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Sample records for dna maturation domain

  1. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimír; Sakakibara, Y.; Brzáková, Adéla; Ferencová, Ivana; Motlík, Jan; Kitajima, T.; Schultz, R. M.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2016), s. 546-558 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : double strand DNA breaks * DNA damage * MRE11 * meiotic maturation * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.530, year: 2016

  2. The large terminase DNA packaging motor grips DNA with its ATPase domain for cleavage by the flexible nuclease domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Brendan J.; Hayes, Janelle A.; Stone, Nicholas P.; Xu, Rui-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Many viruses use a powerful terminase motor to pump their genome inside an empty procapsid shell during virus maturation. The large terminase (TerL) protein contains both enzymatic activities necessary for packaging in such viruses: the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that powers DNA translocation and an endonuclease that cleaves the concatemeric genome at both initiation and completion of genome packaging. However, how TerL binds DNA during translocation and cleavage remains mysterious. Here we investigate DNA binding and cleavage using TerL from the thermophilic phage P74-26. We report the structure of the P74-26 TerL nuclease domain, which allows us to model DNA binding in the nuclease active site. We screened a large panel of TerL variants for defects in binding and DNA cleavage, revealing that the ATPase domain is the primary site for DNA binding, and is required for nuclease activity. The nuclease domain is dispensable for DNA binding but residues lining the active site guide DNA for cleavage. Kinetic analysis of DNA cleavage suggests flexible tethering of the nuclease domains during DNA cleavage. We propose that interactions with the procapsid during DNA translocation conformationally restrict the nuclease domain, inhibiting cleavage; TerL release from the capsid upon completion of packaging unlocks the nuclease domains to cleave DNA. PMID:28082398

  3. Dynamic behavior of DNA replication domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, E. M.; Stap, J.; Strackee, J.; van Driel, R.; Aten, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Like many nuclear processes, DNA replication takes place in distinct domains that are scattered throughout the S-phase nucleus. Recently we have developed a fluorescent double-labeling procedure that allows us to visualize nascent DNA simultaneously with "newborn" DNA that had replicated earlier in

  4. Imperfect DNA mirror repeats in the gag gene of HIV-1 (HXB2 identify key functional domains and coincide with protein structural elements in each of the mature proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Dorothy M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A DNA mirror repeat is a sequence segment delimited on the basis of its containing a center of symmetry on a single strand, e.g. 5'-GCATGGTACG-3'. It is most frequently described in association with a functionally significant site in a genomic sequence, and its occurrence is regarded as noteworthy, if not unusual. However, imperfect mirror repeats (IMRs having ≥ 50% symmetry are common in the protein coding DNA of monomeric proteins and their distribution has been found to coincide with protein structural elements – helices, β sheets and turns. In this study, the distribution of IMRs is evaluated in a polyprotein – to determine whether IMRs may be related to the position or order of protein cleavage or other hierarchal aspects of protein function. The gag gene of HIV-1 [GenBank:K03455] was selected for the study because its protein motifs and structural components are well documented. Results There is a highly specific relationship between IMRs and structural and functional aspects of the Gag polyprotein. The five longest IMRs in the polyprotein translate a key functional segment in each of the five cleavage products. Throughout the protein, IMRs coincide with functionally significant segments of the protein. A detailed annotation of the protein, which combines structural, functional and IMR data illustrates these associations. There is a significant statistical correlation between the ends of IMRs and the ends of PSEs in each of the mature proteins. Weakly symmetric IMRs (≥ 33% are related to cleavage positions and processes. Conclusion The frequency and distribution of IMRs in HIV-1 Gag indicates that DNA symmetry is a fundamental property of protein coding DNA and that different levels of symmetry are associated with different functional aspects of the gene and its protein. The interaction between IMRs and protein structure and function is precise and interwoven over the entire length of the polyprotein. The

  5. Chromatin maturation depends on continued DNA-replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaeger, E.J.; Puelm, W.; Knippers, R.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of [ 3 H]thymidine pulse-labeled chromatin in lymphocytes differs from that of non-replicating chromatin by several operational criteria which are related to the higher nuclease sensitivity of replicating chromatin. These structural features of replicating chromatin rapidly disappear when the [ 3 H]thymidine pulse is followed by a chase in the presence of an excess of non-radioactive thymidine. However, when the rate of DNA replication is reduced, as in cycloheximide-treated lymphocytes, chromatin maturation is retarded. No chromatin maturation is observed when nuclei from pulse-labeled lymphocytes are incubated in vitro in the absence of DNA precursors. In contrast, when these nuclei are incubated under conditions known to be optimal for DNA replication, the structure of replicating chromatin is efficiently converted to that of 'mature', non-replicating chromatin. The authors conclude that the properties of nascent DNA and/or the distance from the replication fork are important factors in chromatin maturation. (Auth.)

  6. Towards the maturity model for feature oriented domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the quality of a model has always been a challenge for researchers in academia and industry. The quality of a feature model is a prime factor because it is used in the development of products. A degraded feature model leads the development of low quality products. Few efforts have been made on improving the quality of feature models. This paper is an effort to present our ongoing work i.e. development of FODA (Feature Oriented Domain Analysis maturity model which will help to evaluate the quality of a given feature model. In this paper, we provide the quality levels along with their descriptions. The proposed model consists of four levels starting from level 0 to level 3. Design of each level is based on the severity of errors, whereas severity of errors decreases from level 0 to level 3. We elaborate each level with the help of examples. We borrowed all examples from the material published by the research community of Software Product Lines (SPL for the application of our framework.

  7. (Br-SCMM) Brazilian Smart City Maturity Model: A Perspective from the Health Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; dos Santos Brito, Kellyton; Holanda do Nascimento, Clóvis; Campos da Costa, Luciana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Cardoso Garcia, Vinicius

    2015-01-01

    The term definition "Smart City" still allows various interpretations, and this causes some difficulty in establishing parameters to measure how smart the cities can be. This paper presents a Maturity Model that uses a set of minimum domains and indicators that aim to encourage cities of different sizes to identify their potential and improve processes and public policies.

  8. Extended HSR/CARD domain mediates AIRE binding to DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslovskaja, Julia, E-mail: julia.maslovskaja@ut.ee; Saare, Mario; Liiv, Ingrid; Rebane, Ana; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-12-25

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) activates the transcription of many genes in an unusual promiscuous and stochastic manner. The mechanism by which AIRE binds to the chromatin and DNA is not fully understood, and the regulatory elements that AIRE target genes possess are not delineated. In the current study, we demonstrate that AIRE activates the expression of transiently transfected luciferase reporters that lack defined promoter regions, as well as intron and poly(A) signal sequences. Our protein-DNA interaction experiments with mutated AIRE reveal that the intact homogeneously staining region/caspase recruitment domain (HSR/CARD) and amino acids R113 and K114 are key elements involved in AIRE binding to DNA. - Highlights: • Promoter and mRNA processing elements are not important for AIRE to activate gene expression from reporter plasmids. • AIRE protein fragment aa 1–138 mediates direct binding to DNA. • Integrity of the HSR/CARD domain is needed for AIRE binding to DNA.

  9. Extended HSR/CARD domain mediates AIRE binding to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovskaja, Julia; Saare, Mario; Liiv, Ingrid; Rebane, Ana; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) activates the transcription of many genes in an unusual promiscuous and stochastic manner. The mechanism by which AIRE binds to the chromatin and DNA is not fully understood, and the regulatory elements that AIRE target genes possess are not delineated. In the current study, we demonstrate that AIRE activates the expression of transiently transfected luciferase reporters that lack defined promoter regions, as well as intron and poly(A) signal sequences. Our protein-DNA interaction experiments with mutated AIRE reveal that the intact homogeneously staining region/caspase recruitment domain (HSR/CARD) and amino acids R113 and K114 are key elements involved in AIRE binding to DNA. - Highlights: • Promoter and mRNA processing elements are not important for AIRE to activate gene expression from reporter plasmids. • AIRE protein fragment aa 1–138 mediates direct binding to DNA. • Integrity of the HSR/CARD domain is needed for AIRE binding to DNA.

  10. Cooperation between catalytic and DNA binding domains enhances thermostability and supports DNA synthesis at higher temperatures by thermostable DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Andrey R; Pavlova, Nadejda V; Kozyavkin, Sergei A; Slesarev, Alexei I

    2012-03-13

    We have previously introduced a general kinetic approach for comparative study of processivity, thermostability, and resistance to inhibitors of DNA polymerases [Pavlov, A. R., et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.99, 13510-13515]. The proposed method was successfully applied to characterize hybrid DNA polymerases created by fusing catalytic DNA polymerase domains with various sequence-nonspecific DNA binding domains. Here we use the developed kinetic analysis to assess basic parameters of DNA elongation by DNA polymerases and to further study the interdomain interactions in both previously constructed and new chimeric DNA polymerases. We show that connecting helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) domains to catalytic polymerase domains can increase thermostability, not only of DNA polymerases from extremely thermophilic species but also of the enzyme from a faculatative thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. We also demonstrate that addition of Topo V HhH domains extends efficient DNA synthesis by chimerical polymerases up to 105 °C by maintaining processivity of DNA synthesis at high temperatures. We found that reversible high-temperature structural transitions in DNA polymerases decrease the rates of binding of these enzymes to the templates. Furthermore, activation energies and pre-exponential factors of the Arrhenius equation suggest that the mechanism of electrostatic enhancement of diffusion-controlled association plays a minor role in binding of templates to DNA polymerases.

  11. Diversity of the DNA Replication System in the Archaea Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise and timely duplication of the genome is essential for cellular life. It is achieved by DNA replication, a complex process that is conserved among the three domains of life. Even though the cellular structure of archaea closely resembles that of bacteria, the information processing machinery of archaea is evolutionarily more closely related to the eukaryotic system, especially for the proteins involved in the DNA replication process. While the general DNA replication mechanism is conserved among the different domains of life, modifications in functionality and in some of the specialized replication proteins are observed. Indeed, Archaea possess specific features unique to this domain. Moreover, even though the general pattern of the replicative system is the same in all archaea, a great deal of variation exists between specific groups.

  12. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  13. DnaA protein DNA-binding domain binds to Hda protein to promote inter-AAA+ domain interaction involved in regulatory inactivation of DnaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyamura, Kenji; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2011-08-19

    Chromosomal replication is initiated from the replication origin oriC in Escherichia coli by the active ATP-bound form of DnaA protein. The regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) system, a complex of the ADP-bound Hda and the DNA-loaded replicase clamp, represses extra initiations by facilitating DnaA-bound ATP hydrolysis, yielding the inactive ADP-bound form of DnaA. However, the mechanisms involved in promoting the DnaA-Hda interaction have not been determined except for the involvement of an interaction between the AAA+ domains of the two. This study revealed that DnaA Leu-422 and Pro-423 residues within DnaA domain IV, including a typical DNA-binding HTH motif, are specifically required for RIDA-dependent ATP hydrolysis in vitro and that these residues support efficient interaction with the DNA-loaded clamp·Hda complex and with Hda in vitro. Consistently, substitutions of these residues caused accumulation of ATP-bound DnaA in vivo and oriC-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Leu-422 plays a more important role in these activities than Pro-423. By contrast, neither of these residues is crucial for DNA replication from oriC, although they are highly conserved in DnaA orthologues. Structural analysis of a DnaA·Hda complex model suggested that these residues make contact with residues in the vicinity of the Hda AAA+ sensor I that participates in formation of a nucleotide-interacting surface. Together, the results show that functional DnaA-Hda interactions require a second interaction site within DnaA domain IV in addition to the AAA+ domain and suggest that these interactions are crucial for the formation of RIDA complexes that are active for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis.

  14. DnaA Protein DNA-binding Domain Binds to Hda Protein to Promote Inter-AAA+ Domain Interaction Involved in Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyamura, Kenji; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal replication is initiated from the replication origin oriC in Escherichia coli by the active ATP-bound form of DnaA protein. The regulatory inactivation of DnaA (RIDA) system, a complex of the ADP-bound Hda and the DNA-loaded replicase clamp, represses extra initiations by facilitating DnaA-bound ATP hydrolysis, yielding the inactive ADP-bound form of DnaA. However, the mechanisms involved in promoting the DnaA-Hda interaction have not been determined except for the involvement of an interaction between the AAA+ domains of the two. This study revealed that DnaA Leu-422 and Pro-423 residues within DnaA domain IV, including a typical DNA-binding HTH motif, are specifically required for RIDA-dependent ATP hydrolysis in vitro and that these residues support efficient interaction with the DNA-loaded clamp·Hda complex and with Hda in vitro. Consistently, substitutions of these residues caused accumulation of ATP-bound DnaA in vivo and oriC-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Leu-422 plays a more important role in these activities than Pro-423. By contrast, neither of these residues is crucial for DNA replication from oriC, although they are highly conserved in DnaA orthologues. Structural analysis of a DnaA·Hda complex model suggested that these residues make contact with residues in the vicinity of the Hda AAA+ sensor I that participates in formation of a nucleotide-interacting surface. Together, the results show that functional DnaA-Hda interactions require a second interaction site within DnaA domain IV in addition to the AAA+ domain and suggest that these interactions are crucial for the formation of RIDA complexes that are active for DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. PMID:21708944

  15. Functional Dissection of the DNA Interface of the Nucleotidyltransferase Domain of Chlorella Virus DNA Ligase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samai, Poulami; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Chlorella virus DNA ligase (ChVLig) has pluripotent biological activity and an intrinsic nick-sensing function. ChVLig consists of three structural modules that envelop nicked DNA as a C-shaped protein clamp: a nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) domain and an OB domain (these two are common to all DNA ligases) as well as a distinctive β-hairpin latch module. The NTase domain, which performs the chemical steps of ligation, binds the major groove flanking the nick and the minor groove on the 3′-OH side of the nick. Here we performed a structure-guided mutational analysis of the NTase domain, surveying the effects of 35 mutations in 19 residues on ChVLig activity in vivo and in vitro, including biochemical tests of the composite nick sealing reaction and of the three component steps of the ligation pathway (ligase adenylylation, DNA adenylylation, and phosphodiester synthesis). The results highlight (i) key contacts by Thr-84 and Lys-173 to the template DNA strand phosphates at the outer margins of the DNA ligase footprint; (ii) essential contacts of Ser-41, Arg-42, Met-83, and Phe-75 with the 3′-OH strand at the nick; (iii) Arg-176 phosphate contacts at the nick and with ATP during ligase adenylylation; (iv) the role of Phe-44 in forming the protein clamp around the nicked DNA substrate; and (v) the importance of adenine-binding residue Phe-98 in all three steps of ligation. Kinetic analysis of single-turnover nick sealing by ChVLig-AMP underscored the importance of Phe-75-mediated distortion of the nick 3′-OH nucleoside in the catalysis of DNA 5′-adenylylation (step 2) and phosphodiester synthesis (step 3). Induced fit of the nicked DNA into a distorted conformation when bound within the ligase clamp may account for the nick-sensing capacity of ChVLig. PMID:21335605

  16. Functional dissection of the DNA interface of the nucleotidyltransferase domain of chlorella virus DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samai, Poulami; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-04-15

    Chlorella virus DNA ligase (ChVLig) has pluripotent biological activity and an intrinsic nick-sensing function. ChVLig consists of three structural modules that envelop nicked DNA as a C-shaped protein clamp: a nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) domain and an OB domain (these two are common to all DNA ligases) as well as a distinctive β-hairpin latch module. The NTase domain, which performs the chemical steps of ligation, binds the major groove flanking the nick and the minor groove on the 3'-OH side of the nick. Here we performed a structure-guided mutational analysis of the NTase domain, surveying the effects of 35 mutations in 19 residues on ChVLig activity in vivo and in vitro, including biochemical tests of the composite nick sealing reaction and of the three component steps of the ligation pathway (ligase adenylylation, DNA adenylylation, and phosphodiester synthesis). The results highlight (i) key contacts by Thr-84 and Lys-173 to the template DNA strand phosphates at the outer margins of the DNA ligase footprint; (ii) essential contacts of Ser-41, Arg-42, Met-83, and Phe-75 with the 3'-OH strand at the nick; (iii) Arg-176 phosphate contacts at the nick and with ATP during ligase adenylylation; (iv) the role of Phe-44 in forming the protein clamp around the nicked DNA substrate; and (v) the importance of adenine-binding residue Phe-98 in all three steps of ligation. Kinetic analysis of single-turnover nick sealing by ChVLig-AMP underscored the importance of Phe-75-mediated distortion of the nick 3'-OH nucleoside in the catalysis of DNA 5'-adenylylation (step 2) and phosphodiester synthesis (step 3). Induced fit of the nicked DNA into a distorted conformation when bound within the ligase clamp may account for the nick-sensing capacity of ChVLig.

  17. Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain enhances the processivity and fidelity of Taq DNA polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, John F.; Fox, Richard; Harris, Dawn D.; Lyons-Abbott, Sally; Loeb, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Insertion of the T3 DNA polymerase thioredoxin binding domain (TBD) into the distantly related thermostable Taq DNA polymerase at an analogous position in the thumb domain, converts the Taq DNA polymerase from a low processive to a highly processive enzyme. Processivity is dependent on the presence of thioredoxin. The enhancement in processivity is 20–50-fold when compared with the wild-type Taq DNA polymerase or to the recombinant polymerase in the absence of thioredoxin. The recombinant Taq...

  18. Modelling DNA origami self-assembly at the domain level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenberg, Frits; Kwiatkowska, Marta [Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Wolfson Building, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Dunn, Katherine E. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Ouldridge, Thomas E. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, 180 Queen’s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-28

    We present a modelling framework, and basic model parameterization, for the study of DNA origami folding at the level of DNA domains. Our approach is explicitly kinetic and does not assume a specific folding pathway. The binding of each staple is associated with a free-energy change that depends on staple sequence, the possibility of coaxial stacking with neighbouring domains, and the entropic cost of constraining the scaffold by inserting staple crossovers. A rigorous thermodynamic model is difficult to implement as a result of the complex, multiply connected geometry of the scaffold: we present a solution to this problem for planar origami. Coaxial stacking of helices and entropic terms, particularly when loop closure exponents are taken to be larger than those for ideal chains, introduce interactions between staples. These cooperative interactions lead to the prediction of sharp assembly transitions with notable hysteresis that are consistent with experimental observations. We show that the model reproduces the experimentally observed consequences of reducing staple concentration, accelerated cooling, and absent staples. We also present a simpler methodology that gives consistent results and can be used to study a wider range of systems including non-planar origami.

