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Sample records for dna pieces suggesting

  1. Small DNA pieces in C. elegans are intermediates of DNA fragmentation during apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Joseph Aruscavage

    Full Text Available While studying small noncoding RNA in C. elegans, we discovered that protocols used for isolation of RNA are contaminated with small DNA pieces. After electrophoresis on a denaturing gel, the DNA fragments appear as a ladder of bands, approximately 10 nucleotides apart, mimicking the pattern of nuclease digestion of DNA wrapped around a nucleosome. Here we show that the small DNA pieces are products of the DNA fragmentation that occurs during apoptosis, and correspondingly, are absent in mutant strains incapable of apoptosis. In contrast, the small DNA pieces are present in strains defective for the engulfment process of apoptosis, suggesting they are produced in the dying cell prior to engulfment. While the small DNA pieces are also present in a number of strains with mutations in predicted nucleases, they are undetectable in strains containing mutations in nuc-1, which encodes a DNase II endonuclease. We find that the small DNA pieces can be labeled with terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase only after phosphatase treatment, as expected if they are products of DNase II cleavage, which generates a 3' phosphate. Our studies reveal a previously unknown intermediate in the process of apoptotic DNA fragmentation and thus bring us closer to defining this important pathway.

  2. Pieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik

    1990-01-01

    The report presents results from the SIP project (System Representation in Process Control). PIECES is a graphical, interactive user interface system designed and programmed as a tool for building, manipulating and using a Multilevel Flow Model (MFM - Morten Lind, Tecnical University of Denmark...

  3. Quantitative analysis of TALE-DNA interactions suggests polarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, Joshua F; Bhakta, Mital S; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2013-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ≈ NN > NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 10(3)-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches 'standard' RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5'-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5' end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3' end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE-DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones.

  4. think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research methodology is significantly political and in this think piece I try to ...... Critical inquiry in qualitative research: Feminist and poststructural perspectives: ... In: DeMarrais, K.B. & Lapan, S.D. (Eds), Foundations for research: Methods.

  5. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in prokaryotes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garima Khandelwal; Jalaj Gupta; B Jayaram

    2012-07-01

    We present here a novel methodology for predicting new genes in prokaryotic genomes on the basis of inherent energetics of DNA. Regions of higher thermodynamic stability were identified, which were filtered based on already known annotations to yield a set of potentially new genes. These were then processed for their compatibility with the stereo-chemical properties of proteins and tripeptide frequencies of proteins in Swissprot data, which results in a reliable set of new genes in a genome. Quite surprisingly, the methodology identifies new genes even in well-annotated genomes. Also, the methodology can handle genomes of any GC-content, size and number of annotated genes.

  6. Pitfalls of DNA Quantification Using DNA-Binding Fluorescent Dyes and Suggested Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakayama

    Full Text Available The Qubit fluorometer is a DNA quantification device based on the fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dye binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA. Qubit is generally considered useful for checking DNA quality before next-generation sequencing because it measures intact dsDNA. To examine the most accurate and suitable methods for quantifying DNA for quality assessment, we compared three quantification methods: NanoDrop, which measures UV absorbance; Qubit; and quantitative PCR (qPCR, which measures the abundance of a target gene. For the comparison, we used three types of DNA: 1 DNA extracted from fresh frozen liver tissues (Frozen-DNA; 2 DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues comparable to those used for Frozen-DNA (FFPE-DNA; and 3 DNA extracted from the remaining fractions after RNA extraction with Trizol reagent (Trizol-DNA. These DNAs were serially diluted with distilled water and measured using three quantification methods. For Frozen-DNA, the Qubit values were not proportional to the dilution ratio, in contrast with the NanoDrop and qPCR values. This non-proportional decrease in Qubit values was dependent on a lower salt concentration, and over 1 mM NaCl in the DNA solution was required for the Qubit measurement. For FFPE-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were lower than the NanoDrop values. However, electrophoresis revealed that qPCR reflected the degree of DNA fragmentation more accurately than Qubit. Thus, qPCR is superior to Qubit for checking the quality of FFPE-DNA. For Trizol-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were consistently lower than the NanoDrop values, similar to FFPE-DNA. However, the qPCR values were higher than the NanoDrop values. Electrophoresis with SYBR Green I and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA quantification demonstrated that Trizol-DNA consisted mostly of non-fragmented ssDNA. Therefore, Qubit is not always the most accurate method

  7. Epigenetic features in the oyster Crassostrea gigas suggestive of functionally relevant promoter DNA methylation in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume eRiviere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is evolutionarily conserved. Vertebrates exhibit high, widespread DNA methylation whereas invertebrate genomes are less methylated, predominantly within gene bodies. DNA methylation in invertebrates is associated with transcription level, alternative splicing and genome evolution, but functional outcomes of DNA methylation remain poorly described in lophotrochozoans. Recent genome-wide approaches improve understanding in distant taxa such as molluscs, where the phylogenetic position and life traits of Crassostrea gigas make this bivalve an ideal model to study the physiological and evolutionary implications of DNA methylation. We review the literature about DNA methylation in invertebrates and focus on DNA methylation features in the oyster. Indeed, though our MeDIP-seq results confirm predominant intragenic methylation, the profiles depend on the oyster’s developmental and reproductive stage. We discuss the perspective that oyster DNA methylation could be biased toward the 5’-end of some genes, depending on physiological status, suggesting important functional outcomes of putative promoter methylation from cell differentiation during early development to sustained adaptation of the species to the environment.

  8. Base composition at mtDNA boundaries suggests a DNA triple helix model for human mitochondrial DNA large-scale rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Christophe; Letellier, Thierry; Copeland, William C; Lestienne, Patrick

    2002-06-01

    Different mechanisms have been proposed to account for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) instability based on the presence of short homologous sequences (direct repeats, DR) at the potential boundaries of mtDNA rearrangements. Among them, slippage-mispairing of the replication complex during the asymmetric replication cycle of the mammalian mitochondrial DNA has been proposed to account for the preferential localization of deletions. This mechanism involves a transfer of the replication complex from the first neo-synthesized heavy (H) strand of the DR1, to the DR2, thus bypassing the intervening sequence and producing a deleted molecule. Nevertheless, the nature of the bonds between the DNA strands remains unknown as the forward sequence of DR2, beyond the replication complex, stays double-stranded. Here, we have analyzed the base composition of the DR at the boundaries of mtDNA deletions and duplications and found a skewed pyrimidine content of about 75% in the light-strand DNA template. This suggests the possible building of a DNA triple helix between the G-rich neo-synthesized DR1 and the base-paired homologous G.C-rich DR2. In vitro experiments with the purified human DNA polymerase gamma subunits enabled us to show that the third DNA strand may be used as a primer for DNA replication, using a template with the direct repeat forming a hairpin, with which the primer could initiate DNA replication. These data suggest a novel molecular basis for mitochondrial DNA rearrangements through the distributive nature of the DNA polymerase gamma, at the level of the direct repeats. A general model accounting for large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletion and duplication is proposed. These experiments extend to a DNA polymerase from an eucaryote source the use of a DNA triple helix strand as a primer, like other DNA polymerases from phage and bacterial origins.

  9. Cloning large natural product gene clusters from the environment: Piecing environmental DNA gene clusters back together with TAR

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeffrey H.; Feng, Zhiyang; Bauer, John D.; Kallifidas, Dimitris; Calle, Paula Y.; Brady, Sean F

    2010-01-01

    A single gram of soil can contain thousands of unique bacterial species, of which only a small fraction is regularly cultured in the laboratory. Although the fermentation of cultured microorganisms has provided access to numerous bioactive secondary metabolites, with these same methods it is not possible to characterize the natural products encoded by the uncultured majority. The heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters cloned from DNA extracted directly from environmental sample...

  10. DNA ligase I selectively affects DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases delta and epsilon suggesting differential functions in DNA replication and repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Mossi, R; Ferrari, E; Hübscher, U

    1998-01-01

    The joining of single-stranded breaks in double-stranded DNA is an essential step in many important processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and genetic recombination. Several data implicate a role for DNA ligase I in DNA replication, probably coordinated by the action of other enzymes and proteins. Since both DNA polymerases delta and epsilon show multiple functions in different DNA transactions, we investigated the effect of DNA ligase I on various DNA synthesis events catalyzed by th...

  11. Widespread Epigenetic Abnormalities Suggest a Broad DNA Methylation Erasure Defect in Abnormal Human Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Kimberly; Yang, Allen; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis. Methodology/Principal Finding We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm. Conclusions This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line. PMID:18074014

  12. Widespread epigenetic abnormalities suggest a broad DNA methylation erasure defect in abnormal human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Houshdaran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line.

  13. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  14. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  15. New ancient DNA sequences suggest high genetic diversity for the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Partial DNA sequences of cytochrome b gene (mtDNA) were successfully retrieved from Late Pleistocene fossil bone of Mammuthus primigenius collected from the Xiguitu County (Yakeshi), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and from Zhaodong, Harbin of Heilongjiang Province in northern China. Two ancient DNA fragments ( 109 bp and 124 bp) were authenticated by reproducible experiments in two different laboratories and by phylogenetic analysis with other Elephantidae taxa. Phylogenetic analysis using these sequences and published data in either separate or combined datasets indicate unstable relationship among the woolly mammoth and the two living elephants, Elephas and Loxodonta. In addition to the short sequences used to attempt the long independent evolution of Elephantidae terminal taxa, we suggest that a high intra-specific diversity existed in Mammuthus primigenius crossing both spatial and temporal ranges, resulting in a complex and divergent genetic background for DNA sequences so far recovered. The high genetic diversity in the extinct woolly mammoth can explain the apparent instability of Elephantidae taxa on the molecular phylogenetic trees and can reconcile the apparent paradox regarding the unresolved Elephantidae trichotomy.

  16. DNA microarray analysis suggests that zinc pyrithione causes iron starvation to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasokawa, Daisuke; Murata, Satomi; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Kitagawa, Emiko; Kishi, Katsuyuki; Okumura, Yukihiro; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Zinc pyrithione has been used in anti-dandruff shampoos and in anti-fouling paint on ships. However, little is known of its mode of action. We characterized the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarrays. The majority of the strongly upregulated genes are related to iron transport, and many of the strongly downregulated genes are related to the biosynthesis of cytochrome (heme). These data suggest that Zpt induces severe iron starvation. To confirm the DNA microarray data, we supplemented cultures containing Zpt with iron, and the growth of the yeast was restored significantly. From these results, we propose that the principal toxicity of zinc pyrithione arises from iron starvation.

  17. Ancient DNA suggests the leading role played by men in the Neolithic dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Brucato, Nicolas; Tarrús, Josep; Bosch, Angel; Guilaine, Jean; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2011-11-08

    The impact of the Neolithic dispersal on the western European populations is subject to continuing debate. To trace and date genetic lineages potentially brought during this transition and so understand the origin of the gene pool of current populations, we studied DNA extracted from human remains excavated in a Spanish funeral cave dating from the beginning of the fifth millennium B.C. Thanks to a "multimarkers" approach based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (autosomes and Y-chromosome), we obtained information on the early Neolithic funeral practices and on the biogeographical origin of the inhumed individuals. No close kinship was detected. Maternal haplogroups found are consistent with pre-Neolithic settlement, whereas the Y-chromosomal analyses permitted confirmation of the existence in Spain approximately 7,000 y ago of two haplogroups previously associated with the Neolithic transition: G2a and E1b1b1a1b. These results are highly consistent with those previously found in Neolithic individuals from French Late Neolithic individuals, indicating a surprising temporal genetic homogeneity in these groups. The high frequency of G2a in Neolithic samples in western Europe could suggest, furthermore, that the role of men during Neolithic dispersal could be greater than currently estimated.

  18. Composition: 3 Piano Pieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2017-01-01

    3 Piano Pieces is a collection of open composition to be realised by an improvising pianist. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction".......3 Piano Pieces is a collection of open composition to be realised by an improvising pianist. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction"....

  19. GWAS of DNA Methylation Variation Within Imprinting Control Regions Suggests Parent-of-Origin Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renteria, M.E.; Coolen, M.W.; Statham, A.L.; Choi, R.S.; Qu, W.; Campbell, M.J.; Smith, S.; Henders, A.K.; Montgomery, G.W.; Clark, S. J.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Imprinting control regions (ICRs) play a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining the non-random monoallelic expression of certain genes, via common regulatory elements such as non-coding RNAs and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of DNA. We recently surveyed DNA methylation levels wi

  20. Double-stranded DNA breaks hidden in the neutral Comet assay suggest a role of the sperm nuclear matrix in DNA integrity maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, J; Gawecka, J E; Benet, J; Ward, W S

    2014-04-01

    We used a mouse model in which sperm DNA damage was induced to understand the relationship of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks to sperm chromatin structure and to the Comet assay. Sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) produces dsDNA breaks located on the matrix attachment regions, between protamine toroids. In this model, epididymal sperm induced to undergo SCF can religate dsDNA breaks while vas deferens sperm cannot. Here, we demonstrated that the conventional neutral Comet assay underestimates the epididymal SCF breaks because the broken DNA ends remain attached to the nuclear matrix, causing the DNA to remain associated with the dispersion halo, and the Comet tails to be weak. Therefore, we term these hidden dsDNA breaks. When the Comet assay was modified to include an additional incubation with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) after the conventional lysis, thereby solubilizing the nuclear matrix, the broken DNA was released from the matrix, which resulted in a reduction of the sperm head halo and an increase in the Comet tail length, exposing the hidden dsDNA breaks. Conversely, SCF-induced vas deferens sperm had small halos and long tails with the conventional neutral Comet assay, suggesting that the broken DNA ends were not tethered to the nuclear matrix. These results suggest that the attachment to the nuclear matrix is crucial for the religation of SCF-induced DNA breaks in sperm. Our data suggest that the neutral Comet assay identifies only dsDNA breaks that are released from the nuclear matrix and that the addition of an SDS treatment can reveal these hidden dsDNA breaks.

  1. The Analysis of 139 Pieces of Medication Recommendation in Pediatric Nephropathy Ward Suggested by Clinical Pharmacy Specialist%139份儿童肾脏内科临床药师查房用药建议构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春; 张健

    2011-01-01

    目的:统计分析2010年3月至2010年12月本院临床药师参与儿童肾脏内科查房时提出的用药建议,探讨临床药师的专科工作内容及方法.方法:统计被医师接受的月度用药建议量,计算月度环比增长率;以不同系统药理作用分类,比较分析2010年3月至7月、2010年8月至12月两阶段的用药建议变化情况以及全阶段整体用药建议构成比.结果:随着临床药师查房时间的延长,被医师接受的月度建议量逐月递增,平均环比增长率为16.5%;抗胆碱受体、抗H1/H2受体类用药、凝血系统用药、糖皮质激素用药在第二阶段的数量及分布明显增加.儿童肾脏内科的用药建议主要包括抗感染药物(52%)、抗胆碱和抗H1/H2受体药物(11%)、凝血系统用药(9%)、糖皮质激素用药(6%).结论:临床药师用药建议内容广泛,并且随着查房的深入,逐渐体现出儿童肾脏内科专科用药建议特点.%Objective: To investigate the work methods and content of Clinical Pharmacy Specialist by analyzing the medication recommendation suggested by pharmacists when working in the pediatric nephropathy ward from March to December in 2010. Methods: Summarized the amounts of medication recommendation accepted by doctors of every month, analyzed the monthly loop arise ratio. All amounts of advices were classified according to the pharmacology, of which the diversification and component between two different periods were compared, which were respectively from March to July in 2010 and from August to December in 2010. Results; The medication recommendations accepted by doctors were rising monthly, the average loop rising ratio was 16.5% . The number of pieces of advice during the second stage was raised significantly mainly concentrating on cholinocepter blocking drugs, antihistamine receptor drugs, anticoagulants and glucocorticoids. The component ratio was anti-infectious drug (52%), antihistamine receptor and cholinocepter

  2. mtDNA sequences suggest a recent evolutionary divergence for Beringian and Northern American populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, G.F.; Schmiechen, A.M.; Reed, J.K. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)); Frazier, B.L.; Redd, A.; Ward, R.H. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Voevoda, M.I. (Institute of Internal Medicine, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    Conventional descriptions of the pattern and process of human entry into the New World from Asia are incomplete and controversial. In order to gain an evolutionary insight into this process, the authors have sequenced the control region of mtDNA in samples of contemporary tribal populations of eastern Siberia, Alaska, and Greenland and have compared them with those of Amerind speakers of the Pacific Northwest and with those of the Altai of central Siberia. Specifically, they have analyzed sequence diversity in 33 mitochondiral lineages identified in 90 individuals belonging to five Circumpolar populations of Beringia, North America, and Greenland: Chukchi from Siberia, Inupiaq Eskimos and Athapaskans from Alaska, Eskimos from West Greenland, and Haida from Canada. Hereafter, these five populations are referred to as Circumarctic peoples'. These data were then compared with the sequence diversity in 47 mitochondrial lineages identified in a sample of 145 individuals from three Amerind-speaking tribes (Bella Coola, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, and Yakima) of the Pacific Northwest, plus 16 mitrochondrial lineages identified in a sample of 17 Altai from central Siberia. Sequence diversity within and among Circumarctic populations is considerably less than the sequence diversity observed within and among the three Amerind tribes. The similarity of sequences found among the geographically dispersed Circumarctic groups, plus the small values of mean pairwise sequence differences within Circumarctic populations, suggest a recent and rapid evolutionary radiation of these populations. In addition, Circumarctic populations lack the 9-bp deletion which has been used to trace various migrations out of Asia, while populations of southeastern Siberia possess this deletion. On the basis of these observations, while the evolutionary affinities of Native Americans extend west to the Circumarctic populations of eastern Siberia, they do not include the Altai of central Siberia.

  3. Structural evidence suggests that antiactivator ExsD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a DNA binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhards, R.C.; Robinson, H.; Jing, X.; Vogelaar, N. J.; Schubot, F. D.

    2009-03-01

    The opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to support acute infections in predisposed individuals. In this bacterium, expression of all T3SS-related genes is dependent on the AraC-type transcriptional activator ExsA. Before host contact, the T3SS is inactive and ExsA is repressed by the antiactivator protein ExsD. The repression, thought to occur through direct interactions between the two proteins, is relieved upon opening of the type III secretion (T3S) channel when secretion chaperone ExsC sequesters ExsD. We have solved the crystal structure of ?20ExsD, a protease-resistant fragment of ExsD that lacks only the 20 amino terminal residues of the wild-type protein at 2.6 {angstrom}. Surprisingly the structure revealed similarities between ExsD and the DNA binding domain of transcriptional repressor KorB. A model of an ExsD-DNA complex constructed on the basis of this homology produced a realistic complex that is supported by the prevalence of conserved residues in the putative DNA binding site and the results of differential scanning fluorimetry studies. Our findings challenge the currently held model that ExsD solely acts through interactions with ExsA and raise new questions with respect to the underlying mechanism of ExsA regulation.

  4. Presence of Chlamydiales DNA in ticks and fleas suggests that ticks are carriers of Chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Rieille, Nadia; Kernif, Tahar; Bitam, Idir; Aeby, Sébastien; Péter, Olivier; Greub, Gilbert

    2014-06-01

    The Chlamydiales order includes the Chlamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, Waddliaceae, Simkaniaceae, Criblamydiaceae, Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Clavichlamydiaceae, and Piscichlamydiaceae families. Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular bacteria that replicate within eukaryotic cells of different origins including humans, animals, and amoebae. Many of these bacteria are pathogens or emerging pathogens of both humans and animals, but their true diversity is largely underestimated, and their ecology remains to be investigated. Considering their potential threat on human health, it is important to expand our knowledge on the diversity of Chlamydiae, but also to define the host range colonized by these bacteria. Thus, using a new pan-Chlamydiales PCR, we analyzed the prevalence of Chlamydiales DNA in ticks and fleas, which are important vectors of several viral and bacterial infectious diseases. To conduct this study, 1340 Ixodes ricinus ticks prepared in 192 pools were collected in Switzerland and 55 other ticks belonging to different tick species and 97 fleas belonging to different flea species were harvested in Algeria. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Chlamydiales DNA in the 192 pools was equal to 28.1% (54/192) which represents an estimated prevalence in the 1340 individual ticks of between 4.0% and 28.4%. The pan-Chlamydiales qPCR was positive for 45% (25/55) of tick samples collected in Algeria. The sequencing of the positive qPCR amplicons revealed a high diversity of Chlamydiales species. Most of them belonged to the Rhabdochlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae families. Thus, ticks may carry Chlamydiales and should thus be considered as possible vectors for Chlamydiales propagation to both humans and animals.

  5. A Piece of Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Jeffrey T.

    1995-01-01

    A civil engineer describes his first day as a substitute teacher. Despite detailed lesson plans and good intentions, maintaining an orderly class environment is far from a "piece of cake." Recess duty is an ordeal, and lunch in the shabby teacher's lounge is uninspiring. The biggest benefit is appreciation of what constitutes a full-time teacher's…

  6. Topological incongruence between nuclear and chloroplast DNA trees suggesting hybridization in the urophyllum group of the genus Fagopyrum (Polygonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuriko; Ohnishi, Ohmi; Hasegawa, Masami

    2003-04-01

    We performed phylogenetic analyses of Fagopyrum species in the urophyllum group based on nucleotide sequences of two nuclear genes, FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FLO/LFY) and AGAMOUS (AG), and three segments of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), rbcL-accD, trnK intron, and trnC-rpoB spacer. The FLO/LFY and AG sequences turned out to be phylogenetically more informative at the intrageneric level than the cpDNA sequences. Congruence among these gene trees, inferred by a maximum-likelihood (ML) method, demonstrated that topologies were partially incongruent between the nuclear and chloroplast DNA phylogenies. The nuclear DNA sequence data supported a monophyletic relation of F. statice, F. gilesii, and F. jinshaense, whereas the former two species formed another monophyletic relation with the F. capillatum-F. gracilipes-F. gracilipedoides-F. rubifolium clade excluding F. jinshaense in the synthetic cpDNA phylogeny. In addition, two divergent sequences of FLO/LFY were found in F. rubifolium (tetraploid). One of these was sister to F. gracilipedoides and another was sister to F. statice, and a monophyletic relation of these two genes was rejected by a bootstrap analysis. These results suggest that hybridization may have occurred during diversification of Fagopyrum species in the urophyllum group, and that F. rubifolium is possibly allotetraploid species.

  7. Imprinting mutations suggested by abnormal DNA methylation patterns in familial angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, A. (Freie Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)); Dittrich, B.; Buiting, K.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Horsthemke, B. (Institut fuer Humangenetik, Essen (United Kingdom)); Greger, V.; Lalande, M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Anvret, M. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-05-01

    The D15S9 and D15S63 loci in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region on chromosome 15 are subject to parent-of-origin-specific DNA methylation. The authors have found two Prader-Willi syndrome families in which the patients carry a maternal methylation imprint on the paternal chromosome. In one of these families, the patients have a small deletion encompassing the gene for the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N, which maps 130 kb telomeric to D15S63. Furthermore, they have identified a pair of nondeletion Angelman syndrome sibs and two isolated Angelman syndrome patients who carry a paternal methylation imprint on the maternal chromosome. These Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome patients may have a defect in the imprinting process in 15q11-13. The authors propose a model in which a cis-acting mutation prevents the resetting of the imprinting signal in the germ line and thus disturbs the expression of imprinted genes in this region. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Primate DNA suggests long-term stability of an African rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Julie M; Miyamoto, Michael M; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; E Carter, Tamar; Ungvari-Martin, Judit; Magrini, Kristin; Chapman, Colin A

    2012-11-01

    Red colobus monkeys, due to their sensitivity to environmental change, are indicator species of the overall health of their tropical rainforest habitats. As a result of habitat loss and overhunting, they are among the most endangered primates in the world, with very few viable populations remaining. Traditionally, extant indicator species have been used to signify the conditions of their current habitats, but they have also been employed to track past environmental conditions by detecting previous population fluctuations. Kibale National Park (KNP) in Uganda harbors the only remaining unthreatened large population of red colobus. We used microsatellite DNA to evaluate the historical demography of these red colobus and, therefore, the long-term stability of their habitat. We find that the red colobus population throughout KNP has been stable for at least ∼40,000 years. We interpret this result as evidence of long-term forest stability because a change in the available habitat or population movement would have elicited a corresponding change in population size. We conclude that the forest of what is now Kibale National Park may have served as a Late Pleistocene refuge for many East African species.

  9. Seasonal Dynamics of Haptophytes and dsDNA Algal Viruses Suggest Complex Virus-Host Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Torill Vik; Larsen, Aud; Bratbak, Gunnar; Pagarete, António; Edvardsen, Bente; Egge, Elianne D; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne

    2017-04-20

    Viruses influence the ecology and diversity of phytoplankton in the ocean. Most studies of phytoplankton host-virus interactions have focused on bloom-forming species like Emiliania huxleyi or Phaeocystis spp. The role of viruses infecting phytoplankton that do not form conspicuous blooms have received less attention. Here we explore the dynamics of phytoplankton and algal viruses over several sequential seasons, with a focus on the ubiquitous and diverse phytoplankton division Haptophyta, and their double-stranded DNA viruses, potentially with the capacity to infect the haptophytes. Viral and phytoplankton abundance and diversity showed recurrent seasonal changes, mainly explained by hydrographic conditions. By 454 tag-sequencing we revealed 93 unique haptophyte operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with seasonal changes in abundance. Sixty-one unique viral OTUs, representing Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae, showed only distant relationship with currently isolated algal viruses. Haptophyte and virus community composition and diversity varied substantially throughout the year, but in an uncoordinated manner. A minority of the viral OTUs were highly abundant at specific time-points, indicating a boom-bust relationship with their host. Most of the viral OTUs were very persistent, which may represent viruses that coexist with their hosts, or able to exploit several host species.

  10. cDNA heterogeneity suggests structural variants related to the high-affinity IgE receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F T; Albrandt, K; Robertson, M W

    1988-08-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor present on mast cells and basophils is responsible for the IgE-mediated activation of these cells. The current model for this receptor depicts a four-subunit structure, alpha beta gamma 2. A cDNA for the alpha subunit was recently cloned and predicts a structure consisting of two homologous extracellular domains, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail. Using a synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to the amino-terminal sequence of the alpha subunit, we identified a number of cDNA clones from a rat basophilic leukemia cell cDNA library. Nucleotide sequencing established four different forms of cDNA: one is nearly identical to the published cDNA; the second differs from the first in the 5' untranslated sequence; the other two forms use either one or the other of the 5'-end sequences as above and lack 163 base pairs in the region coding for the second extracellular domain. RNase protection analysis with radioactive RNA probes established the heterogeneity of rat basophilic leukemia cell mRNA with regard to both the 5' and the internal sequences. Our results suggest the existence of at least four different protein forms related to the alpha subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor.

  11. Transcriptional profiling in C. elegans suggests DNA damage dependent apoptosis as an ancient function of the p53 family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothblatt Jonathan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to the three mammalian p53 family members, p53, which is generally involved in DNA damage responses, and p63 and p73 which are primarily needed for developmental regulation, cep-1 encodes for the single C. elegans p53-like gene. cep-1 acts as a transcription activator in a primordial p53 pathway that involves CEP-1 activation and the CEP-1 dependent transcriptional induction of the worm BH3 only domain encoding genes egl-1 and ced-13 to induce germ cell apoptosis. EGL-1 and CED-13 proteins inactivate Bcl-2 like CED-9 to trigger CED-4 and CED-3 caspase dependent germ cell apoptosis. To address the function of p53 in global transcriptional regulation we investigate genome-wide transcriptional responses upon DNA damage and cep-1 deficiency. Results Examining C. elegans expression profiles using whole genome Affymetrix GeneChip arrays, we found that 83 genes were induced more than two fold upon ionizing radiation (IR. None of these genes, with exception of an ATP ribosylase homolog, encode for known DNA repair genes. Using two independent cep-1 loss of function alleles we did not find genes regulated by cep-1 in the absence of IR. Among the IR-induced genes only three are dependent on cep-1, namely egl-1, ced-13 and a novel C. elegans specific gene. The majority of IR-induced genes appear to be involved in general stress responses, and qRT-PCR experiments indicate that they are mainly expressed in somatic tissues. Interestingly, we reveal an extensive overlap of gene expression changes occurring in response to DNA damage and in response to bacterial infection. Furthermore, many genes induced by IR are also transcriptionally regulated in longevity mutants suggesting that DNA damage and aging induce an overlapping stress response. Conclusion We performed genome-wide gene expression analyses which indicate that only a surprisingly small number of genes are regulated by CEP-1 and that DNA damage induced apoptosis via the

  12. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  13. Low mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) suggests isolation and a founder effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSLYN SAW; NANCY M. ENDERSBY; STEPHEN W. MCKECHNIE

    2006-01-01

    Populations of Australian diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.), a serious pest of cruciferous crops, display extremely low levels of genetic differentiation across Australia and New Zealand sample locations, as determined previously using microsatellite markers. These data suggest high levels of contemporary gene flow that is consistent with Australian DBM being a vagile species. Here we examine Australian DBM samples for haplotype variation using the mitochondrial DNA sequences of a 257 bp fragment of the CO1 gene. We compare this variation to equivalent mtDNA sequence variation in samples from New Zealand, Kenya and Korea. Using 42 moths collected throughout Australia we show that Australian DBM have both low mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversities. The three Australian haplotypes detected are closely related and they cluster with the common haplotype group from Indonesia. In addition the Australian haplotype frequency distribution resembled more that from Indonesia than that from Kenya or Korea. These data are consistent with an original strong Australian/New Zealand founder effect, from a south-eastern Asian source, with subsequent continued isolation. In a single season, the frequency of PXMt01, the most common Australian haplotype, was estimated at 15 locations spread across southern Australia and New Zealand using a polymerase chain reaction BiPASA method. The PXMt01 haplotype frequency variation was heterogenous,suggesting a small degree of population isolation that was not detected using microsatellites.Differentiation was not a function of geographical distance. These data suggest transient and sporadic local colonisation events by small numbers of founding females.

  14. DNA binding by FOXP3 domain-swapped dimer suggests mechanisms of long-range chromosomal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongheng; Chen, Chunxia; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Chun-Chi; Johnson, Matthew E.; Espinoza, Celso A.; Edsall, Lee E.; Ren, Bing; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Grant, Struan F.A.; Wells, Andrew D.; Chen, Lin (LICR); (UPENN); (USC)

    2015-01-07

    FOXP3 is a lineage-specific transcription factor that is required for regulatory T cell development and function. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the FOXP3 forkhead domain bound to DNA. The structure reveals that FOXP3 can form a stable domain-swapped dimer to bridge DNA in the absence of cofactors, suggesting that FOXP3 may play a role in long-range gene interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used circular chromosome conformation capture coupled with high throughput sequencing (4C-seq) to analyze FOXP3-dependent genomic contacts around a known FOXP3-bound locus, Ptpn22. Our studies reveal that FOXP3 induces significant changes in the chromatin contacts between the Ptpn22 locus and other Foxp3-regulated genes, reflecting a mechanism by which FOXP3 reorganizes the genome architecture to coordinate the expression of its target genes. Our results suggest that FOXP3 mediates long-range chromatin interactions as part of its mechanisms to regulate specific gene expression in regulatory T cells.

  15. Crystal structure of the human FOXO3a-DBD/DNA complex suggests the effects of post-translational modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Huang, Cheng-Yang; Yang, Jer-Yen; Hung, Mien-Chie; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng

    2007-01-01

    FOXO3a is a transcription factor of the FOXO family. The FOXO proteins participate in multiple signaling pathways, and their transcriptional activity is regulated by several post-translational mechanisms, including phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitination. Because these post-translational modification sites are located within the C-terminal basic region of the FOXO DNA-binding domain (FOXO-DBD), it is possible that these post-translational modifications could alter the DNA-binding characteristics. To understand how FOXO mediate transcriptional activity, we report here the 2.7 A crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of FOXO3a (FOXO3a-DBD) bound to a 13-bp DNA duplex containing a FOXO consensus binding sequence (GTAAACA). Based on a unique structural feature in the C-terminal region and results from biochemical and mutational studies, our studies may explain how FOXO-DBD C-terminal phosphorylation by protein kinase B (PKB) or acetylation by cAMP-response element binding protein (CBP) can attenuate the DNA-binding activity and thereby reduce transcriptional activity of FOXO proteins. In addition, we demonstrate that the methyl groups of specific thymine bases within the consensus sequence are important for FOXO3a-DBD recognition of the consensus binding site.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA of seven Italian sheep breeds shows faint signatures of domestication and suggests recent breed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Marco; Valentini, Alessio; Marsan, Paolo Ajmone; Pariset, Lorraine

    2013-10-01

    Italy represented a crucial zone for migration and formation of sheep breeds. However, few data on Italian breeds have been published so far. We analysed seven Italian sheep breeds using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing to gain information on their genetic diversity and history. A 721 bp mtDNA control region fragment was amplified and sequenced in a total of 138 samples belonging to seven breeds and to Italian mohuflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution. We retrieved 68 variable sites and 79 haplotypes. The sheep breeds in our study are quite diverse, and phylogenetic analyses resulted in 3.6% of the samples belonging to A, 2.2% to D and 94.2% to B mtDNA haplogroups. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a separation of breeds on both dimensions. The results of this study provide data on Italian breeds, presently scarcely investigated, and contribute to the knowledge of Italian sheep breeds and will be useful to the understanding of population genetics and breed evolution.

  17. Differential Salt-Induced Dissociation of the p53 Protein Complexes with Circular and Linear Plasmid DNA Substrates Suggest Involvement of a Sliding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Šebest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of salt conditions on the association and dissociation of wild type p53 with different ~3 kbp long plasmid DNA substrates (supercoiled, relaxed circular and linear, containing or lacking a specific p53 binding site, p53CON using immunoprecipitation at magnetic beads is presented. Salt concentrations above 200 mM strongly affected association of the p53 protein to any plasmid DNA substrate. Strikingly different behavior was observed when dissociation of pre-formed p53-DNA complexes in increased salt concentrations was studied. While contribution from the p53CON to the stability of the p53-DNA complexes was detected between 100 and 170 mM KCl, p53 complexes with circular DNAs (but not linear exhibited considerable resistance towards salt treatment for KCl concentrations as high as 2 M provided that the p53 basic C-terminal DNA binding site (CTDBS was available for DNA binding. On the contrary, when the CTDBS was blocked by antibody used for immunoprecipitation, all p53-DNA complexes were completely dissociated from the p53 protein in KCl concentrations ≥200 mM under the same conditions. These observations suggest: (a different ways for association and dissociation of the p53-DNA complexes in the presence of the CTDBS; and (b a critical role for a sliding mechanism, mediated by the C-terminal domain, in the dissociation process.

  18. A novel virus genome discovered in an extreme environment suggests recombination between unrelated groups of RNA and DNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemer Geoffrey S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses are known to be the most abundant organisms on earth, yet little is known about their collective origin and evolutionary history. With exceptionally high rates of genetic mutation and mosaicism, it is not currently possible to resolve deep evolutionary histories of the known major virus groups. Metagenomics offers a potential means of establishing a more comprehensive view of viral evolution as vast amounts of new sequence data becomes available for comparative analysis. Results Bioinformatic analysis of viral metagenomic sequences derived from a hot, acidic lake revealed a circular, putatively single-stranded DNA virus encoding a major capsid protein similar to those found only in single-stranded RNA viruses. The presence and circular configuration of the complete virus genome was confirmed by inverse PCR amplification from native DNA extracted from lake sediment. The virus genome appears to be the result of a RNA-DNA recombination event between two ostensibly unrelated virus groups. Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. This result indicates the existence of a widespread but previously undetected group of viruses. Conclusions This unique viral genome carries implications for theories of virus emergence and evolution, as no mechanism for interviral RNA-DNA recombination has yet been identified, and only scant evidence exists that genetic exchange occurs between such distinct virus lineages. Reviewers This article was reviewed by EK, MK (nominated by PF and AM. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  19. Structural Evidence Suggests that the Antiactivator ExsD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a DNA binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhards, R.; Jing, X; Vogelaar, N; Robinson, H; Schubot, F

    2009-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to support acute infections in predisposed individuals. In this bacterium, expression of all T3SS-related genes is dependent on the AraC-type transcriptional activator ExsA. Before host contact, the T3SS is inactive and ExsA is repressed by the antiactivator protein ExsD. The repression, thought to occur through direct interactions between the two proteins, is relieved upon opening of the type III secretion (T3S) channel when secretion chaperone ExsC sequesters ExsD. We have solved the crystal structure of {Delta}20ExsD, a protease-resistant fragment of ExsD that lacks only the 20 amino terminal residues of the wild-type protein at 2.6 {angstrom}. Surprisingly the structure revealed similarities between ExsD and the DNA binding domain of transcriptional repressor KorB. A model of an ExsD-DNA complex constructed on the basis of this homology produced a realistic complex that is supported by the prevalence of conserved residues in the putative DNA binding site and the results of differential scanning fluorimetry studies. Our findings challenge the currently held model that ExsD solely acts through interactions with ExsA and raise new questions with respect to the underlying mechanism of ExsA regulation.

  20. Coexistence of minicircular and a highly rearranged mtDNA molecule suggests that recombination shapes mitochondrial genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Austin, Andrew D; Johnson, Norman F; Dowton, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Recombination has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain mitochondrial (mt) gene rearrangements, although the issue of whether mtDNA recombination occurs in animals has been controversial. In this study, we sequenced the entire mt genome of the megaspilid wasp Conostigmus sp., which possessed a highly rearranged mt genome. The sequence of the A+T-rich region contained a number of different types of repeats, similar to those reported previously in the nematode Meloidogyne javanica, in which recombination was discovered. In Conostigmus, we detected the end products of recombination: a range of minicircles. However, using isolated (cloned) fragments of the A+T-rich region, we established that some of these minicircles were found to be polymerase chain reaction (PCR) artifacts. It appears that regions with repeats are prone to PCR template switching or PCR jumping. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that one minicircle is real, as amplification primers that straddle the putative breakpoint junction produce a single strong amplicon from genomic DNA but not from the cloned A+T-rich region. The results provide support for the direct link between recombination and mt gene rearrangement. Furthermore, we developed a model of recombination which is important for our understanding of mtDNA evolution.

  1. Rare autosomal trisomies, revealed by maternal plasma DNA sequencing, suggest increased risk of feto-placental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertile, Mark D; Halks-Miller, Meredith; Flowers, Nicola; Barbacioru, Catalin; Kinnings, Sarah L; Vavrek, Darcy; Seltzer, William K; Bianchi, Diana W

    2017-08-30

    Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of maternal plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can potentially evaluate all 24 chromosomes to identify abnormalities of the placenta, fetus, or pregnant woman. Current bioinformatics algorithms typically only report on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X, and Y; sequencing results from other chromosomes may be masked. We hypothesized that by systematically analyzing WGS data from all chromosomes, we could identify rare autosomal trisomies (RATs) to improve understanding of feto-placental biology. We analyzed two independent cohorts from clinical laboratories, both of which used a similar quality control parameter, normalized chromosome denominator quality. The entire data set included 89,817 samples. Samples flagged for analysis and classified as abnormal were 328 of 72,932 (0.45%) and 71 of 16,885 (0.42%) in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Clinical outcome data were available for 57 of 71 (80%) of abnormal cases in cohort 2. Visual analysis of WGS data demonstrated RATs, copy number variants, and extensive genome-wide imbalances. Trisomies 7, 15, 16, and 22 were the most frequently observed RATs in both cohorts. Cytogenetic or pregnancy outcome data were available in 52 of 60 (87%) of cases with RATs in cohort 2. Cases with RATs detected were associated with miscarriage, true fetal mosaicism, and confirmed or suspected uniparental disomy. Comparing the trisomic fraction with the fetal fraction allowed estimation of possible mosaicism. Analysis and reporting of aneuploidies in all chromosomes can clarify cases in which cfDNA findings on selected "target" chromosomes (21, 18, and 13) are discordant with the fetal karyotype and may identify pregnancies at risk of miscarriage and other complications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. cDNA heterogeneity suggests structural variants related to the high-affinity IgE receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F T; Albrandt, K; Robertson, M W

    1988-01-01

    The high-affinity IgE receptor present on mast cells and basophils is responsible for the IgE-mediated activation of these cells. The current model for this receptor depicts a four-subunit structure, alpha beta gamma 2. A cDNA for the alpha subunit was recently cloned and predicts a structure consisting of two homologous extracellular domains, a transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail. Using a synthetic oligonucleotide corresponding to the amino-terminal sequence of the alpha subunit, w...

  3. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Keith D.; Plank, William L.

    2016-07-19

    A spar and shell turbine rotor blade with a spar and a tip cap formed as a single piece, the spar includes a bottom end with dovetail or fir tree slots that engage with slots on a top end of a root section, and a platform includes an opening on a top surface for insertion of the spar in which a shell made from an exotic high temperature resistant material is secured between the tip cap and the platform. The spar is tapered to form thinner walls at the tip end to further reduce the weight and therefore a pulling force due to blade rotation. The spar and tip cap piece is made from a NiAL material to further reduce the weight and the pulling force.

  4. DNA methylation analysis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease suggests distinct disease-specific and remodeling signatures after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Markus; Ammerpohl, Ole; von Schönfels, Witigo; Kolarova, Julia; Bens, Susanne; Itzel, Timo; Teufel, Andreas; Herrmann, Alexander; Brosch, Mario; Hinrichsen, Holger; Erhart, Wiebke; Egberts, Jan; Sipos, Bence; Schreiber, Stefan; Häsler, Robert; Stickel, Felix; Becker, Thomas; Krawczak, Michael; Röcken, Christoph; Siebert, Reiner; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen

    2013-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder in industrialized countries. Liver samples from morbidly obese patients (n = 45) with all stages of NAFLD and controls (n = 18) were analyzed by array-based DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling. NAFLD-specific expression and methylation differences were seen for nine genes coding for key enzymes in intermediate metabolism (including PC, ACLY, and PLCG1) and insulin/insulin-like signaling (including IGF1, IGFBP2, and PRKCE) and replicated by bisulfite pyrosequening (independent n = 39). Transcription factor binding sites at NAFLD-specific CpG sites were >1,000-fold enriched for ZNF274, PGC1A, and SREBP2. Intraindividual comparison of liver biopsies before and after bariatric surgery showed NAFLD-associated methylation changes to be partially reversible. Postbariatric and NAFLD-specific methylation signatures were clearly distinct both in gene ontology and transcription factor binding site analyses, with >400-fold enrichment of NRF1, HSF1, and ESRRA sites. Our findings provide an example of treatment-induced epigenetic organ remodeling in humans.

  5. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  6. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography suggests a West African centre of origin for the baobab, Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacoideae, Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong Pock Tsy, Jean-Michel; Lumaret, Roselyne; Mayne, Diana; Vall, Abdallahi Ould Mohamed; Abutaba, Yahia I M; Sagna, Maurice; Rakotondralambo Raoseta, Soaharin'ny Ony; Danthu, Pascal

    2009-04-01

    The African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) is an emblematic, culturally important, and physically huge tropical tree species whose natural geographical distribution comprises most of tropical Africa, but also small patches of southern Arabia, and several Atlantic and Indian Ocean islands surrounding the African continent, notably including Madagascar. We analysed the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of five chloroplast DNA fragments obtained from 344 individuals of A. digitata collected from 74 populations covering the entire extant distribution range of the species. Our goal was to reconstruct the phylogeographical history of the species and, if possible, to identify its centre of origin, which has been a subject of controversy for many decades. We identified five haplotypes whose distribution is clearly geographically structured. Using several species of Adansonia and of closely related genera as outgroups, the haplotypes showed a clear phylogeographical pattern of three groups. Two are phylogenetically related to the outgroup taxa, and are distributed in West Africa. The third group is substantially more differentiated genetically from outgroup species, and it corresponds to southern and eastern Africa, Arabia and the Indian Ocean islands, including Madagascar. According to our results, the tetraploid A. digitata, or its diploid progenitor, probably originated in West Africa and migrated subsequently throughout the tropical parts of that continent, and beyond, by natural and human-mediated terrestrial and overseas dispersal.

  7. DNA sequence analysis suggests that cytb-nd1 PCR-RFLP may not be applicable to sandfly species identification throughout the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes-Acevedo, Ivonne Pamela; Arcones, Carolina; Gálvez, Rosa; Martin, Oihane; Checa, Rocío; Montoya, Ana; Chicharro, Carmen; Cruz, Susana; Miró, Guadalupe; Cruz, Israel

    2016-03-01

    Molecular methods are increasingly used for both species identification of sandflies and assessment of their population structure. In general, they are based on DNA sequence analysis of targets previously amplified by PCR. However, this approach requires access to DNA sequence facilities, and in some circumstances, it is time-consuming. Though DNA sequencing provides the most reliable information, other downstream PCR applications are explored to assist in species identification. Thus, it has been recently proposed that the amplification of a DNA region encompassing partially both the cytochrome-B (cytb) and the NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nd1) genes followed by RFLP analysis with the restriction enzyme Ase I allows the rapid identification of the most prevalent species of phlebotomine sandflies in the Mediterranean region. In order to confirm the suitability of this method, we collected, processed, and molecularly analyzed a total of 155 sandflies belonging to four species including Phlebotomus ariasi, P. papatasi, P. perniciosus, and Sergentomyia minuta from different regions in Spain. This data set was completed with DNA sequences available at the GenBank for species prevalent in the Mediterranean basin and the Middle East. Additionally, DNA sequences from 13 different phlebotomine species (P. ariasi, P. balcanicus, P. caucasicus, P. chabaudi, P. chadlii, P. longicuspis, P. neglectus, P. papatasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus, P. riouxi, P. sergenti, and S. minuta), from 19 countries, were added to the data set. Overall, our molecular data revealed that this PCR-RFLP method does not provide a unique and specific profile for each phlebotomine species tested. Intraspecific variability and similar RFLP patterns were frequently observed among the species tested. Our data suggest that this method may not be applicable throughout the Mediterranean region as previously proposed. Other molecular approaches like DNA barcoding or phylogenetic analyses would allow a more

  8. Novel 12S mtDNA findings in sloths (Pilosa, Folivora and anteaters (Pilosa, Vermilingua suggest a true case of long branch attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudene Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We sequenced 12S RNA mtDNA for the majority of the extant species of sloths and anteaters and compared our results with previous data obtained by our group using 16S RNA mtDNA in the same specimens and to GenBank sequences of the extinct giant sloth Mylodon. Our results suggest that pigmy-anteaters may be a case of the long-branch attraction phenomenon and also show the large genetic difference between the Amazonian and Atlantic forest three-toed sloths, contrasting with the small differences observed between the two non-Atlantic forest forms of sloths. These results have important implications for the taxonomy of sloths and anteaters and strongly suggest the placement of pigmy anteaters in their own family (Cyclopidae and raising the taxonomic status of Bradypus torquatus to a genus.

  9. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  10. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  11. Complete mtDNA sequences of two millipedes suggest a new model for mitochondrial gene rearrangements: Duplication and non-random loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Brown, Wesley M.

