts, they intrinsically disrupt normal chromosome duplication and are therefore restricted by Timeless/Tipin.

  8. Choreography of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Richardson, Charles C

    2011-10-01

    The replication system of phage T7 provides a model for DNA replication. Biochemical, structural, and single-molecule analyses together provide insight into replisome mechanics. A complex of polymerase, a processivity factor, and helicase mediates leading strand synthesis. Establishment of the complex requires an interaction of the C-terminal tail of the helicase with the polymerase. During synthesis the complex is stabilized by other interactions to provide for a processivity of 5 kilobase (kb). The C-terminal tail also interacts with a distinct region of the polymerase to captures dissociating polymerase to increase the processivity to >17kb. The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously within a loop that forms and resolves during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The synthesis of a primer as well as the termination of a fragment signal loop resolution.

  9. On the scattering of DNA replication completion times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilikhov, E. Z.; Farzetdinova, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Stochasticity of Eukaryotes' DNA replication should not lead to large fluctuations of replication times, which could result in mitotic catastrophes. Fundamental problem that cells face is how to be ensured that entire genome is replicated on time. We develop analytic approach of calculating DNA replication times, that being simplified and approximate, leads, nevertheless, to results practically coincident with those that were obtained by some sophisticated methods. In the framework of that model we consider replication times' scattering and discuss the influence of repair stopping on kinetics of DNA replication. Our main explicit formulae for DNA replication time t r ∝ ( N is the total number of DNA base pairs) is of general character and explains basic features of DNA replication kinetics.

  10. Replicative DNA polymerase mutations in cancer☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Ellen; Tomlinson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Three DNA polymerases — Pol α, Pol δ and Pol ɛ — are essential for DNA replication. After initiation of DNA synthesis by Pol α, Pol δ or Pol ɛ take over on the lagging and leading strand respectively. Pol δ and Pol ɛ perform the bulk of replication with very high fidelity, which is ensured by Watson–Crick base pairing and 3′exonuclease (proofreading) activity. Yeast models have shown that mutations in the exonuclease domain of Pol δ and Pol ɛ homologues can cause a mutator phenotype. Recently, we identified germline exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in human POLD1 and POLE that predispose to ‘polymerase proofreading associated polyposis’ (PPAP), a disease characterised by multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma, with high penetrance and dominant inheritance. Moreover, somatic EDMs in POLE have also been found in sporadic colorectal and endometrial cancers. Tumors with EDMs are microsatellite stable and show an ‘ultramutator’ phenotype, with a dramatic increase in base substitutions. PMID:24583393

  11. Preventing DNA over-replication: a Cdk perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Andrew CG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cell cycle is tightly controlled to ensure that replication origins fire only once per cycle and that consecutive S-phases are separated by mitosis. When controls fail, DNA over-replication ensues: individual origins fire more than once per S-phase (re-replication or consecutive S-phases occur without intervening mitoses (endoreduplication. In yeast the cell cycle is controlled by a single cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk that prevents origin licensing at times when it promotes origin firing, and that is inactivated, via proteolysis of its partner cyclin, as cells undergo mitosis. A quantitative model describes three levels of Cdk activity: low activity allows licensing, intermediate activity allows firing but prevents licensing, and high activity promotes mitosis. In higher eukaryotes the situation is complicated by the existence of additional proteins (geminin, Cul4-Ddb1Cdt2, and Emi1 that control licensing. A current challenge is to understand how these various control mechanisms are co-ordinated and why the degree of redundancy between them is so variable. Here the experimental induction of DNA over-replication is reviewed in the context of the quantitative model of Cdk action. Endoreduplication is viewed as a consequence of procedures that cause Cdk activity to fall below the threshold required to prevent licensing, and re-replication as the result of procedures that increase that threshold value. This may help to explain why over-replication does not necessarily require reduced Cdk activity and how different mechanisms conspire to prevent over-replication. Further work is nevertheless required to determine exactly how losing just one licensing control mechanism often causes over-replication, and why this varies between cell systems.

  12. DNA methyltransferases are required to induce heterochromatic re-replication in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume Stroud

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between epigenetic marks on chromatin and the regulation of DNA replication is poorly understood. Mutations of the H3K27 methyltransferase genes, Arabidopsis trithorax-related protein5 (ATXR5 and ATXR6, result in re-replication (repeated origin firing within the same cell cycle. Here we show that mutations that reduce DNA methylation act to suppress the re-replication phenotype of atxr5 atxr6 mutants. This suggests that DNA methylation, a mark enriched at the same heterochromatic regions that re-replicate in atxr5/6 mutants, is required for aberrant re-replication. In contrast, RNA sequencing analyses suggest that ATXR5/6 and DNA methylation cooperatively transcriptionally silence transposable elements (TEs. Hence our results suggest a complex relationship between ATXR5/6 and DNA methylation in the regulation of DNA replication and transcription of TEs.

  13. Transcriptional control of DNA replication licensing by Myc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovka, Taras; Schönfeld, Manuela; Raffeiner, Philipp; Breuker, Kathrin; Dunzendorfer-Matt, Theresia; Hartl, Markus; Bister, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    The c-myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor, a global regulator of fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of c-myc leads to tumorigenesis, and c-myc is an important driver in human cancer. Myc and its dimerization partner Max are bHLH-Zip DNA binding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Non-transcriptional functions have also been attributed to the Myc protein, notably direct interaction with the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) controlling the initiation of DNA replication. A key component of the pre-RC is the Cdt1 protein, an essential factor in origin licensing. Here we present data suggesting that the CDT1 gene is a transcriptional target of the Myc-Max complex. Expression of the CDT1 gene in v-myc-transformed cells directly correlates with myc expression. Also, human tumor cells with elevated c-myc expression display increased CDT1 expression. Occupation of the CDT1 promoter by Myc-Max is demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transactivation by Myc-Max is shown in reporter assays. Ectopic expression of CDT1 leads to cell transformation. Our results provide a possible direct mechanistic link of Myc's canonical function as a transcription factor to DNA replication. Furthermore, we suggest that aberrant transcriptional activation of CDT1 by deregulated myc alleles contributes to the genomic instabilities observed in tumor cells.

  14. Mammalian RAD52 Functions in Break-Induced Replication Repair of Collapsed DNA Replication Forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sotiriou, Sotirios K; Kamileri, Irene; Lugli, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Human cancers are characterized by the presence of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress (DRS), making them dependent on repair pathways such as break-induced replication (BIR) for damaged DNA replication forks. To better understand BIR, we performed a targeted siRNA screen for genes whose depl...

  15. The Escherichia coli Tus-Ter replication fork barrier causes site-specific DNA replication perturbation in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Sass, Ehud; Suski, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Replication fork (RF) pausing occurs at both 'programmed' sites and non-physiological barriers (for example, DNA adducts). Programmed RF pausing is required for site-specific DNA replication termination in Escherichia coli, and this process requires the binding of the polar terminator protein, Tus......, to specific DNA sequences called Ter. Here, we demonstrate that Tus-Ter modules also induce polar RF pausing when engineered into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. This heterologous RF barrier is distinct from a number of previously characterized, protein-mediated, RF pause sites in yeast, as it is neither...

  16. A dimeric Rep protein initiates replication of a linear archaeal virus genome: implications for the Rep mechanism and viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oke, Muse; Kerou, Melina; Liu, Huanting

    2011-01-01

    that a protein encoded in the 34-kbp genome of the rudivirus SIRV1 is a member of the replication initiator (Rep) superfamily of proteins, which initiate rolling-circle replication (RCR) of diverse viruses and plasmids. We show that SIRV Rep nicks the viral hairpin terminus, forming a covalent adduct between...... positioned active sites, each with a single tyrosine residue, work in tandem to catalyze DNA nicking and joining. We propose a novel mechanism for rudivirus DNA replication, incorporating the first known example of a Rep protein that is not linked to RCR. The implications for Rep protein function and viral...

  17. Regulation of the switch from early to late bacteriophage lambda DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, S; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, A; Konopa, G; Herman-Antosiewicz, A; Hernandez, P; Schvartzman, J B; Helinski, D R; Wegrzyn, G

    2001-03-01

    There are two modes of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication following infection of its host, Escherichia coli. Early after infection, replication occurs according to the theta (theta or circle-to-circle) mode, and is later switched to the sigma (sigma or rolling-circle) mode. It is not known how this switch, occurring at a specific time in the infection cycle, is regulated. Here it is demonstrated that in wild-type cells the replication starting from orilambda proceeds both bidirectionally and unidirectionally, whereas in bacteria devoid of a functional DnaA protein, replication from orilambda is predominantly unidirectional. The regulation of directionality of replication from orilambda is mediated by positive control of lambda p(R) promoter activity by DnaA, since the mode of replication of an artificial lambda replicon bearing the p(tet) promoter instead of p(R) was found to be independent of DnaA function. These findings and results of density-shift experiments suggest that in dnaA mutants infected with lambda, phage DNA replication proceeds predominantly according to the unidirectional theta mechanism and is switched early after infection to the sigma mode. It is proposed that in wild-type E. coli cells infected with lambda, phage DNA replication proceeds according to a bidirectional theta mechanism early after infection due to efficient transcriptional activation of orilambda, stimulated by the host DnaA protein. After a few rounds of this type of replication, the resulting increased copy number of lambda genomic DNA may cause a depletion of free DnaA protein because of its interaction with the multiple DnaA-binding sites in lambda DNA. It is proposed that this may lead to inefficient transcriptional activation of orilambda resulting in unidirectional theta replication followed by sigma type replication.

  18. DNA replication origin activation in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Ganier, Olivier; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    DNA replication begins with the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) at thousands of DNA replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. At the G1-S-phase transition, pre-RCs are converted into pre-initiation complexes, in which the replicative helicase is activated, leading to DNA unwinding and initiation of DNA synthesis. However, only a subset of origins are activated during any S phase. Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying this choice reveal how flexibility in origin usage and temporal activation are linked to chromosome structure and organization, cell growth and differentiation, and replication stress.

  19. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes.

  20. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes. So

  1. Geminin: a major DNA replication safeguard in higher eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melixetian, Marina; Helin, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved multiple mechanisms to restrict DNA replication to once per cell cycle. These mechanisms prevent relicensing of origins of replication after initiation of DNA replication in S phase until the end of mitosis. Most of our knowledge of mechanisms controlling prereplication...

  2. Geminin: a major DNA replication safeguard in higher eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melixetian, Marina; Helin, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved multiple mechanisms to restrict DNA replication to once per cell cycle. These mechanisms prevent relicensing of origins of replication after initiation of DNA replication in S phase until the end of mitosis. Most of our knowledge of mechanisms controlling prereplication...

  3. Prevention of DNA re-replication in eukaryotic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan N. Truong; Xiaohua Wu

    2011-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly regulated process involving a number of licensing and replication factors that function in a carefully orchestrated manner to faithfully replicate DNA during every cell cycle. Loss of proper licensing control leads to deregulated DNA replication including DNA re-replication, which can cause genome instability and tumorigenesis. Eukaryotic organisms have established several conserved mechanisms to prevent DNA re-replication and to counteract its potentially harmful effects. These mechanisms include tightly controlled regulation of licensing factors and activation of cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints.Deregulated licensing control and its associated compromised checkpoints have both been observed in tumor cells, indicating that proper functioning of these pathways is essential for maintaining genome stability. In this review, we discuss the regulatory mechanisms of licensing control, the deleterious consequences when both licensing and checkpoints are compromised, and present possible mechanisms to prevent re-replication in order to maintain genome stability.

  4. Conserved structural motifs at the C-terminus of baculovirus protein IE0 are important for its functions in transactivation and supporting hr5-mediated DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Neta; Lu, Liqun; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2012-05-01

    IE0 and IE1 are transactivator proteins of the most studied baculovirus, the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). IE0 is a 72.6 kDa protein identical to IE1 with the exception of its 54 N-terminal amino acid residues. To gain some insight about important structural motifs of IE0, we expressed the protein and C‑terminal mutants of it under the control of the Drosophila heat shock promoter and studied the transactivation and replication functions of the transiently expressed proteins. IE0 was able to promote replication of a plasmid bearing the hr5 origin of replication of AcMNPV in transient transfections with a battery of eight plasmids expressing the AcMNPV genes dnapol, helicase, lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, p35, ie-2 and lef-7. IE0 transactivated expression of the baculovirus 39K promoter. Both functions of replication and transactivation were lost after introduction of selected mutations at the basic domain II and helix-loop-helix conserved structural motifs in the C-terminus of the protein. These IE0 mutants were unable to translocate to the cell nucleus. Our results point out the important role of some structural conserved motifs to the proper functioning of IE0.

  5. Conserved Structural Motifs at the C-Terminus of Baculovirus Protein IE0 are Important for its Functions in Transactivation and Supporting hr5-mediated DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Luria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available IE0 and IE1 are transactivator proteins of the most studied baculovirus, the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV. IE0 is a 72.6 kDa protein identical to IE1 with the exception of its 54 N-terminal amino acid residues. To gain some insight about important structural motifs of IE0, we expressed the protein and C‑terminal mutants of it under the control of the Drosophila heat shock promoter and studied the transactivation and replication functions of the transiently expressed proteins. IE0 was able to promote replication of a plasmid bearing the hr5 origin of replication of AcMNPV in transient transfections with a battery of eight plasmids expressing the AcMNPV genes dnapol, helicase, lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, p35, ie-2 and lef-7. IE0 transactivated expression of the baculovirus 39K promoter. Both functions of replication and transactivation were lost after introduction of selected mutations at the basic domain II and helix-loop-helix conserved structural motifs in the C-terminus of the protein. These IE0 mutants were unable to translocate to the cell nucleus. Our results point out the important role of some structural conserved motifs to the proper functioning of IE0.

  6. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruta, Mayumi [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Shimada, Midori, E-mail: midorism@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle [Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, 26 rue d’Ulm, CNRS UMR 3244, 75248 ParisCedex 05 (France); Nakanishi, Makoto, E-mail: mkt-naka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.

  7. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

  8. A transcription and translation-coupled DNA replication system using rolling-circle replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Yoshihiro; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-05-27

    All living organisms have a genome replication system in which genomic DNA is replicated by a DNA polymerase translated from mRNA transcribed from the genome. The artificial reconstitution of this genome replication system is a great challenge in in vitro synthetic biology. In this study, we attempted to construct a transcription- and translation-coupled DNA replication (TTcDR) system using circular genomic DNA encoding phi29 DNA polymerase and a reconstituted transcription and translation system. In this system, phi29 DNA polymerase was translated from the genome and replicated the genome in a rolling-circle manner. When using a traditional translation system composition, almost no DNA replication was observed, because the tRNA and nucleoside triphosphates included in the translation system significantly inhibited DNA replication. To minimize these inhibitory effects, we optimized the composition of the TTcDR system and improved replication by approximately 100-fold. Using our system, genomic DNA was replicated up to 10 times in 12 hours at 30 °C. This system provides a step toward the in vitro construction of an artificial genome replication system, which is a prerequisite for the construction of an artificial cell.

  9. The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexiadis, V; Waldmann, T; Andersen, Jens S.

    2000-01-01

    The structure of chromatin regulates the genetic activity of the underlying DNA sequence. We report here that the protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK, which is involved in acute myelogenous leukemia, induces alterations of the superhelical density of DNA in chromatin. The change in topology...... is observed with chromatin but not with naked DNA and does not involve dissociation of core histones from chromatin. Moreover, these effects require histone H2A/H2B dimers in addition to histone H3/H4. We additionally tested whether the DEK protein affects DNA-utilizing processes and found that the DEK...

  10. DNA Damage Reduces the Quality, but Not the Quantity of Human Papillomavirus 16 E1 and E2 DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly L. Bristol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are causative agents in almost all cervical carcinomas. HPVs are also causative agents in head and neck cancer, the cases of which are increasing rapidly. Viral replication activates the DNA damage response (DDR pathway; associated proteins are recruited to replication foci, and this pathway may serve to allow for viral genome amplification. Likewise, HPV genome double-strand breaks (DSBs could be produced during replication and could lead to linearization and viral integration. Many studies have shown that viral integration into the host genome results in unregulated expression of the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, promoting HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Previously, we have demonstrated that DNA-damaging agents, such as etoposide, or knocking down viral replication partner proteins, such as topoisomerase II β binding protein I (TopBP1, does not reduce the level of DNA replication. Here, we investigated whether these treatments alter the quality of DNA replication by HPV16 E1 and E2. We confirm that knockdown of TopBP1 or treatment with etoposide does not reduce total levels of E1/E2-mediated DNA replication; however, the quality of replication is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate that E1 and E2 continue to replicate under genomically-stressed conditions and that this replication is mutagenic. This mutagenesis would promote the formation of substrates for integration of the viral genome into that of the host, a hallmark of cervical cancer.

  11. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Murray

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  12. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-10-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  13. A quantitative and high-throughput assay of human papillomavirus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, David; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Replication of the human papillomavirus (HPV) double-stranded DNA genome is accomplished by the two viral proteins E1 and E2 in concert with host DNA replication factors. HPV DNA replication is an established model of eukaryotic DNA replication and a potential target for antiviral therapy. Assays to measure the transient replication of HPV DNA in transfected cells have been developed, which rely on a plasmid carrying the viral origin of DNA replication (ori) together with expression vectors for E1 and E2. Replication of the ori-plasmid is typically measured by Southern blotting or PCR analysis of newly replicated DNA (i.e., DpnI digested DNA) several days post-transfection. Although extremely valuable, these assays have been difficult to perform in a high-throughput and quantitative manner. Here, we describe a modified version of the transient DNA replication assay that circumvents these limitations by incorporating a firefly luciferase expression cassette in cis of the ori. Replication of this ori-plasmid by E1 and E2 results in increased levels of firefly luciferase activity that can be accurately quantified and normalized to those of Renilla luciferase expressed from a control plasmid, thus obviating the need for DNA extraction, digestion, and analysis. We provide a detailed protocol for performing the HPV type 31 DNA replication assay in a 96-well plate format suitable for small-molecule screening and EC50 determinations. The quantitative and high-throughput nature of the assay should greatly facilitate the study of HPV DNA replication and the identification of inhibitors thereof.

  14. DNA-Protein Crosslink Proteolysis Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Bruno; Popovic, Marta; Ramadan, Kristijan

    2017-06-01

    Proteins that are covalently bound to DNA constitute a specific type of DNA lesion known as DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). DPCs represent physical obstacles to the progression of DNA replication. If not repaired, DPCs cause stalling of DNA replication forks that consequently leads to DNA double-strand breaks, the most cytotoxic DNA lesion. Although DPCs are common DNA lesions, the mechanism of DPC repair was unclear until now. Recent work unveiled that DPC repair is orchestrated by proteolysis performed by two distinct metalloproteases, SPARTAN in metazoans and Wss1 in yeast. This review summarizes recent discoveries on two proteases in DNA replication-coupled DPC repair and establishes DPC proteolysis repair as a separate DNA repair pathway for genome stability and protection from accelerated aging and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human ribonuclease H1 resolves R-loops and thereby enables progression of the DNA replication fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Shankar; Teasley, Daniel C; Murali, Bhavna; Jackson, Jessica; Vindigni, Alessandro; Stewart, Sheila A

    2017-09-15

    Faithful DNA replication is essential for genome stability. To ensure accurate replication, numerous complex and redundant replication and repair mechanisms function in tandem with the core replication proteins to ensure DNA replication continues even when replication challenges are present that could impede progression of the replication fork. A unique topological challenge to the replication machinery is posed by RNA-DNA hybrids, commonly referred to as R-loops. Although R-loops play important roles in gene expression and recombination at immunoglobulin sites, their persistence is thought to interfere with DNA replication by slowing or impeding replication fork progression. Therefore, it is of interest to identify DNA-associated enzymes that help resolve replication-impeding R-loops. Here, using DNA fiber analysis, we demonstrate that human ribonuclease H1 (RNH1) plays an important role in replication fork movement in the mammalian nucleus by resolving R-loops. We found that RNH1 depletion results in accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids, slowing of replication forks, and increased DNA damage. Our data uncovered a role for RNH1 in global DNA replication in the mammalian nucleus. Because accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids is linked to various human cancers and neurodegenerative disorders, our study raises the possibility that replication fork progression might be impeded, adding to increased genomic instability and contributing to disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Direct Visualization of DNA Replication Dynamics in Zebrafish Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2015-12-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication in the S-phase nucleus has been extensively studied in mammalian cells because it is tightly coupled with the regulation of other nuclear processes such as transcription. However, little is known about the replication dynamics in nonmammalian cells. Here, we analyzed the DNA replication processes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells through the direct visualization of replicating DNA in the nucleus and on DNA fiber molecules isolated from the nucleus. We found that zebrafish chromosomal DNA at the nuclear interior was replicated first, followed by replication of DNA at the nuclear periphery, which is reminiscent of the spatiotemporal regulation of mammalian DNA replication. However, the relative duration of interior DNA replication in zebrafish cells was longer compared to mammalian cells, possibly reflecting zebrafish-specific genomic organization. The rate of replication fork progression and ori-to-ori distance measured by the DNA combing technique were ∼ 1.4 kb/min and 100 kb, respectively, which are comparable to those in mammalian cells. To our knowledge, this is a first report that measures replication dynamics in zebrafish cells.

  17. Structural dynamics and ssDNA binding activity of the three N-terminal domains of the large subunit of Replication Protein A from small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretto, Dalyir I.; Tsutakawa, Susan; Brosey, Chris A.; Castillo, Amalchi; Chagot, Marie-Eve; Smith, Jarrod A.; Tainer, John A.; Chazin, Walter J.

    2010-03-11

    Replication Protein A (RPA) is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein utilized in diverse DNA transactions in the cell. RPA is a heterotrimeric protein with seven globular domains connected by flexible linkers, which enable substantial inter-domain motion that is essential to its function. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on two multi-domain constructs from the N-terminus of the large subunit (RPA70) were used to examine the structural dynamics of these domains and their response to the binding of ssDNA. The SAXS data combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal substantial interdomain flexibility for both RPA70AB (the tandem high affinity ssDNA binding domains A and B connected by a 10-residue linker) and RPA70NAB (RPA70AB extended by a 70-residue linker to the RPA70N protein interaction domain). Binding of ssDNA to RPA70NAB reduces the interdomain flexibility between the A and B domains, but has no effect on RPA70N. These studies provide the first direct measurements of changes in orientation of these three RPA domains upon binding ssDNA. The results support a model in which RPA70N remains structurally independent of RPA70AB in the DNA bound state and therefore freely available to serve as a protein recruitment module.

  18. A motif unique to the human DEAD-box protein DDX3 is important for nucleic acid binding, ATP hydrolysis, RNA/DNA unwinding and HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garbelli

    Full Text Available DEAD-box proteins are enzymes endowed with nucleic acid-dependent ATPase, RNA translocase and unwinding activities. The human DEAD-box protein DDX3 has been shown to play important roles in tumor proliferation and viral infections. In particular, DDX3 has been identified as an essential cofactor for HIV-1 replication. Here we characterized a set of DDX3 mutants biochemically with respect to nucleic acid binding, ATPase and helicase activity. In particular, we addressed the functional role of a unique insertion between motifs I and Ia of DDX3 and provide evidence for its implication in nucleic acid binding and HIV-1 replication. We show that human DDX3 lacking this domain binds HIV-1 RNA with lower affinity. Furthermore, a specific peptide ligand for this insertion selected by phage display interferes with HIV-1 replication after transduction into HelaP4 cells. Besides broadening our understanding of the structure-function relationships of this important protein, our results identify a specific domain of DDX3 which may be suited as target for antiviral drugs designed to inhibit cellular cofactors for HIV-1 replication.

  19. A motif unique to the human DEAD-box protein DDX3 is important for nucleic acid binding, ATP hydrolysis, RNA/DNA unwinding and HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbelli, Anna; Beermann, Sandra; Di Cicco, Giulia; Dietrich, Ursula; Maga, Giovanni

    2011-05-12

    DEAD-box proteins are enzymes endowed with nucleic acid-dependent ATPase, RNA translocase and unwinding activities. The human DEAD-box protein DDX3 has been shown to play important roles in tumor proliferation and viral infections. In particular, DDX3 has been identified as an essential cofactor for HIV-1 replication. Here we characterized a set of DDX3 mutants biochemically with respect to nucleic acid binding, ATPase and helicase activity. In particular, we addressed the functional role of a unique insertion between motifs I and Ia of DDX3 and provide evidence for its implication in nucleic acid binding and HIV-1 replication. We show that human DDX3 lacking this domain binds HIV-1 RNA with lower affinity. Furthermore, a specific peptide ligand for this insertion selected by phage display interferes with HIV-1 replication after transduction into HelaP4 cells. Besides broadening our understanding of the structure-function relationships of this important protein, our results identify a specific domain of DDX3 which may be suited as target for antiviral drugs designed to inhibit cellular cofactors for HIV-1 replication.

  20. Entanglement Swapping Model of DNA Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Pusuluk, Onur

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biology explains function of molecules by their geometric and electronic structures which are mainly determined by utilization of quantum effects in chemistry. However, further quantum effects are not thought to play any significant role in the essential processes of life. On the contrary, consideration of quantum circuits/protocols and organic molecules as software and hardware of living systems that are co-optimized during evolution, may be useful to pass over the difficulties raised by biochemical complexity and to understand the physics of life. In this sense, we model DNA replication with a reliable qubit representation of the nucleotides: 1) molecular recognition of a nucleotide is assumed to trigger an intrabase entanglement corresponding to a superposition of different tautomer forms and 2) pairing of complementary nucleotides is described by swapping intrabase entanglements with interbase entanglements. We examine possible realizations of quantum circuits/protocols to be used to obtain intr...

  1. DNA instability in replicating Huntington's disease lymphoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati Luigi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expanded CAG repeat in the Huntington's disease (HD gene may display tissue-specific variability (e.g. triplet mosaicism in repeat length, the longest mutations involving mitotic (germ and glial cells and postmitotic (neurons cells. What contributes to the triplet mutability underlying the development of HD nevertheless remains unknown. We investigated whether, besides the increased DNA instability documented in postmitotic neurons, possible environmental and genetic mechanisms, related to cell replication, may concur to determine CAG repeat mutability. To test this hypothesis we used, as a model, cultured HD patients' lymphoblasts with various CAG repeat lengths. Results Although most lymphoblastoid cell lines (88% showed little or no repeat instability even after six or more months culture, in lymphoblasts with large expansion repeats beyond 60 CAG repeats the mutation size and triplet mosaicism always increased during replication, implying that the repeat mutability for highly expanded mutations may quantitatively depend on the triplet expansion size. None of the investigated genetic factors, potentially acting in cis to the mutation, significantly influence the repeat changes. Finally, in our experiments certain drugs controlled triplet expansion in two prone-to-expand HD cell lines carrying large CAG mutations. Conclusion Our data support quantitative evidence that the inherited CAG length of expanded alleles has a major influence on somatic repeat variation. The longest triplet expansions show wide somatic variations and may offer a mechanistic model to study triplet drug-controlled instability and genetic factors influencing it.

  2. The Caulobacter crescentus chromosome replication origin evolved two classes of weak DnaA binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James A; Ouimet, Marie-Claude; Wargachuk, Richard; Marczynski, Gregory T

    2011-10-01

    The Caulobacter crescentus replication initiator DnaA and essential response regulator CtrA compete to control chromosome replication. The C. crescentus replication origin (Cori) contains five strong CtrA binding sites but only two apparent DnaA boxes, termed G-boxes (with a conserved second position G, TGATCCACA). Since clusters of DnaA boxes typify bacterial replication origins, this discrepancy suggested that C. crescentus DnaA recognizes different DNA sequences or compensates with novel DNA-binding proteins. We searched for novel DNA sites by scanning mutagenesis of the most conserved Cori DNA. Autonomous replication assays showed that G-boxes and novel W-boxes (TCCCCA) are essential for replication. Further analyses showed that C. crescentus DnaA binds G-boxes with moderate and W-boxes with very weak affinities significantly below DnaA's capacity for high-affinity Escherichia coli-boxes (TTATCCACA). Cori has five conserved W-boxes. Increasing W-box affinities increases or decreases autonomous replication depending on their strategic positions between the G-boxes. In vitro, CtrA binding displaces DnaA from proximal G-boxes and from distal W-boxes implying CtrA-DnaA competition and DnaA-DnaA cooperation between G-boxes and W-boxes. Similarly, during cell cycle progression, CtrA proteolysis coincides with DnaA binding to Cori. We also observe highly conserved W-boxes in other replication origins lacking E. coli-boxes. Therefore, strategically weak DnaA binding can be a general means of replication control. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. A novel type of replicative enzyme harbouring ATPase, primase and DNA polymerase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Georg; Röther, Susanne; Hart, Christina; Krauss, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Although DNA replication is a process common in all domains of life, primase and replicative DNA polymerase appear to have evolved independently in the bacterial domain versus the archaeal/eukaryal branch of life. Here, we report on a new type of replication protein that constitutes the first member of the DNA polymerase family E. The protein ORF904, encoded by the plasmid pRN1 from the thermoacidophile archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus, is a highly compact multifunctional enzyme with ATPase, primase and DNA polymerase activity. Recombinant purified ORF904 hydrolyses ATP in a DNA-dependent manner. Deoxynucleotides are preferentially used for the synthesis of primers ∼8 nucleotides long. The DNA polymerase activity of ORF904 synthesizes replication products of up to several thousand nucleotides in length. The primase and DNA polymerase activity are located in the N-terminal half of the protein, which does not show homology to any known DNA polymerase or primase. ORF904 constitutes a new type of replication enzyme, which could have evolved indepen dently from the eubacterial and archaeal/eukaryal proteins of DNA replication. PMID:12743045

  4. Control of helicase loading in the coupled DNA replication and recombination systems of bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, Amy M; Klein, Jenny A; Jordan, Christian S; Morrical, Scott W

    2014-01-31

    The Gp59 protein of bacteriophage T4 promotes DNA replication by loading the replicative helicase, Gp41, onto replication forks and recombination intermediates. Gp59 also blocks DNA synthesis by Gp43 polymerase until Gp41 is loaded, ensuring that synthesis is tightly coupled to unwinding. The distinct polymerase blocking and helicase loading activities of Gp59 likely involve different binding interactions with DNA and protein partners. Here, we investigate how interactions of Gp59 with DNA and Gp32, the T4 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, are related to these activities. A previously characterized mutant, Gp59-I87A, exhibits markedly reduced affinity for ssDNA and pseudo-fork DNA substrates. We demonstrate that on Gp32-covered ssDNA, the DNA binding defect of Gp59-I87A is not detrimental to helicase loading and translocation. In contrast, on pseudo-fork DNA the I87A mutation is detrimental to helicase loading and unwinding in the presence or absence of Gp32. Other results indicate that Gp32 binding to lagging strand ssDNA relieves the blockage of Gp43 polymerase activity by Gp59, whereas the inhibition of Gp43 exonuclease activity is maintained. Our findings suggest that Gp59-Gp32 and Gp59-DNA interactions perform separate but complementary roles in T4 DNA metabolism; Gp59-Gp32 interactions are needed to load Gp41 onto D-loops, and other nucleoprotein structures containing clusters of Gp32. Gp59-DNA interactions are needed to load Gp41 onto nascent or collapsed replication forks lacking clusters of Gp32 and to coordinate bidirectional replication from T4 origins. The dual functionalities of Gp59 allow it to promote the initiation or re-start of DNA replication from a wide variety of recombination and replication intermediates.

  5. Sulfolobus Replication Factor C stimulates the activity of DNA Polymerase B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Likui; Guo, Li;

    2014-01-01

    Replication factor C (RFC) is known to function in loading proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto primed DNA, allowing PCNA to tether DNA polymerase for highly processive DNA synthesis in eukaryotic and archaeal replication. In this report, we show that an RFC complex from...... with the ability of RFC to facilitate DNA binding by PolB1 through protein-protein interaction. These results suggest that Sulfolobus RFC may play a role in recruiting DNA polymerase for efficient primer extension, in addition to clamp loading, during DNA replication....... the hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Sulfolobus physically interacts with DNA polymerase B1 (PolB1) and enhances both the polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities of PolB1 in an ATP-independent manner. Stimulation of the PolB1 activity by RFC is independent of the ability of RFC to bind DNA but is consistent...