  19. Modelling DNA origami self-assembly at the domain level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dannenberg, Frits; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Dunn, Katherine E.; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a modelling framework, and basic model parameterization, for the study of DNA origami folding at the level of DNA domains. Our approach is explicitly kinetic and does not assume a specific folding pathway. The binding of each staple is associated with a free-energy change that depends on staple sequence, the possibility of coaxial stacking with neighbouring domains, and the entropic cost of constraining the scaffold by inserting staple crossovers. A rigorous thermodynamic model is difficult to implement as a result of the complex, multiply connected geometry of the scaffold: we present a solution to this problem for planar origami. Coaxial stacking of helices and entropic terms, particularly when loop closure exponents are taken to be larger than those for ideal chains, introduce interactions between staples. These cooperative interactions lead to the prediction of sharp assembly transitions with notable hysteresis that are consistent with experimental observations. We show that the model reproduces the experimentally observed consequences of reducing staple concentration, accelerated cooling, and absent staples. We also present a simpler methodology that gives consistent results and can be used to study a wider range of systems including non-planar origami

  20. Modelling DNA origami self-assembly at the domain level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Frits; Dunn, Katherine E.; Bath, Jonathan; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Turberfield, Andrew J.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.

    2015-10-01

    We present a modelling framework, and basic model parameterization, for the study of DNA origami folding at the level of DNA domains. Our approach is explicitly kinetic and does not assume a specific folding pathway. The binding of each staple is associated with a free-energy change that depends on staple sequence, the possibility of coaxial stacking with neighbouring domains, and the entropic cost of constraining the scaffold by inserting staple crossovers. A rigorous thermodynamic model is difficult to implement as a result of the complex, multiply connected geometry of the scaffold: we present a solution to this problem for planar origami. Coaxial stacking of helices and entropic terms, particularly when loop closure exponents are taken to be larger than those for ideal chains, introduce interactions between staples. These cooperative interactions lead to the prediction of sharp assembly transitions with notable hysteresis that are consistent with experimental observations. We show that the model reproduces the experimentally observed consequences of reducing staple concentration, accelerated cooling, and absent staples. We also present a simpler methodology that gives consistent results and can be used to study a wider range of systems including non-planar origami.

  1. Affinity maturation in an HIV broadly neutralizing B-cell lineage through reorientation of variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fera, Daniela; Schmidt, Aaron G; Haynes, Barton F; Gao, Feng; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kepler, Thomas B; Harrison, Stephen C

    2014-07-15

    Rapidly evolving pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency and influenza viruses, escape immune defenses provided by most vaccine-induced antibodies. Proposed strategies to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies require a deeper understanding of antibody affinity maturation and evolution of the immune response to vaccination or infection. In HIV-infected individuals, viruses and B cells evolve together, creating a virus-antibody "arms race." Analysis of samples from an individual designated CH505 has illustrated the interplay between an antibody lineage, CH103, and autologous viruses at various time points. The CH103 antibodies, relatively broad in their neutralization spectrum, interact with the CD4 binding site of gp120, with a contact dominated by CDRH3. We show by analyzing structures of progenitor and intermediate antibodies and by correlating them with measurements of binding to various gp120s that there was a shift in the relative orientation of the light- and heavy-chain variable domains during evolution of the CH103 lineage. We further show that mutations leading to this conformational shift probably occurred in response to insertions in variable loop 5 (V5) of the HIV envelope. The shift displaced the tips of the light chain away from contact with V5, making room for the inserted residues, which had allowed escape from neutralization by the progenitor antibody. These results, which document the selective mechanism underlying this example of a virus-antibody arms race, illustrate the functional significance of affinity maturation by mutation outside the complementarity determining region surface of the antibody molecule.

  2. N-terminal domains of human DNA polymerase lambda promote primer realignment during translesion DNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, David J.; Dayeh, Daniel M.; Fredrickson, Saul W.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases λ (Polλ) and β (Polβ) possess similar 5′-2-deoxyribose-5-phosphatelyase (dRPase) and polymerase domains. Besides these domains, Polλ also possesses a BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain and a proline-rich domain at its N terminus. However, it is unclear how these non-enzymatic domains contribute to the unique biological functions of Polλ. Here, we used primer extension assays and a newly developed high-throughput short oligonucleotide sequencing assay (HT-SOSA) to compare the efficiency of lesion bypass and fidelity of human Polβ, Polλ and two N-terminal deletion constructs of Polλ during the bypass of either an abasic site or a 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) lesion. We demonstrate that the BRCT domain of Polλ enhances the efficiency of abasic site bypass by approximately 1.6-fold. In contrast, deletion of the N-terminal domains of Polλ did not affect the efficiency of 8-oxodG bypass relative to nucleotide incorporations opposite undamaged dG. HT-SOSA analysis demonstrated that Polλ and Polβ preferentially generated −1 or −2 frameshift mutations when bypassing an abasic site and the single or double base deletion frequency was highly sequence dependent. Interestingly, the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ cooperatively promoted the generation of −2 frameshift mutations when the abasic site was situated within a sequence context that was susceptible to homology-driven primer realignment. Furthermore, both N-terminal domains of Polλ increased the generation of −1 frameshift mutations during 8-oxodG bypass and influenced the frequency of substitution mutations produced by Polλ opposite the 8-oxodG lesion. Overall, our data support a model wherein the BRCT and proline-rich domains of Polλ act cooperatively to promote primer/template realignment between DNA strands of limited sequence homology. This function of the N-terminal domains may facilitate the role of Polλ as a gap-filling polymerase

  3. Detection of Variation in Long-Term Micropropagated Mature Pistachio via DNA-Based Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Hülya; Suzerer, Veysel; Tilkat, Engin; Onay, Ahmet; Çiftçi, Yelda Ozden

    2016-12-01

    Determination of genetic stability of in vitro-grown plantlets is needed for safe and large-scale production of mature trees. In this study, genetic variation of long-term micropropagated mature pistachio developed through direct shoot bud regeneration using apical buds (protocol A) and in vitro-derived leaves (protocol B) was assessed via DNA-based molecular markers. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were employed, and the obtained PIC values from RAPD (0.226), ISSR (0.220), and AFLP (0.241) showed that micropropagation of pistachio for different periods of time resulted in "reasonable polymorphism" among donor plant and its 18 clones. Mantel's test showed a consistence polymorphism level between marker systems based on similarity matrices. In conclusion, this is the first study on occurrence of genetic variability in long-term micropropagated mature pistachio plantlets. The obtained results clearly indicated that different marker approaches used in this study are reliable for assessing tissue culture-induced variations in long-term cultured pistachio plantlets.

  4. Extracellular DNA Release Acts as an Antifungal Resistance Mechanism in Mature Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Williams, Craig; Lappin, David F.; Millington, Owain; Martins, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus has been shown to form biofilms that are associated with adaptive antifungal resistance mechanisms. These include multidrug efflux pumps, heat shock proteins, and extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM is a key structural and protective component of microbial biofilms and in bacteria has been shown to contain extracellular DNA (eDNA). We therefore hypothesized that A. fumigatus biofilms also possess eDNA as part of the ECM, conferring a functional role. Fluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated the presence of eDNA, which was released phase dependently (8 autolysis, were significantly upregulated as the biofilm matured and that inhibition of chitinases affected biofilm growth and stability, indicating mechanistically that autolysis was possibly involved. Finally, using checkerboard assays, it was shown that combinational treatment of biofilms with DNase plus amphotericin B and caspofungin significantly improved antifungal susceptibility. Collectively, these data show that eDNA is an important structural component of A. fumigatus ECM that is released through autolysis, which is important for protection from environmental stresses, including antifungal therapy. PMID:23314962

  5. Genome-wide, Single-Cell DNA Methylomics Reveals Increased Non-CpG Methylation during Human Oocyte Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of DNA methylation patterns in oocytes is a highly dynamic process marking gene-regulatory events during fertilization, embryonic development, and adulthood. However, after epigenetic reprogramming in primordial germ cells, how and when DNA methylation is re-established in developing human oocytes remains to be characterized. Here, using single-cell whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we describe DNA methylation patterns in three different maturation stages of human oocytes. We found that while broad-scale patterns of CpG methylation have been largely established by the immature germinal vesicle stage, localized changes continue into later development. Non-CpG methylation, on the other hand, undergoes a large-scale, generalized remodeling through the final stage of maturation, with the net overall result being the accumulation of methylation as oocytes mature. The role of the genome-wide, non-CpG methylation remodeling in the final stage of oocyte maturation deserves further investigation.

  6. Cooperation between Catalytic and DNA-binding Domains Enhances Thermostability and Supports DNA Synthesis at Higher Temperatures by Thermostable DNA Polymerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Andrey R.; Pavlova, Nadejda V.; Kozyavkin, Sergei A.; Slesarev, Alexei I.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously introduced a general kinetic approach for comparative study of processivity, thermostability, and resistance to inhibitors of DNA polymerases (Pavlov et. al., (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13510–13515). The proposed method was successfully applied to characterize hybrid DNA polymerases created by fusing catalytic DNA polymerase domains with various non-specific DNA binding domains. Here we use the developed kinetic analysis to assess basic parameters of DNA elongation by DNA polymerases and to further study the interdomain interactions in both previously constructed and new chimeric DNA polymerases. We show that connecting Helix-hairpin-Helix (HhH) domains to catalytic polymerase domains can increase thermostability, not only of DNA polymerases from extremely thermophilic species, but also of the enzyme from a faculatative thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus. We also demonstrate that addition of TopoV HhH domains extends efficient DNA synthesis by chimerical polymerases up to 105°C by maintaining processivity of DNA synthesis at high temperatures. We also found that reversible high-temperature structural transitions in DNA polymerases decrease the rates of binding of these enzymes to the templates. Furthermore, activation energies and pre-exponential factors of the Arrhenius equation suggest that the mechanism of electrostatic enhancement of diffusion-controlled association plays a minor role in binding templates to DNA polymerases. PMID:22320201

  7. DNA content of rodent brains during maturation and aging, and autoradiography of postnatal DNA synthesis in monkey brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, E.

    1973-01-01

    [ 3 H]Thymidine is taken up by cells synthesizing DNA prepatory to cell division and remains incorporated in the DNA molecules as a lasting radioactive cell marker unless diluted out by repeated cell divisions. With the mouse and rat, histological studies after [ 3 H]thymidine injections have demonstrated that the cells of the external granular layer of the cerebellum proliferate abundantly during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Development of the primate brain is a gradual process extending over a much longer time than is required in the rodent. Despite the relative histological maturity of the monkey cerebellum at birth, the cells of the external granular layer are still actively synthesizing DNA at this time. Two monkeys were given [ 3 H]thymidine at birth and killed within 4 hours. Intense radioactivity was present in the cells of the external granular layer. Cells near the Prukinje perikarya were rather frequently labelled in this monkey, as described by Miale and Sidman in the mouse. In the molecular layer and in the body of the granular layer, relatively few cells were labelled. The labelling was present throughout the cerebellum, although the number of cells labelled varied from one microscopic field to another

  8. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  9. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J.; Malarkey, C. S.; Saperas, N.; Churchill, M. E. A.; Campos, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA

  10. The roles of family B and D DNA polymerases in Thermococcus species 9°N Okazaki fragment maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, Lucia; Kelman, Zvi; Gardner, Andrew F

    2015-05-15

    During replication, Okazaki fragment maturation is a fundamental process that joins discontinuously synthesized DNA fragments into a contiguous lagging strand. Efficient maturation prevents repeat sequence expansions, small duplications, and generation of double-stranded DNA breaks. To address the components required for the process in Thermococcus, Okazaki fragment maturation was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins from Thermococcus species 9°N or cell extracts. A dual color fluorescence assay was developed to monitor reaction substrates, intermediates, and products. DNA polymerase D (polD) was proposed to function as the replicative polymerase in Thermococcus replicating both the leading and the lagging strands. It is shown here, however, that it stops before the previous Okazaki fragments, failing to rapidly process them. Instead, Family B DNA polymerase (polB) was observed to rapidly fill the gaps left by polD and displaces the downstream Okazaki fragment to create a flap structure. This flap structure was cleaved by flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) and the resultant nick was ligated by DNA ligase to form a mature lagging strand. The similarities to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems and evolutionary implications of archaeal Okazaki fragment maturation are discussed. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The Roles of Family B and D DNA Polymerases in Thermococcus Species 9°N Okazaki Fragment Maturation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, Lucia; Kelman, Zvi; Gardner, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    During replication, Okazaki fragment maturation is a fundamental process that joins discontinuously synthesized DNA fragments into a contiguous lagging strand. Efficient maturation prevents repeat sequence expansions, small duplications, and generation of double-stranded DNA breaks. To address the components required for the process in Thermococcus, Okazaki fragment maturation was reconstituted in vitro using purified proteins from Thermococcus species 9°N or cell extracts. A dual color fluorescence assay was developed to monitor reaction substrates, intermediates, and products. DNA polymerase D (polD) was proposed to function as the replicative polymerase in Thermococcus replicating both the leading and the lagging strands. It is shown here, however, that it stops before the previous Okazaki fragments, failing to rapidly process them. Instead, Family B DNA polymerase (polB) was observed to rapidly fill the gaps left by polD and displaces the downstream Okazaki fragment to create a flap structure. This flap structure was cleaved by flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) and the resultant nick was ligated by DNA ligase to form a mature lagging strand. The similarities to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems and evolutionary implications of archaeal Okazaki fragment maturation are discussed. PMID:25814667

  12. Transactivation domain of p53 regulates DNA repair and integrity in human iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Mattapally, Saidulu; Wagle, Pooja A; Zhang, Jianyi

    2018-05-18

    The role of p53 transactivation domain (p53-TAD), a multifunctional and dynamic domain, on DNA repair and retaining DNA integrity in human iPS cells has never been studied. p53-TAD was knocked out in iPS cells using CRISPR/Cas9 and was confirmed by DNA sequencing. p53-TAD KO cells were characterized by: accelerated proliferation, decreased population doubling time, and unaltered Bcl2, BBC3, IGF1R, Bax and altered Mdm2, p21, and PIDD transcripts expression. In p53-TAD KO cells p53 regulated DNA repair proteins XPA, DNA polH and DDB2 expression were found to be reduced compared to p53-WT cells. Exposure to low dose of doxorubicin (Doxo) induced similar DNA damage and DNA damage response (DDR) measured by RAD50 and MRE11 expression, Checkpoint kinase 2 activation and γH2A.X recruitment at DNA strand breaks in both the cell groups indicating silencing p53-TAD do not affect DDR mechanism upstream of p53. Following removal of Doxo p53-WT hiPS cells underwent DNA repair, corrected their damaged DNA and restored DNA integrity. Conversely, p53-TAD KO hiPS cells did not undergo complete DNA repair and failed to restore DNA integrity. More importantly continuous culture of p53-TAD KO hiPS cells underwent G2/M cell cycle arrest and expressed cellular senescent marker p16 INK4a . Our data clearly shows that silencing transactivation domain of p53 did not affect DDR but affected the DNA repair process implying the crucial role of p53 transactivation domain in maintaining DNA integrity. Therefore, activating p53-TAD domain using small molecules may promote DNA repair and integrity of cells and prevent senescence.

  13. Phospho-Ser/Thr-binding domains: navigating the cell cycle and DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, H Christian; Yaffe, Michael B

    2013-09-01

    Coordinated progression through the cell cycle is a complex challenge for eukaryotic cells. Following genotoxic stress, diverse molecular signals must be integrated to establish checkpoints specific for each cell cycle stage, allowing time for various types of DNA repair. Phospho-Ser/Thr-binding domains have emerged as crucial regulators of cell cycle progression and DNA damage signalling. Such domains include 14-3-3 proteins, WW domains, Polo-box domains (in PLK1), WD40 repeats (including those in the E3 ligase SCF(βTrCP)), BRCT domains (including those in BRCA1) and FHA domains (such as in CHK2 and MDC1). Progress has been made in our understanding of the motif (or motifs) that these phospho-Ser/Thr-binding domains connect with on their targets and how these interactions influence the cell cycle and DNA damage response.

  14. Domain structure of a NHEJ DNA repair ligase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Robert S; Tonkin, Louise M; Green, Andrew J; Doherty, Aidan J

    2005-08-19

    A prokaryotic non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) system for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), composed of a Ku homodimer (Mt-Ku) and a multidomain multifunctional ATP-dependent DNA ligase (Mt-Lig), has been described recently in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mt-Lig exhibits polymerase and nuclease activity in addition to DNA ligation activity. These functions were ascribed to putative polymerase, nuclease and ligase domains that together constitute a monomeric protein. Here, the separate polymerase, nuclease and ligase domains of Mt-Lig were cloned individually, over-expressed and the soluble proteins purified to homogeneity. The polymerase domain demonstrated DNA-dependent RNA primase activity, catalysing the synthesis of unprimed oligoribonucleotides on single-stranded DNA templates. The polymerase domain can also extend DNA in a template-dependent manner. This activity was eliminated when the catalytic aspartate residues were replaced with alanine. The ligase domain catalysed the sealing of nicked double-stranded DNA designed to mimic a DSB, consistent with the role of Mt-Lig in NHEJ. Deletion of the active-site lysine residue prevented the formation of an adenylated ligase complex and consequently thwarted ligation. The nuclease domain did not function independently as a 3'-5' exonuclease. DNA-binding assays revealed that both the polymerase and ligase domains bind DNA in vitro, the latter with considerably higher affinity. Mt-Ku directly stimulated the polymerase and nuclease activities of Mt-Lig. The polymerase domain bound Mt-Ku in vitro, suggesting it may recruit Mt-Lig to Ku-bound DNA in vivo. Consistent with these data, Mt-Ku stimulated the primer extension activity of the polymerase domain, suggestive of a functional interaction relevant to NHEJ-mediated DSB repair processes.

  15. HSI2/VAL1 PHD-like domain promotes H3K27 trimethylation to repress the expression of seed maturation genes and complex transgenes in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerappan, Vijaykumar; Chen, Naichong; Reichert, Angelika I; Allen, Randy D

    2014-11-01

    The novel mutant allele hsi2-4 was isolated in a genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants with constitutively elevated expression of a glutathione S-transferase F8::luciferase (GSTF8::LUC) reporter gene in Arabidopsis. The hsi2-4 mutant harbors a point mutation that affects the plant homeodomain (PHD)-like domain in HIGH-LEVEL EXPRESSION OF SUGAR-INDUCIBLE GENE2 (HSI2)/VIVIPAROUS1/ABI3-LIKE1 (VAL1). In hsi2-4 seedlings, expression of this LUC transgene and certain endogenous seed-maturation genes is constitutively enhanced. The parental reporter line (WT LUC ) that was used for mutagenesis harbors two independent transgene loci, Kan R and Kan S . Both loci express luciferase whereas only the Kan R locus confers resistance to kanamycin. Here we show that both transgene loci harbor multiple tandem insertions at single sites. Luciferase expression from these sites is regulated by the HSI2 PHD-like domain, which is required for the deposition of repressive histone methylation marks (H3K27me3) at both Kan R and Kan S loci. Expression of LUC and Neomycin Phosphotransferase II transgenes is associated with dynamic changes in H3K27me3 levels, and the activation marks H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 but does not appear to involve repressive H3K9me2 marks, DNA methylation or histone deacetylation. However, hsi2-2 and hsi2-4 mutants are partially resistant to growth inhibition associated with exposure to the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. HSI2 is also required for the repression of a subset of regulatory and structural seed maturation genes in vegetative tissues and H3K27me3 marks associated with most of these genes are also HSI2-dependent. These data implicate HSI2 PHD-like domain in the regulation of gene expression involving histone modifications and DNA methylation-mediated epigenetic mechanisms.