    2001-11-08

    We determined the complete mtDNA sequences of the millipedes Narceus annularus and Thyropygus sp. (Arthropoda: Diplopoda) and identified in both genomes all 37 genes typical for metazoan mtDNA. The arrangement of these genes is identical in the two millipedes, but differs from that inferred to be ancestral for arthropods by the location of four genes/gene clusters. This novel gene arrangement is unusual for animal mtDNA, in that genes with opposite transcriptional polarities are clustered in the genome and the two clusters are separated by two non-coding regions. The only exception to this pattern is the gene for cysteine tRNA, which is located in the part of the genome that otherwise contains all genes with the opposite transcriptional polarity. We suggest that a mechanism involving complete mtDNA duplication followed by the loss of genes, predetermined by their transcriptional polarity and location in the genome, could generate this gene arrangement from the one ancestral for arthropods. The proposed mechanism has important implications for phylogenetic inferences that are drawn on the basis of gene arrangement comparisons.

  12. Stoichiometric differences in DNA molecules containing the atpA gene suggest mechanisms for the generation of mitochondrial genome diversity in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, I D; Isaac, P G; Leaver, C J

    1987-04-01

    Four genomic arrangements of the maize mitochondrial atpA gene (encoding the alpha subunit of the F(1) ATPase), have been characterized. Most N (fertile) and S (male-sterile) cytoplasms contain two atpA arrangements of equal abundance. Prolonged exposure of blots of maize mitochondrial DNA probed with atpA-specific sequences show that cytoplasms previously reported to lack one of the atpA arrangements do contain the second arrangement but at low levels. Similarly, restriction fragments containing the atpA gene previously thought unique to male-sterile S and T cytoplasms are present in low abundance in fertile cytoplasms. These observations suggest that fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of maize may be more closely related than previously thought, and suggest possible mechanisms to explain the observed mitochondrial genome diversity.

  13. FORIDA Towers - Analysis of steel transition piece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Rom; Dollerup, Niels; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is a detailed analysis of the transition piece connecting the hybrid wind turbine towers lower UHPFRC part with the top steel part. The analysis of the transition piece includes a validation of the Service Limit State (SLS), the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Fatigue loads. The an...

  14. Contrasting morphological and DNA barcode-suggested species boundaries among shallow-water amphipod fauna from the southern European Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Jorge; Ferreira, Maria S; Antunes, Ilisa C; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Borges, Luisa M S; Sousa, Ronaldo; Gomes, Pedro A; Costa, Maria Helena; Cunha, Marina R; Costa, Filipe O

    2017-02-01

    In this study we compared DNA barcode-suggested species boundaries with morphology-based species identifications in the amphipod fauna of the southern European Atlantic coast. DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region (COI-5P) were generated for 43 morphospecies (178 specimens) collected along the Portuguese coast which, together with publicly available COI-5P sequences, produced a final dataset comprising 68 morphospecies and 295 sequences. Seventy-five BINs (Barcode Index Numbers) were assigned to these morphospecies, of which 48 were concordant (i.e., 1 BIN = 1 species), 8 were taxonomically discordant, and 19 were singletons. Twelve species had matching sequences (coast of Portugal (only about 36 and 250 km apart, respectively). We also found deep divergence (4%-22%) among specimens of seven species from Portugal compared to those from the North Sea and Italy. The detection of evolutionarily meaningful divergence among populations of several amphipod species from southern Europe reinforces the need for a comprehensive re-assessment of the diversity of this faunal group.

  15. Mutation of the mouse Syce1 gene disrupts synapsis and suggests a link between synaptonemal complex structural components and DNA repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Bolcun-Filas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the synaptonemal complex is a structure required to complete crossover recombination. Although suggested by cytological work, in vivo links between the structural proteins of the synaptonemal complex and the proteins of the recombination process have not previously been made. The central element of the synaptonemal complex is traversed by DNA at sites of recombination and presents a logical place to look for interactions between these components. There are four known central element proteins, three of which have previously been mutated. Here, we complete the set by creating a null mutation in the Syce1 gene in mouse. The resulting disruption of synapsis in these animals has allowed us to demonstrate a biochemical interaction between the structural protein SYCE2 and the repair protein RAD51. In normal meiosis, this interaction may be responsible for promoting homologous synapsis from sites of recombination.

  16. Implant Gigi One-Piece vs Two-Pieces dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Lestari Kurnia

    2014-12-01

    prosedur bedah dan prosedur prostetik lebih sederhana. Desain ini juga meniadakan celah mikro pada perbatasan implant dan abutment. Desain implant gigi one-piece memiliki keterbatasan pada pilihan prosedur prostetik apabila dibandingkan dengan desain implant gigi two-pieces.   One-Piece Versus Two-pieces Tooth Implant In Daily Practice. Implant had been a gold standard to replace missing tooth. However, implant marketed today was considered complex, and needs a second surgery. Complications may occur such as screw loosening or fracture and the presence of micro gap at implant-abutment-junction that is found causing fixture failure. The one-piece-implant design may offer some advantages. Purpose: this paper was aimed to discuss the pros and cons of one-piece-implants and two-piece-implants. Case 1 A 43-year-old woman came to place an implant on #16. The available bone height was 5 mm. A trans alveolar sinus lift procedure was performed with 0,5 cc allograft. A 12 mm one-piece-implant was inserted. Case 2 A 24-year-old woman came to place an implant on #46. The available bone height was 12 mm and a 10 mm two-piece-implant was inserted. Discussion: One-piece-implant offers some advantage. It needs no second surgery, easier placement protocol, and more natural prosthetic procedures. The design is preventing the failure in implant-abutment-junction failure. The absence of micro gap in one-piece-implant seems superior in preventing crestal bone resorption. However, the prosthetic option was limited in one-piece-implant. Two-piece-implant offers more choices in prosthetic abutment. Conclusion: One-piece-implant was easier and provide simple protocol with limited choice on prosthetic.

  17. Last piece of ATLAS takes the plunge

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday 29 February the second small wheel was lowered 100 metres underground into the ATLAS cavern in front of a captivated audience. Although called the "small wheels" they are small in name only - each wheel is 9.3 metres in diameter and weighs 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. This piece completes ATLAS’ muon spectrometer, which has the ability to accurately track particles to the width of a human hair. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and, five years later, this small wheel is the final large piece of the detector to take the subterranean voyage to its final resting place.

  18. A phylogeny of the Lampropeltis mexicana complex (Serpentes: Colubridae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences suggests evidence for species-level polyphyly within Lampropeltis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Robert W; Pastorini, Jennifer; Burbrink, Frank T; Forstner, Michael R J

    2007-05-01

    The systematic relationships of snakes in the Lampropeltis mexicana complex (L. mexicana, L. alterna, and L. ruthveni) are poorly known despite several taxonomic studies over the last 80 years. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to infer the phylogeny of the L. mexicana complex. At least one representative sample from the nine currently recognized species of Lampropeltis was sequenced. Our results suggest that a deep basal split resulted in the divergence of two groups of Lampropeltis, with one group occupying the upland areas of western United States and most of western and central Mexico, and the other northeastern Mexico and the lowland areas of the southern United States. Results also revealed that the L. mexicana complex and Lampropeltis triangulum are polyphyletic, with taxa from both groups nested together in deeply divergent northern and southern clades. These results are incongruent with previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships based on morphology, and suggest that morphological characters shared among the various tri-colored Lampropeltis (e.g., hemipenal structure and tri-colored pattern) may be difficult to interpret phylogenetically.

  19. The induction of stromule formation by a plant DNA-virus in epidermal leaf tissues suggests a novel intra- and intercellular macromolecular trafficking route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eKrenz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stromules are dynamic thin protrusions of membrane envelope from plant cell plastids. Despite considerable progress in understanding the importance of certain cytoskeleton elements and motor proteins for stromule maintenance, their function within the cell has yet to be unraveled. Several viruses cause a remodulation of plastid structures and stromule biogenesis within their host plants. For RNA-viruses these interactions were demonstrated to be relevant to the infection process. An involvement of plastids and stromules is assumed in the DNA-virus life cycle as well, but their functional role needs to be determined. Recent findings support a participation of heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein (cpHSC70-1-containing stromules induced by a DNA-virus infection (Abutilon mosaic virus, AbMV, Geminiviridae in intra- and intercellular molecule exchange. The chaperone cpHSC70-1 was shown to interact with the AbMV movement protein (MP. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation confirmed the interaction of cpHSC70-1 and MP, and showed a homo-oligomerization of either protein in planta. The complexes were detected at the cellular margin and co-localized with plastids. In healthy plant tissues cpHSC70-1-oligomers occurred in distinct spots at chloroplasts and in small filaments extending from plastids to the cell periphery. AbMV-infection induced a cpHSC70-1-containing stromule network that exhibits elliptical dilations and transverses whole cells. Silencing of the cpHSC70-gene revealed an impact of cpHSC70 on chloroplast stability and restricted AbMV movement, but not viral DNA accumulation. Based on these data, a model is suggested in which these stromules function in molecule exchange between plastids and other organelles and perhaps other cells. AbMV may utilize cpHSC70-1 for trafficking along plastids and stromules into a neighboring cell or from plastids into the nucleus. Experimental approaches to investigate this hypothesis are discussed.

  20. mtDNA control-region sequence variation suggests multiple independent origins of an "Asian-specific" 9-bp deletion in sub-Saharan Africans.

    OpenAIRE

    Soodyall, H.; Vigilant, L.; Hill, A V; Stoneking, M.; Jenkins, T

    1996-01-01

    The intergenic COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion in human mtDNA, which is found at varying frequencies in Asia, Southeast Asia, Polynesia, and the New World, was also found in 81 of 919 sub-Saharan Africans. Using mtDNA control-region sequence data from a subset of 41 individuals with the deletion, we identified 22 unique mtDNA types associated with the deletion in Africa. A comparison of the unique mtDNA types from sub-Saharan Africans and Asians with the 9-bp deletion revealed that sub-Saharan A...

  1. Ancient DNA analysis might suggest external origin of individuals from chamber graves placed in medieval cemetery in Pień, Central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Zamerska, Alicja; Drozd-Lipińska, Alicja; Poliński, Dariusz; Janowski, Andrzej; Witas, Henryk

    2017-08-11

    The participation of immigrants during early days in Poland of Piast's dynasty is a debated issue among archaeologists and anthropologists alike. Such hypotheses were formulated on the basis of, amongst others, the discovery of early medieval chamber graves characterized by construction features typical of the Scandinavian culture area. Archaeological and anthropological studies to date have not provided an unequivocal answer as to whether the individuals interred in those graves were autochthons who adopted a different burial rite, or perhaps immigrants from foreign lands. To characterize the gene pool of this population we analyzed the C/T allele of the nuclear gene LCT-13910 as well as fragments of the mitochondrial genome from individuals buried in very richly furnished chamber graves at the medieval cemetery in Pień. The obtained results for the nuclear allele and mtDNA do not corroborate the Scandinavian origin of the analyzed population. Moreover, we did not find haplogroup I, which is the one typical of populations that historically inhabited the north of Europe; and the frequency of the LCT-13910 T allele was similar to that of past and present Polish populations. On the other hand, we identified the atypical haplogroup C5c1, which suggests Asian origin of the studied individuals and confirms our previous reports concerning ancient human migrations from Asia to the territory of present-day Poland. While our findings do not conclusively disprove a Scandinavian lineage of the studied population, they certainly shed some new light on the origin of the individuals buried in chamber graves, which may be very different from the one initially proposed by archaeologists.

  2. Two unnoticed pieces of medieval polyphony

    OpenAIRE

    Hiley, David

    1992-01-01

    The two pieces introduced and briefly discussed in this article have so far remained unnoticed because of the manner of their notation. In each case pieces of two-voice polyphony were notated with the two voices separate, instead of in the score notation which has been usual since, roughly, the second half of the twelfth century. In the one case, the sequence Magnus deus in universa terra in a manuscript from Marchiennes of the fourteenth century, a second voice was added at the back of the b...

  3. Last piece of the puzzle for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Clare Ryan

    At around 15.40 on Friday 29th February the ATLAS collaboration cracked open the champagne as the second of the small wheels was lowered into the cavern. Each of ATLAS' small wheels are 9.3 metres in diameter and weigh 100 tonnes including the massive shielding elements. They are the final parts of ATLAS' muon spectrometer. The first piece of ATLAS was installed in 2003 and since then many detector elements have journeyed down the 100 metre shaft into the ATLAS underground cavern. This last piece completes this gigantic puzzle.

  4. The Bipolar Filaments Formed by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 SSB/Recombination Protein (ICP8) Suggest a Mechanism for DNA Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhov, A.M.; Simon, M.; Sen, A.; Yu, X.; Griffith, J. D.; Egelman, E. H.

    2009-02-20

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a multifunctional protein, ICP8, which serves both as a single-strand binding protein and as a recombinase, catalyzing reactions involved in replication and recombination of the viral genome. In the presence of divalent ions and at low temperature, previous electron microscopic studies showed that ICP8 will form long left-handed helical filaments. Here, electron microscopic image reconstruction reveals that the filaments are bipolar, with an asymmetric unit containing two subunits of ICP8 that constitute a symmetrical dimer. This organization of the filament has been confirmed using scanning transmission electron microscopy. The pitch of the filaments is {approx} 250 {angstrom}, with {approx} 6.2 dimers per turn. Docking of a crystal structure of ICP8 into the reconstructed filament shows that the C-terminal domain of ICP8, attached to the body of the subunit by a flexible linker containing {approx} 10 residues, is packed into a pocket in the body of a neighboring subunit in the crystal in a similar manner as in the filament. However, the interactions between the large N-terminal domains are quite different in the filament from that observed in the crystal. A previously proposed model for ICP8 binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), based upon the crystal structure, leads to a model for a continuous strand of ssDNA near the filament axis. The bipolar nature of the ICP8 filaments means that a second strand of ssDNA would be running through this filament in the opposite orientation, and this provides a potential mechanism for how ICP8 anneals complementary ssDNA into double-stranded DNA, where each strand runs in opposite directions.

  5. Patterns of human papillomavirus DNA and antibody positivity in young males and females, suggesting a site-specific natural course of infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Scherpenisse, Mirte; Boot, Hein J; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity ra

  6. Patterns of human papillomavirus DNA and antibody positivity in young males and females, suggesting a site-specific natural course of infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Scherpenisse, Mirte; Boot, Hein J; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity ra

  7. High penetrance of a pan-canina type rDNA family in intersection Rosa hybrids suggests strong selection of bivalent chromosomes in the section Caninae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhak Khaitova, Lucie; Werlemark, Gun; Kovarikova, Alena; Nybom, Hilde; Kovarik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    All dogroses (Rosa sect. Caninae) are characterized by the peculiar canina meiosis in which genetic material is unevenly distributed between female and male gametes. The pan-canina rDNA family (termed beta) appears to be conserved in all dogroses analyzed so far. Here, we have studied rDNAs in experimental hybrids obtained from open pollination of F1 plants derived from 2 independent intersectional crosses between the pentaploid dogrose species (2n = 5x = 35) Rosa rubiginosa as female parent (producing 4x egg cells due to the unique asymmetrical canina meiosis) and the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 28) garden rose R. hybrida 'André Brichet' as male parent (producing 2x pollen after normal meiosis). We analyzed the structure of rDNA units by molecular methods [CAPS and extensive sequencing of internal transcribed spacers (ITS)] and determined the number of loci on chromosomes by FISH. FISH showed that R. rubiginosa and 'André Brichet' harbored 5 and 4 highly heteromorphic rDNA loci, respectively. In the second generation of hybrid lines, we observed a reduced number of loci (4 and 5 instead of the expected 6). In R. rubiginosa and 'André Brichet', 2-3 major ITS types were found which is consistent with a weak homogenization pressure maintaining high diversity of ITS types in this genus. In contrast to expectation (the null hypothesis of Mendelian inheritance of ITS families), we observed reduced ITS diversity in some individuals of the second generation which might derive from self-fertilization or from a backcross to R. rubiginosa. In these individuals, the pan-canina beta family appeared to be markedly enriched, while the paternal families were lost or diminished in copies. Although the mechanism of biased meiotic transmission of certain rDNA types is currently unknown, we speculate that the bivalent-forming chromosomes carrying the beta rDNA family exhibit extraordinary pairing efficiency and/or are subjected to strong selection in Caninae polyploids.

  8. 29 CFR 1910.177 - Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” and “Multi-piece Rim Matching Chart,” or any other poster which contains at least the same... mounting and inflation. (4) The size (bead diameter and tire/wheel widths) and type of both the tire...

  9. Implant Gigi One-Piece vs Two-Pieces dalam Praktek Sehari-Hari

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Lestari Kurnia; Amilia Ramadhani; Rikko Hudyono

    2014-01-01

    Saat ini, implant merupakan pilihan terbaik untuk menggantikan gigi yang tanggal, akan tetapi prosedur pemasangannya terbilang rumit dan memerlukan prosedur bedah kedua untuk pemasangan prostetik. Beberapa komplikasi seperti screw patah atau longgar dan adanya celah mikro pada batas pertemuan implant dan abutment dapat menyebabkan kegagalan implant. Studi kasus ini bertujuan untuk membahas mengenai keuntungan dan kerugian desain implant gigi one-piece dan two-pieces. Kasus pertama, seorang wa...

  10. Three little pieces for computer and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzolla, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Numerical relativity has made big strides over the last decade. A number of problems that have plagued the field for years have now been mostly solved. This progress has transformed numerical relativity into a powerful tool to explore fundamental problems in physics and astrophysics, and I present here three representative examples. These "three little pieces" reflect a personal choice and describe work that I am particularly familiar with. However, many more examples could be made.

  11. mtDNA from the early Bronze Age to the Roman period suggests a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian cradle of civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witas, Henryk W; Tomczyk, Jacek; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Płoszaj, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today's Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5.

  12. An assessment of haplotype variation in ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA fragments suggests incomplete lineage sorting in some species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcz, Sebastian; Przyboś, Ewa; Surmacz, Marta

    2013-04-01

    The Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protozoa) Sonneborn (1975) is composed of 15 sibling species, which are morphologically indistinguishable but sexually isolated. Therefore, the P. aurelia complex seems to be an ideal model for testing hypotheses about recent speciation events. Here we present two-locus (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-5'LSU rDNA and COI mtDNA) analyses using over 120 strains collected from around the world and representing all currently known species of the complex. According to our findings, the studied species show different levels of haplotype variability. Some of them appear on the obtained trees as polyphyletic (e.g., P. dodecaurelia), while others as monophyletic (e.g., P. quadecaurelia), clusters. The revealed discrepancies, which are manifested by different mating behavior and haplotypes not characteristic of particular species, may be explained by incomplete lineage sorting. Furthermore, the phenomena of hybridization and introgression are considered as another explanation for our results. Despite the above discrepancies, "polyphyletic taxa" should be considered true biological species based on the results of genetic crosses. Using a combination of both strain crosses (the biological species concept) and molecular methods (the phylogenetic species concept) seems to be the appropriate way of delimiting species in closely related eukaryotic microorganisms such as the P. aurelia complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. mtDNA from the early Bronze Age to the Roman period suggests a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian cradle of civilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk W Witas

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today's Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya. They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5.

  14. A rapid screening system evaluates novel inhibitors of DNA methylation and suggests F-box proteins as potential therapeutic targets for high-risk neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penter, Livius; Maier, Bert; Frede, Ute; Hackner, Benjamin; Carell, Thomas; Hagemeier, Christian; Truss, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    After extensive research on radiochemotherapy, 5-year survival rates of children with high risk neuroblastoma still do not exceed 50%, owing to adverse side-effects exemplified by doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. A promising new approach is the combination of conventional therapies with specific modulation of cell signaling pathways promoting therapeutic resistance, such as inhibition of aberrant kinase activity or re-expression of silenced tumor suppressor genes by means of chromatin remodeling. In this regard, we established a system that allows to identify potential drug targets as well as to validate respective candidate inhibitors in high-risk neuroblastoma model cell lines. Cell culture, drug exposure, shRNA-mediated knockdown and phenotype analysis are integrated into an efficient and versatile single well-based protocol. By utilizing this system, we assessed RG108, SGI-1027 and nanaomycin A, three novel DNA methyltransferase inhibitors that have not been tested in neuroblastoma cell lines so far, for their potential of synergistic anti-tumor activity in combination with doxorubicin. We found that, similarly to azacytidine, SGI-1027 and nanaomycin A mediate synergistic growth inhibition with doxorubicin independently of N-Myc status. However, they display high cytotoxicity but lack global DNA demethylation activity. Secondly, we conducted a lentiviral shRNA screen of F-box proteins, key regulators of protein stability, and identified Fbxw11/β-TrCP2 as well as Fbxo5/Emi1 as potential therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma. These results complement existing studies and underline the reliability and versatility of our single well-based protocol.

  15. Use of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Using of an apparatus for separating magnetic pieces of scrap-material of a first group from magnetic pieces of scrap- material of a second group, wherein a mixture of pieces of scrap-material from the first group and from the second group is collectively transported with a conveyor to a separating

  16. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  17. Fractal dimension analysis of complexity in Ligeti piano pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf

    2005-04-01

    Fractal correlation dimensional analysis has been performed with whole solo piano pieces by Gyrgy Ligeti at every 50ms interval of the pieces. The resulting curves of development of complexity represented by the fractal dimension showed up a very reasonable correlation with the perceptional density of events during these pieces. The seventh piece of Ligeti's ``Musica ricercata'' was used as a test case. Here, each new part of the piece was followed by an increase of the fractal dimension because of the increase of information at the part changes. The second piece ``Galamb borong,'' number seven of the piano Etudes was used, because Ligeti wrote these Etudes after studying fractal geometry. Although the piece is not fractal in the strict mathematical sense, the overall structure of the psychoacoustic event-density as well as the detailed event development is represented by the fractal dimension plot.

  18. Relaxation Algorithm of Piecing-Error for Sub-Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yueping; TANG Pushan

    2001-01-01

    During the process of automatic image recognition or automatic reverse design of IC, people often encounter the problem that some sub-images must be pieced together into a whole image. In the traditional piecing algorithm for sub images, a large accumulated error will be made. In this paper, a relaxation algorithm of piecing-error for sub-images is presented. It can eliminate the accumulated error in the traditional algorithm and greatly improve the quality of pieced image. Based on an initial pieced image, one can continuously adjust the center of every sub-image and its angle to lessen the error between the adjacent sub-images, so the quality of pieced image can be improved. The presented results indicate that the proposed algorithm can dramatically decrease the error while the quality of ultimate pieced image is still acceptable. The time complexity of this algorithm is O(n In n).

  19. DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  20. Evidence of at least two evolutionary lineages in Melipona subnitida (Apidae, Meliponini) suggested by mtDNA variability and geometric morphometrics of forewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Vanessa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Franco, Fernando Faria; Francoy, Tiago Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Melipona subnitida, a tropical stingless bee, is an endemic species of the Brazilian northeast and exhibits great potential for honey and pollen production in addition to its role as one of the main pollinators of the Caatinga biome. To understand the genetic structure and better assist in the conservation of this species, we characterized the population variability of M. subnitida using geometric morphometrics of the forewing and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment sequencing. We collected workers from six localities in the northernmost distribution. Both methodologies indicated that the variability among the sampled populations is related both to the environment in which samples were collected and the geographical distance between the sampling sites, indicating that differentiation among the populations is due to the existence of at least evolutionary lineages. Molecular clock data suggest that this differentiation may have begun in the middle Pleistocene, approximately 396 kya. The conservation of all evolutionary lineages is important since they can present differential resistance to environmental changes, as resistance to drought and diseases.

  1. A new piece of the puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The team responsible for the installation of the hadronic calorimeter's central barrel after completion of the assembly work. Assembly of the great ATLAS puzzle continues underground. On 10 December, the final module of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter was assembled. This piece of the tile calorimeter had already been assembled above ground during a "dress rehearsal" in 2003 (see Bulletin no 46/2003, 10 November 2003). The hadronic calorimeter's two other barrels, the so-called "extended barrels", remain to be assembled with this first central barrel, which now surrounds the electromagnetic calorimeter barrel that was lowered into the cavern at the end of October. At the end of November, the second of the eight barrel toroid coils was also installed.

  2. Two-piece hollow bulb obturator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Elangovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various types of obturator fabrication achievable by prosthodontist. Maxillectomy, which is a term used by head and neck surgeons and prosthodontists to describe the partial or total removal of the maxilla in patients suffering from benign or malignant neoplasms is a defect for which to provide an effective obturator is a difficult task for the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Multidisciplinary treatment planning is essential to achieve adequate retention and function for the prosthesis. Speech is often unintelligible as a result of the marked defects in articulation and nasal resonance. This paper describes how to achieve the goal for esthetics and phonetics and also describes the fabrication of a hollow obturator by two piece method, which is simple and maybe used as definitive obturator for maximum comfort of the patient.

  3. Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Borrás, Terete; Fingert, John H; Wiggs, Janey L; Ritch, Robert

    2016-09-01

    To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The missing piece syndrome in peer-to-peer communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hajek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical protocols for peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet divide files to be shared into pieces. New peers strive to obtain a complete collection of pieces from other peers and from a seed. In this paper we investigate a problem that can occur if the seeding rate is not large enough. The problem is that, even if the statistics of the system are symmetric in the pieces, there can be symmetry breaking, with one piece becoming very rare. If peers depart after obtaining a complete collection, they can tend to leave before helping other peers receive the rare piece. Assuming that peers arrive with no pieces, there is a single seed, random peer contacts are made, random useful pieces are downloaded, and peers depart upon receiving the complete file, the system is stable if the seeding rate (in pieces per time unit is greater than the arrival rate, and is unstable if the seeding rate is less than the arrival rate. The result persists for any piece selection policy that selects from among useful pieces, such as rarest first, and it persists with the use of network coding.

  5. One Piece Orbitozygomatic Approach Based on the Sphenoid Ridge Keyhole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiriev, Toma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Fugleholm, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge was exami......The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge...

  6. The last piece of the ring

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In a sequel to the recent success at CMS, the last section of the LHC beam vacuum system was installed in ATLAS on Monday 16 June. The place where experiment and accelerator meet, the completion of the last part of the continuous 27 km beampipe signals how near the LHC is to the circulation of its first beam. Watch the video! The last section of the LHC beampipe being installed in ATLAS.Although a seemingly simple piece of technology in comparison with the complexity of the detectors, the beampipe is a carefully designed and essential part of both the experiments and the LHC. The section of beam pipe that completed the LHC ring on Monday 16 June is about 20 metres from the centre of ATLAS, very close to where the first magnets of the LHC are located. Unlike the central ATLAS beampipe, which is made of beryllium, the final section is made of stainless steel. An aluminium cone surrounds the stainless steel tube with the super slim...

  7. Model Checking in Bits and Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedar S. Namjoshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated verification of concurrent programs is a difficult problem, primarily because of state explosion: the exponential growth of a program state space with the number of its concurrently active components. It is natural to apply a divide and conquer strategy to ameliorate state explosion, by analyzing only a single component at a time. We show that this strategy leads to the notion of a "split" invariant, an assertion which is globally inductive, while being structured as the conjunction of a number of local, per-component invariants. This formulation is closely connected to the classical Owicki-Gries method and to Rely-Guarantee reasoning. We show how the division of an invariant into a number of pieces with limited scope makes it possible to apply new, localized forms of symmetry and abstraction to drastically simplify its computation. Split invariance also has interesting connections to parametric verification. A quantified invariant for a parametric system is a split invariant for every instance. We show how it is possible, in some cases, to invert this connection, and to automatically generalize from a split invariant for a small instance of a system to a quantified invariant which holds for the entire family of instances.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Water Flow through the Bottom End Piece of a Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Moysés A.; Santos, André A. C. Dos

    An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the pressure loss of flows through the bottom end piece of a nuclear fuel assembly. To determine an optimized numerical methodology using the commercial CFD code, CFX 10.0, a series of preliminary simulations of water flows through perforated plates in a square ducts were performed. A perforated plate is a predominant geometry of the bottom end piece, responsible for the majority of the flow's pressure drop. The numerical pressure loss applying an optimized mesh and the k-ɛ turbulence model showed good agreement when compared with a conventional methodology (Idelchik). Numerical results for the standard bottom end piece were obtained applying the previously determined mesh criteria and the k-ɛ turbulence model with some geometric simplifications. The agreement between the numerical simulations and experimental results can be considered satisfactory but suggests further numerical investigations with the bottom piece under real conditions of the experiment, without the geometric simplifications and with a gap between the piece and the wall of the flow channel. Additionally, other turbulence models should be appraised for this complex geometry.

  9. 29 CFR 530.202 - Piece rates-work measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piece rates-work measurement. 530.202 Section 530.202 Labor... Piece rates—work measurement. (a) No certificate will be issued pursuant to § 530.101 of subpart B to an... different types of items produced using stop watch time studies or other work measurement...

  10. 75 FR 28051 - Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Public Workshop: Pieces of Privacy AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice announcing public workshop. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security Privacy Office will host a public workshop, ``Pieces of Privacy.'' DATES: The workshop will be held on June 10, 2010, from 8...

  11. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  12. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, A; W. J. Duncan; R. K. De Silva; Zafar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Reports have documented titanium (Ti) hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr) ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-pi...

  13. Comparison of Nd: YAG capsulotomy rate between 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic intraocular lenses: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Chung, Young Kwon; Shin, Hye Young; Lee, Mee Yon; Lee, Young-Chun; Kim, Su-Young

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study is to compare Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses. Among 924 eyes of 762 patients who received cataract surgery, we selected the 303 patients (404 eyes) implanted with an SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) or a YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens (Hoya Co., Tokyo, Japan). For intraindividual comparison, we enrolled the 17 patients implanted with an SN60WF in 1 eye and a YA-60BBR in the contralateral eye. We compared Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate between acrylic 1- and 3-piece intraocular lenses 24 months after the operation. Of the 404 eyes in this study, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in 20 of 268 eyes (7.5%) in the SN60WF 1-piece intraocular lens group and 24 of 136 eyes (17.6%) in the YA-60BBR 3-piece intraocular lens group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .002). Among the 17 patients (34 eyes) who were implanted with 2 different inraocular lenses, Nd:YAG capsulotomy was performed in only 2 eyes (12%) in the SN60WF group and 9 eyes (53%) in the YA-60BBR group; the difference was statistically significant (P = .020).The authors found a significantly greater incidence of Nd:YAG capsulotomy in eyes who received 3-piece lenses compared with those who received 1-piece lenses.

  14. DNA nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadrian C Seeman

    2003-01-01

    We are all aware that the DNA found in cells is a double helix consisting of two antiparallel strands held together by specific hydrogen-bonded base pairs; adenine (A always pairs with thymine (T, and guanine (G always pairs with cytosine (C. The specificity of this base pairing and the ability to ensure that it occurs in this fashion (and not some other1 is key to the use of DNA in materials applications. The double helical arrangement of the two molecules leads to a linear helix axis, linear not in the geometrical sense of being a straight line, but in the topological sense of being unbranched. Genetic engineers discovered in the 1970s how to splice together pieces of DNA to add new genes to DNA molecules2, and synthetic chemists worked out convenient syntheses for short pieces of DNA (up to ∼100–150 units in the 1980s3. Regardless of the impact of these technologies on biological systems, hooking together linear molecules leads only to longer linear molecules, with circles, knots, and catenanes perhaps resulting from time to time.

  15. Application of SFM and laser scanning technology to the description of mosaics piece by piece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajioka, O.; Hori, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Mosaic floors of surviving buildings in Ostia have been mainly recorded in photographs. From 2008, Japanese research group carries out a project of 3d measuring of the whole structure of ancient Roman city Ostia using laser scanners, including its landscape, city blocks, streets, buildings, wall paintings and mosaics. The laser scanner allows for a more detailed analysis and a greater potential for recording mosaics. We can record the data of mosaics, which are described piece by piece. However it is hard to acquire enough high dense point cloud and the internal camera of the laser scanner produce low quality images. We introduce a possible technology of 3D recording of mosaics with high-quality colour information; SFM. The use of this technique permits us to create 3D models from images provided from a CCD camera without heavy and large laser scanners. We applied SFM system to different three types of the mosaics laid down on the floors of "the House of the Dioscuroi", "the Insula of the Muse" and "the House of Jove and Ganymede", and created high resolution orthographic images. Then we examined to compare these orthographic images with that are created from the point cloud data. As a result, we confirmed that SFM system has sufficient practical utility for the mosaic research. And we present how much of density of point cloud or ground resolution are required for the documentation of mosaics accurately.

  16. The nuclear retention of transcription factor FOXO3a correlates with a DNA damage response and increased glutamine synthetase expression by astrocytes suggesting a neuroprotective role in the ageing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluteau, Adeline; Ince, Paul G; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Garwood, Claire J; Ratcliffe, Laura E; Morgan, Sarah; Heath, Paul R; Shaw, Pamela J; Wharton, Stephen B; Simpson, Julie E

    2015-11-16

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative damage and cell death plays an important role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. FOXO3a, the main isoform of FOXO transcription factors, mediates the cellular response to oxidative stress by regulating the expression of genes involved in DNA repair and glutamine metabolism, including glutamine synthetase (GS). Immunohistochemical investigation of the population-based neuropathology cohort of the Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) demonstrates that nuclear retention of FOXO3a significantly correlates with a DNA damage response and with GS expression by astrocytes. Furthermore, we show that GS expression correlates with increasing Alzheimer-type pathology in this ageing cohort. Our findings suggest that in response to oxidative stress, the nuclear retention of FOXO3a in astrocytes upregulates expression of GS as a neuroprotective mechanism. However, the activity of GS may be compromised by increasing levels of oxidative stress in the ageing brain resulting in dysfunctional enzyme activity, neuronal excitotoxic damage and cognitive impairment.

  17. Melody-based knowledge discovery in musical pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybnik, Mariusz; Jastrzebska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    The paper is focused on automated knowledge discovery in musical pieces, based on transformations of digital musical notation. Usually a single musical piece is analyzed, to discover the structure as well as traits of separate voices. Melody and rhythm is processed with the use of three proposed operators, that serve as meta-data. In this work we focus on melody, so the processed data is labeled using fuzzy labels, created for detecting various voice characteristics. A comparative analysis of two musical pieces may be performed as well, that compares them in terms of various rhythmic or melodic traits (as a whole or with voice separation).

  18. Existential field 8: appendix to the report - special focus pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiou, Myria; Haddon, Leslie; Helsper, Ellen; Wang, Yinhan

    2010-01-01

    This appendix contains five special focus pieces on Diasporic families and media consumption, The place of mobile technology in European families, Families’ digital disadvantage and exclusion, ICT and intimate relationships, and Girl culture and Web 2.0.

  19. OBJECT ORIENTED SOFTWARE FOR MICRO WORK PIECE RECOGNITION IN MICROASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo-Ramírez, G.K.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe object oriented software for the automatic micro work piece handling system.The general task of this system is the recognition of work pieces with neural classifier and detection of theirpositions. Other important functions of the system are work piece styles database administration, work piecedatabase administration for neural classifier training and testing, neural classifier interface between database, userand work piece finder. The software is object oriented and widely commented, that makes its modification,adaptation and improvement easier. Most of the software modules can be used in other research projects. Thesoftware was tested on image database. The results of experiments prove its effectiveness in chosen task.

  20. One-Piece Faraday Generator: A Paradoxical Experiment from 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, M. J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment based on Faraday's one-piece generator, where the rotating disk is replaced by a cylindrical permanent magnet. Explains the apparent paradox that an observer in an inertial frame could measure his absolute velocity. (GA)

  1. 40 Years of Processing Pieces of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, C. E.; Funk, R. C.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    representative sample, either a 1-3 gram chip or thin section is sent to the Smithsonian Institution for classification. After Antarctic meteorites have been classified and approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the Meteoritical Society, they are announced in the Antarctic Meteorite Newsletter, which is published twice per year (fall and spring) so that scientists may review which meteorites are available to study. Requests for Antarctic Meteorite samples are welcomed from research scientists, regardless of their current state of funding for meteorite studies. Since its inception over 3,300 requests have been made for pieces of these meteorites and over 400 investigators worldwide are active in the study of meteorites.. Research on these samples has been published in more than1500 peer reviewed articles; a listing of papers for any meteorite sample can be generated by accessing http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/antmet/referencesearch.cfm. Antarctic meteorite samples requested by scientists are prepared several different ways. Most samples are prepared as chips, either using a rock splitter or using a chisel and chipping bowl. In special situations, a researcher may request a meteorite slab in which case the samples are cut using a diamond-bladed bandsaw inside of a dry nitrogen glove box. The meteorites are always cut in a 100 percent liquid-free environment. Additionally, thin/thick sections of Antarctic meteorites are also prepared at JSC. The meteorite thin section lab at JSC can prepare standard 30-micron thin sections, thick sections of variable thickness (100 to 200 microns), or demountable sections using superglue, all section are prepared without using water. Although many of the techniques used back in the '70's are still used today, advances in computers, software, databases, available tools and instrumentation have helped to streamline and shorten the duration of the classification process. In conjunction with present day missions to asteroids and other planets

  2. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. A. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage.

  3. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sandra M. A.; Girão, André F.; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage. PMID:26805845

  4. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sandra M A; Girão, André F; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A A P

    2016-01-21

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage.

  5. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  6. Suggestions for Christmas gifts.

    CERN Multimedia

    Connie Potter; Markus Nordberg

    Have you been working long hours lately? Stuck in meetings too long to make it in time before the shops close? No need to worry. The ATLAS secretariat has plenty of items that will make great Christmas gifts for friends and family. Here are some of the items in stock. Note that you can negotiate a good price for bulk order. ATLAS caps (new item), 12 chf ATLAS t-shirts designed by Alan Alda, 20 chf ATLAS fleece jackets in several sizes and colors, 30 chf grey or dark blue in men's sizes pale blue for women's sizes (limited quantity) red for children (limited quantity) ATLAS puzzles with 500 pieces made by the Ravensburger company 15 chf for 1 box (price is less when purchasing more boxes) 50 chf for 5 boxes or more can also be purchased in boxes of 24, ready to ship to your institute ATLAS 3-D viewers, 5 chf ATLAS DVD, 5 chf CERN playing cards, 2 chf Make sure to get several boxes of the ATLAS puzzle for Christmas gifts. Offer hours of entertainement to friends and family! We tak...

  7. Life cycle of Renylaima capensis, a brachylaimid trematode of shrews and slugs in South Africa: two-host and three-host transmission modalities suggested by epizootiology and DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirgel Wilhelm F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The life cycle of the brachylaimid trematode species Renylaima capensis, infecting the urinary system of the shrew Myosorex varius (Mammalia: Soricidae: Crocidosoricinae in the Hottentots Holland Nature Reserve, South Africa, has been elucidated by a study of its larval stages, epizootiological data in local snails and mammals during a 34-year period, and its verification with mtDNA sequencing. Methods Parasites obtained from dissected animals were mounted in microscope slides for the parasitological study and measured according to standardized methods. The mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene was sequenced by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Results The slugs Ariostralis nebulosa and Ariopelta capensis (Gastropoda: Arionidae act as specific first and second intermediate hosts, respectively. Branched sporocysts massively develop in A. nebulosa. Intrasporocystic mature cercariae show differentiated gonads, male terminal duct, ventral genital pore, and usually no tail, opposite to Brachylaimidae in which mature cercariae show a germinal primordium and small tail. Unencysted metacercariae, usually brevicaudate, infect the kidney of A. capensis and differ from mature cercariae by only a slightly greater size. The final microhabitats are the kidneys and ureters of the shrews, kidney pelvis and calyces in light infections and also kidney medulla and cortex in heavy infections. Sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae and adults proved to belong to R. capensis by analysis of a 437-bp-long cox1 fragment, which was identical except for three mutations in metacercariae, of which only one silent. Epizootiological studies showed usual sporocyst infection in A. nebulosa and very rare metacercarial infection in A. capensis, which does not agree with high prevalences and intensities in the shrews. Conclusions The presence of monotesticular adult forms and larval prevalences and intensities observed suggest that R. capensis may use two transmission

  8. Labour's missing pieces ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.

    2007-05-15

    Economic development has been thriving in Alberta since the mid-1990s, but recent concerns are focusing on a shortage of labour and skilled workers. With the aging baby boom generation, the shortage is expected to worsen to nearly 100,000 workers in the next decade, particularly as scheduled oilsands project and the construction of five heavy oil upgraders begin. Alberta's Occupational Supply model forecasts that by 2016, Alberta will create 400,000 jobs, yet only 291,000 workers will enter the labour force by this time. Several employers have applied to the federal government to hire temporary foreign works to abate the labour shortage. However, they must first prove that they have tried unsuccessfully to hire a Canadian worker. The Alberta provincial government plays a role in employment standards, workplace safety and health care. Alberta Employment, Immigration and Industry (AEII) has suggested that there may be enough Canadian workers with the right skills, but they do not accept employment for many reasons, such as family considerations, the location or scope of the job or medical issues. The president of the Alberta Federation of Labour suggested that the provincial government is creating a tighter labour market by refusing to set a more reasonable pace for oilsands development. This in turn has created incentives for energy companies to build their upgraders and refineries in the United States instead of Alberta. It was argued that a more reasonable pace of development would also bring down construction costs and make Alberta an attractive place to build value-added facilities in the long term. It was also argued that loose government rules are facilitating the use of temporary foreign workers as tools to bring down wages and bypass unionized workers. As such, the shortage is not of skilled labour in Alberta, but rather a shortage of cheap labour. The challenge lies in meeting the labour needs for certain trades, such as electricians, pipefitters

  9. Gas turbine combustor exit piece with hinged connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charron, Richard C.; Pankey, William W.

    2016-04-26

    An exit piece (66) with an inlet throat (67) that conducts a combustion gas flow (36A) in a path (82) from a combustor (63) to an annular chamber (68) that feeds the first blade section (37) of a gas turbine (26). The exit piece further includes an outlet portion (69) that forms a circumferential segment of the annular chamber. The outlet portion interconnects with adjacent outlet portions by hinges (78A, 78B, 80A, 80B). Each hinge may have a hinge axis (82A, 82B) parallel to a centerline (21) of the turbine. Respective gas flows (36A) are configured by an assembly (60) of the exit pieces to converge on the feed chamber (68) into a uniform helical flow that drives the first blade section with minimal circumferential variations in force.

  10. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  11. Torque Removal Evaluation of Screw in One-Piece and Two-Piece Abutments Tightened with a Handheld screwdriver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghanbarzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some clinicians use a handheld screw driver instead of a torque wrench to definitively tighten abutment screws. The aim of this study was to compare the removal torque of one-piece and two-piece abutments tightened with a handheld driver and a torque control ratchet. Methods: 40 ITI implants were placed in acrylic blocks and divided into 4 groups. In groups one and two, 10 ITI one-piece abutments (Solid® and in groups three and four, 10 ITI two-piece abutments (Synocta® were placed on the implants. In groups one and three abutments were tightened by 5 experienced males and 5 experienced females using a handheld driver. In groups two and four abutments were tightened using a torque wrench with torque values of 10, 20 and 35 N.cm. Insertion torque and removal torque values of the abutments were measured with a digital torque meter. Results: The insertion torque values (ITVs of males in both abutments were significantly higher than those of females. ITVs in both Solid® and Synocta® abutments tightened with a handheld screwdriver were similar to the torque of 20 N.cm in the torque wrench. Removal torque values (RTVs of solid® abutments were higher than those of synocta® abutments. Conclusion: The one- piece abutments (solid® showed higher RTVs than the two-piece abutments (synocta®. Hand driver does not produce sufficient preload force for the final tightening of the abutment

  12. Managed land settlement process: "Thought piece" on basic services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This thought piece is deliberately about issues and principles, rather than about setting out a step-by-step process for the planning and provision of services. What is important - and needs to be fully understood - are these issues and principles...

  13. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siddiqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports have documented titanium (Ti hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-piece prototype Ti (control and one Zr (test implant were placed in the mandible, and one of each implant (Ti and Zr was placed into the femoral epicondyle of each animal. The femur implants were submerged and unloaded; the mandibular implants were placed using a one-stage transgingival protocol and were nonsubmerged. After a healing period of 12 weeks, %BIC was measured. The overall survival rate for mandibular and femur implants combined was 87.5%. %BIC was higher for Zr implants versus Ti implants in the femur (85.5%, versus 78.9% (p=0.002. Zirconia implants in the mandible showed comparable %BIC to titanium implants (72.2%, versus 60.3% (p=0.087. High failure rate of both Zr and Ti one-piece implants in the jaw could be attributed to the one-piece design and surface characteristics of the implant that could have influenced osseointegration. Further clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the performance of zirconia implants under loading conditions.

  14. One-Piece Zirconia Ceramic versus Titanium Implants in the Jaw and Femur of a Sheep Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, R. K.; Zafar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Reports have documented titanium (Ti) hypersensitivity after dental implant treatment. Alternative materials have been suggested including zirconia (Zr) ceramics, which have shown predictable osseointegration in animal studies and appear free of immune responses. The aim of the research was to investigate the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of one-piece Zr, compared with one-piece Ti implants, placed in the jaws and femurs of domestic sheep. Ten New Zealand mixed breed sheep were used. A One-piece prototype Ti (control) and one Zr (test) implant were placed in the mandible, and one of each implant (Ti and Zr) was placed into the femoral epicondyle of each animal. The femur implants were submerged and unloaded; the mandibular implants were placed using a one-stage transgingival protocol and were nonsubmerged. After a healing period of 12 weeks, %BIC was measured. The overall survival rate for mandibular and femur implants combined was 87.5%. %BIC was higher for Zr implants versus Ti implants in the femur (85.5%, versus 78.9%) (p = 0.002). Zirconia implants in the mandible showed comparable %BIC to titanium implants (72.2%, versus 60.3%) (p = 0.087). High failure rate of both Zr and Ti one-piece implants in the jaw could be attributed to the one-piece design and surface characteristics of the implant that could have influenced osseointegration. Further clinical trials are recommended to evaluate the performance of zirconia implants under loading conditions. PMID:28058261

  15. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  16. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  17. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  18. Mechanical seal having a single-piece, perforated mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2007-08-07

    A mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) with reduced contact surface temperature, reduced contact surface wear, or increased life span. The mechanical seal comprises a rotating ring and a single-piece, perforated mating ring, which improves heat transfer by controllably channeling coolant flow through the single-piece mating ring such that the coolant is in substantially uniform thermal contact with a substantial portion of the interior surface area of the seal face, while maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanical seal and minimizing the potential for coolant flow interruptions to the seal face caused by debris or contaminants (e.g., small solids and trash) in the coolant.

  19. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Trudy M. Mooren; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD.Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses:...

  20. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees : a debate piece

    OpenAIRE

    ter Heide, F. Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD.Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses:...

  1. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  2. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  3. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  4. COMPARISON OF ANTERIOR CHAMBER REACTION WITH SINGLE-PIECE AND THREE-PIECE INTRAOCULAR LENSES IN MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the anterior chamber reaction between single-piece and three-piece intraocular lenses in manual small incision cataract surgery. METHODS: Prospective study done at Mysore Race Club Charitable Eye Hospital. 140 Patients underwent suture less sclerocorneal tunnel cataract surgeries with single-piece or three-piece Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA intra ocular lenses (3-piece IOL. Accurate Keratometry was done with the help of Bausch and Lomb Keratometer. IOL power was calculated by using SRK (Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff II formula, with the help of non-immersion, contact type of A-Scan biometry. Single-piece IOLs were inserted in 70 patients. Three-piece IOL inserted in rest of 70 patients. Slit lamp examination for anterior chamber cells was graded according to Hogan system. Aqueous cells were measured by counting within the visible field under Slit lamp, keeping the beam at maximum intensity. Anterior chamber reaction (AC in 1stPostoperative week and at 8 weeks are compared and analyzed by ANOVA statistics. RESULTS: Single piece IOL group had anterior chamber reaction ranging from 1 to 2+ cells i.e., in 97%. In three-piece IOL group, 70%of eyes had 2+ cells and 12.8% had 3± cells. At 8 weeks, single- piece IOL showed either no cells or occasional cells in 98.6% of patients, compared to three –piece IOL group showing in 77%of cases. 23% had 1+ cells in later group. CONCLUSION: Single-piece implanted IOLs had significant less number of cells were seen in anterior chamber from 1 week to 8 weeks as compared to three-piece IOLs.