  6. Single molecule analysis of replicated DNA reveals the usage of multiple KSHV genome regions for latent replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C Verma

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, an etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, Body Cavity Based Lymphoma and Multicentric Castleman's Disease, establishes lifelong latency in infected cells. The KSHV genome tethers to the host chromosome with the help of a latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA. Additionally, LANA supports replication of the latent origins within the terminal repeats by recruiting cellular factors. Our previous studies identified and characterized another latent origin, which supported the replication of plasmids ex-vivo without LANA expression in trans. Therefore identification of an additional origin site prompted us to analyze the entire KSHV genome for replication initiation sites using single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD. Our results showed that replication of DNA can initiate throughout the KSHV genome and the usage of these regions is not conserved in two different KSHV strains investigated. SMARD also showed that the utilization of multiple replication initiation sites occurs across large regions of the genome rather than a specified sequence. The replication origin of the terminal repeats showed only a slight preference for their usage indicating that LANA dependent origin at the terminal repeats (TR plays only a limited role in genome duplication. Furthermore, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation for ORC2 and MCM3, which are part of the pre-replication initiation complex to determine the genomic sites where these proteins accumulate, to provide further characterization of potential replication initiation sites on the KSHV genome. The ChIP data confirmed accumulation of these pre-RC proteins at multiple genomic sites in a cell cycle dependent manner. Our data also show that both the frequency and the sites of replication initiation vary within the two KSHV genomes studied here, suggesting that initiation of replication is likely to be affected by the genomic context rather than the DNA

  7. Temporal order of evolution of DNA replication systems inferred by comparison of cellular and viral DNA polymerases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The core enzymes of the DNA replication systems show striking diversity among cellular life forms and more so among viruses. In particular, and counter-intuitively, given the central role of DNA in all cells and the mechanistic uniformity of replication, the core enzymes of the replication systems of bacteria and archaea (as well as eukaryotes are unrelated or extremely distantly related. Viruses and plasmids, in addition, possess at least two unique DNA replication systems, namely, the protein-primed and rolling circle modalities of replication. This unexpected diversity makes the origin and evolution of DNA replication systems a particularly challenging and intriguing problem in evolutionary biology. Results I propose a specific succession for the emergence of different DNA replication systems, drawing argument from the differences in their representation among viruses and other selfish replicating elements. In a striking pattern, the DNA replication systems of viruses infecting bacteria and eukaryotes are dominated by the archaeal-type B-family DNA polymerase (PolB whereas the bacterial replicative DNA polymerase (PolC is present only in a handful of bacteriophage genomes. There is no apparent mechanistic impediment to the involvement of the bacterial-type replication machinery in viral DNA replication. Therefore, I hypothesize that the observed, markedly unequal distribution of the replicative DNA polymerases among the known cellular and viral replication systems has a historical explanation. I propose that, among the two types of DNA replication machineries that are found in extant life forms, the archaeal-type, PolB-based system evolved first and had already given rise to a variety of diverse viruses and other selfish elements before the advent of the bacterial, PolC-based machinery. Conceivably, at that stage of evolution, the niches for DNA-viral reproduction have been already filled with viruses replicating with the

  8. Catalysis of Strand Annealing by Replication Protein A Derives from Its Strand Melting Properties*

    OpenAIRE

    Bartos, Jeremy D.; Willmott, Lyndsay J.; Binz, Sara K.; Wold, Marc S.; Bambara, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA-binding protein replication protein A (RPA) has a strand melting property that assists polymerases and helicases in resolving DNA secondary structures. Curiously, previous results suggested that human RPA (hRPA) promotes undesirable recombination by facilitating annealing of flaps produced transiently during DNA replication; however, the mechanism was not understood. We designed a series of substrates, representing displaced DNA flaps generated during ma...

  9. The beta subunit sliding DNA clamp is responsible for unassisted mutagenic translesion replication by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, G; Reuven, N B; Livneh, Z

    1998-11-24

    The replication of damaged nucleotides that have escaped DNA repair leads to the formation of mutations caused by misincorporation opposite the lesion. In Escherichia coli, this process is under tight regulation of the SOS stress response and is carried out by DNA polymerase III in a process that involves also the RecA, UmuD' and UmuC proteins. We have shown that DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is able to replicate, unassisted, through a synthetic abasic site in a gapped duplex plasmid. Here, we show that DNA polymerase III*, a subassembly of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme lacking the beta subunit, is blocked very effectively by the synthetic abasic site in the same DNA substrate. Addition of the beta subunit caused a dramatic increase of at least 28-fold in the ability of the polymerase to perform translesion replication, reaching 52% bypass in 5 min. When the ssDNA region in the gapped plasmid was extended from 22 nucleotides to 350 nucleotides, translesion replication still depended on the beta subunit, but it was reduced by 80%. DNA sequence analysis of translesion replication products revealed mostly -1 frameshifts. This mutation type is changed to base substitution by the addition of UmuD', UmuC, and RecA, as demonstrated in a reconstituted SOS translesion replication reaction. These results indicate that the beta subunit sliding DNA clamp is the major determinant in the ability of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme to perform unassisted translesion replication and that this unassisted bypass produces primarily frameshifts.

  10. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea;

    2015-01-01

    The MUS81 protein belongs to a conserved family of DNA structure-specific nucleases that play important roles in DNA replication and repair. Inactivation of the Mus81 gene in mice has no major deleterious consequences for embryonic development, although cancer susceptibility has been reported. We...... have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81...... is required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S-phase, and for recovery of productive replication following replication stalling. These results demonstrate essential roles for the MUS81 nuclease in maintenance of replication fork integrity....

  11. Regulation of DNA replication and chromosomal polyploidy by the MLL-WDR5-RBBP5 methyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Wu, Xiaojun; Yin, Feng; Chia-Fang Lee, Christina; Yu, Min; Mihaylov, Ivailo S.; Yu, Jiekai; Sun, Hong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA replication licensing occurs on chromatin, but how the chromatin template is regulated for replication remains mostly unclear. Here, we have analyzed the requirement of histone methyltransferases for a specific type of replication: the DNA re-replication induced by the downregulation of either Geminin, an inhibitor of replication licensing protein CDT1, or the CRL4CDT2 ubiquitin E3 ligase. We found that siRNA-mediated reduction of essential components of the MLL-WDR5-RBBP5 methyltransferase complexes including WDR5 or RBBP5, which transfer methyl groups to histone H3 at K4 (H3K4), suppressed DNA re-replication and chromosomal polyploidy. Reduction of WDR5/RBBP5 also prevented the activation of H2AX checkpoint caused by re-replication, but not by ultraviolet or X-ray irradiation; and the components of MLL complexes co-localized with the origin recognition complex (ORC) and MCM2-7 replicative helicase complexes at replication origins to control the levels of methylated H3K4. Downregulation of WDR5 or RBBP5 reduced the methylated H3K4 and suppressed the recruitment of MCM2-7 complexes onto replication origins. Our studies indicate that the MLL complexes and H3K4 methylation are required for DNA replication but not for DNA damage repair. PMID:27744293

  12. Single molecule analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DNA replication dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderano, Simone Guedes; Drosopoulos, William C; Quaresma, Marina Mônaco; Marques, Catarina A; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; McCulloch, Richard; Schildkraut, Carl L; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-03-11

    Eukaryotic genome duplication relies on origins of replication, distributed over multiple chromosomes, to initiate DNA replication. A recent genome-wide analysis of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, localized its replication origins to the boundaries of multigenic transcription units. To better understand genomic replication in this organism, we examined replication by single molecule analysis of replicated DNA. We determined the average speed of replication forks of procyclic and bloodstream form cells and we found that T. brucei DNA replication rate is similar to rates seen in other eukaryotes. We also analyzed the replication dynamics of a central region of chromosome 1 in procyclic forms. We present evidence for replication terminating within the central part of the chromosome and thus emanating from both sides, suggesting a previously unmapped origin toward the 5' extremity of chromosome 1. Also, termination is not at a fixed location in chromosome 1, but is rather variable. Importantly, we found a replication origin located near an ORC1/CDC6 binding site that is detected after replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting it may be a dormant origin activated in response to replicative stress. Collectively, our findings support the existence of more replication origins in T. brucei than previously appreciated.

  13. Assembly of alphavirus replication complexes from RNA and protein components in a novel trans-replication system in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuul, Pirjo; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Hellström, Kirsi; Golubtsov, Andrey V; Jokitalo, Eija; Ahola, Tero

    2011-05-01

    For positive-strand RNA viruses, the viral genomic RNA also acts as an mRNA directing the translation of the replicase proteins of the virus. Replication takes place in association with cytoplasmic membranes, which are heavily modified to create specific replication compartments. Here we have expressed by plasmid DNA transfection the large replicase polyprotein of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) in mammalian cells from a nonreplicating mRNA and provided a separate RNA containing the replication signals. The replicase proteins were able to efficiently and specifically replicate the template in trans, leading to accumulation of RNA and marker gene products expressed from the template RNA. The replicase proteins and double-stranded RNA replication intermediates localized to structures similar to those seen in SFV-infected cells. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) with fluorescent marker proteins to relocate those transfected cells, in which active replication was ongoing, abundant membrane modifications, representing the replication complex spherules, were observed both at the plasma membrane and in intracellular endolysosomes. Thus, replication complexes are faithfully assembled and localized in the trans-replication system. We demonstrated, using CLEM, that the replication proteins alone or a polymerase-negative polyprotein mutant together with the template did not give rise to spherule formation. Thus, the trans-replication system is suitable for cell biological dissection and examination in a mammalian cell environment, and similar systems may be possible for other positive-strand RNA viruses.

  14. Mechanism of replication machinery assembly as revealed by the DNA ligase-PCNA-DNA complex architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanagi, Kouta; Kiyonari, Shinichi; Saito, Mihoko; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-03-24

    The 3D structure of the ternary complex, consisting of DNA ligase, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp, and DNA, was investigated by single-particle analysis. This report presents the structural view, where the crescent-shaped DNA ligase with 3 distinct domains surrounds the central DNA duplex, encircled by the closed PCNA ring, thus forming a double-layer structure with dual contacts between the 2 proteins. The relative orientations of the DNA ligase domains, which remarkably differ from those of the known crystal structures, suggest that a large domain rearrangement occurs upon ternary complex formation. A second contact was found between the PCNA ring and the middle adenylation domain of the DNA ligase. Notably, the map revealed a substantial DNA tilt from the PCNA ring axis. This structure allows us to propose a switching mechanism for the replication factors operating on the PCNA ring.

  15. Inhibition of human Chk1 causes increased initiation of DNA replication, phosphorylation of ATR targets, and DNA breakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syljuåsen, Randi G; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg

    2005-01-01

    by increased amounts of nonextractable RPA protein, formation of single-stranded DNA, and induction of DNA strand breaks. Moreover, these responses were prevented by siRNA-mediated downregulation of Cdk2 or the replication initiation protein Cdc45, or by addition of the CDK inhibitor roscovitine. We propose...

  16. Top2 and Sgs1-Top3 Act Redundantly to Ensure rDNA Replication Termination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla Mundbjerg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Faithful DNA replication with correct termination is essential for genome stability and transmission of genetic information. Here we have investigated the potential roles of Topoisomerase II (Top2 and the RecQ helicase Sgs1 during late stages of replication. We find that cells lacking Top2 and Sgs1 (or Top3 display two different characteristics during late S/G2 phase, checkpoint activation and accumulation of asymmetric X-structures, which are both independent of homologous recombination. Our data demonstrate that checkpoint activation is caused by a DNA structure formed at the strongest rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB during replication termination, and consistently, checkpoint activation is dependent on the RFB binding protein, Fob1. In contrast, asymmetric X-structures are formed independent of Fob1 at less strong rDNA replication fork barriers. However, both checkpoint activation and formation of asymmetric X-structures are sensitive to conditions, which facilitate fork merging and progression of replication forks through replication fork barriers. Our data are consistent with a redundant role of Top2 and Sgs1 together with Top3 (Sgs1-Top3 in replication fork merging at rDNA barriers. At RFB either Top2 or Sgs1-Top3 is essential to prevent formation of a checkpoint activating DNA structure during termination, but at less strong rDNA barriers absence of the enzymes merely delays replication fork merging, causing an accumulation of asymmetric termination structures, which are solved over time.

  17. Anaphase onset before complete DNA replication with intact checkpoint responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Rosell, Jordi; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Cordon-Preciado, Violeta

    2007-01-01

    Cellular checkpoints prevent mitosis in the presence of stalled replication forks. Whether checkpoints also ensure the completion of DNA replication before mitosis is unknown. Here, we show that in yeast smc5-smc6 mutants, which are related to cohesin and condensin, replication is delayed, most...

  18. Rational design of human DNA ligase inhibitors that target cellular DNA replication and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhong, Shijun; Zhu, Xiao; Dziegielewska, Barbara; Ellenberger, Tom; Wilson, Gerald M; MacKerell, Alexander D; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2008-05-01

    Based on the crystal structure of human DNA ligase I complexed with nicked DNA, computer-aided drug design was used to identify compounds in a database of 1.5 million commercially available low molecular weight chemicals that were predicted to bind to a DNA-binding pocket within the DNA-binding domain of DNA ligase I, thereby inhibiting DNA joining. Ten of 192 candidates specifically inhibited purified human DNA ligase I. Notably, a subset of these compounds was also active against the other human DNA ligases. Three compounds that differed in their specificity for the three human DNA ligases were analyzed further. L82 inhibited DNA ligase I, L67 inhibited DNA ligases I and III, and L189 inhibited DNA ligases I, III, and IV in DNA joining assays with purified proteins and in cell extract assays of DNA replication, base excision repair, and nonhomologous end-joining. L67 and L189 are simple competitive inhibitors with respect to nicked DNA, whereas L82 is an uncompetitive inhibitor that stabilized complex formation between DNA ligase I and nicked DNA. In cell culture assays, L82 was cytostatic whereas L67 and L189 were cytotoxic. Concordant with their ability to inhibit DNA repair in vitro, subtoxic concentrations of L67 and L189 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents. Interestingly, the ligase inhibitors specifically sensitized cancer cells to DNA damage. Thus, these novel human DNA ligase inhibitors will not only provide insights into the cellular function of these enzymes but also serve as lead compounds for the development of anticancer agents.

  19. Opposing Roles for Two Molecular Forms of Replication Protein A in Rad51-Rad54-Mediated DNA Recombination in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial RecA protein and its eukaryotic homologue Rad51 play a central role in the homologous DNA strand exchange reaction during recombination and DNA repair. Previously, our lab has shown that PfRad51, the Plasmodium falciparum homologue of Rad51, exhibited ATPase activity and promoted DNA strand exchange in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the catalytic functions of PfRad51 in the presence of putative interacting partners, especially P. falciparum homologues of Rad54 and r...

  20. Eukaryotic Mismatch Repair in Relation to DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A; Erie, Dorothy A

    2015-01-01

    Three processes act in series to accurately replicate the eukaryotic nuclear genome. The major replicative DNA polymerases strongly prevent mismatch formation, occasional mismatches that do form are proofread during replication, and rare mismatches that escape proofreading are corrected by mismatch repair (MMR). This review focuses on MMR in light of increasing knowledge about nuclear DNA replication enzymology and the rate and specificity with which mismatches are generated during leading- and lagging-strand replication. We consider differences in MMR efficiency in relation to mismatch recognition, signaling to direct MMR to the nascent strand, mismatch removal, and the timing of MMR. These studies are refining our understanding of relationships between generating and repairing replication errors to achieve accurate replication of both DNA strands of the nuclear genome.

  1. Nutritional Control of DNA Replication Initiation through the Proteolysis and Regulated Translation of DnaA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Leslie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria can arrest their own growth and proliferation upon nutrient depletion and under various stressful conditions to ensure their survival. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppressing growth and arresting the cell cycle under such conditions remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify post-transcriptional mechanisms that help enforce a cell-cycle arrest in Caulobacter crescentus following nutrient limitation and during entry into stationary phase by limiting the accumulation of DnaA, the conserved replication initiator protein. DnaA is rapidly degraded by the Lon protease following nutrient limitation. However, the rate of DnaA degradation is not significantly altered by changes in nutrient availability. Instead, we demonstrate that decreased nutrient availability downregulates dnaA translation by a mechanism involving the 5' untranslated leader region of the dnaA transcript; Lon-dependent proteolysis of DnaA then outpaces synthesis, leading to the elimination of DnaA and the arrest of DNA replication. Our results demonstrate how regulated translation and constitutive degradation provide cells a means of precisely and rapidly modulating the concentration of key regulatory proteins in response to environmental inputs.

  2. Replication stress activates DNA repair synthesis in mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Ying, Songmin; Bjerregaard, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    mitosis serves as the trigger for completion of DNA replication at CFS loci in human cells. Given that this POLD3-dependent mitotic DNA synthesis is enhanced in aneuploid cancer cells that exhibit intrinsically high levels of chromosomal instability (CIN(+)) and replicative stress, we suggest...

  3. Differential association with cellular substructures of pseudorabies virus DNA during early and late phases of replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Porat, T.; Veach, R.A.; Blankenship, M.L.; Kaplan, A.S.

    1984-12-01

    Pseudorabies virus DNA synthesis can be divided into two phases, early and late, which can be distinguished from each other on the basis of the structures of the replicating DNA. The two types of replicating virus DNA can also be distinguished from each other on the basis of the cellular substructures with which each is associated. Analysis by electron microscopic autoradiography showed that during the first round of replication, nascent virus DNA was found in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane; during later rounds of replication the nascent virus DNA was located centrally within the nucleus. The degree of association of virus DNA synthesized at early and late phases with the nuclear matrix fractions also differed; a larger proportion of late than of early nascent virus DNA was associated with this fraction. While nascent cellular DNA only was associated in significant amounts with the nuclear matrix fraction, a large part (up to 40%) of all the virus DNA remained associated with this fraction. However, no retention of specific virus proteins in this fraction was observed. Except for two virus proteins, which were preferentially extracted from the nuclear matrix, approximately 20% of all virus proteins remained in the nuclear matrix fraction. The large proportion of virus DNA associated with the nuclear fraction indicated that virus DNA may be intimately associated with some proteins.

  4. AcMNPV As A Model for Baculovirus DNA Replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric B. Carstens

    2009-01-01

    Baculoviruses were first identified as insect-specific pathogens, and it was this specificity that lead to their use as safe, target specific biological pesticides. For the past 30 years, AcMNPV has served as the subject of intense basic molecular research into the baculovirus infectious cycle including the interaction of the virus with a continuous insect cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda. The studies on baculoviruese have led to an in-depth understanding of the physical organization of the viral genomes including many complete genomic sequences, the time course of gene expression, and the application of this basic research to the use of baculoviruses not only as insecticides, but also as a universal eukaryotic protein expression system, and a potential vector in gene therapy. A great deal has also been discovered about the viral genes required for the replication of the baculovirus genome, while much remains to be learned about the mechanism of viral DNA replication. This report outlines the current knowledge of the factors involved in baculovirus DNA replication, using data on AcMNPV as a model for most members of the Baculoviridae.

  5. The transcription elongation factor Bur1-Bur2 interacts with replication protein A and maintains genome stability during replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausing, Emanuel; Mayer, Andreas; Chanarat, Sittinan

    2010-01-01

    foci. Interestingly, the DNA damage sensitivity of an rfa1 mutant was suppressed by bur1 mutation, further underscoring a functional link between these two protein complexes. The transcription elongation factor Bur1-Bur2 interacts with RPA and maintains genome integrity during DNA replication stress....

  6. Phosphorylation of the PCNA binding domain of the large subunit of replication factor C by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibits DNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maga, G; Mossi, R; Fischer, R

    1997-01-01

    that the PCNA binding domain is phosphorylated by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), an enzyme required for cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The DNA binding domain, on the other hand, is not phosphorylated. Phosphorylation by CaMKII reduces the binding of PCNA to RF...

  7. Platinum nanoparticles induce damage to DNA and inhibit DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Moulick, Amitava; Hegerova, Dagmar; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Gumulec, Jaromir; Cihalova, Kristyna; Smerkova, Kristyna; Dostalova, Simona; Krizkova, Sona; Novotna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Sparsely tested group of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) may have a comparable effect as complex platinum compounds. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of PtNPs in in vitro amplification of DNA fragment of phage λ, on the bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus), human foreskin fibroblasts and erythrocytes. In vitro synthesized PtNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (PtNPs size range 4.8–11.7 nm), zeta potential measurements (-15 mV at pH 7.4), X-ray fluorescence, UV/vis spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The PtNPs inhibited the DNA replication and affected the secondary structure of DNA at higher concentrations, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and DNA denaturation experiments. Further, cisplatin (CisPt), as traditional chemotherapy agent, was used in all parallel experiments. Moreover, the encapsulation of PtNPs in liposomes (LipoPtNPs) caused an approximately 2.4x higher of DNA damage in comparison with CisPt, LipoCisPt and PtNPs. The encapsulation of PtNPs in liposomes also increased their antibacterial, cytostatic and cytotoxic effect, which was determined by the method of growth curves on S. aureus and HFF cells. In addition, both the bare and encapsulated PtNPs caused lower oxidative stress (determined by GSH/GSSG ratio) in the human erythrocytes compared to the bare and encapsulated CisPt. CisPt was used in all parallel experiments as traditional chemotherapy agent. PMID:28704436

  8. Multiple genetic pathways for restarting DNA replication forks in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, S J

    2000-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the primosome assembly proteins, PriA, PriB, PriC, DnaT, DnaC, DnaB, and DnaG, are thought to help to restart DNA replication forks at recombinational intermediates. Redundant functions between priB and priC and synthetic lethality between priA2::kan and rep3 mutations raise the possibility that there may be multiple pathways for restarting replication forks in vivo. Herein, it is shown that priA2::kan causes synthetic lethality when placed in combination with either Delt...

  9. The structure of a DnaA/HobA complex from Helicobacter pylori provides insight into regulation of DNA replication in bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Natrajan, Ganesh; Noirot-Gros, Marie Francoise; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Kapp, Ulrike; Terradot, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial DNA replication requires DnaA, an AAA+ ATPase that initiates replication at a specific chromosome region, oriC, and is regulated by species-specific regulators that directly bind DnaA. HobA is a DnaA binding protein, recently identified as an essential regulator of DNA replication in Helicobacter pylori. We report the crystal structure of HobA in complex with domains I and II of DnaA (DnaAI–II) from H. pylori, the first structure of DnaA bound to one of its regulators. Biochemical c...

  10. Tus-Ter as a tool to study site-specific DNA replication perturbation in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Hickson, Ian D; Mankouri, Hocine W

    2014-01-01

    The high-affinity binding of the Tus protein to specific 21-bp sequences, called Ter, causes site-specific, and polar, DNA replication fork arrest in E coli. The Tus-Ter complex serves to coordinate DNA replication with chromosome segregation in this organism. A number of recent and ongoing studies...... have demonstrated that Tus-Ter can be used as a heterologous tool to generate site-specific perturbation of DNA replication when reconstituted in eukaryotes. Here, we review these recent findings and explore the molecular mechanism by which Tus-Ter mediates replication fork (RF) arrest in the budding...... yeast, S. cerevisiae. We propose that Tus-Ter is a versatile, genetically tractable, and regulatable RF blocking system that can be utilized for disrupting DNA replication in a diverse range of host cells....

  11. The hunt for origins of DNA replication in multicellular eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, J. M.; Foulk, M. S.; Casella, Cinzia;

    2015-01-01

    Origins of DNA replication (ORIs) occur at defined regions in the genome. Although DNA sequence defines the position of ORIs in budding yeast, the factors for ORI specification remain elusive in metazoa. Several methods have been used recently to map ORIs in metazoan genomes with the hope...... that features for ORI specification might emerge. These methods are reviewed here with analysis of their advantages and shortcomings. The various factors that may influence ORI selection for initiation of DNA replication are discussed....

  12. The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability. PMID:22426535

  13. Protein-DNA complexes: specificity and DNA readout mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shestopalova A. V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein-nucleic acid recognition is essential in a number of cellular processes, in particular, gene regulation, DNA replication and compaction. Studies on the recognition mechanisms show that DNA sequence carries information which is read out by proteins that selectively bind to specific DNA sites. The review is focused on the processes taking place during formation of specific and nonspecific complexes of proteins and DNA. Special attention is paid to direct and indirect mechanisms of sequence-specific recognition. Several examples of protein-nucleic acid complexes are given to illustrate the variety of recognition mechanisms

  14. Analysis of unassisted translesion replication by the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, G; Livneh, Z

    1999-05-01

    DNA damage-induced mutations are formed when damaged nucleotides present in single-stranded DNA are replicated. We have developed a new method for the preparation of gapped plasmids containing site-specific damaged nucleotides, as model DNA substrates for translesion replication. Using these substrates, we show that the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme from Escherichia coli can bypass a synthetic abasic site analogue with high efficiency (30% bypass in 16 min), unassisted by other proteins. The theta and tau subunits of the polymerase were not essential for bypass. No bypass was observed when the enzyme was assayed on a synthetic 60-mer oligonucleotide carrying the same lesion, and bypass on a linear gapped plasmid was 3-4-fold slower than on a circular gapped plasmid. There was no difference in the bypass when standing-start and running-start replication were compared. A comparison of translesion replication by DNA polymerase I, DNA polymerase II, the DNA polymerase III core, and the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme clearly showed that the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme was by far the most effective in performing translesion replication. This was not only due to the high processivity of the pol III holoenzyme, because increasing the processivity of pol II by adding the gamma complex and beta subunit, did not increase bypass. These results support the model that SOS regulation was imposed on a fundamentally constitutive translesion replication reaction to achieve tight control of mutagenesis.

  15. RAD52 Facilitates Mitotic DNA Synthesis Following Replication Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmick, Rahul; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Hickson, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is necessary to counteract DNA replication stress. Common fragile site (CFS) loci are particularly sensitive to replication stress and undergo pathological rearrangements in tumors. At these loci, replication stress frequently activates DNA repair synthesis in mitosis....... This mitotic DNA synthesis, termed MiDAS, requires the MUS81-EME1 endonuclease and a non-catalytic subunit of the Pol-delta complex, POLD3. Here, we examine the contribution of HR factors in promoting MiDAS in human cells. We report that RAD51 and BRCA2 are dispensable for MiDAS but are required to counteract...

  16. A Role of hIPI3 in DNA Replication Licensing in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yining; Amin, Aftab; Qin, Yan; Wang, Ziyi; Jiang, Huadong; Liang, Lu; Shi, Linjing; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Ipi3p is required for DNA replication and cell viability in Sacharomyces cerevisiae. It is an essential component of the Rix1 complex (Rix1p/Ipi2p-Ipi1p-Ipi3p) that is required for the processing of 35S pre-rRNA in pre-60S ribosomal particles and for the initiation of DNA replication. The human IPI3 homolog is WDR18 (WD repeat domain 18), which shares significant homology with yIpi3p. Here we report that knockdown of hIPI3 resulted in substantial defects in the chromatin association of the MCM complex, DNA replication, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Importantly, hIPI3 silencing did not result in a reduction of the protein level of hCDC6, hMCM7, or the ectopically expressed GFP protein, indicating that protein synthesis was not defective in the same time frame of the DNA replication and cell cycle defects. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of hIPI3 fluctuate in the cell cycle, with the highest levels from M phase to early G1 phase, similar to other pre-replicative (pre-RC) proteins. Moreover, hIPI3 interacts with other replication-initiation proteins, co-localizes with hMCM7 in the nucleus, and is important for the nuclear localization of hMCM7. We also found that hIPI3 preferentially binds to the origins of DNA replication including those at the c-Myc, Lamin-B2 and β-Globin loci. These results indicate that hIPI3 is involved in human DNA replication licensing independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis.

  17. p53-Mediated Cellular Response to DNA Damage in Cells with Replicative Hepatitis B Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puisieux, Alain; Ji, Jingwei; Guillot, Celine; Legros, Yann; Soussi, Thierry; Isselbacher, Kurt; Ozturk, Mehmet

    1995-02-01

    Wild-type p53 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by protecting cells from deleterious effects of genotoxic agents through the induction of a G_1/S arrest or apoptosis as a response to DNA damage. Transforming proteins of several oncogenic DNA viruses inactivate tumor suppressor activity of p53 by blocking this cellular response. To test whether hepatitis B virus displays a similar effect, we studied the p53-mediated cellular response to DNA damage in 2215 hepatoma cells with replicative hepatitis B virus. We demonstrate that hepatitis B virus replication does not interfere with known cellular functions of p53 protein.

  18. Single-molecule analysis of DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B; van Oijen, Antoine M; Walter, Johannes C

    2012-06-01

    The recent advent in single-molecule imaging and manipulation methods has made a significant impact on the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying many essential cellular processes. Single-molecule techniques such as electron microscopy and DNA fiber assays have been employed to study the duplication of genome in eukaryotes. Here, we describe a single-molecule assay that allows replication of DNA attached to the functionalized surface of a microfluidic flow cell in a soluble Xenopus leavis egg extract replication system and subsequent visualization of replication products via fluorescence microscopy. We also explain a method for detection of replication proteins, through fluorescently labeled antibodies, on partially replicated DNA immobilized at both ends to the surface.

  19. Alpha interferon-induced antiviral response noncytolytically reduces replication defective adenovirus DNA in MDBK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Tianlun; Guo, Haitao; Block, Timothy M

    2007-12-01

    Although alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) is of benefit in the treatment of viral hepatitis B, HBV replication has been refractory to the cytokine in commonly used hepatocyte-derived cell lines. In search for a cell culture system to study the mechanism by which IFN-alpha inhibits HBV replication, we infected a variety of cell lines with an adenoviral vector containing a replication competent 1.3-fold genome length HBV DNA (AdHBV) and followed by incubation with IFN-alpha. We found that IFN-alpha efficiently decreased the level of HBV DNA replicative intermediates in AdHBV infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Further analysis revealed, surprisingly, that IFN-alpha did not directly inhibit HBV replication, rather the amount of adenovirus DNA in the nuclei of MDBK cells was reduced. As a consequence, HBV RNA transcription and DNA replication were inhibited. Experiments with adenoviral vector expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) further supported the notion that IFN-alpha treatment noncytolytically eliminated adenovirus DNA, but did not kill the vector infected MDBK cells. Our data suggest that IFN-alpha-induced antiviral program is able to discriminate host cellular DNA from episomal viral DNA and might represent a novel pathway of interferon mediate innate defense against DNA virus infections.

  20. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea

    2015-01-01

    The MUS81 protein belongs to a conserved family of DNA structure-specific nucleases that play important roles in DNA replication and repair. Inactivation of the Mus81 gene in mice has no major deleterious consequences for embryonic development, although cancer susceptibility has been reported. We...

  1. Dynamics of DNA replication loops reveal temporal control of lagging-strand synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdan, Samir M.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Takahashi, Masateru; Richardson, Charles C.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    In all organisms, the protein machinery responsible for the replication of DNA, the replisome, is faced with a directionality problem. The antiparallel nature of duplex DNA permits the leading-strand polymerase to advance in a continuous fashion, but forces the lagging-strand polymerase to

  2. Intracellular dynamics of archaeal FANCM homologue Hef in response to halted DNA replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestini, R.; Laptenok, S.P.; Kühn, J.; Hink, M.A.; Schanne-Klein, M.C.; Liebl, U.; Myllykallio, H.

    2013-01-01

    Hef is an archaeal member of the DNA repair endonuclease XPF (XPF)/Crossover junction endonuclease MUS81 (MUS81)/Fanconi anemia, complementation group M (FANCM) protein family that in eukaryotes participates in the restart of stalled DNA replication forks. To investigate the physiological roles of H

  3. Dynamics of DNA replication loops reveal temporal control of lagging-strand synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdan, Samir M.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Takahashi, Masateru; Richardson, Charles C.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    In all organisms, the protein machinery responsible for the replication of DNA, the replisome, is faced with a directionality problem. The antiparallel nature of duplex DNA permits the leading-strand polymerase to advance in a continuous fashion, but forces the lagging-strand polymerase to synthesiz

  4. Epigenetic control of DNA replication dynamics in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Delucchi, Corella Susana

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critically important processes in any living organism, essential for development and reproduction, is that of the accurate replication of its genome before each cell division. The process of DNA replication can take place millions of times in a single organism and any mistake, if left unrepaired, is potentially transmitted into the next generation. Errors during replication can result in genetic mutations or karyotype aberrations, both of which can lead to disease or death. ...

  5. Cellular DNA ligase I is recruited to cytoplasmic vaccinia virus factories and masks the role of the vaccinia ligase in viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paran, Nir; De Silva, Frank S; Senkevich, Tatiana G; Moss, Bernard

    2009-12-17

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes DNA polymerase and additional proteins that enable cytoplasmic replication. We confirmed the ability of VACV DNA ligase mutants to replicate and tested the hypothesis that cellular ligases compensate for loss of viral gene expression. RNA silencing of human DNA ligase I expression and a small molecule inhibitor of human DNA ligase I [corrected] severely reduced replication of viral DNA in cells infected with VACV ligase-deficient mutants, indicating that the cellular enzyme plays a complementary role. Replication of ligase-deficient VACV was greatly reduced and delayed in resting primary cells, correlating with initial low levels of ligase I and subsequent viral induction and localization of ligase I in virus factories. These studies indicate that DNA ligation is essential for poxvirus replication and explain the ability of ligase deletion mutants to replicate in dividing cells but exhibit decreased pathogenicity in mice. Encoding its own ligase might allow VACV to "jump-start" DNA synthesis.

  6. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by manufactured DNA nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Youngkwon; Shin, Jihoon; Seo, Soonbeom; Park, Sung Ha; Ahn, Joung Real

    2015-03-01

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  7. Interaction of Ddc1 and RPA with single-stranded/double-stranded DNA junctions in yeast whole cell extracts: Proteolytic degradation of the large subunit of replication protein A in ddc1Δ strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Maria V; D'Herin, Claudine; Boiteux, Serge; Lavrik, Olga I

    2014-10-01

    To characterize proteins that interact with single-stranded/double-stranded (ss/ds) DNA junctions in whole cell free extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we used [(32)P]-labeled photoreactive partial DNA duplexes containing a 3'-ss/ds-junction (3'-junction) or a 5'-ss/ds-junction (5'-junction). Identification of labeled proteins was achieved by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting and genetic analysis. In wild-type extract, one of the components of the Ddc1-Rad17-Mec3 complex, Ddc1, was found to be preferentially photocrosslinked at a 3'-junction. On the other hand, RPAp70, the large subunit of the replication protein A (RPA), was the predominant crosslinking product at a 5'-junction. Interestingly, ddc1Δ extracts did not display photocrosslinking of RPAp70 at a 5'-junction. The results show that RPAp70 crosslinked to DNA with a 5'-junction is subject to limited proteolysis in ddc1Δ extracts, whereas it is stable in WT, rad17Δ, mec3Δ and mec1Δ extracts. The degradation of the RPAp70-DNA adduct in ddc1Δ extract is strongly reduced in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG 132. We also addressed the question of the stability of free RPA, using anti-RPA antibodies. The results show that RPAp70 is also subject to proteolysis without photocrosslinking to DNA upon incubation in ddc1Δ extract. The data point to a novel property of Ddc1, modulating the turnover of DNA binding proteins such as RPAp70 by the proteasome.