  16. DNA binding and unwinding by Hel308 helicase requires dual functions of a winged helix domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northall, Sarah J; Buckley, Ryan; Jones, Nathan; Penedo, J Carlos; Soultanas, Panos; Bolt, Edward L

    2017-09-01

    Hel308 helicases promote genome stability linked to DNA replication in archaea, and have homologues in metazoans. In the crystal structure of archaeal Hel308 bound to a tailed DNA duplex, core helicase domains encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a "ratchet" for directional translocation. A winged helix domain (WHD) is also present, but its function is mysterious. We investigated the WHD in full-length Hel308, identifying that mutations in a solvent exposed α-helix resulted in reduced DNA binding and unwinding activities. When isolated from the rest of Hel308, the WHD protein alone bound to duplex DNA but not ssDNA, and DNA binding by WHD protein was abolished by the same mutations as were analyzed in full-length Hel308. Isolated WHD from a human Hel308 homologue (HelQ) also bound to duplex DNA. By disrupting the interface between the Hel308 WHD and a RecA-like domain, a topology typical of Ski2 helicases, we show that this is crucial for ATPase and helicase activities. The data suggest a model in which the WHD promotes activity of Hel308 directly, through binding to duplex DNA that is distinct from ssDNA binding by core helicase, and indirectly through interaction with the RecA-like domain. We propose how the WHD may contribute to ssDNA translocation, resulting in DNA helicase activity or in removal of other DNA bound proteins by "reeling" ssDNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rearrangement of a common cellular DNA domain on chromosome 4 in human primary liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquinelli, C.; Garreau, F.; Bougueleret, L.; Cariani, E.; Thiers, V.; Croissant, O.; Hadchouel, M.; Tiollais, P.; Brechot, C.; Grzeschik, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA integration has been shown to occur frequently in human hepatocellular carcinomas. The authors have investigated whether common cellular DNA domains might be rearranged, possibly by HBV integration, in human primary liver tumors. Unique cellular DNA sequences adjacent to an HBV integration site were isolated from a patient with hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatocellular carcinoma. These probes detected rearrangement of this cellular region of chromosomal DNA in 3 of 50 additional primary liver tumors studied. Of these three tumor samples, two contained HBV DNA, without an apparent link between the viral DNA and the rearranged allele; HBV DNA sequences were not detected in the third tumor sample. By use of a panel of somatic cell hybrids, these unique cellular DNA sequences were shown to be located on chromosome 4. Therefore, this region of chromosomal DNA might be implicated in the formation of different tumors at one step of liver cell transformation, possible related to HBV integration

  18. Backbone assignment of the little finger domain of a Y-family DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dejian; Fowler, Jason D; Suo, Zucai

    2011-10-01

    Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), a prototype Y-family DNA polymerase, contains a unique little finger domain besides a catalytic core. Here, we report the chemical shift assignments for the backbone nitrogens, α and β carbons, and amide protons of the little finger domain of Dpo4. This work and our published backbone assignment for the catalytic core provide the basis for investigating the conformational dynamics of Dpo4 during catalysis using solution NMR spectroscopy.

  19. Recognition of methylated DNA through methyl-CpG binding domain proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Xueqing; Ma, Wen; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key regulatory control route in epigenetics, involving gene silencing and chromosome inactivation. It has been recognized that methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins play an important role in interpreting the genetic information encoded by methylated DNA (mDNA). Although...... the function of MBD proteins has attracted considerable attention and is well characterized, the mechanism underlying mDNA recognition by MBD proteins is still poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG dinucleotides are recognized at the MBD-mDNA interface by two MBD arginines...

  20. The intervening domain from MeCP2 enhances the DNA affinity of the methyl binding domain and provides an independent DNA interaction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Lanuza, Pilar M; Morales-Chueca, Ignacio; Jorge-Torres, Olga C; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Esteller, Manel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-01-31

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) preferentially interacts with methylated DNA and it is involved in epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in MeCP2 are linked to Rett syndrome, the leading cause of intellectual retardation in girls and causing mental, motor and growth impairment. Unstructured regions in MeCP2 provide the plasticity for establishing interactions with multiple binding partners. We present a biophysical characterization of the methyl binding domain (MBD) from MeCP2 reporting the contribution of flanking domains to its structural stability and dsDNA interaction. The flanking disordered intervening domain (ID) increased the structural stability of MBD, modified its dsDNA binding profile from an entropically-driven moderate-affinity binding to an overwhelmingly enthalpically-driven high-affinity binding. Additionally, ID provided an additional site for simultaneously and autonomously binding an independent dsDNA molecule, which is a key feature linked to the chromatin remodelling and looping activity of MeCP2, as well as its ability to interact with nucleosomes replacing histone H1. The dsDNA interaction is characterized by an unusually large heat capacity linked to a cluster of water molecules trapped within the binding interface. The dynamics of disordered regions together with extrinsic factors are key determinants of MeCP2 global structural properties and functional capabilities.

  1. The identification of FANCD2 DNA binding domains reveals nuclear localization sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, Joshi; Caron, Marie-Christine; Drapeau, Karine; Bérubé, Stéphanie; Guitton-Sert, Laure; Coulombe, Yan; Couturier, Anthony M; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2017-08-21

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive genetic disorder characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone-marrow failure, and cancer susceptibility. The FA pathway consists of at least 21 FANC genes (FANCA-FANCV), and the encoded protein products interact in a common cellular pathway to gain resistance against DNA interstrand crosslinks. After DNA damage, FANCD2 is monoubiquitinated and accumulates on chromatin. FANCD2 plays a central role in the FA pathway, using yet unidentified DNA binding regions. By using synthetic peptide mapping and DNA binding screen by electromobility shift assays, we found that FANCD2 bears two major DNA binding domains predominantly consisting of evolutionary conserved lysine residues. Furthermore, one domain at the N-terminus of FANCD2 bears also nuclear localization sequences for the protein. Mutations in the bifunctional DNA binding/NLS domain lead to a reduction in FANCD2 monoubiquitination and increase in mitomycin C sensitivity. Such phenotypes are not fully rescued by fusion with an heterologous NLS, which enable separation of DNA binding and nuclear import functions within this domain that are necessary for FANCD2 functions. Collectively, our results enlighten the importance of DNA binding and NLS residues in FANCD2 to activate an efficient FA pathway. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Gene transfer and expression in human neutrophils. The phox homology domain of p47phox translocates to the plasma membrane but not to the membrane of mature phagosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzezinska Agnieszka A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophils are non-dividing cells with poor survival after isolation. Consequently, exogenous gene expression in neutrophils is challenging. We report here the transfection of genes and expression of active proteins in human primary peripheral neutrophils using nucleofection. Results Exogenous gene expression in human neutrophils was achieved 2 h post-transfection. We show that neutrophils transfected by nucleofection are functional cells, able to respond to soluble and particulate stimuli. They conserved the ability to undergo physiological processes including phagocytosis. Using this technique, we were able to show that the phox homology (PX domain of p47phox localizes to the plasma membrane in human neutrophils. We also show that RhoB, but not the PX domain of p47phox, is translocated to the membrane of mature phagosomes. Conclusion We demonstrated that cDNA transfer and expression of exogenous protein in human neutrophils is compatible with cell viability and is no longer a limitation for the study of protein function in human neutrophils.

  3. D1/D2 domain of large-subunit ribosomal DNA for differentiation of Orpinomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Mudgil, Priti; Singh, Rameshwar; Puniya, Anil K

    2011-09-01

    This study presents the suitability of D1/D2 domain of large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for differentiation of Orpinomyces joyonii and Orpinomyces intercalaris based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A variation of G/T in O. intercalaris created an additional restriction site for AluI, which was used as an RFLP marker. The results demonstrate adequate heterogeneity in the LSU rDNA for species-level differentiation.

  4. The role of the Zn(II binding domain in the mechanism of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tse-Dinh Yuk-Ching

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I binds three Zn(II with three tetracysteine motifs which, together with the 14 kDa C-terminal region, form a 30 kDa DNA binding domain (ZD domain. The 67 kDa N-terminal domain (Top67 has the active site tyrosine for DNA cleavage but cannot relax negatively supercoiled DNA. We analyzed the role of the ZD domain in the enzyme mechanism. Results Addition of purified ZD domain to Top67 partially restored the relaxation activity, demonstrating that covalent linkage between the two domains is not necessary for removal of negative supercoils from DNA. The two domains had similar affinities to ssDNA. However, only Top67 could bind dsDNA with high affinity. DNA cleavage assays showed that the Top67 had the same sequence and structure selectivity for DNA cleavage as the intact enzyme. DNA rejoining also did not require the presence of the ZD domain. Conclusions We propose that during relaxation of negatively supercoiled DNA, Top67 by itself can position the active site tyrosine near the junction of double-stranded and single-stranded DNA for cleavage. However, the interaction of the ZD domain with the passing single-strand of DNA, coupled with enzyme conformational change, is needed for removal of negative supercoils.

  5. Protein Export by the Mycobacterial SecA2 System Is Determined by the Preprotein Mature Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltcher, Meghan E.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Ligon, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    At the core of the bacterial general secretion (Sec) pathway is the SecA ATPase, which powers translocation of unfolded preproteins containing Sec signal sequences through the SecYEG membrane channel. Mycobacteria have two nonredundant SecA homologs: SecA1 and SecA2. While the essential SecA1 handles “housekeeping” export, the nonessential SecA2 exports a subset of proteins and is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. Currently, it is not understood how SecA2 contributes to Sec export in mycobacteria. In this study, we focused on identifying the features of two SecA2 substrates that target them to SecA2 for export, the Ms1704 and Ms1712 lipoproteins of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the mature domains of Ms1704 and Ms1712, not the N-terminal signal sequences, confer SecA2-dependent export. We also demonstrated that the lipid modification and the extreme N terminus of the mature protein do not impart the requirement for SecA2 in export. We further showed that the Ms1704 mature domain can be efficiently exported by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. Because the Tat system exports only folded proteins, this result implies that SecA2 substrates can fold in the cytoplasm and suggests a putative role of SecA2 in enabling export of such proteins. Thus, the mycobacterial SecA2 system may represent another way that bacteria solve the problem of exporting proteins that can fold in the cytoplasm. PMID:23204463

  6. In silico maturation of binding-specificity of DNA aptamers against Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, Nasa; Lednor, Danielle; Tsukakoshi, Kaori; Abe, Koichi; Yoshida, Wataru; Ferri, Stefano; Jones, Brian V; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a prominent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) among patients undergoing long-term bladder catheterization. There are currently no effective means of preventing P. mirabilis infections, and strategies for prophylaxis and rapid early diagnosis are urgently required. Aptamers offer significant potential for development of countermeasures against P. mirabilis CAUTI and are an ideal class of molecules for the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we demonstrate the application of Cell-SELEX to identify DNA aptamers that show high affinity for P. mirabilis. While the aptamers identified displayed high affinity for P. mirabilis cells in dot blotting assays, they also bound to other uropathogenic bacteria. To improve aptamer specificity for P. mirabilis, an in silico maturation (ISM) approach was employed. Two cycles of ISM allowed the identification of an aptamer showing 36% higher specificity, evaluated as a ratio of binding signal for P. mirabilis to that for Escherichia coli (also a cause of CAUTI and the most common urinary tract pathogen). Aptamers that specifically recognize P. mirabilis would have diagnostic and therapeutic values and constitute useful tools for studying membrane-associated proteins in this organism. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The DnaA N-terminal domain interacts with Hda to facilitate replicase clamp-mediated inactivation of DnaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Harada, Yuji; Keyamura, Kenji; Matsunaga, Chika; Kasho, Kazutoshi; Abe, Yoshito; Ueda, Tadashi; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2013-12-01

    DnaA activity for replication initiation of the Escherichia coli chromosome is negatively regulated by feedback from the DNA-loaded form of the replicase clamp. In this process, called RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA), ATP-bound DnaA transiently assembles into a complex consisting of Hda and the DNA-clamp, which promotes inter-AAA+ domain association between Hda and DnaA and stimulates hydrolysis of DnaA-bound ATP, producing inactive ADP-DnaA. Using a truncated DnaA mutant, we previously demonstrated that the DnaA N-terminal domain is involved in RIDA. However, the precise role of the N-terminal domain in RIDA has remained largely unclear. Here, we used an in vitro reconstituted system to demonstrate that the Asn-44 residue in the N-terminal domain of DnaA is crucial for RIDA but not for replication initiation. Moreover, an assay termed PDAX (pull-down after cross-linking) revealed an unstable interaction between a DnaA-N44A mutant and Hda. In vivo, this mutant exhibited an increase in the cellular level of ATP-bound DnaA. These results establish a model in which interaction between DnaA Asn-44 and Hda stabilizes the association between the AAA+ domains of DnaA and Hda to facilitate DnaA-ATP hydrolysis during RIDA. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Interactions of photoactive DNAs with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase: Identification of peptides in the DNA binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Y.J.K.; Evans, R.K.; Beach, C.M.; Coleman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (terminal transferase) was specifically modified in the DNA binding site by a photoactive DNA substrate (hetero-40-mer duplex containing eight 5-azido-dUMP residues at one 3' end). Under optimal photolabeling conditions, 27-40% of the DNA was covalently cross-linked to terminal transferase. The specificity of the DNA and protein interaction was demonstrated by protection of photolabeling at the DNA binding domain with natural DNA substrates. In order to recover high yields of modified peptides from limited amounts of starting material, protein modified with 32 P-labeled photoactive DNA and digested with trypsin was extracted 4 times with phenol followed by gel filtration chromatography. All peptides not cross-linked to DNA were extracted into the phenol phase while the photolyzed DNA and the covalently cross-linked peptides remained in the aqueous phase. The 32 P-containing peptide-DNA fraction was subjected to amino acid sequence analysis. Two sequences, Asp 221 -Lys 231 (peptide B8) and Cys 234 -Lys 249 (peptide B10), present in similar yield, were identified. Structure predictions placed the two peptides in an α-helical array of 39 angstrom which would accommodate a DNA helix span of 11 nucleotides. These peptides share sequence similarity with a region in DNA polymerase β that has been implicated in the binding of DNA template

  9. Detailed kinetic analysis of the interaction between the FOXO4–DNA-binding domain and DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, P.; Zusková, Iva; Bumba, Ladislav; Večeř, J.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 184, DEC 31 (2013), s. 68-78 ISSN 0301-4622 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0717 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : binding kinetics * DNA-binding domain * FOXO4 forkhead transcription factor Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CE - Biochemistry (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2013

  10. The multi-domain protein Np95 connects DNA methylation and histone modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Andrea; Frauer, Carina; Pichler, Garwin; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Spada, Fabio; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications play a central role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell differentiation. Recently, Np95 (also known as UHRF1 or ICBP90) has been found to interact with Dnmt1 and to bind hemimethylated DNA, indicating together with genetic studies a central role in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Using in vitro binding assays we observed a weak preference of Np95 and its SRA (SET- and Ring-associated) domain for hemimethylated CpG sites. However, the binding kinetics of Np95 in living cells was not affected by the complete loss of genomic methylation. Investigating further links with heterochromatin, we could show that Np95 preferentially binds histone H3 N-terminal tails with trimethylated (H3K9me3) but not acetylated lysine 9 via a tandem Tudor domain. This domain contains three highly conserved aromatic amino acids that form an aromatic cage similar to the one binding H3K9me3 in the chromodomain of HP1ß. Mutations targeting the aromatic cage of the Np95 tandem Tudor domain (Y188A and Y191A) abolished specific H3 histone tail binding. These multiple interactions of the multi-domain protein Np95 with hemimethylated DNA and repressive histone marks as well as with DNA and histone methyltransferases integrate the two major epigenetic silencing pathways. PMID:20026581

  11. The multi-domain protein Np95 connects DNA methylation and histone modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottach, Andrea; Frauer, Carina; Pichler, Garwin; Bonapace, Ian Marc; Spada, Fabio; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2010-04-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications play a central role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell differentiation. Recently, Np95 (also known as UHRF1 or ICBP90) has been found to interact with Dnmt1 and to bind hemimethylated DNA, indicating together with genetic studies a central role in the maintenance of DNA methylation. Using in vitro binding assays we observed a weak preference of Np95 and its SRA (SET- and Ring-associated) domain for hemimethylated CpG sites. However, the binding kinetics of Np95 in living cells was not affected by the complete loss of genomic methylation. Investigating further links with heterochromatin, we could show that Np95 preferentially binds histone H3 N-terminal tails with trimethylated (H3K9me3) but not acetylated lysine 9 via a tandem Tudor domain. This domain contains three highly conserved aromatic amino acids that form an aromatic cage similar to the one binding H3K9me3 in the chromodomain of HP1ss. Mutations targeting the aromatic cage of the Np95 tandem Tudor domain (Y188A and Y191A) abolished specific H3 histone tail binding. These multiple interactions of the multi-domain protein Np95 with hemimethylated DNA and repressive histone marks as well as with DNA and histone methyltransferases integrate the two major epigenetic silencing pathways.

  12. CD11c-targeted Delivery of DNA to Dendritic Cells Leads to cGAS- and STING-dependent Maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Marlene F.; Christensen, Esben; Degn, Laura L.T.

    2018-01-01

    monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) and human monocytic THP-1 cells to targeted and untargeted DNA. We used an anti-CD11c antibody conjugated with double-stranded DNA to analyze the maturation status of human moDCs, as well as maturation using a cGAS KO and STING KO THP-1 cell maturation model. We...... with boosting the existing tumor-specific T-cell response. One way to achieve this could be by increasing the level of maturation of dendritic cells locally and in the draining lymph nodes. When exposed to cancer cells, dendritic cells may spontaneously mature because of dangerassociated molecular patterns...... derived from the tumor cells. Doublestranded DNA play a particularly important role in the activation of the dendritic cells, through engagement of intracellular DNAsensors, and signaling through the adaptor protein STING. In the present study, we have investigated the maturational response of human...