  5. High level of mislabeling in Spanish and Greek hake markets suggests the fraudulent introduction of African species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vazquez, Eva; Perez, Juliana; Martinez, Jose L; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Lopez, Belen; Karaiskou, Nikoletta; Casa, Mary F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Triantafyllidis, Alexander

    2011-01-26

    DNA analysis of hake products commercialized in southern European (Spanish and Greek) market chains have demonstrated more than 30% mislabeling, on the basis of species substitution. Tails and fillets were more mislabeled than other products, such as slices and whole pieces. African species were substitute species for products labeled as American and European species, and we suggest it is a case of deliberate economically profitable mislabeling because real market prices of European and American hake products are higher than those of African in Spanish market chains. The presented results suggest fraud detection that disadvantages African producers. Government-mandated genetic surveys of commercial hakes and the use of subsequent statements of fair trade on labels of seafood products could help to reduce fraud levels in a global market of increasingly conscious consumers sensitive to ethical issues.

  6. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  7. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  8. The impact of mechanical properties of rock to the collision of rock piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Macuh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical solution of the rock piece motion considering influences of geometrical and mechanical characteristics of rock mass on the arbitrary slope. The main objective of the paper is to determine the motion of the rock piece considering possibility of rock piece failure due to collision. Brief description of the analytical solution of the rock piece motion on a steep slope is given. The laboratory tests were performed to determine uniaxial compressive strength and elastic properties of the considered rock mass. Further, velocities that cause rock piece failure were determined. These maximum velocities indirectly belong to certain mass of rock piece and can be lower than velocities calculated in rock-fall analysis for certain slope geometry. Consequently, the energy magnitude is limited, because at certain velocity and mass of rock piece bigger pieces crash at collision.

  9. Service Registry: A Key Piece for Enhancing Reuse in SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo García-González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the promises of adopting a service-oriented approach in organizations is the potential cost savings that result from the reuse of existing services. A service registry is one of the fundamental pieces of service oriented architecture (SOA for achieving reuse. It refers to a place in which service providers can impart information about their offered services and potential clients can search for services. In this article, we provide advice for implementing an enterprise-wide service registry. We also discuss open issues in industry and academia that affect the management of service- repository information.

  10. Continuous Integration, essential piece in the software development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous Integration is a practice proposed by eXtreme Programming, one of the most popular agile methodologies, which implementation involves automating one of the most heavy and complex task to predict the process of integration in software development. In this work it is described general aspects related to the practice of Continuous Integration in software development, so it is presented the feasibility of its application due the benefits it provides and the risks that can be mitigated with the use of it. It constitutes a theoretical basis for understanding and showing that this practice is an essential piece for software development.

  11. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions...... of the adapters. Due to the clearances between the car body and the side supports on the bolster, the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The stick-slip action and the play between elements of the truck makes the dynamical model a structure varying system. We present the dynamical...

  12. Starch gelatinization and in vitro digestibility behaviour after heat treatment: Comparison between plantain paste and piece of pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo Toro, A; Gibert, O; Briffaz, A; Ricci, J; Dufour, D; Tran, T; Bohuon, P

    2016-08-20

    Over the 65-100°C range and at a water content of 1.6kgkg(-1)db, a comparison was conducted between plantain paste (dispersion made of flour and water) and pulp pieces after cooking to evaluate their respective degree of starch gelatinization (α) and in vitro digestibility. Below 76°C and at 100°C, the gelatinization behaviour of starch into pulp pieces and paste was similar, whereas at 85°C a significant mean relative difference was observed in between. For α in the 0-1 range, pieces of plantain pulp exhibited a lower rapidly digestible starch fraction (30%) and a higher resistant starch fraction (33%) than the flour paste, suggesting some structural effects. Both Weibull and exponential models showed a good fit for α over temperature range and starch digestibility fractions over α. Although no explicit relationship was established between the intact pulp structure and grinded flour state of plantain, the evaluation of the degree of starch gelatinization and digestibility of a plantain flour paste, could be used to predict the gelatinization and digestibility behaviour of plantain starch in entire pieces of pulp.

  13. Biomechanical evaluation of one-piece and two-piece small-diameter dental implants: In-vitro experimental and three-dimensional finite element analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Chee, Winston; Lin, Yun-Te; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Huang, Heng-Li

    2016-09-01

    Small-diameter dental implants are associated with a higher risk of implant failure. This study used both three-dimensional finite-element (FE) simulations and in-vitro experimental tests to analyze the stresses and strains in both the implant and the surrounding bone when using one-piece (NobelDirect) and two-piece (NobelReplace) small-diameter implants, with the aim of understanding the underlying biomechanical mechanisms. Six experimental artificial jawbone models and two FE models were prepared for one-piece and two-piece 3.5-mm diameter implants. Rosette strain gauges were used for in-vitro tests, with peak values of the principal bone strain recorded with a data acquisition system. Implant stability as quantified by Periotest values (PTV) were also recorded for both types of implants. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. In FE simulations, the peak value and distribution of von-Mises stresses in the implant and bone were selected for evaluation. In in-vitro tests, the peak bone strain was 42% lower for two-piece implants than for one-piece implants. The PTV was slightly lower for one-piece implants (PTV = -6) than for two-piece implants (PTV = -5). In FE simulations, the stresses in the bone and implant were about 23% higher and 12% lower, respectively, for one-piece implants than those for two-piece implants. Due to the higher peri-implant bone stresses and strains, one-piece implants (NobelDirect) might be not suitable for use as small-diameter implants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Feminist Erotica and Agency @ The Love Piece Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DALES, Laura

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Love Piece Club is a shop devoted to sex goods for women, located in Tokyo and online at www.lovepiececlub.com. As well as online shopping, the website offers regular columns, articles and photo-essays on subjects related to sexuality and women's lives. The site and shop are managed by Kitahara Minori, a writer, businesswoman and advocate for feminist erotica. This paper explores the Love Piece Club as a discursive site – its potential meanings and its significance as a feminist work in promoting 'active sexuality as a strategy' for enabling women (Wilkins 2004:332. Addressing the online and printed texts of the LPC, I examine the possibilities for feminist agency inherent in the creation of space(s for feminist erotica. Operating as a virtual site, the LPC can be interpreted as a cyberfeminist space, incorporating (and contributing to understandings of the ways that internet technology affects gender and identity (Chatterjee 2002:200. My aim here is also to tease out the concept of agency, insofar as it can be applied to the work of the LPC and advocates of feminist erotica like Kitahara.

  15. [To accelerate pace of studying standard pieces of Chinese medicine as standard material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying

    2014-07-01

    To elucidate the necessary and research of accelerating basic research of Chinese standard pieces as standard materials. According to over 10 years accumulated experience and be keenly aware of the author, the evaluation method of standardized processing technology and Chinese pieces quality, aimed at consummated the standard material of the quality evaluation of Chinese herbal pieces at the current situation, and inaccordance with the need of improving quality standard system of Chinese herbal pieces, illustrate the necessity of accelerating basic research of Chinese standard pieces as standard materials; from the technical specification for collecting and processing of raw materials, and the technical specification, homogenized sample, packaging, storage and etc., for processing of candidate standard pieces, determine the methods and steps of technical specifications for standard pieces as the standard substance, determine the methods and steps of technical specifications for standard pieces as the standard substance. To speed up the basic research of standard of Chinese medicine pieces as of standard material is very necessary. The research objective is to specificate the processing technical for a number of standard pieces, to identify technical specifications and to ascertain the guiding principle and technical specification of decoction pieces as standard substance. This research will provide basic scientific data relevant national departments to apply for the accreditation of the standard substance.

  16. Pathologic comparison of asymmetric or sulcus fixation of 3-piece intraocular lenses with square versus round anterior optic edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Andrew; Werner, Liliana; Strenk, Susan; Strenk, Lawrence; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Kirk, Kevin R; Michelson, Jennifer; Mamalis, Nick

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the pathologic findings of 3-piece intraocular lenses (IOLs) with asymmetric or sulcus fixation in pseudophakic cadaver eyes, comparing IOLs with square or round edges on the anterior optic surface. Comparative case series with pathology. A total of 661 pseudophakic cadaver eyes, obtained from eye banks within the United States, implanted with different IOLs. Anterior segment scanning of whole eyes with a high-frequency ultrasound system or high-resolution anterior segment magnetic resonance imaging followed by gross examination. Selected eyes were processed for complete histopathologic analysis. Findings from imaging, gross, and histopathologic evaluation that could be related to out-of-the-bag fixation of the lenses. Of 661 pseudophakic cadaver eyes obtained, 13 had 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with anterior and posterior square optic edges, and 14 had 3-piece lenses with anterior round edges (13 silicone lenses and 1 hydrophobic acrylic lens) without symmetric in-the-bag fixation. These 27 selected eyes were processed for complete histopathologic analysis. Gross findings in both groups were composed of IOL decentration and tilt, pigmentary dispersion within the anterior segment and on the IOL surface, and iris transillumination defects. Histopathology of the 14 eyes with 3-piece IOLs with round anterior optic edges showed mild focal disruption of the iris pigmented layer and loop protrusion/erosion in the ciliary sulcus. Additional changes observed in the 13 eyes with square anterior optic edge IOLs included iris changes, such as vacuolization, disruption and loss of the pigmented epithelial layers, iris thinning and atrophy, synechiae, and pigmentary dispersion within the trabecular meshwork. One eye also exhibited initial signs of optic nerve disc cupping. In this series, pathologic findings were more severe in eyes implanted with 3-piece IOLs with square anterior optic edges, suggesting that IOLs with round anterior edges are more suitable for

  17. The RNA silencing pathway: the bits and pieces that matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian A C Groenenboom

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellular pathways are generally proposed on the basis of available experimental knowledge. The proposed pathways, however, may be inadequate to describe the phenomena they are supposed to explain. For instance, by means of concise mathematical models we are able to reveal shortcomings in the current description of the pathway of RNA silencing. The silencing pathway operates by cleaving siRNAs from dsRNA. siRNAs can associate with RISC, leading to the degradation of the target mRNA. We propose and analyze a few small extensions to the pathway: a siRNA degrading RNase, primed amplification of aberrant RNA pieces, and cooperation between aberrant RNA to trigger amplification. These extensions allow for a consistent explanation for various types of silencing phenomena, such as virus induced silencing, transgene and transposon induced silencing, and avoidance of self-reactivity, as well as for differences found between species groups.

  18. Prototype endplate piece of the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber (TPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype piece of the ALEPH Time Projection Chamber (TPC), a large-volume tracking chamber. It is one of the endplates of a “Kind” sector, the smallest of the three types of sectors. The patterns etched into the copper form the cathode pads that measured particle track coordinates in the r-phi direction. The ALEPH TPC was the largest TPC at the time. It included a laser calibration system, a gating system to prevent space charge buildup, and a new radial pad geometry to improve resolution. the ALEPH TPC allowed for precise momentum measurements of the high-momentum particles from W and Z decays.The following institutes participated: CERN, Athens, Glasgow, Mainz, MPI Munich, INFN-Pisa, INFN-Trieste, Wisconsin.

  19. Nanoparticle PCR: A New Approach of DNA Amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique for quickly "cloning" a particular piece of DNA in the test tube (rather than in living cells like E.coli). Thanks to this procedure, one can make virtually unlimited copies of a single DNA molecule even though it is initially present in a mixture containing many different DNA molecules.

  20. Corrosion mineralogy of an 1800 Spanish piece of eight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.R. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Callahan, J.E. [Appalachain State Univ., Dept. of Geology, Boone, North Carolina (United States); Kimbell, J.T. [Tavernier, Florida (United States); Solberg, T.N. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Spanish colonial eight real silver coins, commonly called Pieces of Eight, were used throughout the Spanish-speaking world for hundreds of years. We undertook a detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical investigation of an 1800 Carlos IIII eight real coin recovered from the wreck of the Spanish frigate Santa Leocadia, which sank on the rocky shore of Ecuador on November 16, 1800, with a loss of more than 140 lives and of 2,100,000 pesos of gold and silver coins. The coin is a typical eight real piece, composed of about 90% Ag and 10% Cu. It was buried in elastic sediments beneath the oxidized zone, such that it reacted with sulfur released by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Consequently, the coin has been totally encapsulated in a mixture of sand, gravel, and shell fragments cemented by metal sulfides. The residual coin consists of silver with small interspersed micrometric grains of copper. Reaction of the dissolved metal with the bacterially generated diagenetic sulfur in the intergranular fluids resulted in extensive cementation of the sediment particles by Ag and Cu sulfides. In the 1-mm zone immediately adjacent to the coin, Cu-bearing acanthite occurs as concentric layers with intervening zones of sand and clay. Beyond this zone, acanthite formed from Ag dissolved from the coin occurs as a more or less continuous interstitial cement with local small islands of covellite, CuS. Copper also occurs as films of Cu carbonate on quartz grains, as isolated grains of jalpaite Ag{sub 3}CuS{sub 2}, stromeyerite AgCuS, mckinstryite (Ag,Cu){sub 2}S, and as atacamite Cu{sub 2}C1(OH){sub 3}, which rim and replace detrital carbonate grains. (author)

  1. Comparison of shape recovery ratios of single-piece poly(methyl methacrylate) intraocular lens haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, W; Kimura, T; Sawada, T; Kikuchi, T; Nagai, H; Yamada, Y

    1993-09-01

    We studied shape recovery ratios of several single- and three-piece intraocular lens (IOL) haptics after conducting compression tests for various lengths of time. Results of the comparison of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) IOL haptics configured of a single piece and of three pieces showed a superior shape recovery ratio for single-piece haptics. Comparisons of the shape recovery ratios among single-piece PMMA haptics and conventional three-piece haptics made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), PMMA, and polypropylene (PP) revealed that the shape recovery ratio of single-piece PMMA haptics was higher than the ratios of the conventional three-piece PMMA and PP haptics. The ratios of two of three of the single-piece PMMA haptics, however, were lower than the ratios of three-piece PVDF haptics. The form and manufacturing procedures of haptics likely have a significant impact on the shape recovery ratio of haptics, even those made of the same material. Since decentration after IOL surgery could be caused by the condition of the patient's lenticular capsule and Zinn's zonule, it is difficult to conclude that the shape recovery ratio is the only factor in IOL stability. Nevertheless, this study indicates that IOL haptics that cause less decentration and have better mechanical properties should be developed.

  2. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerino Paolantoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces; in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece. Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.

  3. DNA adducts-chemical addons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde. This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer. When scanning tunneling microscope is used, the DNA results can be obtained earlier. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as biomarkers.

  4. DNA adducts-chemical addons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, T. R.; AravindhaBabu, N.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde). This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer. When scanning tunneling microscope is used, the DNA results can be obtained earlier. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as biomarkers. PMID:26015708

  5. Haptic Breakage after Transscleral Fixation of a Single-Piece Acrylic Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tanaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the case of a patient with a damaged haptic of an acrylic intraocular lens (IOL after transscleral IOL fixation. Methods: This is a retrospective and descriptive case report. Results: A 40-year-old man presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. He had undergone phacoemulsification/aspiration and IOL implantation 3 years previously and IOL repositioning with transscleral fixation 2 years before the initial visit. His visual acuity was 0.3 in the left eye due to corneal edema caused by a foreign body, i.e., the severed haptic tip of the single-piece acrylic IOL, which was surgically removed. The IOL itself was tilted and therefore explanted. The surface of the tip of the haptic suggested that the monofilament suture thread had exerted continuous force across the haptic. Conclusions: The haptics of acrylic IOLs can be damaged after transscleral fixation.

  6. Bone response from a dynamic stimulus on a one-piece and multi-piece implant abutment and crown by finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimiragha, Habib; Abolbashari, Mohammadreza; Nokar, Saeed; Abolbashari, AmirHossein; Abolbashari, Mehrdad

    2014-10-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the effects of different types of abutments on the rate and distribution of stress on the bone surrounding the implant by dynamic finite element analysis method. In this study two ITI abutment models-one-piece and multi-piece-along with fixture, bone, and superstructure have been simulated with the help of company-made models. The maximum Von Mises stress (MVMS) was observed in the distobuccal area of the cortical bone near the crest of implant in two implant models. In the multi-piece abutment, MVMS was higher than the one-piece model (27.9 MPa and 23.3 MPa, respectively). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that type of abutment influences the stress distribution in the area surrounding the implant during dynamic loading.

  7. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, G. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Hovater, M. A.; Evans, S. W.; Miller, J. S.; Broughton, R. M., Jr.; Beale, D.; Kilinc-Balci, F.

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. This Technical Memorandum details the design and construction of a prototype for a one-piece regolith bag unpressurized garage concept and a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. The conceptualization was that a lightweight fabric form be launched from Earth and landed on the lunar surface to be robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. Regolith bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and also performed under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. A series of preliminary structures was constructed during final prototype design based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite. The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Future plans would be to construct higher fidelity prototypes and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  8. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metals from Large Printed Circuit Board Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, U.; Hocheng, H.

    2015-09-01

    The recovery of precious metals from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is an effective recycling process. This paper presents a promising hydrometallurgical process to recover precious metals from waste PCBs. To simplify the metal leaching process, large pieces of PCBs were used instead of a pulverized sample. The chemical coating present on the PCBs was removed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment prior to the hydrometallurgical treatment. Among the leaching reagents examined, hydrochloric acid (HCl) showed great potential for the recovery of metals. The HCl-mediated leaching of waste PCBs was investigated over a range of conditions. Increasing the acid concentration decreased the time required for complete metal recovery. The shaking speed showed a pronounced positive effect on metal recovery, but the temperature showed an insignificant effect. The results showed that 1 M HCl recovered all of the metals from 4 cm × 4 cm PCBs at room temperature and 150 rpm shaking speed in 22 h.

  9. Another Piece of the Elephant: Chromospheric Vector Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, K. D.; Metcalf, T. R.; Mickey, D. L.

    2005-05-01

    As with most solar observational questions, investigating the structure and role of the chromosphere is one of remote sensing: many investigations describing their "piece of the elephant". The goal is, of course, to form a coherent picture of the state of the magnetized plasma which resides there (or passes through). In this presentation, recent efforts to understand the chromospheric magnetic field structure via direct observation, i.e. chromospheric vector magnetograms, will be presented. Since late 2003, the U. Hawai`i/Mees Solar Observatory's Imaging Vector Magnetograph has routinely acquired spectropolarimetry measurements of active regions across the Na-I 589.6nm line; from the polarization at the line's near-wings approximately 0.007nm from line center we deduce the vector magnetic field. The data are specific to active regions, with the focus being the structure, free energy storage and evolution at that low-chromospheric layer. I will present salient aspects of the observed chromospheric magnetic field structure, to compare and contrast with the picture formed by the other methods in this session.

  10. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Metals from Large Printed Circuit Board Pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, U; Hocheng, H

    2015-09-29

    The recovery of precious metals from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is an effective recycling process. This paper presents a promising hydrometallurgical process to recover precious metals from waste PCBs. To simplify the metal leaching process, large pieces of PCBs were used instead of a pulverized sample. The chemical coating present on the PCBs was removed by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment prior to the hydrometallurgical treatment. Among the leaching reagents examined, hydrochloric acid (HCl) showed great potential for the recovery of metals. The HCl-mediated leaching of waste PCBs was investigated over a range of conditions. Increasing the acid concentration decreased the time required for complete metal recovery. The shaking speed showed a pronounced positive effect on metal recovery, but the temperature showed an insignificant effect. The results showed that 1 M HCl recovered all of the metals from 4 cm × 4 cm PCBs at room temperature and 150 rpm shaking speed in 22 h.

  11. Interaction of color glazes with Japanese ceramic pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Kazuhide; Kato, Takafumi

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of penetration activation energies of the traditional glazes, such as 'Te stu-Aka (Iron-Red)' and 'Wara-Jiro (Straw-White)', into the ceramic body were made on certain Japanese brand clay samples at the glaze-firing process. The observed values ranged from 35 kj/mol of 'Imari-Straw White' combination to 240 k/mol of 'Karatsu White-Iron Red' combination. Next, the manifestation of copper green color of an experimental glaze, mounted on the 'Imari White' test pieces, was examined after firing at 1300 degree C under various atmospheres. Air produced green, while N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmospheres made the same glaze rather colorless and a CO atmosphere produced a faintly pink color. On the basis of the 1976 CIE L*a*b* color three-dimensional system, it has been discovered that an addition of 2 wt % CuCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O to the 'Wara-Jiro' glaze produced an optimal greenness in air. Also, by comparing a series of pottery works glazed with 'Oribe' green glaze, it has been revealed that there are many types of greenness derived from the difference in Value (L*) as well as in Chroma (C*). A commercially available 'Kutani' sake cup possessed an almost pure green color. (author)

  12. Brief report: Examining children's disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Short- and Long-Term Musical Preferences: What Makes a Favourite Piece of Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra; Webb, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Within the growing field of music preferences, little is currently known about the concept of a favourite piece of music. The current study explores listeners' nominated favourite pieces of music over short and longer time-spans, combining diary and interview methods to uncover what a favourite means, how stable it is, and what factors influence…

  14. Performance-Based Design Optimization of a Transition Piece for Bucket Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with optimization of the shape of the transition piece connecting turbine column with a suction bucket used as a monopod foundation for an offshore wind turbine. The structural behaviour of a transition piece made of compact reinforced composite (CRC) is analysed. Several...

  15. Bacteriological evaluation for one-and two-piece implant design supporting mandibular overdenture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelwahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated and compared the bacteriological effect of two-piece implants and one-piece implants in complete overdenture cases on supporting structures. Materials and Methods: Ten male completely edentulous patients were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups according to the implant design and surgical technique for this study; Group 1: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by two-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch following two-stage surgical technique and Group 2: Patients were rehabilitated with complete mandibular overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side. Evaluation was made at the time of insertion, 6, 12, and 18 months after overdenture insertion, by measuring bacteriological changes around implants abutments. Results: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants showed better effect on the bacteriological changes as compared to that supported by two-piece implants. Conclusion: Complete overdenture supported by one-piece implants one on each side of the lower arch showed better effect on the bacteriological changes than using the same prosthesis supported by two-piece implants.

  16. A One-Piece Lunar Regolith-Bag Garage Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Gweneth A.; Nehls, Mary K.; Hovater, Mary A.; Evans, Steven W.; Miller, J. Scott; Broughton, Roy M.; Beale, David; Killing-Balci, Fatma

    2007-01-01

    Shelter structures on the moon, even in early phases of exploration, should incorporate lunar materials as much as possible. We designed and constructed a prototype for a one-piece regolith-bag unpressurized garage concept, and, in parallel, we conducted a materials testing program to investigate six candidate fabrics to learn how they might perform in the lunar environment. In our concept, a lightweight fabric form is launched from Earth to be landed on the lunar surface and robotically filled with raw lunar regolith. In the materials testing program, regolith-bag fabric candidates included: Vectran(TM), Nextel(TM), Gore PTFE Fabric(TM), Zylon(TM), Twaron(TM), and Nomex(TM). Tensile (including post radiation exposure), fold, abrasion, and hypervelocity impact testing were performed under ambient conditions, and, within our current means, we also performed these tests under cold and elevated temperatures. In some cases, lunar simulant (JSC-1) was used in conjunction with testing. Our ambition is to continuously refine our testing to reach lunar environmental conditions to the extent possible. A series of preliminary structures were constructed during design of the final prototype. Design is based on the principles of the classic masonry arch. The prototype was constructed of Kevlar(TM) and filled with vermiculite (fairly close to the weight of lunar regolith on the moon). The structure is free-standing, but has not yet been load tested. Our plan for the future would be to construct higher fidelity mockups with each iteration, and to conduct appropriate tests of the structure.

  17. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Heide, F Jackie June; Mooren, Trudy M; Kleber, Rolf J

    2016-01-01

    Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD). Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1) that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2) that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET) and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT), have consistently been found to be high. Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  18. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (p<0.05). Also, there were fewer unplanned changes (p<0.0005) seen with SenSura than with the reference appliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (p<0.0005), and they had greater resistance to erosion (p<0.05). In conclusion, SenSura performed better than the reference appliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  19. Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackie June ter Heide

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asylum seekers and refugees have been claimed to be at increased risk of developing complex posttraumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD. Consequently, it has been recommended that refugees be treated with present-centred or phased treatment rather than stand-alone trauma-focused treatment. This recommendation has contributed to a clinical practice of delaying or waiving trauma-focused treatment in refugees with PTSD. Objective: The aim of this debate piece is to defend two theses: (1 that complex trauma leads to complex PTSD in a minority of refugees only and (2 that trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees who seek treatment for PTSD. Methods: The first thesis is defended by comparing data on the prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees to those in other trauma-exposed populations, using studies derived from a systematic review. The second thesis is defended using conclusions of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the efficacy of psychotherapeutic treatment in refugees. Results: Research shows that refugees are more likely to meet a regular PTSD diagnosis or no diagnosis than a complex PTSD diagnosis and that prevalence of complex PTSD in refugees is relatively low compared to that in survivors of childhood trauma. Effect sizes for trauma-focused treatment in refugees, especially narrative exposure therapy (NET and culturally adapted cognitive-behaviour therapy (CA-CBT, have consistently been found to be high. Conclusions: Complex PTSD in refugees should not be assumed to be present on the basis of complex traumatic experiences but should be carefully diagnosed using a validated interview. In line with treatment guidelines for PTSD, a course of trauma-focused treatment should be offered to all refugees seeking treatment for PTSD, including asylum seekers.

  20. Occurrence of coring in insulin vials and possibility of rubber piece contamination by self-injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, T; Seino, H; Nozaki, S; Abe, R

    2001-06-01

    Coring is reported to occur because rubber pieces are shaved off from a rubber stopper when a needle is inserted into the rubber stopper of transfusion liquid formulation. We verified whether coring really occurs in insulin vials of self-injecting patients. We collected insulin cartridges from 30 hospitalized patients and used the primary injection (trial injection), the secondary injection and the cartridge remaining preparation as samples. We observed the rubber pieces using a microscope and measured the shape, number of pieces. The occurrence rate of coring was 73% for the primary injection, 47% for the secondary injection and 97% for the cartridge remaining preparation. The rubber pieces in the primary injection and the secondary injection which went through the needle are mostly in aggregate shape and the rubber pieces in the cartridge remaining preparation which did not go through the needle are mostly in needle-like shape. A number of small rubber pieces are found in both the primary injection and the secondary injection, indicating a high possibility that rubber pieces may be injected under subcutaneous tissue. The coring is considered to occur because needles are repeatedly inserted and rotated at the same spot. It is required to improve the structure to mount a needle to the pen-type injector in future. Coring is a very serious problem from the medical and pharmaceutical points of view. Further study should be made on the implication to latex allergy and lipodystrophy.

  1. Biological Width around One- and Two-Piece Implants Retrieved from Human Jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Judgar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several histologic studies regarding peri-implant soft tissues and biological width around dental implants have been done in animals. However, these findings in human peri-implant soft tissues are very scarce. Therefore, the aim of this case series was to compare the biological width around unloaded one- and two-piece implants retrieved from human jaws. Eight partially edentulous patients received 2 test implants in the posterior mandible: one-piece (solid implants that comprise implant and abutment in one piece and two-piece (external hexagon with a healing abutment implants. After 4 months of healing, the implants and surrounding tissue were removed for histologic analysis. The retrieved implants showed healthy peri-implant bone and exhibited early stages of maturation. Marginal bone loss, gaps, and fibrous tissue were not present around retrieved specimens. The biologic width dimension ranged between 2.55 ± 0.16 and 3.26 ± 0.15 to one- and two-piece implants, respectively (P0.05. Within the limits of this study, it could be shown that two-piece implants resulted in the thickening of the connective tissue attachment, resulting in the increase of the biological width, when compared to one-piece implants.

  2. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  3. Classification of delocalization power of global unitary operations in terms of LOCC one-piece relocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Soeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how two pieces of localized quantum information can be delocalized across a composite Hilbert space when a global unitary operation is applied. We classify the delocalization power of global unitary operations on quantum information by investigating the possibility of relocalizing one piece of the quantum information without using any global quantum resource. We show that one-piece relocalization is possible if and only if the global unitary operation is local unitary equivalent of a controlled-unitary operation. The delocalization power turns out to reveal different aspect of the non-local properties of global unitary operations characterized by their entangling power.

  4. Collide@CERN: exclusive open rehearsal of Gilles Jobin's last piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Collide@CERN and Gilles Jobin, artist in residency at CERN, present an exclusive open rehearsal of his last piece SPIDER GALAXIES Tuesday 31 July 2012 - A new piece created to open new territories of the mind - Join us in Restaurant 1 from 4 p.m. (next to the Glass Box Restaurant) With this piece, the body turns into matter, which is complete, spatial and sensual. Come and see Gilles Jobin and his dancers. With a score by Cristian Vogel and Carla Scaletti invoking sound particles, while Daniel Demont disperses the spectrum. Protean, infinitely large or infinitesimal, such are the Spider Galaxies.    

  5. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  6. John Cage's Number Pieces as Stochastic Processes: a Large-Scale Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Popoff, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The Number Pieces are a corpus of works by composer John Cage, which rely on a particular time-structure used for determining the temporal location of sounds, named the "time-bracket". The time-bracket system is an inherently stochastic process, which complicates the analysis of the Number Pieces as it leads to a large number of possibilities in terms of sonic content instead of one particular fixed performance. The purpose of this paper is to propose a statistical approach of the Number Pieces by assimilating them to stochastic processes. Two Number Pieces, "Four" and "Five", are studied here in terms of pitch-class set content: the stochastic processes at hand lead to a collection of random variables indexed over time giving the distribution of the possible pitch-class sets. This approach allows for a static and dynamic analysis of the score encompassing all the possible outcomes during the performance of these works.

  7. Product management of making large pieces through Rapid Prototyping PolyJet® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgiu, G.; Cărăuşu, C.; Şerban, D.; Turc, C. G.

    2017-08-01

    The rapid prototyping process has already become a classic manufacturing process for parts and assemblies, either polymeric or metal parts. Besides the well-known advantages and disadvantages of the process, the use of 3D printers has a great inconvenience: the overall dimensions of the parts are limited. Obviously, there is a possibility to purchase a larger (and more expensive) 3D printer, but there are always larger pieces to be manufactured. One solution to this problem is the splitting of parts into several components that can be manufactured. The component parts can then be assembled in a single piece by known methods such as welding, gluing, screwing, etc. This paper shows our experience in making large pieces on the Strarasys® Objet24 printer, pieces larger than the tray sizes. The results obtained are valid for any 3D printer using the PolyJet® process.

  8. [Optimization of processing technology for pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bo; Ma, Xiao-Li; Hao, Li-Jing; Zhao, Qing; Cao, Song-Yun

    2012-06-01

    To optimize the best gradient drying technology of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam, and provide technique parameter for processing of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam. Determined the content of polysaccharide by UV and the content of allantoin by HPLC. The optimum gradient drying technology of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam was investigated by orthogonal experiment and single factor experiment and the contents of polysaccharide and allantoin were regarded as the investigated indexes. The optimum processing technology of first gradient drying stage was A2B2, that was drying for 60 min at 115 degrees C; The optimum drying temperature of second drying stage was 65 degrees C. The optimum technology is stable and feasible for the processing of pieces of sulfur-free Chinese yam.

  9. [Development of Fuzi precision decoction pieces (PDP) (I): Specification and quality uniformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yong-feng; Tan, Peng; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-09-01

    The specification of decoction pieces and quality uniformity are the important factors to influence the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the deficiency of diversity, poor quality uniformity and confusion of decoction pieces specifications, we first propose a new idea of precision decoction pieces (PDP) based on clinical demands and fresh-processed technology. In order to explain the idea, a study case of aconite SUP is provided, including the optimized specification design, processing technology, extraction effects, quality uniformity, and toxic and efficacy variation and so on. The results showed that preparing 5 mm PDP by fresh-cutting is rather simple and practicable, with high efficiency and large yield; then, this technology could significantly decrease the ingredients loss and increase the efficacy components; moreover, it was helpful for achieving the quality uniformity and best extraction effects. This work revealed the quality superiority of PDP, and provided a good strategy and example for the standard of decoction pieces specification and modernization of processing technology.

  10. Piece rates and their effects on health and safety - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Rask, Kjell; Stenberg, Magnus

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out a broad survey and analysis of relevant research articles about piece rate wages and their effects on health and safety that were published internationally until the fall of 2008. The aim was to summarize and describe the state of the art of the research in this field and if possible draw conclusions from the accumulated research results. A total of 75 research articles were examined extensively and 31 of these were found relevant and had sufficient quality to serve the purpose of this study. The findings of these relevant articles are summarized and analyzed in the survey. Since the late 1980s, there has been a change of research focus regarding piece rates and their effects on health and safety. More recent research shows a clear interest for health, musculoskeletal injuries, physical workload, pains and occupational injuries. The previous interest in risk behavior, security and accidents is still there, but no longer dominates the research scene. Although research is still sparse and fragmented, much of the accumulated knowledge about the effects of piece rate work tells us that piece rates in many situations have a negative effect on health and safety. The fact that 27 of the 31 studied articles found negative effects of piece rates on different aspects of health and safety does not prove causality, but together they give very strong support for the hypothesis that in most situations piece rates have negative effects on health and safety. In order to achieve better knowledge about the effects of piece rates in branches where piece rates are regarded problematic, further research is needed and such research has to be designed to meet the specific questions that are to be answered. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nzikitanza – A piece on the resistance against the MUOS in Niscemi , Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Messina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nzikitanza for accordion, violin, cello and tape was written in 2012 as a reflection on the deployment of Sicilian territory for NATO and US military operations. In particular, the piece was inspired by the then newly formed resistance committee against the MUOS in Niscemi. This brief commentary will illustrate a priori and a posteriori reflections on the status of the piece as a contribution to forms of antagonistic culture.

  12. A new method for the accuracy evaluation of a manufactured piece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniga, E. V.; Cardei, M.

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a manufactured piece, it must be measured and compared with a reference model, namely the designed 3D model, based on geometrical elements. In this paper a new method for the precision evaluation of a manufactured piece is proposed, which implies the creation of the piece digital 3D model based on digital images and its transformation into a 3D mesh surface. The differences between the two models, the designed model and the new created one, are calculated using the Hausdorff distance. The aim of this research is to determine the differences between two 3D models, especially CAD models, with high precision, in a completely automated way. To obtain the results, a small piece has been photographed with a digital camera, that was calibrated using a 3D calibration object, a target consisting of a number of 42 points, 36 placed in the corners of 9 wood cubes with different heights and 6 of them placed at the middle of the distance between the cubes, on a board. This target was previously tested, the tests showing that using this calibration target instead of a 2D calibration grid, the precision of the final 3D model is improved with approximatly 50%. The 3D model of the manufactured piece was created using two methods. First, based on digital images, a point cloud was automatically generated and after the filtering process, the remaining points were interpolated, obtaining the piece 3D model as a mesh surface. Second, the piece 3D model was created using also the digital images, based on its characteristic points, resulting a CAD model, that was transformed into a mesh surface. Finally, the two 3D models were compared with the designed model, using the CloudCompare software, thus resulting the imperfections of the manufactured piece. The proposed method highlights the differences between the two models using a color palette, offering at the same time a global comparison.

  13. Expectations Evoked on Hearing a Piece of Music for the First Time: Evidence from a Musical Savant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Grundy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate a hitherto unresearched feature of the “zygonic” model of implication and expectation in music: in particular, the projections that stem from recently appearing groups of notes (Ockelford, 2006. Using an innovative approach, data were gathered from a prodigious musical savant (Derek Paravicini, who attempted to reproduce a novel composition on the piano at the same time as hearing it. The piece was designed to minimise the impact of expectations that may arise from patterns within groups of notes and those that may be perceived as a consequence of tonality, whereby different pitch transitions are felt to occur with different probabilities according to their level of past exposure. The design of the study was informed by zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2009, 2012b, which holds that expectation in music is attributable to the capacity of structural regularities to suggest future continuations, whose perceived likelihood of occurrence, it is believed, is proportional to the number of ways in which their existence is implied in what has gone before. Using this principle, a “strength of implication” factor was calculated for each note of the stimulus piece (following the first. It was hypothesised that the higher the implication factor, the more likely Derek would predict its occurrence (and therefore play it correctly at the appropriate point in time. Data gathered from Derek’s performance support the underlying principles of the zygonic model, although they also suggest certain refinements.

  14. Destabilization of the MutSα’s protein-protein interface due to binding to the DNA adduct induced by anticancer agent Carboplatin via molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negureanu, Lacramioara; Salsbury, Freddie R

    2013-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins maintain genetic integrity in all organisms by recognizing and repairing DNA errors. Such alteration of hereditary information can lead to various diseases, including cancer. Besides their role in DNA repair, MMR proteins detect and initiate cellular responses to certain type of DNA damage. Its response to the damaged DNA has made the human MMR pathway a useful target for anticancer agents such as carboplatin. This study indicates that strong, specific interactions at the interface of MutSα in response to the mismatched DNA recognition are replaced by weak, non-specific interactions in response to the damaged DNA recognition. Data suggest a severe impairment of the dimerization of MutSα in response to the damaged DNA recognition. While the core of MutSα is preserved in response to the damaged DNA recognition, the loss of contact surface and the rearrangement of contacts at the protein interface suggest a different packing in response to the damaged DNA recognition. Coupled in response to the mismatched DNA recognition, interaction energies, hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and solvent accessible surface areas at the interface of MutSα and within the subunits are uncoupled or asynchronously coupled in response to the damaged DNA recognition. These pieces of evidence suggest that the loss of a synchronous mode of response in the MutSα’s surveillance for DNA errors would possible be one of the mechanism(s) of signaling the MMR-dependent programed cell death much wanted in anticancer therapies. The analysis was drawn from dynamics simulations. PMID:24061854

  15. Learning and Memory Processes Following Cochlear Implantation:The Missing Piece of the Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Pisoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, there is no question that cochlear implants work and often work very well in quiet listening conditions for many profoundly deaf children and adults. The speech and language outcomes data published over the last two decades document quite extensively the clinically significant benefits of cochlear implants. Although there now is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of cochlear implants as a medical intervention for profound hearing loss in both children and adults, there still remain a number of challenging unresolved clinical and theoretical issues that deal with the effectiveness of cochlear implants in individual patients that have not yet been successfully resolved. In this paper, we review recent findings on learning and memory, two central topics in the field of cognition that have been seriously neglected in research on cochlear implants. Our research findings on sequence learning, memory and organization processes, and retrieval strategies used in verbal learning and memory of categorized word lists suggests that basic domain-general learning abilities may be the missing piece of the puzzle in terms of understanding the cognitive factors that underlie the enormous individual differences and variability routinely observed in speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation.

  16. Early auditory processing in musicians and dancers during a contemporary dance piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, Hanna; Toiviainen, Petri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2016-09-09

    The neural responses to simple tones and short sound sequences have been studied extensively. However, in reality the sounds surrounding us are spectrally and temporally complex, dynamic and overlapping. Thus, research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation which, in addition to sensory responses, elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Here we show that the preattentive P50 response evoked by rapid increases in timbral brightness during continuous music is enhanced in dancers when compared to musicians and laymen. In dance, fast changes in brightness are often emphasized with a significant change in movement. In addition, the auditory N100 and P200 responses are suppressed and sped up in dancers, musicians and laymen when music is accompanied with a dance choreography. These results were obtained with a novel event-related potential (ERP) method for natural music. They suggest that we can begin studying the brain with long pieces of natural music using the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG) as has already been done with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), these two brain imaging methods complementing each other.

  17. Early auditory processing in musicians and dancers during a contemporary dance piece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, Hanna; Toiviainen, Petri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The neural responses to simple tones and short sound sequences have been studied extensively. However, in reality the sounds surrounding us are spectrally and temporally complex, dynamic and overlapping. Thus, research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation which, in addition to sensory responses, elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Here we show that the preattentive P50 response evoked by rapid increases in timbral brightness during continuous music is enhanced in dancers when compared to musicians and laymen. In dance, fast changes in brightness are often emphasized with a significant change in movement. In addition, the auditory N100 and P200 responses are suppressed and sped up in dancers, musicians and laymen when music is accompanied with a dance choreography. These results were obtained with a novel event-related potential (ERP) method for natural music. They suggest that we can begin studying the brain with long pieces of natural music using the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG) as has already been done with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), these two brain imaging methods complementing each other. PMID:27611929

  18. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of the mtDNA COI gene suggests cryptic Dryocosmus kuriphilus associated with certain populations of Chinese chestnuts (Castanea spp.)%基于mtDNA COI基因的系统分析表明栗属植物上隐藏瘿蜂种的存在

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鹏飞; 朱道弘; 杨筱慧; LIUZhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    本研究利用mtDNA CO I基因的部分序列对11种群不同寄主的栗瘿蜂Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu 遗传多态性进行了分析.在获得的660 bp的序列中,变异位点(v)80个,包括简约信息位点(Pi) 15个和自裔位点(Si) 65个.T、A、C、G平均含量分别为30.6%、43.3%、13.7%和12.4%,A+T平均值为73.9%,远高于G+C的26.1%,表现出明显的A+T偏向性.为害锥栗的六步溪、大围山种群与茅栗、板栗的不同地理种群,以及为害欧洲栗的意大利Piedmont种群之间,基因序列完全一致或者遗传距离在0.3%以内,无论是NJ系统树还是UPGMA系统树均聚合在同一分支内,亲缘关系较近.而为害锥栗的采自福建省建瓯市水源镇的水源种群、福建省周宁县纯池镇的纯池种群,与其它各栗瘿蜂种群的基因序列差异较大,遗传距离均大于2%,在NJ和UPGMA系统树中水源种群和纯池种群均聚合为一单独的分支,与其它种群形成的分支互为姊妹分支.据此我们认为水源种群和纯池种群很有可能属于不同的物种,有进一步研究的必要.%The phylogenetic relationships between 11 populations of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu attacking different Castanea species from different areas was analyzed based on partial CO I gene sequences. The results revealed a total of 80 variable sites in the resultant 660 bp DNA fragment, including 15 parsimony - informative sites and 65 singletons. The average content of T, A, C and G was 30.6%, 43.3%, 13.7% and 12.4 % , respectively. The average content of A + T (73. 9 % ) was much higher than that of G + C (26. 1 % ) , displaying a distinct A + T bias. Overall, the sequenced CO I gene region showed very limited variation among 8 populations on C. mollissima, C. seguinii or C. henryi hosts from China, and one population on C. sativa hosts from Italy, with between population genetic distances of less than 0. 3 %. Phylogenetic reconstruction using Neighbor - joining and

  20. DNA ligase I, the replicative DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Timothy R L; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2012-01-01

    Multiple DNA ligation events are required to join the Okazaki fragments generated during lagging strand DNA synthesis. In eukaryotes, this is primarily carried out by members of the DNA ligase I family. The C-terminal catalytic region of these enzymes is composed of three domains: a DNA binding domain, an adenylation domain and an OB-fold domain. In the absence of DNA, these domains adopt an extended structure but transition into a compact ring structure when they engage a DNA nick, with each of the domains contacting the DNA. The non-catalytic N-terminal region of eukaryotic DNA ligase I is responsible for the specific participation of these enzymes in DNA replication. This proline-rich unstructured region contains the nuclear localization signal and a PCNA interaction motif that is critical for localization to replication foci and efficient joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I initially engages the PCNA trimer via this interaction motif which is located at the extreme N-terminus of this flexible region. It is likely that this facilitates an additional interaction between the DNA binding domain and the PCNA ring. The similar size and shape of the rings formed by the PCNA trimer and the DNA ligase I catalytic region when it engages a DNA nick suggest that these proteins interact to form a double-ring structure during the joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I also interacts with replication factor C, the factor that loads the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA. This interaction, which is regulated by phosphorylation of the non-catalytic N-terminus of DNA ligase I, also appears to be critical for DNA replication.

  1. Polishing surgical metal pieces, granulomatosis and mineralogical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinon, Mickaël; Chemarin, C; Roux, E; Cavalin, C; Rosental, P-A; Thivolet-Bejui, F; Vincent, M

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the case of a 44-year-old man with pulmonary nodules whose histological analysis initially suggested tuberculosis. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) culture was negative and a questionnaire revealed a professional activity of brushing and polishing surgical instruments without any protection for 7 years.  A mineralogical analysis by optical and electron microscopy was performed on both a healthy lung tissue biopsy and a lung nodule in a paraffin block. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of metal particles (iron oxide, titanium oxide, aluminum oxide and steel) in both samples. This study suggests that mineralogical analysis combined with a questionnaire on dust exposure could help redirect the diagnosis of a dust-related disease.

  2. DNA fragmentation in apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage of chromosomal DNA into oligonucleosomal size fragments is an integral part of apoptosis. Elegant biochemical work identified the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) as a major apoptotic endonuclease for DNA fragmentation in vitro. Genetic studies in mice support the importance of DFF in DNA fragmentation and possibly in apoptosis in vivo. Recent work also suggests the existence of additional endonucleases for DNA degradation. Understanding the roles of individual endonucleases in apoptosis, and how they might coordinate to degrade DNA in different tissues during normal development and homeostasis, as well as in various diseased states, will be a major research focus in the near future.

  3. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  4. [Uniformity of Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces dispensing based on effective constituent equivalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qin; Wang, Jia-bo; Zhang, Ding-kun; Feng, Wu-wen; Zhang, Cong-en; Niu, Ming; Dong, Xiao-ping; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) dispensing is the final step of TCM used for clinical treatment, the stability of TCM dispensing is the guarantee of good clinical effect. Establishment of effect-constituent equivalence for Chinese herbal pieces based on clinical efficacy, can not only guarantee the stability of TCM dispensing, but also relate to the precision of clinical effect. This study chose Coptidis Rhizoma as the model, established effect-constituent equivalence of Coptidis Rhizoma, based on the effect-constituent index already established by our research group, and taking into consideration of homogeneity of clinical dosage and compliance of decoction, the uniformity of dispensing for different specification of Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces was studied. This research model was then applied to guide the specification-optimization of Coptidis Rhizoma and its clinical dispensing. The result indicated, effective constituent equivalence could reflect the fluctuation of specification, dosage and decoction to the fluctuation of efficacy; Optimized Coptidis Rhizoma decoction pieces had the characteristic of high homogeneity as for clinical dispensing, good compliance as for decoction, and high effective constituent equivalence. In conclusion, effective constituent equivalence could improve relevance of methods of TCM dispensing control to clinical effect. Preparated Superior-standard Decoction Pieces based on effective constituent equivalence was featured by good quality and a good practice of adjustable dosage, which could promote the development of TCM decoction pieces toward precision medicine.