  8. Diversification of DnaA dependency for DNA replication in cyanobacterial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Watanabe, Satoru; Ehira, Shigeki; Kanesaki, Yu; Chibazakura, Taku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Regulating DNA replication is essential for all living cells. The DNA replication initiation factor DnaA is highly conserved in prokaryotes and is required for accurate initiation of chromosomal replication at oriC. DnaA-independent free-living bacteria have not been identified. The dnaA gene is absent in plastids and some symbiotic bacteria, although it is not known when or how DnaA-independent mechanisms were acquired. Here, we show that the degree of dependency of DNA replication on DnaA varies among cyanobacterial species. Deletion of the dnaA gene in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 shifted DNA replication from oriC to a different site as a result of the integration of an episomal plasmid. Moreover, viability during the stationary phase was higher in dnaA disruptants than in wild-type cells. Deletion of dnaA did not affect DNA replication or cell growth in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 or Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, indicating that functional dependency on DnaA was already lost in some nonsymbiotic cyanobacterial lineages during diversification. Therefore, we proposed that cyanobacteria acquired DnaA-independent replication mechanisms before symbiosis and such an ancestral cyanobacterium was the sole primary endosymbiont to form a plastid precursor.

  9. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dna2 can function as a sole nuclease in the processing of Okazaki fragments in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levikova, Maryna; Cejka, Petr

    2015-09-18

    During DNA replication, synthesis of the lagging strand occurs in stretches termed Okazaki fragments. Before adjacent fragments are ligated, any flaps resulting from the displacement of the 5' DNA end of the Okazaki fragment must be cleaved. Previously, Dna2 was implicated to function upstream of flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1 or Rad27) in the processing of long flaps bound by the replication protein A (RPA). Here we show that Dna2 efficiently cleaves long DNA flaps exactly at or directly adjacent to the base. A fraction of the flaps cleaved by Dna2 can be immediately ligated. When coupled with DNA replication, the flap processing activity of Dna2 leads to a nearly complete Okazaki fragment maturation at sub-nanomolar Dna2 concentrations. Our results indicate that a subsequent nucleolytic activity of Fen1 is not required in most cases. In contrast Dna2 is completely incapable to cleave short flaps. We show that also Dna2, like Fen1, interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). We propose a model where Dna2 alone is responsible for cleaving of RPA-bound long flaps, while Fen1 or exonuclease 1 (Exo1) cleave short flaps. Our results argue that Dna2 can function in a separate, rather than in a Fen1-dependent pathway.

  10. Unveiling the mystery of mitochondrial DNA replication in yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin Jie; Clark-Walker, George Desmond

    2017-08-01

    Conventional DNA replication is initiated from specific origins and requires the synthesis of RNA primers for both the leading and lagging strands. In contrast, the replication of yeast mitochondrial DNA is origin-independent. The replication of the leading strand is likely primed by recombinational structures and proceeded by a rolling circle mechanism. The coexistent linear and circular DNA conformers facilitate the recombination-based initiation. The replication of the lagging strand is poorly understood. Re-evaluation of published data suggests that the rolling circle may also provide structures for the synthesis of the lagging-strand by mechanisms such as template switching. Thus, the coupling of recombination with rolling circle replication and possibly, template switching, may have been selected as an economic replication mode to accommodate the reductive evolution of mitochondria. Such a replication mode spares the need for conventional replicative components, including those required for origin recognition/remodelling, RNA primer synthesis and lagging-strand processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The DNA Replication Stress Hypothesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B. Yurov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-recognized theory of Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis suggests ectopic cell cycle events to mediate neurodegeneration. Vulnerable neurons of the AD brain exhibit biomarkers of cell cycle progression and DNA replication suggesting a reentry into the cell cycle. Chromosome reduplication without proper cell cycle completion and mitotic division probably causes neuronal cell dysfunction and death. However, this theory seems to require some inputs in accordance with the generally recognized amyloid cascade theory as well as to explain causes and consequences of genomic instability (aneuploidy in the AD brain. We propose that unscheduled and incomplete DNA replication (replication stress destabilizes (epigenomic landscape in the brain and leads to DNA replication “catastrophe” causing cell death during the S phase (replicative cell death. DNA replication stress can be a key element of the pathogenetic cascade explaining the interplay between ectopic cell cycle events and genetic instabilities in the AD brain. Abnormal cell cycle reentry and somatic genome variations can be used for updating the cell cycle theory introducing replication stress as a missing link between cell genetics and neurobiology of AD.

  12. Bacillus subtilis DNA polymerases, PolC and DnaE, are required for both leading and lagging strand synthesis in SPP1 origin-dependent DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Elena M; Ayora, Silvia

    2017-08-21

    Firmicutes have two distinct replicative DNA polymerases, the PolC leading strand polymerase, and PolC and DnaE synthesizing the lagging strand. We have reconstituted in vitro Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 θ-type DNA replication, which initiates unidirectionally at oriL. With this system we show that DnaE is not only restricted to lagging strand synthesis as previously suggested. DnaG primase and DnaE polymerase are required for initiation of DNA replication on both strands. DnaE and DnaG synthesize in concert a hybrid RNA/DNA 'initiation primer' on both leading and lagging strands at the SPP1 oriL region, as it does the eukaryotic Pol α complex. DnaE, as a RNA-primed DNA polymerase, extends this initial primer in a reaction modulated by DnaG and one single-strand binding protein (SSB, SsbA or G36P), and hands off the initiation primer to PolC, a DNA-primed DNA polymerase. Then, PolC, stimulated by DnaG and the SSBs, performs the bulk of DNA chain elongation at both leading and lagging strands. Overall, these modulations by the SSBs and DnaG may contribute to the mechanism of polymerase switch at Firmicutes replisomes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. The human Bloom syndrome gene suppresses the DNA replication and repair defects of yeast dna2 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Osamu; Campbell, Judith L

    2003-07-08

    Bloom syndrome is a disorder of profound and early cancer predisposition in which cells become hypermutable, exhibit high frequency of sister chromatid exchanges, and show increased micronuclei. BLM, the gene mutated in Bloom syndrome, has been cloned previously, and the BLM protein is a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Many lines of evidence suggest that BLM is involved either directly in DNA replication or in surveillance during DNA replication, but its specific roles remain unknown. Here we show that hBLM can suppress both the temperature-sensitive growth defect and the DNA damage sensitivity of the yeast DNA replication mutant dna2-1. The dna2-1 mutant is defective in a helicase-nuclease that is required either to coordinate with the crucial Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sc) FEN1 nuclease in Okazaki fragment maturation or to compensate for scFEN1 when its activity is impaired. We show that human BLM interacts with both scDna2 and scFEN1 by using coimmunoprecipitation from yeast extracts, suggesting that human BLM participates in the same steps of DNA replication or repair as scFEN1 and scDna2.

  14. Cdc6 ATPase activity disengages Cdc6 from the pre-replicative complex to promote DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, FuJung; Riera, Alberto; Evrin, Cecile; Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin; Speck, Christian; Weinreich, Michael

    2015-08-25

    To initiate DNA replication, cells first load an MCM helicase double hexamer at origins in a reaction requiring ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1, also called pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) assembly. The essential mechanistic role of Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis in this reaction is still incompletely understood. Here, we show that although Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is essential to initiate DNA replication, it is not essential for MCM loading. Using purified proteins, an ATPase-defective Cdc6 mutant 'Cdc6-E224Q' promoted MCM loading on DNA. Cdc6-E224Q also promoted MCM binding at origins in vivo but cells remained blocked in G1-phase. If after loading MCM, Cdc6-E224Q was degraded, cells entered an apparently normal S-phase and replicated DNA, a phenotype seen with two additional Cdc6 ATPase-defective mutants. Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is therefore required for Cdc6 disengagement from the pre-RC after helicase loading to advance subsequent steps in helicase activation in vivo.

  15. DNA adenine methylation is required to replicate both Vibrio cholerae chromosomes once per cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Demarre

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA adenine methylation is widely used to control many DNA transactions, including replication. In Escherichia coli, methylation serves to silence newly synthesized (hemimethylated sister origins. SeqA, a protein that binds to hemimethylated DNA, mediates the silencing, and this is necessary to restrict replication to once per cell cycle. The methylation, however, is not essential for replication initiation per se but appeared so when the origins (oriI and oriII of the two Vibrio cholerae chromosomes were used to drive plasmid replication in E. coli. Here we show that, as in the case of E. coli, methylation is not essential for oriI when it drives chromosomal replication and is needed for once-per-cell-cycle replication in a SeqA-dependent fashion. We found that oriII also needs SeqA for once-per-cell-cycle replication and, additionally, full methylation for efficient initiator binding. The requirement for initiator binding might suffice to make methylation an essential function in V. cholerae. The structure of oriII suggests that it originated from a plasmid, but unlike plasmids, oriII makes use of methylation for once-per-cell-cycle replication, the norm for chromosomal but not plasmid replication.

  16. Dual interaction of a geminivirus replication accessory factor with a viral replication protein and a plant cell cycle regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settlage, S B; Miller, A B; Gruissem, W; Hanley-Bowdoin, L

    2001-01-20

    Geminiviruses replicate their small, single-stranded DNA genomes through double-stranded DNA intermediates in plant nuclei using host replication machinery. Like most dicot-infecting geminiviruses, tomato golden mosaic virus encodes a protein, AL3 or C3, that greatly enhances viral DNA accumulation through an unknown mechanism. Earlier studies showed that AL3 forms oligomers and interacts with the viral replication initiator AL1. Experiments reported here established that AL3 also interacts with a plant homolog of the mammalian tumor suppressor protein, retinoblastoma (pRb). Analysis of truncated AL3 proteins indicated that pRb and AL1 bind to similar regions of AL3, whereas AL3 oligomerization is dependent on a different region of the protein. Analysis of truncated AL1 proteins located the AL3-binding domain between AL1 amino acids 101 and 180 to a region that also includes the AL1 oligomerization domain and the catalytic site for initiation of viral DNA replication. Interestingly, the AL3-binding domain was fully contiguous with the domain that mediates AL1/pRb interactions. The potential significance of AL3/pRb binding and the coincidence of the domains responsible for AL3, AL1, and pRb interactions are discussed.

  17. In Vitro Whole Genome DNA Binding Analysis of the Bacterial Replication Initiator and Transcription Factor DnaA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Smith

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DnaA, the replication initiation protein in bacteria, is an AAA+ ATPase that binds and hydrolyzes ATP and exists in a heterogeneous population of ATP-DnaA and ADP-DnaA. DnaA binds cooperatively to the origin of replication and several other chromosomal regions, and functions as a transcription factor at some of these regions. We determined the binding properties of Bacillus subtilis DnaA to genomic DNA in vitro at single nucleotide resolution using in vitro DNA affinity purification and deep sequencing (IDAP-Seq. We used these data to identify 269 binding regions, refine the consensus sequence of the DnaA binding site, and compare the relative affinity of binding regions for ATP-DnaA and ADP-DnaA. Most sites had a slightly higher affinity for ATP-DnaA than ADP-DnaA, but a few had a strong preference for binding ATP-DnaA. Of the 269 sites, only the eight strongest binding ones have been observed to bind DnaA in vivo, suggesting that other cellular factors or the amount of available DnaA in vivo restricts DnaA binding to these additional sites. Conversely, we found several chromosomal regions that were bound by DnaA in vivo but not in vitro, and that the nucleoid-associated protein Rok was required for binding in vivo. Our in vitro characterization of the inherent ability of DnaA to bind the genome at single nucleotide resolution provides a backdrop for interpreting data on in vivo binding and regulation of DnaA, and is an approach that should be adaptable to many other DNA binding proteins.

  18. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple

  19. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovir

  20. Budding Yeast Rif1 Controls Genome Integrity by Inhibiting rDNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyian, Maksym; Mattarocci, Stefano; Albert, Benjamin; Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charlie; Shore, David

    2016-11-01

    The Rif1 protein is a negative regulator of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes. Here we show that budding yeast Rif1 inhibits DNA replication initiation at the rDNA locus. Absence of Rif1, or disruption of its interaction with PP1/Glc7 phosphatase, leads to more intensive rDNA replication. The effect of Rif1-Glc7 on rDNA replication is similar to that of the Sir2 deacetylase, and the two would appear to act in the same pathway, since the rif1Δ sir2Δ double mutant shows no further increase in rDNA replication. Loss of Rif1-Glc7 activity is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA repeat instability that again is not additive with the effect of sir2Δ. We find, in addition, that the viability of rif1Δ cells is severely compromised in combination with disruption of the MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 complexes, both of which are implicated in stabilization of stalled replication forks. Significantly, we show that removal of the rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB) protein Fob1, alleviation of replisome pausing by deletion of the Tof1/Csm3 complex, or a large deletion of the rDNA repeat array all rescue this synthetic growth defect of rif1Δ cells lacking in addition either MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 activity. These data suggest that the repression of origin activation by Rif1-Glc7 is important to avoid the deleterious accumulation of stalled replication forks at the rDNA RFB, which become lethal when fork stability is compromised. Finally, we show that Rif1-Glc7, unlike Sir2, has an important effect on origin firing outside of the rDNA locus that serves to prevent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Our results thus provide insights into a mechanism of replication control within a large repetitive chromosomal domain and its importance for the maintenance of genome stability. These findings may have important implications for metazoans, where large blocks of repetitive sequences are much more common.

  1. Budding Yeast Rif1 Controls Genome Integrity by Inhibiting rDNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksym Shyian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Rif1 protein is a negative regulator of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes. Here we show that budding yeast Rif1 inhibits DNA replication initiation at the rDNA locus. Absence of Rif1, or disruption of its interaction with PP1/Glc7 phosphatase, leads to more intensive rDNA replication. The effect of Rif1-Glc7 on rDNA replication is similar to that of the Sir2 deacetylase, and the two would appear to act in the same pathway, since the rif1Δ sir2Δ double mutant shows no further increase in rDNA replication. Loss of Rif1-Glc7 activity is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA repeat instability that again is not additive with the effect of sir2Δ. We find, in addition, that the viability of rif1Δ cells is severely compromised in combination with disruption of the MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 complexes, both of which are implicated in stabilization of stalled replication forks. Significantly, we show that removal of the rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB protein Fob1, alleviation of replisome pausing by deletion of the Tof1/Csm3 complex, or a large deletion of the rDNA repeat array all rescue this synthetic growth defect of rif1Δ cells lacking in addition either MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 activity. These data suggest that the repression of origin activation by Rif1-Glc7 is important to avoid the deleterious accumulation of stalled replication forks at the rDNA RFB, which become lethal when fork stability is compromised. Finally, we show that Rif1-Glc7, unlike Sir2, has an important effect on origin firing outside of the rDNA locus that serves to prevent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Our results thus provide insights into a mechanism of replication control within a large repetitive chromosomal domain and its importance for the maintenance of genome stability. These findings may have important implications for metazoans, where large blocks of repetitive sequences are much more common.

  2. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

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    Sarit Suissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mtDNA

  3. Porcine circovirus: transcription and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review summarizes the molecular studies pertaining to porcine circovirus (PCV) transcription and DNA replication. The genome of PCV is circular, single-stranded DNA and contains 1759-1768 nucleotides. Both the genome-strand (packaged in the virus particle) and the complementary-strand (synthesi...

  4. A Paper Model of DNA Structure and Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigismondi, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    A paper model which is designed to give students a hands-on experience during lecture and blackboard instruction on DNA structure is provided. A list of materials, paper patterns, and procedures for using the models to teach DNA structure and replication are given. (CW)

  5. Epigenetically-inherited centromere and neocentromere DNA replicates earliest in S-phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnon Koren

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic centromeres are maintained at specific chromosomal sites over many generations. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, centromeres are genetic elements defined by a DNA sequence that is both necessary and sufficient for function; whereas, in most other eukaryotes, centromeres are maintained by poorly characterized epigenetic mechanisms in which DNA has a less definitive role. Here we use the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans as a model organism to study the DNA replication properties of centromeric DNA. By determining the genome-wide replication timing program of the C. albicans genome, we discovered that each centromere is associated with a replication origin that is the first to fire on its respective chromosome. Importantly, epigenetic formation of new ectopic centromeres (neocentromeres was accompanied by shifts in replication timing, such that a neocentromere became the first to replicate and became associated with origin recognition complex (ORC components. Furthermore, changing the level of the centromere-specific histone H3 isoform led to a concomitant change in levels of ORC association with centromere regions, further supporting the idea that centromere proteins determine origin activity. Finally, analysis of centromere-associated DNA revealed a replication-dependent sequence pattern characteristic of constitutively active replication origins. This strand-biased pattern is conserved, together with centromere position, among related strains and species, in a manner independent of primary DNA sequence. Thus, inheritance of centromere position is correlated with a constitutively active origin of replication that fires at a distinct early time. We suggest a model in which the distinct timing of DNA replication serves as an epigenetic mechanism for the inheritance of centromere position.

  6. Unique and universal features of Epsilonproteobacterial origins of chromosome replication and DnaA-DnaA box interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Jaworski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria, chromosome replication is initiated by the interaction of the initiator protein DnaA with a defined region of a chromosome at which DNA replication starts (oriC. While DnaA proteins share significant homology regardless of phylogeny, oriC regions exhibit more variable structures. The general architecture of oriCs is universal, i.e. they are composed of a cluster of DnaA binding sites, a DNA-unwinding element, and sequences that bind regulatory proteins. However, detailed structures of oriCs are shared by related species while being significantly different in unrelated bacteria. In this work, we characterised Epsilonproteobacterial oriC regions. Helicobacter pylori was the only species of the class for which oriC was characterised. A few unique features were found such as bipartite oriC structure, not encountered in any other Gram-negative species, and topology-sensitive DnaA-DNA interactions, which have not been found in any other bacterium. These unusual H. pylori oriC features raised questions of whether oriC structure and DnaA-DNA interactions are unique to this bacterium or they are common to related species. By in silico and in vitro analyses we identified putative oriCs in three Epsilonproteobacterial species: pathogenic Arcobacter butzleri, symbiotic Wolinella succinogenes and free-living Sulfurimonas denitrificans. We propose that oriCs typically co-localize with ruvC-dnaA-dnaN in Epsilonproteobacteria, with the exception of Helicobacteriaceae species. The clusters of DnaA boxes localize upstream (oriC1 and downstream (oriC2 of dnaA, and they likely constitute bipartite origins. In all cases, DNA unwinding was shown to occur in oriC2. Unlike the DnaA box pattern, which is not conserved in Epsilonproteobacterial oriCs, the consensus DnaA box sequences and the mode of DnaA-DnaA box interactions are common to the class. We propose that the typical Epsilonproteobacterial DnaA box consists of the core nucleotide sequence 5

  7. Unique and Universal Features of Epsilonproteobacterial Origins of Chromosome Replication and DnaA-DnaA Box Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Pawel; Donczew, Rafal; Mielke, Thorsten; Thiel, Marcel; Oldziej, Stanislaw; Weigel, Christoph; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, chromosome replication is initiated by the interaction of the initiator protein DnaA with a defined region of a chromosome at which DNA replication starts (oriC). While DnaA proteins share significant homology regardless of phylogeny, oriC regions exhibit more variable structures. The general architecture of oriCs is universal, i.e., they are composed of a cluster of DnaA binding sites, a DNA-unwinding element, and sequences that bind regulatory proteins. However, detailed structures of oriCs are shared by related species while being significantly different in unrelated bacteria. In this work, we characterized Epsilonproteobacterial oriC regions. Helicobacter pylori was the only species of the class for which oriC was characterized. A few unique features were found such as bipartite oriC structure, not encountered in any other Gram-negative species, and topology-sensitive DnaA-DNA interactions, which have not been found in any other bacterium. These unusual H. pylori oriC features raised questions of whether oriC structure and DnaA-DNA interactions are unique to this bacterium or whether they are common to related species. By in silico and in vitro analyses we identified putative oriCs in three Epsilonproteobacterial species: pathogenic Arcobacter butzleri, symbiotic Wolinella succinogenes, and free-living Sulfurimonas denitrificans. We propose that oriCs typically co-localize with ruvC-dnaA-dnaN in Epsilonproteobacteria, with the exception of Helicobacteriaceae species. The clusters of DnaA boxes localize upstream (oriC1) and downstream (oriC2) of dnaA, and they likely constitute bipartite origins. In all cases, DNA unwinding was shown to occur in oriC2. Unlike the DnaA box pattern, which is not conserved in Epsilonproteobacterial oriCs, the consensus DnaA box sequences and the mode of DnaA-DnaA box interactions are common to the class. We propose that the typical Epsilonproteobacterial DnaA box consists of the core nucleotide sequence 5′-TTCAC-3

  8. Kinetochores coordinate pericentromeric cohesion and early DNA replication by Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Müller, Carolin A; Katou, Yuki; Retkute, Renata; Gierliński, Marek; Araki, Hiroyuki; Blow, J Julian; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U

    2013-06-01

    Centromeres play several important roles in ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Not only do they promote kinetochore assembly for microtubule attachment, but they also support robust sister chromatid cohesion at pericentromeres and facilitate replication of centromeric DNA early in S phase. However, it is still elusive how centromeres orchestrate all these functions at the same site. Here, we show that the budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) accumulates at kinetochores in telophase, facilitated by the Ctf19 kinetochore complex. This promptly recruits Sld3-Sld7 replication initiator proteins to pericentromeric replication origins so that they initiate replication early in S phase. Furthermore, DDK at kinetochores independently recruits the Scc2-Scc4 cohesin loader to centromeres in G1 phase. This enhances cohesin loading and facilitates robust pericentromeric cohesion in S phase. Thus, we have found the central mechanism by which kinetochores orchestrate early S phase DNA replication and robust sister chromatid cohesion at microtubule attachment sites.

  9. Replication stress and oxidative damage contribute to aberrant constitutive activation of DNA damage signalling in human gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartkova, J; Hamerlik, P; Stockhausen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    brain and grade II astrocytomas, despite the degree of DDR activation was higher in grade II tumors. Markers indicative of ongoing DNA replication stress (Chk1 activation, Rad17 phosphorylation, replication protein A foci and single-stranded DNA) were present in GBM cells under high- or low...... and indicate that replication stress, rather than oxidative stress, fuels the DNA damage signalling in early stages of astrocytoma development.......Malignant gliomas, the deadliest of brain neoplasms, show rampant genetic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies, implicating potentially aberrant DNA damage response (DDR) in glioma pathogenesis and treatment failure. Here, we report on gross, aberrant constitutive activation of DNA...

  10. Mechanisms Governing DDK Regulation of the Initiation of DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larasati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK complex—comprised of cell division cycle (Cdc7 kinase and its regulatory subunit dumbbell former 4 (Dbf4—is required to trigger the initiation of DNA replication through the phosphorylation of multiple minichromosome maintenance complex subunits 2-7 (Mcm2-7. DDK is also a target of the radiation sensitive 53 (Rad53 checkpoint kinase in response to replication stress. Numerous investigations have determined mechanistic details, including the regions of Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 phosphorylated by DDK, and a number of DDK docking sites. Similarly, the way in which the Rad53 forkhead-associated 1 (FHA1 domain binds to DDK—involving both canonical and non-canonical interactions—has been elucidated. Recent work has revealed mutual promotion of DDK and synthetic lethal with dpb11-1 3 (Sld3 roles. While DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2-7 subunits facilitates their interaction with Sld3 at origins, Sld3 in turn stimulates DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. Details of a mutually antagonistic relationship between DDK and Rap1-interacting factor 1 (Rif1 have also recently come to light. While Rif1 is able to reverse DDK-mediated Mcm2-7 complex phosphorylation by targeting the protein phosphatase glycogen 7 (Glc7 to origins, there is evidence to suggest that DDK can counteract this activity by binding to and phosphorylating Rif1.

  11. Replication stress activates DNA repair synthesis in mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Ying, Songmin; Bjerregaard, Victoria A; Bursomanno, Sara; Aleliunaite, Aiste; Wu, Wei; Mankouri, Hocine W; Shen, Huahao; Liu, Ying; Hickson, Ian D

    2015-12-10

    Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress has been implicated as a driver of tumorigenesis. Many chromosomal rearrangements characteristic of human cancers originate from specific regions of the genome called common fragile sites (CFSs). CFSs are difficult-to-replicate loci that manifest as gaps or breaks on metaphase chromosomes (termed CFS 'expression'), particularly when cells have been exposed to replicative stress. The MUS81-EME1 structure-specific endonuclease promotes the appearance of chromosome gaps or breaks at CFSs following replicative stress. Here we show that entry of cells into mitotic prophase triggers the recruitment of MUS81 to CFSs. The nuclease activity of MUS81 then promotes POLD3-dependent DNA synthesis at CFSs, which serves to minimize chromosome mis-segregation and non-disjunction. We propose that the attempted condensation of incompletely duplicated loci in early mitosis serves as the trigger for completion of DNA replication at CFS loci in human cells. Given that this POLD3-dependent mitotic DNA synthesis is enhanced in aneuploid cancer cells that exhibit intrinsically high levels of chromosomal instability (CIN(+)) and replicative stress, we suggest that targeting this pathway could represent a new therapeutic approach.

  12. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F T; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, El Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-02-02

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression.

  13. Differential activation of intra-S-phase checkpoint in response to tripchlorolide and its effects on DNA replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan REN; Jia Rui WU

    2004-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly regulated during the S phase of the cell cycle, and the activation of the intra-S-phase checkpoint due to DNA damage usually results in arrest of DNA synthesis. However, the molecular details about the correlation between the checkpoint and regulation of DNA replication are still unclear. To investigate the connections between DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint, a DNA-damage reagent, tripchlorolide, was applied to CHO (Chinese ovary hamster) cells at early- or middle-stages of the S phase. The early-S-phase treatment with TC significantly delayed the progression of the S phase and caused the phosphorylation of the Chk1 checkpoint protein, whereas the middle-S-phase treatment only slightly slowed down the progression of the S phase. Furthermore, the analysis of DNA replication patterns revealed that replication pattern Ⅱ was greatly prolonged in the cells treated with the drug during the early-S phase, whereas the late-replication patterns of these cells were hardly detected, suggesting that the activation of the intra-S-phase checkpoint inhibits the late-origin firing of DNA replication. We conclude that cells at different stages of the S phase are differentially sensitive to the DNA-damage reagent, and the activation of the intra-Sphase checkpoint blocks the DNA replication progression in the late stage of S phase.

  14. Transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 couples the histone chaperone Asf1b to HSV-1 DNA replication components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua; Nogueira, Mauricio L; Vogel, Jodi L; Kristie, Thomas M

    2010-02-01

    The cellular transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 interacts with numerous transcription factors as well as other coactivators and is a component of multiple chromatin modulation complexes. The protein is essential for the expression of the immediate early genes of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus and functions, in part, by coupling chromatin modification components including the Set1 or MLL1 histone methyltransferases and the histone demethylase LSD1 to promote the installation of positive chromatin marks and the activation of viral immediately early gene transcription. Although studies have investigated the role of HCF-1 in both cellular and viral transcription, little is known about other processes that the protein may be involved in. Here we demonstrate that HCF-1 localizes to sites of HSV replication late in infection. HCF-1 interacts directly and simultaneously with both HSV DNA replication proteins and the cellular histone chaperone Asf1b, a protein that regulates the progression of cellular DNA replication forks via chromatin reorganization. Asf1b localizes with HCF-1 in viral replication foci and depletion of Asf1b results in significantly reduced viral DNA accumulation. The results support a model in which the transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 is a component of the HSV DNA replication assembly and promotes viral DNA replication by coupling Asf1b to DNA replication components. This coupling provides a novel function for HCF-1 and insights into the mechanisms of modulating chromatin during DNA replication.

  15. Methylation of DNA Ligase 1 by G9a/GLP Recruits UHRF1 to Replicating DNA and Regulates DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Laure; Fournier, Alexandra; Tsusaka, Takeshi; Adelmant, Guillaume; Shimazu, Tadahiro; Matano, Shohei; Kirsh, Olivier; Amouroux, Rachel; Dohmae, Naoshi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Filion, Guillaume J; Deng, Wen; de Dieuleveult, Maud; Fritsch, Lauriane; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Jeltsch, Albert; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Hajkova, Petra; Marto, Jarrod A; Arita, Kyohei; Shinkai, Yoichi; Defossez, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-08-17

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mark in mammals that has to be re-established after each round of DNA replication. The protein UHRF1 is essential for this process; it has been proposed that the protein targets newly replicated DNA by cooperatively binding hemi-methylated DNA and H3K9me2/3, but this model leaves a number of questions unanswered. Here, we present evidence for a direct recruitment of UHRF1 by the replication machinery via DNA ligase 1 (LIG1). A histone H3K9-like mimic within LIG1 is methylated by G9a and GLP and, compared with H3K9me2/3, more avidly binds UHRF1. Interaction with methylated LIG1 promotes the recruitment of UHRF1 to DNA replication sites and is required for DNA methylation maintenance. These results further elucidate the function of UHRF1, identify a non-histone target of G9a and GLP, and provide an example of a histone mimic that coordinates DNA replication and DNA methylation maintenance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Large heterogeneity of mitochondrial DNA transcription and initiation of replication exposed by single-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatre, Laurent; Ricchetti, Miria

    2013-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription are crucial for cell function, but these processes are poorly understood at the single-cell level. We describe a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization protocol, called mTRIP (mitochondrial transcription and replication imaging protocol), that reveals simultaneously mtDNA and RNA, and that can also be coupled to immunofluorescence for in situ protein examination. mTRIP reveals mitochondrial structures engaged in initiation of DNA replication by identification of a specific sequence in the regulatory D-loop, as well as unique transcription profiles in single human cells. We observe and quantify at least three classes of mitochondrial structures: (i) replication initiation active and transcript-positive (Ia-Tp); (ii) replication initiation silent and transcript-positive (Is-Tp); and (iii) replication initiation silent and transcript-negative (Is-Tn). Thus, individual mitochondria are dramatically heterogeneous within the same cell. Moreover, mTRIP exposes a mosaic of distinct nucleic acid patterns in the D-loop, including H-strand versus L-strand transcripts, and uncoupled rRNA transcription and mtDNA initiation of replication, which might have functional consequences in the regulation of the mtDNA. Finally, mTRIP identifies altered mtDNA processing in cells with unbalanced mtDNA content and function, including in human mitochondrial disorders. Thus, mTRIP reveals qualitative and quantitative alterations that provide additional tools for elucidating the dynamics of mtDNA processing in single cells and mitochondrial dysfunction in diseases.

  17. DNA is a co-factor for its own replication in Xenopus egg extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebofsky, Ronald; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    Soluble Xenopus egg extracts efficiently replicate added plasmids using a physiological mechanism, and thus represent a powerful system to understand vertebrate DNA replication. Surprisingly, DNA replication in this system is highly sensitive to plasmid concentration, being undetectable below

  18. DNA is a co-factor for its own replication in Xenopus egg extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebofsky, Ronald; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2011-01-01

    Soluble Xenopus egg extracts efficiently replicate added plasmids using a physiological mechanism, and thus represent a powerful system to understand vertebrate DNA replication. Surprisingly, DNA replication in this system is highly sensitive to plasmid concentration, being undetectable below simila

  19. DNA is a co-factor for its own replication in Xenopus egg extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebofsky, Ronald; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2011-01-01

    Soluble Xenopus egg extracts efficiently replicate added plasmids using a physiological mechanism, and thus represent a powerful system to understand vertebrate DNA replication. Surprisingly, DNA replication in this system is highly sensitive to plasmid concentration, being undetectable below simila

  20. MMSET is dynamically regulated during cell-cycle progression and promotes normal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Debra L; Zhang, Haoxing; Ham, Hyoungjun; Pei, Huadong; Lee, SeungBaek; Kim, JungJin; Billadeau, Daniel D; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-01-01

    The timely and precise duplication of cellular DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is thus tightly-regulated. During mitosis and G1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) binds to future replication origins, coordinating with multiple factors to load the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex onto future replication origins as part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC). The pre-RC machinery, in turn, remains inactive until the subsequent S phase when it is required for replication fork formation, thereby initiating DNA replication. Multiple myeloma SET domain-containing protein (MMSET, a.k.a. WHSC1, NSD2) is a histone methyltransferase that is frequently overexpressed in aggressive cancers and is essential for normal human development. Several studies have suggested a role for MMSET in cell-cycle regulation; however, whether MMSET is itself regulated during cell-cycle progression has not been examined. In this study, we report that MMSET is degraded during S phase in a cullin-ring ligase 4-Cdt2 (CRL4(Cdt2)) and proteasome-dependent manner. Notably, we also report defects in DNA replication and a decreased association of pre-RC factors with chromatin in MMSET-depleted cells. Taken together, our results suggest a dynamic regulation of MMSET levels throughout the cell cycle, and further characterize the role of MMSET in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression.