  13. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. IMPORTANCE During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful

  14. An RNA Domain Imparts Specificity and Selectivity to a Viral DNA Packaging Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2015-12-01

    During assembly, double-stranded DNA viruses, including bacteriophages and herpesviruses, utilize a powerful molecular motor to package their genomic DNA into a preformed viral capsid. An integral component of the packaging motor in the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage ϕ29 is a viral genome-encoded pentameric ring of RNA (prohead RNA [pRNA]). pRNA is a 174-base transcript comprised of two domains, domains I and II. Early studies initially isolated a 120-base form (domain I only) that retains high biological activity in vitro; hence, no function could be assigned to domain II. Here we define a role for this domain in the packaging process. DNA packaging using restriction digests of ϕ29 DNA showed that motors with the 174-base pRNA supported the correct polarity of DNA packaging, selectively packaging the DNA left end. In contrast, motors containing the 120-base pRNA had compromised specificity, packaging both left- and right-end fragments. The presence of domain II also provides selectivity in competition assays with genomes from related phages. Furthermore, motors with the 174-base pRNA were restrictive, in that they packaged only one DNA fragment into the head, whereas motors with the 120-base pRNA packaged several fragments into the head, indicating multiple initiation events. These results show that domain II imparts specificity and stringency to the motor during the packaging initiation events that precede DNA translocation. Heteromeric rings of pRNA demonstrated that one or two copies of domain II were sufficient to impart this selectivity/stringency. Although ϕ29 differs from other double-stranded DNA phages in having an RNA motor component, the function provided by pRNA is carried on the motor protein components in other phages. During virus assembly, genome packaging involves the delivery of newly synthesized viral nucleic acid into a protein shell. In the double-stranded DNA phages and herpesviruses, this is accomplished by a powerful molecular motor

  15. Structure-function analysis of the OB and latch domains of chlorella virus DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samai, Poulami; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-06-24

    Chlorella virus DNA ligase (ChVLig) is a minimized eukaryal ATP-dependent DNA sealing enzyme with an intrinsic nick-sensing function. ChVLig consists of three structural domains, nucleotidyltransferase (NTase), OB-fold, and latch, that envelop the nicked DNA as a C-shaped protein clamp. The OB domain engages the DNA minor groove on the face of the duplex behind the nick, and it makes contacts to amino acids in the NTase domain surrounding the ligase active site. The latch module occupies the DNA major groove flanking the nick. Residues at the tip of the latch contact the NTase domain to close the ligase clamp. Here we performed a structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB and latch domains. Alanine scanning defined seven individual amino acids as essential in vivo (Lys-274, Arg-285, Phe-286, and Val-288 in the OB domain; Asn-214, Phe-215, and Tyr-217 in the latch), after which structure-activity relations were clarified by conservative substitutions. Biochemical tests of the composite nick sealing reaction and of each of the three chemical steps of the ligation pathway highlighted the importance of Arg-285 and Phe-286 in the catalysis of the DNA adenylylation and phosphodiester synthesis reactions. Phe-286 interacts with the nick 5'-phosphate nucleotide and the 3'-OH base pair and distorts the DNA helical conformation at the nick. Arg-285 is a key component of the OB-NTase interface, where it forms a salt bridge to the essential Asp-29 side chain, which is imputed to coordinate divalent metal catalysts during the nick sealing steps.

  16. Structure-Function Analysis of the OB and Latch Domains of Chlorella Virus DNA Ligase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samai, Poulami; Shuman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Chlorella virus DNA ligase (ChVLig) is a minimized eukaryal ATP-dependent DNA sealing enzyme with an intrinsic nick-sensing function. ChVLig consists of three structural domains, nucleotidyltransferase (NTase), OB-fold, and latch, that envelop the nicked DNA as a C-shaped protein clamp. The OB domain engages the DNA minor groove on the face of the duplex behind the nick, and it makes contacts to amino acids in the NTase domain surrounding the ligase active site. The latch module occupies the DNA major groove flanking the nick. Residues at the tip of the latch contact the NTase domain to close the ligase clamp. Here we performed a structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB and latch domains. Alanine scanning defined seven individual amino acids as essential in vivo (Lys-274, Arg-285, Phe-286, and Val-288 in the OB domain; Asn-214, Phe-215, and Tyr-217 in the latch), after which structure-activity relations were clarified by conservative substitutions. Biochemical tests of the composite nick sealing reaction and of each of the three chemical steps of the ligation pathway highlighted the importance of Arg-285 and Phe-286 in the catalysis of the DNA adenylylation and phosphodiester synthesis reactions. Phe-286 interacts with the nick 5′-phosphate nucleotide and the 3′-OH base pair and distorts the DNA helical conformation at the nick. Arg-285 is a key component of the OB-NTase interface, where it forms a salt bridge to the essential Asp-29 side chain, which is imputed to coordinate divalent metal catalysts during the nick sealing steps. PMID:21527793

  17. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, Stefano [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Campos-Olivas, Ramon [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Duchateau, Phillippe [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Montoya, Guillermo, E-mail: guillermo.montoya@cpr.ku.dk [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrH–DNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin β (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  18. DNA Recognition by the DNA Primase of Bacteriophage T7: A Structure Function Study of the Zinc-Binding Domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabayov, B.; Lee, S.; Akabayov, S.; Rekhi, S.; Zhu, B.; Richardson, C.

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of oligoribonucleotide primers for lagging-strand DNA synthesis in the DNA replication system of bacteriophage T7 is catalyzed by the primase domain of the gene 4 helicase-primase. The primase consists of a zinc-binding domain (ZBD) and an RNA polymerase (RPD) domain. The ZBD is responsible for recognition of a specific sequence in the ssDNA template whereas catalytic activity resides in the RPD. The ZBD contains a zinc ion coordinated with four cysteine residues. We have examined the ligation state of the zinc ion by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and biochemical analysis of genetically altered primases. The ZBD of primase engaged in catalysis exhibits considerable asymmetry in coordination to zinc, as evidenced by a gradual increase in electron density of the zinc together with elongation of the zinc-sulfur bonds. Both wild-type primase and primase reconstituted from purified ZBD and RPD have a similar electronic change in the level of the zinc ion as well as the configuration of the ZBD. Single amino acid replacements in the ZBD (H33A and C36S) result in the loss of both zinc binding and its structural integrity. Thus the zinc in the ZBD may act as a charge modulation indicator for the surrounding sulfur atoms necessary for recognition of specific DNA sequences.

  19. A structural role for the PHP domain in E. coli DNA polymerase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Tiago; Guenther, Joel; Kelch, Brian; Anaya, Jordan; Prabhakar, Arjun; O'Donnell, Mike; Kuriyan, John; Lamers, Meindert H

    2013-05-14

    In addition to the core catalytic machinery, bacterial replicative DNA polymerases contain a Polymerase and Histidinol Phosphatase (PHP) domain whose function is not entirely understood. The PHP domains of some bacterial replicases are active metal-dependent nucleases that may play a role in proofreading. In E. coli DNA polymerase III, however, the PHP domain has lost several metal-coordinating residues and is likely to be catalytically inactive. Genomic searches show that the loss of metal-coordinating residues in polymerase PHP domains is likely to have coevolved with the presence of a separate proofreading exonuclease that works with the polymerase. Although the E. coli Pol III PHP domain has lost metal-coordinating residues, the structure of the domain has been conserved to a remarkable degree when compared to that of metal-binding PHP domains. This is demonstrated by our ability to restore metal binding with only three point mutations, as confirmed by the metal-bound crystal structure of this mutant determined at 2.9 Å resolution. We also show that Pol III, a large multi-domain protein, unfolds cooperatively and that mutations in the degenerate metal-binding site of the PHP domain decrease the overall stability of Pol III and reduce its activity. While the presence of a PHP domain in replicative bacterial polymerases is strictly conserved, its ability to coordinate metals and to perform proofreading exonuclease activity is not, suggesting additional non-enzymatic roles for the domain. Our results show that the PHP domain is a major structural element in Pol III and its integrity modulates both the stability and activity of the polymerase.

  20. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noonan James P

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of variable lengths. The BLM DNA helicase has been shown to localize to the ND10 (nuclear domain 10 or PML (promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, where it associates with TOPIIIα, and to the nucleolus. Results This report demonstrates that the N-terminal domain of BLM is responsible for localization of the protein to the nuclear bodies, while the C-terminal domain directs the protein to the nucleolus. Deletions of the N-terminal domain of BLM have little effect on sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome stability as compared to helicase and C-terminal mutations which can increase SCE frequency and chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion The helicase activity and the C-terminal domain of BLM are critical for maintaining genomic stability as measured by the sister chromatid exchange assay. The localization of BLM into the nucleolus by the C-terminal domain appears to be more important to genomic stability than localization in the nuclear bodies.

  1. Identification of the DNA-Binding Domains of Human Replication Protein A That Recognize G-Quadruplex DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication protein A (RPA, a key player in DNA metabolism, has 6 single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA- binding domains (DBDs A-F. SELEX experiments with the DBDs-C, -D, and -E retrieve a 20-nt G-quadruplex forming sequence. Binding studies show that RPA-DE binds preferentially to the G-quadruplex DNA, a unique preference not observed with other RPA constructs. Circular dichroism experiments show that RPA-CDE-core can unfold the G-quadruplex while RPA-DE stabilizes it. Binding studies show that RPA-C binds pyrimidine- and purine-rich sequences similarly. This difference between RPA-C and RPA-DE binding was also indicated by the inability of RPA-CDE-core to unfold an oligonucleotide containing a TC-region 5′ to the G-quadruplex. Molecular modeling studies of RPA-DE and telomere-binding proteins Pot1 and Stn1 reveal structural similarities between the proteins and illuminate potential DNA-binding sites for RPA-DE and Stn1. These data indicate that DBDs of RPA have different ssDNA recognition properties.

  2. Radiation-induced oxidative damage to the DNA-binding domain of the lactose repressor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillard, N.; Goffinont, S.; Buré, C.; Davídková, Marie; Maurizot, J. C.; Cadene, M.; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 403, part 3 (2007), s. 463-472 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ionizing radiation * oxidative damage * DNA binding domain * lac repressor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.009, year: 2007

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed structural differences among WRKY domain-DNA interaction in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bharati; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Pradeep

    2018-02-12

    The WRKY transcription factors are a class of DNA-binding proteins involved in diverse plant processes play critical roles in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Genome-wide divergence analysis of WRKY gene family in Hordeum vulgare provided a framework for molecular evolution and functional roles. So far, the crystal structure of WRKY from barley has not been resolved; moreover, knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of WRKY domain is pre-requisites for exploring the protein-DNA recognition mechanisms. Homology modelling based approach was used to generate structures for WRKY DNA binding domain (DBD) and its variants using AtWRKY1 as a template. Finally, the stability and conformational changes of the generated model in unbound and bound form was examined through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for 100 ns time period. In this study, we investigated the comparative binding pattern of WRKY domain and its variants with W-box cis-regulatory element using molecular docking and dynamics (MD) simulations assays. The atomic insight into WRKY domain exhibited significant variation in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding pattern, leading to the structural anomalies in the variant type and differences in the DNA-binding specificities. Based on the MD analysis, residual contribution and interaction contour, wild-type WRKY (HvWRKY46) were found to interact with DNA through highly conserved heptapeptide in the pre- and post-MD simulated complexes, whereas heptapeptide interaction with DNA was missing in variants (I and II) in post-MD complexes. Consequently, through principal component analysis, wild-type WRKY was also found to be more stable by obscuring a reduced conformational space than the variant I (HvWRKY34). Lastly, high binding free energy for wild-type and variant II allowed us to conclude that wild-type WRKY-DNA complex was more stable relative to variants I. The results of our study revealed complete dynamic and structural information

  4. Structure of a Novel DNA-binding Domain of Helicase-like Transcription Factor (HLTF) and Its Functional Implication in DNA Damage Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishiki, Asami; Hara, Kodai; Ikegaya, Yuzu; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sato, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-05-22

    HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor) is a yeast RAD5 homolog found in mammals. HLTF has E3 ubiquitin ligase and DNA helicase activities, and plays a pivotal role in the template-switching pathway of DNA damage tolerance. HLTF has an N-terminal domain that has been designated the HIRAN (HIP116 and RAD5 N-terminal) domain. The HIRAN domain has been hypothesized to play a role in DNA binding; however, the structural basis of, and functional evidence for, the HIRAN domain in DNA binding has remained unclear. Here we show for the first time the crystal structure of the HIRAN domain of human HLTF in complex with DNA. The HIRAN domain is composed of six β-strands and two α-helices, forming an OB-fold structure frequently found in ssDNA-binding proteins, including in replication factor A (RPA). Interestingly, this study reveals that the HIRAN domain interacts with not only with a single-stranded DNA but also with a duplex DNA. Furthermore, the structure unexpectedly clarifies that the HIRAN domain specifically recognizes the 3'-end of DNA. These results suggest that the HIRAN domain functions as a sensor to the 3'-end of the primer strand at the stalled replication fork and that the domain facilitates fork regression. HLTF is recruited to a damaged site through the HIRAN domain at the stalled replication fork. Furthermore, our results have implications for the mechanism of template switching. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Image-Based Modeling Reveals Dynamic Redistribution of DNA Damageinto Nuclear Sub-Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes Sylvain V., Ponomarev Artem, Chen James L.; Nguyen, David; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-08-03

    Several proteins involved in the response to DNA doublestrand breaks (DSB) f orm microscopically visible nuclear domains, orfoci, after exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced foci (RIF)are believed to be located where DNA damage occurs. To test thisassumption, we analyzed the spatial distribution of 53BP1, phosphorylatedATM, and gammaH2AX RIF in cells irradiated with high linear energytransfer (LET) radiation and low LET. Since energy is randomly depositedalong high-LET particle paths, RIF along these paths should also berandomly distributed. The probability to induce DSB can be derived fromDNA fragment data measured experimentally by pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis. We used this probability in Monte Carlo simulations topredict DSB locations in synthetic nuclei geometrically described by acomplete set of human chromosomes, taking into account microscope opticsfrom real experiments. As expected, simulations produced DNA-weightedrandom (Poisson) distributions. In contrast, the distributions of RIFobtained as early as 5 min after exposure to high LET (1 GeV/amu Fe) werenon-random. This deviation from the expected DNA-weighted random patterncan be further characterized by "relative DNA image measurements." Thisnovel imaging approach shows that RIF were located preferentially at theinterface between high and low DNA density regions, and were morefrequent than predicted in regions with lower DNA density. The samepreferential nuclear location was also measured for RIF induced by 1 Gyof low-LET radiation. This deviation from random behavior was evidentonly 5 min after irradiation for phosphorylated ATM RIF, while gammaH2AXand 53BP1 RIF showed pronounced deviations up to 30 min after exposure.These data suggest that DNA damage induced foci are restricted to certainregions of the nucleus of human epithelial cells. It is possible that DNAlesions are collected in these nuclear sub-domains for more efficientrepair.

  6. Monoclonal antibody to the rat glucocorticoid receptor. Relationship between the immunoreactive and DNA-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, L.P.; Reichman, M.E.; Thompson, E.B.; Gametchu, B.; Harrison, R.W.; Eisen, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    The region of the glucocorticoid receptor that reacted with a monoclonal antibody (BUGR-1) was identified. In order to identify the immunoreactive region, the rat liver glucocorticoid receptor was subjected to limited proteolysis; immunoreactive fragments were identified by Western blotting. The monoclonal antibody reacted with both the undigested Mr approximately 97,000 receptor subunit and a Mr approximately 45,000 fragment containing the steroid-binding and DNA-binding domains. Digestion by trypsin also produced two steroid-binding fragments of Mr approximately 27,000 and 31,000 which did not react with the antibody and an immunoreactive Mr approximately 16,000 fragment. This Mr approximately 16,000 fragment was shown to bind to DNA-cellulose, indicating that it contained a DNA-binding domain of the receptor. The undigested receptor must have steroid associated with it to undergo activation to a DNA-binding form. However, the Mr approximately 16,000 immunoreactive fragment binds to DNA-cellulose even if it is obtained by digestion of the steroid-free holoreceptor which does not itself bind to DNA

  7. Overproduction of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase DNA-binding domain blocks alkylation-induced DNA repair synthesis in mammalian cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Molinete; W. Vermeulen (Wim); A. Bürkle; J. Mé nissier-de Murcia; J.H. Küpper; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); G. de Murcia

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe zinc-finger DNA-binding domain (DBD) of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, EC 2.4.2.30) specifically recognizes DNA strand breaks induced by various DNA-damaging agents in eukaryotes. This, in turn, triggers the synthesis of polymers of ADP-ribose linked to nuclear proteins during

  8. Different domains of P21Cip1/waf1 regulate DNA replication and DNA repair-associated processes after UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Gaston; Speroni, Juliana; Podhajcer, Osvaldo L.; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Prives, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Many genotoxic insults result in p21 up-regulation and p21-dependent cell cycle arrest but UV irradiation triggers p21 proteolysis. The significance of the increased p21 turnover is unclear and might be associated to DNA repair. While the role of p21 in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) remains controversial, two recent reports explore its effect on Translesion DNA Synthesis (TLS), a process that avoids replication blockage during S phase. The first report shows that p21 degradation is required for efficient PCNA ubiquitination, a post transcriptional modification that is relevant for TLS. The second report demonstrates that p21 (-/-) cells have increased TLS-associated mutagenic rates. Herein we analyze the effect of p21 on different PCNA-driven processes including DNA replication, NER and TLS. Whereas only the CDK binding domain of p21 is required for cell cycle arrest in unstressed cells; neither the CDK- nor the PCNA-binding domains of p21 are able to block early and late steps of NER. Intriguingly, through its PCNA binding domain, p21 inhibited recruitment of the TLS-polymerase, polη to PCNA foci after UV. Moreover, this obstruction correlates with accumulation of γH2AX and increased apoptosis. Taking together, our data emphasizes the link between p21 turnover and efficient TLS. This might also suggest a potential effect of p21 on other activities of polζ, a DNA polymerase with central roles in other biological scenarios such as genetic conversion, homologous recombination and modulation of the cellular response to genotoxic agents [es

  9. NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of the replication initiator protein DnaA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemmer, David E.; Lowery, Thomas J.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Rosalind; Yokota, Hisao; Wemmer, David E.

    2007-08-07

    DnaA is an essential component in the initiation of bacterial chromosomal replication. DnaA binds to a series of 9 base pair repeats leading to oligomerization, recruitment of the DnaBC helicase, and the assembly of the replication fork machinery. The structure of the N-terminal domain (residues 1-100) of DnaA from Mycoplasma genitalium was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The backbone r.m.s.d. for the first 86 residues was 0.6 +/- 0.2 Angstrom based on 742 NOE, 50 hydrogen bond, 46 backbone angle, and 88 residual dipolar coupling restraints. Ultracentrifugation studies revealed that the domain is monomeric in solution. Features on the protein surface include a hydrophobic cleft flanked by several negative residues on one side, and positive residues on the other. A negatively charged ridge is present on the opposite face of the protein. These surfaces may be important sites of interaction with other proteins involved in the replication process. Together, the structure and NMR assignments should facilitate the design of new experiments to probe the protein-protein interactions essential for the initiation of DNA replication.

  10. The Cold Shock Domain of YB-1 Segregates RNA from DNA by Non-Bonded Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Kljashtorny

    Full Text Available The human YB-1 protein plays multiple cellular roles, of which many are dictated by its binding to RNA and DNA through its Cold Shock Domain (CSD. Using molecular dynamics simulation approaches validated by experimental assays, the YB1 CSD was found to interact with nucleic acids in a sequence-dependent manner and with a higher affinity for RNA than DNA. The binding properties of the YB1 CSD were close to those observed for the related bacterial Cold Shock Proteins (CSP, albeit some differences in sequence specificity. The results provide insights in the molecular mechanisms whereby YB-1 interacts with nucleic acids.