  5. Manufacturing and thermomechanical testing of actively cooled all beryllium high heat flux test pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, N.N.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shatalov, G.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    One of the problems affiliated to ITER high heat flux elements development is a problem of interface of beryllium protection with heat sink routinely made of copper alloys. To get rid of this problem all beryllium elements could be used as heat receivers in places of enhanced thermal loads. In accordance with this objectives four beryllium test pieces of two types have been manufactured in {open_quotes}Institute of Beryllium{close_quotes} for succeeding thermomechanical testing. Two of them were manufactured in accordance with JET team design; they are round {open_quotes}hypervapotron type{close_quotes} test pieces. Another two ones are rectangular test sections with a twisted tape installed inside of the circular channel. Preliminary stress-strain analysis have been performed for both type of the test pieces. Hypervapotrons have been shipped to JET where they were tested on JET test bed. Thermomechanical testing of pieces of the type of {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} have been performed on Kurchatov Institute test bed. Chosen beryllium grade properties, some details of manufacturing, results of preliminary stress-strain analysis and thermomechanical testing of the test pieces {open_quotes}swirl tape inside of tube{close_quotes} type are given in this report.

  6. A MULTISET APPROACH FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN CHARACTERS USING PUZZLE PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlin Deepa R.N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Image pattern matching is one of the most widely used techniques in character recognition. A pattern is the description of an object. Although a large number of papers have been reported on handwritten character recognition, it is still a very challenging problem. Recognition of characters is based on pattern classification. In this paper a hybrid approach is proposed using fuzzy technique and multiset comparison to recognize handwritten characters. Fuzzy technique is used to measure the variations in the features of handwritten numerals to form strings of character. Features are selected from the preprocessed image and the feature is labeled using fuzzy logic. Strings of a character are formed from these labeled primitives. Each string is divided into a multiset of puzzle pieces by repeatedly applying a mask which is comprised of all ones. The string is padded with anchors at the beginning and end. The mask is placed over the string, beginning at a certain character, and reading off all characters corresponding to 1 bit in the mask, thus producing one puzzle piece. To divide a string into multiset of puzzle pieces, the mask is applied at all shifts in the string starting at each character. Thus for each prototype character, we associate a multiset of puzzle pieces, which form the database. The multiset of puzzle pieces of an unknown character is constructed and compared with the same in the database, leading to the identification of the unknown character.

  7. Medical cannabis: Another piece in the mosaic of autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D; Katz, I; Porat-Katz, B S; Shoenfeld, Y

    2017-02-01

    Legalization of cannabis' medicinal use is rapidly increasing worldwide, raising the need to evaluate medical implications of cannabis. Currently, evidence supports cannabis and its active ingredients as immune-modulating agents, affecting T-cells, B-cells, monocytes, and microglia cells, causing an overall reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. Due to the supporting evidence of cannabinoids as an immune-modulating agent, research focusing on cannabinoids and autoimmunity has emerged. Several clinical trials in multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and fibromyalgia suggest cannabis' effectiveness as an immune-modulator. However, contradicting results and lack of large-scale clinical trials obscure these results. Although lacking clinical research, in vitro and in vivo experiments in rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes type 1, and systemic sclerosis demonstrate a correlation between disease activity and cannabinoids.

  8. A Tiny Piece of Basalt Probably from Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yangting; WANG Daode; WANG Guiqing

    2004-01-01

    Grove Mountains (GRV) 99018 is a new eucrite (0.23 g), consisting mainly of pyroxene (50.5 vol%) and plagioclase (37.2 vol%) with minor silica minerals (7.0 vol%) and opaque minerals (5.2 vol%). It was intensely shocked,leading to partial melting, formation of abundant tiny inclusions in pyroxenes and plagioclase, and heavy brecciation.Exsolution of most pyroxenes (1-3 μm in width of the lamellae), recrystallization of the shock-induced melt pockets and veins (5-20 μm in size), and homogeneous compositions of pyroxenes of various occurrences suggest the intense thermal metamorphism of GRV 99018 in the asteroidal body Vesta. This new eucrite will bring additional constraints on the chemical composition and multi-stage thermal and shock history of Vesta.

  9. Structural Optimization of an Offshore Wind Turbines Transition Pieces for Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    as an alternative to steel. CRC has an excellent durability and higher compressive strength compared to traditional concrete. This material has also an increased ductility owing to integration of large contents of short, strong and stiff steel fibres. At present, application of high-tension concrete is limited......Traditionally, offshore constructions are made of steel. The focus of this paper is optimization of a transition piece (TP) connecting the offshore wind turbine column with a suction bucket foundation. Suction caissons, typically used for shallow water depths, have been proved to be adequate...... offshore, mainly, to making a grouting connection of a transition piece to a monopile. Lack of standards and norms puts additional restriction on application of CRC. In the earlier work, the structural performance of transition pieces with a conical shape was compared for a 5 MW offshore wind turbine...

  10. Multi-Dimensional Piece-Wise Self-Affine Fractal Interpolation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tong; ZHUANG Zhuo

    2007-01-01

    Iterated function system (IFS) models have been used to represent discrete sequences where the attractor of the IFS is piece-wise self-affine in R2 or R3 (R is the set of real numbers). In this paper, the piece-wise self-affine IFS model is extended from R3 to Rn (n is an integer greater than 3), which is called the multi-dimensional piece-wise self-affine fractal interpolation model. This model uses a "mapping partial derivative", and a constrained inverse algorithm to identify the model parameters. The model values depend continuously on all the model parameters, and represent most data which are not multi-dimensional self-affine in Rn. Therefore, the result is very general. The class of functions obtained is much more diverse because their values depend continuously on all of the variables, with all the coefficients of the possible multi-dimensional affine maps determining the functions.

  11. Building complex brains--missing pieces in an evolutionary puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaro, Hanna; Fainzilber, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying evolution of complex nervous systems are not well understood. In recent years there have been a number of attempts to correlate specific gene families or evolutionary processes with increased brain complexity in the vertebrate lineage. Candidates for evocation of complexity include genes involved in regulating brain size, such as neurotrophic factors or microcephaly-related genes; or wider evolutionary processes, such as accelerated evolution of brain-expressed genes or enhanced RNA splicing or editing events in primates. An inherent weakness of these studies is that they are correlative by nature, and almost exclusively focused on the mammalian and specifically the primate lineage. Another problem with genomic analyses is that it is difficult to identify functionally similar yet non-homologous molecules such as different families of cysteine-rich neurotrophic factors in different phyla. As long as comprehensive experimental studies of these questions are not feasible, additional perspectives for evolutionary and genomic studies will be very helpful. Cephalopod mollusks represent the most complex nervous systems outside the vertebrate lineage, thus we suggest that genome sequencing of different mollusk models will provide useful insights into the evolution of complex brains.

  12. ADDing a piece to the puzzle of cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, Marta; Pigoni, Alessandro; Zagato, Laura; Merlino, Lino; Casamassima, Nunzia; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pirovano, Adele; Smeraldi, Enrico; Manunta, Paolo; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The biological bases of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia are poorly understood and may lie in insults in neurodevelopment, leading to alterations in critical structures. Synapses proteins are claimed to have etiopathogenic roles and more direct effects on core cognitive functions. Adducins family proteins seem of great interest, as they are fundamental constituents of synapses, involved in actin cytoskeleton assembly-disassembly, responsible of synaptic plasticity. ADD2 is more prominently expressed in brain tissues and influences memory and learning, commonly impaired in schizophrenia. In the present study we tested 342 patients with schizophrenia for three common adducins genetic variants, ADD1 rs4961, ADD2 rs4984 and ADD3 rs3731566, reported to have significant effects on circulatory system in humans. Neuropsychological measures were evaluated with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), a broad battery evaluating core cognitive domains. The analysis showed significant effects of ADD2 genotype on almost every cognitive domain. Moreover, significant interactions between ADD1 and ADD3 were also observed on some BACS subtests, namely Symbol Coding and Verbal Memory. Our findings suggest that adducins are involved in cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. This effect may result both from a direct mechanism affecting synaptic building and plasticity and indirectly as a consequence of vascular insults.

  13. Bimanual coordination: A missing piece of arm rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Shailesh; Jax, Steven; Wittenberg, George

    2017-01-01

    Inability to use the arm in daily actions significantly lowers quality of life after stroke. Most contemporary post-stroke arm rehabilitation strategies that aspire to re-engage the weaker arm in functional activities have been greatly limited in their effectiveness. Most actions of daily life engage the two arms in a highly coordinated manner. In contrast, most rehabilitation approaches predominantly focus on restitution of the impairments and unilateral practice of the weaker hand alone. We present a perspective that this misalignment between real world requirements and intervention strategies may limit the transfer of unimanual capability to spontaneous arm use and functional recovery. We propose that if improving spontaneous engagement and use of the weaker arm in real life is the goal, arm rehabilitation research and treatment need to address the coordinated interaction between arms in targeted theory-guided interventions. Current narrow focus on unimanual deficits alone, difficulty in quantifying bimanual coordination in real-world actions and limited theory-guided focus on control and remediation of different coordination modes are some of the biggest obstacles to successful implementation of effective interventions to improve bimanual coordination in the real world. We present a theory-guided taxonomy of bimanual actions that will facilitate quantification of coordination for different real-world tasks and provide treatment targets for addressing coordination deficits. We then present evidence in the literature that points to bimanual coordination deficits in stroke survivors and demonstrate how current rehabilitation approaches are limited in their impact on bimanual coordination. Importantly, we suggest theory-based areas of future investigation that may assist quantification, identification of neural mechanisms and scientifically-based training/remediation approaches for bimanual coordination deficits post-stroke. Advancing the science and practice of

  14. Piecing together the past: statistical insights into paleoclimatic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Martin P.; Craigmile, Peter F.; Haran, Murali; Li, Bo; Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2012-03-01

    Reconstructing a climate process in both space and time from incomplete instrumental and climate proxy time series is a problem with clear societal relevance that poses both scientific and statistical challenges. These challenges, along with the interdisciplinary nature of the reconstruction problem, point to the need for greater cooperation between the earth science and statistics communities - a sentiment echoed in recent parliamentary reports. As a step in this direction, it is prudent to formalize what is meant by the paleoclimate reconstruction problem using the language and tools of modern statistics. This article considers the challenge of inferring, with uncertainties, a climate process through space and time from overlapping instrumental and climate sensitive proxy time series that are assumed to be well dated - an assumption that is likely only reasonable for certain proxies over at most the last few millennia. Within a unifying, hierarchical space-time modeling framework for this problem, the modeling assumptions made by a number of published methods can be understood as special cases, and the distinction between modeling assumptions and analysis or inference choices becomes more transparent. The key aims of this article are to 1) establish a unifying modeling and notational framework for the paleoclimate reconstruction problem that is transparent to both the climate science and statistics communities; 2) describe how currently favored methods fit within this framework; 3) outline and distinguish between scientific and statistical challenges; 4) indicate how recent advances in the statistical modeling of large space-time data sets, as well as advances in statistical computation, can be brought to bear upon the problem; 5) offer, in broad strokes, some suggestions for model construction and how to perform the required statistical inference; and 6) identify issues that are important to both the climate science and applied statistics communities, and

  15. Impact of additives on corrosion rate of cans filled with pieces of apricot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković D.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Polarization techniques are used for testing the impact of different compounds (additives on tinplate corrosion, using pieces of apricot dipped in syrup with and without nitrate addition as electrolyte solution, at the same time using filled cans as electrolytic cell and operating electrode. This procedure determined the intensity of inhibiting tin dissolving with some of the used additives like sodium-benzoate, potassium-sorbate sodium-lauril-sulphate and p-aminobenzoate acid. Adding these additives to canned pieces of apricot in syrup led to inhibiting of tin dissolving, which was experimentally proved.

  16. Sutureless, Glueless, Scleral Fixation of Single-Piece and Toric Intraocular Lens: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Aditya; Shah, Rachana; Kelkar, Jai; Kelkar, Shreekant; Arora, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Sutureless, glueless, scleral fixation of an intraocular lens is a known technique of fixing a lens in the scleral pockets. However, this technique is applied to single-piece and toric lenses instead of 3-piece lenses, allowing the advantage of the use of premium lenses in patients with poor capsular support. Favourable results without complications of pigment dispersion, iris transillumination defects, dysphotopsia, elevated intraocular pressure, intraocular hemorrhage and cystoid macular edema with a well-centered, stable intraocular lens have been observed in the 3-month postoperative period in both cases.

  17. Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals defined without using heaps of pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Feretić, Svjetlan

    2011-01-01

    Stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals are two lattice models defined by Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer in 2002. The original definitions of those models involve heaps of pieces, i.e., some geometric representation of partially commutative monoids. The object of this writing is to define stacked directed animals and multi-directed animals in such a way that heaps of pieces are not involved. Our alternative definitions are equivalent to Bousquet-M\\'{e}lou and Rechnitzer's origi...

  18. The features of the optical pumping active fibers with three-piece inner clad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Alexander V.; Slobozhanina, Mariya G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents simple model of distribution of the pump radiation in active three-piece inner clad fibers (GTWave3) and analytical solutions of the relevant differential equations. Based on these solutions has been produced the analysis of the dependence distribution of the pump radiation and value of the effective length GTWave3 from key parameters of this type of a fiber (the active-region absorption coefficient and the coupling coefficients). Also in work presents comparison of the pump distribution into the GTWave3 and GTWave2 (two-piece inner clad) fibers.

  19. Enumeration of pyramids of one-dimensional pieces of arbitrary fixed integer length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Eilers, Søren

    We consider pyramids made of one-dimensional pieces of fixed integer length a and which may have pairwise overlaps of integer length from 1 to a. We prove that the number of pyramids of size m, i.e. consisting of m pieces, equals (am-1,m-1) for each a >= 2. This generalises a well known result...... for a = 2. A bijective correspondence between so-called right (or left) pyramids and a-ary trees is pointed out, and it is shown that asymptotically the average width of pyramids is proportional to the square root of the size....

  20. 33. 6 T dc magnetic field produced in a hybrid magnet with Ho pole pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, L.G.; Brandt, B.L.; Weggel, R.J.; Foner, S.; McNiff E.J. Jr.

    1986-07-07

    A dc magnetic field of 33.6 +- 0.3 T was produced in a hybrid magnet whose central field was enhanced by a 3.5 T contribution from holmium pole pieces. The working (sample) volume was a 2-mm gap between the 19-mm-diam x 32-mm-long pole pieces tapered to 12-mm-diam faces. The magnetic field was measured with high-field/low-temperature Hall-effect sensors whose reproducibility and linearity made practical an extrapolation technique for fields above 30 T. Three superconducting samples with previously measured upper critical fields were used as calibration check points.

  1. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E

    2016-01-01

    ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative...... changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase – and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases – followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible...

  2. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  3. [DNA sequencing technology and automatization of it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraev, A S

    1991-01-01

    Precise manipulations with genetic material, typical for modern experiments in molecular biology and in new biotechnology, require a capability to determine DNA base sequence. This capability enables today to exploit specific genetic knowledge for the dissection of complex cell processes and for modulation of cell metabolism in transgenic organisms. The review focuses on such DNA sequencing technologies that are widespread in general laboratory practice. They can safely be called, with the availability of commercial reagents, industrial techniques. Modern DNA sequencing requires recurrent breakdown of large genomic DNA into smaller pieces, that are then amplified, sequenced and the initial long stretch reconstructed via overlap of small pieces. The DNA sequencing process has several steps: a DNA fragment is obtained in sufficient quantity and purity, it is converted to a form suitable for a particular sequencing method, a sequencing reaction is performed and its products fractionated; and finally the resultant data are interpreted (i.e. an autoradiograph is read into a computer memory) and a long sequence in reconstructed via overlap of short stretches. These steps are considered in separate parts; an accent is made on sequencing strategies with respect to their biological task. In the last part, possibilities for automation of sequencing experiment are considered, followed by a discussion of domestic problems in DNA sequencing.

  4. Fascia compared to one-piece composite cartilage-perichondrium grafting for tympanoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, Sarah A.; Su, Tanly; Vissers, Linda E T; Peters, Jeroen P M; Smit, Adriana L; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of type 1 tympanoplasty with one-piece composite cartilage-perichondrium (CCP) grafts compared to temporalis fascia (TF) grafts for tympanic membrane (TM) closure and hearing improvement in adult patients with a subtotal TM perforation and chronic otitis medi

  5. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of pieces of complex geometry with a flexible phased array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon; Cattiaux; Serre; Roy

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components of complex geometry in the nuclear industry faces several difficulties: sensitivity variations due to unmatched contact, inaccurate localization of defects due to variations of transducer orientation, and uncovered area of the component. To improve the performances of such testing and defect characterization, we propose a new concept of ultrasonic contact phased array transducer. The phased array transducer has a flexible radiating surface able to fit the actual surface of the piece to optimize the contact and thus the sensitivity of the test. To control the transmitted field, and therefore to improve the defect characterization, a delay law optimizing algorithm is developed. To assess the capability of such a transducer, the Champ-Sons model, developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission for predicting field radiated by arbitrary transducers into pieces, has to be extended to sources directly in contact with pieces of complex geometry. The good behavior of this new type of probe predicted by computations is experimentally validated with a jointed transducer positioned on pieces of various profiles.

  6. [Development of Chinese herbal pieces and analysis of problems of total quality management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Qiao, Xi-yao; Lin, Fei; Chen, Yin-feng

    2014-11-01

    Chinese herbal pieces are a key factor to protecting the quality of the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and it is one of the basic elements of ensuring the quality of TCM and people's usage safety. However, Chinese herbal pieces has massive problem such as adulteration and counterfeit, dyeing and weighting, pesticide residues, heavy metals in excess of the standards, and all the issues are repeated excessive in the clinic treatment. These issues impacted sound development of production, management and use of TCM, but also brings common people hidden trouble for the clinical safety of medication. Protect and improve the quality of the Chinese herbal pieces demand that continue improve quality system, in-depth scientific research, and strengthen self-discipline and other factors. So it is fundamentally to ensure good quality of Chinese herbal pieces with the color, taste and shape by systematic supervision to it from the source, production, management and research, with strengthened implementation and en- forcement of the "3G".

  7. My Child Needs a Piece of Adaptive Equipment: Now What? Well, It Depends!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Jennifer McLaughlin

    2007-01-01

    As a pediatric physical therapist, the author usually hears this question, "Now What?," after months of frustration as parents attempt to figure out the procedure of getting an item for their child. Unfortunately, there is not a specific answer except "it depends," which can be just as frustrating as the question at hand. Typically, a piece of…

  8. Comparison of the T-piece resuscitator with other neonatal manual ventilation devices: A qualitative review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To review the literature surrounding various aspects of T-piece resuscitator use, with particular emphasis on the evidence comparing the device to other manual ventilation devices in neonatal resuscitation. DATA SOURCES: The Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane databases were searched in April 2011. Ongoing trials were identified using www.clinicaltrials.gov and www.controlled-trials.com. Additional studies from reference lists of eligible articles were considered. All studies including T-piece resuscitator use were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Thirty studies were included. There were two randomised controlled trials in newborn infants comparing the devices, one of which addressed short and intermediate term morbidity and mortality outcomes and found no difference between the T-piece resuscitator and self inflating bag. From manikin studies, advantages to the T-piece resuscitator include the delivery of inflating pressures closer to predetermined target pressures with least variation, the ability to provide prolonged inflation breaths and more consistent tidal volumes. Disadvantages include a technically more difficult setup, more time required to adjust pressures during resuscitation, a larger mask leak and less ability to detect changes in compliance. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for appropriately designed randomised controlled trials in neonates to highlight the efficacy of one device over another. Until these are performed, healthcare providers should be appropriately trained in the use of the device available in their departments, and be aware of its own limitations.

  9. The Numerical Range of the Luoshu Is a Piece of Cake--Almost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkler, Gotz; Trenkler, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    The numerical range, easy to understand but often tedious to compute, provides useful information about a matrix. Here we describe the numerical range of a 3 x 3 magic square. Applying our results to one of the most famous of those squares, the Luoshu, it turns out that its numerical range is a piece of cake--almost.

  10. Ways of Knowing and Types of Knowledge: How Do Students Approach a New Piece of Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Regina Antunes Teixeira; Gerling, Cristina Capparelli

    2012-01-01

    In an exploratory study lasting more than 16 weeks, 15 undergraduate and graduate piano students prepared a short piece by the Brazilian composer Guarnieri, "Ponteio" no. 22, without guidance from their piano teachers. The data that were collected included their performances, interviews pertaining to their practice and stimulated recall…

  11. Joining the Pieces: Using Concept Maps for Integrated Learning and Assessment in an Introductory Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Heather; Spiller, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on and evaluates the use of concept mapping as a learning tool in a large first year Management course. The goal was to help students make personal sense of course learning and to build their understanding of links and relationships between key course ideas. Concept mapping was used for three summative assessment pieces,…

  12. Think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper notes that current discourses on ESD and ... This paper opens with a review of the emerging concept of ESD and its development, .... fundamental tensions between a 'behavior modeling' commitment to measuring impact as.

  13. Think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being attuned to the reverberations of the earth, to its materials flows, ... to think transversely if we are to comprehend the interactions between the ... human and machine, there is a growing sense that previous philosophies are incapable of.

  14. think piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. ... However, there are many Christian (and non-Christian) men and women who have .... based organisations, have lived up to the aforementioned New York Declaration. ... the Oikos Journey (inclusive economy and shared prosperity); genetically modified foods;.

  15. Think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    warming and inequality, education needs a far more radical response to these issues. This paper ..... A good education might and should get you a better income, but it does not get you ..... Unpublished slides available at https://gabriel-.

  16. think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teaching and learning, but the concept of educational quality is not unproblematic ... quantifying skills demand and supply in the South African automotive ... Barnes (2009) noted that this industry is South Africa's leading manufacturing industry and ... for skills, with emphasis on 'high-skills' categories such as management, ...

  17. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  18. think Piece

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with postmodernism or participatory research, despite purporting to empower, at times also disempower. Furthermore ..... meta-reflexivity and linking this to ethics when she writes: 'I believe that all ethical relating, within or ..... 1: Business and.

  19. The Effect of High Versus Low Teacher Affect and Passive Versus Active Student Activity During Music Listening on Preschool Children's Attention, Piece Preference, Time Spent Listening, and Piece Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wendy L.

    1986-01-01

    Small-group listening lessons and subsequent individual posttests were used to judge 94 three- through five-year-old subjects' attention, paired-comparison piece preference, time spent listening, and piece recognition. Research procedures included a modified multiple baseline design and split-screen video taping of instructional sessions.…

  20. DNA identification of Salvia divinorum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terence M; Bola, Gurpreet

    2013-01-01

    Salvia divinorum (diviner's sage) is a plant in the mint family that produces an hallucinogenic compound, salvinorin A. The plant is used, often by chewing or smoking, as a "recreational" drug source and is regulated or banned in several states and countries. We describe a simple DNA technique, polymerase chain reaction of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (rbcL) gene, that can distinguish S. divinorum leaf pieces from pieces of tobacco or cannabis. We have also found DNA sequences adjacent to the chloroplast leucine transfer RNA (trnL) gene that are specific to S. divinorum and distinguish it from other horticulturally popular Salvia species. We report some significant differences between the S. divinorum trnL sequences we determined and those now published in GenBank.

  1. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  2. Differential behavior of plasmids containing chromosomal DNA insertions of various sizes during transformation and conjugation in Haemophilus influenzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balganesh, M.; Setlow, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Plasmids with chromosomal insertions were constructed by removal of a 1.1-kilobase-pair piece from the 9.8-kilobase-pair vector plasmid pDM2 by EcoRI digestion and inserting in its place various lengths of chromosomal DNA (1.7, 3.4, and 9.0 kilobase pairs) coding for resistance to novobiocin. A fourth plasmid was constructed by insertion of the largest piece of chromosomal DNA into the SmaI site of pDM2. The plasmids without inserts were taken up poorly by competent cells and thus were considered not to contain specific DNA uptake sites. The presence of even the smallest insert of chromosomal DNA caused a large increase in transformation of Rec/sup +/ and Rec/sup -/ strains. The frequency of plasmid establishment in Rec/sup +/ cells by transformation increased exponentially with increasing insert size, but in Rec/sup -/ cells there was less transformation by the larger plasmids. Conjugal transfer of these plasmids was carried out with the 35-kilobase-pair mobilizing plasmid pHD147. The frequency of establishment of plasmids by this method not only was not markedly affected by the presence of the insertions, but also decreased somewhat with increase in insert size and was independent of rec-1 and rec-2 genes. Recombination between plasmid and chromosome was readily detected after transformation, but could not be detected after transconjugation even when the recipient cells were Rec/sup +/ and made competent. These data suggested that there is a special processing of plasmid DNA that enters the competent cells in transformation that makes possible recombination of homologous regions of the plasmid with the chromosome and pairing with the chromosome that aids plasmid establishment.

  3. Breaking it into pieces for storage: An engineering approach to enhancing supercritical CO2 entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Bryan, C. R.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) is a possible option for the mitigation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. Residual trapping of a non-wetting liquid phase in a brine reservoir is considered as an important mechanism for long-term CSS, because similar processes have been observed in a variety of fields such as oil recovery and groundwater remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids. Residual trapping can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks and allow utilization of open or dipping structures for carbon storage. Here, we propose an engineering approach to enhancing the immobilization of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in a brine reservoir. This approach is based on the concept of viscous instability of immiscible flow and the dynamics of the movement of scCO2 ganglia in porous media. The movement of a non-wetting ganglion is inversely dependent on its dimension: the smaller the ganglion, the more difficult to move. The critical size (lc) for a ganglion to become immobilized, given its buoyancy, is determined by: lc=2βσ/(rkrw Δρg) where β is the geometric factor characterizing the grain size and pore neck radius (r), σ is the interfacial tension between scCO2 and water, rkrw is the relative permeability to water, Δρ is the density difference between water and scCO2, and g is the gravity. This suggests that, by dispersing injected scCO2 into small ganglia, we can potentially immobilize the injected scCO2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia could be accomplished by controlling the injection rate and the alternating injection of scCO2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the scCO2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces, small enough for immobilization, through viscous instability: v>(2π2 r2 krkrw Δρ2 g2)/(μβ2 σ) where v is the velocity of the advancement of scCO2 front, k is the permeability of water and μ is the viscosity of

  4. Interaction of DNA and DNA-anti-DNA complexes to fibronectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.C.; Simpson, W.A.; Raghow, R.; Hasty, K.

    1986-03-01

    Fibronectin (Fn) is a large multidomain glycoprotein found in the basement membrane, on cell surface and in plasma. The interactions of Fn with DNA may be significant in glomerular deposition of DNA-anti-DNA complexes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The authors examined the binding of DNA and DNA-anti-DNA complexes to Fn by a solid phase assay in which Fn was coated to microtiter plates and reacted with (/sup 3/H)DNA or DNA complexes with a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody. The optimal interaction of DNA with Fn occurs at <0.1M NaCl suggesting that the binding is charge dependent; the specificity of this binding was shown by competitive inhibition and locking experiments using anti-Fn. The binding was maximum at pH 6.5 and in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. The addition of Clq enhanced the binding of DNA and DNA-anti-DNA complexes to Fn, whereas heparan sulfate inhibited such binding. The monomeric or aggregated IgC did not bind Fn but aggregated IgG bound to Fn in the presence of Clq. Furthermore, DNA-anti-DNA complexes in sera from active SLE patients bound Fn which was enhanced in the presence of Clq; DNase abolished this binding indicating that the interaction of these complexes was mediated by DNA. These observations may partially explain the molecular mechanism(s) of the deposition of DNA-anti-DNA complexes in basement membrane.

  5. Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

  6. Tableaux de famille : Conversation Piece de Luchino Visconti (1974)

    OpenAIRE

    Mimoso-Ruiz, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Conversation Piece, selon le titre anglais, réalisé en 1974 par Luchino Visconti présente une continuité avec Il Gattopardo, (Le Guépard, 1963) non seulement par la présence d’un même acteur, Burt Lancaster, qui interprète les rôles du prince Salina et celui du vieux professeur dans Conversation Piece, mais également en raison de l’inscription filmique, à des moments marqués de la diégèse, d’œuvres picturales. Le prince Salina dans la séquence 54 du Guépard contemplait en effet une copie du F...

  7. Study of ancient Islamic gilded pieces combining PIXE-RBS on external microprobe with sem images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ynsa, M.D.; Gutierrez, P.C.; Enguita, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain); Chamon, J.; Pardo, A.I.; Arroyo, M.; Barrio, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dpto. Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Morilla, I. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Dresden (Germany); Ferretti, M. [CNR - Istituto per le Tecnologie Aplicate ai Beni Culturali, Monterotondo St., Roma (Italy); Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dpto. Fisica Aplicada C-12, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Numerous metallic objects with very aesthetic and technological qualities have been recovered by archaeological excavations. Adequate processes of restoration and conservation treatments require the accurate determination of the elemental composition and distribution within the objects, as well as the identification of the nature and distribution of the corrosion products. Ideally the identification method should cause no alteration in the sample. In this work, different archaeological pieces with a gilded look have been characterized using simultaneously PIXE and RBS at the CMAM external microprobe in order to study the gilding metalworking done in the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. The gold layer thickness and its elemental concentrations of Ag, Au and Hg were determined by both techniques and compared with the scanning electron microscopy images obtained for some fragments of pieces. (orig.)

  8. Game-Boards and Gaming-Pieces in Funerary Contexts in the Northern European Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helène Whittaker

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaming-pieces, dice, and game-boards are found in connection withburials at various times and places from an early date. For instance, inEgypt there was a clear association between the game known as Senetand burials from the time of the Old Kingdom (Pusch 1979; Piccione1984. Dice are not uncommonly found in Greek, Etruscan, and Romantombs (Vermeule 1979, 80; Pallottino 1955, fig. 95; Egidi 1983. It canreasonably be assumed that the playing of board games was seen as apleasurable pastime which one could hopefully continue to pursue inthe Afterlife. However, it can in some cases be argued that gamingequipment in burial contexts was related to the social status of the deceased or to religious beliefs and therefore had a more complex significance. In this article I will look at the occurrence of gaming-pieces,dice, and game-boards in burials in the northern European Iron Age.

  9. Heuristic algorithm for planning and scheduling of forged pieces heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lenort

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a heuristic algorithm for planning and scheduling of forged pieces heat treatment which allows maximizing the capacity exploitation of the heat treatment process and the entire forging process. Five Focusing Steps continuous improvement process was selected as a methodological basis for the algorithm design. Its application was supported by simulation experiments performed on a dynamic computer model of the researched process. The experimental work has made it possible to elicit the general rules for planning and scheduling of the heat treatment process of forged pieces which reduce losses caused by equipment conversion and setup times, and which increase the throughput of this process. The HIPO diagram was used to design the algorithm.

  10. Accuracy of Setting Work-pieces on Automatic Lines with Pallet-fixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kolesnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of positioning surfaces to be processed on automatic lines with pallet-fixtures essentially depends on the setting error of the pallet-fixtures with work-pieces in ready-to-work position.The applied methods for calculating the setting error do not give a complete picture of the possible coordinates of the point when in the pallet is displaced in different directions.The aim of the work was to determine an accuracy of the setting work-pieces on automatic lines with pallets-fixtures, using a computational and analytical method, to improve a manufacturing precision of parts.The currently used methods to calculate the setting error do not give a complete picture of the possible coordinates of the point of the pallet displacement in different directions. The paper offers a method of equivalent mechanism to determine all the variety of options for displacements in the horizontal plane with a diverse combination of angular and plane-parallel displacements.Using a four-bar linkage, as an equivalent mechanism, allows us to define a zone of the possible positions of any point of the work-piece pallet platform, as the zone bounded by the coupler curve. In case the gaps in the nodes of the two fixtures are equal the zone of possible positions of the point in the parallel displacement of the platform is determined by the circumference and at an angular displacement by the ellipse.The obtained analytical dependences allow us to determine the error at the stage of design with the certain gaps in the fixture nodes.The above method of calculation makes it possible to define a zone of the appropriate placement of the work-piece on its platform for the specified parameters of the pallet to meet conditions for ensuring the coordinate accuracy of the processed axes of holes.

  11. Structural Optimization of an Offshore Wind Turbines Transition Pieces for Bucket Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, offshore constructions are made of steel. The focus of this paper is optimization of a transition piece (TP) connecting the offshore wind turbine column with a suction bucket foundation. Suction caissons, typically used for shallow water depths, have been proved to be adequate in residual soil conditions for depths up to approximately 40 m. The existing design practice is limited to the use of steel-flange-reinforced shear panels. Desirable outcome is proposal of an alternative...

  12. Precision Metrology of Micro Work-pieces on Their Tribological Performance with Error Compensation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The frictional properties of micro bearings have strong influence on the performance of the whole system because of tiny scale of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS). To develop micro bearings with low friction,it is important to evaluate the friction behaviors on the micro bearing. The testing system and the principle to evaluate the tribological performance of micromachining work-pieces under the load of mill Newton scale is introduced in paper "A new approach to measure the friction coefficient of mi...

  13. Missing Pieces of an Ancient Puzzle: Evolution of the Eukaryotic Membrane-Trafficking System

    OpenAIRE

    Schlacht, Alexander; Herman, Emily K.; Klute, Mary J.; Field, Mark C.; Dacks, Joel B.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-trafficking system underpins cellular trafficking of material in eukaryotes and its evolution would have been a watershed in eukaryogenesis. Evolutionary cell biological studies have been unraveling the history of proteins responsible for vesicle transport and organelle identity revealing both highly conserved components and lineage-specific innovations. Recently, endomembrane components with a broad, but patchy, distribution have been observed as well, pieces that are missing fr...

  14. My First Piece About Social Media: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Christensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is nothing quite like looking back at something you wrote 6 years ago, particularly when the piece was about “new” technology. Your solid points seem extra solid, and your weak points seem unbearably weak. Most importantly, however, you can see the extent to which your thinking was influenced by dominant understandings and frameworks of the time. So, when I was asked to contribute a short thought-piece on social media for this inaugural issue, it occurred to me that it might be of value to look back rather than forward: to re-read something I had written about Twitter and Facebook years ago, and to identify what I got right and what I got wrong. I decided to go all the way back and to look at the very first thing I wrote about social media. This was not an academic piece, but a popular article written for Le Monde Diplomatique on the use of Twitter and Facebook in the aftermath of the 2009 Iranian elections.

  15. Selected aspects of the piece production of iron alloy castings in terms of their environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Maniowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems of environmental protection are nowadays one of the top priorities in a policy programme adopted by the European Community.Reducing the negative impact of the domestic foundry industry on environment should result from complex and long-lasting activities,targeted not only at modernisation of the dust collecting units, but also at searches and implementation of alternative, innovative and more pro-ecology oriented means and techniques of casting manufacture. Reducing to minimum the level of emissions escaping to the environment should be considered at all stages of the casting manufacturing process. In this study, the discussion was restricted to the process of the manufacture of moulds and cores for piece production of the heavy castings. The environmental impact of the technology of making moulds and cores in sands with chemical binders, used most often in piece production of large castings poured from iron alloys, was highlighted. As an alternative technology of mould preparation for the piece production of castings, the ecological and economic aspects of the full mould process were presented.

  16. ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF JAVANESE CULTURAL PIECES IN RONGGENG DHUKUH PARUK NOVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khristianto Khristianto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating cultural pieces is always challenging since it usually involves a task of presenting something unknown to the target readers. This case is seen in the translation of Ronggeng Dhukuh Paruk novel which has been translated in many languages, one of them is English. It is full of Javanese cultural pieces but it was written in Bahasa Indonesia. Later, it was translated (or rewrite into Javanese—like coming back to its own language habitat. The objective of the paper is to identify the strategies applied to translate the cultural meaning. The data sources are the three-language versions of the novel, in Indonesia, Javanese and English. The analysis on the data revealed that there are many various cultural meanings in the text: ecological facts, social and cultural concept, the cultural products in things, religion, and linguistic features of the culture. The strategies used to translate the cultural meaning are descriptive (badhongan – leave garland, calque (bukak klambu, borrowing (dadap, seling, kathik, and borrowing with description (kamitua-respected leader. The procedure taken in translating cultural pieces considers some factor: the importance of the meaning for the narration, its foreign level, the importance of its exotics sense in the literary work, and the interest to present local nuances to the target readers.

  17. Leaching of metals from large pieces of printed circuit boards using citric acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Umesh; Su, C; Hocheng, Hong

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, the leaching of metals from large pieces of computer printed circuit boards (CPCBs) was studied. A combination of citric acid (0.5 M) and 1.76 M hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to leach the metals from CPCB piece. The influence of system variables such as H2O2 concentration, concentration of citric acid, shaking speed, and temperature on the metal leaching process was investigated. The complete metal leaching was achieved in 4 h from a 4 × 4 cm CPCB piece. The presence of citric acid and H2O2 together in the leaching solution is essential for complete metal leaching. The optimum addition amount of H2O2 was 5.83 %. The citric acid concentration and shaking speed had an insignificant effect on the leaching of metals. The increase in the temperature above 30 °C showed a drastic effect on metal leaching process.

  18. Automating the Process of Work-Piece Recognition and Location for a Pick-and-Place Robot in a SFMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Sharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development of a vision system to automatically classify work-pieces with respect to their shape and color together with determining their location for manipulation by an in-house developed pick-and-place robot from its work-plane. The vision-based pick-and-place robot has been developed as part of a smart flexible manufacturing system for unloading work-pieces for drilling operations at a drilling workstation from an automatic guided vehicle designed to transport the work-pieces in the manufacturing work-cell. Work-pieces with three different shapes and five different colors are scattered on the work-plane of the robot and manipulated based on the shape and color specification by the user through a graphical user interface. The number of corners and the hue, saturation, and value of the colors are used for shape and color recognition respectively in this work. Due to the distinct nature of the feature vectors for the fifteen work-piece classes, all work-pieces were successfully classified using minimum distance classification during repeated experimentations with work-pieces scattered randomly on the work-plane.

  19. [DNA methylation and epigenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniushin, B F

    2006-09-01

    In eukaryotic cells, nuclear DNA is subject to enzymatic methylation with the formation of 5-methylcytosine residues, mostly within the CG and CNG sequences. In plants and animals this DNA methylation is species-, tissue-, and organelle-specific. It changes (decreases) with age and is regulated by hormones. On the other hand, genome methylation can control hormonal signal. Replicative and post-replicative DNA methylation types are distinguished. They are mediated by multiple DNA methyltransferases with different site-specificity. Replication is accompanied by the appearance of hemimethylated DNA sites. Pronounced asymmetry of the DNA strand methylation disappears to the end of the cell cycle. A model of methylation-regulated DNA replication is proposed. DNA methylation controls all genetic processes in the cell (replication, transcription, DNA repair, recombination, and gene transposition). It is the mechanism of cell differentiation, gene discrimination and silencing. In animals, suppression of DNA methylation stops development (embryogenesis), switches on apoptosis, and is usually lethal. Disruption of DNA methylation pattern results in the malignant cell transformation and serves as one of the early diagnostic features of carcinogenesis. In malignant cell the pattern of DNA methylation, as well as the set of DNA methyltransferase activities, differs from that in normal cell. In plants inhibition of DNA methylation is accompanied by the induction of seed storage and florescence genes. In eukaryotes one and the same gene can be simultaneously methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues. It can be thus suggested, that the plant cell contains at least two different, and probably, interdependent systems of DNA methylation. The first eukaryotic adenine DNA methyltransferase was isolated from plants. This enzyme methylates DNA with the formation of N6-methyladenine residues in the sequence TGATCA (TGATCA-->TGm6ATCA). Plants possess AdoMet-dependent endonucleases

  20. A model for melting of confined DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, E; Ambjörnsson, T; Mehlig, B

    2015-01-01

    When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce, and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behaviour and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.

  1. Enzyme-guided DNA Sewing Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Hyun; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Lansac, Yves; Jang, Yun Hee; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-12-04

    With the advent of nanotechnology, a variety of nanoarchitectures with varied physicochemical properties have been designed. Owing to the unique characteristics, DNAs have been used as a functional building block for novel nanoarchitecture. In particular, a self-assembly of long DNA molecules via a piece DNA staple has been utilized to attain such constructs. However, it needs many talented prerequisites (e.g., complicated computer program) with fewer yields of products. In addition, it has many limitations to overcome: for instance, (i) thermal instability under moderate environments and (ii) restraint in size caused by the restricted length of scaffold strands. Alternatively, the enzymatic sewing linkage of short DNA blocks is simply designed into long DNA assemblies but it is more error-prone due to the undeveloped sequence data. Here, we present, for the first time, a comprehensive study for directly combining DNA structures into higher DNA sewing constructs through the 5'-end cohesive ligation of T4 enzyme. Inspired by these achievements, the synthesized DNA nanomaterials were also utilized for effective detection and real-time diagnosis of cancer-specific and cytosolic RNA markers. This generalized protocol for generic DNA sewing is expected to be useful in several DNA nanotechnology as well as any nucleic acid-related fields.

  2. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-15

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen the yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  3. Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K West Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Pool, Karl N.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2006-09-15

    This report provides physical and radiochemical characterization results from examinations and laboratory analyses performed on ~0.55-inch diameter rod pieces found in the 105 K West (KW) Basin that were suspected to be from nuclear reactor fuel. The characterization results will be used to establish the technical basis for adding this material to the contents of one of the final Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) that will be loaded out of the KW Basin in late FY2006 or at a later time depending on project priorities. Fifteen fuel rod pieces were found during the clean out of the KW Basin. Based on lack of specific credentials, documentation, or obvious serial numbers, none of the items could be positively identified nor could their sources or compositions be described. Item weights and dimensions measured in the KW Basin indicated densities consistent with the suspect fuel rods containing uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium metal, or being empty. Extensive review of the Hanford Site technical literature led to the postulation that these pieces likely were irradiated test fuel prepared to support of the development of the Hanford “New Production Reactor,” later called N Reactor. To obtain definitive data on the composition of the suspect fuel, 4 representative fuel rod pieces, with densities corresponding to oxide fuel were selected from the 15 items, and shipped from the KW Basin to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL; also known at the 325 Building) for examinations and characterization. The three fuel rod that were characterized appear to contain slightly irradiated UO2 fuel, originally of natural enrichment, with zirconium cladding. The uranium-235 isotopic concentrations decreased by the irradiation and become slightly lower than the natural enrichment of 0.72% to range from 0.67 to 0.71 atom%. The plutonium concentrations, ranged from about 200 to 470 grams per metric ton of uranium and ranged in Plutonium

  4. Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K West Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Pool, Karl N.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2006-07-25

    This report provides physical and radiochemical characterization results from examinations and laboratory analyses performed on {approx}0.55-inch diameter rod pieces found in the 105 K West (KW) Basin that were suspected to be from nuclear reactor fuel. The characterization results will be used to establish the technical basis for adding this material to the contents of one of the final Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) that will be loaded out of the KW Basin in late FY2006 or at a later time depending on project priorities. Fifteen fuel rod pieces were found during the clean out of the KW Basin. Based on lack of specific credentials, documentation, or obvious serial numbers, none of the items could be positively identified nor could their sources or compositions be described. Item weights and dimensions measured in the KW Basin indicated densities consistent with the suspect fuel rods containing uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium metal, or being empty. Extensive review of the Hanford Site technical literature led to the postulation that these pieces likely were irradiated test fuel prepared to support of the development of the Hanford ''New Production Reactor'', later called N Reactor. To obtain definitive data on the composition of the suspect fuel, 4 representative fuel rod pieces, with densities corresponding to oxide fuel were selected from the 15 items, and shipped from the KW Basin to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL; also known at the 325 Building) for examinations and characterization. The three fuel rod that were characterized appear to contain slightly irradiated UO2 fuel, originally of natural enrichment, with zirconium cladding. The uranium-235 isotopic concentrations decreased by the irradiation and become slightly lower than the natural enrichment of 0.72% to range from 0.67 to 0.71 atom%. The plutonium concentrations, ranged from about 200 to 470 grams per metric ton of

  5. Telecommunications and internet broadband policy: sorting out the pieces for telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D

    2010-01-01

    Technological change is accelerating and with it regulatory upheaval. Most of us agree that providing universal telecommunication services to all our citizens is a worthy ideal. Nonetheless, many of us do not agree that regulation should be the means to make broadband Internet services widely available. This Viewpoint begins sorting out pieces of the emerging United States, regulatory and policy puzzle for broadband Internet with an eye to the interests of telerehabilitation providers and consumers. Just how might changes in legal authority, regulation and agency jurisdictions impact us?

  6. Patient’s satisfaction after 2-piece inflatable penile prosthesis implantation: An Italian multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Gentile

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penile prosthesis implant represents a valuable solution for pts with severe erectile dysfunction (ED, non-responders to medical management. The aim of our study was to evaluate the satisfaction of patients (pts after 2-pieces inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP. Aim of the study: to evaluate safety, reliability and post-operative patient’s satisfaction after implantation of two-pieces IPP. Materials and Methods: This retrospective multicentric analysis concerns a group of 42 patients undergone 2-pieces IPP implantation from November 2005 to November 2013, in four Centers of proven experience. As a first step, a detailed review of all clinical reports was performed. Secondly, every patient was asked to fill the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS specifically modified, in order to assess their own satisfaction after surgery and, its impact on patient’s quality of sexual life. Results: 42 pts were evaluated (AMS-Ambicor: 28; Coloplast- Excell: 14; mean age, at time of operation: 60,7 years; mean follow up: 27,6 months; etiology of ED: vascular 23,8%, diabetes 19%, La Peyronie D. 7,1%, consequence of radical prostatectomy 31%, consequence of other pelvic surgery 11,9%, spinal trauma 7%. Mean operative time: 117 ± 58 min, mean postoperative hospital stay 3 ± 1,6 days. Post operative short-term complications: 4 pts (9,5%. Post operative long-term complications: 4 pts (9,5%. Long-term functional results (Questionnaire: 71% of pts (30 reported regular use of the prosthesis, at least 1 time/week, the satisfaction was good in 42% of pts (18, quite good in 33,3% (14, quite bad in 2,4% (1, very bad in 7,1% (3, 6 pts (14,4% didn’t answer. Conclusions: 2 pieces IPP appears to be associated with a low complication rate and good satisfaction of pts especially in the elderly. It also assures satisfactory rates of aesthetics and functional results.

  7. Missing pieces of an ancient puzzle: evolution of the eukaryotic membrane-trafficking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacht, Alexander; Herman, Emily K; Klute, Mary J; Field, Mark C; Dacks, Joel B

    2014-10-01

    The membrane-trafficking system underpins cellular trafficking of material in eukaryotes and its evolution would have been a watershed in eukaryogenesis. Evolutionary cell biological studies have been unraveling the history of proteins responsible for vesicle transport and organelle identity revealing both highly conserved components and lineage-specific innovations. Recently, endomembrane components with a broad, but patchy, distribution have been observed as well, pieces that are missing from our cell biological and evolutionary models of membrane trafficking. These data together allow for new insights into the history and forces that shape the evolution of this critical cell biological system. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. DNA polymerase beta can substitute for DNA polymerase I in the initiation of plasmid DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that mammalian DNA polymerase beta can substitute for DNA polymerase I of Escherichia coli in DNA replication and in base excision repair. We have now obtained genetic evidence suggesting that DNA polymerase beta can substitute for E. coli DNA polymerase I in the initiation of replication of a plasmid containing a pMB1 origin of DNA replication. Specifically, we demonstrate that a plasmid with a pMB1 origin of replication can be maintained in an E. coli polA mutant ...