  1. Levels of the E2 interacting protein TopBP1 modulate papillomavirus maintenance stage replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanginakudru, Sriramana, E-mail: skangina@iu.edu [Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); DeSmet, Marsha, E-mail: mdesmet@iupui.edu [Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Thomas, Yanique, E-mail: ysthomas@umail.iu.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Morgan, Iain M., E-mail: immorgan@vcu.edu [VCU Philips Institute for Oral Health Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Androphy, Elliot J., E-mail: eandro@iu.edu [Department of Dermatology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The evolutionarily conserved DNA topoisomerase II beta-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) functions in DNA replication, DNA damage response, and cell survival. We analyzed the role of TopBP1 in human and bovine papillomavirus genome replication. Consistent with prior reports, TopBP1 co-localized in discrete nuclear foci and was in complex with papillomavirus E2 protein. Similar to E2, TopBP1 is recruited to the region of the viral origin of replication during G1/S and early S phase. TopBP1 knockdown increased, while over-expression decreased transient virus replication, without affecting cell cycle. Similarly, using cell lines harboring HPV-16 or HPV-31 genome, TopBP1 knockdown increased while over-expression reduced viral copy number relative to genomic DNA. We propose a model in which TopBP1 serves dual roles in viral replication: it is essential for initiation of replication yet it restricts viral copy number. - Highlights: • Protein interaction study confirmed In-situ interaction between TopBP1 and E2. • TopBP1 present at papillomavirus ori in G1/S and early S phase of cell cycle. • TopBP1 knockdown increased, over-expression reduced virus replication. • TopBP1 protein level change did not influence cell survival or cell cycle. • TopBP1 displaced from papillomavirus ori after initiation of replication.

  2. Inhibition of simian virus 40 DNA replication by ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenberg, H.J.

    1983-07-30

    The effects of ultraviolet light (uv) upon SV40 DNA synthesis in monkey cells were examined to determine whether replication forks were halted upon encountering lesions in the DNA, or alternatively whether lesions were rapidly bypassed. Ultraviolet light inhibits elongation of nascent DNA strands; the extent of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)deoxythymidine ((/sup 3/H)dT) into DNA decreases with increasing uv fluence. Inhibition begins within minutes of irradiation, and becomes more pronounced with increasing time after irradiation. The synthesis of form I (covalently closed) molecules is inhibited even more severely than is total incorporation: post-uv incorporation is predominantly into replication intermediates. In contrast to previous reports, we find that replication intermediates labeled after uv resemble those in unirradiated cells, and contain covalently closed parental strands. DNA strands made after uv are approximately the size of parental DNA which has been cleaved at pyrimidine dimers by a uv endonuclease, indicating that they do not extend past dimers. The hypothesis that replication forks are halted upon encountering pyrimidine dimers in the template strand is consistent with these data.

  3. USP37 deubiquitinates Cdt1 and contributes to regulate DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, Santiago; Cabrera, Elisa; Amoedo, Hugo; Rodríguez-Acebes, Sara; Koundrioukoff, Stephane; Debatisse, Michelle; Méndez, Juan; Freire, Raimundo

    2016-10-01

    DNA replication control is a key process in maintaining genomic integrity. Monitoring DNA replication initiation is particularly important as it needs to be coordinated with other cellular events and should occur only once per cell cycle. Crucial players in the initiation of DNA replication are the ORC protein complex, marking the origin of replication, and the Cdt1 and Cdc6 proteins, that license these origins to replicate by recruiting the MCM2-7 helicase. To accurately achieve its functions, Cdt1 is tightly regulated. Cdt1 levels are high from metaphase and during G1 and low in S/G2 phases of the cell cycle. This control is achieved, among other processes, by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In an overexpression screen for Cdt1 deubiquitinating enzymes, we isolated USP37, to date the first ubiquitin hydrolase controlling Cdt1. USP37 overexpression stabilizes Cdt1, most likely a phosphorylated form of the protein. In contrast, USP37 knock down destabilizes Cdt1, predominantly during G1 and G1/S phases of the cell cycle. USP37 interacts with Cdt1 and is able to de-ubiquitinate Cdt1 in vivo and, USP37 is able to regulate the loading of MCM complexes onto the chromatin. In addition, downregulation of USP37 reduces DNA replication fork speed. Taken together, here we show that the deubiquitinase USP37 plays an important role in the regulation of DNA replication. Whether this is achieved via Cdt1, a central protein in this process, which we have shown to be stabilized by USP37, or via additional factors, remains to be tested.

  4. PAR-4/LKB1 regulates DNA replication during asynchronous division of the early C. elegans embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descoteaux, Catherine; Chartier, Nicolas T.; Pintard, Lionel; Labbé, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell cycle duration is critical during development, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. The two-cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryo divides asynchronously and thus provides a powerful context in which to study regulation of cell cycle timing during development. Using genetic analysis and high-resolution imaging, we found that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication is asymmetrically regulated in the two-cell stage embryo and that the PAR-4 and PAR-1 polarity proteins dampen DNA replication dynamics specifically in the posterior blastomere, independently of regulators previously implicated in the control of cell cycle timing. Our results demonstrate that accurate control of DNA replication is crucial during C. elegans early embryonic development and further provide a novel mechanism by which PAR proteins control cell cycle progression during asynchronous cell division. PMID:24841566

  5. Mismatch repair balances leading and lagging strand DNA replication fidelity.

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    Scott A Lujan

    Full Text Available The two DNA strands of the nuclear genome are replicated asymmetrically using three DNA polymerases, α, δ, and ε. Current evidence suggests that DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε is the primary leading strand replicase, whereas Pols α and δ primarily perform lagging strand replication. The fact that these polymerases differ in fidelity and error specificity is interesting in light of the fact that the stability of the nuclear genome depends in part on the ability of mismatch repair (MMR to correct different mismatches generated in different contexts during replication. Here we provide the first comparison, to our knowledge, of the efficiency of MMR of leading and lagging strand replication errors. We first use the strand-biased ribonucleotide incorporation propensity of a Pol ε mutator variant to confirm that Pol ε is the primary leading strand replicase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then use polymerase-specific error signatures to show that MMR efficiency in vivo strongly depends on the polymerase, the mismatch composition, and the location of the mismatch. An extreme case of variation by location is a T-T mismatch that is refractory to MMR. This mismatch is flanked by an AT-rich triplet repeat sequence that, when interrupted, restores MMR to > 95% efficiency. Thus this natural DNA sequence suppresses MMR, placing a nearby base pair at high risk of mutation due to leading strand replication infidelity. We find that, overall, MMR most efficiently corrects the most potentially deleterious errors (indels and then the most common substitution mismatches. In combination with earlier studies, the results suggest that significant differences exist in the generation and repair of Pol α, δ, and ε replication errors, but in a generally complementary manner that results in high-fidelity replication of both DNA strands of the yeast nuclear genome.

  6. DNA Damage Signaling Is Required for Replication of Human Bocavirus 1 DNA in Dividing HEK293 Cells.

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    Deng, Xuefeng; Xu, Peng; Zou, Wei; Shen, Weiran; Peng, Jianxin; Liu, Kaiyu; Engelhardt, John F; Yan, Ziying; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), an emerging human-pathogenic respiratory virus, is a member of the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family. In human airway epithelium air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) cultures, HBoV1 infection initiates a DNA damage response (DDR), activating all three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PI3KKs): ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs. In this context, activation of PI3KKs is a requirement for amplification of the HBoV1 genome (X. Deng, Z. Yan, F. Cheng, J. F. Engelhardt, and J. Qiu, PLoS Pathog, 12:e1005399, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005399), and HBoV1 replicates only in terminally differentiated, nondividing cells. This report builds on the previous discovery that the replication of HBoV1 DNA can also occur in dividing HEK293 cells, demonstrating that such replication is likewise dependent on a DDR. Transfection of HEK293 cells with the duplex DNA genome of HBoV1 induces hallmarks of DDR, including phosphorylation of H2AX and RPA32, as well as activation of all three PI3KKs. The large viral nonstructural protein NS1 is sufficient to induce the DDR and the activation of the three PI3KKs. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of any one of the PI3KKs significantly decreases both the replication of HBoV1 DNA and the downstream production of progeny virions. The DDR induced by the HBoV1 NS1 protein does not cause obvious damage to cellular DNA or arrest of the cell cycle. Notably, key DNA replication factors and major DNA repair DNA polymerases (polymerase η [Pol η] and polymerase κ [Pol κ]) are recruited to the viral DNA replication centers and facilitate HBoV1 DNA replication. Our study provides the first evidence of the DDR-dependent parvovirus DNA replication that occurs in dividing cells and is independent of cell cycle arrest.

  7. Priming DNA Replication from Triple Helix Oligonucleotides: Possible Threestranded DNA in DNA Polymerases

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    Patrick P. Lestienne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Triplex associate with a duplex DNA presenting the same polypurine or polypyrimidine-rich sequence in an antiparallel orientation. So far, triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs are known to inhibit transcription, replication, and to induce mutations. A new property of TFO is reviewed here upon analysis of DNA breakpoint yielding DNA rearrangements; the synthesized sequence of the first direct repeat displays a skewed polypurine- rich sequence. This synthesized sequence can bind the second homologous duplex sequence through the formation of a triple helix, which is able to prime further DNA replication. In these case, the d(G-rich Triple Helix Primers (THP bind the homologous strand in a parallel manner, possibly via a RecA-like mechanism. This novel property is shared by all tested DNA polymerases: phage, retrovirus, bacteria, and human. These features may account for illegitimate initiation of replication upon single-strand breakage and annealing to a homologous sequence where priming may occur. Our experiments suggest that DNA polymerases can bind three instead of two polynucleotide strands in their catalytic centre.

  8. Phosphorylation of Minichromosome Maintenance 3 (MCM3) by Checkpoint Kinase 1 (Chk1) Negatively Regulates DNA Replication and Checkpoint Activation.

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    Han, Xiangzi; Mayca Pozo, Franklin; Wisotsky, Jacob N; Wang, Benlian; Jacobberger, James W; Zhang, Youwei

    2015-05-08

    Mechanisms controlling DNA replication and replication checkpoint are critical for the maintenance of genome stability and the prevention or treatment of human cancers. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is a key effector protein kinase that regulates the DNA damage response and replication checkpoint. The heterohexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the core component of mammalian DNA helicase and has been implicated in replication checkpoint activation. Here we report that Chk1 phosphorylates the MCM3 subunit of the MCM complex at Ser-205 under normal growth conditions. Mutating the Ser-205 of MCM3 to Ala increased the length of DNA replication track and shortened the S phase duration, indicating that Ser-205 phosphorylation negatively controls normal DNA replication. Upon replicative stress treatment, the inhibitory phosphorylation of MCM3 at Ser-205 was reduced, and this reduction was accompanied with the generation of single strand DNA, the key platform for ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) activation. As a result, the replication checkpoint is activated. Together, these data provide significant insights into the regulation of both normal DNA replication and replication checkpoint activation through the novel phosphorylation of MCM3 by Chk1.

  9. POLD3 is haploinsufficient for DNA replication in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Murga, Matilde; Lecona, Emilio; Kamileri, Irene; Díaz,Marcos; Lugli, Natalia; Sotiriou, Sotirios K.; Anton, Marta E.; Méndez, Juan; Thanos D Halazonetis; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The Pold3 gene encodes a subunit of the Polδ DNA polymerase complex. Pold3 orthologues are not essential in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or chicken DT40 cells, but the Schizzosaccharomyces pombe orthologue is essential. POLD3 also has a specialized role in the repair of broken replication forks, suggesting that POLD3 activity could be particularly relevant for cancer cells enduring high levels of DNA replication stress. We report here that POLD3 is essential for mouse development and is also requ...

  10. Direct non transcriptional role of NF-Y in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Paolo; Belluti, Silvia; Miotto, Benoit; Neusiedler, Julia; Dolfini, Diletta; Drac, Marjorie; Basile, Valentina; Schwob, Etienne; Mantovani, Roberto; Blow, J Julian; Imbriano, Carol

    2016-04-01

    NF-Y is a heterotrimeric transcription factor, which plays a pioneer role in the transcriptional control of promoters containing the CCAAT-box, among which genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and DNA damage response. The knock-down of the sequence-specific subunit NF-YA triggers defects in S-phase progression, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Here, we report that NF-Y has a critical function in DNA replication progression, independent from its transcriptional activity. NF-YA colocalizes with early DNA replication factories, its depletion affects the loading of replisome proteins to DNA, among which Cdc45, and delays the passage from early to middle-late S phase. Molecular combing experiments are consistent with a role for NF-Y in the control of fork progression. Finally, we unambiguously demonstrate a direct non-transcriptional role of NF-Y in the overall efficiency of DNA replication, specifically in the DNA elongation process, using a Xenopus cell-free system. Our findings broaden the activity of NF-Y on a DNA metabolism other than transcription, supporting the existence of specific TFs required for proper and efficient DNA replication.

  11. A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral Replication ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Muse; Kerou, Melina; Liu, Huanting; Peng, Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David; Naismith, James H.; White, Malcolm F.

    2011-01-01

    The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Their replication mechanisms remain obscure, although parallels have been drawn to the Poxviridae and other large cytoplasmic eukaryotic viruses. Here we report that a protein encoded in the 34-kbp genome of the rudivirus SIRV1 is a member of the replication initiator (Rep) superfamily of proteins, which initiate rolling-circle replication (RCR) of diverse viruses and plasmids. We show that SIRV Rep nicks the viral hairpin terminus, forming a covalent adduct between an active-site tyrosine and the 5′ end of the DNA, releasing a 3′ DNA end as a primer for DNA synthesis. The enzyme can also catalyze the joining reaction that is necessary to reseal the DNA hairpin and terminate replication. The dimeric structure points to a simple mechanism through which two closely positioned active sites, each with a single tyrosine residue, work in tandem to catalyze DNA nicking and joining. We propose a novel mechanism for rudivirus DNA replication, incorporating the first known example of a Rep protein that is not linked to RCR. The implications for Rep protein function and viral replication are discussed. PMID:21068244

  12. Architectures of archaeal GINS complexes, essential DNA replication initiation factors

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    Saito Mihoko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the early stage of eukaryotic DNA replication, the template DNA is unwound by the MCM helicase, which is activated by forming a complex with the Cdc45 and GINS proteins. The eukaryotic GINS forms a heterotetramer, comprising four types of subunits. On the other hand, the archaeal GINS appears to be either a tetramer formed by two types of subunits in a 2:2 ratio (α2β2 or a homotetramer of a single subunit (α4. Due to the low sequence similarity between the archaeal and eukaryotic GINS subunits, the atomic structures of the archaeal GINS complexes are attracting interest for comparisons of their subunit architectures and organization. Results We determined the crystal structure of the α2β2 GINS tetramer from Thermococcus kodakaraensis (TkoGINS, comprising Gins51 and Gins23, and compared it with the reported human GINS structures. The backbone structure of each subunit and the tetrameric assembly are similar to those of human GINS. However, the location of the C-terminal small domain of Gins51 is remarkably different between the archaeal and human GINS structures. In addition, TkoGINS exhibits different subunit contacts from those in human GINS, as a consequence of the different relative locations and orientations between the domains. Based on the GINS crystal structures, we built a homology model of the putative homotetrameric GINS from Thermoplasma acidophilum (TacGINS. Importantly, we propose that a long insertion loop allows the differential positioning of the C-terminal domains and, as a consequence, exclusively leads to the formation of an asymmetric homotetramer rather than a symmetrical one. Conclusions The DNA metabolizing proteins from archaea are similar to those from eukaryotes, and the archaeal multi-subunit complexes are occasionally simplified versions of the eukaryotic ones. The overall similarity in the architectures between the archaeal and eukaryotic GINS complexes suggests that the GINS function

  13. Compaction and transport properties of newly replicated Caulobacter crescentus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun-Hae; McAdams, Harley H

    2011-12-01

    Upon initiating replication of the Caulobacter chromosome, one copy of the parS centromere remains at the stalked pole; the other moves to the distal pole. We identified the segregation dynamics and compaction characteristics of newly replicated Caulobacter DNA during transport (highly variable from cell to cell) using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The parS centromere and a length (also highly variable) of parS proximal DNA on each arm of the chromosome are segregated with the same relatively slow transport pattern as the parS locus. Newly replicated DNA further than about 100 kb from parS segregates with a different and faster pattern, while loci at 48 kb from parS segregate with the slow pattern in some cells and the fast pattern in others. The observed parS-proximal DNA compaction characteristics have scaling properties that suggest the DNA is branched. HU2-deletion strains exhibited a reduced compaction phenotype except near the parS site where only the ΔHU1ΔHU2 double mutant had a compaction phenotype. The chromosome shows speed-dependent extension during translocation suggesting the DNA polymer is under tension. While DNA segregation is highly reliable and succeeds in virtually all wild-type cells, the high degree of cell to cell variation in the segregation process is noteworthy.

  14. Maintaining epigenetic inheritance during DNA replication in plants

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    Francisco eIglesias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biotic and abiotic stresses alter the pattern of gene expression in plants. Depending on the frequency and duration of stress events, the effects on the transcriptional state of genes are remembered temporally or transmitted to daughter cells and, in some instances, even to offspring (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. This memory effect, which can be found even in the absence of the original stress, has an epigenetic basis, through molecular mechanisms that take place at the chromatin and DNA level but do not imply changes in the DNA sequence. Many epigenetic mechanisms have been described and involve covalent modifications on the DNA and histones, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, and RNAi dependent silencing mechanisms. Some of these chromatin modifications need to be stable through cell division in order to be truly epigenetic. During DNA replication, histones are recycled during the formation of the new nucleosomes and this process is tightly regulated. Perturbations to the DNA replication process and/or the recycling of histones lead to epigenetic changes. In this mini-review, we discuss recent evidence aimed at linking DNA replication process to epigenetic inheritance in plants.

  15. Single molecular biology: coming of age in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Lou, Hui-Qiang

    2017-09-20

    DNA replication is an essential process of the living organisms. To achieve precise and reliable replication, DNA polymerases play a central role in DNA synthesis. Previous investigations have shown that the average rates of DNA synthesis on the leading and lagging strands in a replisome must be similar to avoid the formation of significant gaps in the nascent strands. The underlying mechanism has been assumed to be coordination between leading- and lagging-strand polymerases. However, Kowalczykowski's lab members recently performed single molecule techniques in E. coli and showed the real-time behavior of a replisome. The leading- and lagging-strand polymerases function stochastically and independently. Furthermore, when a DNA polymerase is paused, the helicase slows down in a self-regulating fail-safe mechanism, akin to a ''dead-man's switch''. Based on the real-time single-molecular observation, the authors propose that leading- and lagging-strand polymerases synthesize DNA stochastically within a Gaussian distribution. Along with the development and application of single-molecule techniques, we will witness a new age of DNA replication and other biological researches.

  16. DNA moves sequentially towards the nuclear matrix during DNA replication in vivo

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    Aranda-Anzaldo Armando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the interphase nucleus of metazoan cells DNA is organized in supercoiled loops anchored to a nuclear matrix (NM. There is varied evidence indicating that DNA replication occurs in replication factories organized upon the NM and that DNA loops may correspond to the actual replicons in vivo. In normal rat liver the hepatocytes are arrested in G0 but they synchronously re-enter the cell cycle after partial-hepatectomy leading to liver regeneration in vivo. We have previously determined in quiescent rat hepatocytes that a 162 kbp genomic region containing members of the albumin gene family is organized into five structural DNA loops. Results In the present work we tracked down the movement relative to the NM of DNA sequences located at different points within such five structural DNA loops during the S phase and after the return to cellular quiescence during liver regeneration. Our results indicate that looped DNA moves sequentially towards the NM during replication and then returns to its original position in newly quiescent cells, once the liver regeneration has been achieved. Conclusions Looped DNA moves in a sequential fashion, as if reeled in, towards the NM during DNA replication in vivo thus supporting the notion that the DNA template is pulled progressively towards the replication factories on the NM so as to be replicated. These results provide further evidence that the structural DNA loops correspond to the actual replicons in vivo.

  17. Near-atomic structural model for bacterial DNA replication initiation complex and its functional insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masahiro; Noguchi, Yasunori; Sakiyama, Yukari; Kawakami, Hironori; Katayama, Tsutomu; Takada, Shoji

    2016-12-13

    Upon DNA replication initiation in Escherichia coli, the initiator protein DnaA forms higher-order complexes with the chromosomal origin oriC and a DNA-bending protein IHF. Although tertiary structures of DnaA and IHF have previously been elucidated, dynamic structures of oriC-DnaA-IHF complexes remain unknown. Here, combining computer simulations with biochemical assays, we obtained models at almost-atomic resolution for the central part of the oriC-DnaA-IHF complex. This complex can be divided into three subcomplexes; the left and right subcomplexes include pentameric DnaA bound in a head-to-tail manner and the middle subcomplex contains only a single DnaA. In the left and right subcomplexes, DnaA ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) domain III formed helices with specific structural differences in interdomain orientations, provoking a bend in the bound DNA. In the left subcomplex a continuous DnaA chain exists, including insertion of IHF into the DNA looping, consistent with the DNA unwinding function of the complex. The intervening spaces in those subcomplexes are crucial for DNA unwinding and loading of DnaB helicases. Taken together, this model provides a reasonable near-atomic level structural solution of the initiation complex, including the dynamic conformations and spatial arrangements of DnaA subcomplexes.

  18. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

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    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  19. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs) kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs) and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  20. The Werner and Bloom syndrome proteins help resolve replication blockage by converting (regressed) holliday junctions to functional replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machwe, Amrita; Karale, Rajashree; Xu, Xioahua; Liu, Yilun; Orren, David K

    2011-08-16

    Cells cope with blockage of replication fork progression in a manner that allows DNA synthesis to be completed and genomic instability minimized. Models for resolution of blocked replication involve fork regression to form Holliday junction structures. The human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM (deficient in Werner and Bloom syndromes, respectively) are critical for maintaining genomic stability and thought to function in accurate resolution of replication blockage. Consistent with this notion, WRN and BLM localize to sites of blocked replication after certain DNA-damaging treatments and exhibit enhanced activity on replication and recombination intermediates. Here we examine the actions of WRN and BLM on a special Holliday junction substrate reflective of a regressed replication fork. Our results demonstrate that, in reactions requiring ATP hydrolysis, both WRN and BLM convert this Holliday junction substrate primarily to a four-stranded replication fork structure, suggesting they target the Holliday junction to initiate branch migration. In agreement, the Holliday junction binding protein RuvA inhibits the WRN- and BLM-mediated conversion reactions. Importantly, this conversion product is suitable for replication with its leading daughter strand readily extended by DNA polymerases. Furthermore, binding to and conversion of this Holliday junction are optimal at low MgCl(2) concentrations, suggesting that WRN and BLM preferentially act on the square planar (open) conformation of Holliday junctions. Our findings suggest that, subsequent to fork regression events, WRN and/or BLM could re-establish functional replication forks to help overcome fork blockage. Such a function is highly consistent with phenotypes associated with WRN- and BLM-deficient cells.

  1. Trapping DNA replication origins from the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eki, Toshihiko; Murakami, Yasufumi; Hanaoka, Fumio

    2013-04-17

    Synthesis of chromosomal DNA is initiated from multiple origins of replication in higher eukaryotes; however, little is known about these origins' structures. We isolated the origin-derived nascent DNAs from a human repair-deficient cell line by blocking the replication forks near the origins using two different origin-trapping methods (i.e., UV- or chemical crosslinker-treatment and cell synchronization in early S phase using DNA replication inhibitors). Single-stranded DNAs (of 0.5-3 kb) that accumulated after such treatments were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-labeled DNA was immunopurified after fractionation by alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cloned by complementary-strand synthesis and PCR amplification. Competitive PCR revealed an increased abundance of DNA derived from known replication origins (c-myc and lamin B2 genes) in the nascent DNA fractions from the UV-treated or crosslinked cells. Nucleotide sequences of 85 and 208 kb were obtained from the two libraries (I and II) prepared from the UV-treated log-phase cells and early S phase arrested cells, respectively. The libraries differed from each other in their G+C composition and replication-related motif contents, suggesting that differences existed between the origin fragments isolated by the two different origin-trapping methods. The replication activities for seven out of 12 putative origin loci from the early-S phase cells were shown by competitive PCR. We mapped 117 (library I) and 172 (library II) putative origin loci to the human genome; approximately 60% and 50% of these loci were assigned to the G-band and intragenic regions, respectively. Analyses of the flanking sequences of the mapped loci suggested that the putative origin loci tended to associate with genes (including conserved sites) and DNase I hypersensitive sites; however, poor correlations were found between such loci and the CpG islands, transcription start sites, and K27-acetylated histone H3 peaks.

  2. Dynamics of the HP1β-PCNA-containing complexes in DNA replication and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembecka-Lucas, Dominika O; Szczurek, Aleksander T; Dobrucki, Jurek W

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a small non-histone chromosomal protein, was recently shown to form a complex in vivo with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), a key factor in DNA replication. The complex, which requires HP1β in a form of a dimer, is engaged in DNA repair and replication. We now provide further evidence based on FRET-FLIM live cell studies confirming the association and close proximity between HP1β and PCNA in the complex. We also demonstrate using FRAP, that although HP1β-PCNA complexes are highly mobile in nonreplicating nuclei, when engaged in DNA replication, they become bound and do not exchange with the mobile pool. These observations are in agreement with a notion that a subpopulation of HP1 molecules interact with PCNA in vivo during DNA replication. Similarly, HP1β which is associated with PCNA in regions of DNA repair, is bound and does not exchange with the mobile pool, suggesting that HP1β in association with PCNA may be a component of a DNA repair complex.

  3. A euryarchaeal histone modulates strand displacement synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Huang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, the two main lineages of the domain Archaea, encode different chromatin proteins and differ in the use of replicative DNA polymerases. Crenarchaea possess a single family B DNA polymerase (PolB), which is capable of strand displacement modulated by the chromatin proteins Cren7 and Sul7d. Euryarchaea have two distinct replicative DNA polymerases, PolB and PolD, a family D DNA polymerase. Here we characterized the strand displacement activities of PolB and PolD from the hyperthermophilic euryarchaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and investigated the influence of HPfA1, a homolog of eukaryotic histones from P. furiosus, on these activities. We showed that both PolB and PolD were efficient in strand displacement. HPfA1 inhibited DNA strand displacement by both DNA polymerases but exhibited little effect on the displacement of a RNA strand annealed to single-stranded template DNA. This is consistent with the finding that HPfA1 bound more tightly to double-stranded DNA than to a RNA:DNA hybrid. Our results suggest that, although crenarchaea and euryarchaea differ in chromosomal packaging, they share similar mechanisms in modulating strand displacement by DNA polymerases during lagging strand DNA synthesis.

  4. FY05 LDRD Fianl Report Investigation of AAA+ protein machines that participate in DNA replication, recombination, and in response to DNA damage LDRD Project Tracking Code: 04-LW-049

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicka, D; de Carvalho-Kavanagh, M S; Barsky, D; Venclovas, C

    2006-12-04

    The AAA+ proteins are remarkable macromolecules that are able to self-assemble into nanoscale machines. These protein machines play critical roles in many cellular processes, including the processes that manage a cell's genetic material, but the mechanism at the molecular level has remained elusive. We applied computational molecular modeling, combined with advanced sequence analysis and available biochemical and genetic data, to structurally characterize eukaryotic AAA+ proteins and the protein machines they form. With these models we have examined intermolecular interactions in three-dimensions (3D), including both interactions between the components of the AAA+ complexes and the interactions of these protein machines with their partners. These computational studies have provided new insights into the molecular structure and the mechanism of action for AAA+ protein machines, thereby facilitating a deeper understanding of processes involved in DNA metabolism.

  5. Insights into the Determination of the Templating Nucleotide at the Initiation of φ29 DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Prado, Alicia; Lázaro, José M; Longás, Elisa; Villar, Laurentino; de Vega, Miguel; Salas, Margarita

    2015-11-06

    Bacteriophage φ29 from Bacillus subtilis starts replication of its terminal protein (TP)-DNA by a protein-priming mechanism. To start replication, the DNA polymerase forms a heterodimer with a free TP that recognizes the replication origins, placed at both 5' ends of the linear chromosome, and initiates replication using as primer the OH-group of Ser-232 of the TP. The initiation of φ29 TP-DNA replication mainly occurs opposite the second nucleotide at the 3' end of the template. Earlier analyses of the template position that directs the initiation reaction were performed using single-stranded and double-stranded oligonucleotides containing the replication origin sequence without the parental TP. Here, we show that the parental TP has no influence in the determination of the nucleotide used as template in the initiation reaction. Previous studies showed that the priming domain of the primer TP determines the template position used for initiation. The results obtained here using mutant TPs at the priming loop where Ser-232 is located indicate that the aromatic residue Phe-230 is one of the determinants that allows the positioning of the penultimate nucleotide at the polymerization active site to direct insertion of the initiator dAMP during the initiation reaction. The role of Phe-230 in limiting the internalization of the template strand in the polymerization active site is discussed.

  6. How a Small Family of Yeast IDPs Control Complicated Processes Related to DNA Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marabini, Riccardo

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are two essential proteins involved in DNA replication. RNR catalyzes the last and rate limiting step of the deoxyribonucleotide biosynthetic pathway. The dysregulation of RNR has been related to higher mutation rate...

  7. Functional redundancy between DNA ligases I and III in DNA replication in vertebrate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Bednar, Theresa; Wang, Minli; Paul, Katja; Mladenov, Emil; Bencsik-Theilen, Alena A.; Iliakis, George

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the three families of ATP-dependent DNA ligases are associated with specific functions in DNA metabolism. DNA ligase I (LigI) catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the replication fork and nucleotide excision repair (NER). DNA ligase IV (LigIV) mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) via the canonical non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. The evolutionary younger DNA ligase III (LigIII) is restricted to higher eukaryotes and has been associated with base excision (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR). Here, using conditional knockout strategies for LIG3 and concomitant inactivation of the LIG1 and LIG4 genes, we show that in DT40 cells LigIII efficiently supports semi-conservative DNA replication. Our observations demonstrate a high functional versatility for the evolutionary new LigIII in DNA replication and mitochondrial metabolism, and suggest the presence of an alternative pathway for Okazaki fragment ligation. PMID:22127868

  8. Potential biomarkers of DNA replication stress in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Liqun; Chen, Long; Wu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Oncogene activation is an established driver of tumorigenesis. An apparently inevitable consequence of oncogene activation is the generation of DNA replication stress (RS), a feature common to most cancer cells. RS, in turn, is a causal factor in the development of chromosome instability (CIN), a...

  9. Timing, coordination, and rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA replication fork

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Samir

    2010-04-09

    In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field. 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. DNA replication: stalling a fork for imprinting and switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Mating-type switching in fission yeast has long been known to be directed by a DNA 'imprint'. This imprint has now been firmly characterized as a protected site-specific and strand-specific nick. New work also links the widely conserved Swi1-Swi3 complex to the protection of stalled replication...

  11. DNA breaks early in replication in B cell cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  12. The fork and the kinase: a DNA replication tale from a CHK1 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Besteiro, Marina A; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Replication fork progression is being continuously hampered by exogenously introduced and naturally occurring DNA lesions and other physical obstacles. Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is activated at replication forks that encounter damaged DNA. Subsequently, Chk1 inhibits the initiation of new replication factories and stimulates the firing of dormant origins (those in the vicinity of stalled forks). Chk1 also avoids fork collapse into DSBs (double strand breaks) and promotes fork elongation. At the molecular level, the current model considers stalled forks as the site of Chk1 activation and the nucleoplasm as the location where Chk1 phosphorylates target proteins. This model certainly serves to explain how Chk1 modulates origin firing, but how Chk1 controls the fate of stalled forks is less clear. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrating that Chk1 phosphorylates chromatin-bound proteins and even holds kinase-independent functions might shed light on how Chk1 contributes to the elongation of damaged DNA. Indeed, such findings have unveiled a puzzling connection between Chk1 and DNA lesion bypass, which might be central to promoting fork elongation and checkpoint attenuation. In summary, Chk1 is a multifaceted and versatile signaling factor that acts at ongoing forks and replication origins to determine the extent and quality of the cellular response to replication stress.

  13. Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation and the response to DNA replication fork damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtele, Hugo; Kaiser, Gitte Schalck; Bacal, Julien;

    2012-01-01

    but are only mildly affected by hydroxyurea. We demonstrate that, after exposure to MMS, H3K56ac-deficient cells cannot complete DNA replication and eventually segregate chromosomes with intranuclear foci containing the recombination protein Rad52. In addition, we provide evidence that these phenotypes......In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) occurs in newly synthesized histones that are deposited throughout the genome during DNA replication. Defects in H3K56ac sensitize cells to genotoxic agents, suggesting that this modification plays an important role in the DNA...... damage response. However, the links between histone acetylation, the nascent chromatin structure, and the DNA damage response are poorly understood. Here we report that cells devoid of H3K56ac are sensitive to DNA damage sustained during transient exposure to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or camptothecin...

  14. Verifying likelihoods for low template DNA profiles using multiple replicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Christopher D.; Greenhalgh, Matthew; Balding, David J.

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no generally accepted method to test the validity of algorithms used to compute likelihood ratios (LR) evaluating forensic DNA profiles from low-template and/or degraded samples. An upper bound on the LR is provided by the inverse of the match probability, which is the usual measure of weight of evidence for standard DNA profiles not subject to the stochastic effects that are the hallmark of low-template profiles. However, even for low-template profiles the LR in favour of a true prosecution hypothesis should approach this bound as the number of profiling replicates increases, provided that the queried contributor is the major contributor. Moreover, for sufficiently many replicates the standard LR for mixtures is often surpassed by the low-template LR. It follows that multiple LTDNA replicates can provide stronger evidence for a contributor to a mixture than a standard analysis of a good-quality profile. Here, we examine the performance of the likeLTD software for up to eight replicate profiling runs. We consider simulated and laboratory-generated replicates as well as resampling replicates from a real crime case. We show that LRs generated by likeLTD usually do exceed the mixture LR given sufficient replicates, are bounded above by the inverse match probability and do approach this bound closely when this is expected. We also show good performance of likeLTD even when a large majority of alleles are designated as uncertain, and suggest that there can be advantages to using different profiling sensitivities for different replicates. Overall, our results support both the validity of the underlying mathematical model and its correct implementation in the likeLTD software. PMID:25082140

  15. Structure and interactions of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation inhibitor of DNA replication, SirA, with domain I of DnaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Katie H; Rostami, Nadia; Fogg, Mark J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Grahl, Anne; Murray, Heath; Wilkinson, Anthony J

    2014-09-01

    Chromosome copy number in cells is controlled so that the frequency of initiation of DNA replication matches that of cell division. In bacteria, this is achieved through regulation of the interaction between the initiator protein DnaA and specific DNA elements arrayed at the origin of replication. DnaA assembles at the origin and promotes DNA unwinding and the assembly of a replication initiation complex. SirA is a DnaA-interacting protein that inhibits initiation of replication in diploid Bacillus subtilis cells committed to the developmental pathway leading to formation of a dormant spore. Here we present the crystal structure of SirA in complex with the N-terminal domain of DnaA revealing a heterodimeric complex. The interacting surfaces of both proteins are α-helical with predominantly apolar side-chains packing in a hydrophobic interface. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirm the importance of this interface for the interaction of the two proteins in vitro and in vivo. Localization of GFP-SirA indicates that the protein accumulates at the replisome in sporulating cells, likely through a direct interaction with DnaA. The SirA interacting surface of DnaA corresponds closely to the HobA-interacting surface of DnaA from Helicobacter pylori even though HobA is an activator of DnaA and SirA is an inhibitor.