  11. Lune/eye gone, a Pax-like protein, uses a partial paired domain and a homeodomain for DNA recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S; Wallen, R V; Goriely, A; Kalionis, B; Desplan, C

    1998-11-10

    Pax proteins, characterized by the presence of a paired domain, play key regulatory roles during development. The paired domain is a bipartite DNA-binding domain that contains two helix-turn-helix domains joined by a linker region. Each of the subdomains, the PAI and RED domains, has been shown to be a distinct DNA-binding domain. The PAI domain is the most critical, but in specific circumstances, the RED domain is involved in DNA recognition. We describe a Pax protein, originally called Lune, that is the product of the Drosophila eye gone gene (eyg). It is unique among Pax proteins, because it contains only the RED domain. eyg seems to play a role both in the organogenesis of the salivary gland during embryogenesis and in the development of the eye. A high-affinity binding site for the Eyg RED domain was identified by using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment techniques. This binding site is related to a binding site previously identified for the RED domain of the Pax-6 5a isoform. Eyg also contains another DNA-binding domain, a Prd-class homeodomain (HD), whose palindromic binding site is similar to other Prd-class HDs. The ability of Pax proteins to use the PAI, RED, and HD, or combinations thereof, may be one mechanism that allows them to be used at different stages of development to regulate various developmental processes through the activation of specific target genes.

  12. Antibacterial small molecules targeting the conserved TOPRIM domain of DNA gyrase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott S Walker

    Full Text Available To combat the threat of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, novel agents that circumvent established resistance mechanisms are urgently needed. Our approach was to focus first on identifying bioactive small molecules followed by chemical lead prioritization and target identification. Within this annotated library of bioactives, we identified a small molecule with activity against efflux-deficient Escherichia coli and other sensitized Gram-negatives. Further studies suggested that this compound inhibited DNA replication and selection for resistance identified mutations in a subunit of E. coli DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase. Our initial compound demonstrated weak inhibition of DNA gyrase activity while optimized compounds demonstrated significantly improved inhibition of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA gyrase and caused cleaved complex stabilization, a hallmark of certain bactericidal DNA gyrase inhibitors. Amino acid substitutions conferring resistance to this new class of DNA gyrase inhibitors reside exclusively in the TOPRIM domain of GyrB and are not associated with resistance to the fluoroquinolones, suggesting a novel binding site for a gyrase inhibitor.

  13. DNA loop domain organization in nucleoids from cells of different types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, Katerina; Chopei, Marianna; Lozovik, Alexandra; Semenova, Anastasia; Lukash, Lyubov; Sivolob, Andrei

    2017-01-29

    The loop domain organization of chromatin plays an important role in transcription regulation and thus may be assumed to vary in cells of different types. We investigated the kinetics of DNA loop migration during single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) for nucleoids obtained from human lymphocytes, lymphoblasts and glioblastoma T98G cells. The results confirm our previous observation that there are three parts of DNA in nucleoids: DNA on the nucleoid surface, loops up to ∼150 kb inside the nucleoid, and larger loops that cannot migrate. However, the relative amounts of the three parts were found to be very different for different cell types. The distributions of the loop length up to 150 kb were shown to be exponential, with the distribution parameter, the loop density, to be dependent on the cell type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of the human DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain on activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Meczes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, alpha and beta, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity.We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIalpha and beta and topoIIalpha+beta-tail and topoIIbeta+alpha-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIalpha-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIbeta-CTD decreasing activity.In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIalpha C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIbeta isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIbeta has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIalpha or beta C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIbeta-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro data with chimeric human topoIIs.

  15. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging' is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein. PMID:28134243

  16. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino (Rutgers); (LBNL); (Connecticut); (TJU); (MSU)

    2017-01-30

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid’) built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging’ is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein.

  17. Effect of different activation modes on DNA integrity of porcine M II oocytes matured in vitro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, Božena; Petr, J.; Sedmíková, M.; Kratochvílová, J.; Jílek, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2010), s. 81-87 ISSN 0967-1994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/06/0295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : comet assay * DNA itegrity * nitric oxide Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.241, year: 2010

  18. ATP-dependent partitioning of the DNA template into supercoiled domains by Escherichia coli UvrAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hyeon-Sook; Liu, L.F.; Claassen, L.; Grossman, L.

    1991-01-01

    The helicase action of the Escherichia coli UvrAB complex on a covalently closed circular DNA template was monitored using bacterial DNA topoisomerase I, which specifically removes negative supercoils. In the presence of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I and ATP, the UvrAB complex gradually introduced positive supercoils into the input relaxed plasmid DNA template. Positive supercoils were not produced when E. coli DNA topoisomerase I was replaced by eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I or when both E. coli and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerases I were added simultaneously. These results suggest that like other DNA helix-tracking processes, the ATP-dependent action of the UvrAM complex on duplex DNA simultaneously generates both positive and negative supercoils, which are not constrained by protein binding but are torsionally strained. The supercoiling activity of UvrAB on UV-damaged DNA was also studied using UV-damaged plasmid DNA and a mutant UvrA protein that lacks the 40 C-terminal amino acids and is defective in preferential binding to UV-damaged DNA. UvrAB was found to preferentially supercoil the UV-damaged DNA template, whereas the mutant protein supercoiled UV-damaged and undamaged DNA with equal efficiency. The authors results therefore suggest that the DNA helix-tracking activity of UvrAB may be involved in searching and/or prepriming the damaged DNA for UvrC incision. A possible role of supercoiled domains in the incision process is discussed

  19. WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of

  20. Localization of DNA methyltransferase-1 during oocyte differentiation, in vitro maturation and early embryonic development in cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Luciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1 is involved in the maintenance of DNA methylation patterns and is crucial for normal mammalian development. The aim of the present study was to assess the localization of Dnmt1 in cow, during the latest phases of oocyte differentiation and during the early stages of segmentation. Dnmt1 expression and localization were assessed in oocytes according to the chromatin configuration, which in turn provides an important epigenetic mechanism for the control of global gene expression and represents a morphological marker of oocyte differentiation.We found that the initial chromatin condensation was accompanied by a slight increase in the level of global DNA methylation, as assessed by 5-methyl-cytosine immunostaining followed by laser scanning confocal microscopy analysis (LSCM. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of Dnmt1 transcripts throughout this phase of oocyte differentiation. Analogously, Dnmt1 immunodetection and LSCM indicated that the protein was always present and localized in the cytoplasm, regardless the chromatin configuration and the level of global DNA methylation. Moreover, our data indicate that while Dnmt1 is retained in the cytoplasm in metaphase II stage oocytes and zygotes, it enters the nuclei of 8-16 cell stage embryos. As suggested in mouse, the functional meaning of the presence of Dnmt1 in the bovine embryo nuclei could be the maintainement of the methylation pattern of imprinted genes. In conclusion, the present work provides useful elements for the study of Dnmt1 function during the late stage of oocyte differentiation, maturation and early embryonic development in mammals.

  1. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M; Melendy, Thomas; Archambault, Jacques

    2016-01-06

    The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed for the structural

  2. Requirement for the E1 Helicase C-Terminal Domain in Papillomavirus DNA Replication In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, Monika; Gagnon, David; Titolo, Steve; Lehoux, Michaël; D'Abramo, Claudia M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The papillomavirus (PV) E1 helicase contains a conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), located next to its ATP-binding site, whose function in vivo is still poorly understood. The CTD is comprised of an alpha helix followed by an acidic region (AR) and a C-terminal extension termed the C-tail. Recent biochemical studies on bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1) E1 showed that the AR and C-tail regulate the oligomerization of the protein into a double hexamer at the origin. In this study, we assessed the importance of the CTD of human papillomavirus 11 (HPV11) E1 in vivo, using a cell-based DNA replication assay. Our results indicate that combined deletion of the AR and C-tail drastically reduces DNA replication, by 85%, and that further truncation into the alpha-helical region compromises the structural integrity of the E1 helicase domain and its interaction with E2. Surprisingly, removal of the C-tail alone or mutation of highly conserved residues within the domain still allows significant levels of DNA replication (55%). This is in contrast to the absolute requirement for the C-tail reported for BPV1 E1 in vitro and confirmed here in vivo. Characterization of chimeric proteins in which the AR and C-tail from HPV11 E1 were replaced by those of BPV1 indicated that while the function of the AR is transferable, that of the C-tail is not. Collectively, these findings define the contribution of the three CTD subdomains to the DNA replication activity of E1 in vivo and suggest that the function of the C-tail has evolved in a PV type-specific manner. IMPORTANCE While much is known about hexameric DNA helicases from superfamily 3, the papillomavirus E1 helicase contains a unique C-terminal domain (CTD) adjacent to its ATP-binding site. We show here that this CTD is important for the DNA replication activity of HPV11 E1 in vivo and that it can be divided into three functional subdomains that roughly correspond to the three conserved regions of the CTD: an alpha helix, needed

  3. A domain of the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I has polymerase but no exonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemont, P S; Ollis, D L; Steitz, T A; Joyce, C M

    1986-09-01

    The Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli has two enzymatic activities: DNA polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease. The crystal structure showed that the fragment is folded into two distinct domains. The smaller domain has a binding site for deoxynucleoside monophosphate and a divalent metal ion that is thought to identify the 3'-5' exonuclease active site. The larger C-terminal domain contains a deep cleft that is believed to bind duplex DNA. Several lines of evidence suggested that the large domain also contains the polymerase active site. To test this hypothesis, we have cloned the DNA coding for the large domain into an expression system and purified the protein product. We find that the C-terminal domain has polymerase activity (albeit at a lower specific activity than the native Klenow fragment) but no measurable 3'-5' exonuclease activity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that each of the three enzymatic activities of DNA polymerase I from E. coli resides on a separate protein structural domain.

  4. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  5. Comprehensive Interrogation of Natural TALE DNA Binding Modules and Transcriptional Repressor Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Le; Zhou, Ruhong; Kuo, Yu-chi; Cunniff, Margaret; Zhang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALE) are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that harbor modular, repetitive DNA binding domains. TALEs have enabled the creation of customizable designer transcriptional factors and sequence-specific nucleases for genome engineering. Here we report two improvements of the TALE toolbox for achieving efficient activation and repression of endogenous gene expression in mammalian cells. We show that the naturally occurring repeat variable diresidue (RVD) Asn-His (NH) has high biological activity and specificity for guanine, a highly prevalent base in mammalian genomes. We also report an effective TALE transcriptional repressor architecture for targeted inhibition of transcription in mammalian cells. These findings will improve the precision and effectiveness of genome engineering that can be achieved using TALEs. PMID:22828628

  6. Engineered split in Pfu DNA polymerase fingers domain improves incorporation of nucleotide γ-phosphate derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Connie J.; Wu, Lydia; Fox, Jeffrey D.; Arezi, Bahram; Hogrefe, Holly H.

    2011-01-01

    Using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR), we evolved a version of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) DNA polymerase that tolerates modification of the γ-phosphate of an incoming nucleotide. A Q484R mutation in α-helix P of the fingers domain, coupled with an unintended translational termination-reinitiation (split) near the finger tip, dramatically improve incorporation of a bulky γ-phosphate-O-linker-dabcyl substituent. Whether synthesized by coupled translation from a bicistronic (−1 frameshift) clone, or reconstituted from separately expressed and purified fragments, split Pfu mutant behaves identically to wild-type DNA polymerase with respect to chromatographic behavior, steady-state kinetic parameters (for dCTP), and PCR performance. Although naturally-occurring splits have been identified previously in the finger tip region of T4 gp43 variants, this is the first time a split (in combination with a point mutation) has been shown to broaden substrate utilization. Moreover, this latest example of a split hyperthermophilic archaeal DNA polymerase further illustrates the modular nature of the Family B DNA polymerase structure. PMID:21062827

  7. Engineered split in Pfu DNA polymerase fingers domain improves incorporation of nucleotide gamma-phosphate derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Connie J; Wu, Lydia; Fox, Jeffrey D; Arezi, Bahram; Hogrefe, Holly H

    2011-03-01

    Using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR), we evolved a version of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) DNA polymerase that tolerates modification of the γ-phosphate of an incoming nucleotide. A Q484R mutation in α-helix P of the fingers domain, coupled with an unintended translational termination-reinitiation (split) near the finger tip, dramatically improve incorporation of a bulky γ-phosphate-O-linker-dabcyl substituent. Whether synthesized by coupled translation from a bicistronic (-1 frameshift) clone, or reconstituted from separately expressed and purified fragments, split Pfu mutant behaves identically to wild-type DNA polymerase with respect to chromatographic behavior, steady-state kinetic parameters (for dCTP), and PCR performance. Although naturally-occurring splits have been identified previously in the finger tip region of T4 gp43 variants, this is the first time a split (in combination with a point mutation) has been shown to broaden substrate utilization. Moreover, this latest example of a split hyperthermophilic archaeal DNA polymerase further illustrates the modular nature of the Family B DNA polymerase structure.

  8. D1/D2 Domain of Large-Subunit Ribosomal DNA for Differentiation of Orpinomyces spp.▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S.; Kumar, Sanjay; Mudgil, Priti; Singh, Rameshwar; Puniya, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the suitability of D1/D2 domain of large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for differentiation of Orpinomyces joyonii and Orpinomyces intercalaris based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A variation of G/T in O. intercalaris created an additional restriction site for AluI, which was used as an RFLP marker. The results demonstrate adequate heterogeneity in the LSU rDNA for species-level differentiation. PMID:21784906

  9. The DNA binding and activation domains of Gal4p are sufficient for conveying its regulatory signals.

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, W V; Johnston, S A

    1997-01-01

    The transcriptional activation function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae activator Gal4p is known to rely on a DNA binding activity at its amino terminus and an activation domain at its carboxy terminus. Although both domains are required for activation, truncated forms of Gal4p containing only these domains activate poorly in vivo. Also, mutations in an internal conserved region of Gal4p inactivate the protein, suggesting that this internal region has some function critical to the activity of...

  10. Variations in DNA methylation, acetylated histone H4, and methylated histone H3 during Pinus radiata needle maturation in relation to the loss of in vitro organogenic capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Meijón, Mónica; Hasbún, Rodrigo; Jesús Cañal, Maria; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2010-03-15

    Needle differentiation is a very complex process associated with the formation of a mature photosynthetic organ. From meristem differentiation to leaf maturation, gene control must play an important role switching required genes on and off to define tissue functions, with the epigenetic code being one of the main regulation mechanisms. In this work, we examined the connections between the variation in the levels of some epigenetic players (DNA methylation, acetylated histone H4 and histone H3 methylation at Lys 4 and Lys 9) at work during needle maturation. Our results indicate that needle maturation, which is associated with a decrease in organogenic capability, is related to an increase in heterochromatin-related epigenetic markers (high DNA methylation and low acetylated histone H4 levels, and the presence of histone H3 methylated at lys 9). Immunohistochemical analyses also showed that the DNA methylation of palisade parenchyma cell layers during the transition from immature to mature scions is associated with the loss of the capacity to induce adventitious organs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The presence of acylated ghrelin during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes induces cumulus cell DNA damage and apoptosis, and impairs early embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirini, Matias A; Anchordoquy, Juan Mateo; Anchordoquy, Juan Patricio; Pascua, Ana M; Nikoloff, Noelia; Carranza, Ana; Relling, Alejandro E; Furnus, Cecilia C

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acylated ghrelin supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. IVM medium was supplemented with 20, 40 or 60 pM acylated ghrelin concentrations. Cumulus expansion area and oocyte nuclear maturation were studied as maturation parameters. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were assessed with the comet, apoptosis and viability assays. The in vitro effects of acylated ghrelin on embryo developmental capacity and embryo quality were also evaluated. Results demonstrated that acylated ghrelin did not affect oocyte nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion area. However, it induced cumulus cell (CC) death, apoptosis and DNA damage. The damage increased as a function of the concentration employed. Additionally, the percentages of blastocyst yield, hatching and embryo quality decreased with all acylated ghrelin concentrations tested. Our study highlights the importance of acylated ghrelin in bovine reproduction, suggesting that this metabolic hormone could function as a signal that prevents the progress to reproductive processes.

  12. MTBP, the partner of Treslin, contains a novel DNA-binding domain that is essential for proper initiation of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Akiko; Dunphy, William G

    2017-11-01

    Treslin, which is essential for incorporation of Cdc45 into the replicative helicase, possesses a partner called MTBP (Mdm2-binding protein). We have analyzed Xenopus and human MTBP to assess its role in DNA replication. Depletion of MTBP from Xenopus egg extracts, which also removes Treslin, abolishes DNA replication. These extracts be can rescued with recombinant Treslin-MTBP but not Treslin or MTBP alone. Thus, Treslin-MTBP is collectively necessary for replication. We have identified a C-terminal region of MTBP (the CTM domain) that binds efficiently to both double-stranded DNA and G-quadruplex (G4) DNA. This domain also exhibits homology with budding yeast Sld7. Mutants of MTBP without a functional CTM domain are defective for DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. These mutants display an impaired localization to chromatin and the inability to support loading of Cdc45. Human cells harboring such a mutant also display severe S-phase defects. Thus, the CTM domain of MTBP plays a critical role in localizing Treslin-MTBP to the replication apparatus for initiation. © 2017 Kumagai and Dunphy. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Anupam; Temkin, Alexis M; Kerkel, Kristi; Yale, Alexander; Yotova, Iveta; Drost, Natalia; Lax, Simon; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Powell, Charles; Borczuk, Alain; Aviv, Abraham; Wapner, Ronald; Chen, Xiaowei; Nagy, Peter L; Schork, Nicholas; Do, Catherine; Torkamani, Ali; Tycko, Benjamin

    2013-08-01

    Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM) is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons), one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated) while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq) in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs), each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM.