  9. Construction of five-piece segment using high-fluidity concrete; Koryudo togo bunkatsu segment no seko jisseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Y.; Fukuzawa, I.; Matsunaga, H. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-05

    After reviewing RC segment materials and the number of joints required, a segment of five equal pieces using high-fluidity concrete is employed in conduit construction work (for 500kV transmission lines) near Hommoku Wharf, Kanagawa Prefecture, which is for reduction in the shield tunnel construction cost (segment cost rate approximately 1/3). The use of high-fluidity concrete raises the materials cost a little but the factory overhead, expenditures for fabrication and formwork construction are lowered because some working processes may be dispensed with, such as the processes of compaction by vibration, surface finish, and formwork movement, and because the formwork main body may be simplified in structure. Although the standard tunnel specifications mention a segment consisting of 6 pieces, the 5-piece segment adopted in this construction work lowers the cost approximately 20% thanks to reduction in the numbers of joints between segment pieces and between rings. In the shield tunnelling process, assembly is easier and the construction work is executed without hitches deserving special mention. The new technique is comparable to the conventional ones in terms of quality and process management. Since the number of joints per piece between rings is reduced from the 3 in the conventional method to the 2 in this new method, two core-sensing pins are provided per piece between rings for assuring accuracy and shortening time in assembling. 2 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. [Establishment and biomechanical analysis of three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of three-pieces segment arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijun; Wang, Zhendong; Ni, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lin

    2013-02-01

    To reconstruct a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of mandibular teeth with three-pieces segment arch, and analyze the mechanical properties of intrusive arch and the biomechanical characteristics of three-pieces segment arch. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of mandible with three-pieces segment arch was reconstructed by multi-slice spiral CT scanning, Mimics, CATIA and Anasys software. Then, the mechanical properties of intrusive arch, the movement trend and stress distribution of three-pieces segment arch were calculated by Anasys software. In the range of 5 degrees-25 degrees, with the degree of intrusive arch increased, the force of intrusive arch also increased rapidly. The maximal force was 0.604 8 N in 30 degrees; the force was about 0.59 N in 30 degrees-65 degrees range. In condition of three-pieces segment arch mechanics, lateral incisor tipped labially and intruded; the first moral tipped distally and rotating; other teeth did not move clearly. The largest stress distribution in the whole arch was in the one-third labial cervical area of the lateral incisor root and the root bifurcations of first moral. Under an appropriate intrusive force, three-pieces segment arch can intrude incisors and control the extrusion of posterior teeth. It can be used to correct the deep overbite, especially with high mandibular planes, gummy smile or adult patients.

  11. Disentangling DNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  12. Disentangling DNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  13. "Picking up the pieces" - Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2015-01-01

    Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness) is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients' strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context.

  14. Repulsive DNA-DNA interactions accelerate viral DNA packaging in phage phi29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Nicholas; delToro, Damian; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    We use optical tweezers to study the effect of attractive versus repulsive DNA-DNA interactions on motor-driven viral packaging. Screening of repulsive interactions accelerates packaging, but induction of attractive interactions by spermidine3+ causes heterogeneous dynamics. Acceleration is observed in a fraction of complexes, but most exhibit slowing and stalling, suggesting that attractive interactions promote nonequilibrium DNA conformations that impede the motor. Thus, repulsive interactions facilitate packaging despite increasing the energy of the theoretical optimum spooled DNA conformation. PMID:24996111

  15. Repulsive DNA-DNA interactions accelerate viral DNA packaging in phage Phi29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Nicholas; delToro, Damian; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Smith, Douglas E

    2014-06-20

    We use optical tweezers to study the effect of attractive versus repulsive DNA-DNA interactions on motor-driven viral packaging. Screening of repulsive interactions accelerates packaging, but induction of attractive interactions by spermidine(3+) causes heterogeneous dynamics. Acceleration is observed in a fraction of complexes, but most exhibit slowing and stalling, suggesting that attractive interactions promote nonequilibrium DNA conformations that impede the motor. Thus, repulsive interactions facilitate packaging despite increasing the energy of the theoretical optimum spooled DNA conformation.

  16. DNA Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2002-11-01

    DNA is one candidate of promising molecules for molecular electronic devices, since it has the double helix structure with pi-electron bases for electron transport, the address at 0.4 nm intervals, and the self-assembly. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of DNA and modified DNA molecules are investigated in order to research the application of DNA in nanoelectronic devices. It has been revealed that DNA is a wide-gap semiconductor in the absence of doping. The conductivity of DNA has been controlled by chemical doping, electric field doping, and photo-doping. It has found that Poly(dG)[middle dot]Poly(dC) has the best conductivity and can function as a conducting nanowire. The pattern of DNA network is controlled by changing the concentration of the DNA solution.

  17. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E; Lartillot, O; Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M

    2016-01-15

    Brain responses to discrete short sounds have been studied intensively using the event-related potential (ERP) method, in which the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is divided into epochs time-locked to stimuli of interest. Here we introduce and apply a novel technique which enables one to isolate ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative deflation occurring around 100 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (N100) and positive deflation occurring around 200 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (P200) ERP responses to peak changes in the acoustic features were distinguishable and were often largest for Tango Nuevo. In addition to large changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase - and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases - followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible to utilize the tradition of ERP research with naturalistic paradigms.

  18. On Limitations of the Ultrasonic Characterization of Pieces Manufactured with Highly Attenuating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Moreno, E.; Rubio, B.; Calas, H.; Galarza, N.; Rubio, J.; Diez, L.; Castellanos, L.; Gómez, T.

    Some technical aspects of two Spanish cooperation projects, funded by DPI and Innpacto Programs of the R&D National Plan, are discussed. The objective is to analyze the common belief about than the ultrasonic testing in MHz range is not a tool utilizable to detect internal flaws in highly attenuating pieces made of coarse-grained steel. In fact high-strength steels, used in some safe industrial infrastructures of energy & transport sectors, are difficult to be inspected using the conventional "state of the art" in ultrasonic technology, due to their internal microstructures are very attenuating and coarse-grained. It is studied if this inspection difficulty could be overcome by finding intense interrogating pulses and advanced signal processing of the acquired echoes. A possible solution would depend on drastically improving signal-to-noise-ratios, by applying new advances on: ultrasonic transduction, HV electronics for intense pulsed driving of the testing probes, and an "ad-hoc" digital processing or focusing of the received noisy signals, in function of each material to be inspected. To attain this challenging aim on robust steel pieces would open the possibility of obtaining improvements in inspecting critical industrial components made of highly attenuating & dispersive materials, as new composites in aeronautic and motorway bridges, or new metallic alloys in nuclear area, where additional testing limitations often appear.

  19. Failure Mode Analysis Of Torsion Shaft In Garrett-5 Engine Using Two Test Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Melvin Aro. T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with “Failure Analysis of Internal splines in Torsion Shaft” of “TPE 331-5-252D - GARRET ENGINE” which is used in Dornier aircraft. Garret Engine is a type of air breathing engine. It comes under the category of Turboprop engines of Gas turbine engine. As separate shafts are used for propeller and turbine, this aids them to rotate at different RPM. A torsion shaft is used to transmit the torque from main shaft to propeller shaft. Torsion shaft is used to give a deflection which is also used to measure the torque of the engine. This torsion shaft is internally connected with the main power transmission shaft and its other end is coupled to a coupler shaft with engagement of its internal splines to the external splines of coupler shaft. Further this coupler connects to the gearing system and transmits power to the propeller shaft. Due to Continues variable load over internal splines, it is subjected to high rate of wear and tear. This problem can be rectified by Failure Mode Analysis Method, in which heat treatment process of torsion shaft is being carried out. Two test pieces are heat treated separately at different temperatures of 5800C and 5400C at variable time durations. Tuffriding which is a Liquid nitriding process is done with this two test pieces and results are analyzed. The hardness of the material is increased to desired values and its life time is also increased which overcomes the problem.

  20. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  1. Two New Pieces of Emergency Response Equipment for use in Confined Space Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing two new pieces of emergency response equipment that recognize and address the constraints of a confined space environment. One piece of equipment is a respirator designed for use in a post fire environment. Traditional first responders generally use supplied air respirators - they provide cool, dry, safe breathing air to the first responder, and because they are supplied at above ambient pressure, the system is tolerant to a loose-fitting mask. Supplied air respirators have a limited supply of air, but because the traditional first responder intends to address the emergency from outside and then retreat, this limited air supply does not pose a serious problem. NASA uses a supplied oxygen respirator for first response to an emergency affecting air quality on the International Space Station. The air supply is rated for 15 minutes - ISS program managers sponsored a hardware development activity to provide the astronauts up to 8 hours of breathing protection after the supplied air system is exhausted. Size and weight limitations prevent the use of a supplied air system for 8 hours for six crew members. A trade study resulted in the selection of a filtering respirator system over a re-breather system; due to design simplicity, operational simplicity, and likely threats to air quality on ISS. The respirator cartridge that filters smoke particles, adsorbs organics and acid gases, and catalytically converts carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide has been qualified for use on ISS, and was delivered on STS-135, the final mission of the Space Shuttle Program.

  2. DNA Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Alokail, Majed S.; Alenad, Amal M.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA of E. coli contains 19,120 6-methyladenines and 12,045 5-methylcytosines in addition to the four regular bases and these are formed by the postreplicative action of three DNA methyltransferases. The majority of the methylated bases are formed by the Dam and Dcm methyltransferases encoded by the dam (DNA adenine methyltransferase) and dcm (DNA cytosine methyltransferase) genes. Although not essential, Dam methylation is important for strand discrimination during repair of replication e...

  3. Whose DNA is this?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taroni, Franco; Biedermann, Alex; Vuille, Joëlle;

    2013-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw the attention of researchers and practitioners dealing with forensic DNA profiling analyses to the following question: is a scientist's report, offering support to a hypothesis according to which a particular individual is the source of DNA detected during...... evoked during the international conference "The hidden side of DNA profiles. Artifacts, errors and uncertain evidence" held in Rome (April 27th to 28th, 2012). Indeed, despite the fact that this conference brought together some of the world's leading forensic DNA specialists, it appeared clearly....... This paper intends to emphasize the actuality of this topic and suggest beneficial ways ahead towards a more reasoned use of forensic DNA in criminal proceedings....

  4. Dna Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  5. Model-guided ligation strategy for optimal assembly of DNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daphne T W; Sarkar, Casim A

    2012-10-01

    DNA ligation is essential to many molecular biology manipulations, but this reaction is often carried out by following generic guidelines or by trial and error. Maximizing the desired ligation product is especially important in DNA library construction for directed evolution experiments since library diversity is directly affected by ligation efficiency. Here, we suggest that display vectors that rely on Type IIP restriction sites for cloning should be redesigned to utilize Type IIS restriction sites instead because ligation yield is significantly improved: we observed up to 15- and 2.6-fold increases in desired products for circular and linear ligation reactions, respectively. To guide ligation optimization more rationally, we developed an easily parameterized thermodynamic model that predicts product distributions based on input DNA concentrations and free energies of the ligation events. We applied this model to study ligation reactions using a ribosome display vector redesigned with Type IIS restriction sites (pRDV2). We computationally predicted and experimentally validated the relative abundance of various products in three-piece linear ligations as well as the extent of transformation from vector-insert circular ligations. Based on our results, we provide general insights into ligation and we outline guidelines for optimizing this reaction for both in vivo and in vitro display methodologies.

  6. UTILIZATION OF STEREOLOGY FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF FORMING PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Martinkovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical working leads to final properties of forming pieces, which are affected by conditions of production technology. Utilization of stereology leads to the detail analysis of three-dimensional plastic deformed material structure by different forming technologies, e.g. forging, extruding, upsetting, metal spinning, drawing etc. The microstructure of cold drawing wires was analyzed. Grain boundaries orientation was measured on the parallel section of wire with a different degree of deformation and direct axis plastic deformation was evaluated in bulk formed part. The strain of probes on their sections was obtained using stereology by measurement of degree of grain boundary orientation which was converted to deformation using model of conversion of grain boundary orientation degree to deformation.

  7. Non-piece-wise error compensation for grating displacement measurement system with absolute zero mark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Jiang; Huijie Huang; Xiangzhao Wang; Lihua Huang

    2009-01-01

    A method for compensating the measuring error of the grating displacement measurement system with absolute zero mark is presented.It divides the full scale range into piece-wise subsections and compares the maximum variation of the measuring errors of two adjacent subsections with the threshold.Whether the specified subsection is divided into smaller subsections is determined by the comparison result.After different compensation parameters and weighted average values of the random errors are obtained,the error compensation algorithm is implemented in the left and right subsections,and the whole measuring error of the grating displacement measurement system is reduced by about 73%.Experimental results show that the method may not only effectively compensate the spike error but also greatly improve the precision of the measuring system.

  8. Well-Defined Cyclic Triblock Terpolymers: A Missing Piece of the Morphology Puzzle

    KAUST Repository

    Polymeropoulos, George

    2016-10-27

    Two well-defined cyclic triblock terpolymers, missing pieces of the terpolymer morphology puzzle, consisting of poly(isoprene), polystyrene, and poly(2-vinylpyridine), were synthesized by combining the Glaser coupling reaction with anionic polymerization. An α,ω-dihydroxy linear triblock terpolymer (OH-PI1,4-b-PS-b-P2VP-OH) was first synthesized followed by transformation of the OH to alkyne groups by esterification with pentynoic acid and cyclization by Glaser coupling. The size exclusion chromatography (SEC) trace of the linear terpolymer precursor was shifted to lower elution time after cyclization, indicating the successful synthesis of the cyclic terpolymer. Additionally, the SEC trace of the cyclic terpolymer produced, after cleavage of the ester groups, shifted again practically to the position corresponding to the linear precursor. The first exploratory results on morphology showed the tremendous influence of the cyclic structure on the morphology of terpolymers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  9. Material Composition of Bucket Foundation Transition Piece for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, production of renewable energy is focused on offshore wind turbines, since they make little if any inconvenience for residents in inhabited areas. High requirements are placed on the installation of the foundations which can cost about 30% of the total cost of the wind turbine...... practice is limited to the use of steel-flange-reinforced shear panels for the transition piece—a production that requires extensive welding work—a desirable solution is to find a material that provides lower cost and easier manufacturing without compromising the strength and stiffness. The paper compares...... the structural behaviour of a transition piece made of steel (reference case), compact reinforced composite (CRC) and composite shell elements made of CRC glued to steel sheets. A finite-element model is developed in ABAQUS. Three material models are checked for buckling and material failure in the Ultimate...

  10. The girl shedding glass pieces from her body parts: Unfolding the mystery behind dermatitis artefacta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients presenting with unusual symptoms are uncommon. Unusual symptoms often catch the attention of the public including the health professionals. Atypicality in the symptoms is usually seen in patients with factitious disorder. In patients with factitious disorder, there occurs conscious production of symptoms with an unconscious motive, irrespective of the fact whether they are ill or not. Self-inflicted injuries to skin often give rise to typical skin lesions known as dermatitis artefacta, which many a times simulate other dermatological conditions. Patients with factitious disorder often have a narrow line of demarcation from malingering. We present a case of an adolescent girl presenting with spontaneous extrusion of glass pieces from her body parts with focus on diagnostic dilemma and management.

  11. LHC Dipole Axis, Spool Piece Alignment and Field Angle in Warm and Cold Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Coccoli, M; García-Pérez, J

    2004-01-01

    The installation and commissioning of LHC requires knowledge of the magnetic alignment of the spool piece correctors mounted on the dipole end plates are, as well as of the dipole main field direction. The installation is based on the use of geometric information derived from mechanical measurements performed in warm conditions, assuming that geometric and magnetic axes coincide, and that thermal contractions of the assembly are homothetic. A series of measurements has been performed at room and superfluid Helium temperature to validate these assumptions. In this paper, a statistical analysis of the correlations obtained is presented for both corrector alignment and main field direction, and the results are compared with beam optics-based specifications.

  12. Chests in Asturian preindustrial furniture: pieces from the concejo of Grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Quirós, Gerardo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of contributing to knowledge of preindustrial Asturian furniture, the author studies a group of chests from the concejo of Grado. He establishes the role played by this typology in Asturian furniture and its basic characteristics, structural as well as decorative, and then presents a detailed analysis of a selection of representative pieces.Con la idea de contribuir al conocimiento del mobiliario en la Asturias preindustrial se estudia un conjunto de arcas del concejo asturiano de Grado. Previo repaso al papel jugado por esta tipología en el mobiliario asturiano y a sus características básicas, tanto estructurales como decorativas, se ofrece análisis más pormenorizado de una selección de piezas representativas.

  13. On the Casimir energy for a 2N-piece relativistic string

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, I

    1997-01-01

    The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of a piecewise uniform closed string is calculated. The string consists of 2N pieces of equal length, of alternating type I and type II material, and is taken to be relativistic in the sense that the velocity of sound always equals the velocity of light. By means of a new recursion formula we manage to calculate the Casimir energy for arbitrary integers N. Agreement with results obtained in earlier works on the string is found in all special cases. As basic regularization method we use the contour integration method. As a check, agreement is found with results obtained from the \\zeta function method (the Hurwitz function) in the case of low N (N = 1-4). The Casimir energy is generally negative, and the more so the larger is the value of N. We illustrate the results graphically in some cases. The generalization to finite temperature theory is also given.

  14. Brain activation regions in schizophrenia patients performing the game piece memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Huifang Yin; Lirong Yan; Changlian Tan; Dewen Hu; Shuqiao Yao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Go, a traditional Chinese chess-like game, requires many unknown functions of the brain including attention, imaging, problem solving and processing of spatial working memory. To date, it remains uncertain whether the intellectual activities required to play Go are related to the frontal lobe.OBJECTIVE: To investigate various patterns of brain region activity while schizophrenic patients and normal subjects engaged in memorizing piece placement in the Chinese game of Go. Spatial working memory was measured in order to validate whether the prefrontal lobe participates in this memory process.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Non-randomized, concurrent control trial was performed at Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, between May and December 2004.PARTICIPANTS: A total of nine Chinese schizophrenic patients with no brain or bodily diseases and not undergoing electroshock treatment, who were in accordance with the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, as well as thirteen healthy staffs and students with matched age, sex, and education were included. Patients and control subjects had no neurological disorders or mental retardation. In addition, all participants were right-handed.METHODS: The cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging was a block design experiment. Both groups were asked to remember the placement of pieces in the Chinese game of Go on a computer screen. A brain activation map was analyzed in SPM99.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain responses were compared with regard to activation region size, volume, and asymmetry indices.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the reaction time was significantly delayed in schizophrenics performing the working memory task (P < 0.05). When performing the tasks, normal subjects showed significant activation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal lobe with left dominance; the asymmetry indices were: frontal lobe, +0.32; temporal lobe, -0.58; parietal lobe, 0.41 ; and occipital lobe, -0.34. On

  15. One-Piece Triboelectric Nanosensor for Self-Triggered Alarm System and Latent Fingerprint Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yang; Zhu, Huarui; Cao, Xia; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-11-22

    Tactile sensing is of great importance in developing human-machine interface, remote control, and security systems. Here, a self-triggered alarm system based on the one-piece triboelectric nanosensor (TENS) is reported. By using nitrocellulose (NC) membrane as the triboelectric material, the as-designed TENS can not only sensitively respond to physical contacts in a self-triggered mode but also securely detect the third-level details of latent fingerprint. The self-triggered idea based on the triboelectric nanogenerator is compatible with intelligent interactive interface. Besides, this TENS can be conveniently fabricated and integrated into arrays at a large scale due to its freestanding, simple, and low-cost characteristics. This work presents alternative perspectives for the practical applications of the multifunctionalized TENS.

  16. Identification of Kinematic Errors of Five-axis Machine Tool Trunnion Axis from Finished Test Piece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya; FU Jianzhong; CHEN Zichen

    2014-01-01

    Compared with the traditional non-cutting measurement, machining tests can more accurately reflect the kinematic errors of five-axis machine tools in the actual machining process for the users. However, measurement and calculation of the machining tests in the literature are quite difficult and time-consuming. A new method of the machining tests for the trunnion axis of five-axis machine tool is proposed. Firstly, a simple mathematical model of the cradle-type five-axis machine tool was established by optimizing the coordinate system settings based on robot kinematics. Then, the machining tests based on error-sensitive directions were proposed to identify the kinematic errors of the trunnion axis of cradle-type five-axis machine tool. By adopting the error-sensitive vectors in the matrix calculation, the functional relationship equations between the machining errors of the test piece in the error-sensitive directions and the kinematic errors of C-axis and A-axis of five-axis machine tool rotary table was established based on the model of the kinematic errors. According to our previous work, the kinematic errors of C-axis can be treated as the known quantities, and the kinematic errors of A-axis can be obtained from the equations. This method was tested in Mikron UCP600 vertical machining center. The machining errors in the error-sensitive directions can be obtained by CMM inspection from the finished test piece to identify the kinematic errors of five-axis machine tool trunnion axis. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can reduce the complexity, cost, and the time consumed substantially, and has a wider applicability. This paper proposes a new method of the machining tests for the trunnion axis of five-axis machine tool.

  17. GROTESQUE: Complex Geometric Arrangement of Unreflected HEU (93.15) Metal Pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie L. Gorham; John D. Bess

    2011-09-01

    The GROTESQUE experiments were designed specifically to develop and test neutronics for the GEOM subroutine of the 05R code. Two complex arrangements of various highly enriched uranium metal cylinders, rectangular parallelepipeds, and spheres were arranged in a circular formation on a steel diaphragm. A centerpiece was raised remotely through a hole in the steel diaphragm to achieve criticality. The first arrangement consisted of five major units, each major unit consisting of a stack of smaller uranium pieces. The second arrangement utilized nine major units, again consisting of stacks of smaller uranium pieces. The 9-unit arrangement is the only experiment discussed in this evaluation, since the five stack experiment never achieved criticality. The 9-unit arrangement is shown in Figure 1.1. The experiments were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in June 1964. The 9-unit configuration was later used as part of the development process for early versions of KENO and a model representing a variation of this experiment (Sample Problem 7: GROTESQUE without the Diaphragm) is released with modern versions of SCALE for testing the proper installation of the KENO module. An experimental report for the GROTESQUE experiment has not been published; however there are two publications that describe the experiment (References 1 and 2). A separate reportc discussing the conversion of the 05r model into a KENO model was published; however, the author did not consult with the experimenter for GROTESQUE. This report is considered unreliable (except for dimensions) by the experimenter and should not be used to obtain information pertinent to the GROTESQUE experiment. The Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) Logbook 15r contains the primary documentation from the experimenter for this experiment. The GROTESQUE arrangement of nine major units was evaluated an determined to be an acceptable benchmark experiment.

  18. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  19. Mechanized TIG welding equipment: for homogeneous and heterogeneous pieces welding of rotors positioned vertically; Equipement de soudage TIG mecanise: pour le soudage de pieces homogenes et heterogenes de rotors positionnees verticalement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, J.

    2011-07-15

    The big turbines require rotors fabricated with particular equipments to produce the required raw hammered pieces when the production means of these enormous pieces are strictly limited. An experiment feedback on an alternative solution carried out with the existing means to forge segments of smaller sizes to be able of assemble them together is presented. The assembling is then made in two steps: the initial welding is carried out in manual welding on segments superposed vertically, followed by a mechanized submerged welding as soon as the stability is sufficient to return the assembled rotors into a vertical position. (O.M.)

  20. Diagnosis of two textile pieces from Santarém Diocesan Museum: a multi-analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Florentino Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aim was to study two composite textile pieces from Santarém Diocesan Museum, including their historic context, their conservation condition and the characterization of their constituent parts, which established the date of production. Both pieces belonged to the First Bishop of Daman (1840-1900 and were selected for their historic interest and originality, and for representing a case study in terms of materials, techniques and decoration. They are also a good example of the conservation problems that can occur in liturgical textiles. The diagnosis was extended using optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. These techniques allowed the identification of the fibres, binder, metals and pigments, confirming that the pieces date back to the late nineteenth century. Among the main forms of degradation, it was observed: structural deformations, dirt and material losses, not only in areas with fabric but also with metallic embroidery and painted layers.

  1. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  2. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  3. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Roel W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional sugg

  4. Automating the Process of Work-Piece Recognition and Location for a Pick-and-Place Robot in a SFMS

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Sharan; G. C. Onwubolu

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a vision system to automatically classify work-pieces with respect to their shape and color together with determining their location for manipulation by an in-house developed pick-and-place robot from its work-plane. The vision-based pick-and-place robot has been developed as part of a smart flexible manufacturing system for unloading work-pieces for drilling operations at a drilling workstation from an automatic guided vehicle designed to transport the w...

  5. An in-depth analysis of a piece of shit: distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm eggs in human stool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J Krauth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An accurate diagnosis of helminth infection is important to improve patient management. However, there is considerable intra- and inter-specimen variation of helminth egg counts in human feces. Homogenization of stool samples has been suggested to improve diagnostic accuracy, but there are no detailed investigations. Rapid disintegration of hookworm eggs constitutes another problem in epidemiological surveys. We studied the spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm eggs in stool samples, the effect of homogenization, and determined egg counts over time in stool samples stored under different conditions. METHODOLOGY: Whole-stool samples were collected from 222 individuals in a rural part of south Côte d'Ivoire. Samples were cut into four pieces and helminth egg locations from the front to the back and from the center to the surface were analyzed. Some samples were homogenized and fecal egg counts (FECs compared before and after homogenization. The effect of stool storing methods on FECs was investigated over time, comparing stool storage on ice, covering stool samples with a water-soaked tissue, or keeping stool samples in the shade. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found no clear spatial pattern of S. mansoni and hookworm eggs in fecal samples. Homogenization decreased S. mansoni FECs (p = 0.026, while no effect was observed for hookworm and other soil-transmitted helminths. Hookworm FECs decreased over time. Storing stool samples on ice or covered with a moist tissue slowed down hookworm egg decay (p<0.005. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings have important implications for helminth diagnosis at the individual patient level and for epidemiological surveys, anthelmintic drug efficacy studies and monitoring of control programs. Specifically, homogenization of fecal samples is recommended for an accurate detection of S. mansoni eggs, while keeping collected stool samples cool and moist delayed the disintegration of

  6. What Controls DNA Looping?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J. Perez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The looping of DNA provides a means of communication between sequentially distant genomic sites that operate in tandem to express, copy, and repair the information encoded in the DNA base sequence. The short loops implicated in the expression of bacterial genes suggest that molecular factors other than the naturally stiff double helix are involved in bringing the interacting sites into close spatial proximity. New computational techniques that take direct account of the three-dimensional structures and fluctuations of protein and DNA allow us to examine the likely means of enhancing such communication. Here, we describe the application of these approaches to the looping of a 92 base-pair DNA segment between the headpieces of the tetrameric Escherichia coli Lac repressor protein. The distortions of the double helix induced by a second protein—the nonspecific nucleoid protein HU—increase the computed likelihood of looping by several orders of magnitude over that of DNA alone. Large-scale deformations of the repressor, sequence-dependent features in the DNA loop, and deformability of the DNA operators also enhance looping, although to lesser degrees. The correspondence between the predicted looping propensities and the ease of looping derived from gene-expression and single-molecule measurements lends credence to the derived structural picture.

  7. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.

    2008-01-01

    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  8. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories.

  9. Relationship between nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodavarapu, Ramakrishna K.; Feng, Suhua; Bernatavichute, Yana V.; Chen, Pao-Yang; Stroud, Hume; Yu, Yanchun; Hetzel, Jonathan; Kuo, Frank; Kim, Jin; Cokus, Shawn J.; Casero, David; Bernal, Maria; Huijser, Peter; Clark, Amander T.; Krämer, Ute; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosomes compact and regulate access to DNA in the nucleus, and are composed of approximately 147 bases of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer1, 2. Here we report a genome-wide nucleosome positioning analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana utilizing massively parallel sequencing of mononucleosomes. By combining this data with profiles of DNA methylation at single base resolution, we identified ten base periodicities in the DNA methylation status of nucleosome-bound DNA and found that nucleosomal DNA was more highly methylated than flanking DNA. These results suggest that nucleosome positioning strongly influences DNA methylation patterning throughout the genome and that DNA methyltransferases preferentially target nucleosome-bound DNA. We also observed similar trends in human nucleosomal DNA suggesting that the relationships between nucleosomes and DNA methyltransferases are conserved. Finally, as has been observed in animals, nucleosomes were highly enriched on exons, and preferentially positioned at intron-exon and exon-intron boundaries. RNA Pol II was also enriched on exons relative to introns, consistent with the hypothesis that nucleosome positioning regulates Pol II processivity. DNA methylation is enriched on exons, consistent with the targeting of DNA methylation to nucleosomes, and suggesting a role for DNA methylation in exon definition. PMID:20512117

  10. Seamless reconstruction of mitral leaflet and chordae with one piece of pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Aoki, Masakazu; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yasunari; Sawaki, Sadanari; Yanagisawa, Junji; Tokoro, Masayoshi

    2014-06-01

    Mitral valve repair is challenging when enough pliable mitral leaflets and chordae are not left intact because of extensive infective endocarditis or chronic sclerotic degeneration. For those cases, we developed a simple method to reconstruct defective leaflets and chordae en bloc with a piece of pericardium, and the mid-term results were evaluated. From January 2009 to November 2013, 25 patients with the mean age of 63 (range 20-88) years underwent this operation. The causes of mitral regurgitation were infective endocarditis in 8, sclerotic degeneration in 8, leaflet dehiscence of previous repair in 2, mitral annular calcification in 3, rheumatic in 2 and congenital in 2. After complete debridement of infected or consolidated tissue, we reconstructed defective mitral leaflets and chordae en bloc with a piece of glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium. To substitute posterior leaflet and chordae, the pericardium was trimmed into a narrow pentagonal shape. The pointed end was attached directly to the corresponding papillary muscle, basal side edges to remnant leaflets on both sides, and the base to the annulus. For anterior leaflet, the pericardium was trimmed into a triangular shape if the lesion was confined in the left or right half or into a double-triangle shape if the lesion involved whole anterior leaflet. The summit of triangle was fixed to corresponding papillary muscle, and the base to remnant anterior leaflet, thus reconstructing coaptation zone and chordae seamlessly. There was no hospital death, and mitral regurgitation at discharge was none or trivial in all patients. During 1-59 months (mean 12.7) of complete follow-up, death, infection or hemolysis was not observed. In one patient, mitral regurgitation recurred 8 months postoperatively because the fixation suture of the pericardium to the papillary muscle broke. The valve was re-repaired with re-attaching the leg of the pericardium. Regurgitation was less than moderate in all other patients

  11. Simulation of Double-Seaming in a Two-piece Aluminum Can

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanko, Anne; Berry, Dale; Fox, David

    2004-06-01

    The aluminum can industry in the United States and Canada manufactures over 100 billion cans per year. Two-piece aluminum cans are commonly used to seal and deliver foodstuffs such as soft drinks, beer, pet food, and other perishable items. In order to ensure product safety and performance, the double seam between the can body and lid is a critical component of the package. Double-seaming is a method by which the flange of the can body and the curl of the end are folded over together such that the final joint is composed of five metal thicknesses. There are a number of design challenges involved with the art of double seaming, especially with the push to lightweight. Although the requirements vary by product, the typical beer package must be able to hold pressures in excess of 90psi. In addition, in production, double seaming is a high-speed operation with speeds as high as 3000 cans/minute on an 18-spindle seamer. For this high volume, low cost industry, understanding and optimizing the seaming process can advance the industry as well as help prevent various manufacturing problems that produce a poor seal between the two pieces of the can. To aid in understanding the mechanics of the can parts during double-seaming, a simulation procedure was developed and carried out on a 202 diameter beverage can and lid. Simulations were run with the explicit dynamics solver ABAQUS/Explicit using the continuum shell element technology available in the ABAQUS general purpose FEA program. The continuum shell is a shear-deformable shell element with the topology of an eight node brick. The element's formulation allows continuously varying, solution-dependent shell thickness and through-thickness pinching stress. One important advantage of using the continuum shell as opposed to a traditional shell element is that true contact interactions at the top and bottom surfaces of the can body and lid can be accurately modeled. With a conventional shell element, contact is performed at the

  12. An in silico DNA cloning experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced high school biology classes. Students begin by examining a plasmid map with the goal of identifying which restriction enzymes may be used to clone a piece of foreign DNA containing a gene of interest into the vector. From the National Center for Biotechnology Initiative website, students are instructed to retrieve a protein sequence and use Expasy's Reverse Translate program to reverse translate the protein to cDNA. Students then use Integrated DNA Technologies' OligoAnalyzer to predict the complementary DNA strand and obtain DNA recognition sequences for the desired restriction enzymes from New England Biolabs' website. Students add the appropriate DNA restriction sequences to the double-stranded foreign DNA for cloning into the plasmid and infecting Escherichia coli cells. Students are introduced to computational biology tools, molecular biology terminology and the process of DNA cloning in this valuable single session, in silico experiment. This project develops students' understanding of the cloning process as a whole and contrasts with other laboratory and internship experiences in which the students may be involved in only a piece of the cloning process/techniques. Students interested in pursuing postgraduate study and research or employment in an academic biochemistry or molecular biology laboratory or industry will benefit most from this experience.

  13. Regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana (kudzu) by cork pieces, XAD-4, and methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Chang, Soo Chul; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Vardapetyan, Hrachik

    2006-12-01

    A mini-hydroponic growing system was employed for seedlings of kudzu vine (Pueraria montana) and contents of isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin, and puerarin) from shoot and root parts of seedlings were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, exogenous cork pieces, polymeric adsorbent, XAD-4, and universal elicitor, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), were used to regulate the production of these isoflavones. It was shown that cork pieces up-regulate the production of daidzein and genistein up to seven- and eight-fold greater than the levels obtained for control roots. In contrast, levels of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, decrease up to five- and eight-fold, respectively. Cork treatment also induces the excretion of the root isoflavone constituents into the growth medium. Minimal levels of isoflavones are absorbed by the cork pieces. XAD-4 stimulates the production of glucosyl conjugates, daidzin and genistin, in root parts about 1.5-fold greater than that obtained in control roots. These are the highest amounts of daidzin and genistin that are observed (5.101 and 6.759 mg g(-1) dry weight, respectively). In contrast to these two adsorbents, MeJA increases the accumulation of isoflavones in shoot rather than in root parts of seedlings, about three- to four-fold over control levels, with the exception of genistein. These studies reveal new observations on the regulation of isoflavone production in hydroponically grown Pueraria montana plants by two adsorbents (cork pieces and XAD-4) and MeJA elicitor.

  14. An "Ideology in Pieces" Approach to Studying Change in Teachers' Sensemaking about Race, Racism, and Racial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a unique contribution to the literature on teachers' racialized sensemaking by proposing a framework of "ideology in pieces" that synthesizes Hall's (1982, 1996) theory of ideology and diSessa's (1993) theory of conceptual change. Hall's theory of ideology enables an examination of teachers' sensemaking as situated within a…

  15. Determining Rooting Ability of Ennobled Blueberry Wood Pieces (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with Presence of Growth Regulators IBA and NAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABRI BRAHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ennobled blueberry (V. Corymbosum L. has many specific requirements for optimal growth, therefore, the increase of cultivated areas is limited. It requires acidic soils (pH 4,3-4,8, well drained, with full aeration and a constant moderate amount of moisture. The successful technique of asexual propagation will be necessary for rapid clonal propagation of selected cultivars. The objective of this experiment was to identify an efficient way to improve rooting with the help of growth regulators in the ‘Bluecrop’ cultivar using well-lignified one-year old wood pieces, collected at the end of winter, end of March prior to bud swelling. Treatments with various concentrations (1500, 3000, 4500 mg/l, show that treatment with IBA at 3000 mg/l has the highest rooting percentage in comparison to NAA. Whilst the torf-perlite substrate (at a 2:1 ratio, has produced a higher rooting percentage compared to the torf-only substrate, and the crucial factor for successful rooting is the time of collecting wood pieces. Treatment results have promoted higher rooting of wooden pieces compared to the control (untreated wooden pieces. The most efficient promotor in all concentrations was IBA.

  16. Service the Two-Piece Flo-Jet Carburetor. Fuel System. Student Manual 3. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing two-piece flo-jet carburetors. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  17. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Michael; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Corcoran, Amanda; Lewis, Sharon; Uzzell, Renata; Simon, Candace; Heppen, Jessica; Leinwand, Steve; Salinger, Terry; de Mello, Victor Bandeira; Dogan, Enis; Novotny, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This is an abridged, summary report of selected findings from "Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress"--a comprehensive study prepared by the Council of the Great City Schools in collaboration with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and with…

  18. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  19. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before e

  20. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before

  1. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  2. Quantitative analysis of the DNA distribution on cigarette butt filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Lisa; Engen, Sarah; Frank, Greg

    2013-03-01

    The distribution of DNA on the filter paper of smoked cigarette butts was quantitatively mapped using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The filter papers from smoked cigarette butts collected from indoor and outdoor sources were sliced into equal pieces and the amount of DNA on each slice was determined. This study found that the cigarette butt filter papers sliced parallel to the seam of the cigarette had more uniformly distributed DNA on the slices and in most cases, there was enough DNA on each slice to obtain a complete DNA profile. The perpendicular slices had a less uniform pattern of distribution and some slices did not have enough DNA to obtain an interpretable DNA profile. Cigarette butts found indoors also had more DNA per cigarette on average than cigarette butts found outdoors.

  3. Evaluation of Four Automated Protocols for Extraction of DNA from FTA Cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Børsting, Claus; Ferrero-Miliani, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead-based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable, and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. Here, we have compared the yield and quality of DNA extracted from FTA cards using four automated extraction...... protocols on three different instruments. The extraction processes were repeated up to six times with the same pieces of FTA cards. The sample material on the FTA cards was either blood or buccal cells. With the QIAamp DNA Investigator and QIAsymphony DNA Investigator kits, it was possible to extract DNA...... from the FTA cards in all six rounds of extractions in sufficient amount and quality to obtain complete short tandem repeat (STR) profiles on a QIAcube and a QIAsymphony SP. With the PrepFiler Express kit, almost all the extractable DNA was extracted in the first two rounds of extractions. Furthermore...

  4. Evaluation of Four Automated Protocols for Extraction of DNA from FTA Cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Børsting, Claus; Ferrero-Miliani, Laura;

    2013-01-01

    protocols on three different instruments. The extraction processes were repeated up to six times with the same pieces of FTA cards. The sample material on the FTA cards was either blood or buccal cells. With the QIAamp DNA Investigator and QIAsymphony DNA Investigator kits, it was possible to extract DNA......Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead-based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable, and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. Here, we have compared the yield and quality of DNA extracted from FTA cards using four automated extraction...... from the FTA cards in all six rounds of extractions in sufficient amount and quality to obtain complete short tandem repeat (STR) profiles on a QIAcube and a QIAsymphony SP. With the PrepFiler Express kit, almost all the extractable DNA was extracted in the first two rounds of extractions. Furthermore...

  5. Large scale generation of micro-droplet array by vapor condensation on mesh screen piece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Xu, Jinliang; He, Xiaotian; Liu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    We developed a novel micro-droplet array system, which is based on the distinct three dimensional mesh screen structure and sintering and oxidation induced thermal-fluid performance. Mesh screen was sintered on a copper substrate by bonding the two components. Non-uniform residue stress is generated along weft wires, with larger stress on weft wire top location than elsewhere. Oxidation of the sintered package forms micro pits with few nanograsses on weft wire top location, due to the stress corrosion mechanism. Nanograsses grow elsewhere to show hydrophobic behavior. Thus, surface-energy-gradient weft wires are formed. Cooling the structure in a wet air environment nucleates water droplets on weft wire top location, which is more “hydrophilic” than elsewhere. Droplet size is well controlled by substrate temperature, air humidity and cooling time. Because warp wires do not contact copper substrate and there is a larger conductive thermal resistance between warp wire and weft wire, warp wires contribute less to condensation but function as supporting structure. The surface energy analysis of drops along weft wires explains why droplet array can be generated on the mesh screen piece. Because the commercial material is used, the droplet system is cost effective and can be used for large scale utilization.

  6. Calculation of theoretical lubrication regimes in two-piece first metatarsophalangeal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, T J

    2008-01-01

    The key joint of the forefoot during gait is the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It plays an important role in propelling the human form but can be subject to a number of diseases which can lead to its replacement with an artificial joint. Some of these designs of prosthesis employ a two-piece ball and socket arrangement and are available with a range of biomaterial couples including ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal and metal-on-polymer. Calculation of predicted lubrication regimes applicable to these implant designs was undertaken. Modelling the ball and socket implant as an equivalent ball-on-plane model and employing elastohydrodynamic theory allowed the minimum film thickness to be calculated and in turn the lambda ratio to indicate the lubrication regime. The calculations were undertaken for a 50 to 1500 N range of loading values, a 0 to 30 mm/s range of entraining velocities, and a 3 to 15 mm radius range of sizes. Calculations showed that the ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal implants could operate under fluid film lubrication, whereas the metal-on-polymer combination operated in the boundary lubrication regime. It was also recognized that manufacturing capabilities are critical to the radial clearances and values of surface roughness that can be achieved, and thus the predicted lubrication regime.

  7. OVERVIEW OF WORK PIECE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR MACHINING OF Ti6Al4V#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.T. Conradie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ti6Al4V is one of the most widely used titanium alloys in aerospace applications, but its machining remains a challenge. Comprehensive research has been done in the past, mainly investigating tool failure of various materials. Less research has been done to investigate the thermal effect of machining on work piece quality, including fatigue performance. Temperature measurement is considered to be a key enabling technology. This study presents an overview of current temperature measurement techniques for machined and tool surfaces. Two categories of methods were investigated: slower contact, and faster optical methods. Optical fibre two colour pyrometry experiments are reported that demonstrate the technique’s adequate response time. The infrared camera temperature measurement experiments synchronised temperature measurement with visual observation, aimed at mechanism analysis. The results corresponded with the literature.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ti6Al4V is een van die mees gewilde lugvaart allooie, maar sy masjinering is ’n uitdaging. Bestaande navorsing dek beitelslytasie omvattend. Die termiese effek van masjinering op werkstuk integriteit, insluitend vermoeiingleeftyd, het egter veel minder dekking geniet. Temperatuurmeting wat in hierdie studie ondersoek word, word as ’n sleuteltegnologie beskou. Twee kategorië metodes is ondersoek, nl stadige kontakmetodes en optiese metodes met vinnige respons, wat die meting van oorgangsverskynsels moontlik maak. Eksperimentele werk wat beide optiese vesel tweekleurpirometrie en termiese kamera tegnieke insluit bewys die tegnieke as geskik vir die benodigde navorsing.

  8. Going nuts: Measuring free-fall acceleration by analyzing the sound of falling metal pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Theilmann, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Galilei presented the kinematics of a one-dimensional accelerated motion with ease and in terms of elegant geometry. Moreover, he believed, "Philosophy [i.e. physics] is written in this grand book—I mean the universe—which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it." In classroom practice, however, it can be difficult to reveal this mathematical heart of nature; free fall and other accelerated motions often get obscured by friction or other sources of errors. In this paper, we introduce a method of analyzing free-fall motion indirectly by evaluating the noise of freely falling metal pieces. The method connects a deeper understanding of the mathematical structure of accelerated motion with the possibility to derive a numerical value for the free-fall acceleration g.

  9. Research on one-piece structure target flow sensing technology based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuntong; Zhang, Zhengyi; Li, Hongcai; He, Zhenxin; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wu, Rongjing

    2016-12-01

    In view of problems existing in the detection of the traditional hydraulic system, such as the large volume of sensor and the low measurement accuracy, a new one-piece target type flow sensor is designed and researched based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG). A compact structure is designed, which is convenient to be dismantled, processed, and installed, based on the analysis of the principle of FBG and the structure of target type flow sensor. The force of target put in fluid flow is turned into the FBG wavelength drift, with a corresponding relationship. The problem on the cross sensitivities of the temperature and strain is solved effectively by using double FBG symmetrically pasted on the both surfaces of the cantilever. The impact on the fluid state is analyzed through simulation in the software FLUENT, and the results show that the impact was smaller than that of the traditional structure. The results of experiments in the hydraulic system show that there is a good linear relationship between the change in the dual FBG central wavelength and mass loading on the target sheet has a good linear relationship, and the sensitivity is twice that of a single FBG sensitivity.

  10. A multivariate piecing-together approach with an application to operational loss data

    CERN Document Server

    Aulbach, Stefan; Falk, Michael; 10.3150/10-BEJ343

    2012-01-01

    The univariate piecing-together approach (PT) fits a univariate generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) to the upper tail of a given distribution function in a continuous manner. We propose a multivariate extension. First it is shown that an arbitrary copula is in the domain of attraction of a multivariate extreme value distribution if and only if its upper tail can be approximated by the upper tail of a multivariate GPD with uniform margins. The multivariate PT then consists of two steps: The upper tail of a given copula $C$ is cut off and substituted by a multivariate GPD copula in a continuous manner. The result is again a copula. The other step consists of the transformation of each margin of this new copula by a given univariate distribution function. This provides, altogether, a multivariate distribution function with prescribed margins whose copula coincides in its central part with $C$ and in its upper tail with a GPD copula. When applied to data, this approach also enables the evaluation of a wide rang...

  11. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungshin Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. Therefore, the equations of motion for the HRG resonator with switched harmonic excitations are derived with the Duhamel Integral method. Electromechanical modeling of the resonator, electric module and charge amplifier is performed by considering the mode shape of a thin hemispherical shell. Further, signal processing and control algorithms are designed. The multi-flexing scheme of sensing, driving cycles and x, y-axis switching cycles is appropriate for high precision and low maneuverability systems. The differential control scheme is easily capable of rejecting the common mode errors of x, y-axis signals and changing the rate integrating mode on basis of these studies. In the rate gyro mode the controller is composed of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL, amplitude, quadrature and rate control loop. All controllers are designed on basis of a digital PI controller. The signal processing and control algorithms are verified through Matlab/Simulink simulations. Finally, a FPGA and DSP board with these algorithms is verified through experiments.

  12. Early clinical experience with a new preloaded one-piece intraocular lens in paediatric cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, D B; Chan, T K J

    2016-09-01

    PurposeTo report the clinical experience of using the Tecnis PCB00 (Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA, USA) preloaded one-piece intraocular lens (IOL) in the setting of a tertiary referral centre for paediatric cataract.MethodsA retrospective case note review of all paediatric cataract surgeries using the Tecnis PCB00 IOL, at a single UK paediatric ophthalmology department.ResultsNine eyes in seven patients received the IOL between December 2014 and January 2016. All patients underwent lens aspiration and insertion of the IOL 'in the bag.' The indications for surgery included developmental cataract (8/9) and traumatic cataract (1/9). Mean age at the time of surgery was 7 years (range 2-14). The median improvement in logMAR best-corrected visual acuity was 0.475 (range 0.250-1.500). The mean follow-up duration was 5 months (range 1-13). No operative or post-operative complications occurred as a result of using the device.ConclusionThe Tecnis PCB00 preloaded IOL appears to be a safe and effective device in treating paediatric cataract.

  13. A deterministic algorithm for generating optimal three-stage layouts of homogenous strip pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The time required by the algorithms for general layouts to solve the large-scale two-dimensional cutting problems may become unaffordable. So this paper presents an exact algorithm to solve above problems.Design/methodology/approach: The algorithm uses the dynamic programming algorithm to generate the optimal homogenous strips, solves the knapsack problem to determine the optimal layout of the homogenous strip in the composite strip and the composite strip in the segment, and optimally selects the enumerated segments to compose the three-stage layout.Findings: The algorithm not only meets the shearing and punching process need, but also achieves good results within reasonable time.Originality/value: The algorithm is tested through 43 large-scale benchmark problems. The number of optimal solutions is 39 for this paper’s algorithm; the rate of the rest 4 problem’s solution value and the optimal solution is 99.9%, and the average consumed time is only 2.18 seconds. This paper’s pattern is used to simplify the cutting process. Compared with the classic three-stage, the two-segment and the T-shape algorithms, the solutions of the algorithm are better than that of the above three algorithms. Experimental results show that the algorithm to solve a large-scale piece packing quickly and efficiency.