  16. Cloning of an origin of DNA replication of Xenopus laevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S.; Taylor, J.H.

    1980-09-01

    DNA fragments of Xenopus laevis, the African frog, were cloned in the EcoRI site of the Eschrichia coli plasmid pACYC189 and tested for ability to initiate and complete replication of the recombinant plasmid when injected into unfertilized eggs of X. laevis. After measurement of the (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation per egg for a number of recombinant plasmids, pSW14 and pSW9, which respectively contain a small segment (550 base pairs) and several kilobases of frog DNA, were selected for more extensive analysis. In spite of the small size of th segment in pSW14, it incorporates in 2 hr at least 3 times as much labeled thymidine as either pSW9 or the vector alone. To determine the number of replications of pSW14, a novel method was employed. The results showed that about 50% of the labeled, supercoiled DNA recovered from eggs after 4 hr was sensitive to EcoRI digestion, which indicates that most of the DNA that incorporated (/sup 3/H)thymidine had replicated twice during the 4 hr in the unfertilized eggs of X. laevis. We conclude the pSW14 has a functional origin in the Xenopus DNA segment.

  17. Sequence characteristics required for cooperative binding and efficient in vivo titration of the replication initiator protein DnaA in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Atlung, Tove

    2007-01-01

    was eliminated by insertion of half a helical turn between any of the DnaA boxes. Titration strongly depends on the presence and orientation of the promoter distal R6 DnaA box located 104 bp upstream of the R5 box as well as neighbouring sequences downstream of R6. Titration depends on the integrity of a 43 bp...... was located less than 20 bp upstream of the -35 sequence. Thus, the architectural requirements for titration and for repression of transcription are different. A new set of rules for identifying efficiently titrating DnaA box regions was formulated and used to analyse sequences for which good titration data...

  18. Studies on the mechanism of DNA replication in Physarum polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, E.N.; Evans, T.E.; Evans, H.H.

    1974-01-01

    The synthesis of single-stranded DNA subunits (4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons) in Physarum polycephalum was studied by alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The results were compared with the synthesis of the double-stranded DNA molecules (2.3 x 10/sup 8/ daltons) which they comprise, as determined from neutral sucrose density gradient centrifugation patterns. Although the initiation of synthesis of most double-stranded DNA molecules takes place relatively early in the S period, synthesis of the subunits within them is initiated throughout at least the first two hours of this period. Similarly, replicating (presumably forked) DNA molecules appear to split into daughter DNA molecules prior to the completion of synthesis of the subunits therein. The average rate of DNA chain elongation within subunits is 0.3 x 10/sup 6/ daltons/minute. It is suggested that alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation may be a more sensitive method for determining the time required for the completion of replication than other methods based solely on the incorporation of radioactive DNA precursors into an acid-insoluble product.

  19. Extrachromosomal recombination in vaccinia-infected cells requires a functional DNA polymerase participating at a level other than DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinas, R J; Condit, R C; Paoletti, E

    1990-12-01

    Homologous recombination was measured in vaccinia-infected cells cotransfected with two plasmid recombination substrates. One plasmid contains a vaccinia protein lacZ coding region bearing a 1.1 kb 3' terminal deletion while the other plasmid contains a non-promoted lacZ coding region bearing a 1.1 kb 5' terminal deletion. Homologous recombination occurring between the 825 bp of lacZ common to both plasmids regenerates a functional lacZ gene from which B-galactosidase expression was measured. The entire 3 kb lacZ gene was used as a positive control. A panel of thermosensitive mutants was screened in cells either transfected with the positive control plasmid or cotransfected with the recombination substrates. A DNA - mutant, ts42, known to map to the viral DNA polymerase gene was found to be defective in recombination. Significantly, other DNA - mutants, ts17 or ts25, or other DNA polymerase mutants did not exhibit a defect in recombination similar to ts42. Inhibitors of viral DNA synthesis did not uniformly affect recombination. Cytosine arabinoside and aphidicolin inhibited B-galactosidase expression from the recombination substrates but not from the positive control plasmid, whereas hydroxyurea enhanced expression from both. Marker rescue with the cloned wildtype DNA polymerase gene repaired the defect in ts42. Southern and western analyses demonstrated that B-galactosidase activity was consistent with a recombined lacZ gene and unit size 116 kDa protein. Measurement of plasmid and viral DNA replication in cells infected with the different DNA - mutants indicated that recombination was independent of plasmid and viral DNA replication. Together these results suggest that the vaccinia DNA polymerase participates in homologous recombination at a level other than that of DNA replication.

  20. SirA enforces diploidy by inhibiting the replication initiator DnaA during spore formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer K; Marquis, Kathleen A; Rudner, David Z

    2009-09-01

    How cells maintain their ploidy is relevant to cellular development and disease. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which the bacterium Bacillus subtilis enforces diploidy as it differentiates into a dormant spore. We demonstrate that a sporulation-induced protein SirA (originally annotated YneE) blocks new rounds of replication by targeting the highly conserved replication initiation factor DnaA. We show that SirA interacts with DnaA and displaces it from the replication origin. As a result, expression of SirA during growth rapidly blocks replication and causes cell death in a DnaA-dependent manner. Finally, cells lacking SirA over-replicate during sporulation. These results support a model in which induction of SirA enforces diploidy by inhibiting replication initiation as B. subtilis cells develop into spores.

  1. Plasmid P1 replication: negative control by repeated DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoraj, D; Cordes, K.; Abeles, A

    1984-01-01

    The incompatibility locus, incA, of the unit-copy plasmid P1 is contained within a fragment that is essentially a set of nine 19-base-pair repeats. One or more copies of the fragment destabilizes the plasmid when present in trans. Here we show that extra copies of incA interfere with plasmid DNA replication and that a deletion of most of incA increases plasmid copy number. Thus, incA is not essential for replication but is required for its control. When cloned in a high-copy-number vector, pi...

  2. Regulation of DNA replication by the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhind Nicholas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells slow replication in response to DNA damage. This slowing was the first DNA damage checkpoint response discovered and its study led to the discovery of the central checkpoint kinase, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM. Nonetheless, the manner by which the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint slows replication is still unclear. The checkpoint could slow bulk replication by inhibiting replication origin firing or slowing replication fork progression, and both mechanisms appear to be used. However, assays in various systems using different DNA damaging agents have produced conflicting results as to the relative importance of the two mechanisms. Furthermore, although progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism of origin regulation in vertebrates, the mechanism by which forks are slowed remains unknown. We review both past and present efforts towards determining how cells slow replication in response to damage and try to resolve apparent conflicts and discrepancies within the field. We propose that inhibition of origin firing is a global checkpoint mechanism that reduces overall DNA synthesis whenever the checkpoint is activated, whereas slowing of fork progression reflects a local checkpoint mechanism that only affects replisomes as they encounter DNA damage and therefore only affects overall replication rates in cases of high lesion density.

  3. Chl12 (Ctf18) Forms a Novel Replication Factor C-Related Complex and Functions Redundantly with Rad24 in the DNA Replication Checkpoint Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Naiki, Takahiro; Kondo, Tae; Nakada, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Katsunori

    2001-01-01

    RAD24 has been identified as a gene essential for the DNA damage checkpoint in budding yeast. Rad24 is structurally related to subunits of the replication factor C (RFC) complex, and forms an RFC-related complex with Rfc2, Rfc3, Rfc4, and Rfc5. The rad24Δ mutation enhances the defect of rfc5-1 in the DNA replication block checkpoint, implicating RAD24 in this checkpoint. CHL12 (also called CTF18) encodes a protein that is structurally related to the Rad24 and RFC proteins. We show here that a...

  4. Cellular DNA repair cofactors affecting hepatitis B virus infection and replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhao; Ning-Bo Hou; Ting Song; Xiang He; Zi-Rui Zheng; Qing-Jun Ma; Li Li; Yan-Hong Zhang; Hui Zhong

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection activates DNA damage response and DNA repair cofactors inhibit HBV infection and replication.METHODS: Human hepatocyte cell line HL7702 was studied. Immunoblotting was performed to test the expression of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-Rad3-related protein (ATR), p21 and the level of phosphorylation of Chk1, p53, H2AX, ATM in HBV-infected or non-infected-cells. Special short RNAi oligos was transfected to induce transient ATR knockdown in HL7702. ATR-ATM chemical inhibitors caffeine (CF) and theophylline (TP), or Chk1 inhibitor 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN01) was studied to determine whether they suppress cellular DNA damage response and MG132 inhibits proteasome.RESULTS: The ATR checkpoint pathway, responding to single-strand breaks in DNA, was activated in response to HBV infection. ATR knockdown cells decreased the HBV DNA yields, implying that HBV infection and replication could activate and exploit the activated DNA damage response. CF/TP or UCN01 reduced the HBV DNA yield by 70% and 80%, respectively. HBV abrogated the ATR-dependent DNA damage signaling pathway by degrading p21, and introduction of the p21 protein before HBV infection reduced the HBV DNA yield. Consistent with this result, p21 accumulation after MG132 treatment also sharply decreased the HBV DNA yield.CONCLUSION: HBV infection can be treated with therapeutic approaches targeting host cell proteins by inhibiting a cellular gene required for HBV replication or by restoring a response abrogated by HBV, thus providing a potential approach to the prevention and treatrnent of HBV infection.

  5. Ubiquitylation of FACT by the cullin-E3 ligase Rtt101 connects FACT to DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junhong; Li, Qing; McCullough, Laura; Kettelkamp, Charisse; Formosa, Tim; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2010-07-15

    FACT plays important roles in both gene transcription and DNA replication. However, how this protein complex is targeted to these two distinct cellular processes remains largely unknown. Here we show that ubiquitylation of the Spt16 subunit of FACT by Rtt101, the cullin subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, links FACT to DNA replication. We find Rtt101 interacts with and ubiquitylates Spt16 in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of RTT101 leads to reduced association of both FACT and the replicative helicase MCM with replication origins. Loss of Rtt101 also reduces binding of FACT to MCM, but not the association of FACT with Leo1 and Spt5, two proteins involved in transcription. Origin function is compromised in cells lacking Rtt101 or with an Spt16 mutation. These findings identify Spt16 as an Rtt101 substrate, and suggest that Spt16 ubiquitylation is important for FACT to function during DNA replication.

  6. Gap-directed translesion DNA synthesis of an abasic site on circular DNA templates by a human replication complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Villani

    Full Text Available DNA polymerase ε (pol ε is believed to be the leading strand replicase in eukaryotes whereas pols λ and β are thought to be mainly involved in re-synthesis steps of DNA repair. DNA elongation by the human pol ε is halted by an abasic site (apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP site. We have previously reported that human pols λ, β and η can perform translesion synthesis (TLS of an AP site in the presence of pol ε. In the case of pol λ and β, this TLS requires the presence of a gap downstream from the product synthetized by the ε replicase. However, since these studies were conducted exclusively with a linear DNA template, we decided to test whether the structure of the template could influence the capacity of the pols ε, λ, β and η to perform TLS of an AP site. Therefore, we have investigated the replication of damaged "minicircle" DNA templates. In addition, replication of circular DNA requires, beyond DNA pols, the processivity clamp PCNA, the clamp loader replication factor C (RFC, and the accessory proteins replication protein A (RPA. Finally we have compared the capacity of unmodified versus monoubiquitinated PCNA in sustaining TLS by pols λ and η on a circular template. Our results indicate that in vitro gap-directed TLS synthesis by pols λ and β in the presence of pol ε, RPA and PCNA is unaffected by the structure of the DNA template. Moreover, monoubiquitination of PCNA does not affect TLS by pol λ while it appears to slightly stimulate TLS by pol η.

  7. Synthetic peptide inhibitors of DNA replication in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Kjelstrup, Susanne

    of clinically important pathogens and is essential for bacterial proliferation. The bacterial replication apparatus fulfill the requirements for a good drug target. The replisome of S. aureus consists of 5 different subunits (2, PolC2, 4, δ and δ`) who’s organization depends on multiple protein-protein...... interactions. Centrally in the replisome is the -clamp where to multiple proteins binds through a conserved motif. We have identified the protein-protein interactions in the replisome of S. aureus by use of a bacterial two-hybrid system. A reverse bacterial two-hybrid system (R-BTH) based on Pyr...

  8. Proteome-wide analysis of SUMO2 targets in response to pathological DNA replication stress in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursomanno, Sara; Beli, Petra; Khan, Asif M;

    2015-01-01

    SUMOylation is a form of post-translational modification involving covalent attachment of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) polypeptides to specific lysine residues in the target protein. In human cells, there are four SUMO proteins, SUMO1-4, with SUMO2 and SUMO3 forming a closely related...... subfamily. SUMO2/3, in contrast to SUMO1, are predominantly involved in the cellular response to certain stresses, including heat shock. Substantial evidence from studies in yeast has shown that SUMOylation plays an important role in the regulation of DNA replication and repair. Here, we report a proteomic...... repair. We have also shown that deficiency of POLD3 leads to an increase in RPA-bound ssDNA when cells are under replication stress, suggesting that POLD3 plays a role in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. Considering that DNA replication stress is a source of genome instability...

  9. Effects of DNA replication on mRNA noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph R; Cole, John A; Fei, Jingyi; Ha, Taekjip; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida A

    2015-12-29

    There are several sources of fluctuations in gene expression. Here we study the effects of time-dependent DNA replication, itself a tightly controlled process, on noise in mRNA levels. Stochastic simulations of constitutive and regulated gene expression are used to analyze the time-averaged mean and variation in each case. The simulations demonstrate that to capture mRNA distributions correctly, chromosome replication must be realistically modeled. Slow relaxation of mRNA from the low copy number steady state before gene replication to the high steady state after replication is set by the transcript's half-life and contributes significantly to the shape of the mRNA distribution. Consequently both the intrinsic kinetics and the gene location play an important role in accounting for the mRNA average and variance. Exact analytic expressions for moments of the mRNA distributions that depend on the DNA copy number, gene location, cell doubling time, and the rates of transcription and degradation are derived for the case of constitutive expression and subsequently extended to provide approximate corrections for regulated expression and RNA polymerase variability. Comparisons of the simulated models and analytical expressions to experimentally measured mRNA distributions show that they better capture the physics of the system than previous theories.

  10. DNA replication of single-stranded Escherichia coli DNA phages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Research on single-stranded DNA phages has contributed tremendously to our knowledge of several fundamental life-processes. The small size of their genomes and the fast rate at which they multiply in their host, Escherichia coil, made them attractive candidates for various studies. There are two cla

  11. Neurogenesis requires TopBP1 to prevent catastrophic replicative DNA damage in early progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsoo; Katyal, Sachin; Downing, Susanna M.; Zhao, Jingfeng; Russell, Helen R.; McKinnon, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of progenitors during neurogenesis requires a stringent genomic maintenance program to ensure transmission of genetic fidelity. However the essential factors that govern neural progenitor genome integrity are unknown. Here we report that conditional inactivation of mouse TopBP1, a protein linked to DNA replication, and a key activator of the DNA damage response kinase ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and rad3 related) is critical for maintenance of early-born neural progenitors. During cortical development TopBP1 prevented replication-associated DNA damage in Emx1-progenitors which otherwise resulted in profound tissue ablation. Importantly, disrupted neurogenesis in TopBP1-depleted tissues was substantially rescued by p53- but not ATM-inactivation. Our data establish that TopBP1 is essential for preventing replication-associated DNA strand breaks, but is not essential per se for DNA replication. Thus, TopBP1 is crucial for maintaining genome integrity in the early progenitors that drive neurogenesis. PMID:22522401

  12. Studies on the effects of persistent RNA priming on DNA replication and genomic stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    [EN]: DNA replication and transcription take place on the same DNA template, and the correct interplay between these processes ensures faithful genome duplication. DNA replication must be highly coordinated with other cell cycle events, such as segregation of fully replicated DNA in order to maintain genomic integrity. Transcription generates RNA:DNA hybrids, transient intermediate structures that are degraded by the ribonuclease H (RNaseH) class of enzymes. RNA:DNA hybrids can form R-loops, ...

  13. Studies on the effects of persistent RNA priming on DNA replication and genomic stability

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    [EN]: DNA replication and transcription take place on the same DNA template, and the correct interplay between these processes ensures faithful genome duplication. DNA replication must be highly coordinated with other cell cycle events, such as segregation of fully replicated DNA in order to maintain genomic integrity. Transcription generates RNA:DNA hybrids, transient intermediate structures that are degraded by the ribonuclease H (RNaseH) class of enzymes. RNA:DNA hybrids can form R-loops, ...

  14. The rolling-circle melting-pot model for porcine circovirus DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stem-loop structure, formed by a pair of inverted repeats during DNA replication, is a conserved feature at the origin of DNA replication (Ori) among plant and animal viruses, bacteriophages and plasmids that replicate their genomes via the rolling-circle replication (RCR) mechanism. Porcine circo...

  15. Proteome-wide analysis of SUMO2 targets in response to pathological DNA replication stress in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursomanno, Sara; Beli, Petra; Khan, Asif M; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Wagner, Sebastian A; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Choudhary, Chunaram; Hickson, Ian D; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    SUMOylation is a form of post-translational modification involving covalent attachment of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) polypeptides to specific lysine residues in the target protein. In human cells, there are four SUMO proteins, SUMO1-4, with SUMO2 and SUMO3 forming a closely related subfamily. SUMO2/3, in contrast to SUMO1, are predominantly involved in the cellular response to certain stresses, including heat shock. Substantial evidence from studies in yeast has shown that SUMOylation plays an important role in the regulation of DNA replication and repair. Here, we report a proteomic analysis of proteins modified by SUMO2 in response to DNA replication stress in S phase in human cells. We have identified a panel of 22 SUMO2 targets with increased SUMOylation during DNA replication stress, many of which play key functions within the DNA replication machinery and/or in the cellular response to DNA damage. Interestingly, POLD3 was found modified most significantly in response to a low dose aphidicolin treatment protocol that promotes common fragile site (CFS) breakage. POLD3 is the human ortholog of POL32 in budding yeast, and has been shown to act during break-induced recombinational repair. We have also shown that deficiency of POLD3 leads to an increase in RPA-bound ssDNA when cells are under replication stress, suggesting that POLD3 plays a role in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. Considering that DNA replication stress is a source of genome instability, and that excessive replication stress is a hallmark of pre-neoplastic and tumor cells, our characterization of SUMO2 targets during a perturbed S-phase should provide a valuable resource for future functional studies in the fields of DNA metabolism and cancer biology.

  16. The Replication Focus Targeting Sequence (RFTS) Domain Is a DNA-competitive Inhibitor of Dnmt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syeda, Farisa; Fagan, Rebecca L.; Wean, Matthew; Avvakumov, George V.; Walker, John R.; Xue, Sheng; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Brenner, Charles (Iowa); (Toronto)

    2015-11-30

    Dnmt1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) is the principal enzyme responsible for maintenance of cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides in the mammalian genome. The N-terminal replication focus targeting sequence (RFTS) domain of Dnmt1 has been implicated in subcellular localization, protein association, and catalytic function. However, progress in understanding its function has been limited by the lack of assays for and a structure of this domain. Here, we show that the naked DNA- and polynucleosome-binding activities of Dnmt1 are inhibited by the RFTS domain, which functions by virtue of binding the catalytic domain to the exclusion of DNA. Kinetic analysis with a fluorogenic DNA substrate established the RFTS domain as a 600-fold inhibitor of Dnmt1 enzymatic activity. The crystal structure of the RFTS domain reveals a novel fold and supports a mechanism in which an RFTS-targeted Dnmt1-binding protein, such as Uhrf1, may activate Dnmt1 for DNA binding.

  17. Mouse polyoma virus and adenovirus replication in mouse cells temperature-sensitive in DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinin, R; Fabbro, J; Dubsky, M

    1985-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus multiplies, apparently without impediment, in temperature-inactivated ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 mouse fibroblasts. Thus, the DNA of mouse adenovirus can replicate in the absence of functional DNA topoisomerase II, a DNA-chain-elongation factor, and a protein required for traverse of the G1/S interface, respectively, encoded in the ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 genetic loci. These results are compared with those obtained with polyoma virus.

  18. Genetic networks controlled by the bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tracy A; Smith, Janet L; Grossman, Alan D

    2017-10-01

    DnaA is the widely conserved bacterial AAA+ ATPase that functions as both the replication initiator and a transcription factor. In many organisms, DnaA controls expression of its own gene and likely several others during growth and in response to replication stress. To evaluate the effects of DnaA on gene expression, separate from its role in replication initiation, we analyzed changes in mRNA levels in Bacillus subtilis cells with and without dnaA, using engineered strains in which dnaA is not essential. We found that dnaA was required for many of the changes in gene expression in response to replication stress. We also found that dnaA indirectly affected expression of several regulons during growth, including those controlled by the transcription factors Spo0A, AbrB, PhoP, SinR, RemA, Rok and YvrH. These effects were largely mediated by the effects of DnaA on expression of sda. DnaA activates transcription of sda, and Sda inhibits histidine protein kinases required for activation of the transcription factor Spo0A. We also found that loss of dnaA caused a decrease in the development of genetic competence. Together, our results indicate that DnaA plays an important role in modulating cell physiology, separate from its role in replication initiation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Role for RNA: DNA hybrids in origin-independent replication priming in a eukaryotic system

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Ruth; García Rodriguez, Néstor; Aguilera López, Andrés; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication initiates at defined replication origins along eukaryotic chromosomes, ensuring complete genome duplication within a single S-phase. A key feature of replication origins is their ability to control the onset of DNA synthesis mediated by DNA polymerase-α and its intrinsic RNA primase activity. Here, we describe a novel origin-independent replication process that is mediated by transcription. RNA polymerase I transcription constraints lead to persistent RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops)...

  20. Involvement of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Cyclin) in DNA replication in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, M.; Tan, E.M.; Ryoji, M.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (also called cyclin) is known to stimulate the activity of DNA polymerase /delta/ but not the other DNA polymerases in vitro. The authors injected a human autoimmune antibody against PCNA into unfertilized eggs of Xenopus laevis and examined the effects of this antibody on the replication of injected plasmid DNA as well as egg chromosomes. The anti-PCNA antibody inhibited plasmid replication by up to 67%, demonstrating that PCNA is involved in plasmid replication in living cells. This result further implies that DNA polymerase /delta/ is necessary for plasmid replication in vivo, Anti-PCNA antibody alone did not block plasmid replication completely, but the residual replication was abolished by coinjection of a monoclonal antibody against DNA polymerase /alpha/. Anti-DNA polymerase /alpha/ alone inhibited plasmid replication by 63%. Thus, DNA ploymerase /alpha/ is also required for plasmid replication in this system. In similar studies on the replication of egg chromosomes, the inhibition by anti-PCNA antibody was only 30%, while anti-DNA polymerase /alpha/ antibody blocked 73% of replication. They concluded that the replication machineries of chromosomes and plasmid differ in their relative content of DNA polymerase /delta/. In addition, they obtained evidence through the use of phenylbutyl deoxyguanosine, an inhibitor of DNA polymearse /alpha/, that the structure of DNA polymerase /alpha/ holoenzyme for chromosome replication is significantly different from that for plasmid replication.

  1. Replication of M13 single—stranded DNA bearing a sitespecific ethenocytosine lesion by Escherichia coil cell extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGE; PAULMDUNMAN; 等

    1997-01-01

    Previous investigation on the mutagenic effects of 3,N4-Ethenocytosine (εC),a nonpairing DNA lesion,revealed the existence of a novel SOS-independent inducible mutagenic mechanism in E.coli termed UVM for UV modulation of mutagenesis.To investigate whether UVM is mediated by an alteration of DNA replication,we have set up an in vitro replication system in which phage M13 viral single-stranded DNA bearing a single site-specific (εC) residue is replicated by soluble protein extracts from E.coli cells.Replication products were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the frequency of translesion synthesis was determined by restriction endonuclease analyses.Our data indicate that DNA replication is strongly inhibited by εC,but that translesion DNA synthesis does occur in about 14% of the replicated DNA molecules.These results are very similar to those observed previously in vivo,and suggest that this experimental system may be suitable for evaluating alterations in DNA replication in UVM-induced cells.

  2. A novel class of mutations that affect DNA replication in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordman, Jared; Skovgaard, Ole; Wright, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Over-initiation of DNA replication in cells containing the cold-sensitive dnaA(cos) allele has been shown to lead to extensive DNA damage, potentially due to head-to-tail replication fork collisions that ultimately lead to replication fork collapse, growth stasis and/or cell death. Based on the a...

  3. Mouse zygotes respond to severe sperm DNA damage by delaying paternal DNA replication and embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna E Gawecka

    Full Text Available Mouse zygotes do not activate apoptosis in response to DNA damage. We previously reported a unique form of inducible sperm DNA damage termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF. SCF mirrors some aspects of somatic cell apoptosis in that the DNA degradation is mediated by reversible double strand breaks caused by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B followed by irreversible DNA degradation by a nuclease(s. Here, we created zygotes using spermatozoa induced to undergo SCF (SCF zygotes and tested how they responded to moderate and severe paternal DNA damage during the first cell cycle. We found that the TUNEL assay was not sensitive enough to identify the breaks caused by SCF in zygotes in either case. However, paternal pronuclei in both groups stained positively for γH2AX, a marker for DNA damage, at 5 hrs after fertilization, just before DNA synthesis, while the maternal pronuclei were negative. We also found that both pronuclei in SCF zygotes with moderate DNA damage replicated normally, but paternal pronuclei in the SCF zygotes with severe DNA damage delayed the initiation of DNA replication by up to 12 hrs even though the maternal pronuclei had no discernable delay. Chromosomal analysis of both groups confirmed that the paternal DNA was degraded after S-phase while the maternal pronuclei formed normal chromosomes. The DNA replication delay caused a marked retardation in progression to the 2-cell stage, and a large portion of the embryos arrested at the G2/M border, suggesting that this is an important checkpoint in zygotic development. Those embryos that progressed through the G2/M border died at later stages and none developed to the blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate that the zygote responds to sperm DNA damage through a non-apoptotic mechanism that acts by slowing paternal DNA replication and ultimately leads to arrest in embryonic development.

  4. Studies of the silencing of Baculovirus DNA binding protein

    OpenAIRE

    Quadt, I.; Lent, van, J.W.M.; Knebel-Morsdorf, D.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus DNA binding protein (DBP) binds preferentially single-stranded DNA in vitro and colocalizes with viral DNA replication sites. Here, its putative role as viral replication factor has been addressed by RNA interference. Silencing of DBP in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus-infected cells increased expression of LEF-3, LEF-4, and P35. In contrast, expression of the structural genes coding for P39 and polyhedrin was suppressed while expression of genes coding for P1...

  5. The Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus Latency-associated Nuclear Antigen DNA Binding Domain Dorsal Positive Electrostatic Patch Facilitates DNA Replication and Episome Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijun; Tan, Min; Juillard, Franceline; Ponnusamy, Rajesh; Correia, Bruno; Simas, J Pedro; Carrondo, Maria A; McVey, Colin E; Kaye, Kenneth M

    2015-11-20

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has a causative role in several human malignancies. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) mediates persistence of viral episomes in latently infected cells. LANA mediates KSHV DNA replication and segregates episomes to progeny nuclei. The structure of the LANA DNA binding domain was recently solved, revealing a positive electrostatic patch opposite the DNA binding surface, which is the site of BET protein binding. Here we investigate the functional role of the positive patch in LANA-mediated episome persistence. As expected, LANA mutants with alanine or glutamate substitutions in the central, peripheral, or lateral portions of the positive patch maintained the ability to bind DNA by EMSA. However, all of the substitution mutants were deficient for LANA DNA replication and episome maintenance. Mutation of the peripheral region generated the largest deficiencies. Despite these deficiencies, all positive patch mutants concentrated to dots along mitotic chromosomes in cells containing episomes, similar to LANA. The central and peripheral mutants, but not the lateral mutants, were reduced for BET protein interaction as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. However, defects in BET protein binding were independent of episome maintenance function. Overall, the reductions in episome maintenance closely correlated with DNA replication deficiencies, suggesting that the replication defects account for the reduced episome persistence. Therefore, the electrostatic patch exerts a key role in LANA-mediated DNA replication and episome persistence and may act through a host cell partner(s) other than a BET protein or by inducing specific structures or complexes.

  6. Reduced rate of DNA replication fork movement in megaloblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickremasinghe, R G; Hoffbrand, A V

    1980-01-01

    Chromatography on benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE-cellulose has been used to fractionate fully double-stranded from partially single-stranded DNA molecules. DNA was extracted from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with megaloblastic anemia resulting from vitamin B12 or folate deficiency after pulse-labeling the cells with [3H]thymidine for 5 min and chasing in unlabeled medium for 24 h. No gross accumulation of partially single-stranded material was observed in the DNA of these cells when compared with DNA from similarly labeled control cells obtained by the addition of 5-formyl tetrahydrofolic acid to the culture medium. When DNA from lymphocytes labeled with a 5-min pulse of [3H]thymidine and sheared to fragments of an average length of 18 micrometer was chromatographed on benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE-cellulose, approximately 80% of the label was recovered in the partially single-stranded fraction. After chasing in unlabeled medium the label was progressively transferred to the double-stranded fraction over a period of 2--3 h. The rate of transfer was slower in megaloblastic lymphocytes than in controls. The difference in rate suggested a slower rate of replication fork movement in megaloblastic lymphocytes and so the density shift technique of Painter and schaeffer (J. Mol. Biol. 45: 467--479, 1969) was used to measure the fork rate directly. [3H]Deoxycytidine was used as the labeled nucleoside to avoid possible complications arising from [3H]thymidine labeling of megaloblastic cells. Investigations on the lymphocytes from four patients showed that the replication fork rate in vitamin-treated control lyphocytes was about 1 micrometer/min. The fork rates in the corresponding untreated cells were invariably lower and rates ranging from 40 to 92% of those of controls were observed. Normal lymphocytes treated with the deoxynucleotide pool-depleting drugs methotrexate or hydroxyurea displayed defects in DNA synthesis similar to those of

  7. Evidence for and Localization of Vegetative Viral DNA Replication by Autoradiographic Detection of RNA·DNA Hybrids in Sections of Tumors Induced by Shope Papilloma Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Gérard; Jeanteur, Philippe; Croissant, Odile

    1971-01-01

    The occurrence and localization of vegetative viral DNA replication was studied in sections of tumors induced by the rabbit Shope papilloma virus, in cottontail and domestic rabbit papillomas, in primary domestic rabbit carcinoma, and in transplantable VX2 carcinoma, by in situ hybridization of radioactive RNA complementary to viral DNA. Vegetative viral DNA replication and viral protein synthesis were compared by means of cytological hybridization and immunofluorescence techniques on adjacent frozen sections. Vegetative viral DNA replication is completely repressed in the proliferating cellular layers of these tumors, which suggests a provirus state of the viral genome, as in other cells transformed by oncogenic DNA viruses. Vegetative viral DNA replication is induced, after initiation of the keratinization, in cells of cottonail rabbit papillomas, where it is usually followed by viral protein synthesis; this illustrates the influence of the physiological state of the host cell on the control of viral functions. Vegetative viral DNA replication is deteced only in a few cells of domestic rabbit papillomas, at the end of the keratinization process; this observation provides indirect evidence that the DNA synthesis specifically induced in these tumors after the onset of keratinization reflects mostly the induction of cellular DNA synthesis. Images PMID:4331563

  8. Geminin deploys multiple mechanisms to regulate Cdt1 before cell division thus ensuring the proper execution of DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballabeni, Andrea; Zamponi, Raffaella; Moore, Jodene K

    2013-01-01

    the accumulation of Cdt1 in mitosis, because decreasing the Geminin levels prevents Cdt1 accumulation and impairs DNA replication. Geminin is known to inhibit Cdt1 function; its depletion during G2 leads to DNA rereplication and checkpoint activation. Here we show that, despite rapid Cdt1 protein turnover in G2...

  9. A journey through the microscopic ages of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Marius; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Scientific discoveries and technological advancements are inseparable but not always take place in a coherent chronological manner. In the next, we will provide a seemingly unconnected and serendipitous series of scientific facts that, in the whole, converged to unveil DNA and its duplication. We will not cover here the many and fundamental contributions from microbial genetics and in vitro biochemistry. Rather, in this journey, we will emphasize the interplay between microscopy development culminating on super resolution fluorescence microscopy (i.e., nanoscopy) and digital image analysis and its impact on our understanding of DNA duplication. We will interlace the journey with landmark concepts and experiments that have brought the cellular DNA replication field to its present state.