  14. Effect of point substitutions within the minimal DNA-binding domain of xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein on interaction with DNA intermediates of nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, E A; Krasikova, Y S; Naegeli, H; Lavrik, O I; Rechkunova, N I

    2014-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum factor A (XPA) is one of the key proteins in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) process. The effects of point substitutions in the DNA-binding domain of XPA (positively charged lysine residues replaced by negatively charged glutamate residues: XPA K204E, K179E, K141E, and tandem mutant K141E/K179E) on the interaction of the protein with DNA structures modeling intermediates of the damage recognition and pre-incision stages in NER were analyzed. All these mutations decreased the affinity of the protein to DNA, the effect depending on the substitution and the DNA structure. The mutant as well as wild-type proteins bind with highest efficiency partly open damaged DNA duplex, and the affinity of the mutants to this DNA is reduced in the order: K204E > K179E > K141E = K141/179E. For all the mutants, decrease in DNA binding efficiency was more pronounced in the case of full duplex and single-stranded DNA than with bubble-DNA structure, the difference between protein affinities to different DNA structures increasing as DNA binding activity of the mutant decreased. No effect of the studied XPA mutations on the location of the protein on the partially open DNA duplex was observed using photoinduced crosslinking with 5-I-dUMP in different positions of the damaged DNA strand. These results combined with earlier published data suggest no direct correlation between DNA binding and activity in NER for these XPA mutants.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase ATPase domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roué, Mélanie; Agrawal, Alka; Volker, Craig; Mossakowska, Danuta; Mayer, Claudine; Bax, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ATPase domain of M. tuberculosis DNA gyrase was crystallized using hanging-drop vapour diffusion. The crystals belonged to space groups P1 and P2 1 . Diffraction data were collected to resolutions of 2.9 and 3.3 Å, respectively. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase, a nanomachine involved in the regulation of DNA topology, is the only type II topoisomerase present in this organism and hence is the sole target of fluoroquinolones in the treatment of tuberculosis. The ATPase domain provides the energy required for catalysis by ATP hydrolysis. Two constructs corresponding to this 43 kDa domain, Mtb-GyrB47 C1 and Mtb-GyrB47 C2 , have been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected from three crystal forms. The crystals belonged to space groups P1 and P2 1 and diffracted to resolutions of 2.9 and 3.3 Å, respectively

  16. Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, B M; Walther, M; Jepsen, P Uhd

    2002-01-01

    The far-infrared dielectric function of a wide range of organic molecules is dominated by vibrations involving a substantial fraction of the atoms forming the molecule and motion associated with intermolecular hydrogen bond vibrations. Due to their collective nature such modes are highly sensitive to the intra- and intermolecular structure and thus provide a unique fingerprint of the conformational state of the molecule and effects of its environment. We demonstrate the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) for recording the far-infrared (0.5-4.0 THz) dielectric function of the four nucleobases and corresponding nucleosides forming the building blocks of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). We observe numerous distinct spectral features with large differences between the molecules in both frequency-dependent absorption coefficient and index of refraction. Assisted by results from density-functional calculations we interpret the origin of the observed resonances as vibrations of hydrogen bonds between the molecules

  17. Designable DNA-binding domains enable construction of logic circuits in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Rok; Lebar, Tina; Majerle, Andreja; Šter, Branko; Dobnikar, Andrej; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman

    2014-03-01

    Electronic computer circuits consisting of a large number of connected logic gates of the same type, such as NOR, can be easily fabricated and can implement any logic function. In contrast, designed genetic circuits must employ orthogonal information mediators owing to free diffusion within the cell. Combinatorial diversity and orthogonality can be provided by designable DNA- binding domains. Here, we employed the transcription activator-like repressors to optimize the construction of orthogonal functionally complete NOR gates to construct logic circuits. We used transient transfection to implement all 16 two-input logic functions from combinations of the same type of NOR gates within mammalian cells. Additionally, we present a genetic logic circuit where one input is used to select between an AND and OR function to process the data input using the same circuit. This demonstrates the potential of designable modular transcription factors for the construction of complex biological information-processing devices.

  18. MARs Wars: heterogeneity and clustering of DNA-binding domains in the nuclear matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioudinkova E. S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. CO326 is a chicken nuclear scaffold/matrix attachment region (MAR associated with the nuclear matrix in several types of chicken cells. It contains a binding site for a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, F326. We have studied its interaction with the nuclear matrix. Methods. We have used an in vitro MAR assay with isolated matrices from chicken HD3 cells. Results. We have found that an oligonucleotide binding site for the F326 inhibits binding of the CO326 to the nuclear matrix. At the same time, the binding of heterologous MARs is enhanced. Conclusions. Taken together, these data suggest that there exist several classes of MARs and MAR-binding domains and that the MAR-binding proteins may be clustered in the nuclear matrix.

  19. In Vitro Maturation of a Humanized Shark VNAR Domain to Improve Its Biophysical Properties to Facilitate Clinical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Steven

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular engineering to increase the percentage identity to common human immunoglobulin sequences of non-human therapeutic antibodies and scaffolds has become standard practice. This strategy is often used to reduce undesirable immunogenic responses, accelerating the clinical development of candidate domains. The first humanized shark variable domain (VNAR was reported by Kovalenko and colleagues and used the anti-human serum albumin (HSA domain, clone E06, as a model to construct a number of humanized versions including huE06v1.10. This study extends this work by using huE06v1.10 as a template to isolate domains with improved biophysical properties and reduced antigenicity. Random mutagenesis was conducted on huE06v1.10 followed by refinement of clones through an off-rate ranking-based selection on target antigen. Many of these next-generation binders retained high affinity for target, together with good species cross-reactivity. Lead domains were assessed for any tendency to dimerize, tolerance to N- and C-terminal fusions, affinity, stability, and relative antigenicity in human dendritic cell assays. Functionality of candidate clones was verified in vivo through the extension of serum half-life in a typical drug format. From these analyses the domain, BA11, exhibited negligible antigenicity, high stability and high affinity for mouse, rat, and HSA. When these attributes were combined with demonstrable functionality in a rat model of PK, the BA11 clone was established as our clinical candidate.

  20. Functional interaction of the DNA-binding transcription factor Sp1 through its DNA-binding domain with the histone chaperone TAF-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toru; Muto, Shinsuke; Miyamoto, Saku; Aizawa, Kenichi; Horikoshi, Masami; Nagai, Ryozo

    2003-08-01

    Transcription involves molecular interactions between general and regulatory transcription factors with further regulation by protein-protein interactions (e.g. transcriptional cofactors). Here we describe functional interaction between DNA-binding transcription factor and histone chaperone. Affinity purification of factors interacting with the DNA-binding domain of the transcription factor Sp1 showed Sp1 to interact with the histone chaperone TAF-I, both alpha and beta isoforms. This interaction was specific as Sp1 did not interact with another histone chaperone CIA nor did other tested DNA-binding regulatory factors (MyoD, NFkappaB, p53) interact with TAF-I. Interaction of Sp1 and TAF-I occurs both in vitro and in vivo. Interaction with TAF-I results in inhibition of DNA-binding, and also likely as a result of such, inhibition of promoter activation by Sp1. Collectively, we describe interaction between DNA-binding transcription factor and histone chaperone which results in negative regulation of the former. This novel regulatory interaction advances our understanding of the mechanisms of eukaryotic transcription through DNA-binding regulatory transcription factors by protein-protein interactions, and also shows the DNA-binding domain to mediate important regulatory interactions.

  1. Solution NMR structure of the HLTF HIRAN domain: a conserved module in SWI2/SNF2 DNA damage tolerance proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhnev, Dmitry M.; Neculai, Dante; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Bezsonova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    HLTF is a SWI2/SNF2-family ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme that acts in the error-free branch of DNA damage tolerance (DDT), a cellular mechanism that enables replication of damaged DNA while leaving damage repair for a later time. Human HLTF and a closely related protein SHPRH, as well as their yeast homologue Rad5, are multi-functional enzymes that share E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity required for activation of the error-free DDT. HLTF and Rad5 also function as ATP-dependent dsDNA translocases and possess replication fork reversal activities. Thus, they can convert Y-shaped replication forks into X-shaped Holliday junction structures that allow error-free replication over DNA lesions. The fork reversal activity of HLTF is dependent on 3′-ssDNA-end binding activity of its N-terminal HIRAN domain. Here we present the solution NMR structure of the human HLTF HIRAN domain, an OB-like fold module found in organisms from bacteria (as a stand-alone domain) to plants, fungi and metazoan (in combination with SWI2/SNF2 helicase-like domain). The obtained structure of free HLTF HIRAN is similar to recently reported structures of its DNA bound form, while the NMR analysis also reveals that the DNA binding site of the free domain exhibits conformational heterogeneity. Sequence comparison of N-terminal regions of HLTF, SHPRH and Rad5 aided by knowledge of the HLTF HIRAN structure suggests that the SHPRH N-terminus also includes an uncharacterized structured module, exhibiting weak sequence similarity with HIRAN regions of HLTF and Rad5, and potentially playing a similar functional role.

  2. Solution NMR structure of the HLTF HIRAN domain: a conserved module in SWI2/SNF2 DNA damage tolerance proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzhnev, Dmitry M. [University of Connecticut Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States); Neculai, Dante [Zhejiang University, School of Medicine (China); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Cancer Biology (United States); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H. [University of Toronto, Structural Genomics Consortium (Canada); Bezsonova, Irina, E-mail: bezsonova@uchc.edu [University of Connecticut Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States)

    2016-11-15

    HLTF is a SWI2/SNF2-family ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme that acts in the error-free branch of DNA damage tolerance (DDT), a cellular mechanism that enables replication of damaged DNA while leaving damage repair for a later time. Human HLTF and a closely related protein SHPRH, as well as their yeast homologue Rad5, are multi-functional enzymes that share E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity required for activation of the error-free DDT. HLTF and Rad5 also function as ATP-dependent dsDNA translocases and possess replication fork reversal activities. Thus, they can convert Y-shaped replication forks into X-shaped Holliday junction structures that allow error-free replication over DNA lesions. The fork reversal activity of HLTF is dependent on 3′-ssDNA-end binding activity of its N-terminal HIRAN domain. Here we present the solution NMR structure of the human HLTF HIRAN domain, an OB-like fold module found in organisms from bacteria (as a stand-alone domain) to plants, fungi and metazoan (in combination with SWI2/SNF2 helicase-like domain). The obtained structure of free HLTF HIRAN is similar to recently reported structures of its DNA bound form, while the NMR analysis also reveals that the DNA binding site of the free domain exhibits conformational heterogeneity. Sequence comparison of N-terminal regions of HLTF, SHPRH and Rad5 aided by knowledge of the HLTF HIRAN structure suggests that the SHPRH N-terminus also includes an uncharacterized structured module, exhibiting weak sequence similarity with HIRAN regions of HLTF and Rad5, and potentially playing a similar functional role.

  3. Laser-scanning astrocyte mapping reveals increased glutamate-responsive domain size and disrupted maturation of glutamate uptake following neonatal cortical freeze-lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortiz eArmbruster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytic uptake of glutamate shapes extracellular neurotransmitter dynamics, receptor activation, and synaptogenesis. During development, glutamate transport becomes more robust. How neonatal brain insult affects the functional maturation of glutamate transport remains unanswered. Neonatal brain insult can lead to developmental delays, cognitive losses, and epilepsy; the disruption of glutamate transport is known to cause changes in synaptogenesis, receptor activation, and seizure. Using the neonatal freeze-lesion (FL model, we have investigated how insult affects the maturation of astrocytic glutamate transport. As lesioning occurs on the day of birth, a time when astrocytes are still functionally immature, this model is ideal for identifying changes in astrocyte maturation following insult. Reactive astrocytosis, astrocyte proliferation, and in vitro hyperexcitability are known to occur in this model. To probe astrocyte glutamate transport with better spatial precision we have developed a novel technique, Laser Scanning Astrocyte Mapping (LSAM, which combines glutamate transport current (TC recording from astrocytes with laser scanning glutamate photolysis. LSAM allows us to identify the area from which a single astrocyte can transport glutamate and to quantify spatial heterogeneity in the rate of glutamate clearance kinetics within that domain. Using LSAM, we report that cortical astrocytes have an increased glutamate-responsive area following FL and that TCs have faster decay times in distal, as compared to proximal processes. Furthermore, the developmental shift from GLAST- to GLT-1-dominated clearance is disrupted following FL. These findings introduce a novel method to probe astrocyte glutamate uptake and show that neonatal cortical FL disrupts the functional maturation of cortical astrocytes.

  4. DNA sequence explains seemingly disordered methylation levels in partially methylated domains of Mammalian genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Gaidatzis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For the most part metazoan genomes are highly methylated and harbor only small regions with low or absent methylation. In contrast, partially methylated domains (PMDs, recently discovered in a variety of cell lines and tissues, do not fit this paradigm as they show partial methylation for large portions (20%-40% of the genome. While in PMDs methylation levels are reduced on average, we found that at single CpG resolution, they show extensive variability along the genome outside of CpG islands and DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS. Methylation levels range from 0% to 100% in a roughly uniform fashion with only little similarity between neighboring CpGs. A comparison of various PMD-containing methylomes showed that these seemingly disordered states of methylation are strongly conserved across cell types for virtually every PMD. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that DNA sequence is a major determinant of these methylation states. This is further substantiated by a purely sequence based model which can predict 31% (R(2 of the variation in methylation. The model revealed CpG density as the main driving feature promoting methylation, opposite to what has been shown for CpG islands, followed by various dinucleotides immediately flanking the CpG and a minor contribution from sequence preferences reflecting nucleosome positioning. Taken together we provide a reinterpretation for the nucleotide-specific methylation levels observed in PMDs, demonstrate their conservation across tissues and suggest that they are mainly determined by specific DNA sequence features.

  5. Targeted DNA demethylation of the Arabidopsis genome using the human TET1 catalytic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Bartolomé, Javier; Gardiner, Jason; Liu, Wanlu; Papikian, Ashot; Ghoshal, Basudev; Kuo, Hsuan Yu; Zhao, Jenny Miao-Chi; Jacobsen, Steven E.

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in gene regulation and transposable element silencing. Changes in DNA methylation can be heritable and, thus, can lead to the formation of stable epialleles. A well-characterized example of a stable epiallele in plants is fwa, which consists of the loss of DNA cytosine methylation (5mC) in the promoter of the FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA) gene, causing up-regulation of FWA and a heritable late-flowering phenotype. Here we demonstrate that a fusion between the catalytic domain of the human demethylase TEN-ELEVEN TRANSLOCATION1 (TET1cd) and an artificial zinc finger (ZF) designed to target the FWA promoter can cause highly efficient targeted demethylation, FWA up-regulation, and a heritable late-flowering phenotype. Additional ZF–TET1cd fusions designed to target methylated regions of the CACTA1 transposon also caused targeted demethylation and changes in expression. Finally, we have developed a CRISPR/dCas9-based targeted demethylation system using the TET1cd and a modified SunTag system. Similar to the ZF–TET1cd fusions, the SunTag–TET1cd system is able to target demethylation and activate gene expression when directed to the FWA or CACTA1 loci. Our study provides tools for targeted removal of 5mC at specific loci in the genome with high specificity and minimal off-target effects. These tools provide the opportunity to develop new epialleles for traits of interest, and to reactivate expression of previously silenced genes, transgenes, or transposons. PMID:29444862

  6. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB, HhH, and BRCT domains of Escherichia coli DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kai; Nair, Pravin A; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-08-22

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigAs) are ubiquitous in bacteria and essential for growth. LigA enzymes have a modular structure in which a central catalytic core composed of nucleotidyltransferase and oligonucleotide-binding (OB) domains is linked via a tetracysteine zinc finger to distal helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) and BRCT (BRCA1-like C-terminal) domains. The OB and HhH domains contribute prominently to the protein clamp formed by LigA around nicked duplex DNA. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the OB and HhH domains of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions, entailing 43 mutations at 22 amino acids. We thereby identified essential functional groups in the OB domain that engage the DNA phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(333)); penetrate the minor grove and distort the nick (Val(383) and Ile(384)); or stabilize the OB fold (Arg(379)). The essential constituents of the HhH domain include: four glycines (Gly(455), Gly(489), Gly(521), Gly(553)), which bind the phosphate backbone across the minor groove at the outer margins of the LigA-DNA interface; Arg(487), which penetrates the minor groove at the outer margin on the 3 (R)-OH side of the nick; and Arg(446), which promotes protein clamp formation via contacts to the nucleotidyltransferase domain. We find that the BRCT domain is required in its entirety for effective nick sealing and AMP-dependent supercoil relaxation.

  7. Precise Coating of a Wide Range of DNA Templates by a Protein Polymer with a DNA Binding Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Garcia, Armando; Estrich, Nicole A.; Werten, Marc W.T.; Maarel, van der Johan R.C.; Labean, Thomas H.; Wolf, de Frits A.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Vries, de Renko

    2017-01-01

    Emerging DNA-based nanotechnologies would benefit from the ability to modulate the properties (e.g., solubility, melting temperature, chemical stability) of diverse DNA templates (single molecules or origami nanostructures) through controlled, self-assembling coatings. We here introduce a DNA

  8. Tyr120Asp mutation alters domain flexibility and dynamics of MeCP2 DNA binding domain leading to impaired DNA interaction: Atomistic characterization of a Rett syndrome causing mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Annessa, Ilda; Gandaglia, Anna; Brivio, Elena; Stefanelli, Gilda; Frasca, Angelisa; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Di Marino, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene represent the main origin of Rett syndrome, causing a profound intellectual disability in females. MeCP2 is an epigenetic transcriptional regulator containing two main functional domains: a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) and a transcription repression domain (TRD). Over 600 pathogenic mutations were reported to affect the whole protein; almost half of missense mutations affect the MBD. Understanding the impact of these mutations on the MBD structure and interaction with DNA will foster the comprehension of their pathogenicity and possibly genotype/phenotype correlation studies. Herein, we use molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a detailed view of the dynamics of WT and mutated MBD in the presence and absence of DNA. The pathogenic mutation Y120D is used as paradigm for our studies. Further, since the Y120 residue was previously found to be a phosphorylation site, we characterize the dynamic profile of the MBD also in the presence of Y120 phosphorylation (pY120). We found that addition of a phosphate group to Y120 or mutation in aspartic acid affect domain mobility that samples an alternative conformational space with respect to the WT, leading to impaired ability to interact with DNA. Experimental assays showing a significant reduction in the binding affinity between the mutated MBD and the DNA confirmed our predictions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cutting edge: double-stranded DNA breaks in the IgV region gene were detected at lower frequency in affinity-maturation impeded GANP-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatani, Yousuke; Igarashi, Hideya; Matsui, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Fujimura, Satoru; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Takagi, Katsumasa; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2005-11-01

    Double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at the IgV region (IgV) genes might be involved in somatic hypermutation and affinity-maturation of the B cell receptor in response to T cell-dependent Ag. By ligation-mediated PCR, we studied IgV DSBs that occurred in mature germinal center B cells in response to nitrophenyl-chicken gamma-globulin in a RAG1-independent, Ag-dependent, and IgV-selective manner. We quantified their levels in GANP-deficient B cells that have impaired generation of high-affinity Ab. GANP-/- B cells showed a decreased level of DSBs with blunt ends than control B cells and, on the contrary, the ganp gene transgenic (GANPTg) B cells showed an increased level. These results suggested that the level of IgV DSBs in germinal center B cells is associated with GANP expression, which is presumably required for B cell receptor affinity maturation.