  14. Memory structures for encoding and retrieving a piece of music: an ERP investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamon, Aaron; Egner, Tobias

    2004-12-01

    This study examined behavioral and neural correlates of expert musical memory, specifically the hypothesis that particular bars within a complex piece of music would serve as structural markers for encoding to and retrieval from memory. Six pianists were asked to learn and memorize a set prelude by J.S. Bach for performance, and to identify bars that they employed for structuring the prelude into component sections. Following performance from memory, the participants took part in a visual recognition memory task, in which single bars from the prelude had to be distinguished from matched new bars. During the recognition task, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, and event-related potentials (ERPs) from correctly identified prelude stimulus trials were averaged according to their hypothesized status into "structural" and "nonstructural" bars. The results showed that correct identification of structural bars was significantly faster (and tended to display higher accuracy) than recognition of non-structural ones. In addition, recognition of structural bars was associated with a significantly greater negative ERP peak of 300-400 ms latency and a right centro-parietal scalp distribution. This mid-latency negativity appears to index processing of stimuli that served as cues for encoding and retrieval of a complex semantic structure, and is qualitatively and conceptually different from other previously identified recognition memory ERPs (such as the "old/new" effect), as well as from the classic N400 ERP. The data support existing theories of expert memory and music cognition.

  15. One piece ultracompact totally implantable electromechanical total artificial heart for permanent use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatani, Setsuo; Sakamoto, Tohru; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Arai, Hirokuni

    2002-01-01

    An ultracompact, one piece, totally implantable electromechanical total artificial heart (TAH) has been developed as a permanent replacement for failing hearts. It consists of left and right pusher plate blood pumps (stroke volume 55 ml) made of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb) sandwiching a miniaturized electromechanical actuator between them. The diameter of the TAH is 90 mm, with a thickness of 70 mm, yielding an overall volume of 400 ml. It weighs 450 g. Although it is miniaturized, it provided a maximum pump output of 8 L/min against a left afterload of 100 mm Hg. It required approximately 12 watts to provide a pump output of 6.5 L/min with maximum efficiency of 13.5%. To balance left and right flow, the right stroke length was made 10% shorter than the left, and an auxiliary compliance chamber was used to compensate for additional flow differences between them. Motor commutation pulses and a Hall effect pusher plate sensor signal were used in the controller to implement the left master alternate variable rate mode. The calf fitting study revealed excellent anatomic compatibility, and the first successful survivor was obtained in December 2001. Studies of system endurance and biocompatibility are required to ensure long-term reliability. This TAH is promising for permanent replacement of the failing heart as well as for bridge to heart transplantation for the smaller size group of end-stage cardiac patients.

  16. Study of the curvature of green pieces in stoneware ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pablos, A.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic tiles undergo some deformations on the production line. After pressing, tiles are flat but, in subsequent stages of the production line, surfaces are wetted producing temperature and water gradients across their thickness. These gradients generate curvature in the tiles and therefore deformations in the pieces. The aim of the present work has been to measure the curvature and the mechanical properties of the tiles as a function of the water absorption for two types of ceramic pastes.

    Las baldosas cerámicas sufren deformaciones durante su proceso en línea de producción. Cuando las baldosas salen de la prensa presentan una superficie plana, pero en las siguientes etapas de la línea de producción la superficie de las muestras se humedece, produciéndose gradientes de temperatura y humedad que dan lugar a una deformación por curvatura de la pieza. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar dicha curvatura y las propiedades mecánicas de las baldosas en función de la humedad absorbida en dos tipos de pastas cerámicas.

  17. Design and Verification of a Digital Controller for a 2-Piece Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungshin; Yun, Sung Wook; Rhim, Jaewook

    2016-04-20

    A Hemispherical Resonator Gyro (HRG) is the Coriolis Vibratory Gyro (CVG) that measures rotation angle or angular velocity using Coriolis force acting the vibrating mass. A HRG can be used as a rate gyro or integrating gyro without structural modification by simply changing the control scheme. In this paper, differential control algorithms are designed for a 2-piece HRG. To design a precision controller, the electromechanical modelling and signal processing must be pre-performed accurately. Therefore, the equations of motion for the HRG resonator with switched harmonic excitations are derived with the Duhamel Integral method. Electromechanical modeling of the resonator, electric module and charge amplifier is performed by considering the mode shape of a thin hemispherical shell. Further, signal processing and control algorithms are designed. The multi-flexing scheme of sensing, driving cycles and x, y-axis switching cycles is appropriate for high precision and low maneuverability systems. The differential control scheme is easily capable of rejecting the common mode errors of x, y-axis signals and changing the rate integrating mode on basis of these studies. In the rate gyro mode the controller is composed of Phase-Locked Loop (PLL), amplitude, quadrature and rate control loop. All controllers are designed on basis of a digital PI controller. The signal processing and control algorithms are verified through Matlab/Simulink simulations. Finally, a FPGA and DSP board with these algorithms is verified through experiments.

  18. Clinical properties of a novel, glistening-free, single-piece, hydrophobic acrylic IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Packer,1 Mohan Rajan,2 Edoardo Ligabue,3 Peter Heiner4 1Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 2Rajan Eye Care Hospital Pvt Ltd, Chennai, India; 3Ophthalmology Department, Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milan, Italy; 4Bond University Medical School, Robina, QLD, Australia Abstract: A new, single-piece, hydrophobic acrylic lens – the first constructed with a lens optic and haptics comprised of a hydroxyethyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol phenyl ether acrylate–styrene copolymer, cross-linked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and labeled as "glistening-free" – was recently introduced globally. Glistenings have been a significant source of clinical concern with previous hydrophobic lens designs. This new monofocal lens provides enhanced, clear optics for lens-based surgery. The superior optical clarity of this lens is achieved through the elimination of glistenings, enhanced surface durability, high refractive index, a high Abbe number, and an aspheric design. Additionally, the lens design reduces the risk of developing posterior capsule opacification. Keywords: glistenings, monofocal hydrophobic acrylic, IOL, aspheric

  19. Hamlet - little known piece by Enriko Josif: Literary-theoretical, philosophical and musicological views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamlet is well-known as the most famous tragedy written by William Shakespeare. This dramatic work has, throughout the centuries, lead numerous writers, poets, literary-critics and philosophers to think about universal issues of life, human nature, love, loyalty and friendship. Hamlet has not just been the subject of discussion from the point of view of the theory of literature and human psychology and philosophy, it has also directly inspired the creation of many artistic works. One of those works which forms the main subject-matter of this paper is the almost unknown music for Hamlet by Enriko Josif. Enriko Josif was an extraordinary figure, a versatile artist and thinker, almost a kind of philosopher. In his opinion and in accordance with his inner feeling, art was a matter of divine creation first of all. He admired those artists who dealt with difficult issues of life in their works of art and William Shakespeare was to him one of the most prominent among them. In general terms, we have highlighted certain general points about Josif’s views on an artist’s life and work and have presented our notions about his piece. Specifically, we have tried to point out personal views that Josif held about Hamlet, as well as the most important features of Josif’s music, which are broadly in accordance with the literary, ethical, philosophical and theological critical tradition surrounding this masterpiece.

  20. Piece-wise quadratic approximations of arbitrary error functions for fast and robust machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorban, A N; Mirkes, E M; Zinovyev, A

    2016-12-01

    Most of machine learning approaches have stemmed from the application of minimizing the mean squared distance principle, based on the computationally efficient quadratic optimization methods. However, when faced with high-dimensional and noisy data, the quadratic error functionals demonstrated many weaknesses including high sensitivity to contaminating factors and dimensionality curse. Therefore, a lot of recent applications in machine learning exploited properties of non-quadratic error functionals based on L1 norm or even sub-linear potentials corresponding to quasinorms Lp (0basic universal data approximation algorithms (k-means, principal components, principal manifolds and graphs, regularized and sparse regression), based on piece-wise quadratic error potentials of subquadratic growth (PQSQ potentials). We develop a new and universal framework to minimize arbitrary sub-quadratic error potentials using an algorithm with guaranteed fast convergence to the local or global error minimum. The theory of PQSQ potentials is based on the notion of the cone of minorant functions, and represents a natural approximation formalism based on the application of min-plus algebra. The approach can be applied in most of existing machine learning methods, including methods of data approximation and regularized and sparse regression, leading to the improvement in the computational cost/accuracy trade-off. We demonstrate that on synthetic and real-life datasets PQSQ-based machine learning methods achieve orders of magnitude faster computational performance than the corresponding state-of-the-art methods, having similar or better approximation accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Data pieces-based parameter identification for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zou, Yuan; Sun, Fengchun; Hu, Xiaosong; Yu, Yang; Feng, Sen

    2016-10-01

    Battery characteristics vary with temperature and aging, it is necessary to identify battery parameters periodically for electric vehicles to ensure reliable State-of-Charge (SoC) estimation, battery equalization and safe operation. Aiming for on-board applications, this paper proposes a data pieces-based parameter identification (DPPI) method to identify comprehensive battery parameters including capacity, OCV (open circuit voltage)-Ah relationship and impedance-Ah relationship simultaneously only based on battery operation data. First a vehicle field test was conducted and battery operation data was recorded, then the DPPI method is elaborated based on vehicle test data, parameters of all 97 cells of the battery package are identified and compared. To evaluate the adaptability of the proposed DPPI method, it is used to identify battery parameters of different aging levels and different temperatures based on battery aging experiment data. Then a concept of "OCV-Ah aging database" is proposed, based on which battery capacity can be identified even though the battery was never fully charged or discharged. Finally, to further examine the effectiveness of the identified battery parameters, they are used to perform SoC estimation for the test vehicle with adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF). The result shows good accuracy and reliability.

  2. [Popular Health Insurance: key piece of inequity in health in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez González, Silvia; Eibenschutz, Catalina

    2008-12-01

    This work is aimed at presenting an analysis of the Mexican health systems current situation resulting from successive reforms which have been carried out since the 1980s. Special interest is placed on the role which the Seguro Popular de Salud (SPS--a 'popular', meaning universal, health insurance plan) has played, being a key piece in commercializing medical attention. The first part of this work thus presents the main antecedents for the changes made during the last two decades of the last century and analyses the current situation since the start of the new millennium. Such analysis is centred on an initial evaluation of the Seguro Popular de Saluds scope and limitations from the perspective of equity in gaining access to medical attention. The analysis concludes that due to a medical perspective not having been present in the structural reforms, then this insurance policy represents a discretional, presidential and focalised programme taking funds away from the large social security institutions, obligating them (in many cases) to make budgetary adaptations to the detriment of providing quality attention. This situation will constitute (in the immediate future) a segmentation of the National Health System which will determine new conditions regarding the populations differential access to medical services, increase inequity in health and contribute towards increasing the great social inequality prevailing in México.

  3. Semantic Web, Reusable Learning Objects, Personal Learning Networks in Health: Key Pieces for Digital Health Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Wharrad, Heather; Windle, Richard; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge existing in the World Wide Web is exponentially expanding, while continuous advancements in health sciences contribute to the creation of new knowledge. There are a lot of efforts trying to identify how the social connectivity can endorse patients' empowerment, while other studies look at the identification and the quality of online materials. However, emphasis has not been put on the big picture of connecting the existing resources with the patients "new habits" of learning through their own Personal Learning Networks. In this paper we propose a framework for empowering patients' digital health literacy adjusted to patients' currents needs by utilizing the contemporary way of learning through Personal Learning Networks, existing high quality learning resources and semantics technologies for interconnecting knowledge pieces. The framework based on the concept of knowledge maps for health as defined in this paper. Health Digital Literacy needs definitely further enhancement and the use of the proposed concept might lead to useful tools which enable use of understandable health trusted resources tailored to each person needs.

  4. Finite element analysis of multi-piece post-crown restoration using different types of adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Wei Lu; Guang-Wei Meng; Zhi-Hui Liu

    2013-01-01

    The multi-piece post-crown technique is more effective in restoring residual root than other restoration techniques. Various types of adhesives have different material properties that affect restoration. Therefore, the choice of adhesive is particularly important for patients. However, the effect of different kinds of adhesives was not too precise by experimental methods when concerning about individual differences of teeth. One tooth root can only be restored with one type of adhesive in experiment. After the mechanical test, this tooth root cannot be restored with other adhesives. With the help of medical imaging technology, reverse engineering and finite element analysis, a molar model can be reconstructed precisely and restored using different types of adhesives. The same occlusal and chewing loads were exerted on the same restored residual root models with different types of adhesives separately. Results of von Mises stress analysis showed that the adhesives with low Young’s modulus can protect the root canal effectively. However, a root canal concentration is apparently produced around the root canal orifice when chewing. Adhesives with large Young’s modulus can buffer the stress concentration of the root canal orifice. However, the root canal tissue may be destroyed because the adhesive is too hard to buffer the load.

  5. Impact of high temperature on ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus immobilized on banana leaf sheath pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoang Du; Thanonkeo, Pornthap; Le, Van Viet Man

    2013-10-01

    Ethanol fermentation was carried out with Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at various temperatures (30, 35, 40, and 45 °C). Fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast on banana leaf sheath pieces and the free yeast were evaluated and compared. Generally, ethanol production of the immobilized and free yeast was stable in a temperature range of 30-40 °C. Temperature of 45 °C restricted yeast growth and lengthened the fermentation. The immobilized yeast demonstrated faster sugar assimilation and higher ethanol level in the fermentation broth in comparison with the free yeast at all fermentation temperatures. Change in fatty acid level in cellular membrane was determined to clarify the response of the free and immobilized yeast to thermal stress. The free cells of K. marxianus responded to temperature increase by increasing saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0) level and by decreasing unsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 and C18:2) level in cellular membrane. For fermentation at 40 °C with immobilized cells of K. marxianus, however, the changes were not observed in both saturated fatty acid (C16:0) and unsaturated fatty acid (C18:1 and C18:2) level.

  6. Repulsive DNA-DNA interactions accelerate viral DNA packaging in phage phi29

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Nicholas; delToro, Damian; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    We use optical tweezers to study the effect of attractive versus repulsive DNA-DNA interactions on motor-driven viral packaging. Screening of repulsive interactions accelerates packaging, but induction of attractive interactions by spermidine3+ causes heterogeneous dynamics. Acceleration is observed in a fraction of complexes, but most exhibit slowing and stalling, suggesting that attractive interactions promote nonequilibrium DNA conformations that impede the motor. Thus, repulsive interacti...

  7. Evaluation of four automated protocols for extraction of DNA from FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Børsting, Claus; Ferrero-Miliani, Laura; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Poulsen, Lena; Hansen, Anders J; Morling, Niels

    2013-10-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead-based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable, and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. Here, we have compared the yield and quality of DNA extracted from FTA cards using four automated extraction protocols on three different instruments. The extraction processes were repeated up to six times with the same pieces of FTA cards. The sample material on the FTA cards was either blood or buccal cells. With the QIAamp DNA Investigator and QIAsymphony DNA Investigator kits, it was possible to extract DNA from the FTA cards in all six rounds of extractions in sufficient amount and quality to obtain complete short tandem repeat (STR) profiles on a QIAcube and a QIAsymphony SP. With the PrepFiler Express kit, almost all the extractable DNA was extracted in the first two rounds of extractions. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it was possible to successfully extract sufficient DNA for STR profiling from previously processed FTA card pieces that had been stored at 4 °C for up to 1 year. This showed that rare or precious FTA card samples may be saved for future analyses even though some DNA was already extracted from the FTA cards.

  8. Human RAD52 Captures and Holds DNA Strands, Increases DNA Flexibility, and Prevents Melting of Duplex DNA: Implications for DNA Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Brouwer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human RAD52 promotes annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. In-depth knowledge of RAD52-DNA interaction is required to understand how its activity is integrated in DNA repair processes. Here, we visualize individual fluorescent RAD52 complexes interacting with single DNA molecules. The interaction with ssDNA is rapid, static, and tight, where ssDNA appears to wrap around RAD52 complexes that promote intra-molecular bridging. With double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, interaction is slower, weaker, and often diffusive. Interestingly, force spectroscopy experiments show that RAD52 alters the mechanics dsDNA by enhancing DNA flexibility and increasing DNA contour length, suggesting intercalation. RAD52 binding changes the nature of the overstretching transition of dsDNA and prevents DNA melting, which is advantageous for strand clamping during or after annealing. DNA-bound RAD52 is efficient at capturing ssDNA in trans. Together, these effects may help key steps in DNA repair, such as second-end capture during homologous recombination or strand annealing during RAD51-independent recombination reactions.

  9. Numerical Simulation of a Grinding Process for the Spatial Work-pieces: Modeling of Grinding Forces and System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kiselev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a computation-experimental technique to determine model coefficients of grinding forces using a Nelder-Mead algorithm. As an error function, the paper offers a deviation measure of calculating and experimental grinding forces averaged for a single-pass of the grinding wheel. As an example of cutting forces model coefficients calculation for linear model, in which the grinding forces depend on uncut chip thickness is analyzed. The coefficients vary on abrasive grain geometric parameters and are determined applying the authors-developed method based on Nelder-Mead technique. The measured forces while plane grinding of test work-piece are used to determine the coefficients. Model coefficients are identified if compare the measured data with the results of modeling for grinding by tool with the uniformly distributed abrasive grains with the triangular shape of cutting edge.Grinding dynamics simulation applying the determined coefficients was carried out for the processing of cantilever plane work-piece as a test example. The work-piece was processed by grinding wheel transverse passages made at different distances from the fixation. A selfoscillating process accompanied by vibration of high level was observed for some selected technological parameters of grinding. The simulation has shown qualitative and quantitative compliance with the experiment. It was shown that the intensity of the self-oscillating process arising during the processing depends on the work-piece rigidity and cutting conditions. The results of modeling can be applied in practice in developing the technology process of grinding the spatial work-pieces.

  10. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English, preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  11. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes ... the authority to enforce such a limit, the FDA recommended in a draft guidance issued Thursday that ...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA control region variation in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamali, Farida; Brandstätter, Anita; Zimmermann, Bettina; Parson, Walther

    2008-01-01

    249 entire mtDNA control region sequences were generated and analyzed in a population sample from Dubai, one of the seven United Arab Emirates. The control region was amplified in one piece and sequenced with different sequencing primers. Sequence evaluation was performed twice and validated by a third senior mtDNA scientist. Phylogenetic analyses were used for quality assurance purposes and for the determination of the haplogroup affiliation of the samples. Upon publication, the population data are going to be available in the EMPOP database (www.empop.org).

  13. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  14. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  15. Discussion on the Introduction and Design Review Management of Penetration Piece in the Nuclear Power Plant%核电厂贯穿件简介及设计审查管理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余威; 张一木

    2015-01-01

    核电厂中的贯穿件通常由土建和建安两个不同承包商配合施工完成,且涉及到不同的施工专业,较容易发生贯穿件孔洞遗漏或安装配合不佳等问题。在AP1000核电厂中,核岛厂房布置非常紧凑,一旦发生上述问题,再进行设计变更会加剧施工难度。本文从贯穿件的简要介绍和某项目施工中发现的一些问题,提出对AP1000核电厂贯穿件的设计审查管理措施及部分设计优化建议。%In nuclear power plant, the penetration piece is usually completed by two different contractors that responsible for civil engineering and construction safety, and the construction involves different construction professional, it is easy to occur the problems of hole missing of penetration piece or the poor installation. In AP1000 nuclear power plant, nuclear plant is very compact, in the event of the above problems, the design and changes will intensify the construction difficulty. This paper finds the problems of penetration piece from the brief introduction and project construction to put forward the design review management measures and the optimization suggestions of penetration piece for AP1000 nuclear power plant.

  16. DNA data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  17. Disconnecting XRCC1 and DNA ligase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J

    2011-07-15

    DNA strand break repair is essential for the prevention of multiple human diseases, particularly those which feature neuropathology. To further understand the pathogenesis of these syndromes, we recently developed animal models in which the DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) components, XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III (LIG3), were inactivated in the developing nervous system. Although biochemical evidence suggests that inactivation of XRCC1 and LIG3 should share common biological defects, we found profound phenotypic differences between these two models, implying distinct biological roles for XRCC1 and LIG3 during DNA repair. Rather than a key role in nuclear DNA repair, we found LIG3 function was central to mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Instead, our data indicate that DNA Ligase 1 is the main DNA ligase for XRCC1-mediated DNA repair. These studies refine our understanding of DNA SSBR and the etiology of neurological disease.

  18. Disconnecting XRCC1 and DNA ligase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Sachin

    2011-01-01

    DNA strand break repair is essential for the prevention of multiple human diseases, particularly those which feature neuropathology. To further understand the pathogenesis of these syndromes, we recently developed animal models in which the DNA single-strand break repair (SSBR) components, XRCC1 and DNA Ligase III (LIG3), were inactivated in the developing nervous system. Although biochemical evidence suggests that inactivation of XRCC1 and LIG3 should share common biological defects, we found profound phenotypic differences between these two models, implying distinct biological roles for XRCC1 and LIG3 during DNA repair. Rather than a key role in nuclear DNA repair, we found LIG3 function was central to mitochondrial DNA maintenance. Instead, our data indicate that DNA Ligase 1 is the main DNA ligase for XRCC1-mediated DNA repair. These studies refine our understanding of DNA SSBR and the etiology of neurological disease. PMID:21636980

  19. Binary electrokinetic separation of target DNA from background DNA primers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Conrad D.; Derzon, Mark Steven

    2005-10-01

    This report contains the summary of LDRD project 91312, titled ''Binary Electrokinetic Separation of Target DNA from Background DNA Primers''. This work is the first product of a collaboration with Columbia University and the Northeast BioDefense Center of Excellence. In conjunction with Ian Lipkin's lab, we are developing a technique to reduce false positive events, due to the detection of unhybridized reporter molecules, in a sensitive and multiplexed detection scheme for nucleic acids developed by the Lipkin lab. This is the most significant problem in the operation of their capability. As they are developing the tools for rapidly detecting the entire panel of hemorrhagic fevers this technology will immediately serve an important national need. The goal of this work was to attempt to separate nucleic acid from a preprocessed sample. We demonstrated the preconcentration of kilobase-pair length double-stranded DNA targets, and observed little preconcentration of 60 base-pair length single-stranded DNA probes. These objectives were accomplished in microdevice formats that are compatible with larger detection systems for sample pre-processing. Combined with Columbia's expertise, this technology would enable a unique, fast, and potentially compact method for detecting/identifying genetically-modified organisms and multiplexed rapid nucleic acid identification. Another competing approach is the DARPA funded IRIS Pharmaceutical TIGER platform which requires many hours for operation, and an 800k$ piece of equipment that fills a room. The Columbia/SNL system could provide a result in 30 minutes, at the cost of a few thousand dollars for the platform, and would be the size of a shoebox or smaller.

  20. DNA Charge Transport within the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodick, Michael A.; Muren, Natalie B.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    The unique characteristics of DNA charge transport (CT) have prompted an examination of roles for this chemistry within a biological context. Not only can DNA CT facilitate long range oxidative damage of DNA, but redox-active proteins can couple to the DNA base stack and participate in long range redox reactions using DNA CT. DNA transcription factors with redox-active moieties such as SoxR and p53 can use DNA CT as a form of redox sensing. DNA CT chemistry also provides a means to monitor the integrity of the DNA, given the sensitivity of DNA CT to perturbations in base stacking as arise with mismatches and lesions. Enzymes that utilize this chemistry include an interesting and ever-growing class of DNA-processing enzymes involved in DNA repair, replication, and transcription that have been found to contain 4Fe-4S clusters. DNA repair enzymes containing 4Fe-4S clusters, that include Endonuclease III (EndoIII), MutY, and DinG from bacteria, as well as XPD from archaea, have been shown to be redox-active when bound to DNA, share a DNA-bound redox potential, and can be reduced and oxidized at long range via DNA CT. Interactions between DNA and these proteins in solution, in addition to genetics experiments within E. coli, suggest that DNA-mediated CT can be used as a means of cooperative signaling among DNA repair proteins that contain 4Fe-4S clusters as a first step in finding DNA damage, even within cells. Based on these data, we can consider also how DNA-mediated CT may be used as a means of signaling to coordinate DNA processing across the genome. PMID:25606780

  1. DNA adductomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Silvia; Turesky, Robert J; Villalta, Peter W

    2014-03-17

    Systems toxicology is a broad-based approach to describe many of the toxicological features that occur within a living system under stress or subjected to exogenous or endogenous exposures. The ultimate goal is to capture an overview of all exposures and the ensuing biological responses of the body. The term exposome has been employed to refer to the totality of all exposures, and systems toxicology investigates how the exposome influences health effects and consequences of exposures over a lifetime. The tools to advance systems toxicology include high-throughput transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and adductomics, which is still in its infancy. A well-established methodology for the comprehensive measurement of DNA damage resulting from every day exposures is not fully developed. During the past several decades, the (32)P-postlabeling technique has been employed to screen the damage to DNA induced by multiple classes of genotoxicants; however, more robust, specific, and quantitative methods have been sought to identify and quantify DNA adducts. Although triple quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometry, particularly when using multistage scanning (LC-MS(n)), have shown promise in the field of DNA adductomics, it is anticipated that high-resolution and accurate-mass LC-MS(n) instrumentation will play a major role in assessing global DNA damage. Targeted adductomics should also benefit greatly from improved triple quadrupole technology. Once the analytical MS methods are fully mature, DNA adductomics along with other -omics tools will contribute greatly to the field of systems toxicology.

  2. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  3. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  4. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    of chip element formation are cycled. Fluctuations of the cutting force components completely repeat all the stages of local destruction and formation of individual chip elements. Studies have shown that with increased thickness of the cut-off layer the main crack develops below the cut-off line thus significantly affecting the quality of the machined surface: emerging cracks, cavities, chips, and other defects that significantly reduce the product performance.In machining the plasma-sprayed coatings, their high tendency to strengthening and rehardening because of the cutting action has a great impact on the surface quality. This is evident as a loss of the elastic equilibrium state stability and as a destruction of the work-piece surface layer (chipping, peeling, flaking. With increasing curvature of the machined surface (e.g., decreasing radius of cylindrical billet the surface layer is increasingly prone to destruction.Specific problems are cutting fluids used in grinding the plasma-sprayed coatings. Machining in this case comes with saturated liquid vapours formed in the surface layer of a billet under high pressure. With a pressure drop on the tool-side in cutting there is such an intensity of vaporization that micro- and macro-fractures of the machined work-piece surface can be initiated.

  6. Influence of temperature and composition in the mechanical resistance and porosity of ceramic pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordán Vidal, M. M.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to establish a relationship between the raw material and the mechanical properties of ceramic pieces subjected to different firing processes, so under the determinant of the thermal process we have done a follow up on the petrogenetic process that the manufacture of ceramics represents. This is evaluated in terms of the mechanical behaviour of the ceramic tile bodies, which have been normalised and submitted to tests for flexion. The principal objective is to be able to indicate what the optimum firing temperature for each sample is, and to determine what it is in the ceramic body which offers the greatest resistance when a specific force is applied. The study of the texture of the ceramic body will be considered mainly in relation to the existent porosity, as well as its distribution, which conditions its characteristics and specifications. The relation between porosity and the parameters that describe the porous texture of the ceramic tile pieces studied is complicated because of the fact that these have many pores with a complex and irregular spatial disposition, with a broad distribution of forms and sizes, and as such they do not fit into established empirical equations.

    Se ha tratado de establecer la relación entre materia prima y propiedades mecánicas de piezas cerámicas sometidas a procesos de cocción diversos. Bajo el condicionante del proceso térmico se realiza un seguimiento del proceso petrogenético que representa la fabricación cerámica y se evalúa a través del comportamiento mecánico de probetas cerámicas normalizadas y sometidas a ensayos de flexión. El objetivo principal es poder indicar cuál es la temperatura óptima de cocción para cada muestra y determinar cuál es aquélla en que la probeta cerámica ofrece una mayor resistencia al aplicarle una determinada carga. El estudio de la textura de la matriz cerámica es de gran interés en relación con la porosidad, asi como su distribuci

  7. Putting the pieces together: teaching undergraduate research from a theoretical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2003-02-01

    PROBLEM/PURPOSE: Baccalaureate graduates are expected to utilize research across a wide variety of practice settings. While the literature reports a variety of teaching approaches, few studies examine baccalaureate students' comprehension of research content. Teaching techniques that focus on a conceptual or theoretical approach may foster research comprehension. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate teaching/learning outcomes of an undergraduate nursing research course designed from a conceptual or theoretical approach. Two classes of senior baccalaureate nursing students (n = 47) at a private institution, whose curriculum was based on the Roy adaptation model, were surveyed in 1990 and 1991 at the end of their undergraduate research course. The survey tool consisted of seven three-point Likert scale questions, four open-ended questions, and one unstructured comment. Findings showed that 72% strongly agreed that they would continue to read nursing articles in their practice field, 57% disagreed that they were intimidated by research language, and 55% agreed that they trusted their ability to use and utilize nursing research in practice. The most helpful learning activity was the research critique (34%) followed by group work (28%). The support of the teacher and Instructor's use of own research examples was also seen as most helpful (36%), while abstract cards (8%) were least helpful. Nonetheless, 23% requested more group activities, 13% wanted more class examples, and 11% asked for more time to comprehend definitions. Students who approached research from the perspective of a nursing conceptual framework indicated that they put the pieces of the research puzzle together by working in groups, being supported by the Instructor, and learning from a variety of teaching methods.

  8. Optimized design and structural mechanics of a single-piece composite helicopter driveshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Todd C.

    In rotorcraft driveline design, single-piece composite driveshafts have much potential for reducing driveline mass and complexity over multi-segmented metallic driveshafts. The singlepiece shaft concept is enabled by the relatively high fatigue strain capacity of fiber reinforced polymer composites over metals. Challenges for single-piece driveshaft design lie in addressing the self-heating behavior of the composite due to the material damping, as well as, whirling stability, torsional buckling stability, and composite strength. Increased composite temperature due to self-heating reduces the composite strength and is accounted for in this research. The laminate longitudinal stiffness ( Ex) and strength (Fx) are known to be heavily degraded by fiber undulation, however, both are not well understood in compression. The whirling stability (a function of longitudinal stiffness) and the composite strength are strongly influential in driveshaft optimization, and thus are investigated further through the testing of flat and filament wound composite specimens. The design of single-piece composite driveshafts, however, needs to consider many failure criteria, including hysteresis-induced overheating, whirl stability, torsional buckling stability, and material failure by overstress. The present investigation uses multi-objective optimization to investigate the design space which visually highlights design trades. Design variables included stacking sequence, number of laminas, and number of hanger bearings. The design goals were to minimize weight and maximize the lowest factor of safety by adaptively generating solutions to the multi-objective problem. Several design spaces were investigated by examining the effect of misalignment, ambient temperature, and constant power transmission on the optimized solution. Several materials of interest were modeled using experimentally determined elastic properties and novel temperature-dependent composite strength. Compared to the

  9. Drought risk on a pan European scale: integrating the missing piece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The effects of drought on the environment and socio- economic sectors are indisputably linked to each other. Nevertheless, past drought research suffered from an evident lack of ground truth in form of past observed impacts. Consequently most drought indicators are missing the link to a drought's effects on natural and human systems, and the majority of drought risk analyses are based on non-sector-specific, epistemic approaches. Hence, the science and application demands an integration of the missing piece: past drought impacts. Furthermore, for the case of Europe, drought risk analyses are mainly done for country scale or smaller units, even though the effects of the drought hazard are transboundary and long term measures are initiated through the European governance mechanism. This contribution faces drought risk on a pan European scale. A spatio-temporal clustering of drought impact occurrences from the European Drought Impact report Inventory divides Europe into macro regions with similar drought impact characteristics. To link drought impacts to indicators and vulnerability factors, multivariate logistic regression is applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence as a proxy for drought risk. As predictive variables we used a selection of common drought indicators and drought vulnerability analysis factors. The final results are displayed as drought risk maps, presenting drought risk for different levels of hazard severity, showing distinct differences in drought risk depending on location and impact sector. With this work, we contribute to the understanding of feedbacks between drought and society. The knowledge of this relation is essential for drought impact predictions and will improve resilience to this hazard. Furthermore, this information may become an essential tool for policy and decision makers on a European level.

  10. Extracellular DNA metabolism in Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eChimileski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular DNA is found in all environments and is a dynamic component of the micro-bial ecosystem. Microbial cells produce and interact with extracellular DNA through many endogenous mechanisms. Extracellular DNA is processed and internalized for use as genetic information and as a major source of macronutrients, and plays several key roles within prokaryotic biofilms. Hypersaline sites contain some of the highest extracellular DNA con-centrations measured in nature–a potential rich source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus for halophilic microorganisms. We conducted DNA growth studies for the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii DS2 and show that this model Halobacteriales strain is capable of using exogenous double-stranded DNA as a nutrient. Further experiments with varying medium composition, DNA concentration and DNA types revealed that DNA is utilized primarily as a phosphorus source, that growth on DNA is concentration-dependent and that DNA isolated from different sources is metabolized selectively, with a bias against highly divergent methylated DNA sources. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that labeled DNA colocalized with Haloferax volcanii cells. The gene Hvo_1477 was also identified using a comparative genomic approach as a factor likely to be involved in extracellular DNA processing at the cell surface, and deletion of Hvo_1477 created an H. volcanii strain deficient in its ability to grow on extracellular DNA. Widespread distribution of Hvo_1477 homologs in archaea suggests metabolism of extracellular DNA may be of broad ecological and physiological relevance in this domain of life.

  11. DNA and RNA sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; LIN; Lin; ZHAO; Hong; JIANG; Long

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes recent advances in DNA sensor. Major areas of DNA sensor covered in this review include immobilization methods of DNA, general techniques of DNA detection and application of nanoparticles in DNA sensor.

  12. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  13. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  14. Three Suggestions to Improve Medical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佳丽

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of ESP,medical English teaching has an important impact on both English teachers and medical students.A good medical English teaching can help the medical students to improve themselves smoothly and easily in the medical area.In this article,three suggestions were provided for the medical English teachers to improve their English teaching in medical field.

  15. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  16. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  17. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  18. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    of Technology, Beijing 100124, China 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Trusted Computing, Beijing 100124, China 3. National Engineering Laboratory for...CTISCP, Beijing 100124, China ⇤yangzhen@bjut.edu.cn Abstract In this paper we described our efforts for TREC contextual suggestion task. Our goal of this

  19. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  20. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  1. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...

  2. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  3. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  4. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  5. DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA, restoring Beethovens music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merheb, Maxime; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Maniguet, Thiérry; Hänni, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Great ancient composers have endured many obstacles and constraints which are very difficult to understand unless we perform the restoration process of ancient music. Species identification in leather used during manufacturing is the key step to start such a restoration process in order to produce a facsimile of a museum piano. Our study reveals the species identification in the leather covering the hammer head in a piano created by Erard in 1802. This is the last existing piano similar to the piano that Beethoven used with its leather preserved in its original state. The leather sample was not present in a homogeneous piece, yet combined with glue. Using a DNA extraction method that avoids PCR inhibitors; we discovered that sheep and cattle are the origin of the combination. To identify the species in the leather, we focused on the amounts of mitochondrial DNA in both leather and glue and results have led us to the conclusion that the leather used to cover the hammer head in this piano was made of cattle hide.

  7. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

  8. Influence of DNA methylation on positioning and DNA flexibility of nucleosomes with pericentric satellite DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Akihisa; Adachi, Fumiya; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    DNA methylation occurs on CpG sites and is important to form pericentric heterochromatin domains. The satellite 2 sequence, containing seven CpG sites, is located in the pericentric region of human chromosome 1 and is highly methylated in normal cells. In contrast, the satellite 2 region is reportedly hypomethylated in cancer cells, suggesting that the methylation status may affect the chromatin structure around the pericentric regions in tumours. In this study, we mapped the nucleosome positioning on the satellite 2 sequence in vitro and found that DNA methylation modestly affects the distribution of the nucleosome positioning. The micrococcal nuclease assay revealed that the DNA end flexibility of the nucleosomes changes, depending on the DNA methylation status. However, the structures and thermal stabilities of the nucleosomes are unaffected by DNA methylation. These findings provide new information to understand how DNA methylation functions in regulating pericentric heterochromatin formation and maintenance in normal and malignant cells.

  9. Some possible codes for encrypting data in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff C; Fiddes, Ceridwyn C; Hawkins, Jonathan P; Cox, Jonathan P L

    2003-07-01

    Three codes are reported for storing written information in DNA. We refer to these codes as the Huffman code, the comma code and the alternating code. The Huffman code was devised using Huffman's algorithm for constructing economical codes. The comma code uses a single base to punctuate the message, creating an automatic reading frame and DNA which is obviously artificial. The alternating code comprises an alternating sequence of purines and pyrimidines, again creating DNA that is clearly artificial. The Huffman code would be useful for routine, short-term storage purposes, supposing--not unrealistically--that very fast methods for assembling and sequencing large pieces of DNA can be developed. The other two codes would be better suited to archiving data over long periods of time (hundreds to thousands of years).

  10. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  11. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time.

  12. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruta, Mayumi [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Shimada, Midori, E-mail: midorism@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle [Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, 26 rue d’Ulm, CNRS UMR 3244, 75248 ParisCedex 05 (France); Nakanishi, Makoto, E-mail: mkt-naka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.

  13. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  14. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy: a suggestive electroclinical pattern

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is an electroencephalographic pattern suggestive of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy that could be used to improve the chances of early diagnosis.
METHODS—A retrospective study was made of all the clinical records and electroencephalograms of neonates identified with pyridoxine dependent seizures between 1983 and 1994, at this hospital. Neonates whose seizures began after more than 28 days of life were excluded; in all, five patients from four fami...

  15. Suggestions for Improving Translation Teaching Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional translation teaching mode, the teacher is the main body of classroom, the teachers often explain too much and give few opportunities to students to practice. Even in terms of observation and evaluation of translation, it is also basically teacher-centered, so there is rare opportunity and time for students to debate and to express their own views. So the author gives some suggestions on solving this problem.

  16. USCA, a codeveloped piece of technology, is presented to Bridges, KSC Director, by Saputo, L-3 Commu

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    William Saputo, L-3 Communications, presents a new piece of technology, developed through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) partnership with industry, to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Director Roy Bridges, Jr. (second from left). The piece of technology being presented, the Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), is a key component of the codeveloped Automated Data Acquisition System (ADAS) that measures temperature, pressure and vibration at KSC's launch pads. The breakthrough technology is expected to reduce sensor setup and configuration times from hours to seconds. KSC teamed up with Florida's Technological Research and Development Authority and manufacturer L-3 Communications to produce a system that would benefit the aerospace industry and other commercial markets.

  17. Microbial safety and overall quality of cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces prepared from whole fruit after wet steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukuku, Dike O; Geveke, David J; Chau, Lee; Niemira, Brendan A

    2016-08-16

    Fresh-cut cantaloupes have been associated with outbreaks of Salmonellosis. Minimally processed fresh-cut fruits have a limited shelf life because of deterioration caused by spoilage microflora and physiological processes. The objectives of this study were to use a wet steam process to 1) reduce indigenous spoilage microflora and inoculated populations of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of cantaloupes, and 2) reduce the populations counts in cantaloupe fresh-cut pieces after rind removal and cutting. The average inocula of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was 10(7)CFU/ml and the populations recovered on the cantaloupe rind surfaces after inoculation averaged 4.5, 4.8 and 4.1logCFU/cm(2), respectively. Whole cantaloupes were treated with a wet steam processing unit for 180s, and the treated melons were stored at 5°C for 29days. Bacterial populations in fresh-cut pieces prepared from treated and control samples stored at 5 and 10°C for up to 12days were determined and changes in color (CIE L*, a*, and b*) due to treatments were measured during storage. Presence and growth of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were determined in fresh-cut cantaloupe samples. There were no visual signs of physical damage on all treated cantaloupe surfaces immediately after treatments and during storage. All fresh-cut pieces from treated cantaloupes rind surfaces were negative for bacterial pathogens even after an enrichment process. Steam treatment significantly (psteam treatment of cantaloupes rind surfaces designated for fresh-cut preparation will enhance the microbial safety of fresh-cut pieces, by reducing total bacterial populations. This process holds the potential to significantly reduce the incidence of foodborne illness associated with fresh-cut fruits.

  18. Modelling and simulation of the energy recovery from hot steel pieces after an induction treatment by thermoelectricity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Thermoelectricity has a huge potential as an energy recovery technology in a large number of fields in which heat energy is lost and it is exactly what a thermogenerator needs to produce electricity, due to the Seebeck effect. In the steel production by induction furnace, at the end of the production process, the pieces retain a certain heat energy which nowadays is dissipated into the ambient cooling them. Using thermoelectricity to recover this energy is an opportunity to obt...

  19. CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE GENOMIC DNA SEQUENCE OF AUGMENTER OF LIVER REGENERATION FROM RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董菁; 成军; 王勤环; 施双双; 王刚; 斯崇文

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To search for genomic DNA sequence of the augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) of rat.Methods.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers was used to amplify the sequence from the rat genome.Results.A piece of genomic DNA sequence and a piece of pseudogene of rat ALR were identified.The lengths of the gene and pseudogene are 1508 bp and 442 bp,respectively.The ALR gene of rat includes 3 exons and 2 introns.The 442 bp DNA sequence may represent a pseudogene or a ALR related peptide.Predicted amino acid sequence analysis showed that there were 14 different amino acid residues between the gene and pseudogene.ALR related peptide is 84 amino acid residues in length and relates closely to ALR protein.Conclusion.There might be a multigene family of ALR in rat.

  20. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  1. Cueing musical emotions: An empirical analysis of 24-piece sets by Bach and Chopin documents parallels with emotional speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew ePoon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic cues such as pitch height and timing are effective at communicating emotion in both music and speech. Numerous experiments altering musical passages have shown that higher and faster melodies generally sound happier than lower and slower melodies, findings consistent with corpus analyses of emotional speech. However, equivalent corpus analyses of complex time-varying cues in music are less common, due in part to the challenges of assembling an appropriate corpus. Here we describe a novel, score-based exploration of the use of pitch height and timing in a set of balanced major and minor key compositions. Our corpus contained all 24 Preludes and 24 Fugues from Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier (book 1, as well as all 24 of Chopin’s Preludes for piano. These three sets are balanced with respect to both modality (major/minor and key chroma (A, B, C, etc.. Consistent with predictions derived from speech, we found major-key (nominally happy pieces to be two semitones higher in pitch height and 29% faster than minor-key (nominally sad pieces. This demonstrates that our balanced corpus of major and minor key pieces uses low-level acoustic cues for emotion in a manner consistent with speech. A series of post-hoc analyses illustrate interesting trade-offs, with

  2. Application of an Aided System to Multi-Step Deep Drawing Process in the Brass Pieces Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Ramírez, Francisco; Domingo, Rosario

    2009-11-01

    In general, pieces manufacturing procedure, through deep drawing, requires operations that must be carried out in several phases that extend the time and the cost of the process. Material determination, by considering shape, dimensions, mechanical characteristics, etc., can provoke an overdose at estimating proportions with the consequent increase of the manufacturing costs. Furthermore, the processes improvement with its simultaneous reduction of costs, provides to a company a higher profit in competitive markets. Thus, this paper introduces an aided system that allows the technological design of multi-step deep drawing processes, by the optimization of both initial material and process associated costs, and moreover, their application to brass pieces, in particular in CuZn30 alloy (UNS C26000). The aided system considers process technological constraints and pursues a reduction of manufacturing times, by means of the optimization process and fitting. The results show that this system provides, in each stage of the process, a homogenous distribution of the drawing coefficient, thickness reduction, required force and height of the piece, as well as a saving in times.

  3. Do we deliver the pressures we intend to when using a T-piece resuscitator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Roegholt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A T-piece resuscitator (TPR uses a built-in manometer to set the inflation pressures, but we are not informed what pressures are actually delivered distally. Aim of this study was to measure the proximal and distal pressures under different gas conditions when using a TPR. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: A test lung was ventilated using a TPR (PIP 25 cmH₂O, PEEP 5 cmH₂O with a gas flow rate of 8 L/min. A Pressure delivered by six different TPRs was tested. To test variability 20 participants were asked to set PEEP and PIP pressures to 25/5 cmH₂O. B PIP and PEEP were measured proximal and distal of the TPR when using standard tubing or heated tubing with or without a humidifier. In experiment A mean (SD proximal PIP and PEEP of the TPRs were respectively 20.3 (0.3 cmH₂O (19.9-20.6 cmH₂O and 4.9 (0.1 cmH₂O. When 20 participants set pressures; PIP 26.7 (0.5 cm H₂O and PEEP 5.9 (0.44 cmH2O were measured. Experiment B showed that the decrease of PIP between proximal and distal pressures was not clinically significant. However there was a significant decrease of PEEP using the standard tubing (5.1 (0.1 cmH₂O proximally versus 4.8 (0.2 cmH₂O distally; p<0.001 compared to, when using a humidifier with associated tubing and the humidifier turned on, 5.1 (0.1 proximally versus 3.9 (0.2 cmH₂O distally; (p<0.001. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The accuracy of the built-in manometer of a TPR is acceptable. Most pressures set proximally are comparable to the actual pressures delivered distally. However, when using tubing associated with the humidifier PEEP decreases distally by 1.1-1.2 cmH₂O and users should anticipate on this.

  4. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a didactic experiment carried out at an MA programme at The Copenhagen Business School. The experiment aimed at encouraging students to take charge of their learning processes via a course programme design that would motivate students to take an active part in choosing...... and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  5. Suggestions about Taxi Service in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ No matter what kinds1 of work we are engaged in, we usually play the role of the customers2 in life. Maybe we offer service to our clients, but at the same time, we get service from other people. So, to the society3, it is very important of the level of the service occupations4. In this essay, I want to talk about the service of the taxi in Beijing5. Because there are some problems in this service occupation, I will give three suggestions to these problems6.

  6. Suggestions for Implementing Flipped Classroom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷

    2016-01-01

    Educators in the twenty-first century are constantly adopting new technologies and pedagogies. Flipped Classroom Model is one of the most promising approaches to transforming learning experiences, which has been applied to both K-12 edu-cation and higher education at home and abroad. Influenced by culture and learning styles, the effectiveness and concrete imple-mentation strategies of this teaching model is different in different countries. How to localize the model in China is an important question for educators to think about. The paper makes suggestions for implementing Flipped Classroom in China, aiming at helping teachers to flip their classrooms successfully.