  10. Stationary phase induction of dnaN and recF, two genes of Escherichia coli involved in DNA replication and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroya, M; Pérez-Roger, I; Macián, F; Armengod, M E

    1998-03-16

    The beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the Escherichia coli chromosomal replicase, is a sliding DNA clamp responsible for tethering the polymerase to DNA and endowing it with high processivity. The gene encoding beta, dnaN, maps between dnaA and recF, which are involved in initiation of DNA replication at oriC and resumption of DNA replication at disrupted replication forks, respectively. In exponentially growing cells, dnaN and recF are expressed predominantly from the dnaA promoters. However, we have found that stationary phase induction of the dnaN promoters drastically changes the expression pattern of the dnaA operon genes. As a striking consequence, synthesis of the beta subunit and RecF protein increases when cell metabolism is slowing down. Such an induction is dependent on the stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS, although the accumulation of this factor alone is not sufficient to activate the dnaN promoters. These promoters are located in DNA regions without static bending, and the -35 hexamer element is essential for their RpoS-dependent induction. Our results suggest that stationary phase-dependent mechanisms have evolved in order to coordinate expression of dnaN and recF independently of the dnaA regulatory region. These mechanisms might be part of a developmental programme aimed at maintaining DNA integrity under stress conditions.

  11. RPA mediates recombination repair during replication stress and is displaced from DNA by checkpoint signalling in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleeth, Kate M; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Issaeva, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The replication protein A (RPA) is involved in most, if not all, nuclear metabolism involving single-stranded DNA. Here, we show that RPA is involved in genome maintenance at stalled replication forks by the homologous recombination repair system in humans. Depletion of the RPA protein inhibited...... the formation of RAD51 nuclear foci after hydroxyurea-induced replication stalling leading to persistent unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We demonstrate a direct role of RPA in homology directed recombination repair. We find that RPA is dispensable for checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation...... and that RPA directly binds RAD52 upon replication stress, suggesting a direct role in recombination repair. In addition we show that inhibition of Chk1 with UCN-01 decreases dissociation of RPA from the chromatin and inhibits association of RAD51 and RAD52 with DNA. Altogether, our data suggest a direct role...

  12. VP22 fusion protein-based dominant negative mutant can inhibit hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yi; Wei-Dong Gong; Ling Wang; Rui Ling; Jiang-Hao Chen; Jun Yun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of VP22 fusion protein-based dominant negative (DN) mutant on Hepatitis Bvrus (HBV) replication.METHODS: Full-length or truncated fragment of VP22 was fused to C terminal of HBV core protein (HBc), and subcloned into pcDNA3.1 (-) vector, yielding eukaryotic expression plasmids of DN mutant. After transfection into HepG2.2.15 cells, the expression of DN mutant was identified by immunofluorescence staining. The inhibitory effect of DN mutant on HBV replication was indexed as the supernatant HBsAg concentration determined by RIA and HBV-DNA content by fluorescent quantification-PCR (FQ-PCR). Meanwhile, metabolism of HepG2.2.15 cells was evaluated by MTT colorimetry.RESULTS: VP22-based DN mutants and its truncated fragment were expressed in HepG2.2.15 cells, and had no toxic effect on host cells. DN mutants could inhibit HBV replication and the transduction ability of mutantbearing protein had a stronger inhibitory effect on HBV replication. DN mutants with full length of VP22 had the strongest inhibitory effect on HBV replication, reducing the HBsAg concentration by 81.94%, and the HBV-DNA content by 72.30%. MTT assay suggested that there were no significant differences in cell metabolic activity between the groups.CONCLUSION: VP22-based DN mutant can inhibit HBV replication effectively.

  13. Stwl modifies chromatin compaction and is required to maintain DNA integrity in the presence of perturbed DNA replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, X.; Vries, de H.I.; Siudeja, K.; Rana, A.; Lemstra, W.; Brunsting, J.F.; Kok, R.J.M.; Smulders, Y.M.; Schaefer, M.; Dijk, F.; Shang, Y.F.; Eggen, B.J.L.; Kampinga, H.H.; Sibon, O.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyurea, a well-known DNA replication inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and intact checkpoint functions are required to survive DNA replication stress induced by this genotoxic agent. Perturbed DNA synthesis also results in elevated levels of DNA damage. It is unclear how organisms prevent ac

  14. Stwl Modifies Chromatin Compaction and Is Required to Maintain DNA Integrity in the Presence of Perturbed DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Xia; Vries, Hilda I. de; Siudeja, Katarzyna; Rana, Anil; Lemstra, Willy; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Kok, Rob M.; Smulders, Yvo M.; Schaefer, Matthias; Dijk, Freark; Shang, Yongfeng; Eggen, Bart J.L.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Sibon, Ody C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxyurea, a well-known DNA replication inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and intact checkpoint functions are required to survive DNA replication stress induced by this genotoxic agent. Perturbed DNA synthesis also results in elevated levels of DNA damage. It is unclear how organisms prevent ac

  15. Confidently estimating the number of DNA replication origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Keich, Uri

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for estimating and providing a confidence interval for the number of DNA replication origins in the genome of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. The method requires an initial set of verified sites from which a position specific frequency matrix (PSFM) can be constructed. We further assume that we have access to a sparingly used experimental procedure which can verify the functionality of a few, but not all, computationally predicted sites. While our motivation comes from estimating the number of autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs), our method can also be applied to estimating the genome-wide number of "functional" transcription factor binding sites, where functionality is determined by experimental verification of the transcription factor binding event using, for example, ChIP data. The reliability of our method is demonstrated by correctly predicting the known number of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARSs as well as the number of S. cerevisiae probes that bind to the transcription factor ABF1.

  16. Replication fork progression is paused in two large chromosomal zones flanking the DNA replication origin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi; Oshima, Taku; Chumsakul, Onuma; Ishikawa, Shu; Maki, Hisaji

    2016-08-01

    Although the speed of nascent DNA synthesis at individual replication forks is relatively uniform in bacterial cells, the dynamics of replication fork progression on the chromosome are hampered by a variety of natural impediments. Genome replication dynamics can be directly measured from an exponentially growing cell population by sequencing newly synthesized DNA strands that were specifically pulse-labeled with the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). However, a short pulse labeling with BrdU is impracticable for bacteria because of poor incorporation of BrdU into the cells, and thus, the genomewide dynamics of bacterial DNA replication remain undetermined. Using a new thymidine-requiring Escherichia coli strain, eCOMB, and high-throughput sequencing, we succeeded in determining the genomewide replication profile in bacterial cells. We also found that fork progression is paused in two ~200-kb chromosomal zones that flank the replication origin in the growing cells. This origin-proximal obstruction to fork progression was overcome by an increased thymidine concentration in the culture medium and enhanced by inhibition of transcription. These indicate that DNA replication near the origin is sensitive to the impediments to fork progression, namely a scarcity of the DNA precursor deoxythymidine triphosphate and probable conflicts between replication and transcription machineries.

  17. Stimulation of BK virus DNA replication by NFI family transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Tikhanovich, Irina; Nasheuer, Heinz Peter; Folk, William R

    2012-03-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKV) establishes persistent, low-level, and asymptomatic infections in most humans and causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) and other pathologies in some individuals. The activation of BKV replication following kidney transplantation, leading to viruria, viremia, and, ultimately, PVAN, is associated with immune suppression as well as inflammation and stress from ischemia-reperfusion injury of the allograft, but the stimuli and molecular mechanisms leading to these pathologies are not well defined. The replication of BKV DNA in cell cultures is regulated by the viral noncoding control region (NCCR) comprising the core origin and flanking sequences, to which BKV T antigen (Tag), cellular proteins, and small regulatory RNAs bind. Six nuclear factor I (NFI) binding sites occur in sequences flanking the late side of the core origin (the enhancer) of the archetype virus, and their mutation, either individually or in toto, reduces BKV DNA replication when placed in competition with templates containing intact BKV NCCRs. NFI family members interacted with the helicase domain of BKV Tag in pulldown assays, suggesting that NFI helps recruit Tag to the viral core origin and may modulate its function. However, Tag may not be the sole target of the replication-modulatory activities of NFI: the NFIC/CTF1 isotype stimulates BKV template replication in vitro at low concentrations of DNA polymerase-α primase (Pol-primase), and the p58 subunit of Pol-primase associates with NFIC/CTF1, suggesting that NFI also recruits Pol-primase to the NCCR. These results suggest that NFI proteins (and the signaling pathways that target them) activate BKV replication and contribute to the consequent pathologies caused by acute infection.

  18. Emerging critical roles of Fe-S clusters in DNA replication and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Jill O; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Ishida, Justin P; Tainer, John A

    2015-06-01

    Fe-S clusters are partners in the origin of life that predate cells, acetyl-CoA metabolism, DNA, and the RNA world. The double helix solved the mystery of DNA replication by base pairing for accurate copying. Yet, for genome stability necessary to life, the double helix has equally important implications for damage repair. Here we examine striking advances that uncover Fe-S cluster roles both in copying the genetic sequence by DNA polymerases and in crucial repair processes for genome maintenance, as mutational defects cause cancer and degenerative disease. Moreover, we examine an exciting, controversial role for Fe-S clusters in a third element required for life - the long-range coordination and regulation of replication and repair events. By their ability to delocalize electrons over both Fe and S centers, Fe-S clusters have unbeatable features for protein conformational control and charge transfer via double-stranded DNA that may fundamentally transform our understanding of life, replication, and repair. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases.

  19. SirA enforces diploidy by inhibiting the replication initiator DnaA during spore formation in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer K. Wagner; Marquis, Kathleen A.; Rudner, David Z.

    2009-01-01

    How cells maintain their ploidy is relevant to cellular development and disease. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which the bacterium Bacillus subtilis enforces diploidy as it differentiates into a dormant spore. We demonstrate that a sporulation-induced protein SirA (originally annotated YneE) blocks new rounds of replication by targeting the highly conserved replication initiation factor DnaA. We show that SirA interacts with DnaA and displaces it from the replication origin. As a resu...

  20. New criteria for selecting the origin of DNA replication in Wolbachia and closely related bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldo Laura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The annotated genomes of two closely related strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis have been reported without the identifications of the putative origin of replication (ori. Identifying the ori of these bacteria and related alpha-Proteobacteria as well as their patterns of sequence evolution will aid studies of cell replication and cell density, as well as the potential genetic manipulation of these widespread intracellular bacteria. Results Using features that have been previously experimentally verified in the alpha-Proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, the origin of DNA replication (ori regions were identified in silico for Wolbachia strains and eleven other related bacteria belonging to Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia genera. These features include DnaA-, CtrA- and IHF-binding sites as well as the flanking genes in C. crescentus. The Wolbachia ori boundary genes were found to be hemE and COG1253 protein (CBS domain protein. Comparisons of the putative ori region among related Wolbachia strains showed higher conservation of bases within binding sites. Conclusion The sequences of the ori regions described here are only similar among closely related bacteria while fundamental characteristics like presence of DnaA and IHF binding sites as well as the boundary genes are more widely conserved. The relative paucity of CtrA binding sites in the ori regions, as well as the absence of key enzymes associated with DNA replication in the respective genomes, suggest that several of these obligate intracellular bacteria may have altered replication mechanisms. Based on these analyses, criteria are set forth for identifying the ori region in genome sequencing projects.

  1. Discovery of a Potent Inhibitor of Replication Protein A Protein-Protein Interactions Using a Fragment-Linking Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Andreas O.; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Waterson, Alex G.; Pelz, Nicholas F.; Patrone, James D.; Vangamudi, Bhavatarini; Camper, DeMarco V.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Fesik, Stephen W. [Vanderbilt; (Vanderbilt-MED)

    2013-10-22

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, is involved in nearly all cellular DNA transactions. The RPA N-terminal domain (RPA70N) is a recruitment site for proteins involved in DNA-damage response and repair. Selective inhibition of these protein–protein interactions has the potential to inhibit the DNA-damage response and to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents without affecting other functions of RPA. To discover a potent, selective inhibitor of the RPA70N protein–protein interactions to test this hypothesis, we used NMR spectroscopy to identify fragment hits that bind to two adjacent sites in the basic cleft of RPA70N. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of RPA70N–ligand complexes revealed how these fragments bind to RPA and guided the design of linked compounds that simultaneously occupy both sites. We have synthesized linked molecules that bind to RPA70N with submicromolar affinity and minimal disruption of RPA’s interaction with ssDNA.

  2. DnaA and the timing of chromosome replication in Es-cherichia coli as a function of growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Matthew AA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Escherichia coli, overlapping rounds of DNA replication allow the bacteria to double in faster times than the time required to copy the genome. The precise timing of initiation of DNA replication is determined by a regulatory circuit that depends on the binding of a critical number of ATP-bound DnaA proteins at the origin of replication, resulting in the melting of the DNA and the assembly of the replication complex. The synthesis of DnaA in the cell is controlled by a growth-rate dependent, negatively autoregulated gene found near the origin of replication. Both the regulatory and initiation activity of DnaA depend on its nucleotide bound state and its availability. Results In order to investigate the contributions of the different regulatory processes to the timing of initiation of DNA replication at varying growth rates, we formulate a minimal quantitative model of the initiator circuit that includes the key ingredients known to regulate the activity of the DnaA protein. This model describes the average-cell oscillations in DnaA-ATP/DNA during the cell cycle, for varying growth rates. We evaluate the conditions under which this ratio attains the same threshold value at the time of initiation, independently of the growth rate. Conclusions We find that a quantitative description of replication initiation by DnaA must rely on the dependency of the basic parameters on growth rate, in order to account for the timing of initiation of DNA replication at different cell doubling times. We isolate two main possible scenarios for this, depending on the roles of DnaA autoregulation and DnaA ATP-hydrolysis regulatory process. One possibility is that the basal rate of regulatory inactivation by ATP hydrolysis must vary with growth rate. Alternatively, some parameters defining promoter activity need to be a function of the growth rate. In either case, the basal rate of gene expression needs to increase with the growth rate, in

  3. DNA-damage accumulation and replicative arrest in Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musich, Phillip R.; Zou, Yue

    2013-01-01

    A common feature of progeria syndromes is a premature aging phenotype and an enhanced accumulation of DNA damage arising from a compromised repair system. HGPS (Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome) is a severe form of progeria in which patients accumulate progerin, a mutant lamin A protein derived from a splicing variant of the lamin A/C gene (LMNA). Progerin causes chromatin perturbations which result in the formation of DSBs (double-strand breaks) and abnormal DDR (DNA-damage response). In the present article, we review recent findings which resolve some mechanistic details of how progerin may disrupt DDR pathways in HGPS cells. We propose that progerin accumulation results in disruption of functions of some replication and repair factors, causing the mislocalization of XPA (xeroderma pigmentosum group A) protein to the replication forks, replication fork stalling and, subsequently, DNA DSBs. The binding of XPA to the stalled forks excludes normal binding by repair proteins, leading to DSB accumulation, which activates ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) checkpoints, and arresting cell-cycle progression. PMID:22103522

  4. DNA-damage accumulation and replicative arrest in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musich, Phillip R; Zou, Yue

    2011-12-01

    A common feature of progeria syndromes is a premature aging phenotype and an enhanced accumulation of DNA damage arising from a compromised repair system. HGPS (Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome) is a severe form of progeria in which patients accumulate progerin, a mutant lamin A protein derived from a splicing variant of the lamin A/C gene (LMNA). Progerin causes chromatin perturbations which result in the formation of DSBs (double-strand breaks) and abnormal DDR (DNA-damage response). In the present article, we review recent findings which resolve some mechanistic details of how progerin may disrupt DDR pathways in HGPS cells. We propose that progerin accumulation results in disruption of functions of some replication and repair factors, causing the mislocalization of XPA (xeroderma pigmentosum group A) protein to the replication forks, replication fork stalling and, subsequently, DNA DSBs. The binding of XPA to the stalled forks excludes normal binding by repair proteins, leading to DSB accumulation, which activates ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) checkpoints, and arresting cell-cycle progression.

  5. DNA intercalator stimulates influenza transcription and virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poon Leo LM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza A virus uses its host transcription machinery to facilitate viral RNA synthesis, an event that is associated with cellular RNA polymerase II (RNAPII. In this study, various RNAPII transcription inhibitors were used to investigate the effect of RNAPII phosphorylation status on viral RNA transcription. A low concentration of DNA intercalators, such as actinomycin D (ActD, was found to stimulate viral polymerase activity and virus replication. This effect was not observed in cells treated with RNAPII kinase inhibitors. In addition, the loss of RNAPIIa in infected cells was due to the shift of nonphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPIIa to hyperphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPIIo.

  6. DNA intercalator stimulates influenza transcription and virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Olive T W; Poon, Leo L M

    2011-03-15

    Influenza A virus uses its host transcription machinery to facilitate viral RNA synthesis, an event that is associated with cellular RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). In this study, various RNAPII transcription inhibitors were used to investigate the effect of RNAPII phosphorylation status on viral RNA transcription. A low concentration of DNA intercalators, such as actinomycin D (ActD), was found to stimulate viral polymerase activity and virus replication. This effect was not observed in cells treated with RNAPII kinase inhibitors. In addition, the loss of RNAPII(a) in infected cells was due to the shift of nonphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPII(a)) to hyperphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPII(o)).

  7. An increase in mitochondrial DNA promotes nuclear DNA replication in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M Blank

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Coordination between cellular metabolism and DNA replication determines when cells initiate division. It has been assumed that metabolism only plays a permissive role in cell division. While blocking metabolism arrests cell division, it is not known whether an up-regulation of metabolic reactions accelerates cell cycle transitions. Here, we show that increasing the amount of mitochondrial DNA accelerates overall cell proliferation and promotes nuclear DNA replication, in a nutrient-dependent manner. The Sir2p NAD+-dependent de-acetylase antagonizes this mitochondrial role. We found that cells with increased mitochondrial DNA have reduced Sir2p levels bound at origins of DNA replication in the nucleus, accompanied with increased levels of K9, K14-acetylated histone H3 at those origins. Our results demonstrate an active role of mitochondrial processes in the control of cell division. They also suggest that cellular metabolism may impact on chromatin modifications to regulate the activity of origins of DNA replication.

  8. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    UVA radiation (320–400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen. PMID:26485711

  9. Singlet Oxygen-Mediated Oxidation during UVA Radiation Alters the Dynamic of Genomic DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Dany; Martineau, Sylvain; Machon, Christelle; Arnoux, Philippe; Guitton, Jérôme; Francesconi, Stefania; Frochot, Céline; Sage, Evelyne; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    UVA radiation (320-400 nm) is a major environmental agent that can exert its deleterious action on living organisms through absorption of the UVA photons by endogenous or exogenous photosensitizers. This leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which in turn can modify reversibly or irreversibly biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. We have previously reported that UVA-induced ROS strongly inhibit DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner, but independently of the cell cycle checkpoints activation. Here, we report that the production of 1O2 by UVA radiation leads to a transient inhibition of replication fork velocity, a transient decrease in the dNTP pool, a quickly reversible GSH-dependent oxidation of the RRM1 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase and sustained inhibition of origin firing. The time of recovery post irradiation for each of these events can last from few minutes (reduction of oxidized RRM1) to several hours (replication fork velocity and origin firing). The quenching of 1O2 by sodium azide prevents the delay of DNA replication, the decrease in the dNTP pool and the oxidation of RRM1, while inhibition of Chk1 does not prevent the inhibition of origin firing. Although the molecular mechanism remains elusive, our data demonstrate that the dynamic of replication is altered by UVA photosensitization of vitamins via the production of singlet oxygen.

  10. The exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase γ is required for ligation during mitochondrial DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macao, Bertil; Uhler, Jay P.; Siibak, Triinu; Zhu, Xuefeng; Shi, Yonghong; Sheng, Wenwen; Olsson, Monica; Stewart, James B.; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Falkenberg, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase γ (POLγ) harbours a 3′–5′ exonuclease proofreading activity. Here we demonstrate that this activity is required for the creation of ligatable ends during mtDNA replication. Exonuclease-deficient POLγ fails to pause on reaching a downstream 5′-end. Instead, the enzyme continues to polymerize into double-stranded DNA, creating an unligatable 5′-flap. Disease-associated mutations can both increase and decrease exonuclease activity and consequently impair DNA ligation. In mice, inactivation of the exonuclease activity causes an increase in mtDNA mutations and premature ageing phenotypes. These mutator mice also contain high levels of truncated, linear fragments of mtDNA. We demonstrate that the formation of these fragments is due to impaired ligation, causing nicks near the origin of heavy-strand DNA replication. In the subsequent round of replication, the nicks lead to double-strand breaks and linear fragment formation. PMID:26095671

  11. Coordinated leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis by using the herpes simplex virus 1 replication complex and minicircle DNA templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Gudrun; Kuchta, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    The origin-specific replication of the herpes simplex virus 1 genome requires seven proteins: the helicase-primase (UL5-UL8-UL52), the DNA polymerase (UL30-UL42), the single-strand DNA binding protein (ICP8), and the origin-binding protein (UL9). We reconstituted these proteins, excluding UL9, on synthetic minicircular DNA templates and monitored leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis using the strand-specific incorporation of dTMP and dAMP. Critical features of the assays that led to efficient leading and lagging stand synthesis included high helicase-primase concentrations and a lagging strand template whose sequence resembled that of the viral DNA. Depending on the nature of the minicircle template, the replication complex synthesized leading and lagging strand products at molar ratios varying between 1:1 and 3:1. Lagging strand products (∼0.2 to 0.6 kb) were significantly shorter than leading strand products (∼2 to 10 kb), and conditions that stimulated primer synthesis led to shorter lagging strand products. ICP8 was not essential; however, its presence stimulated DNA synthesis and increased the length of both leading and lagging strand products. Curiously, human DNA polymerase α (p70-p180 or p49-p58-p70-p180), which improves the utilization of RNA primers synthesized by herpesvirus primase on linear DNA templates, had no effect on the replication of the minicircles. The lack of stimulation by polymerase α suggests the existence of a macromolecular assembly that enhances the utilization of RNA primers and may functionally couple leading and lagging strand synthesis. Evidence for functional coupling is further provided by our observations that (i) leading and lagging strand synthesis produce equal amounts of DNA, (ii) leading strand synthesis proceeds faster under conditions that disable primer synthesis on the lagging strand, and (iii) conditions that accelerate helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding stimulate decoupled leading strand synthesis but not

  12. DNA2—An Important Player in DNA Damage Response or Just Another DNA Maintenance Protein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Pawłowska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The human DNA2 (DNA replication helicase/nuclease 2 protein is expressed in both the nucleus and mitochondria, where it displays ATPase-dependent nuclease and helicase activities. DNA2 plays an important role in the removing of long flaps in DNA replication and long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER, interacting with the replication protein A (RPA and the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1. DNA2 can promote the restart of arrested replication fork along with Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase (WRN and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM. In mitochondria, DNA2 can facilitate primer removal during strand-displacement replication. DNA2 is involved in DNA double strand (DSB repair, in which it is complexed with BLM, RPA and MRN for DNA strand resection required for homologous recombination repair. DNA2 can be a major protein involved in the repair of complex DNA damage containing a DSB and a 5′ adduct resulting from a chemical group bound to DNA 5′ ends, created by ionizing radiation and several anticancer drugs, including etoposide, mitoxantrone and some anthracyclines. The role of DNA2 in telomere end maintenance and cell cycle regulation suggests its more general role in keeping genomic stability, which is impaired in cancer. Therefore DNA2 can be an attractive target in cancer therapy. This is supported by enhanced expression of DNA2 in many cancer cell lines with oncogene activation and premalignant cells. Therefore, DNA2 can be considered as a potential marker, useful in cancer therapy. DNA2, along with PARP1 inhibition, may be considered as a potential target for inducing synthetic lethality, a concept of killing tumor cells by targeting two essential genes.

  13. 3D replicon distributions arise from stochastic initiation and domino-like DNA replication progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löb, D; Lengert, N; Chagin, V O; Reinhart, M; Casas-Delucchi, C S; Cardoso, M C; Drossel, B

    2016-04-07

    DNA replication dynamics in cells from higher eukaryotes follows very complex but highly efficient mechanisms. However, the principles behind initiation of potential replication origins and emergence of typical patterns of nuclear replication sites remain unclear. Here, we propose a comprehensive model of DNA replication in human cells that is based on stochastic, proximity-induced replication initiation. Critical model features are: spontaneous stochastic firing of individual origins in euchromatin and facultative heterochromatin, inhibition of firing at distances below the size of chromatin loops and a domino-like effect by which replication forks induce firing of nearby origins. The model reproduces the empirical temporal and chromatin-related properties of DNA replication in human cells. We advance the one-dimensional DNA replication model to a spatial model by taking into account chromatin folding in the nucleus, and we are able to reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of the replication foci distribution throughout S-phase.

  14. Absence of RNase H allows replication of pBR322 in Escherichia coli mutants lacking DNA polymerase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogoma, T

    1984-12-01

    rnh (formerly termed sdrA) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12, capable of continuous DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis (stable DNA replication), are devoid of ribonuclease H (RNase H, EC 3.1.26.4) activity. Plasmid pBR322 was found to replicate in rnh mutants in the absence of DNA polymerase I, the polA gene product, which is normally required for replication of this plasmid. The plasmid copy number in polA rnh double mutants was as high as in the wild-type strains. When a chimeric construct between pBR322 and pSC101 was introduced into a polA rnh double mutant, the replication of the plasmid via the pBR322 replicon was inhibited if the plasmid also carried an rnh+ gene or if the host harbored an F' plasmid carrying an rnh+ gene. Thus, DNA polymerase I-independent replication of pBR322 requires the absence of RNase H activity. This alternative mechanism requiring neither DNA polymerase I nor RNase H appears to involve a transcriptional event in the region of the normal origin of replication.

  15. Bloom syndrome complex promotes FANCM recruitment to stalled replication forks and facilitates both repair and traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chen; Huang, Jing; Yan, Zhijiang; Li, Yongjiang; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Xu, Dongyi; Takata, Minoru; Seidman, Michael; Wang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of FANCM, a conserved DNA translocase and key component of several DNA repair protein complexes, to replication forks stalled by DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is a step upstream of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs. However, detection of the FANCM recruitment has been technically challenging so that its mechanism remains exclusive. Here, we successfully observed recruitment of FANCM at stalled forks using a newly developed protocol. We report that the FANCM recruitment depends upon its intrinsic DNA translocase activity, and its DNA-binding partner FAAP24. Moreover, it is dependent on the replication checkpoint kinase, ATR; but is independent of the FA core and FANCD2-FANCI complexes, two essential components of the FA pathway, indicating that the FANCM recruitment occurs downstream of ATR but upstream of the FA pathway. Interestingly, the recruitment of FANCM requires its direct interaction with Bloom syndrome complex composed of BLM helicase, Topoisomerase 3α, RMI1 and RMI2; as well as the helicase activity of BLM. We further show that the FANCM-BLM complex interaction is critical for replication stress-induced FANCM hyperphosphorylation, for normal activation of the FA pathway in response to ICLs, and for efficient traverse of ICLs by the replication machinery. Epistasis studies demonstrate that FANCM and BLM work in the same pathway to promote replication traverse of ICLs. We conclude that FANCM and BLM complex work together at stalled forks to promote both FA repair and replication traverse pathways of ICLs.

  16. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary DNA replication must be coordinated with cellular physiology to ensure proper genome inheritance. Model bacteria such as the soil-dwelling Bacillus subtilis can achieve a wide range of growth rates in response to nutritional and chemical signals. In order to match the rate of DNA synthesis to the rate of nutrient-mediated cell growth, bacteria regulate the initiation frequency of DNA replication. This control of bacterial DNA replication initiation was first observed over forty...

  17. Murine leukemia virus (MLV replication monitored with fluorescent proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittner Alexandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer gene therapy will benefit from vectors that are able to replicate in tumor tissue and cause a bystander effect. Replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MLV has been described to have potential as cancer therapeutics, however, MLV infection does not cause a cytopathic effect in the infected cell and viral replication can only be studied by immunostaining or measurement of reverse transcriptase activity. Results We inserted the coding sequences for green fluorescent protein (GFP into the proline-rich region (PRR of the ecotropic envelope protein (Env and were able to fluorescently label MLV. This allowed us to directly monitor viral replication and attachment to target cells by flow cytometry. We used this method to study viral replication of recombinant MLVs and split viral genomes, which were generated by replacement of the MLV env gene with the red fluorescent protein (RFP and separately cloning GFP-Env into a retroviral vector. Co-transfection of both plasmids into target cells resulted in the generation of semi-replicative vectors, and the two color labeling allowed to determine the distribution of the individual genomes in the target cells and was indicative for the occurrence of recombination events. Conclusions Fluorescently labeled MLVs are excellent tools for the study of factors that influence viral replication and can be used to optimize MLV-based replication-competent viruses or vectors for gene therapy.

  18. Elg1 forms an alternative RFC complex important for DNA replication and genome integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellaoui, Mohammed; Chang, Michael; Ou, Jiongwen; Xu, Hong; Boone, Charles; Brown, Grant W

    2003-01-01

    Genome-wide synthetic genetic interaction screens with mutants in the mus81 and mms4 replication fork-processing genes identified a novel replication factor C (RFC) homolog, Elg1, which forms an alternative RFC complex with Rfc2-5. This complex is distinct from the DNA replication RFC, the DNA

  19. Elg1 forms an alternative RFC complex important for DNA replication and genome integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellaoui, Mohammed; Chang, Michael; Ou, Jiongwen; Xu, Hong; Boone, Charles; Brown, Grant W

    2003-01-01

    Genome-wide synthetic genetic interaction screens with mutants in the mus81 and mms4 replication fork-processing genes identified a novel replication factor C (RFC) homolog, Elg1, which forms an alternative RFC complex with Rfc2-5. This complex is distinct from the DNA replication RFC, the DNA damag

  20. DnaT is a PriC-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chih; Huang, Cheng-Yang

    2016-09-01

    DnaT and PriC are replication restart primosomal proteins required for re-initiating chromosomal DNA replication. DnaT is a component of the PriA-dependent primosome, while PriC belongs to the PriC-dependent primosome. Whether DnaT can interact with PriC is still unknown. In this study, we define a direct interaction between PriC, a key initiator protein in PriC-mediated DNA replication restart, and DnaT, a DnaB/C complex loader protein, from Klebsiella pneumoniae. In fluorescence titrations, PriC bound to single-stranded DNA with a binding-site size of approximately 9 nt. Gold nanoparticle assay showed that the solution of DnaT-PriC changed from red to purple, which indicated the protein-protein interactions due to gold nanoparticle aggregate. In addition, this DnaT-PriC complex could be co-purified by the heparin HP column. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the Kd value of DnaT bound to PriC was 2.9 × 10(-8) M. These results constitute a pioneering study of the DnaT-PriC interaction and present a putative link between the two independent replication restart pathways, namely, PriA- and PriC-dependent primosome assemblies. Further research can directly focus on determining how DnaT binds to the PriC-SSB-DNA tricomplex and regulates the PriC-dependent replication restart.

  1. The structure of a DnaA/HobA complex from Helicobacter pylori provides insight into regulation of DNA replication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natrajan, Ganesh; Noirot-Gros, Marie Francoise; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Kapp, Ulrike; Terradot, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial DNA replication requires DnaA, an AAA+ ATPase that initiates replication at a specific chromosome region, oriC, and is regulated by species-specific regulators that directly bind DnaA. HobA is a DnaA binding protein, recently identified as an essential regulator of DNA replication in Helicobacter pylori. We report the crystal structure of HobA in complex with domains I and II of DnaA (DnaAI–II) from H. pylori, the first structure of DnaA bound to one of its regulators. Biochemical characterization of the complex formed shows that a tetramer of HobA binds four DnaAI–II molecules, and that DnaAI–II is unable to oligomerize by itself. Mutagenesis and protein–protein interaction studies demonstrate that some of the residues located at the HobA-DnaAI–II interface in the structure are necessary for complex formation. Introduction of selected mutations into H. pylori shows that the disruption of the interaction between HobA and DnaA is lethal for the bacteria. Remarkably, the DnaA binding site of HobA is conserved in DiaA from Escherichia coli, suggesting that the structure of the HobA/DnaA complex represents a model for DnaA regulation in other Gram-negative bacteria. Our data, together with those from other studies, indicate that HobA could play a crucial scaffolding role during the initiation of replication in H. pylori by organizing the first step of DnaA oligomerization and attachment to oriC. PMID:19940251

  2. Studies on the replication of Escherichia coli phage lambda DNA. I. The kinetics of DNA replication and requirements for the generation of rolling circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better, M; Freifelder, D

    1983-04-15

    Escherichia coli phage lambda DNA has been isolated from infected bacteria using a new technique by which virtually all phage DNA is recovered. Isolated DNA is examined by electron microscopy. Addition of phi X174 RF1 molecules as a counting standard enables us to determine the average number of lambda DNA molecules present in an infected cell. In this study, we have followed the kinetics of lambda DNA replication and examined rolling circle replication. The most important findings are the following: (1) Rolling circle replication is initiated at roughly the same time as is theta replication, indicating that the rolling circle is not solely a late-replicating form. (2) theta replication stops at about 16 min after infection. (3) Early in infection the number of DNA molecules per cell doubles every 2-3 min until theta replication stops, at which point most DNA synthesis consists of growth of the tails of about three rolling circles per cell. (4) Neither the timing of rolling circle replication nor the number of molecules is affected by the activity of the lambda red genes. (5). The red genes are responsible for the production of oligomeric circles late in infection.