  10. The DNA translocase RAD5A acts independently of the other main DNA repair pathways, and requires both its ATPase and RING domain for activity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Tobias; Mannuß, Anja; Kobbe, Daniela; Knoll, Alexander; Trapp, Oliver; Dorn, Annika; Puchta, Holger

    2017-08-01

    Multiple pathways exist to repair DNA damage induced by methylating and crosslinking agents in Arabidopsis thaliana. The SWI2/SNF2 translocase RAD5A, the functional homolog of budding yeast Rad5 that is required for the error-free branch of post-replicative repair, plays a surprisingly prominent role in the repair of both kinds of lesions in Arabidopsis. Here we show that both the ATPase domain and the ubiquitination function of the RING domain of the Arabidopsis protein are essential for the cellular response to different forms of DNA damage. To define the exact role of RAD5A within the complex network of DNA repair pathways, we crossed the rad5a mutant line with mutants of different known repair factors of Arabidopsis. We had previously shown that RAD5A acts independently of two main pathways of replication-associated DNA repair defined by the helicase RECQ4A and the endonuclease MUS81. The enhanced sensitivity of all double mutants tested in this study indicates that the repair of damaged DNA by RAD5A also occurs independently of nucleotide excision repair (AtRAD1), single-strand break repair (AtPARP1), as well as microhomology-mediated double-strand break repair (AtTEB). Moreover, RAD5A can partially complement for a deficient AtATM-mediated DNA damage response in plants, as the double mutant shows phenotypic growth defects. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Characterization of DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals the POLXc and PHP domains are both required for 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2009-04-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) comprise a highly conserved DNA polymerase family found in all kingdoms. Mammalian PolXs are known to be involved in several DNA-processing pathways including repair, but the cellular functions of bacterial PolXs are less known. Many bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain at their C-termini in addition to a PolX core (POLXc) domain, and possess 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Although both domains are highly conserved in bacteria, their molecular functions, especially for a PHP domain, are unknown. We found Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) has Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent DNA/RNA polymerase, Mn(2+)-dependent 3'-5' exonuclease and DNA-binding activities. We identified the domains of ttPolX by limited proteolysis and characterized their biochemical activities. The POLXc domain was responsible for the polymerase and DNA-binding activities but exonuclease activity was not detected for either domain. However, the POLXc and PHP domains interacted with each other and a mixture of the two domains had Mn(2+)-dependent 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis revealed catalytically important residues in the PHP domain for the 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Our findings provide a molecular insight into the functional domain organization of bacterial PolXs, especially the requirement of the PHP domain for 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

  12. Comparative anatomy of chromosomal domains with imprinted and non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Paliwal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Allele-specific DNA methylation (ASM is well studied in imprinted domains, but this type of epigenetic asymmetry is actually found more commonly at non-imprinted loci, where the ASM is dictated not by parent-of-origin but instead by the local haplotype. We identified loci with strong ASM in human tissues from methylation-sensitive SNP array data. Two index regions (bisulfite PCR amplicons, one between the C3orf27 and RPN1 genes in chromosome band 3q21 and the other near the VTRNA2-1 vault RNA in band 5q31, proved to be new examples of imprinted DMRs (maternal alleles methylated while a third, between STEAP3 and C2orf76 in chromosome band 2q14, showed non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM. Using long-read bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq in 8 human tissues we found that in all 3 domains the ASM is restricted to single differentially methylated regions (DMRs, each less than 2kb. The ASM in the C3orf27-RPN1 intergenic region was placenta-specific and associated with allele-specific expression of a long non-coding RNA. Strikingly, the discrete DMRs in all 3 regions overlap with binding sites for the insulator protein CTCF, which we found selectively bound to the unmethylated allele of the STEAP3-C2orf76 DMR. Methylation mapping in two additional genes with non-imprinted haplotype-dependent ASM, ELK3 and CYP2A7, showed that the CYP2A7 DMR also overlaps a CTCF site. Thus, two features of imprinted domains, highly localized DMRs and allele-specific insulator occupancy by CTCF, can also be found in chromosomal domains with non-imprinted ASM. Arguing for biological importance, our analysis of published whole genome bis-seq data from hES cells revealed multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS peaks near CTCF binding sites with ASM.

  13. Thermodynamic characterization of binding Oxytricha nova single strand telomere DNA with the alpha protein N-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P

    2006-06-23

    The Oxytricha nova telemere binding protein alpha subunit binds single strand DNA and participates in a nucleoprotein complex that protects the very ends of chromosomes. To understand how the N-terminal, DNA binding domain of alpha interacts with DNA we measured the stoichiometry, enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS), and dissociation constant (K(D-DNA)) for binding telomere DNA fragments at different temperatures and salt concentrations using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). About 85% of the total free energy of binding corresponded with non-electrostatic interactions for all DNAs. Telomere DNA fragments d(T(2)G(4)), d(T(4)G(4)), d(G(3)T(4)G(4)), and d(G(4)T(4)G(4)) each formed monovalent protein complexes. In the case of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)), which has two tandemly repeated d(TTTTTGGGG) telomere motifs, two binding sites were observed. The high-affinity "A site" has a dissociation constant, K(D-DNA(A)) = 13(+/-4) nM, while the low-affinity "B site" is characterized by K(D-DNA(B)) = 5600(+/-600) nM at 25 degrees C. Nucleotide substitution variants verified that the A site corresponds principally with the 3'-terminal portion of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)). The relative contributions of entropy (DeltaS) and enthalpy (DeltaH) for binding reactions were DNA length-dependent as was heat capacity (DeltaCp). These trends with respect to DNA length likely reflect structural transitions in the DNA molecule that are coupled with DNA-protein association. Results presented here are important for understanding early intermediates and subsequent stages in the assembly of the full telomere nucleoprotein complex and how binding events can prepare the telomere DNA for extension by telomerase, a critical event in telomere biology.

  14. Essential and distinct roles of the F-box and helicase domains of Fbh1 in DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinagawa Hideo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are induced by exogenous insults such as ionizing radiation and chemical exposure, and they can also arise as a consequence of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. Failure to repair DSBs can lead to genomic instability or cell death and cancer in higher eukaryotes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbh1 gene encodes an F-box DNA helicase previously described to play a role in the Rhp51 (an orthologue of S. cerevisiae RAD51-dependent recombinational repair of DSBs. Fbh1 fused to GFP localizes to discrete nuclear foci following DNA damage. Results To determine the functional roles of the highly conserved F-box and helicase domains, we have characterized fbh1 mutants carrying specific mutations in these domains. We show that the F-box mutation fbh1-fb disturbs the nuclear localization of Fbh1, conferring an fbh1 null-like phenotype. Moreover, nuclear foci do not form in fbh1-fb cells with DNA damage even if Fbh1-fb is targeted to the nucleus by fusion to a nuclear localization signal sequence. In contrast, the helicase mutation fbh1-hl causes the accumulation of Fbh1 foci irrespective of the presence of DNA damage and confers damage sensitivity greater than that conferred by the null allele. Additional mutation of the F-box alleviates the hypermorphic phenotype of the fbh1-hl mutant. Conclusion These results suggest that the F-box and DNA helicase domains play indispensable but distinct roles in Fbh1 function. Assembly of the SCFFbh1 complex is required for both the nuclear localization and DNA damage-induced focus formation of Fbh1 and is therefore prerequisite for the Fbh1 recombination function.

  15. The Enzyme-Like Domain of Arabidopsis Nuclear β-Amylases Is Critical for DNA Sequence Recognition and Transcriptional Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyk, Sebastian; Simková, Klára; Zürcher, Evelyne; Luginbühl, Leonie; Brand, Luise H; Vaughan, Cara K; Wanke, Dierk; Zeeman, Samuel C

    2014-04-01

    Plant BZR1-BAM transcription factors contain a β-amylase (BAM)-like domain, characteristic of proteins involved in starch breakdown. The enzyme-derived domains appear to be noncatalytic, but they determine the function of the two Arabidopsis thaliana BZR1-BAM isoforms (BAM7 and BAM8) during transcriptional initiation. Removal or swapping of the BAM domains demonstrates that the BAM7 BAM domain restricts DNA binding and transcriptional activation, while the BAM8 BAM domain allows both activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BAM7 and BAM8 interact on the protein level and cooperate during transcriptional regulation. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues in the BAM domain of BAM8 shows that its function as a transcriptional activator is independent of catalysis but requires an intact substrate binding site, suggesting it may bind a ligand. Microarray experiments with plants overexpressing truncated versions lacking the BAM domain indicate that the pseudo-enzymatic domain increases selectivity for the preferred cis-regulatory element BBRE (BZR1-BAM Responsive Element). Side specificity toward the G-box may allow crosstalk to other signaling networks. This work highlights the importance of the enzyme-derived domain of BZR1-BAMs, supporting their potential role as metabolic sensors. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship of Structure and Function of DNA-Binding Domain in Vitamin D Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yan Wan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While the structure of the DNA-binding domain (DBD of the vitamin D receptor (VDR has been determined in great detail, the roles of its domains and how to bind the motif of its target genes are still under debate. The VDR DBD consists of two zinc finger modules and a C-terminal extension (CTE, at the end of the C-terminal of each structure presenting α-helix. For the first zinc finger structure, N37 and S-box take part in forming a dimer with 9-cis retinoid X receptor (RXR, while V26, R50, P-box and S-box participate in binding with VDR response elements (VDRE. For the second zinc finger structure, P61, F62 and H75 are essential in the structure of the VDR homodimer with the residues N37, E92 and F93 of the downstream of partner VDR, which form the inter-DBD interface. T-box of the CTE, especially the F93 and I94, plays a critical role in heterodimerization and heterodimers–VDRE binding. Six essential residues (R102, K103, M106, I107, K109, and R110 of the CTE α-helix of VDR construct one interaction face, which packs against the DBD core of the adjacent symmetry mate. In 1,25(OH2D3-activated signaling, the VDR-RXR heterodimer may bind to DR3-type VDRE and ER9-type VDREs of its target gene directly resulting in transactivation and also bind to DR3-liked nVDRE of its target gene directly resulting in transrepression. Except for this, 1α,25(OH2D3 ligand VDR-RXR may bind to 1αnVDRE indirectly through VDIR, resulting in transrepression of the target gene. Upon binding of 1α,25(OH2D3, VDR can transactivate and transrepress its target genes depending on the DNA motif that DBD binds.

  17. Characterization of Mycobacterium smegmatis PolD2 and PolD1 as RNA/DNA polymerases homologous to the POL domain of bacterial DNA ligase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Bhattarai, Hitesh; Yan, Han-Guang; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S

    2012-12-21

    Mycobacteria exploit nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) to repair DNA double-strand breaks. The core NHEJ machinery comprises the homodimeric DNA end-binding protein Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD), a modular enzyme composed of a C-terminal ATP-dependent ligase domain (LIG), a central 3'-phosphoesterase domain (PE), and an N-terminal polymerase domain (POL). LigD POL is proficient at adding templated and nontemplated deoxynucleotides and ribonucleotides to DNA ends in vitro and is the catalyst in vivo of unfaithful NHEJ events involving nontemplated single-nucleotide additions to blunt DSB ends. Here, we identify two mycobacterial proteins, PolD1 and PolD2, as stand-alone homologues of the LigD POL domain. Biochemical characterization of PolD1 and PolD2 shows that they resemble LigD POL in their monomeric quaternary structures, their ability to add templated and nontemplated nucleotides to primer-templates and blunt ends, and their preference for rNTPs versus dNTPs. Deletion of polD1, polD2, or both from a Mycobacterium smegmatis strain carrying an inactivating mutation in LigD POL failed to reveal a role for PolD1 or PolD2 in templated nucleotide additions during NHEJ of 5'-overhang DSBs or in clastogen resistance. Whereas our results document the existence and characteristics of new stand-alone members of the LigD POL family of RNA/DNA polymerases, they imply that other polymerases can perform fill-in synthesis during mycobacterial NHEJ.

  18. Fingerprinting of near-homogeneous DNA ligase I and II from human cells. Similarity of their AMP-binding domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S W; Becker, F F; Chan, J Y

    1990-10-25

    DNA ligases play obligatory roles during replication, repair, and recombination. Multiple forms of DNA ligase have been reported in mammalian cells including DNA ligase I, the high molecular mass species which functions during replication, and DNA ligase II, the low molecular mass species which is associated with repair. In addition, alterations in DNA ligase activities have been reported in acute lymphocytic leukemia cells, Bloom's syndrome cells, and cells undergoing differentiation and development. To better distinguish the biochemical and molecular properties of the various DNA ligases from human cells, we have developed a method of purifying multiple species of DNA ligase from HeLa cells by chromatography through DEAE-Bio-Gel, CM-Bio-Gel, hydroxylapatite, Sephacryl S-300, Mono P, and DNA-cellulose. DNA-cellulose chromatography of the partially purified enzymes resolved multiple species of DNA ligase after labeling the enzyme with [alpha-32P]ATP to form the ligase-[32P]AMP adduct. The early eluting enzyme activity (0.25 M NaCl) contained a major 67-kDa-labeled protein, while the late eluting activity (0.48 M NaCl) contained two major labeled proteins of 90 and 78 kDa. Neutralization experiments with antiligase I antibodies indicated that the early and late eluting activity peaks were DNA ligase II and I, respectively. The three major ligase-[32P]AMP polypeptides (90, 78, and 67 kDa) were subsequently purified to near homogeneity by elution from preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. All three polypeptides retained DNA ligase activities after gel elution and renaturation. To further reveal the relationship between these enzymes, partial digestion by V8-protease was performed. All three purified polypeptides gave rise to a common 22-kDa-labeled fragment for their AMP-binding domains, indicating that the catalytic sites of ligase I and II are quite similar, if not identical. Similar findings were obtained from the two-dimensional gel

  19. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie; Cotmore, Susan F.; Tattersall, Peter; Zhao, Haiyan; Tang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication

  20. Structures of minute virus of mice replication initiator protein N-terminal domain: Insights into DNA nicking and origin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewary, Sunil K.; Liang, Lingfei; Lin, Zihan; Lynn, Annie [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Cotmore, Susan F. [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tattersall, Peter [Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Departments of Genetics, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Zhao, Haiyan, E-mail: zhaohy@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tangl@ku.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Members of the Parvoviridae family all encode a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) that directs replication of single-stranded viral DNA, packages viral DNA into capsid, and serves as a potent transcriptional activator. Here we report the X-ray structure of the minute virus of mice (MVM) NS1 N-terminal domain at 1.45 Å resolution, showing that sites for dsDNA binding, ssDNA binding and cleavage, nuclear localization, and other functions are integrated on a canonical fold of the histidine-hydrophobic-histidine superfamily of nucleases, including elements specific for this Protoparvovirus but distinct from its Bocaparvovirus or Dependoparvovirus orthologs. High resolution structural analysis reveals a nickase active site with an architecture that allows highly versatile metal ligand binding. The structures support a unified mechanism of replication origin recognition for homotelomeric and heterotelomeric parvoviruses, mediated by a basic-residue-rich hairpin and an adjacent helix in the initiator proteins and by tandem tetranucleotide motifs in the replication origins. - Highlights: • The structure of a parvovirus replication initiator protein has been determined; • The structure sheds light on mechanisms of ssDNA binding and cleavage; • The nickase active site is preconfigured for versatile metal ligand binding; • The binding site for the double-stranded replication origin DNA is identified; • A single domain integrates multiple functions in virus replication.

  1. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the nucleotidyltransferase domain of Escherichia coli NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Shuman, Stewart

    2005-04-01

    NAD+-dependent DNA ligase (LigA) is essential for bacterial growth and a potential target for antimicrobial drug discovery. Here we queried the role of 14 conserved amino acids of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and thereby identified five new residues within the nucleotidyltransferase domain as being essential for LigA function in vitro and in vivo. Structure activity relationships were determined by conservative mutagenesis for the Glu-173, Arg-200, Arg-208, and Arg-277 side chains, as well as four other essential side chains that had been identified previously (Lys-115, Asp-117, Asp-285, and Lys-314). In addition, we identified Lys-290 as important for LigA activity. Reference to the structure of Enterococcus faecalis LigA allowed us to discriminate three classes of essential/important side chains that: (i) contact NAD+ directly (Lys-115, Glu-173, Lys-290, and Lys-314); (ii) comprise the interface between the NMN-binding domain (domain Ia) and the nucleotidyltransferase domain or comprise part of a nick-binding site on the surface of the nucleotidyltransferase domain (Arg-200 and Arg-208); or (iii) stabilize the active site fold of the nucleotidyltransferase domain (Arg-277). Analysis of mutational effects on the isolated ligase adenylylation and phosphodiester formation reactions revealed different functions for essential side chains at different steps of the DNA ligase pathway, consistent with the proposal that the active site is serially remodeled as the reaction proceeds.

  2. Solution structure of a DNA mimicking motif of an RNA aptamer against transcription factor AML1 Runt domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Fukunaga, Jun-ichi; Fujiwara, Kazuya; Chiba, Manabu; Iibuchi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Kozu, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Taiichi

    2013-12-01

    AML1/RUNX1 is an essential transcription factor involved in the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. AML1 binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. In a previous study, we obtained RNA aptamers against the AML1 Runt domain by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment and revealed that RNA aptamers exhibit higher affinity for the Runt domain than that for RDE and possess the 5'-GCGMGNN-3' and 5'-N'N'CCAC-3' conserved motif (M: A or C; N and N' form Watson-Crick base pairs) that is important for Runt domain binding. In this study, to understand the structural basis of recognition of the Runt domain by the aptamer motif, the solution structure of a 22-mer RNA was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. The motif contains the AH(+)-C mismatch and base triple and adopts an unusual backbone structure. Structural analysis of the aptamer motif indicated that the aptamer binds to the Runt domain by mimicking the RDE sequence and structure. Our data should enhance the understanding of the structural basis of DNA mimicry by RNA molecules.