  7. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  8. The strength and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck in salmon suggests a conserved mechanism in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonci N Wolff

    Full Text Available In most species mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is inherited maternally in an apparently clonal fashion, although how this is achieved remains uncertain. Population genetic studies show not only that individuals can harbor more than one type of mtDNA (heteroplasmy but that heteroplasmy is common and widespread across a diversity of taxa. Females harboring a mixture of mtDNAs may transmit varying proportions of each mtDNA type (haplotype to their offspring. However, mtDNA variants are also observed to segregate rapidly between generations despite the high mtDNA copy number in the oocyte, which suggests a genetic bottleneck acts during mtDNA transmission. Understanding the size and timing of this bottleneck is important for interpreting population genetic relationships and for predicting the inheritance of mtDNA based disease, but despite its importance the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Empirical studies, restricted to mice, have shown that the mtDNA bottleneck could act either at embryogenesis, oogenesis or both. To investigate whether the size and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck is conserved between distant vertebrates, we measured the genetic variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy at three developmental stages (female, ova and fry in chinook salmon and applied a new mathematical model to estimate the number of segregating units (N(e of the mitochondrial bottleneck between each stage. Using these data we estimate values for mtDNA Ne of 88.3 for oogenesis, and 80.3 for embryogenesis. Our results confirm the presence of a mitochondrial bottleneck in fish, and show that segregation of mtDNA variation is effectively complete by the end of oogenesis. Considering the extensive differences in reproductive physiology between fish and mammals, our results suggest the mechanism underlying the mtDNA bottleneck is conserved in these distant vertebrates both in terms of it magnitude and timing. This finding may lead to improvements in our understanding of

  9. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  10. Hydrodynamic properties of DNA and DNA-lipid complex in an elongational flow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoki; Ashitaka, Hidetomo; Ohtomo, Kenji; Fukui, Akimasa

    2007-03-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the difference between hydrodynamic properties of DNA-cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) complex and those of DNA, which may be related to the difference in fibre-forming ability of DNA-CTA from that of DNA. Responses of DNA and DNA-CTA complex to an elongational flow field were investigated. In both solution systems, results suggesting a coil-stretch transition were obtained. From a critical strain rate value, the radius of gyration of DNA-CTA molecules in ethanol-glycerol solution was revealed to be 0.3-0.5 times of that of DNA in aqueous NaCl solution. Shear viscosity of DNA-CTA solution was much smaller than that of DNA solution, also suggesting a smaller size of DNA-CTA in ethanol-glycerol solution than that of DNA in aqueous NaCl solution. The plateau birefringence value of the DNA-CTA system, a parameter that indicates the local molecular conformation and the molecular arrangement, was only about 1/10 of that of the DNA system. There is an empirically determined molecular model of DNA-CTA complex in which a DNA molecule is sheathed by a cylindrical crust made of CTA chains. This structure reduces the DNA molecular density in a pure elongational flow field region but cannot explain the observed reduction of birefringence intensity. The small plateau birefringence value of DNA-CTA compared with that of DNA was attributed to the reduced molecular polarizability by the particular conformation of DNA molecules and CTA chains in the DNA-CTA system such as that expected by the conformational models.

  11. DNA Genotyping Suggests Recent Brucellosis Outbreaks in the Greater Yellowstone Area Originated from Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucellosis is a disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Brucella species infect a variety of livestock animals and humans world wide. In the United States, the disease with the greatest economic impact is caused by Brucella abortus in cattle. Although the disease has been mostly eradic...

  12. Primate DNA suggests long-term stability of an African rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Julie M.; Miyamoto, Michael M.; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; E Carter, Tamar; Ungvari-Martin, Judit; Magrini, Kristin; Chapman, Colin A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys, due to their sensitivity to environmental change, are indicator species of the overall health of their tropical rainforest habitats. As a result of habitat loss and overhunting, they are among the most endangered primates in the world, with very few viable populations remaining. Traditionally, extant indicator species have been used to signify the conditions of their current habitats, but they have also been employed to track past environmental conditions by detecting pre...

  13. DNA origami nanopores for controlling DNA translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Bell, Nicholas A W; Thacker, Vivek V; Göpfrich, Kerstin; Misiunas, Karolis; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2013-07-23

    We combine DNA origami structures with glass nanocapillaries to reversibly form hybrid DNA origami nanopores. Trapping of the DNA origami onto the nanocapillary is proven by imaging fluorescently labeled DNA origami structures and simultaneous ionic current measurements of the trapping events. We then show two applications highlighting the versatility of these DNA origami nanopores. First, by tuning the pore size we can control the folding of dsDNA molecules ("physical control"). Second, we show that the specific introduction of binding sites in the DNA origami nanopore allows selective detection of ssDNA as a function of the DNA sequence ("chemical control").

  14. Intercalation of Epinephrine with Calf-thymus ds-DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A strong interaction between double stranded calf-thymus DNA (ds-DNA) and epinephrine but no interaction between single stranded calf-thymus DNA (ss-DNA) and epinephrine were observed by the use of UV-spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. It is suggested that the interaction leads to an intercalation of EP molecules into the groove of ds-DNA and the formation of ds-DNA(EP)n complex.

  15. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  16. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  17. TEACHING READING:PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionAmong the four skills,reading has been viewed as the most basic and useful skill for Chinese learners ofEnglish.Many college students will.after leaving their English class,come into contact largely(andsometimes solely)with the written form of the language.Therefore the instruction of reading has becomevery important in English teaching Although great developments have been made both in the linguisticand pragmatic fields of reading analysis.teaching Chinese students the specific skills of reading inEnglish is still a tough problem.Many English teachers have become more and more aware of theChinese students difficulties and more and more aware of how inefficient the traditional approach is inthe design of teaching materials and leaching methods.As a result,this paper is an attempt to analysesome current theoretical achievements and suggest a revised method for teaching Chinese students.

  18. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-01-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the ‘punctuated equilibrium’ debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  19. Induction of dnaN and dnaQ gene expression in Escherichia coli by alkylation damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, A; Kaasch, J; Kaasch, M; Messer, W

    1989-02-01

    The dnaN and dnaQ genes encode the beta-subunit and the epsilon-subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. By transcriptional fusions to the galK gene, translational fusions to lacZ and comparative S1 mapping analysis, we investigated the in-vivo regulation of dnaN and dnaQ. We found that DNA damage caused by the alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) leads to a significant induction in dnaN and dnaQ gene expression suggesting a requirement of increased amounts of at least some DNA polymerase III holoenzyme subunits for recovery from DNA damage caused by MMS. These results are first evidences that subunits of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme are DNA damage inducible. This MMS induction of dnaN and dnaQ gene expression is unrelated to the adaptive response. It was not observed in lexA and recA mutants which abolish the induction of the SOS response.

  20. When Maxwellian demon meets action at a distance. Comment on "Disentangling DNA molecules" by Alexander Vologodskii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybenkov, Valentin V.

    2016-09-01

    The ability of living systems to defy thermodynamics without explicitly violating it is a continued source of inspiration to many biophysicists. The story of type-2 DNA topoisomerases is a beautiful example from that book. DNA topoisomerases catalyze a concerted DNA cleavage-religation reaction, which is interjected by a strand passage event. This sequence of events results in a seemingly unhindered transfer of one piece of DNA through another upon their random collision. An obvious consequence of such transfer is a change in the topological state of the colliding DNAs; hence the name of the enzymes, topoisomerases. There are several classes of topoisomerases, which differ in how they capture the cleaved and transported DNA segments (which are often referred to as the gate and transfer segments; or the G- and T-segments, to be short). Type-2 topoisomerases have two cleavage-religation centers. They open a gate in double stranded DNA and transfer another piece of double stranded DNA through it [1]. And in doing so, they manage to collect information about the rest of the DNA and perform strand passage in a directional manner so as to take the molecule away from the thermodynamic equilibrium [2].

  1. Variety of molecular conformation of plasmid pUC18 DNA and solenoidally supercoiled DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄熙泰; 王照清; 吴永文; 樊廷玉; 王树荣; 王勖焜

    1996-01-01

    The plasmid pUC18 DNA isolated from Escherichia coli HB101 were analyzed by two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and hybridization. The results show that the DNA sample can be separated into six groups of different structural components. The plectonemically and solenoidally supercoiled pUC18 DNA coexist in it. These two different conformations of supercoiled DNA are interchangeable with the circumstances (ionic strength and type, etc.). The amount of solenoidally supercoiled pUC18 DNA in the samples can be changed by treatment of DNA topoisome rases. Under an electron microscope, the solenoidal supercoiling DNA has a round shape with an average diameter of 45 nm. The facts suggest that solenoidaUy supercoiled DNA be a structural entity independent of histones. The polymorphism of DNA structure may be important to packing of DNA in vivo.

  2. Properties of DnaB helicase in [lambda] DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A tailed nicked-circle DNA substrate was used to measure the rapid replication fork (RF) movement catalyzed by E. Coli DnaB helicase and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (pol III HE) (DnaB-RFs) (30 DnaB hexamers/substrate). The DnaB RFs can efficiently utilize the DNA substrate (60% in 5 min at 30C), and the forks move at a rapid rate (550-780 bp/sec at 30C). The DnaB-RFs have an average maximal processivity of 40,000 nt, and addition of either SSB or primase increase the processivity (150,000 nt + SSB, 70,000-140,000 nt + primase). However, SSB and primase do not affect the rate of fork movement or the amount of substrate utilized in the assay. The [lambda] SS proteins are effective at transferring DnaB onto the DNA substrate (8 DnaB hexamers/substrate). The [lambda] SS proteins do not change the rate of RF movement or the amount of substrate utilized. However, the amount of synthesis measured in the assay is [approximately]2-fold higher in the presence of the [lambda] SS proteins. Therefore, the [lambda] SS proteins increase the processivity of DnaB at the RF (100,000 nt). The [lambda] SS proteins do not appear to play a role in elongation because the processivity of the RF in the presence of SSB and primase is equivalent to the processivity of the [lambda] SS-RFs. [lambda] P protein blocks DnaB helicase activity if added to the RF assay prior to initiation or during elongation. DnaB helicase is more resistant to P inhibition, if the helicase is allowed to bind to the substrate prior to addition of [lambda] P or if primase and rNTPs are included in the assay. These results suggest that the conformation of the RF complex (DNA or nucleoprotein structure) blocks the attack of P on DnaB helicase. The heat shock proteins may play an auxiliary role in mediating the effects of [lambda] P if the concentration of P protein in the cells are high.

  3. PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR OFFICE FURNITURE MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Söğütlü

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the problems encountered in production lines for office furniture manufacturers and gives suggestions to the problems. For this response, a questionnaire was designed and conducted with directors or owners of 50 office furniture manufacturers of small, medium and large scale size enterprises which were randomly selected from different cities. The questionnaire aims to focus on identifying the fundamental obstacles for production, marketing, sales and law. The data from questionnaire was calculated with frequency numbers and percentages for statistical values. In respect to the scope of dependent variables for the study, relationships between the independent variables such as the size of the company scale and Chi Square Single Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were determined. According to the results, 52% of customers constitute owners. The biggest obstacle is the lack of qualified personnel in office furniture production while 46% of customers complain about pour designs. As a result, the study concludes with specific obstacles for logistics (30%, distributions (18%, unpaid bills after delivery (28%, and unconscious of the consumer (24% in the office furniture sector.

  4. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  5. Tag Correspondence Model for User Tag Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂存超; 刘知远; 孙茂松

    2015-01-01

    Some microblog services encourage users to annotate themselves with multiple tags, indicating their attributes and interests. User tags play an important role for personalized recommendation and information retrieval. In order to better understand the semantics of user tags, we propose Tag Correspondence Model (TCM) to identify complex correspondences of tags from the rich context of microblog users. The correspondence of a tag is referred to as a unique element in the context which is semantically correlated with this tag. In TCM, we divide the context of a microblog user into various sources (such as short messages, user profile, and neighbors). With a collection of users with annotated tags, TCM can automatically learn the correspondences of user tags from multiple sources. With the learned correspondences, we are able to interpret implicit semantics of tags. Moreover, for the users who have not annotated any tags, TCM can suggest tags according to users’ context information. Extensive experiments on a real-world dataset demonstrate that our method can effciently identify correspondences of tags, which may eventually represent semantic meanings of tags.

  6. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  7. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  8. Feasibility of a DNA-Based Combinatorial Array Recognition Surface (CARS) in a Polyacrylamide Gel Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-12

    the phosphate backbone. wherever p.·J.Ttial hybrids naturally occur, via Taq DNA ligase (16). Ligation may not have been entirely necessary for the...CARS libraries, noncontiguous pieces can be ligaled togclher willi Taq DNA ligase . The lOp half o(lhe figure iIIu51Tates Ihe appearance o( a I-D CARS...cluding dideoxynucleotides. were from a "Si lver Sequence" kit purchased from Promega Corporation (Madison. WI). ThermliS aquaticus (Taq) DNA ligase was

  9. Mitochondrial DNA depletion analysis by pseudogene ratioing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Russell H; Redpath, Gerard T; Binder, Daniel R; Davis, John N; VandenBerg, Scott R

    2006-01-30

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion status of rho(0) cell lines is typically assessed by hybridization or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments, in which the failure to hybridize mtDNA or amplify mtDNA using mtDNA-directed primers suggests thorough mitochondrial genome removal. Here, we report the use of an mtDNA pseudogene ratioing technique for the additional confirmation of rho0 status. Total genomic DNA from a U251 human glioma cell line treated with ethidium bromide was amplified using primers designed to anneal either mtDNA or a previously described nuclear DNA-embedded mtDNA pseudogene (mtDNApsi). The resultant PCR product was used to generate plasmid clones. Sixty-two plasmid clones were genotyped, and all arose from mtDNApsi template. These data allowed us to determine with 95% confidence that the resultant mtDNA-depleted cell line contains less than one copy of mtDNA per 10 cells. Unlike previous hybridization or PCR-based analyses of mtDNA depletion, this mtDNApsi ratioing technique does not rely on interpretation of a negative result, and may prove useful as an adjunct for the determination of rho0 status or mtDNA copy number.

  10. Pieces of Other Worlds - Enhance YSS Education and Public Outreach Events with Extraterrestrial Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Year of the Solar System spacecraft will encounter two comets; orbit the asteroid Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, is available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) curates NASA's extraterrestrial samples to support research, education, and public outreach. At the current time JSC curates five types of extraterrestrial samples: Moon rocks and soils collected by the Apollo astronauts Meteorites collected on US expeditions to Antarctica (including rocks from the Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta) “Cosmic dust” (asteroid and comet particles) collected by high-altitude aircraft Solar wind atoms collected by the Genesis spacecraft Comet and interstellar dust particles collected by the Stardust spacecraft These rocks, soils, dust particles, and atoms continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. He will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: louis.a.parker@nasa.gov Sets

  11. DNA methylation in metabolic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Zierath, Juleen R

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity are associated with profound alterations in gene expression that are caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recent reports...... have provided evidence that environmental factors at all ages could modify DNA methylation in somatic tissues, which suggests that DNA methylation is a more dynamic process than previously appreciated. Because of the importance of lifestyle factors in metabolic disorders, DNA methylation provides...... a mechanism by which environmental factors, including diet and exercise, can modify genetic predisposition to disease. This article considers the current evidence that defines a role for DNA methylation in metabolic disorders....

  12. DNA nanostructure immobilization to lithographic DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Omar D.

    Although DNA is well known for its genetic role in biology, DNA has also been sought-after as a material for the self-assembly of biological and electronic devices. Examples of DNA nanostructure construction include DNA tiled self-assembly and DNA Origami, where by controlling the sequence and concentration of DNA molecules, the rational design of geometric DNA nanostructures is possible. The assembly of DNA nanostructures takes place in solution and thus they are in disorder and require further organization to construct circuitry or devices. Hence, it is essential for future applications of this technology to develop methods to direct the placement of DNA nanostructures on a surface. To address this challenge my research examines the use of DNA microarrays to capture DNA nanostructures via DNA hybridization. Modern DNA arrays offer a high-density of sequence-specific molecular recognition sites where the addressable placement of DNA nanostructures can be achieved. Using Maskless Array Synthesizer (MAS) technology, I have characterized photolithographic DNA arrays for the hybridization of DNA complexes like large DNA molecules (> 1 kb), DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates, and DNA Origami. Although modern photolithographic DNA arrays can possess a high-density of sequence (106/cm2), the printed DNA areas are on the order of tens of microns. Thus, I have also developed a method to reduce the DNA array spot size to nanoscale dimensions through the combined use of electron beam lithography with photolithographic DNA synthesis. This work addresses the key elements towards developing a surface patterning technology that takes advantage of DNA base-pairing for both molecular sub-assembly and surface patterning.

  13. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Energy and Technology Review: Unlocking the mysteries of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, W.A.

    1993-04-01

    DNA, the genetic blueprint, has the remarkable property of encoding its own repair following diverse types of structural damage induced by external agents or normal metabolism. We are studying the interplay of DNA damaging agents, repair genes, and their protein products to decipher the complex biochemical pathways that mediate such repair. Our research focuses on repair processes that correct DNA damage produced by chemical mutagens and radiation, both ionizing and ultraviolet. The most important type of DNA repair in human cells is called excision repair. This multistep process removes damaged or inappropriate pieces of DNA -- often as a string of 29 nucleotides containing the damage -- and replaces them with intact ones. We have isolated, cloned, and mapped several human repair genes associated with the nucleotide excision repair pathway and involved in the repair of DNA damage after exposure to ultraviolet light or mutagens in cooked food. We have shown that a defect in one of these repair genes, ERCC2, is responsible for the repair deficiency in one of the groups of patients with the recessive genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP group D). We are exploring ways to purify sufficient quantities (milligrams) of the protein products of these and other repair genes so that we can understand their functions. Our long-term goals are to link defective repair proteins to human DNA repair disorders that predispose to cancer, and to produce DNA-repair-deficient mice that can serve as models for the human disorders.

  15. Flexible DNA bending in HU-DNA cocrystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Kerren K; Lemberg, Kathryn M; Zhang, Ying; Rice, Phoebe A

    2003-07-15

    HU and IHF are members of a family of prokaryotic proteins that interact with the DNA minor groove in a sequence-specific (IHF) or non-specific (HU) manner to induce and/or stabilize DNA bending. HU plays architectural roles in replication initiation, transcription regulation and site-specific recombination, and is associated with bacterial nucleoids. Cocrystal structures of Anabaena HU bound to DNA (1P71, 1P78, 1P51) reveal that while underlying proline intercalation and asymmetric charge neutralization mechanisms of DNA bending are similar for IHF and HU, HU stabilizes different DNA bend angles ( approximately 105-140 degrees ). The two bend angles within a single HU complex are not coplanar, and the resulting dihedral angle is consistent with negative supercoiling. Comparison of HU-DNA and IHF-DNA structures suggests that sharper bending is correlated with longer DNA binding sites and smaller dihedral angles. An HU-induced bend may be better modeled as a hinge, not a rigid bend. The ability to induce or stabilize varying bend angles is consistent with HU's role as an architectural cofactor in many different systems that may require differing geometries.

  16. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  17. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iread with great interest Rashid and Rafiq's article published in the spring issue of this journal(1. The authors not only highlighted the shortcomings of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in Bangladesh but also prescribed awonderful policy, which is felt to be both costeffective and befitting with the country's existing programme on immunization. To complement thisI would like to add few more points: ||l|| Most neonates mount an immune response, which is believed to be adequate to reduce their risk of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV acquisition after vaccination(2. Though the pre-term babies (<37 weeks show a slower response than the term (||“||37 weeks babies, immunogenicity, which is inversely proportional to the gestational age, can be improved by increasing the vaccine dosage (2,3. l| Timing first dose of hepatitis B vaccine with BCG probably has a positive interaction: administration of BCG at the time of HBV vaccine priming at birth markedly increases the cytokines as well as ntibody responses to HBV vaccine(4. This astonishing finding might suggest that BCG has a synergistic effect on hepatitis B vaccination. Bangladesh is reported to have a very high (94% coverage of BCG vaccine(5; the uptake of HBV vaccine can be equally improved by timing it with BCG.l| The present infant vaccination policy will leave adolescents unguarded and hence nationwide prevention of the disease will be delayed. A recent survey unveils that available infrastructure in Bangladesh has sufficient spare capacity to sustain storage of an increased quantity of vaccines(5. To make good use of this unused legroom adolescent vaccination should be started along with infant vaccination. Countries such as Spain and Portugal have both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes in place, since 1993 and 2000 respectively, and these countries will be able to end the adolescent programme once the first immunised newborn cohort has reached the target age of the

  18. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  19. [Preliminary study on effect of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma cell wall-broken decoction pieces on intestinal flora of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-rui; Zeng, Gui-mei; Peng, Li-hua; Zhang, Miao-miao; Cheng, Jin-le; Zhan, Ruo-ting

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze and compare the effect of cell wall-broken decoction pieces, conventional decoction pieces and conventional powder of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma on the intestinal flora of normal mice. The conventional bacterial culture and PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) were adopted for the mice after the oral administration for 14 days. According to the bacterial culture results, the 1/8 dose cell wall-broken decoction pieces group showed fewer Enterococcus and Escherichia coli bacillus but more Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium than the conventional decoction pieces group and the traditional powder group (P intestinal tract by promoting the growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, the intestinal flora community will become more stable.

  20. Effect of Temperature and Ram Speed on Isothermal Extrusion for Large-size Tube with Piece-wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He YANG; Jun ZHANG; Yangmin HE; Bingtao HAN

    2005-01-01

    Heat energy change during the extrusion of 7075 aluminium alloy large-size tube with piece-wing in a container was analyzed. Extrusion load vs ram displacement diagrams and exit temperature vs ram displacement diagrams at various speeds were obtained by 3D FEM simulation. Results show that the exit temperature becomes higher as the ram speed and displacement increase. For large-size tube with piece-wing, there is certainly a curve of ram speed decreasing with increasing ram displacement, which enables isothermal extrusion to be achieved. Therefore,an attempt was made to divide the working stroke into five different zones. Each of them has a preset speed that decreases from the ram displacement beginning to the ending. And then, new exit temperature vs ram displacement diagram was obtained by 3D FEM simulation for the five different speeds. It is shown that the variation of exit temperature is very small. Through the above research, a basic method for realizing isothermal extrusion of 7075large-size tube with piece-wing was obtained, that is, the working stroke was divided into several different zones with a decreasing speed during extrusion, each zones' speed was real-time adjusted on the feedback signal of exit temperature by proportional hydraulic valve through closed-loop control. The engineering experiment verification was carried out on 100 MN aluminium extrusion press with oil-driven double action. The experimental results of the exit temperature agrees with the simulation ones. The achievements of this study may serve as a significant guide to the practice of the relevant processes, particularly for isothermal extrusion. The verified method has been used in the design and manufacture of 125 MN aluminium extrusion press with oil-driven double action.

  1. Cueing musical emotions: An empirical analysis of 24-piece sets by Bach and Chopin documents parallels with emotional speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Matthew; Schutz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic cues such as pitch height and timing are effective at communicating emotion in both music and speech. Numerous experiments altering musical passages have shown that higher and faster melodies generally sound "happier" than lower and slower melodies, findings consistent with corpus analyses of emotional speech. However, equivalent corpus analyses of complex time-varying cues in music are less common, due in part to the challenges of assembling an appropriate corpus. Here, we describe a novel, score-based exploration of the use of pitch height and timing in a set of "balanced" major and minor key compositions. Our analysis included all 24 Preludes and 24 Fugues from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier (book 1), as well as all 24 of Chopin's Preludes for piano. These three sets are balanced with respect to both modality (major/minor) and key chroma ("A," "B," "C," etc.). Consistent with predictions derived from speech, we found major-key (nominally "happy") pieces to be two semitones higher in pitch height and 29% faster than minor-key (nominally "sad") pieces. This demonstrates that our balanced corpus of major and minor key pieces uses low-level acoustic cues for emotion in a manner consistent with speech. A series of post hoc analyses illustrate interesting trade-offs, with sets featuring greater emphasis on timing distinctions between modalities exhibiting the least pitch distinction, and vice-versa. We discuss these findings in the broader context of speech-music research, as well as recent scholarship exploring the historical evolution of cue use in Western music.

  2. 'Hurrah for the missing link!': A history of apes, ancestors and a crucial piece of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the idea of a ‘missing link’ connecting humans with the rest of the animal kingdom was eagerly embraced by professional scientists and popularizers. After the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859, many tied the idea and subsequent search for a crucial...... piece of evidence to Darwin and his formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection. This article demonstrates that the expression was widely used and that the framework for discussions about human’s relation to the apes and gaps in the fossil record were well in place and widely debated...

  3. Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Mist/Air Impinging Jet on Grinding Work-Piece

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Jiang; Han Wang; Yijun Wang; Jianhua Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The numerical investigation is presented for flow and heat transfer on grinding work-piece with mist/air impinging jet by using DPM (discrete phase model) model. The tracks of the mist droplets show most of them are accumulated on the right surface of grinding zone, and can be influenced by the rotating speed of the grinding wheel, the position and the number of the jet nozzle. The mechanism model of enhance cooling by mist/air impinging jet is developed, which indicated the mist droplet is a...

  4. Semi-analytic calculation of transient temperature field of laser treatment on an arbitrary shape work-piece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junchang, Li; Xingyi, Li; Castex, L.

    2003-01-01

    From analytical solutions of the heat conduction equation in an infinite continuous medium with invariable thermal physical properties, the paper regards a laser-irradiated body as a part of the continuous medium, adopts the weighing function of laser power related to the shape of the body, and then gives a semi-analytical approach. The method can approximately estimate the instantaneous temperature field of laser irradiation on an arbitrary shape surface. Comparison of calculation results with accuracy solutions is presented. Finally, examples applied to estimate phase transformation hardening stripes of laser irradiation on cylinder work-pieces are given.

  5. 'Hurrah for the missing link!': A history of apes, ancestors and a crucial piece of evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    In the nineteenth century the idea of a ‘missing link’ connecting humans with the rest of the animal kingdom was eagerly embraced by professional scientists and popularizers. After the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859, many tied the idea and subsequent search for a crucial...... piece of evidence to Darwin and his formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection. This article demonstrates that the expression was widely used and that the framework for discussions about human’s relation to the apes and gaps in the fossil record were well in place and widely debated...

  6. Tail Biting in Pigs: Blood Serotonin and Fearfulness as Pieces of the Puzzle?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursinus, W.W; Reenen, van, C.G; Reimert, I; Bolhuis, J.E

    2014-01-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs...

  7. GENRE ORIGINALITY APPROPRIATE FOR THE POETRY PIECES BY T.BEYBULATOV DURING THE PERIOD OF RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND THE CIVIL WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abdulkadyrovna SHABAEVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the poetry pieces by T.Beybulatov related to the period of Russian Revolution and the Civil War, in particular, the poems "Peace", "Letter of the Dagestani (soldier from the Battlefront", "Vay, the Cos-sacks Burned Out …" at al. Upon the study outcomes the author made a conclusion that the poetry’ pieces by T.Beybulatov over the mentioned period covered a long path of shaping and further evolution of a variety of poetic genres.

  8. Structural basis of Ets1 cooperative binding to widely separated sites on promoter DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar D Babayeva

    Full Text Available Ets1 is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors. Ets1 is expressed in autoinhibited form and its DNA binding depends on partner proteins bound to adjacent sequences or the relative positioning of a second Ets-binding site (EBS. The autoinhibition of Ets1 is mediated by structural coupling of regions flanking the DNA-binding domain. The NMR structure of Ets1 revealed that the inhibitory regions comprised of helices HI1 and HI2 and H4 are packed together on the Ets domain to form an inhibitory module. The crystal structure of Ets1 unexpectedly revealed a homodimer in which homodimerisation occurs via swapping of HI1 helices. Modeling of DNA binding indicates that the Ets1 dimer can bind to two antiparallel pieces of DNA. To verify this, we crystallized and solved the structure of the complex comprised of Ets1 dimer and two pieces of DNA. DNA binding by Ets1 dimer resulted in formation of additional intermolecular protein•DNA interactions, implying that the complex formation is cooperative.

  9. DNA2—An Important Player in DNA Damage Response or Just Another DNA Maintenance Protein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Pawłowska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The human DNA2 (DNA replication helicase/nuclease 2 protein is expressed in both the nucleus and mitochondria, where it displays ATPase-dependent nuclease and helicase activities. DNA2 plays an important role in the removing of long flaps in DNA replication and long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER, interacting with the replication protein A (RPA and the flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1. DNA2 can promote the restart of arrested replication fork along with Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase (WRN and Bloom syndrome protein (BLM. In mitochondria, DNA2 can facilitate primer removal during strand-displacement replication. DNA2 is involved in DNA double strand (DSB repair, in which it is complexed with BLM, RPA and MRN for DNA strand resection required for homologous recombination repair. DNA2 can be a major protein involved in the repair of complex DNA damage containing a DSB and a 5′ adduct resulting from a chemical group bound to DNA 5′ ends, created by ionizing radiation and several anticancer drugs, including etoposide, mitoxantrone and some anthracyclines. The role of DNA2 in telomere end maintenance and cell cycle regulation suggests its more general role in keeping genomic stability, which is impaired in cancer. Therefore DNA2 can be an attractive target in cancer therapy. This is supported by enhanced expression of DNA2 in many cancer cell lines with oncogene activation and premalignant cells. Therefore, DNA2 can be considered as a potential marker, useful in cancer therapy. DNA2, along with PARP1 inhibition, may be considered as a potential target for inducing synthetic lethality, a concept of killing tumor cells by targeting two essential genes.

  10. Tetrameric ZBRK1 DNA binding domain has affinity towards cognate DNA in absence of zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Lumbini R; Biswal, Mahamaya N; Vikrant; Hosur, M V; Varma, Ashok K

    2014-07-18

    Zinc finger transcription regulatory proteins play crucial roles in cell-cycle regulation, DNA damage response and tumor genesis. Human ZBRK1 is a zinc-finger transcription repressor protein, which recognizes double helical DNA containing consensus sequences of 5'GGGXXXCAGXXXTTT3'. In the present study, we have purified recombinant DNA binding domain of ZBRK1, and studied binding with zinc ions and DNA, using biophysical techniques. The elution profile of the purified protein suggests that this ZBRK1 forms a homotetramer in solution. Dissociation and pull down assays also suggest that this domain forms a higher order oligomer. The ZBRK1-DNA binding domain acquires higher stability in the presence of zinc ions and DNA. The secondary structure of the ZBRK1-DNA complex is found to be significantly altered from the standard B-DNA conformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacillus subtilis DNA polymerases, PolC and DnaE, are required for both leading and lagging strand synthesis in SPP1 origin-dependent DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Elena M; Ayora, Silvia

    2017-08-21

    Firmicutes have two distinct replicative DNA polymerases, the PolC leading strand polymerase, and PolC and DnaE synthesizing the lagging strand. We have reconstituted in vitro Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 θ-type DNA replication, which initiates unidirectionally at oriL. With this system we show that DnaE is not only restricted to lagging strand synthesis as previously suggested. DnaG primase and DnaE polymerase are required for initiation of DNA replication on both strands. DnaE and DnaG synthesize in concert a hybrid RNA/DNA 'initiation primer' on both leading and lagging strands at the SPP1 oriL region, as it does the eukaryotic Pol α complex. DnaE, as a RNA-primed DNA polymerase, extends this initial primer in a reaction modulated by DnaG and one single-strand binding protein (SSB, SsbA or G36P), and hands off the initiation primer to PolC, a DNA-primed DNA polymerase. Then, PolC, stimulated by DnaG and the SSBs, performs the bulk of DNA chain elongation at both leading and lagging strands. Overall, these modulations by the SSBs and DnaG may contribute to the mechanism of polymerase switch at Firmicutes replisomes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Game Theory Analysis on Quality and Safety Control of Chinese Medicine Decoction Pieces from the Perspective of Supply Chain%供应链视角下中药饮片质量安全控制博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩雄; 魏彬; 车鑫; 崔丽

    2016-01-01

    中药饮片供应链环节多,各环节之间存在相互制约、相互联系的博弈关系,任何一个环节异常,都会影响整个供应链,并最终影响消费者的用药安全。本文以中药产业链理论为基础,从供应链的管理角度出发,建立一个由种植农户、产销合作社、中药饮片加工企业、批发零售市场和中成药制造企业组成的中间销售环节、终端消费者组成的线性供应链静态博弈模型,并运用博弈论的定量方法,提出了提高中药饮片质量安全的建议。%Game relationship of mutual restriction and mutual connection exist among various segments of Chinese medicine decoction pieces supply chain. Any problems in any segments will affect quality and safety of the whole supply chain, and ultimately affect the safety of consumers. Based on the theory of supply chain, this article established a linear supply chain and static game model, including planting farmers, production and marketing society, processors of Chinese medicine decoction pieces, terminal consumers and middle sales section whichis made up of whole sale and retail markets and manufacturing enterprises of Chinese patent medicine. This article also proposed the suggestions about quality safety of Chinese medicine decoction pieces through quantitative methods in game theory.

  13. Quantification of material loss from the neck piece taper junctions of a bimodular primary hip prosthesis. A retrieval study from 27 failed Rejuvenate bimodular hip arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buente, D; Huber, G; Bishop, N; Morlock, M

    2015-10-01

    The early failure and revision of bimodular primary total hip arthroplasty prostheses requires the identification of the risk factors for material loss and wear at the taper junctions through taper wear analysis. Deviations in taper geometries between revised and pristine modular neck tapers were determined using high resolution tactile measurements. A new algorithm was developed and validated to allow the quantitative analysis of material loss, complementing the standard visual inspection currently used. The algorithm was applied to a sample of 27 retrievals (in situ from 2.9 to 38.1 months) of the withdrawn Rejuvenate modular prosthesis. The mean wear volumes on the flat distal neck piece taper was 3.35 mm(3) (0.55 to 7.57), mainly occurring in a characteristic pattern in areas with high mechanical loading. Wear volume tended to increase with time to revision (r² = 0.423, p = 0.001). Implant and patient specific data (offset, stem size, patient's mass, age and body mass index) did not correlate with the amount of material loss observed (p > 0.078). Bilaterally revised implants showed higher amounts of combined total material loss and similar wear patterns on both sides. The consistent wear pattern found in this study has not been reported previously, suggesting that the device design and materials are associated with the failure of this prosthesis. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  14. Exosomes in Prostate Cancer: Putting Together the Pieces of a Puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soekmadji, Carolina, E-mail: carolina.soekmadji@qut.edu.au; Russell, Pamela J.; Nelson, Colleen C. [Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre-Queensland, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Translational Research Institute, Level 3 West, 37 Kent Street, Brisbane, Queensland 4102 (Australia)

    2013-11-11

    Exosomes have been shown to act as mediators for cell to cell communication and as a potential source of biomarkers for many diseases, including prostate cancer. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by cells and consist of proteins normally found in multivesicular bodies, RNA, DNA and lipids. As a potential source of biomarkers, exosomes have attracted considerable attention, as their protein content resembles that of their cells of origin, even though it is noted that the proteins, miRNAs and lipids found in the exosomes are not a reflective stoichiometric sampling of the contents from the parent cells. While the biogenesis of exosomes in dendritic cells and platelets has been extensively characterized, much less is known about the biogenesis of exosomes in cancer cells. An understanding of the processes involved in prostate cancer will help to further elucidate the role of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles in prostate cancer progression and metastasis. There are few methodologies available for general isolation of exosomes, however validation of those methodologies is necessary to study the role of exosomal-derived biomarkers in various diseases. In this review, we discuss “exosomes” as a member of the family of extracellular vesicles and their potential to provide candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer.

  15. Exosomes in Prostate Cancer: Putting Together the Pieces of a Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen C. Nelson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes have been shown to act as mediators for cell to cell communication and as a potential source of biomarkers for many diseases, including prostate cancer. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by cells and consist of proteins normally found in multivesicular bodies, RNA, DNA and lipids. As a potential source of biomarkers, exosomes have attracted considerable attention, as their protein content resembles that of their cells of origin, even though it is noted that the proteins, miRNAs and lipids found in the exosomes are not a reflective stoichiometric sampling of the contents from the parent cells. While the biogenesis of exosomes in dendritic cells and platelets has been extensively characterized, much less is known about the biogenesis of exosomes in cancer cells. An understanding of the processes involved in prostate cancer will help to further elucidate the role of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles in prostate cancer progression and metastasis. There are few methodologies available for general isolation of exosomes, however validation of those methodologies is necessary to study the role of exosomal-derived biomarkers in various diseases. In this review, we discuss “exosomes” as a member of the family of extracellular vesicles and their potential to provide candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer.

  16. Recognizing a Single Base in an Individual DNA Strand: A Step Toward Nanopore DNA Sequencing**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenasy, N.; Sánchez-Quesada, J.; Ghadiri, M. R.; Bayley, H.

    2007-01-01

    Functional supramolecular chemistry at the single-molecule level. Single strands of DNA can be captured inside α-hemolysin transmembrane pore protein to form single-species α-HL·DNA pseudorotaxanes. This process can be used to identify a single adenine nucleotide at a specific location on a strand of DNA by the characteristic reductions in the α-HL ion conductance. This study suggests that α-HL-mediated single-molecule DNA sequencing might be fundamentally feasible. PMID:15666419

  17. Novel human testis-specific cDNA: molecular cloning, expression and immunobiological effects of the recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, R; Naz, R K

    2001-09-01

    A differential display-polymerase chain reaction was employed to obtain a testis-specific cDNA fragment. On screening the human testis-(lambda)gt10-cDNA library with testis-specific cDNA fragment, a novel cDNA encoding for a sperm antigen, designated TSA-1, was obtained. It has a novel open reading frame (ORF) of 471 base pairs encoding for 156 amino acids. The computer generated translated protein has a calculated molecular mass of 17.4 kDa and contains a potential N-glycosylation site at amino acids 122-124. The hydrophilicity analysis of the amino acid sequence suggested that this protein is a membrane-anchored peptide. Extensive analysis for tissue-specificity by Northern blots and RT-PCR-Southern blot procedures using various human tissues indicated that TSA-1 was specifically expressed only in the human testis. Based on the results of in vitro transcription and translation experiments, the TSA-1 (ORF) was subcloned into pGEX-6P-3 vector and expressed using the glutathione S-transferase gene fusion system. Antibodies (Ab) against the purified recombinant protein specifically recognized the approximately 17 kDa recombinant TSA-1, and a approximately 24 kDa band in human sperm extract in the Western blot procedure. The recombinant TSA-1 Ab recognized the acrosomal, equatorial, mid-piece, and tail regions of human sperm cell in indirect immunofluorescence, bound to live human sperm in the immunobeads binding technique (IBT) and caused a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of human sperm acrosome reaction. These findings indicate that the novel sperm-specific recombinant TSA-1 has a role in sperm function and may have applications in the development of a contraceptive vaccine, and in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  18. [DNA barcoding of animal and plant species as an approach for their molecular identification and describing of diversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneer, V S

    2009-01-01

    DNA barcoding was recently developed as a method of species identification across a broad range of eucaryotes taxa by sequencing a standardized short DNA fragment. Due to modern technologies, it is possible to do this with a tiny piece of any tissue taken from an organism at any developmental phase, often without damaging it. A variable 5' half of mitochondial gene CO1 is suggested as a standard region for most of animals; it is not identified yet for fungi and plants. "The Barcode of Life Initiative" implies creating and developing the barcode library for all the species on Earth to facilitate both assigning of newly obtained specimens to the known species and for discovering new and cryptic species or at least their provisional recognition. This approach has a great potential for the use in global biodiversity studies, especially in the case of poorly investigated taxa and environments. The initiative in question involves accomplish of a new web-based sequence database with rigorous rules for taxonomic information on the specimens and records of their storage as well as for standards of sequence quality and their entry. Critical objections of opponents to DNA barcoding are reviewed as well as limitations of the approach, the problems to be taken into consideration, and the fields where it can be used. Numerous recent studies on different animal groups convincingly demonstrate the efficacy of DNA barcoding and its potentials. The latter depends on availability of comprehensive and unbiased reference database implying correct identification of the source specimens and adequate knowledge of intraspecies variation, so the Barcode Initiative would be more successful as a part of the integrative analysis of the taxs being barcoded.

  19. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  20. Numerical Simulation of a Grinding Process Model for the Spatial Work-pieces: Development of Modeling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Voronov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review in simulation of grinding processes. It takes into consideration the statistical, energy based, and imitation approaches to simulation of grinding forces. Main stages of interaction between abrasive grains and machined surface are shown. The article describes main approaches to the geometry modeling of forming new surfaces when grinding. The review of approaches to the chip and pile up effect numerical modeling is shown. Advantages and disadvantages of grain-to-surface interaction by means of finite element method and molecular dynamics method are considered. The article points out that it is necessary to take into consideration the system dynamics and its effect on the finished surface. Structure of the complex imitation model of grinding process dynamics for flexible work-pieces with spatial surface geometry is proposed from the literature review. The proposed model of spatial grinding includes the model of work-piece dynamics, model of grinding wheel dynamics, phenomenological model of grinding forces based on 3D geometry modeling algorithm. Model gives the following results for spatial grinding process: vibration of machining part and grinding wheel, machined surface geometry, static deflection of the surface and grinding forces under various cutting conditions.

  1. Effect of Ethanol Stress on Fermentation Performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Immobilized on Nypa fruticans Leaf Sheath Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Phong Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on Nypa fruticans leaf sheath pieces were tested for ethanol tolerance (0, 23.7, 47.4, 71.0 and 94.7 g/L. Increase in the initial ethanol concentration from 23.7 to 94.7 g/L decreased the average growth rate and concentration of ethanol produced by the immobilized yeast by 5.2 and 4.1 times, respectively. However, in the medium with initial ethanol concentration of 94.7 g/L, the average growth rate, glucose uptake rate and ethanol formation rate of the immobilized yeast were 3.7, 2.5 and 3.5 times, respectively, higher than those of the free yeast. The ethanol stress inhibited ethanol formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and the yeast responded to the stress by changing the fatty acid composition of cellular membrane. The adsorption of yeast cells on Nypa fruticans leaf sheath pieces of the growth medium increased the saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 mass fraction in the cellular membrane and that improved alcoholic fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast.

  2. Theoretical study of the conformation and energy of supercoiled DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, N. G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Structural Biology Div.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-01-01

    The two sugar-phosphate backbones of the DNA molecule wind about each other in helical paths. For circular DNA molecules, or for linear pieces of DNA with the ends anchored, the two strands have a well-defined linking number, Lk. If Lk differs from the equilibrium linking number Lk{sub 0}, the molecule is supercoiled. The linking difference {Delta}Lk = Lk-Lk{sub 0} is partitioned between torsional deformation of the DNA, or twist ({Delta}Tw), and a winding of the DNA axis about itself known as writhe (Wr). In this dissertation, the conformation and energy of supercoiled DNA are examined by treating DNA as an elastic cylinder. Finite-length and entropic effects are ignored, and all extensive quantities are treated as linear densities. Two classes of conformation are considered: the plectonemic or interwound form, in which the axis of the DNA double helix winds about itself in a double superhelix, and the toroidal shape in which the axis is wrapped around a torus. Minimum energy conformation are found. For biologically relevant values of specific linking differences, the plectonemic DNA, the superhelical pitch angle {alpha} is in the range 45{degree} < {alpha} {le} 90{degree}. For low values of specific linking difference {vert_bar}{sigma}{vert_bar} ({sigma} = {Delta}Lk/Lk{sub 0}), most linking difference is in writhe. As {vert_bar}{sigma}{vert_bar} increases, a greater proportion of linking difference is in twist. Interaction between DNA strands is treated first as a hard-body excluded volume and then as a screened electrostatic repulsion. Ionic strength is found to have a large effect, resulting in significantly greater torsional stress in supercoiled DNA at low ionic strength.

  3. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  4. DNA nanostructure meets nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guomei; Surwade, Sumedh P; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Haitao

    2013-04-07

    Recent advances in DNA nanotechnology have made it possible to construct DNA nanostructures of almost arbitrary shapes with 2-3 nm of precision in their dimensions. These DNA nanostructures are ideal templates for bottom-up nanofabrication. This review highlights the challenges and recent advances in three areas that are directly related to DNA-based nanofabrication: (1) fabrication of large scale DNA nanostructures; (2) pattern transfer from DNA nanostructure to an inorganic substrate; and (3) directed assembly of DNA nanostructures.

  5. Intragenomic distribution of RTE retroelements suggests intrachromosomal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Eugenia E; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cabrero, Josefa; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Sánchez, Antonio; Perfectti, Francisco; López-León, María Dolores; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2015-06-01

    Much is known about the abundance of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotic genomes, but much is still unknown on their behaviour within cells. We employ here a combination of cytological, molecular and genomic approaches providing information on the intragenomic distribution and behaviour of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon-like elements (RTE). We microdissected every chromosome in a single first meiotic metaphase cell of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a fragment of the RTE reverse transcriptase gene with specific primers. PCR products were cloned and 139 clones were sequenced. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed significant intragenomic structure for these elements, with 4.6 % of molecular variance being found between chromosomes. A maximum likelihood tree built with the RTE sequences revealed the frequent presence of two or more elements showing very high similarity and being located on the same chromosome, thus suggesting intrachromosome movement. The 454 pyrosequencing of genomic DNA gave strong support to the microdissection results and provided evidence for the existence of 5' truncated elements. Our results thus indicate a tendency of RTE elements to reinsert into the same chromosome from where they were transcribed, which could be achieved if retrotranscription and insertion takes place immediately after transcription.

  6. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    pityriasis rosea, for intrauterine fetal death. All miscarrying women reportedly revealed an aggressive course of widespread eruption and severe constitutional symptoms; all of them had HHV-6 DNA in the plasma, placenta, skin lesions, and fetal tissues, whereas HHV-7 DNA was detected in the plasma and skin lesions in 3 out of 8 (37.5%) miscarrying women. HHV-6 DNA was found only in the plasma of 2 out of 31 women (6.45%) with normal pregnancy, whereas HHV-7 DNA was detected in the plasma of 3 (9.45%) and in the skin lesions of 2 women (6.45%) with normal pregnancy. The total abortion rate in women who developed pityriasis rosea during their pregnancy (13%) does not differ from that observed in the general population. Nevertheless, it is markedly higher in cases affected during the first 15 gestational weeks (57%) (4,5). Surprisingly, this devastating impact of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is almost completely unknown not only to the public but also to many members of the medical community. It is also largely unknown that, particularly during the first 15 gestational weeks, all pregnant women should avoid any contact with patients known to have pityriasis rosea. Since we have received a considerable number of requests for consultation with pregnant women with pityriasis rosea over the last few years, our group has compiled suggestions approaching the affected patients: 1. If an eruption suggestive for pityriasis rosea occurs in a pregnant woman, the following factors should be excluded: a. Exposure to drugs prior to the development of the rash (biologic agents, captopril, clonidine, hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, lamotrigine, nortriptyline, barbiturates, metronidazole, terbinafine, omeprazole, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and isotretinoin), which are capable of inducing a pityriasis rosea-like eruption (6) and b. Disorders included in the differential diagnosis (syphilis and infections due to parvovirus, herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein

  7. Electron microscopy visualization of DNA-protein complexes formed by Ku and DNA ligase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Patricia; Zhang, Teri T; Hannah, Ryan; Yang, Hui; Hefferin, Melissa L; Tomkinson, Alan E; Nogales, Eva

    2012-01-02

    The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell viability and genome stability. Aberrant repair of DSBs has been linked with cancer predisposition and aging. During the repair of DSBs by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), DNA ends are brought together, processed and then joined. In eukaryotes, this repair pathway is initiated by the binding of the ring-shaped Ku heterodimer and completed by DNA ligase IV. The DNA ligase IV complex, DNA ligase IV/XRRC4 in humans and Dnl4/Lif1 in yeast, is recruited to DNA ends in vitro and in vivo by an interaction with Ku and, in yeast, Dnl4/Lif1 stabilizes the binding of yKu to in vivo DSBs. Here we have analyzed the interactions of these functionally conserved eukaryotic NHEJ factors with DNA by electron microscopy. As expected, the ring-shaped Ku complex bound stably and specifically to DNA ends at physiological salt concentrations. At a ratio of 1 Ku molecule per DNA end, the majority of DNA ends were occupied by a single Ku complex with no significant formation of linear DNA multimers or circular loops. Both Dnl4/Lif1 and DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 formed complexes with Ku-bound DNA ends, resulting in intra- and intermolecular DNA end bridging, even with non-ligatable DNA ends. Together, these studies, which provide the first visualization of the conserved complex formed by Ku and DNA ligase IV at juxtaposed DNA ends by electron microscopy, suggest that the DNA ligase IV complex mediates end-bridging by engaging two Ku-bound DNA ends.