  3. A novel nucleoid-associated protein coordinates chromosome replication and chromosome partition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James A; Panis, Gaël; Viollier, Patrick H; Marczynski, Gregory T

    2017-09-06

    We searched for regulators of chromosome replication in the cell cycle model Caulobacter crescentus and found a novel DNA-binding protein (GapR) that selectively aids the initiation of chromosome replication and the initial steps of chromosome partitioning. The protein binds the chromosome origin of replication (Cori) and has higher-affinity binding to mutated Cori-DNA that increases Cori-plasmid replication in vivo. gapR gene expression is essential for normal rapid growth and sufficient GapR levels are required for the correct timing of chromosome replication. Whole genome ChIP-seq identified dynamic DNA-binding distributions for GapR, with the strongest associations at the partitioning (parABS) locus near Cori. Using molecular-genetic and fluorescence microscopy experiments, we showed that GapR also promotes the first steps of chromosome partitioning, the initial separation of the duplicated parS loci following replication from Cori. This separation occurs before the parABS-dependent partitioning phase. Therefore, this early separation, whose mechanisms is not known, coincides with the poorly defined mechanism(s) that establishes chromosome asymmetry: C. crescentus chromosomes are partitioned to distinct cell-poles which develop into replicating and non-replicating cell-types. We propose that GapR coordinates chromosome replication with asymmetry-establishing chromosome separation, noting that both roles are consistent with the phylogenetic restriction of GapR to asymmetrically dividing bacteria. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. RK2 plasmid dynamics in Caulobacter crescentus cells--two modes of DNA replication initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Katarzyna; Witosinska, Monika; Schweiger, Pawel; Bury, Katarzyna; Jenal, Urs; Konieczny, Igor

    2013-06-01

    Undisturbed plasmid dynamics is required for the stable maintenance of plasmid DNA in bacterial cells. In this work, we analysed subcellular localization, DNA synthesis and nucleoprotein complex formation of plasmid RK2 during the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus. Our microscopic observations showed asymmetrical distribution of plasmid RK2 foci between the two compartments of Caulobacter predivisional cells, resulting in asymmetrical allocation of plasmids to progeny cells. Moreover, using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method, we estimated that multiple plasmid particles form a single fluorescent focus and that the number of plasmids per focus is approximately equal in both swarmer and predivisional Caulobacter cells. Analysis of the dynamics of TrfA-oriV complex formation during the Caulobacter cell cycle revealed that TrfA binds oriV primarily during the G1 phase, however, plasmid DNA synthesis occurs during the S and G2 phases of the Caulobacter cell cycle. Both in vitro and in vivo analysis of RK2 replication initiation in C. crescentus cells demonstrated that it is independent of the Caulobacter DnaA protein in the presence of the longer version of TrfA protein, TrfA-44. However, in vivo stability tests of plasmid RK2 derivatives suggested that a DnaA-dependent mode of plasmid replication initiation is also possible.

  5. Targeting the OB-Folds of Replication Protein A with Small Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Anciano Granadillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication protein A (RPA is the main eukaryotic single-strand (ss DNA-binding protein involved in DNA replication and repair. We have identified and developed two classes of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs that show in vitro inhibition of the RPA-DNA interaction. We present further characterization of these SMIs with respect to their target binding, mechanism of action, and specificity. Both reversible and irreversible modes of inhibition are observed for the different classes of SMIs with one class found to specifically interact with DNA-binding domains A and B (DBD-A/B of RPA. In comparison with other oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding-fold (OB-fold containing ssDNA-binding proteins, one class of SMIs displayed specificity for the RPA protein. Together these data demonstrate that the specific targeting of a protein-DNA interaction can be exploited towards interrogating the cellular activity of RPA as well as increasing the efficacy of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics used in cancer treatment.

  6. Targeting the OB-Folds of Replication Protein A with Small Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anciano Granadillo, Victor J.; Earley, Jennifer N.; Shuck, Sarah C.; Georgiadis, Millie M.; Fitch, Richard W.; Turchi, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is the main eukaryotic single-strand (ss) DNA-binding protein involved in DNA replication and repair. We have identified and developed two classes of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) that show in vitro inhibition of the RPA-DNA interaction. We present further characterization of these SMIs with respect to their target binding, mechanism of action, and specificity. Both reversible and irreversible modes of inhibition are observed for the different classes of SMIs with one class found to specifically interact with DNA-binding domains A and B (DBD-A/B) of RPA. In comparison with other oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding-fold (OB-fold) containing ssDNA-binding proteins, one class of SMIs displayed specificity for the RPA protein. Together these data demonstrate that the specific targeting of a protein-DNA interaction can be exploited towards interrogating the cellular activity of RPA as well as increasing the efficacy of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics used in cancer treatment. PMID:21188165

  7. Essential and non-essential DNA replication genes in the model halophilic Archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DasSarma Shiladitya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer systems in Archaea, including many components of the DNA replication machinery, are similar to those found in eukaryotes. Functional assignments of archaeal DNA replication genes have been primarily based upon sequence homology and biochemical studies of replisome components, but few genetic studies have been conducted thus far. We have developed a tractable genetic system for knockout analysis of genes in the model halophilic archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and used it to determine which DNA replication genes are essential. Results Using a directed in-frame gene knockout method in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, we examined nineteen genes predicted to be involved in DNA replication. Preliminary bioinformatic analysis of the large haloarchaeal Orc/Cdc6 family, related to eukaryotic Orc1 and Cdc6, showed five distinct clades of Orc/Cdc6 proteins conserved in all sequenced haloarchaea. Of ten orc/cdc6 genes in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, only two were found to be essential, orc10, on the large chromosome, and orc2, on the minichromosome, pNRC200. Of the three replicative-type DNA polymerase genes, two were essential: the chromosomally encoded B family, polB1, and the chromosomally encoded euryarchaeal-specific D family, polD1/D2 (formerly called polA1/polA2 in the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome sequence. The pNRC200-encoded B family polymerase, polB2, was non-essential. Accessory genes for DNA replication initiation and elongation factors, including the putative replicative helicase, mcm, the eukaryotic-type DNA primase, pri1/pri2, the DNA polymerase sliding clamp, pcn, and the flap endonuclease, rad2, were all essential. Targeted genes were classified as non-essential if knockouts were obtained and essential based on statistical analysis and/or by demonstrating the inability to isolate chromosomal knockouts except in the presence of a complementing plasmid copy of the gene. Conclusion The results showed that ten

  8. Binding Affinities among DNA Helicase-Primase, DNA Polymerase, and Replication Intermediates in the Replisome of Bacteriophage T7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huidong; Tang, Yong; Lee, Seung-Joo; Wei, Zeliang; Cao, Jia; Richardson, Charles C

    2016-01-15

    The formation of a replication loop on the lagging strand facilitates coordinated synthesis of the leading- and lagging-DNA strands and provides a mechanism for recycling of the lagging-strand DNA polymerase. As an Okazaki fragment is completed, the loop is released, and a new loop is formed as the synthesis of a new Okazaki fragment is initiated. Loop release requires the dissociation of the complex formed by the interactions among helicase, DNA polymerase, and DNA. The completion of the Okazaki fragment may result in either a nick or a single-stranded DNA region. In the replication system of bacteriophage T7, the dissociation of the polymerase from either DNA region is faster than that observed for the dissociation of the helicase from DNA polymerase, implying that the replication loop is released more likely through the dissociation of the lagging-strand DNA from polymerase, retaining the polymerase at replication fork. Both dissociation of DNA polymerase from DNA and that of helicase from a DNA polymerase · DNA complex are much faster at a nick DNA region than the release from a ssDNA region. These results suggest that the replication loop is released as a result of the nick formed when the lagging-strand DNA polymerase encounters the previously synthesized Okazaki fragment, releasing lagging-strand DNA and retaining DNA polymerase at the replication fork for the synthesis of next Okazaki fragment.

  9. Escherichia coli DnaE Polymerase Couples Pyrophosphatase Activity to DNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lapenta

    Full Text Available DNA Polymerases generate pyrophosphate every time they catalyze a step of DNA elongation. This elongation reaction is generally believed as thermodynamically favoured by the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, catalyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatases. However, the specific action of inorganic pyrophosphatases coupled to DNA replication in vivo was never demonstrated. Here we show that the Polymerase-Histidinol-Phosphatase (PHP domain of Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III α subunit features pyrophosphatase activity. We also show that this activity is inhibited by fluoride, as commonly observed for inorganic pyrophosphatases, and we identified 3 amino acids of the PHP active site. Remarkably, E. coli cells expressing variants of these catalytic residues of α subunit feature aberrant phenotypes, poor viability, and are subject to high mutation frequencies. Our findings indicate that DNA Polymerases can couple DNA elongation and pyrophosphate hydrolysis, providing a mechanism for the control of DNA extension rate, and suggest a promising target for novel antibiotics.

  10. RAD51AP1-deficiency in vertebrate cells impairs DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parplys, Ann C; Kratz, Katja; Speed, Michael C; Leung, Stanley G; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is critical for homologous recombination (HR) by interacting with and stimulating the activities of the RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases. In human somatic cells, knockdown of RAD51AP1 results in increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and to impaired HR, but the formation of DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci is unaffected. Here, we generated a genetic model system, based on chicken DT40 cells, to assess the phenotype of fully inactivated RAD51AP1 in vertebrate cells. Targeted inactivation of both RAD51AP1 alleles has no effect on either viability or doubling-time in undamaged cells, but leads to increased levels of cytotoxicity after exposure to cisplatin or to ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GgRAD51AP1, but not of HsRAD51AP1 is able to fully complement in cell survival assays. Notably, in RAD51AP1-deficient DT40 cells the resolution of DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci is greatly slowed down, while their formation is not impaired. We also identify, for the first time, an important role for RAD51AP1 in counteracting both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced replication stress. In human and in chicken cells, RAD51AP1 is required to maintain wild type speed of replication fork progression, and both RAD51AP1-depleted human cells and RAD51AP1-deficient DT40 cells respond to replication stress by a slow-down of replication fork elongation rates. However, increased firing of replication origins occurs in RAD51AP1-/- DT40 cells, likely to ensure the timely duplication of the entire genome. Taken together, our results may explain why RAD51AP1 commonly is overexpressed in tumor cells and tissues, and we speculate that the disruption of RAD51AP1 function could be a promising approach in targeted tumor therapy.

  11. Visualizing DNA Replication at the Single-Molecule Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in single-molecule methodology have made it possible to study the dynamic behavior of individual enzymes and their interactions with other proteins in multiprotein complexes. Here, we describe newly developed methods to study the coordination of DNA unwinding, priming, and synthesis

  12. VISUALIZING DNA REPLICATION AT THE SINGLE-MOLECULE LEVEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, NG

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in single-molecule methodology have made it possible to study the dynamic behavior of individual enzymes and their interactions with other proteins in multiprotein complexes. Here, we describe newly developed methods to study the coordination of DNA unwinding, priming, and synthesis

  13. VISUALIZING DNA REPLICATION AT THE SINGLE-MOLECULE LEVEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, NG

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in single-molecule methodology have made it possible to study the dynamic behavior of individual enzymes and their interactions with other proteins in multiprotein complexes. Here, we describe newly developed methods to study the coordination of DNA unwinding, priming, and synthesis

  14. Visualizing DNA Replication at the Single-Molecule Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in single-molecule methodology have made it possible to study the dynamic behavior of individual enzymes and their interactions with other proteins in multiprotein complexes. Here, we describe newly developed methods to study the coordination of DNA unwinding, priming, and synthesis

  15. Termination of DNA replication forks: "Breaking up is hard to do".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachael; Priego Moreno, Sara; Gambus, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    To ensure duplication of the entire genome, eukaryotic DNA replication initiates from thousands of replication origins. The replication forks move through the chromatin until they encounter forks from neighboring origins. During replication fork termination forks converge, the replisomes disassemble and topoisomerase II resolves the daughter DNA molecules. If not resolved efficiently, terminating forks result in genomic instability through the formation of pathogenic structures. Our recent findings shed light onto the mechanism of replisome disassembly upon replication fork termination. We have shown that termination-specific polyubiquitylation of the replicative helicase component - Mcm7, leads to dissolution of the active helicase in a process dependent on the p97/VCP/Cdc48 segregase. The inhibition of terminating helicase disassembly resulted in a replication termination defect. In this extended view we present hypothetical models of replication fork termination and discuss remaining and emerging questions in the DNA replication termination field.

  16. Control of Genome Integrity by RFC Complexes; Conductors of PCNA Loading onto and Unloading from Chromatin during DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Yasushi; Nishitani, Hideo

    2017-01-26

    During cell division, genome integrity is maintained by faithful DNA replication during S phase, followed by accurate segregation in mitosis. Many DNA metabolic events linked with DNA replication are also regulated throughout the cell cycle. In eukaryotes, the DNA sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), acts on chromatin as a processivity factor for DNA polymerases. Since its discovery, many other PCNA binding partners have been identified that function during DNA replication, repair, recombination, chromatin remodeling, cohesion, and proteolysis in cell-cycle progression. PCNA not only recruits the proteins involved in such events, but it also actively controls their function as chromatin assembles. Therefore, control of PCNA-loading onto chromatin is fundamental for various replication-coupled reactions. PCNA is loaded onto chromatin by PCNA-loading replication factor C (RFC) complexes. Both RFC1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC fundamentally function as PCNA loaders. On the other hand, after DNA synthesis, PCNA must be removed from chromatin by Elg1-RFC. Functional defects in RFC complexes lead to chromosomal abnormalities. In this review, we summarize the structural and functional relationships among RFC complexes, and describe how the regulation of PCNA loading/unloading by RFC complexes contributes to maintaining genome integrity.

  17. Control of Genome Integrity by RFC Complexes; Conductors of PCNA Loading onto and Unloading from Chromatin during DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shiomi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During cell division, genome integrity is maintained by faithful DNA replication during S phase, followed by accurate segregation in mitosis. Many DNA metabolic events linked with DNA replication are also regulated throughout the cell cycle. In eukaryotes, the DNA sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, acts on chromatin as a processivity factor for DNA polymerases. Since its discovery, many other PCNA binding partners have been identified that function during DNA replication, repair, recombination, chromatin remodeling, cohesion, and proteolysis in cell-cycle progression. PCNA not only recruits the proteins involved in such events, but it also actively controls their function as chromatin assembles. Therefore, control of PCNA-loading onto chromatin is fundamental for various replication-coupled reactions. PCNA is loaded onto chromatin by PCNA-loading replication factor C (RFC complexes. Both RFC1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC fundamentally function as PCNA loaders. On the other hand, after DNA synthesis, PCNA must be removed from chromatin by Elg1-RFC. Functional defects in RFC complexes lead to chromosomal abnormalities. In this review, we summarize the structural and functional relationships among RFC complexes, and describe how the regulation of PCNA loading/unloading by RFC complexes contributes to maintaining genome integrity.

  18. Transcription-independent functions of MYC: regulation of translation and DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael D.; Cowling, Victoria H.

    2013-01-01

    MYC is a potent oncogene that drives unrestrained cell growth and proliferation. Shortly after its discovery as an oncogene, the MYC protein was recognized as a sequence-specific transcription factor. Since that time, MYC oncogene research has focused on the mechanism of MYC-induced transcription and on the identification of MYC transcriptional target genes. Recently, MYC was shown to control protein expression through mRNA translation and to directly regulate DNA replication, thus initiating exciting new areas of oncogene research. PMID:18698328

  19. Human parvovirus B19 DNA replication induces a DNA damage response that is dispensable for cell cycle arrest at phase G2/M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Sai; Luo, Yong; Cheng, Fang; Huang, Qinfeng; Shen, Weiran; Kleiboeker, Steve; Tisdale, John F; Liu, Zhengwen; Qiu, Jianming

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is highly restricted to human erythroid progenitor cells, in which it induces a DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR signaling is mainly mediated by the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related) pathway, which promotes replication of the viral genome; however, the exact mechanisms employed by B19V to take advantage of the DDR for virus replication remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the initiators of the DDR and the role of the DDR in cell cycle arrest during B19V infection. We examined the role of individual viral proteins, which were delivered by lentiviruses, in triggering a DDR in ex vivo-expanded primary human erythroid progenitor cells and the role of DNA replication of the B19V double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome in a human megakaryoblastoid cell line, UT7/Epo-S1 (S1). All the cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions. The results showed that none of the viral proteins induced phosphorylation of H2AX or replication protein A32 (RPA32), both hallmarks of a DDR. However, replication of the B19V dsDNA genome was capable of inducing the DDR. Moreover, the DDR per se did not arrest the cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase in cells with replicating B19V dsDNA genomes. Instead, the B19V nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein was the key factor in disrupting the cell cycle via a putative transactivation domain operating through a p53-independent pathway. Taken together, the results suggest that the replication of the B19V genome is largely responsible for triggering a DDR, which does not perturb cell cycle progression at G(2)/M significantly, during B19V infection.

  20. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert; Gagnon, David; Gjoerup, Ole; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication.

  1. ChIP-Seq to Analyze the Binding of Replication Proteins to Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, A Zachary; Viggiani, Christopher J; Aparicio, Jennifer G; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely used method to study interactions between proteins and discrete chromosomal loci in vivo. ChIP was originally developed for in vivo analysis of protein associations with candidate DNA sequences known or suspected to bind the protein of interest. The advent of DNA microarrays enabled the unbiased, genome-scale identification of all DNA sequences enriched by ChIP, providing a genomic map of a protein's chromatin binding. This method, termed ChIP-chip, is broadly applicable and has been particularly valuable in DNA replication studies to map potential replication origins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other organisms based on the specific association of certain replication proteins with these chromosomal elements, which are distributed throughout the genome. More recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have replaced microarrays as the preferred method for genomic analysis of ChIP experiments, and this combination is termed ChIP-Seq. We present a detailed ChIP-Seq protocol for S. cerevisiae that can be adapted for different HTS platforms and for different organisms. We also outline general schemes for data analysis; however, HTS data analyses usually must be tailored specifically for individual studies, depending on the experimental design, data characteristics, and the genome being analyzed.

  2. Heat shock and heat shock protein 70i enhance the oncolytic effect of replicative adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviv, Y S; Blackwell, J L; Li, H; Wang, M; Lei, X; Curiel, D T

    2001-12-01

    Replication-competent viruses are currently being evaluated for their cancer cell-killing properties. These vectors are designed to induce tumor regression after selective viral propagation within the tumor. However, replication-competent viruses have not resulted heretofore in complete tumor eradication in the clinical setting. Recently, heat shock has been reported to partially alleviate replication restriction on an avian adenovirus (Ad) in a human lung cancer cell line. Therefore, we hypothesized that heat shock and overexpression of heat shock protein (hsp) would support the oncolytic effect of a replication-competent human Ad. To this end, we tested the oncolytic and burst kinetics of a replication-competent Ad after exposure to heat shock or to inducible hsp 70 overexpression by a replication-deficient Ad (Adhsp 70i). Heat-shock resulted in augmentation of Ad burst and oncolysis while decreasing total intracellular Ad DNA. Overexpression of hsp 70i also enhanced Ad-mediated oncolysis but did not decrease intracellular Ad DNA levels. We conclude that heat shock and Adhsp 70i enhance the Ad cell-killing potential via distinct mechanisms. A potential therapeutic implication would be the use of local hyperthermia to augment oncolysis by increasing the burst of replication-competent Ad. The role of hsp in Ad-mediated oncolysis should be additionally explored.

  3. DNA transformations of Candida tropicalis with replicating and integrative vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglard, D; Fiechter, A

    1992-12-01

    The alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis was used as a host for DNA transformations. A stable ade2 mutant (Ha900) obtained by UV-mutagenesis was used as a recipient for different vectors carrying selectable markers. A first vector, pMK16, that was developed for the transformation of C. albicans and carries an ADE2 gene marker and a Candida autonomously replicating sequence (CARS) element promoting autonomous replication, was compatible for transforming Ha900. Two transformant types were observed: (i) pink transformants which easily lose pMK16 under non-selective growth conditions; (ii) white transformants, in which the same plasmid exhibited a higher mitotic stability. In both cases pMK16 could be rescued from these cells in Escherichia coli. A second vector, pADE2, containing the isolated C. tropicalis ADE2, gene, was used to transform Ha900. This vector integrated in the yeast genome at homologous sites of the ade2 locus. Different integration types were observed at one or both ade2 alleles in single or in tandem repeats.

  4. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J.; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert [Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Gagnon, David [Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal (IRCM), 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Gjoerup, Ole [Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Archambault, Jacques [Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal (IRCM), 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Bullock, Peter A., E-mail: Peter.Bullock@tufts.edu [Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication. - Highlights: • Development of a high-throughput screening assay for JCV DNA replication using C33A cells. • Evidence that T-ag fails to accumulate in the nuclei of established glioma cell lines. • Evidence that NF-1 directly promotes JCV DNA replication in C33A cells. • Proof-of-concept that the HTS assay can be used to identify pharmacological inhibitor of JCV DNA replication.

  5. RNase H confers specificity in the dnaA-dependent initiation of replication at the unique origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Pickett, G G; Kogoma, T; Kornberg, A

    1984-02-01

    Escherichia coli rnh mutants defective in RNase H activity display the features of previously described sdrA (stable DNA replication) and dasF (dnaA suppressor) mutants: (i) sustained DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis, (ii) lack of requirement for dnaA protein and the origin of replication (oriC), and (iii) sensitivity of growth to a rich medium. Both the sdrA mutants (selected for continued DNA replication in the absence of protein synthesis) and the dasF mutants (selected as dnaA suppressors) are defective in RNase H activity, measured in vitro. Furthermore, a 760-base-pair fragment containing the rnh+ structural gene complements the phenotype of each of the rnh, sdrA, and dasF mutants, indicative of a single gene. One function of RNase H in vivo is in the initiation of a cycle of DNA replication at oriC dependent on dnaA+. In keeping with these results, RNase H contributes to the specificity of dnaA protein-dependent replication initiated at oriC in a partially purified enzyme system.

  6. Primer retention owing to the absence of RNase H1 is catastrophic for mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J Bradley; Akman, Gokhan; Wood, Stuart R; Sakhuja, Kiran; Cerritelli, Susana M; Moss, Chloe; Bowmaker, Mark R; Jacobs, Howard T; Crouch, Robert J; Holt, Ian J

    2015-07-28

    Encoding ribonuclease H1 (RNase H1) degrades RNA hybridized to DNA, and its function is essential for mitochondrial DNA maintenance in the developing mouse. Here we define the role of RNase H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication. Analysis of replicating mitochondrial DNA in embryonic fibroblasts lacking RNase H1 reveals retention of three primers in the major noncoding region (NCR) and one at the prominent lagging-strand initiation site termed Ori-L. Primer retention does not lead immediately to depletion, as the persistent RNA is fully incorporated in mitochondrial DNA. However, the retained primers present an obstacle to the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ in subsequent rounds of replication and lead to the catastrophic generation of a double-strand break at the origin when the resulting gapped molecules are copied. Hence, the essential role of RNase H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication is the removal of primers at the origin of replication.

  7. Replication stalling by catalytically impaired Twinkle induces mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in cultured cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjoismaki, J.L.; Goffart, S.; Spelbrink, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements have been proposed to result from repair of double-strand breaks caused by blockage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. As mtDNA deletions are seen only in post-mitotic tissues, it has been suggested that they are selected out in actively d

  8. Deciphering DNA replication dynamics in eukaryotic cell populations in relation with their averaged chromatin conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldar, A.; Arneodo, A.; Audit, B.; Argoul, F.; Rappailles, A.; Guilbaud, G.; Petryk, N.; Kahli, M.; Hyrien, O.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a non-local model of DNA replication that takes into account the observed uncertainty on the position and time of replication initiation in eukaryote cell populations. By picturing replication initiation as a two-state system and considering all possible transition configurations, and by taking into account the chromatin’s fractal dimension, we derive an analytical expression for the rate of replication initiation. This model predicts with no free parameter the temporal profiles of initiation rate, replication fork density and fraction of replicated DNA, in quantitative agreement with corresponding experimental data from both S. cerevisiae and human cells and provides a quantitative estimate of initiation site redundancy. This study shows that, to a large extent, the program that regulates the dynamics of eukaryotic DNA replication is a collective phenomenon that emerges from the stochastic nature of replication origins initiation.

  9. Managing Single-Stranded DNA during Replication Stress in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Sabatinos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication fork stalling generates a variety of responses, most of which cause an increase in single-stranded DNA. ssDNA is a primary signal of replication distress that activates cellular checkpoints. It is also a potential source of genome instability and a substrate for mutation and recombination. Therefore, managing ssDNA levels is crucial to chromosome integrity. Limited ssDNA accumulation occurs in wild-type cells under stress. In contrast, cells lacking the replication checkpoint cannot arrest forks properly and accumulate large amounts of ssDNA. This likely occurs when the replication fork polymerase and helicase units are uncoupled. Some cells with mutations in the replication helicase (mcm-ts mimic checkpoint-deficient cells, and accumulate extensive areas of ssDNA to trigger the G2-checkpoint. Another category of helicase mutant (mcm4-degron causes fork stalling in early S-phase due to immediate loss of helicase function. Intriguingly, cells realize that ssDNA is present, but fail to detect that they accumulate ssDNA, and continue to divide. Thus, the cellular response to replication stalling depends on checkpoint activity and the time that replication stress occurs in S-phase. In this review we describe the signs, signals, and symptoms of replication arrest from an ssDNA perspective. We explore the possible mechanisms for these effects. We also advise the need for caution when detecting and interpreting data related to the accumulation of ssDNA.

  10. Enhancement of protein expression by alphavirus replicons by designing self-replicating subgenomic RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal Young; Atasheva, Svetlana; McAuley, Alexander J; Plante, Jessica A; Frolova, Elena I; Beasley, David W C; Frolov, Ilya

    2014-07-22

    Since the development of infectious cDNA clones of viral RNA genomes and the means of delivery of the in vitro-synthesized RNA into cells, alphaviruses have become an attractive system for expression of heterologous genetic information. Alphaviruses replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm, and their genetic material cannot recombine with cellular DNA. Alphavirus genome-based, self-replicating RNAs (replicons) are widely used vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. Their current design relies on replacement of structural genes, encoded by subgenomic RNAs (SG RNA), with heterologous sequences of interest. The SG RNA is transcribed from a promoter located in the alphavirus-specific RNA replication intermediate and is not further amplified. In this study, we have applied the accumulated knowledge of the mechanism of alphavirus replication and promoter structures, in particular, to increase the expression level of heterologous proteins from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-based replicons. During VEEV infection, replication enzymes are produced in excess to RNA replication intermediates, and a large fraction of them are not involved in RNA synthesis. The newly designed constructs encode SG RNAs, which are not only transcribed from the SG promoter, but are additionally amplified by the previously underused VEEV replication enzymes. These replicons produce SG RNAs and encoded proteins of interest 10- to 50-fold more efficiently than those using a traditional design. A modified replicon encoding West Nile virus (WNV) premembrane and envelope proteins efficiently produced subviral particles and, after a single immunization, elicited high titers of neutralizing antibodies, which protected mice from lethal challenge with WNV.

  11. A new light on DNA replication from the inactive X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladjem, Mirit I; Fu, Haiqing

    2014-06-01

    While large portions of the mammalian genome are known to replicate sequentially in a distinct, tissue-specific order, recent studies suggest that the inactive X chromosome is duplicated rapidly via random, synchronous DNA synthesis at numerous adjacent regions. The rapid duplication of the inactive X chromosome was observed in high-resolution studies visualizing DNA replication patterns in the nucleus, and by allele-specific DNA sequencing studies measuring the extent of DNA synthesis. These studies conclude that inactive X chromosomes complete replication earlier than previously thought and suggest that the strict order of DNA replication detected in the majority of genomic regions is not preserved in non-transcribed, "silent" chromatin. These observations alter current concepts about the regulation of DNA replication in non-transcribed portions of the genome in general and in the inactive X-chromosome in particular.

  12. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikh, Christopher N; Brewer, Bonita J; Merrikh, Houra

    2015-06-01

    In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes) or co-directional (leading strand genes) orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life, these results are

  13. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Merrikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes or co-directional (leading strand genes orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life

  14. DNA replication and transcription: An innovative teaching strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Annabel; Hancock, Carolyn

    2005-11-01

    First-year students in genetics at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, attend two general biology modules, one in each semester. Teaching involves four formal lectures per week of 45 min each, one 3-h practical, and one lecture period tutorial. These students, graduating from secondary education, are well schooled in rote leaning but are limited in critical thinking and find assessment questions belonging to the higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy difficult. All students attend the formal lectures together, up to 300 students, whereas for the tutorials they are grouped into small groups, no more than 40 students in a tutorial class, allowing for innovative teaching strategies. Students find the processes of DNA replication and transcription difficult because of the sequential steps involved in the processes together with limitations imposed by the enzymes involved. Furthermore, they find the significance and relationships between the different components of the processes very difficult. A tutorial was developed in which students are requested to demonstrate replication with line drawings, which are then used in various iterations of transcription. The tutorial is administered in the presence of a tutor that guides the step by step execution of the tutorial while stimulating active participation. In the past 2 years, the presentation of this and other similar tutorials in genetics has improved overall class performance on average by 15%. Furthermore, students seem to display a greater retention from the first year to the second, which was previously rather limited. A survey among first-year students revealed that the implementation of this tutorial facilitated studying and recall by helping students to organize thoughts, picture the sequence of events, understand fundamental concepts, and create a feeling of confidence.

  15. Proficient Replication of the Yeast Genome by a Viral DNA Polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Joseph L; Stith, Carrie M; Burgers, Peter M

    2016-05-27

    DNA replication in eukaryotic cells requires minimally three B-family DNA polymerases: Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ϵ. Pol δ replicates and matures Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol δ is a three-subunit enzyme (Pol3-Pol31-Pol32). A small C-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit Pol3 carries both iron-sulfur cluster and zinc-binding motifs, which mediate interactions with Pol31, and processive replication with the replication clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), respectively. We show that the entire N-terminal domain of Pol3, containing polymerase and proofreading activities, could be effectively replaced by those from bacteriophage RB69, and could carry out chromosomal DNA replication in yeast with remarkable high fidelity, provided that adaptive mutations in the replication clamp PCNA were introduced. This result is consistent with the model that all essential interactions for DNA replication in yeast are mediated through the small C-terminal domain of Pol3. The chimeric polymerase carries out processive replication with PCNA in vitro; however, in yeast, it requires an increased involvement of the mutagenic translesion DNA polymerase ζ during DNA replication.

  16. Structure of p15PAF-PCNA complex and implications for clamp sliding during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Biasio, Alfredo; de Opakua, Alain Ibáñez; Mortuza, Gulnahar B

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsically disordered protein p15(PAF) regulates DNA replication and repair by binding to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp. We present the structure of the human p15(PAF)-PCNA complex. Crystallography and NMR show the central PCNA-interacting protein motif (PIP...... free and PCNA-bound p15(PAF) binds DNA mainly through its histone-like N-terminal tail, while PCNA does not, and a model of the ternary complex with DNA inside the PCNA ring is consistent with electron micrographs. We propose that p15(PAF) acts as a flexible drag that regulates PCNA sliding along...

  17. Influence of retinoblastoma-related gene silencing on the initiation of DNA replication by African cassava mosaic virus Rep in cells of mature leaves in Nicotiana benthamiana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Gareth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses mainly infect terminally differentiated tissues and cells in plants. They need to reprogramme host cellular machinery for DNA replication. This process is thought to be mediated by inactivation of cell-cycle repressor proteins and by induction of host DNA synthesis protein expression through actions of the geminviral replication initiator protein (Rep. Findings Exploiting a Nicotiana benthamiana pOri2 line, which is transformed with a transgene consisting of a direct repeat of the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV-replication origin (Ori flanking a non-viral DNA region, and virus-induced RNA silencing (VIGS, the impact of host gene expression on replication of the ACMV-derived replicon was investigated. The ACMV Rep trans-replicated the viral episomal replicon in leaves of young but not older pOri2 plants. Upon VIGS-mediated down-regulation of N. benthamiana NbRBR1, the retinoblastoma-related protein gene coding for a negative cell-cycle suppressor, recovered the ability of ACMV Rep for trans DNA replication, whereas the silencing of NbPCNA coding for the sliding clamp of DNA polymerase had no effect. Conclusions These results suggest that the cellular machinery for DNA replication in differentiated tissues of older leaves cannot be reprogrammed by Rep alone but may need other uncharacterised viral and plant factors.

  18. Mathematical modelling of DNA replication reveals a trade-off between coherence of origin activation and robustness against rereplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Brümmer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are duplicated from multiple replication origins exactly once per cell cycle. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a complex molecular network has been identified that governs the assembly of the replication machinery. Here we develop a mathematical model that links the dynamics of this network to its performance in terms of rate and coherence of origin activation events, number of activated origins, the resulting distribution of replicon sizes and robustness against DNA rereplication. To parameterize the model, we use measured protein expression data and systematically generate kinetic parameter sets by optimizing the coherence of origin firing. While randomly parameterized networks yield unrealistically slow kinetics of replication initiation, networks with optimized parameters account for the experimentally observed distribution of origin firing times. Efficient inhibition of DNA rereplication emerges as a constraint that limits the rate at which replication can be initiated. In addition to the separation between origin licensing and firing, a time delay between the activation of S phase cyclin-dependent kinase (S-Cdk and the initiation of DNA replication is required for preventing rereplication. Our analysis suggests that distributive multisite phosphorylation of the S-Cdk targets Sld2 and Sld3 can generate both a robust time delay and contribute to switch-like, coherent activation of replication origins. The proposed catalytic function of the complex formed by Dpb11, Sld3 and Sld2 strongly enhances coherence and robustness of origin firing. The model rationalizes how experimentally observed inefficient replication from fewer origins is caused by premature activation of S-Cdk, while premature activity of the S-Cdk targets Sld2 and Sld3 results in DNA rereplication. Thus the model demonstrates how kinetic deregulation of the molecular network governing DNA replication may result in genomic instability.