  8. Unexpected Finding Suggests Method for Controlling Pollen Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies on the genetic inheritance of a wheat genomic DNA fragment in transgenic corn conclude that this DNA fragment is inherited maternally because it functions as a pollen specific gametocide. The authors of these studies illustrate that this transgene can but used to control transfer of a s...

  9. Involvement of DNA ligase III and ribonuclease H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhanen, Heini; Ushakov, Kathy; Yasukawa, Takehiro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis operates in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, but the factors involved in lagging strand synthesis are largely uncharacterised. We investigated the effect of knockdown of the candidate proteins in cultured human cells under conditions where mtDNA appears to replicate chiefly via coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis to restore the copy number of mtDNA to normal levels after transient mtDNA depletion. DNA ligase III knockdown attenuated the recovery of mtDNA copy number and appeared to cause single strand nicks in replicating mtDNA molecules, suggesting the involvement of DNA ligase III in Okazaki fragment ligation in human mitochondria. Knockdown of ribonuclease (RNase) H1 completely prevented the mtDNA copy number restoration, and replication intermediates with increased single strand nicks were readily observed. On the other hand, knockdown of neither flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) nor DNA2 affected mtDNA replication. These findings imply that RNase H1 is indispensable for the progression of mtDNA synthesis through removing RNA primers from Okazaki fragments. In the nucleus, Okazaki fragments are ligated by DNA ligase I, and the RNase H2 is involved in Okazaki fragment processing. This study thus proposes that the mitochondrial replication system utilises distinct proteins, DNA ligase III and RNase H1, for Okazaki fragment maturation.

  10. 'A pretty piece of treachery': the strange case of Dr Stekel and Sigmund Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, P

    1998-12-01

    Freud claimed he broke with Stekel not because of 'scientific differences' but because of 'exclusively ... personal qualities'. The author offers an alternative version of this significant fragment of psychoanalytic history by suggesting that Freud acted out of revenge for the humiliation that he believed Stekel and Adler inflicted upon him at the 1910 Nuremberg Congress. He suggests that casting the story of the break between Stekel and Freud in the narrative shadow of Robert Louis Stevenson's novella 'Jekyll and Hyde' highlights the extent to which Freud involved himself in the murkier aspects of the politics of the International Psychoanalytical Association and the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Ultimately, however, he argues, Freud was cynically prepared to use and then callously sacrifice Stekel, one of his oldest and most loyal followers, in his increasingly bitter struggles against Adler and Jung. He also touches upon the role of the 'Secret Committee' in the 'Stekel Affair' and the wider ramifications of Jung's unexpected return from America at the height of the 'Freud resignation crisis'. He further suggests that Jung's subsequent meeting with Bergmann may have been a significant factor in precipitating Jung's decision to break his personal relationship with Freud.

  11. HIV DNA Vaccine: Stepwise Improvements Make a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara K. Felber

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient DNA delivery methods and low expression of plasmid DNA have been major obstacles for the use of plasmid DNA as vaccine for HIV/AIDS. This review describes successful efforts to improve DNA vaccine methodology over the past ~30 years. DNA vaccination, either alone or in combination with other methods, has the potential to be a rapid, safe, and effective vaccine platform against AIDS. Recent clinical trials suggest the feasibility of its translation to the clinic.

  12. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Marine mammals have long generation times and broad, difficult to sample distributions, which makes inferring evolutionary and demographic changes using field studies of extant populations challenging. However, molecular analyses from sub-fossil or historical materials of marine mammals...... such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  13. Itinerant electron model and conductance of DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen QU; Da-wei KANG; Xu-tuan GAO; Shi-jie XIE

    2008-01-01

    DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) has recently caught the attention of chemists and physicists.A major reason for this interest is DNA's potential use in nanoelectronie devices,both as a template for assembling nanocireuits and as an element of such circuits.However,the electronic properties of the DNA molecule remain very controversial. Charge-transfer reactions and conductivity measurements show a large variety of possible electronic behavior,ranging from Anderson and bandgap insulators to effective molecular wires and induced superconductors.In this review article,we summarize the wide-ranging experimental and theoretical results of charge transport in DNA.An itinerant electron model is suggested and the effect of the density of itinerant electrons on the conductivity of DNA is studied.Calculations show that a DNA molecule may show conductivity from insulating to metallic,which explains the controversial and profuse electric characteristics of DNA to some extent.

  14. Expression of the dnaN and dnaQ genes of Escherichia coli is inducible by mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasch, M; Kaasch, J; Quiñones, A

    1989-10-01

    The dnaN and dnaQ genes encode the beta subunit and the epsilon subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. Using translational fusions to lacZ we found that DNA damage caused by mitomycin C induces expression of the dnaA and dnaQ genes. This induction was not observed in lexA and recA mutants which block the induction of the SOS response, suggesting a relationship between the mechanism(s) of genetic control of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme and the SOS regulatory network. Nevertheless, there is evidence that the mitomycin C induction of dnaN and dnaQ is not a simple lexA-regulated process, because nalidixic acid (an excellent SOS inducer) does not increase dnaN and dnaQ gene expression, and the time course of induction is abnormally slow.

  15. The Public Earnings Premium in a Mineral Rich Economy: New Piece in the Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usamah Alfarhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the determination of sector earnings and the public earnings premium in Saudi Arabia. It uses a primary cross section of individuals collected in 2013, and employs the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methodology to show whether the observed sectoral earnings' differential is explained by differences in workers' characteristics or by a favorable public wage structure. While controlling for selection, the paper shows that public workers are better endowed rather than overpaid by a wealthy state. This finding suggests that, contrary to the general belief, the determination of public earnings does not contradict active labor market policies designed to encourage private sector employment of locals.

  16. The bacteriophage DNA packaging machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, Michael; Rao, Venigalla B

    2012-01-01

    Large dsDNA bacteriophages and herpesviruses encode a powerful ATP-driven DNA-translocating machine that encapsidates a viral genome into a preformed capsid shell or prohead. The key components of the packaging machine are the packaging enzyme (terminase, motor) and the portal protein that forms the unique DNA entrance vertex of prohead. The terminase complex, comprised of a recognition subunit (small terminase) and an endonuclease/translocase subunit (large terminase), cuts viral genome concatemers. The terminase-viral DNA complex docks on the portal vertex, assembling a motor complex containing five large terminase subunits. The pentameric motor processively translocates DNA until the head shell is full with one viral genome. The motor cuts the DNA again and dissociates from the full head, allowing head-finishing proteins to assemble on the portal, sealing the portal, and constructing a platform for tail attachment. A body of evidence from molecular genetics and biochemical, structural, and biophysical approaches suggests that ATP hydrolysis-driven conformational changes in the packaging motor (large terminase) power DNA motion. Various parts of the motor subunit, such as the ATPase, arginine finger, transmission domain, hinge, and DNA groove, work in concert to translocate about 2 bp of DNA per ATP hydrolyzed. Powerful single-molecule approaches are providing precise delineation of steps during each translocation event in a motor that has a speed as high as a millisecond/step. The phage packaging machine has emerged as an excellent model for understanding the molecular machines, given the mechanistic parallels between terminases, helicases, and numerous motor proteins.

  17. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J; Vogel, Kevin J; Moore, Allen J; Schmitz, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Candidate Gene Studies in Hypodontia Suggest Role for FGF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; D’Souza, Rena N.; Mues, Gabriele; Deeley, Kathleen; Hsin, Hong-Yuan; Küchler, Erika C.; Meira, Raquel; Patir, Asli; Tannure, Patricia N.; Lips, Andrea; Costa, Marcelo C.; Granjeiro, Jose M.; Seymen, Figen; Modesto, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    The majority of tooth agenesis cases are mild (hypodontia) and typically not associated with the gene mutations linked to oligodontia. From this, we hypothesize that most cases of tooth agenesis fit a polygenic mode of inheritance, where several genes with small effects cause a variety of varying phenotypes. In this study, we looked at 18 not typically studied genes in this condition, to ascertain their contribution to hypodontia. Our study subjects consisted of 167 patients with hypodontia and their parents from two cohorts (one from Brazil and one from Turkey). An additional 465 DNA samples (93 cases with hypodontia and 372 controls without family history for tooth agenesis or oral clefts) from Brazil were also available for this study. 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms that maximally represent the linkage disequilibrium structure of the genes for the 18 genes were selected and genotyped using Taqman chemistry. Chi-square was used to test if genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 24 markers that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and had allele frequencies higher than 5% in a panel of 50 CEPH samples were further tested. Association between hypodontia and genetic variants was tested with the transmission disequilibrium test within the program Family-Based Association Test (FBAT) and by using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Alpha at a level of 0.05 was used to report results. Results suggest possible associations between several genes and hypodontia in the three populations. In the Turkish cohort (n=51 parent-affected child trios) the most significant results were as follows: FGF3 rs1893047, p=0.08; GLI3 rs929387, p=0.03; GLI3 haplotype rs929387-rs846266, p=0.002; and PAX9 rs2073242, p=0.03. In the Brazilian cohort (n=116 parent-affected child trios), the results were as follows: DLX1 rs788173, p=0.07; FGF3 rs12574452, p=0.03; GLI2 rs1992901, p=0.03; and PITX2 rs2595110, p=0.01. The second Brazilian cohort also suggested that FGF3

  19. Another piece of the puzzle: the fast HI outflow in Mrk231

    CERN Document Server

    Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Teng, Stacy H; Rupke, David

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection, performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a fast HI 21-cm outflow in the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231. The outflow is observed as shallow HI absorption blueshifted ~1300 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity and located against the inner kpc of the radio source. The outflowing gas has an estimated column density between 5 and 15x10^18 Tspin cm^-2. We derive the Tspin to lie in the range 400-2000 K and the densities are n_HI~10-100 cm^-3. Our results confirm the multiphase nature of the outflow in Mrk231. Although effects of the interaction between the radio plasma and the surrounding medium cannot be ruled out, the energetics and the lack of a clear kpc-scale jet suggest that the most likely origin of the HI outflow is a wide-angle nuclear wind, as earlier proposed to explain the neutral outflow traced by NaI and molecular gas. Our results suggest that an HI component is present in fast outflows regard...

  20. Rad52 SUMOylation affects the efficiency of the DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Arneric, Milica

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) plays a vital role in DNA metabolic processes including meiosis, DNA repair, DNA replication and rDNA homeostasis. HR defects can lead to pathological outcomes, including genetic diseases and cancer. Recent studies suggest that the post-translational modification...... recombination mediator protein Rad52. Interestingly, Rad52 SUMOylation is enhanced by single-stranded DNA, and we show that SUMOylation of Rad52 also inhibits its DNA binding and annealing activities. The biochemical effects of SUMO modification in vitro are accompanied by a shorter duration of spontaneous Rad...... of recombination and DNA repair....

  1. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L., E-mail: umbertofulco@gmail.com; Albuquerque, E. L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal-RN (Brazil); Freire, V. N. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Caetano, E. W. S. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Ceará, 60040-531 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió-AL (Brazil)

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  2. DNA methyltransferase 1 and DNA methylation patterning contribute to germinal center B-cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaknovich, Rita; Cerchietti, Leandro; Tsikitas, Lucas;

    2011-01-01

    The phenotype of germinal center (GC) B cells includes the unique ability to tolerate rapid proliferation and the mutagenic actions of activation induced cytosine deaminase (AICDA). Given the importance of epigenetic patterning in determining cellular phenotypes, we examined DNA methylation and t......, the GC B cells of Dnmt1 hypomorphic animals showed evidence of increased DNA damage, suggesting dual roles for DNMT1 in DNA methylation and double strand DNA break repair.......The phenotype of germinal center (GC) B cells includes the unique ability to tolerate rapid proliferation and the mutagenic actions of activation induced cytosine deaminase (AICDA). Given the importance of epigenetic patterning in determining cellular phenotypes, we examined DNA methylation...... and the role of DNA methyltransferases in the formation of GCs. DNA methylation profiling revealed a marked shift in DNA methylation patterning in GC B cells versus resting/naive B cells. This shift included significant differential methylation of 235 genes, with concordant inverse changes in gene expression...

  3. Functional redundancy between DNA ligases I and III in DNA replication in vertebrate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Bednar, Theresa; Wang, Minli; Paul, Katja; Mladenov, Emil; Bencsik-Theilen, Alena A.; Iliakis, George

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the three families of ATP-dependent DNA ligases are associated with specific functions in DNA metabolism. DNA ligase I (LigI) catalyzes Okazaki-fragment ligation at the replication fork and nucleotide excision repair (NER). DNA ligase IV (LigIV) mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) via the canonical non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. The evolutionary younger DNA ligase III (LigIII) is restricted to higher eukaryotes and has been associated with base excision (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR). Here, using conditional knockout strategies for LIG3 and concomitant inactivation of the LIG1 and LIG4 genes, we show that in DT40 cells LigIII efficiently supports semi-conservative DNA replication. Our observations demonstrate a high functional versatility for the evolutionary new LigIII in DNA replication and mitochondrial metabolism, and suggest the presence of an alternative pathway for Okazaki fragment ligation. PMID:22127868

  4. Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Baraniuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing microarrays (CSMs are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing (CS principles. In contrast to conventional DNA microarrays, in which each genetic sensor is designed to respond to a single target, in a CSM, each sensor responds to a set of targets. We study the problem of designing CSMs that simultaneously account for both the constraints from CS theory and the biochemistry of probe-target DNA hybridization. An appropriate cross-hybridization model is proposed for CSMs, and several methods are developed for probe design and CS signal recovery based on the new model. Lab experiments suggest that in order to achieve accurate hybridization profiling, consensus probe sequences are required to have sequence homology of at least 80% with all targets to be detected. Furthermore, out-of-equilibrium datasets are usually as accurate as those obtained from equilibrium conditions. Consequently, one can use CSMs in applications in which only short hybridization times are allowed.

  5. Autoregulation of the dnaA-dnaN operon and effects of DnaA protein levels on replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Y; Imai, Y; Ogasawara, N; Moriya, S

    2001-07-01

    In Escherichia coli, the DnaA protein level appears to play a pivotal role in determining the timing of replication initiation. To examine the effects on replication initiation in B. subtilis, we constructed a strain in which a copy of the dnaA gene was integrated at the purA locus on the chromosome under the control of an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoter. However, increasing the DnaA level resulted in cell elongation and inhibition of cell growth by induction of the SOS response. Transcription of the native dnaA-dnaN operon was greatly reduced at high DnaA levels, but it was increased in a dnaA-null mutant, indicating autoregulation of the operon by DnaA. When a copy of the dnaN gene was added downstream of the additional dnaA gene at purA, the cells grew at high DnaA levels, suggesting that depletion of DnaN (beta subunit of DNA polymerase III) within the cell by repression of the native dnaA-dnaN operon at high DnaA levels was the cause of the SOS induction. Flow cytometry of the cells revealed that the cell mass at initiation of replication increased at a lower DnaA level and decreased at DnaA levels higher than those of the wild type. Proper timing of replication initiation was observed at DnaA levels nearly comparable to the wild-type level. These results suggest that if the DnaA level increases with progression of the replication cycle, it could act as a rate-limiting factor of replication initiation in B. subtilis.

  6. DNA Movies and Panspermia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    There are several ways that our species might try to send a message to another species separated from us by space and/or time. Synthetic biology might be used to write an epitaph to our species, or simply “Kilroy was here”, in the genome of a bacterium via the patterns of either (1) the codons to exploit Life's non-equilibrium character or (2) the bases themselves to exploit Life's quasi-equilibrium character. We suggest here how DNA movies might be designed using such patterns. We ...

  7. Parameter Estimation of a Multistate Model for an Aging Piece of Equipment under Condition-Based Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihong Duan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a multistate model for an aging piece of equipment under condition-based maintenance and apply an expectation maximization algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the model parameters. Because of the monitoring discontinuity, we cannot observe any state's duration. The observation consists of the equipment's state at an inspection or right after a repair. Based on a proper construction of stochastic processes involved in the model, calculation of some probabilities and expectations becomes tractable. Using these probabilities and expectations, we can apply an expectation maximization algorithm to estimate the parameters in the model. We carry out simulation studies to test the accuracy and the efficiency of the algorithm.

  8. Repair of damaged connectors of tunneled cuffed catheters with a two-piece adaptor for peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letachowicz, Krzysztof; Letachowicz, Waldemar; Weyde, Waclaw; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Kusztal, Mariusz; Wątorek, Ewa; Klinger, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Although catheter use exposes the patient to several complications, tunneled cuffed catheters are widely applied for temporary or long-term vascular access. The aim of the study was to establish the rate of tunneled dialysis catheter damage and report our experience with breakage repair. All 363 cuffed tunneled hemodialysis catheters inserted into 309 patients from May 2000 to December 2008 were followed up. When connector damage was encountered, repair with a two-piece adaptor for peritoneal dialysis was attempted. Mechanical breakage occurred in 33 (9.1%) of catheters with an incidence of 0.36/1000 catheter-days. The most frequent was connector damage, found in 25 cases (67.6%). Catheter repair using a peritoneal dialysis Luer adaptor was performed with good early and long-term outcome. Tunneled catheter breakage is a relatively rare complication. Catheter repair using the adaptor for peritoneal dialysis is easy to perform, safe, and cost-effective.

  9. Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Mist/Air Impinging Jet on Grinding Work-Piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical investigation is presented for flow and heat transfer on grinding work-piece with mist/air impinging jet by using DPM (discrete phase model model. The tracks of the mist droplets show most of them are accumulated on the right surface of grinding zone, and can be influenced by the rotating speed of the grinding wheel, the position and the number of the jet nozzle. The mechanism model of enhance cooling by mist/air impinging jet is developed, which indicated the mist droplet is an key factor of affecting the heat transfer coefficient, and the increasing of mist droplet leads to significant enhancement of the cooling effect. The effects of the jet nozzle location, the nozzle diameter, and the nozzle number on flow and heat transfer coefficient are studied. The results show that the less nozzle distance and inclination angle, the greater nozzle diameter and number lead to greater heat transfer coefficient.

  10. Another Piece in the Fibrotic Puzzle: TSLP as a Novel Ligand for Fibrocyte Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Romy Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has emerged as an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of nonallergic diseases, especially in diseases that include fibrosis. It has been shown to be upregulated in both cutaneous and lung fibrotic conditions. Shin et al. report that TSLP may also play a role in the pathogenesis of keloids. The main mechanism of TSLP profibrotic effects is not as yet fully understood, although the data suggest that it involves collagen production through transforming growth factor-β, at least in the case of dermal fibroblasts. The authors also report that TSLP is able to activate fibrocytes, probably by inducing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (also termed CXCL12), one of its main ligands. These findings support the concept that TSLP plays a role in the development of fibrosis, and they should lead to mechanistic studies on TSLP profibrotic signaling.

  11. Liking the pieces, not the package: contradictions in public opinion during health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Mollyann; Altman, Drew; Deane, Claudia; Buscho, Sasha; Hamel, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Public opinion played a prominent role during the recent health care reform debate. Critics of reform pointed to poll results as evidence that a majority of Americans opposed sweeping changes. Supporters cited polls showing that people favored many specific aspects of the legislation. A closer examination of past and present polling shows that opinion tracked with historic patterns and was relatively stable, even if the contentious public debate suggested a volatile public mood in 2009 and 2010. Going forward, the public will begin reacting to reform implementation, primarily by judging it in terms of their perceptions of and experiences with what the new law does and does not do for people. These opinions could in turn influence implementation or future legislation.

  12. Inflammation and Cancer: Two Pieces of the Same Puzzle? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation, in Crohn’s disease for example, is a known risk factor for malignant transformation, however the role inflammation plays in cancer initiation is poorly understood. STAT2, an important protein that regulates gene activation, is known to be stimulated by immune factors that inhibit cell growth. STAT2 also has reduced expression in the immune cells of patients with Crohn’s disease, which suggested to Ana Gamero, Ph.D., a former NCI Scholar of the Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, CCR, and now Assistant Professor at Temple University in collaboration with Nancy Colburn, Ph.D. of the Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and her colleagues, that STAT2 may be a key protein in regulating inflammation-induced cancer progression. The results of their studies were recently published in a Cancer Prevention Research article.

  13. Light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses with surface light scattering removed from cadaver eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Morris, Caleb; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Floyd, Anne; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential effect of surface light scattering on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) with or without a blue-light filter. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Intraocular lenses were obtained from human cadavers (49 IOLs total; 36 with blue-light filter) and from finished-goods inventory (controls). The IOLs were removed from cadaver eyes and the power and model matched to unused controls. After surface proteins were removed, the IOLs were hydrated for 24 hours at room temperature. Surface light scattering was measured with a Scheimpflug camera (EAS-1000 Anterior Segment Analysis System). Light transmittance was measured with a Lambda 35 UV/Vis spectrophotometer (single-beam configuration; RSA-PE-20 integrating sphere). Hydrated scatter values ranged from 4.8 to 202.5 computer-compatible tape (CCT) units for explanted IOLs with blue-light filter and 1.5 to 11.8 CCT units for controls; values ranged from 6.0 to 137.5 CCT units for explanted IOLs without a blue-light filter and 3.5 to 9.6 CCT units for controls. In both groups, there was a tendency toward increasing scatter values with increasing postoperative time. No differences in light transmittance were observed between explanted IOLs and controls in both groups (IOLs with blue-light filter: P=.407; IOL with no blue-light filter: P=.487; both paired t test). Although surface light scattering of explanted IOLs was significantly higher than that of controls and appeared to increase with time, no effect was observed on light transmittance of 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with or without a blue-light filter. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The behaviour of tomato golden mosaic virus DNA in cultured cells isolated from systemically infected tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomka, M J; Buck, K W; Coutts, R H

    1989-03-01

    When callus tissue was cultured from leaf pieces taken from a Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc. plant systemically infected with tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV), TGMV-specific DNA persisted for up to 6 months in culture. Analysis of TGMV-specific intracellular DNA forms indicated a decrease in double-stranded relative to single-stranded forms and an increase in sub-genomic relative to genomic single-stranded DNA species in the callus tissue compared to those in the original leaf explant. The implications of the results with regard to TGMV replication are discussed.

  15. Microwave-induced inactivation of DNA-based hybrid catalyst in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Shen, Kai

    2016-03-01

    DNA-based hybrid catalysts have gained strong interests in asymmetric reactions. However, to maintain the high enantioselectivity, these reactions are usually conducted at relatively low temperatures (e.g. DNA-based hybrid catalyst even at low temperatures (such as 5 °C). Circular dichroism (CD) spectra and gel electrophoresis of DNA suggest that microwave exposure degrades DNA molecules and disrupts DNA double-stranded structures, causing changes of DNA-metal ligand binding properties and thus poor DNA catalytic performance.

  16. Sperm DNA oxidative damage and DNA adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate DNA damage and adducts in sperm from coke oven workers who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measurements during spermatogenesis. Coke-oven workers (n=112) from a coke-oven plant served the PAH-exposed group, while administrators and security personnel (n=67) served the control. Routine semen parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) were analyzed simultaneously; the assessment of sperm DNA integrity endpoints included DNA fragmentation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). The degree of sperm DNA fragmentation was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The PAH-exposed group had a significant increase in bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo compared to the control subjects (Ps = 0.002 and 0.045, respectively). Coke oven workers' percentages of DNA fragmentation and denaturation from the PAH-exposed group were not significantly different from those of the control subjects (Ps = 0.232 and 0.245, respectively). Routine semen parameters and DNA integrity endpoints were not correlated. Concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo were positively correlated with percentages of DNA fragmentation measured by both TUNEL and SCSA (Ps = 0.045 and 0.034, respectively). However, the concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo and percentages of DNA fragmentation did not correlate with concentrations of bulky DNA adducts. In summary, coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs experienced decreased sperm DNA integrity. Oxidative stress could contribute to the degree of DNA fragmentation. Bulky DNA adducts may be independent of the formation of DNA fragmentation and oxidative adducts in sperm. Monitoring sperm DNA integrity is recommended as a part of the process of assessing the impact of occupational and environmental toxins on

  17. Synthesis of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  18. Cryo-EM Imaging of DNA-PK DNA Damage Repair Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phoebe L. Stewart

    2005-06-27

    Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that must be repaired for cell survival. Higher eukaryotes respond to DSBs by arresting the cell cycle, presumably to repair the DNA lesions before cell division. In mammalian cells, the nonhomologous end-joining DSB repair pathway is mediated by the 470 kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) together with the DNA-binding factors Ku70 and Ku80. Mouse knock-out models of these three proteins are all exquisitely sensitive to low doses of ionizing radiation. In the presence of DNA ends, Ku binds to the DNA and then recruits DNA-PKcs. After formation of the complex, the kinase activity associated with DNA-PKcs becomes activated. This kinase activity has been shown to be essential for repairing DNA DSBs in vivo since expression of a kinase-dead form of DNA-PKcs in a mammalian cell line that lacks DNA-PKcs fails to complement the radiosensitive phenotype. The immense size of DNA-PKcs suggests that it may also serve as a docking site for other DNA repair proteins. Since the assembly of the DNA-PK complex onto DNA is a prerequisite for DSB repair, it is critical to obtain structural information on the complex. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single particle reconstruction methods provide a powerful way to image large macromolecular assemblies at near atomic (10-15 ?) resolution. We have already used cryo-EM methods to examine the structure of the isolated DNA-PKcs protein. This structure reveals numerous cavities throughout the protein that may allow passage of single or double-stranded DNA. Pseudo two-fold symmetry was found for the monomeric protein, suggesting that DNA-PKcs may interact with two DNA ends or two Ku heterodimers simultaneously. Here we propose to study the structure of the cross-linked DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. Difference imaging with our published DNA-PKcs structure will enable us to elucidate the architecture of the complex. A second

  19. Another piece of the puzzle: The fast H I outflow in Mrk 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Veilleux, Sylvain; Oosterloo, Tom; Teng, Stacy H.; Rupke, David

    2016-09-01

    We present the detection, performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a fast H I 21 cm outflow in the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231. The outflow is observed as shallow H I absorption blueshifted ~1300 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity and located against the inner kpc of the radio source. The outflowing gas has an estimated column density between 5 and 15 × 1018Tspin cm-2. We derive the Tspin to lie in the range 400-2000 K and the corresponding H I densities are nHI ~ 10-100 cm-3. Our results complement previous findings and confirm the multiphase nature of the outflow in Mrk 231. Although effects of the interaction between the radio plasma and the surrounding medium cannot be ruled out, the energetics and the lack of a clear kpc-scale jet suggest that the most likely origin of the H I outflow is a wide-angle nuclear wind, as earlier proposed to explain the neutral outflow traced by Na I and molecular gas in this source. Our results suggest that an H I component is present in fast outflows regardless of the acceleration mechanism (wind vs. jet driven) and that it must be connected with common properties of the pre-interaction gas involved. Considering the observed similarity of their column densities, the H I outflow likely represents the inner part of the broad wind identified on larger scales in atomic Na I. The mass outflow rate of the H I outflow (between 8 and 18 M⊙ yr-1) does not appear to be as large as that observed in molecular gas, partly owing to the smaller sizes of the outflowing region sampled by the H I absorption. These characteristics are commonly seen in other cases of outflows driven by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) suggesting that the H I may represent a short intermediate phase in the rapid cooling of the gas. The results further confirm H I as a good tracer for AGN-driven outflows not only in powerful radio sources. We also obtained deeper continuum

  20. Policy required for entry of DNA profiles onto the National Forensic DNA Database of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Heathfield

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent Criminal Law (Forensic Procedures Amendment Act (2013 provides a definition for forensic DNA profiles and, in so doing, states that medical information about an individual may not be revealed through a forensic DNA profile. Yet chromosomal abnormalities can exhibit as tri-allelic patterns on DNA profiles and such information can expose medical conditions such as Down syndrome. This short report highlights this concern and suggests a policy be created for the entering of such DNA profiles onto the National Forensic DNA database of South Africa.

  1. Piecing together the X-ray background: bolometric corrections for active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, R. V.; Fabian, A. C.

    2007-11-01

    The X-ray background can be used to constrain the accretion history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGN), with the SMBH mass density related to the energy density due to accretion. A knowledge of the hard X-ray bolometric correction, κ2-10keV, is a vital input into these studies, as it allows us to constrain the parameters of the accretion responsible for SMBH growth. Earlier studies assumed a constant bolometric correction for all AGN, and more recent work has suggested accounting for a dependence on AGN luminosity. Until recently, the variations in the disc emission in the ultraviolet (UV) have not been taken into account in this calculation; we show that such variations are important by construction of optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions for 54 AGN. In particular, we use Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) UV and X-ray data from the literature to constrain the disc emission as well as possible. We find evidence for very significant spread in the bolometric corrections, with no simple dependence on luminosity being evident. Populations of AGN such as narrow-line Seyfert 1 nuclei, radio-loud and X-ray-weak AGN may have bolometric corrections which differ systematically from the rest of the AGN population. We identify other sources of uncertainty including intrinsic extinction in the optical-UV, X-ray and UV variability and uncertainties in SMBH mass estimates. Our results suggest a more well-defined relationship between the bolometric correction and Eddington ratio in AGN, with a transitional region at an Eddington ratio of ~0.1, below which the bolometric correction is typically 15-25, and above which it is typically 40-70. We consider the potential-implied parallels with the low/hard and high/soft states in Galactic black hole (GBH) accretion, and present bolometric corrections for the GBH binary GX 339-4 for comparison. Our findings reinforce previous studies proposing a multistate description of AGN

  2. Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne G. Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression.

  3. Replication stalling by catalytically impaired Twinkle induces mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in cultured cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjoismaki, J.L.; Goffart, S.; Spelbrink, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Pathological mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements have been proposed to result from repair of double-strand breaks caused by blockage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. As mtDNA deletions are seen only in post-mitotic tissues, it has been suggested that they are selected out in actively d

  4. MtDNA mutagenesis impairs elimination of mitochondria during erythroid maturation leading to enhanced erythrocyte destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlqvist, K.J.; Leoncini, S.; Pecorelli, A.; Wortmann, S.B.; Ahola, S.; Forsstrom, S.; Guerranti, R.; Felice, C. De; Smeitink, J.; Ciccoli, L.; Hamalainen, R.H.; Suomalainen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Haematopoietic progenitor cells show special sensitivity to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis, which suggests that increased mtDNA mutagenesis could underlie anemias. Here we show that elevated mtDNA mutagenesis in mice with a proof-reading deficient mtDNA polymerase (PolG) leads to incomplete m

  5. Guatemala's Motagua Valley: a neglected piece of the northern Caribbean puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.R.; Muller, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    The arcuate ENE to WNW-trending Motagua Valley (MV) is the physiographic expression of the Motagua Valley Fault Zone (MFZ), part of the broad transform boundary between the Caribbean and North American plates in Nuclear Central America. The MV also marks a suture formed by Late Cretaceous collapse of a small(.) ocean basin by southward subduction beneath a northward migrating volcanic arc. The arc collided with the southern Yucatan Block (YB) in the Campanian-Maastrichtian. Latest Cretaceous thrusting, crustal downwarping, and flysch sedimentation (Sepur Fm) along the southern YB was followed by Paleogene uplift, initiation of strike-slip faulting, and deposition of continental clastics (Subinal Fm) in and south of the MV. Deposition of the Subinal Fm and coarse Neogene clastics within the MV occurred in pull-apart basins which were and continue to be uplift by transpression along the MFZ. Major (>100 km) Cenozoic sinistral displacement on the Caribbean-North American plate boundary required by the opening of the Cayman Trough is not documented by offset of distinct geological markers on land. The maximum demonstrated sinsitral offset on the MFZ is roughly 20 km, based on inferred separations of Plio-Quaternary alluvial fans from their source areas along the southern margin of the MV. However, large lateral offsets on the MFZ are strongly suggested by the presence of Cenozoic pull-apart basins in the valley, flower structures, and contrasting Cenozoic magmatic history of the basement terranes adjacent to the MV.

  6. Piecing together female extra-pair mate choice: females really do prefer more ornamented males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sarah J; Safran, Rebecca J; Dale, James

    2016-08-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by extravagant male traits that abound across the animal kingdom and yet convey no apparent benefits to survival. From isopods to elephants, from armaments to ornaments, researchers have spent decades studying male-male competition and female mate choice in an effort to understand the significance of these secondary sexual characteristics. Among socially monogamous species, a frequently proposed explanation for the existence of male ornaments is that they are indicators of male genetic quality subject to female extra-pair mate choice. However, despite over two decades of extensive research into extra-pair paternity (EPP), the evidence that females actually choose more ornamented extra-pair sires is surprisingly scant. Consequently, whether EPP and female choice have contributed to the evolution of male ornaments in socially monogamous species, and what fitness benefits (if any) they signal to females, remains unclear. Progress in this field has been hampered by the challenge of dissociating clear female choice for ornamentation from confounding factors. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Whittingham & Dunn (2016) use an experimental approach in a bird species with very high rates of EPP to tease apart these correlative effects. In doing so, they demonstrate clearly that male ornamentation is subject to female extra-pair mate choice. Their findings further suggest that EPP can be adaptive for females, and represent an important step forward in validating the role of EPP as an evolutionary driver of ornamental elaboration in socially monogamous species.

  7. Bcl11b: A New Piece to the Complex Puzzle of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Neuropathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Matthew J; Jones, Simon P; Lovelace, Michael D; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brew, Bruce J

    2016-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic, fatal, neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. The pathogenesis of ALS is a topic of fascinating speculation and experimentation, with theories revolving around intracellular protein inclusions, mitochondrial structural issues, glutamate excitotoxicity and free radical formation. This review explores the rationale for the involvement of a novel protein, B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11b (Bcl11b) in ALS. Bcl11b is a multifunctional zinc finger protein transcription factor. It functions as both a transactivator and genetic suppressor, acting both directly, binding to promoter regions, and indirectly, binding to promoter-bound transcription factors. It has essential roles in the differentiation and growth of various cells in the central nervous system, immune system, integumentary system and cardiovascular system, to the extent that Bcl11b knockout mice are incompatible with extra-uterine life. It also has various roles in pathology including the suppression of latent retroviruses, thymic tumourigenesis and neurodegeneration. In particular its functions in neurodevelopment, viral latency and T-cell development suggest potential roles in ALS pathology.

  8. Piecing Together the X-ray Background: Bolometric Corrections for Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Vasudevan, R V

    2007-01-01

    (Abridged) The X-ray background can be used to constrain the accretion history of Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). A knowledge of the hard X-ray bolometric correction, \\kappa_{2-10keV} is a vital input into these studies. Variations in the disk emission in the UV have not previously been taken into account in calculating \\kappa_{2-10keV}; we show that such variations are important by constructing optical--to--X-ray SEDs for 54 AGN. In particular, we use FUSE UV and X-ray data from the literature to constrain the disk emission as well as possible. Previous work has suggested a dependence of \\kappa_{2-10keV} on AGN luminosity, but we find significant spread in \\kappa_{2-10keV} with no simple dependence on luminosity. Populations such as Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 nuclei (NLS1s), Radio Loud and X-ray Weak AGN may have values of \\kappa_{2-10keV} differing systematically from the rest of the AGN population. Other sources of uncertainty include intrinsic extinction in the optical--UV, X-...

  9. Emotional intelligence in anorexia nervosa: is anxiety a missing piece of the puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrook, David; Brown, Gary; Tchanturia, Kate

    2012-11-30

    Problematic emotional processing has been implicated in the genesis and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study built on existing research and explored performance-based emotional intelligence (EI) in people with AN. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 32 women diagnosed with AN and 32 female healthy controls (HC). Compared to HC women, the AN group demonstrated significantly lower total EI scores and poorer ability to understand how emotions can progress and change over time. Despite scores within the broadly average range compared to published EI norms, there was a general pattern of poorer performance in the AN sample. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were the strongest predictor of EI, over and above a diagnosis of AN. This study adds to the literature documenting the socioemotional phenotype of AN, suggesting this group of individuals may find it relatively difficult to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions, and to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. Anxiety was highlighted as a putative variable partially explaining why people with AN demonstrated lower EI compared to controls. Implications for further research are discussed, including the need to explore the specificity of EI difficulties in AN using larger samples and additional control groups.

  10. More pieces of the puzzle: chemistry and substructures in the galactic thick disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmi, Amina [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Williams, Mary [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Germany (Germany); Freeman, K. C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics The Australian National University, Cotter Road Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bland-Hawthorn, J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); De Silva, G., E-mail: ahelmi@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: mary@aip.de [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    We present a study of the chemical abundances of solar neighborhood stars associated with dynamical structures in the Milky Way's (thick) disk. These stars were identified as an overdensity in the eccentricity range 0.3 < ε < 0.5 in the Copenhagen-Geneva Survey by Helmi et al. We find that stars with these dynamical characteristics do not constitute a homogeneous population. A relatively sharp transition in dynamical and chemical properties appears to occur at a metallicity of [Fe/H] ∼ –0.4. Stars with [Fe/H] > –0.4 have mostly lower eccentricities, smaller vertical velocity dispersions, are α-enhanced, and define a rather narrow sequence in [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H], clearly distinct from that of the thin disk. Stars with [Fe/H] < –0.4 have a range of eccentricities, are hotter vertically, and depict a larger spread in [α/Fe]. We also found tentative evidence of a substructure possibly associated with the disruption of a metal-rich star cluster. The differences between these populations of stars is also present in, e.g., [Zn/Fe], [Ni/Fe], and [SmII/Fe], suggesting a real physical distinction.

  11. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece: Carcinogen Risk Assessment: The Move from Screens to Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Noel; Foster, John

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the last 50 years, the paradigm for carcinogenicity assessment has depended on lifetime bioassays in rodents. Since 1997, the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S1B has permitted the use of a 2-year rodent bioassay (usually in the rat) and an alternative, genetically modified mouse model to support cancer risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Since its introduction, it has become apparent that many of the stated advantages of the 6-month Tg mouse bioassay have, in actual fact, not been realized, and the concern exists that an albeit imperfect, 2-year mouse bioassay has been replaced by a similarly imperfect 6-month equivalent. This essay argues strongly that model systems, using cancer as the end point, should be discontinued, and that the recent initiatives, from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, on "mode of action," "adverse outcome pathways," and "human relevance framework" should be embraced as being risk assessments based upon the available science. The recent suggested revisions to the ICH S1 guidelines, utilizing carcinogenicity assessment documents, go some way to developing a science-based risk assessment that does not depend almost entirely on a single, imperfect, cancer-based end point in nonrelevant animal species.

  12. A DNA-based system for selecting and displaying the combined result of two input variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Huajie; Wang, Jianbang; Song, S

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based technologies for biosensing or bio-regulation produce huge amounts of rich high-dimensional information. There is a consequent need for flexible means to combine diverse pieces of such information to form useful derivative outputs, and to display those immediately. Here we...... demonstrate this capability in a DNA-based system that takes two input numbers, represented in DNA strands, and returns the result of their multiplication, writing this as a number in a display. Unlike a conventional calculator, this system operates by selecting the result from a library of solutions rather...

  13. Initiation of lymphocyte DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication in T lymphocytes appears to be regulated by two distinct activities: one associated with proliferation which mediates initiation, and another associated with quiescence which blocks initiation. Activated lymphocytes and proliferating lymphoid cell lines produce an activity, termed ADR, which can initiate DNA replication in isolated, quiescent nuclei. ADR is heat-labile, has protease activity or interacts closely with a protease, and is distinct from the DNA polymerases. ADR activity is absent in quiescent lymphocytes and appears in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes after IL-2 binding. The generation of active ADR appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of a precursor which is present in resting cells. Nuclei from mitogen-unresponsive lymphocytes fail to initiate DNA replication in response to ADR, of potential importance in the age-related decline of immunity. Quiescent lymphocytes lack ADR and synthesize an ADR-inhibitory activity. The ADR inhibitor is a heat-stable protein which suppresses the initiation of DNA synthesis, but is ineffective at suppressing elongation once DNA strand replication has begun. Nuclei from several neoplastic cell lines fail to respond to the ADR inhibitor, which may play a role in the continuous proliferation of these cells. At least one of these neoplastic cell lines produces both ADR and an inhibitory factor. These findings suggest that the regulation of proliferation is dependent on the balance between activating and inhibitory pathways.

  14. Binding Affinities among DNA Helicase-Primase, DNA Polymerase, and Replication Intermediates in the Replisome of Bacteriophage T7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huidong; Tang, Yong; Lee, Seung-Joo; Wei, Zeliang; Cao, Jia; Richardson, Charles C

    2016-01-15

    The formation of a replication loop on the lagging strand facilitates coordinated synthesis of the leading- and lagging-DNA strands and provides a mechanism for recycling of the lagging-strand DNA polymerase. As an Okazaki fragment is completed, the loop is released, and a new loop is formed as the synthesis of a new Okazaki fragment is initiated. Loop release requires the dissociation of the complex formed by the interactions among helicase, DNA polymerase, and DNA. The completion of the Okazaki fragment may result in either a nick or a single-stranded DNA region. In the replication system of bacteriophage T7, the dissociation of the polymerase from either DNA region is faster than that observed for the dissociation of the helicase from DNA polymerase, implying that the replication loop is released more likely through the dissociation of the lagging-strand DNA from polymerase, retaining the polymerase at replication fork. Both dissociation of DNA polymerase from DNA and that of helicase from a DNA polymerase · DNA complex are much faster at a nick DNA region than the release from a ssDNA region. These results suggest that the replication loop is released as a result of the nick formed when the lagging-strand DNA polymerase encounters the previously synthesized Okazaki fragment, releasing lagging-strand DNA and retaining DNA polymerase at the replication fork for the synthesis of next Okazaki fragment.

  15. DNA-modified electrodes (Ⅶ)——Preparation and characterization of DNA-bonded and DNA-adsorbed SAM/Au electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琪; 庞代文; 胡深; 程介克; 蔡雄伟; 施财辉; 毛秉伟; 戴鸿平

    1999-01-01

    Two kinds of DNA-modified electrodes were prepared by covalent and adsorptive immobilization of DNA onto self-assembled monolayers of 2, 2’-dithiodiethanol on gold electrodes and characterized by cyclic voltammetry, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. The results suggest that the methods are satisfactory for the immobilization of DNA on electrodes.

  16. Molecular DNA switches and DNA chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R.; Berkey, Cristin; Lavi, Uri; Cantor, Charles R.; Smith, Cassandra L.

    1999-06-01

    We present an assay to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms on a chip using molecular DNA switches and isothermal rolling- circle amplification. The basic principle behind the switch is an allele-specific oligonucleotide circularization, mediated by DNA ligase. A DNA switch is closed when perfect hybridization between the probe oligonucleotide and target DNA allows ligase to covalently circularize the probe. Mismatches around the ligation site prevent probe circularization, resulting in an open switch. DNA polymerase is then used to preferentially amplify the closed switches, via rolling-circle amplification. The stringency of the molecular switches yields 102 - 103 fold discrimination between matched and mismatched sequences.

  17. Tail biting in pigs: blood serotonin and fearfulness as pieces of the puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winanda W Ursinus

    Full Text Available Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin and with their behavioural and physiological responses to novelty. Pigs (n = 480 were born in conventional farrowing pens and after weaning at four weeks of age they were either housed barren (B or in straw-enriched (E pens. Individual pigs were exposed to a back test and novel environment test before weaning, and after weaning to a novel object (i.e. bucket test in an unfamiliar arena. A Principal Component Analysis on behaviours during the tests and salivary cortisol (novel object test only revealed five factors for both housing systems, labeled 'Early life exploration', 'Near bucket', 'Cortisol', 'Vocalizations & standing alert', and 'Back test activity'. Blood samples were taken at 8, 9 and 22 weeks of age to determine blood platelet serotonin. In different phases of life, pigs were classified as tail biter/non-tail biter based on tail biting behaviour, and as victim/non-victim based on tail wounds. A combination of both classifications resulted in four pig types: biters, victims, biter/victims, and neutrals. Generally, only in phases of life during which pigs were classified as tail biters, they seemed to have lower blood platelet serotonin storage and higher blood platelet uptake velocities. Victims also seemed to have lower blood serotonin storage. Additionally, in B housing, tail biters seemed to consistently have lower scores of the factor 'Near bucket', possibly indicating a higher fearfulness in tail biters. Further research is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between peripheral 5-HT, fearfulness and tail biting, and to develop successful strategies and interventions to prevent and reduce tail biting.

  18. Certification of Charpy V-notch Reference Test Pieces of 80 J Nominal Absorbed Energy (ERM®-FA015x and ERM®-FA015y)

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBERTY MARIE ANDREE; Dean, Alan; Roebben, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This certification report describes the processing and characterisation of ERM®-FA015x and ERM®-FA015y, two batches of Charpy V-notch certified reference test pieces. Sets of five of these test pieces are used for the verification of pendulum impact test machines according to EN 10045-2 (Charpy impact test on metallic materials, Part 2. Method for the verification of impact testing machines) or according to ISO 148-2 (Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test – Part 2: Verification of ...

  19. Nucleotide Metabolism and DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F; Evans, Joanna C; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    The development and application of a highly versatile suite of tools for mycobacterial genetics, coupled with widespread use of "omics" approaches to elucidate the structure, function, and regulation of mycobacterial proteins, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of mycobacteria. In this article, we provide an update on nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in mycobacteria, highlighting key findings from the past 10 to 15 years. In the first section, we focus on nucleotide metabolism, ranging from the biosynthesis, salvage, and interconversion of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides to the formation of deoxyribonucleotides. The second part of the article is devoted to DNA replication, with a focus on replication initiation and elongation, as well as DNA unwinding. We provide an overview of replication fidelity and mutation rates in mycobacteria and summarize evidence suggesting that DNA replication occurs during states of low metabolic activity, and conclude by suggesting directions for future research to address key outstanding questions. Although this article focuses primarily on observations from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is interspersed, where appropriate, with insights from, and comparisons with, other mycobacterial species as well as better characterized bacterial models such as Escherichia coli. Finally, a common theme underlying almost all studies of mycobacterial metabolism is the potential to identify and validate functions or pathways that can be exploited for tuberculosis drug discovery. In this context, we have specifically highlighted those processes in mycobacterial DNA replication that might satisfy this critical requirement.

  20. Autophagy in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Czarny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR involves DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, but autophagy is also suggested to play a role in DDR. Autophagy can be activated in response to DNA-damaging agents, but the exact mechanism underlying this activation is not fully understood, although it is suggested that it involves the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. mTORC1 represses autophagy via phosphorylation of the ULK1/2–Atg13–FIP200 complex thus preventing maturation of pre-autophagosomal structures. When DNA damage occurs, it is recognized by some proteins or their complexes, such as poly(ADPribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 (MRN complex or FOXO3, which activate repressors of mTORC1. SQSTM1/p62 is one of the proteins whose levels are regulated via autophagic degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by knockout of FIP200 results in upregulation of SQSTM1/p62, enhanced DNA damage and less efficient damage repair. Mitophagy, one form of autophagy involved in the selective degradation of mitochondria, may also play role in DDR. It degrades abnormal mitochondria and can either repress or activate apoptosis, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. There is a need to clarify the role of autophagy in DDR, as this process may possess several important biomedical applications, involving also cancer therapy.