  19. Tumor cell death mediated by peptides that recognize branched intermediates of DNA replication and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamon Dey

    Full Text Available Effective treatments for cancer are still needed, both for cancers that do not respond well to current therapeutics and for cancers that become resistant to available treatments. Herein we investigated the effect of a structure-selective d-amino acid peptide wrwycr that binds replication fork mimics and Holliday Junction (HJs intermediates of homologous recombination (HR in vitro, and inhibits their resolution by HJ-processing enzymes. We predicted that treating cells with HJ-binding compounds would lead to accumulation of DNA damage. As cells repair endogenous or exogenous DNA damage, collapsed replication forks and HJ intermediates will accumulate and serve as targets for the HJ-binding peptides. Inhibiting junction resolution will lead to further accumulation of DNA breaks, eventually resulting in amplification of the damage and causing cell death. Both peptide wrwycr and the related wrwyrggrywrw entered cancer cells and reduced cell survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Early markers for DNA damage, γH2AX foci and 53BP1 foci, increased with dose and/or time exposure to the peptides. DNA breaks persisted at least 48 h, and both checkpoint proteins Chk1 and Chk2 were activated. The passage of the cells from S to G2/M was blocked even after 72 h. Apoptosis, however, was not induced in either HeLa or PC3 cells. Based on colony-forming assays, about 35% peptide-induced cytotoxicity was irreversible. Finally, sublethal doses of peptide wrwycr (50-100 µM in conjunction with sublethal doses of several DNA damaging agents (etoposide, doxorubicin, and HU reduced cell survival at least additively and sometimes synergistically. Taken together, the results suggest that the peptides merit further investigation as proof-of-principle molecules for a new class of anti-cancer therapeutics, in particular in combination with other DNA damaging therapies.

  20. Tumor cell death mediated by peptides that recognize branched intermediates of DNA replication and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Mamon; Patra, Sukanya; Su, Leo Y; Segall, Anca M

    2013-01-01

    Effective treatments for cancer are still needed, both for cancers that do not respond well to current therapeutics and for cancers that become resistant to available treatments. Herein we investigated the effect of a structure-selective d-amino acid peptide wrwycr that binds replication fork mimics and Holliday Junction (HJs) intermediates of homologous recombination (HR) in vitro, and inhibits their resolution by HJ-processing enzymes. We predicted that treating cells with HJ-binding compounds would lead to accumulation of DNA damage. As cells repair endogenous or exogenous DNA damage, collapsed replication forks and HJ intermediates will accumulate and serve as targets for the HJ-binding peptides. Inhibiting junction resolution will lead to further accumulation of DNA breaks, eventually resulting in amplification of the damage and causing cell death. Both peptide wrwycr and the related wrwyrggrywrw entered cancer cells and reduced cell survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Early markers for DNA damage, γH2AX foci and 53BP1 foci, increased with dose and/or time exposure to the peptides. DNA breaks persisted at least 48 h, and both checkpoint proteins Chk1 and Chk2 were activated. The passage of the cells from S to G2/M was blocked even after 72 h. Apoptosis, however, was not induced in either HeLa or PC3 cells. Based on colony-forming assays, about 35% peptide-induced cytotoxicity was irreversible. Finally, sublethal doses of peptide wrwycr (50-100 µM) in conjunction with sublethal doses of several DNA damaging agents (etoposide, doxorubicin, and HU) reduced cell survival at least additively and sometimes synergistically. Taken together, the results suggest that the peptides merit further investigation as proof-of-principle molecules for a new class of anti-cancer therapeutics, in particular in combination with other DNA damaging therapies.

  1. Unscheduled DNA replication origin activation at inserted HPV 18 sequences in a HPV-18/MYC amplicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Chiara; Herrick, John; Bensimon, Aaron

    2007-08-01

    Oncogene amplification is a critical step leading to tumorigenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Despite data suggesting that DNA replication is a major source of genomic instability, little is known about replication origin usage and replication fork progression in rearranged regions. Using a single DNA molecule approach, we provide here the first study of replication kinetics on a previously characterized MYC/papillomavirus (HPV18) amplicon in a cervical cancer. Using this amplicon as a model, we investigated the role DNA replication control plays in generating amplifications in human cancers. The data reveal severely perturbed DNA replication kinetics in the amplified region when compared with other regions of the same genome. It was found that DNA replication is initiated from both genomic and viral sequences, resulting in a higher median frequency of origin firings. In addition, it was found that the higher initiation frequency was associated with an equivalent increase in the number of stalled replication forks. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that unscheduled replication origin activation at inserted HPV-18 viral DNA sequences triggers DNA amplification in this cancer cell line and the subsequent overexpression of the MYC oncogene.

  2. 大肠杆菌TorS/TorR二组分体应答蛋白TorR对DNA复制起始的影响%The effects of TorR protein on initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; 乔佳鑫; 李静; 李慧; 莫日根

    2015-01-01

    二组分体作为一种信号转导系统在细菌中普遍存在,能够感知外界环境变化并做出应答。细菌中CckA/CtrA、ArcA/ArcB和PhoP/PhoQ二组分体与DNA复制起始和细胞分裂相关,但目前还未见TorS/TorR二组分体对细胞周期及 DNA复制影响的相关报道。大肠杆菌 TorS/TorR 二组分体能够监测细胞周围氧化三甲胺(Trimethylamine oxide, TMAO)的浓度变化,但其是否影响DNA复制起始呢?文章利用流式细胞仪检测了ΔtorS和ΔtorR 突变体菌株的复制式样。结果发现,ΔtorS 突变菌株每个细胞复制起始原点数目和倍增时间与野生型细胞一致,而ΔtorR突变菌株每个细胞复制起始原点数目多于野生型细胞,说明复制起始发生时间比野生型细胞早。但是过表达TorR蛋白或者共同表达 TorS和 TorR蛋白都不能使ΔtorR突变体表型恢复为野生型表型。而在野生型和ΔtorR突变细胞中过表达SufD蛋白能使复制起始提早发生,在ΔtorR和ΔsufD双突变细胞中复制起始延迟。所以,TorR可能通过改变sufD基因的表达来间接影响染色体复制起始。%The two-component systems, which could sense and respond to environmental changes, widely exist in bacteria as a signal transduction pathway. The bacterial CckA/CtrA, ArcA/ArcB and PhoP/PhoQ two-component systems are associated with initiation of DNA replication and cell division, however, the effects of the TorS/TorR system on cell cycle and DNA replication remains unknown. The TorS/TorR system in Escherichia coli can sense changes in trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) concentration around the cells. However, it is unknown if it also affects initiation of DNA replication. We detected DNA replication patterns in ΔtorS and ΔtorR mutant strains by flow cytometry. We found that the average number of replication origins (oriCs) per cell and doubling time inΔtorS mutants were the same while the average number of oriCs in ΔtorR mutants was

  3. Deciphering DNA replication dynamics in eukaryotic cell populations in relation with their averaged chromatin conformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldar, A.; Arneodo, A.; Audit, B.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a non-local model of DNA replication that takes into account the observed uncertainty on the position and time of replication initiation in eukaryote cell populations. By picturing replication initiation as a two-state system and considering all possible transition configurations......, and by taking into account the chromatin's fractal dimension, we derive an analytical expression for the rate of replication initiation. This model predicts with no free parameter the temporal profiles of initiation rate, replication fork density and fraction of replicated DNA, in quantitative agreement...... with corresponding experimental data from both S. cerevisiae and human cells and provides a quantitative estimate of initiation site redundancy. This study shows that, to a large extent, the program that regulates the dynamics of eukaryotic DNA replication is a collective phenomenon that emerges from the stochastic...

  4. Replication initiator DnaA binds at the Caulobacter centromere and enables chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Paola E; Kalogeraki, Virginia S; Shapiro, Lucy

    2014-11-11

    During cell division, multiple processes are highly coordinated to faithfully generate genetically equivalent daughter cells. In bacteria, the mechanisms that underlie the coordination of chromosome replication and segregation are poorly understood. Here, we report that the conserved replication initiator, DnaA, can mediate chromosome segregation independent of replication initiation. It does so by binding directly to the parS centromere region of the chromosome, and mutations that alter this interaction result in cells that display aberrant centromere translocation and cell division. We propose that DnaA serves to coordinate bacterial DNA replication with the onset of chromosome segregation.

  5. Both Chromosome Decondensation and Condensation Are Dependent on DNA Replication in C. elegans Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Remi; Craig, Gillian; Labib, Karim; Gartner, Anton; Blow, J Julian

    2015-07-21

    During cell division, chromatin alternates between a condensed state to facilitate chromosome segregation and a decondensed form when DNA replicates. In most tissues, S phase and mitosis are separated by defined G1 and G2 gap phases, but early embryogenesis involves rapid oscillations between replication and mitosis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans embryos as a model system, we show that chromosome condensation and condensin II concentration on chromosomal axes require replicated DNA. In addition, we found that, during late telophase, replication initiates on condensed chromosomes and promotes the rapid decondensation of the chromatin. Upon replication initiation, the CDC-45-MCM-GINS (CMG) DNA helicase drives the release of condensin I complexes from chromatin and the activation or displacement of inactive MCM-2-7 complexes, which together with the nucleoporin MEL-28/ELYS tethers condensed chromatin to the nuclear envelope, thereby promoting chromatin decondensation. Our results show how, in an early embryo, the chromosome-condensation cycle is functionally linked with DNA replication.

  6. Identification and functional characterization of Bet protein as a negative regulator of BFV3026 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Tiejun; Wu, Kai; Cui, Xiaoxu; Shao, Peng; Zhang, Qicheng; Bai, Xiaobo; Tan, Juan; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-06-01

    Foamy virus (FV) establishes persistent infection in the host without causing apparent disease. Besides the transactivator Tas protein, another auxiliary protein--Bet--has been reported in prototype foamy virus, equine foamy virus, and feline foamy virus. Here, we found the putative bbet gene in clone C74 from a cDNA library of bovine foamy virus strain 3026 (BFV3026) by comparison of gene localization, composition, and splicing features with other known bet genes. Subsequently, BBet protein was detected in BFV3026-infected cells by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Analysis of the BBet mutant infectious clone (pBS-BFVdelBBet) revealed that BBet could inhibit BFV3026 replication. Consistent with this result, overexpression of BBet in Cf2Th cells reduced BFV replication by approximately threefold. Furthermore, virus replication levels similarly were reduced by approximately threefold in pBS-BFV-transfected and BFV3026-infected Cf2Th cells stably expressing BBet compared with control cells. After three passages, BFV3026 replicated more slowly in BBet-expressing cells. This study implicates BBet as a negative regulator of BFV replication and provides a resource for future studies on the function of this protein in the virus lifecycle.

  7. DNA copy-number control through inhibition of replication fork progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Nordman (Jared T.); E. Kozhevnikova (Elena); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter); A.V. Pindyurin (Alexey); E.N. Andreyeva (Evgeniya); V.V. Shloma (Victor); I.F. Zhimulev (Igor); T. Orr-Weaver (T.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict

  8. DNA copy-number control through inhibition of replication fork progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Nordman (Jared T.); E. Kozhevnikova (Elena); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter); A.V. Pindyurin (Alexey); E.N. Andreyeva (Evgeniya); V.V. Shloma (Victor); I.F. Zhimulev (Igor); T. Orr-Weaver (T.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell

  9. The pathological consequences of impaired genome integrity in humans; disorders of the DNA replication machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and efficient replication of the human genome occurs in the context of an array of constitutional barriers, including regional topological constraints imposed by chromatin architecture and processes such as transcription, catenation of the helical polymer and spontaneously generated DNA lesions, including base modifications and strand breaks. DNA replication is fundamentally important for tissue development and homeostasis; differentiation programmes are intimately linked with stem cell division. Unsurprisingly, impairments of the DNA replication machinery can have catastrophic consequences for genome stability and cell division. Functional impacts on DNA replication and genome stability have long been known to play roles in malignant transformation through a variety of complex mechanisms, and significant further insights have been gained from studying model organisms in this context. Congenital hypomorphic defects in components of the DNA replication machinery have been and continue to be identified in humans. These disorders present with a wide range of clinical features. Indeed, in some instances, different mutations in the same gene underlie different clinical presentations. Understanding the origin and molecular basis of these features opens a window onto the range of developmental impacts of suboptimal DNA replication and genome instability in humans. Here, I will briefly overview the basic steps involved in DNA replication and the key concepts that have emerged from this area of research, before switching emphasis to the pathological consequences of defects within the DNA replication network; the human disorders. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. DNA copy-number control through inhibition of replication fork progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Nordman (Jared T.); E. Kozhevnikova (Elena); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter); A.V. Pindyurin (Alexey); E.N. Andreyeva (Evgeniya); V.V. Shloma (Victor); I.F. Zhimulev (Igor); T. Orr-Weaver (T.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vpr Induces DNA Replication Stress In Vitro and In Vivo▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Erik S.; Sherman, Michael P.; Blackett, Jana L.; Neidleman, Jason A.; Kreis, Christophe; Mundt, Pamela; Williams, Samuel A.; Warmerdam, Maria; Kahn, James; Hecht, Frederick M.; Grant, Robert M.; de Noronha, Carlos M. C.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Greene, Warner C.; Planelles, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) causes cell cycle arrest in G2. Vpr-expressing cells display the hallmarks of certain forms of DNA damage, specifically activation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase, ATR. However, evidence that Vpr function is relevant in vivo or in the context of viral infection is still lacking. In the present study, we demonstrate that HIV-1 infection of primary, human CD4+ lymphocytes causes G2 arrest in a Vpr-dependent manner and that this response requires ATR, as shown by RNA interference. The event leading to ATR activation in CD4+ lymphocytes is the accumulation of replication protein A in nuclear foci, an indication that Vpr likely induces stalling of replication forks. Primary macrophages are refractory to ATR activation by Vpr, a finding that is consistent with the lack of detectable ATR, Rad17, and Chk1 protein expression in these nondividing cells. These observations begin to explain the remarkable resilience of macrophages to HIV-1-induced cytopathicity. To study the in vivo consequences of Vpr function, we isolated CD4+ lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals and interrogated the cell cycle status of anti-p24Gag-immunoreactive cells. We report that infected cells in vivo display an aberrant cell cycle profile whereby a majority of cells have a 4N DNA content, consistent with the onset of G2 arrest. PMID:16956949

  12. Ku70 Senses HTLV-1 DNA and Modulates HTLV-1 Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Kang, Lixia; Song, Di; Liu, Lu; Yang, Shuai; Ma, Lingling; Guo, Zhixiang; Ding, Huaxia; Wang, Hui; Yang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) belongs to the deltaretrovirus family and has been linked to multiple diseases. However, the innate host defense against HTLV-1 is unclear. In this study, we report that the expression of Ku70, a known DNA sensor against DNA viruses, could be induced by HTLV-1 infection in HeLa, PMA-differentiated THP1 cells, primary human monocytes, and human monocyte-derived macrophages. In these cells, the overexpression of Ku70 inhibited the HTLV-1 protein expression, whereas the knockdown of Ku70 promoted the HTLV-1 protein expression. Furthermore, the overexpression of Ku70 enhanced the cellular response to HTLV-1 infection, whereas Ku70 knockdown yielded the opposite effect. Additionally, Ku70 was found to interact with HTLV-1 reverse transcription intermediate ssDNA90. ssDNA90 stimulation induced Ku70 expression and Ku70 promoted ssDNA90-triggered innate immune responses. Finally, HTLV-1 infection enhanced the association between Ku70 and stimulator of IFN genes, suggesting that stimulator of IFN genes was involved in Ku70-mediated host defenses against HTLV-1 infection. Taken together, our findings suggest a new sensor that detects HTLV-1 reverse transcription intermediate and controls HTLV-1 replication. These findings may provide new angles to understand host defenses against HTLV-1 infection and HTLV-1-associated diseases. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. The DnaK Chaperone Uses Different Mechanisms To Promote and Inhibit Replication of Vibrio cholerae Chromosome 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Jyoti K; Li, Mi; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chattoraj, Dhruba

    2017-04-18

    Replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosome 2 (Chr2) depends on molecular chaperone DnaK to facilitate binding of the initiator (RctB) to the replication origin. The binding occurs at two kinds of site, 12-mers and 39-mers, which promote and inhibit replication, respectively. Here we show that DnaK employs different mechanisms to enhance the two kinds of binding. We found that mutations in rctB that reduce DnaK binding also reduce 12-mer binding and initiation. The initiation defect is suppressed by second-site mutations that increase 12-mer binding only marginally. Instead, they reduce replication inhibitory mechanisms: RctB dimerization and 39-mer binding. One suppressing change was in a dimerization domain which is folded similarly to the initiator of an iteron plasmid-the presumed progenitor of Chr2. In plasmids, DnaK promotes initiation by reducing dimerization. A different mutation was in the 39-mer binding domain of RctB and inactivated it, indicating an alternative suppression mechanism. Paradoxically, although DnaK increases 39-mer binding, the increase was also achieved by inactivating the DnaK binding site of RctB. This result suggests that the site inhibits the 39-mer binding domain (via autoinhibition) when prevented from binding DnaK. Taken together, our results reveal an important feature of the transition from plasmid to chromosome: the Chr2 initiator retains the plasmid-like dimerization domain and its control by chaperones but uses the chaperones in an unprecedented way to control the inhibitory 39-mer binding.IMPORTANCE The capacity of proteins to undergo remodeling provides opportunities to control their function. However, remodeling remains a poorly understood aspect of the structure-function paradigm due to its dynamic nature. Here we have studied remodeling of the initiator of replication of Vibrio cholerae Chr2 by the molecular chaperone, DnaK. We show that DnaK binds to a site on the Chr2 initiator (RctB) that promotes initiation by reducing

  14. Cnr interferes with dimerization of the replication protein alpha in phage-plasmid P4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocchetti, A; Serina, S; Oliva, I; Dehò, G; Ghisotti, D

    2001-01-15

    DNA replication of phage-plasmid P4 in its host Escherichia coli depends on its replication protein alpha. In the plasmid state, P4 copy number is controlled by the regulator protein Cnr (copy number regulation). Mutations in alpha (alpha(cr)) that prevent regulation by Cnr cause P4 over-replication and cell death. Using the two-hybrid system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a system based on lambda immunity in E.coli for in vivo detection of protein-protein interactions, we found that (i) alpha protein interacts with Cnr, whereas alpha(cr) proteins do not; (ii) both alpha-alpha and alpha(cr)-alpha(cr) interactions occur and the interaction domain is located within the C-terminal of alpha; (iii) Cnr-Cnr interaction also occurs. Using an in vivo competition assay, we found that Cnr interferes with both alpha-alpha and alpha(cr)-alpha(cr) dimerization. Our data suggest that Cnr and alpha interact in at least two ways, which may have different functional roles in P4 replication control.

  15. Fidelity of DNA Replication in Normal and Malignant Human Breast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A vatit"Y Of DNA synthesis and the typt of DNA replica~tion Products " celular prca including DNA rsplicatlon. DNA repsair. R~NA formed in experiments...Sicrturn thlarida wsMi SocletylMai yland Division . cnd the University of Maryland rDesigntld FIG.4. 1w ffet o a angeof cmu;, tloideResearch

  16. DnaN clamp zones provide a platform for spatiotemporal coupling of mismatch detection to DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Justin S; Sharma, Anushi; Hingorani, Manju M; Simmons, Lyle A

    2013-02-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) increases the fidelity of DNA replication by identifying and correcting replication errors. Processivity clamps are vital components of DNA replication and MMR, yet the mechanism and extent to which they participate in MMR remains unclear. We investigated the role of the Bacillus subtilis processivity clamp DnaN, and found that it serves as a platform for mismatch detection and coupling of repair to DNA replication. By visualizing functional MutS fluorescent fusions in vivo, we find that MutS forms foci independent of mismatch detection at sites of replication (i.e. the replisome). These MutS foci are directed to the replisome by DnaN clamp zones that aid mismatch detection by targeting the search to nascent DNA. Following mismatch detection, MutS disengages from the replisome, facilitating repair. We tested the functional importance of DnaN-mediated mismatch detection for MMR, and found that it accounts for 90% of repair. This high dependence on DnaN can be bypassed by increasing MutS concentration within the cell, indicating a secondary mode of detection in vivo whereby MutS directly finds mismatches without associating with the replisome. Overall, our results provide new insight into the mechanism by which DnaN couples mismatch recognition to DNA replication in living cells.

  17. The Golgi protein ACBD3 facilitates Enterovirus 71 replication by interacting with 3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yijie; Qi, Jianli; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Yan; Zhou, Zhuo; He, Bin; Wang, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human pathogen that causes hand, foot, mouth disease and neurological complications. Although EV71, as well as other enteroviruses, initiates a remodeling of intracellular membrane for genomic replication, the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. By screening human cDNA library, we uncover that the Golgi resident protein acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing 3 (ACBD3) serves as a target of the 3A protein of EV71. This interaction occurs in cells expressing 3A or infected with EV71. Genetic inhibition or deletion of ACBD3 drastically impairs viral RNA replication and plaque formation. Such defects are corrected upon restoration of ACBD3. In infected cells, EV71 3A redirects ACBD3, to the replication sites. I44A or H54Y substitution in 3A interrupts the binding to ACBD3. As such, viral replication is impeded. These results reveal a mechanism of EV71 replication that involves host ACBD3 for viral replication. PMID:28303920

  18. Genome-wide alterations of the DNA replication program during tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, A.; Goldar, A.; Argoul, F.; Hyrien, O.; Audit, B.

    2016-08-01

    Oncogenic stress is a major driving force in the early stages of cancer development. Recent experimental findings reveal that, in precancerous lesions and cancers, activated oncogenes may induce stalling and dissociation of DNA replication forks resulting in DNA damage. Replication timing is emerging as an important epigenetic feature that recapitulates several genomic, epigenetic and functional specificities of even closely related cell types. There is increasing evidence that chromosome rearrangements, the hallmark of many cancer genomes, are intimately associated with the DNA replication program and that epigenetic replication timing changes often precede chromosomic rearrangements. The recent development of a novel methodology to map replication fork polarity using deep sequencing of Okazaki fragments has provided new and complementary genome-wide replication profiling data. We review the results of a wavelet-based multi-scale analysis of genomic and epigenetic data including replication profiles along human chromosomes. These results provide new insight into the spatio-temporal replication program and its dynamics during differentiation. Here our goal is to bring to cancer research, the experimental protocols and computational methodologies for replication program profiling, and also the modeling of the spatio-temporal replication program. To illustrate our purpose, we report very preliminary results obtained for the chronic myelogeneous leukemia, the archetype model of cancer. Finally, we discuss promising perspectives on using genome-wide DNA replication profiling as a novel efficient tool for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and personalized treatment.

  19. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a key factor in DNA replication and cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzalka, Wojciech; Ziemienowicz, Alicja

    2011-05-01

    PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) has been found in the nuclei of yeast, plant and animal cells that undergo cell division, suggesting a function in cell cycle regulation and/or DNA replication. It subsequently became clear that PCNA also played a role in other processes involving the cell genome. This review discusses eukaryotic PCNA, with an emphasis on plant PCNA, in terms of the protein structure and its biochemical properties as well as gene structure, organization, expression and function. PCNA exerts a tripartite function by operating as (1) a sliding clamp during DNA synthesis, (2) a polymerase switch factor and (3) a recruitment factor. Most of its functions are mediated by its interactions with various proteins involved in DNA synthesis, repair and recombination as well as in regulation of the cell cycle and chromatid cohesion. Moreover, post-translational modifications of PCNA play a key role in regulation of its functions. Finally, a phylogenetic comparison of PCNA genes suggests that the multi-functionality observed in most species is a product of evolution. Most plant PCNAs exhibit features similar to those found for PCNAs of other eukaryotes. Similarities include: (1) a trimeric ring structure of the PCNA sliding clamp, (2) the involvement of PCNA in DNA replication and repair, (3) the ability to stimulate the activity of DNA polymerase δ and (4) the ability to interact with p21, a regulator of the cell cycle. However, many plant genomes seem to contain the second, probably functional, copy of the PCNA gene, in contrast to PCNA pseudogenes that are found in mammalian genomes.

  20. Identification of Fic-1 as an enzyme that inhibits bacterial DNA replication by AMPylating GyrB, promoting filament formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Canhua; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Zhang, Li-Qun; Luo, Zhao-Qing

    2016-01-26

    The morphology of bacterial cells is important for virulence, evasion of the host immune system, and coping with environmental stresses. The widely distributed Fic proteins (filamentation induced by cAMP) are annotated as proteins involved in cell division because of the presence of the HPFx[D/E]GN[G/K]R motif. We showed that the presence of Fic-1 from Pseudomonas fluorescens significantly reduced the yield of plasmid DNA when expressed in Escherichia coli or P. fluorescens. Fic-1 interacted with GyrB, a subunit of DNA gyrase, which is essential for bacterial DNA replication. Fic-1 catalyzed the AMPylation of GyrB at Tyr(109), a residue critical for binding ATP, and exhibited auto-AMPylation activity. Mutation of the Fic-1 auto-AMPylated site greatly reduced AMPylation activity toward itself and toward GyrB. Fic-1-dependent AMPylation of GyrB triggered the SOS response, indicative of DNA replication stress or DNA damage. Fic-1 also promoted the formation of elongated cells when the SOS response was blocked. We identified an α-inhibitor protein that we named anti-Fic-1 (AntF), encoded by a gene immediately upstream of Fic-1. AntF interacted with Fic-1, inhibited the AMPylation activity of Fic-1 for GyrB in vitro, and blocked Fic-1-mediated inhibition of DNA replication in bacteria, suggesting that Fic-1 and AntF comprise a toxin-antitoxin module. Our work establishes Fic-1 as an AMPylating enzyme that targets GyrB to inhibit DNA replication and may target other proteins to regulate bacterial morphology.

  1. DNA replication factor C1 mediates genomic stability and transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qian

    2010-07-01

    Genetic screening identified a suppressor of ros1-1, a mutant of REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1 (ROS1; encoding a DNA demethylation protein). The suppressor is a mutation in the gene encoding the largest subunit of replication factor C (RFC1). This mutation of RFC1 reactivates the unlinked 35S-NPTII transgene, which is silenced in ros1 and also increases expression of the pericentromeric Athila retrotransposons named transcriptional silent information in a DNA methylationindependent manner. rfc1 is more sensitive than the wild type to the DNA-damaging agent methylmethane sulphonate and to the DNA inter- and intra- cross-linking agent cisplatin. The rfc1 mutant constitutively expresses the G2/M-specific cyclin CycB1;1 and other DNA repair-related genes. Treatment with DNA-damaging agents mimics the rfc1 mutation in releasing the silenced 35S-NPTII, suggesting that spontaneously induced genomic instability caused by the rfc1 mutation might partially contribute to the released transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). The frequency of somatic homologous recombination is significantly increased in the rfc1 mutant. Interestingly, ros1 mutants show increased telomere length, but rfc1 mutants show decreased telomere length and reduced expression of telomerase. Our results suggest that RFC1 helps mediate genomic stability and TGS in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2010 American Society of Plant Biologists.

  2. The DNA damage checkpoint response to replication stress: A Game of Forks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eJossen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditions challenging replication fork progression, collectively referred to as replication stress, represent a major source of genomic instability and are associated to cancer onset. The replication checkpoint, a specialized branch of the DNA damage checkpoint, monitors fork problems and triggers a cellular response aimed at preserving genome integrity. Here, we review the mechanisms by which the replication checkpoint monitors and responds to replication stress, focusing on the checkpoint-mediated pathways contributing to protect replication fork integrity. We discuss how cells achieve checkpoint signaling inactivation once replication stress is overcome and how a failure to timely revert checkpoint-mediated changes in cellular physiology might impact on replication dynamics and genome integrity. We also highlight the checkpoint function as an anti-cancer barrier preventing cells malignant transformation following oncogene-induced replication stress.

  3. Selective modification of adenovirus replication can be achieved through rational mutagenesis of the adenovirus type 5 DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, Cristina; Beltejar, Michael-John; Brown, Caitlin; Fong, Vincent; Daddacha, Waaqo; Kim, Baek; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Mutations that reduce the efficiency of deoxynucleoside (dN) triphosphate (dNTP) substrate utilization by the HIV-1 DNA polymerase prevent viral replication in resting cells, which contain low dNTP concentrations, but not in rapidly dividing cells such as cancer cells, which contain high levels of dNTPs. We therefore tested whether mutations in regions of the adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA polymerase that interact with the dNTP substrate or DNA template could alter virus replication. The majority of the mutations created, including conservative substitutions, were incompatible with virus replication. Five replication-competent mutants were recovered from 293 cells, but four of these mutants failed to replicate in A549 lung carcinoma cells and Wi38 normal lung cells. Purified polymerase proteins from these viruses exhibited only a 2- to 4-fold reduction in their dNTP utilization efficiency but nonetheless could not be rescued, even when intracellular dNTP concentrations were artificially raised by the addition of exogenous dNs to virus-infected A549 cells. The fifth mutation (I664V) reduced biochemical dNTP utilization by the viral polymerase by 2.5-fold. The corresponding virus replicated to wild-type levels in three different cancer cell lines but was significantly impaired in all normal cell lines in which it was tested. Efficient replication and virus-mediated cell killing were rescued by the addition of exogenous dNs to normal lung fibroblasts (MRC5 cells), confirming the dNTP-dependent nature of the polymerase defect. Collectively, these data provide proof-of-concept support for the notion that conditionally replicating, tumor-selective adenovirus vectors can be created by modifying the efficiency with which the viral DNA polymerase utilizes dNTP substrates.

  4. Sequence and recombination analyses of the geminivirus replication initiator protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Vadivukarasi; K R Girish; R Usha

    2007-01-01

    The sequence motifs present in the replication initiator protein (Rep) of geminiviruses have been compared with those present in all known rolling circle replication initiators. The predicted secondary structures of Rep representing each group of organisms have been compared and found to be conserved. Regions of recombination in the Rep gene and the adjoining 5′ intergenic region (IR) of representative species of Geminiviridae have been identified using Recombination Detection Programs. The possible implications of such recombinations on the increasing host range of geminivirus infections are discussed.

  5. DNA-PK/Ku complex binds to latency-associated nuclear antigen and negatively regulates Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seho [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chunghun [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yoon-Jae [Department of Life Science, Kyungwon University, Seongnam-Si, Kyeonggi-Do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Junsoo [Division of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Joonho [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Taegun, E-mail: tseo@dongguk.edu [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-16

    During latent infection, latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays important roles in episomal persistence and replication. Several host factors are associated with KSHV latent replication. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), Ku70, and Ku86 bind the N-terminal region of LANA. LANA was phosphorylated by DNA-PK and overexpression of Ku70, but not Ku86, impaired transient replication. The efficiency of transient replication was significantly increased in the HCT116 (Ku86 +/-) cell line, compared to the HCT116 (Ku86 +/+) cell line, suggesting that the DNA-PK/Ku complex negatively regulates KSHV latent replication.

  6. Knockdown of DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 by RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type I DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Isabella; Elias, Per

    2007-04-13

    Herpes simplex virus has a linear double-stranded DNA genome with directly repeated terminal sequences needed for cleavage and packaging of replicated DNA. In infected cells, linear genomes rapidly become endless. It is currently a matter of discussion whether the endless genomes are circles supporting rolling circle replication or arise by recombination of linear genomes forming concatemers. Here, we have examined the role of mammalian DNA ligases in the herpes simplex virus, type I (HSV-1) life cycle by employing RNA interference (RNAi) in human 1BR.3.N fibroblasts. We find that RNAi-mediated knockdown of DNA ligase IV and its co-factor XRCC4 causes a hundred-fold reduction of virus yield, a small plaque phenotype, and reduced DNA synthesis. The effect is specific because RNAi against DNA ligase I or DNA ligase III fail to reduce HSV-1 replication. Furthermore, RNAi against DNA ligase IV and XRCC4 does not affect replication of adenovirus. In addition, high multiplicity infections of HSV-1 in human DNA ligase IV-deficient cells reveal a pronounced delay of production of infectious virus. Finally, we demonstrate that formation of endless genomes is inhibited by RNAi-mediated depletion of DNA ligase IV and XRCC4. Our results suggests that DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 serves an important role in the replication cycle of herpes viruses and is likely to be required for the formation of the endless genomes early during productive infection.

  7. CK2 phosphorylation inactivates DNA binding by the papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stephen; Ruse, Cristian; Stenlund, Arne

    2013-07-01

    Papillomaviruses have complex life cycles that are understood only superficially. Although it is well established that the viral E1 and E2 proteins play key roles in controlling viral transcription and DNA replication, how these factors are regulated is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation by the protein kinase CK2 controls the biochemical activities of the bovine papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins by modifying their DNA binding activity. Phosphorylation at multiple sites in the N-terminal domain in E1 results in the loss of sequence-specific DNA binding activity, a feature that is also conserved in human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 proteins. The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) E2 protein, when phosphorylated by CK2 on two specific sites in the hinge, also loses its site-specific DNA binding activity. Mutation of these sites in E2 results in greatly increased levels of latent viral DNA replication, indicating that CK2 phosphorylation of E2 is a negative regulator of viral DNA replication during latent viral replication. In contrast, mutation of the N-terminal phosphorylation sites in E1 has no effect on latent viral DNA replication. We propose that the phosphorylation of the N terminus of E1 plays a role only in vegetative viral DNA replication, and consistent with such a role, caspase 3 cleavage of E1, which has been shown to be necessary for vegetative viral DNA replication, restores the DNA binding activity