  3. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  4. Programmable DNA-binding proteins from Burkholderia provide a fresh perspective on the TALE-like repeat domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Orlando; Wolf, Christina; Dietze, Jörn; Elsaesser, Janett; Morbitzer, Robert; Lahaye, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The tandem repeats of transcription activator like effectors (TALEs) mediate sequence-specific DNA binding using a simple code. Naturally, TALEs are injected by Xanthomonas bacteria into plant cells to manipulate the host transcriptome. In the laboratory TALE DNA binding domains are reprogrammed and used to target a fused functional domain to a genomic locus of choice. Research into the natural diversity of TALE-like proteins may provide resources for the further improvement of current TALE technology. Here we describe TALE-like proteins from the endosymbiotic bacterium Burkholderia rhizoxinica, termed Bat proteins. Bat repeat domains mediate sequence-specific DNA binding with the same code as TALEs, despite less than 40% sequence identity. We show that Bat proteins can be adapted for use as transcription factors and nucleases and that sequence preferences can be reprogrammed. Unlike TALEs, the core repeats of each Bat protein are highly polymorphic. This feature allowed us to explore alternative strategies for the design of custom Bat repeat arrays, providing novel insights into the functional relevance of non-RVD residues. The Bat proteins offer fertile grounds for research into the creation of improved programmable DNA-binding proteins and comparative insights into TALE-like evolution. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. DNA double strand break repair is enhanced by P53 following induction by DNA damage and is dependent on the C-terminal domain of P53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tang; Powell, Simon N.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor suppressor gene p53 can mediate cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Accumulating evidence suggests that it may also directly or indirectly influence the DNA repair machinery. In the present study, we investigated whether p53, induced by DNA damage, could enhance the rejoining of double-strand DNA breaks. Materials and Methods: DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) were made by restriction enzyme digestion of a plasmid, between a promoter and a 'reporter' gene: luciferase (LUC) or chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT). Linear or circular plasmid DNA (LUC or CAT) was co-transfected with circular β-Gal plasmid (to normalize for uptake) into mouse embryonic fibroblasts genetically matched to be (+/+) or (-/-) for p53. Their ability to rejoin linearized plasmid was measured by the luciferase or CAT activity detected in rescued plasmids. The activity detected in cells transfected with linear plasmid was scored relative to the activity detected in cells transfected with circular plasmid. Results: Ionizing radiation (IR, 2 Gy) enhanced the dsb repair activity in wild type p53 cells; however, p53 null cells lose this effect, indicating that the enhancement of dsb repair was p53-dependent. REF cells with dominant-negative mutant p53 showed a similar induction compared with the parental REF cells with wild-type p53. This ala-143 mutant p53 prevents cell cycle arrest and transactivation of p21 WAF1/cip1) following IR, indicating that the p53-dependent enhancement of DNA repair is distinct from transactivation. Immortalized murine embryonic fibroblasts, 10(1)VasK1 cells, which express p53 cDNA encoding a temperature-sensitive mutant in the DNA sequence specific binding domain (ala135 to val135) with an alternatively spliced C-terminal domain (ASp53: amino-acids 360-381) and, 10(1)Val5 cells, which express the normal spliced p53 (NSp53) with the same temperature-sensitive mutant were compared. It was found that 10(1)VasK1 cells showed no DNA

  6. Structure-guided Mutational Analysis of the Nucleotidyltransferase Domain of Escherichia coli DNA Ligase (LigA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kai; Zhu, Hui; Shuman, Stewart

    2009-03-27

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigA) are ubiquitous in bacteria, where they are essential for growth and present attractive targets for antimicrobial drug discovery. LigA has a distinctive modular structure in which a nucleotidyltransferase catalytic domain is flanked by an upstream NMN-binding module and by downstream OB-fold, zinc finger, helix-hairpin-helix, and BRCT domains. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the nucleotidyltransferase domain of Escherichia coli LigA, guided by the crystal structure of the LigA-DNA-adenylate intermediate. We tested the effects of 29 alanine and conservative mutations at 15 amino acids on ligase activity in vitro and in vivo. We thereby identified essential functional groups that coordinate the reactive phosphates (Arg(136)), contact the AMP adenine (Lys(290)), engage the phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(218), Arg(308), Arg(97) plus Arg(101)), or stabilize the active domain fold (Arg(171)). Finer analysis of the mutational effects revealed step-specific functions for Arg(136), which is essential for the reaction of LigA with NAD(+) to form the covalent ligase-AMP intermediate (step 1) and for the transfer of AMP to the nick 5'-PO(4) to form the DNA-adenylate intermediate (step 2) but is dispensable for phosphodiester formation at a preadenylylated nick (step 3).

  7. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DNA-binding domain of the Ets transcription factor in complex with target DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Teruya; Toma, Sachiko; Ikemizu, Shinji; Kai, Hirofumi; Yamagata, Yuriko

    2008-01-01

    The complex between the Ets domain of Ets2 and its target DNA has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution. The Ets2 transcription factor is a member of the Ets transcription-factor family. Ets2 plays a role in the malignancy of cancer and in Down’s syndrome by regulating the transcription of various genes. The DNA-binding domain of Ets2 (Ets domain; ETSD), which contains residues that are highly conserved among Ets transcription-factor family members, was expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The aggregation of ETSD produced after thrombin cleavage could be prevented by treatment with NDSB-195 (nondetergent sulfobetaine 195). ETSD was crystallized in complex with DNA containing the Ets2 target sequence (GGAA) by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystals were grown using 25% PEG 3350, 80 mM magnesium acetate, 50 mM sodium cacodylate pH 5.0/5.5 as the reservoir at 293 K. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.89, b = 95.52, c = 71.89 Å, β = 101.7° and a V M value of 3.56 Å 3 Da −1 . Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å

  8. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DNA-binding domain of the Ets transcription factor in complex with target DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwa, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Teruya; Toma, Sachiko; Ikemizu, Shinji; Kai, Hirofumi; Yamagata, Yuriko, E-mail: yamagata@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 862-0973 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The complex between the Ets domain of Ets2 and its target DNA has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 3.0 Å resolution. The Ets2 transcription factor is a member of the Ets transcription-factor family. Ets2 plays a role in the malignancy of cancer and in Down’s syndrome by regulating the transcription of various genes. The DNA-binding domain of Ets2 (Ets domain; ETSD), which contains residues that are highly conserved among Ets transcription-factor family members, was expressed as a GST-fusion protein. The aggregation of ETSD produced after thrombin cleavage could be prevented by treatment with NDSB-195 (nondetergent sulfobetaine 195). ETSD was crystallized in complex with DNA containing the Ets2 target sequence (GGAA) by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The best crystals were grown using 25% PEG 3350, 80 mM magnesium acetate, 50 mM sodium cacodylate pH 5.0/5.5 as the reservoir at 293 K. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.89, b = 95.52, c = 71.89 Å, β = 101.7° and a V{sub M} value of 3.56 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å.

  9. Crystal Structure of the Dimeric Oct6 (Pou3fl) POU Domain Bound to Palindromic MORE DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Jauch; S Choo; C Ng; P Kolatkar

    2011-12-31

    POU domains (named after their identification in Pit1, Oct1 unc86) are found in around 15 transcription factors encoded in mammalian genomes many of which feature prominently as key regulators at development bifurcations. For example, the POU III class Octamer binding protein 6 (Oct6) is expressed in embryonic stem cells and during neural development and drives the differentia5tion of myelinated cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. Defects in oct6 expression levels are linked to neurological disorders such as schizophrenia. POU proteins contain a bi-partite DNA binding domain that assembles on various DNA motifs with differentially configured subdomains. Intriguingly, alternative configurations of POU domains on different DNA sites were shown to affect the subsequent recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. Namely, binding of Oct1 to a Palindromic Oct-factor Recognition Element (PORE) was shown to facilitate the recruitment of the OBF1 coactivator whereas More of PORE (MORE) bound Oct1 does not. Moreover, Pit1 was shown to recruit the corepressor N-CoR only when bound to a variant MORE motif with a 2 bp half-site spacing. Therefore, POU proteins are seen as a paradigm for DNA induced allosteric effects on transcription factors modulating their regulatory potential. However, a big unresolved conundrum for the POU class and for most if not all other transcription factor classes is how highly similar proteins regulate different sets of genes causing fundamentally different biological responses. Ultimately, there must be subtle features enabling those factors to engage in contrasting molecular interactions in the cell. Thus, the dissection of the molecular details of the transcription-DNA recognition in general, and the formation of multimeric regulatory complexes, in particular, is highly desirable. To contribute to these efforts they solved the 2.05 {angstrom} crystal structure of Oct6 bound as a symmetrical homodimer to palindromic MORE DNA.

  10. Porcine bocavirus NP1 negatively regulates interferon signaling pathway by targeting the DNA-binding domain of IRF9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruoxi; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Zhang, Huan; Xie, Lilan; Li, Yi; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2015-01-01

    To subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN signaling pathway. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and diarrheic piglets. In this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by PBoV and found that the non-structural protein NP1 significantly suppressed IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activity and subsequent IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, NP1 affected neither the activation and translocation of STAT1/STAT2, nor the formation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). Detailed analysis demonstrated that PBoV NP1 blocked the ISGF3 DNA-binding activity by combining with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of IRF9. In summary, these results indicate that PBoV NP1 interferes with type I IFN signaling pathway by blocking DNA binding of ISGF3 to attenuate innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) NP1 interferes with the IFN α/β signaling pathway. • PBoV NP1 does not prevent STAT1/STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • PBoV NP1 inhibits the DNA-binding activity of ISGF3. • PBoV NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF9.

  11. Porcine bocavirus NP1 negatively regulates interferon signaling pathway by targeting the DNA-binding domain of IRF9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruoxi [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Dang; Cai, Kaimei; Zhang, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xie, Lilan; Li, Yi [College of Life Science and Technology, Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering, Wuhan 430415 (China); Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo [State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-11-15

    To subvert host antiviral immune responses, many viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN signaling pathway. Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified porcine parvovirus, has received attention because it shows clinically high co-infection prevalence with other pathogens in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PWMS) and diarrheic piglets. In this study, we screened the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by PBoV and found that the non-structural protein NP1 significantly suppressed IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activity and subsequent IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, NP1 affected neither the activation and translocation of STAT1/STAT2, nor the formation of the heterotrimeric transcription factor complex ISGF3 (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9). Detailed analysis demonstrated that PBoV NP1 blocked the ISGF3 DNA-binding activity by combining with the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of IRF9. In summary, these results indicate that PBoV NP1 interferes with type I IFN signaling pathway by blocking DNA binding of ISGF3 to attenuate innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) NP1 interferes with the IFN α/β signaling pathway. • PBoV NP1 does not prevent STAT1/STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • PBoV NP1 inhibits the DNA-binding activity of ISGF3. • PBoV NP1 interacts with the DNA-binding domain of IRF9.

  12. Crystal structure of the gamma-2 herpesvirus LANA DNA binding domain identifies charged surface residues which impact viral latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Correia

    Full Text Available Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA mediates γ2-herpesvirus genome persistence and regulates transcription. We describe the crystal structure of the murine gammaherpesvirus-68 LANA C-terminal domain at 2.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals an alpha-beta fold that assembles as a dimer, reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1. A predicted DNA binding surface is present and opposite this interface is a positive electrostatic patch. Targeted DNA recognition substitutions eliminated DNA binding, while certain charged patch mutations reduced bromodomain protein, BRD4, binding. Virus containing LANA abolished for DNA binding was incapable of viable latent infection in mice. Virus with mutations at the charged patch periphery exhibited substantial deficiency in expansion of latent infection, while central region substitutions had little effect. This deficiency was independent of BRD4. These results elucidate the LANA DNA binding domain structure and reveal a unique charged region that exerts a critical role in viral latent infection, likely acting through a host cell protein(s.

  13. The N-terminal domain of human DNA helicase Rtel1 contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Aaron P; Ding, Huangen

    2014-01-01

    Human telomere length regulator Rtel1 is a superfamily II DNA helicase and is essential for maintaining proper length of telomeres in chromosomes. Here we report that the N-terminal domain of human Rtel1 (RtelN) expressed in Escherichia coli cells produces a protein that contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster with the redox midpoint potential of -248 ± 10 mV (pH 8.0). The iron-sulfur cluster in RtelN is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, indicating that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species may modulate the DNA helicase activity of Rtel1 via modification of its iron-sulfur cluster. Purified RtelN retains a weak binding affinity for the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA in vitro. However, modification of the iron-sulfur cluster by hydrogen peroxide or nitric oxide does not significantly affect the DNA binding activity of RtelN, suggesting that the iron-sulfur cluster is not directly involved in the DNA interaction in the N-terminal domain of Rtel1.

  14. The N-Terminal Domain of Human DNA Helicase Rtel1 Contains a Redox Active Iron-Sulfur Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron P. Landry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human telomere length regulator Rtel1 is a superfamily II DNA helicase and is essential for maintaining proper length of telomeres in chromosomes. Here we report that the N-terminal domain of human Rtel1 (RtelN expressed in Escherichia coli cells produces a protein that contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster with the redox midpoint potential of −248 ± 10 mV (pH 8.0. The iron-sulfur cluster in RtelN is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, indicating that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species may modulate the DNA helicase activity of Rtel1 via modification of its iron-sulfur cluster. Purified RtelN retains a weak binding affinity for the single-stranded (ss and double-stranded (ds DNA in vitro. However, modification of the iron-sulfur cluster by hydrogen peroxide or nitric oxide does not significantly affect the DNA binding activity of RtelN, suggesting that the iron-sulfur cluster is not directly involved in the DNA interaction in the N-terminal domain of Rtel1.

  15. The solution structure of the forkhead box-O DNA binding domain of Brugia malayi DAF-16a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Sarah K; Schoeller, Scott J; Zgoba, Danielle M; Phillips, Andrew J; Morien, Thomas J; Chaffee, Gary R; Sackett, Peter C; Peterson, Francis C; Crossgrove, Kirsten; Veldkamp, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Brugia malayi is a parasitic nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. Here the solution structure of the forkhead DNA binding domain of Brugia malayi DAF-16a, a putative ortholog of Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16, is reported. It is believed to be the first structure of a forkhead or winged helix domain from an invertebrate. C. elegans DAF-16 is involved in the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway and helps control metabolism, longevity, and development. Conservation of sequence and structure with human FOXO proteins suggests that B. malayi DAF-16a is a member of the FOXO family of forkhead proteins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A hotspot in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding domain susceptible to loss of function mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuelos, Jesus; Shin, Soon Cheon; Lu, Nick Z.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used to treat a variety of inflammatory disorders and certain cancers. However, GC resistance occurs in subsets of patients. We found that EL4 cells, a GC-resistant mouse thymoma cell line, harbored a point mutation in their GC receptor (GR) gene, resulting in the substitution of arginine 493 by a cysteine in the second zinc finger of the DNA-binding domain. Allelic discrimination analyses revealed that the R493C mutation occurred on both alleles. In the absence of GCs, the GR in EL4 cells localized predominantly in the cytoplasm and upon dexamethasone treatment underwent nuclear translocation, suggesting the ligand binding ability of the GR in EL4 cells was intact. In transient transfection assays, the R493C mutant could not transactivate the MMTV-luciferase reporter. Site-directed mutagenesis to revert the R493C mutation restored the transactivation activity. Cotransfection experiments showed that the R493C mutant did not inhibit the transcriptional activities of the wild-type GR. In addition, the R493C mutant did not repress either the AP-1 or NF-κB reporters as effectively as WT GR. Furthermore, stable expression of the WT GR in the EL4 cells enabled GC-mediated gene regulation, specifically upregulation of IκBα and downregulation of interferon γ and interleukin 17A. Arginine 493 is conserved among multiple species and all human nuclear receptors and its mutation has also been found in the human GR, androgen receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor. Thus, R493 is necessary for the transcriptional activity of the GR and a hotspot for mutations that result in GC resistance. PMID:25676786

  17. Blue light-induced LOV domain dimerization enhances the affinity of Aureochrome 1a for its target DNA sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Udo; Schlichting, Ilme

    2016-01-01

    The design of synthetic optogenetic tools that allow precise spatiotemporal control of biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic control has developed rapidly over the last years. Rational design of such tools requires detailed knowledge of allosteric light signaling in natural photoreceptors. To understand allosteric communication between sensor and effector domains, characterization of all relevant signaling states is required. Here, we describe the mechanism of light-dependent DNA binding of the light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) transcription factor Aureochrome 1a from Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtAu1a) and present crystal structures of a dark state LOV monomer and a fully light-adapted LOV dimer. In combination with hydrogen/deuterium-exchange, solution scattering data and DNA-binding experiments, our studies reveal a light-sensitive interaction between the LOV and basic region leucine zipper DNA-binding domain that together with LOV dimerization results in modulation of the DNA affinity of PtAu1a. We discuss the implications of these results for the design of synthetic LOV-based photosensors with application in optogenetics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11860.001 PMID:26754770

  18. Dissection of the IgNAR V domain: molecular scanning and orthologue database mining define novel IgNAR hallmarks and affinity maturation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, B J; Darmanin-Sheehan, A; Hufton, S E; Calabro, V; Wu, L; Müller, M R; Cao, W; Gill, D; Cunningham, O; Finlay, W J J

    2010-07-09

    natural nurse shark cDNA sequences. These findings will aid future V(NAR) engineering and optimisation studies towards the development of V(NAR) single-domain proteins as viable biotherapeutics. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-07-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5'-NNCCAC-3' and 5'-GCGMGN'N'-3' (M:A or C; N and N' form Watson-Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences.

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the ETS domain of human Ergp55 in complex with the cfos promoter DNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwar, Shanti P.; Meena, Sita R.; Saxena, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    The ETS domain of human Ergp55 was purified and crystallized in native, complexes with E74, and cfos promoter DNA sequences. The X-ray intensity data set was collected on ETS–cfos promoter DNA complex crystal at 3.1 Å resolution to analyze the structure by molecular replacement technique. The Ergp55 protein belongs to the Ets family of transciption factors. The Ets transcription factors are involved in various developmental processes and the regulation of cancer metabolism. They contain a highly similar DNA-binding domain known as the ETS domain and have diverse functions in oncogenesis and physiology. The Ets transcription factors differ in their DNA-binding preference at the ETS site and the mechanisms by which they target genes are not clearly understood. To understand its DNA-binding mechanism, the ETS domain of Ergp55 was expressed and purified. The ETS domain was crystallized in the native form and in complex forms with DNA sequences from the E74 and cfos promoters. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected from an ETS–cfos DNA complex crystal at a wavelength of 0.9725 Å on the BM14 synchrotron beamline at the ESRF, France. The ETS–cfos DNA complex crystal belonged to space group C222 1 , with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. For structure analysis, initial phases for the ETS–cfos DNA complex were obtained by the molecular-replacement technique with Phaser in the CCP4 suite using the coordinates of Fli-1 protein and cfos DNA as search models. Structure analysis of the ETS–cfos DNA complex may possibly explain the DNA-binding specificity and its mechanism of interaction with the ETS domain of Ergp55

  1. Three-dimensional structure of N-terminal domain of DnaB helicase and helicase-primase interactions in Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Kashav

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Replication initiation is a crucial step in genome duplication and homohexameric DnaB helicase plays a central role in the replication initiation process by unwinding the duplex DNA and interacting with several other proteins during the process of replication. N-terminal domain of DnaB is critical for helicase activity and for DnaG primase interactions. We present here the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD of H. pylori DnaB (HpDnaB helicase at 2.2 A resolution and compare the structural differences among helicases and correlate with the functional differences. The structural details of NTD suggest that the linker region between NTD and C-terminal helicase domain plays a vital role in accurate assembly of NTD dimers. The sequence analysis of the linker regions from several helicases reveals that they should form four helix bundles. We also report the characterization of H. pylori DnaG primase and study the helicase-primase interactions, where HpDnaG primase stimulates DNA unwinding activity of HpDnaB suggesting presence of helicase-primase cohort at the replication fork. The protein-protein interaction study of C-terminal domain of primase and different deletion constructs of helicase suggests that linker is essential for proper conformation of NTD to interact strongly with HpDnaG. The surface charge distribution on the primase binding surface of NTDs of various helicases suggests that DnaB-DnaG interaction and stability of the complex is most probably charge dependent. Structure of the linker and helicase-primase interactions indicate that HpDnaB differs greatly from E.coli DnaB despite both belong to gram negative bacteria.

  2. ITS2 barcoding DNA region combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of Hyoscyami Semen, the mature seed of Hyoscyamus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chao; Hu, Zhi-Gang; Tu, Yuan; Liu, He-Gang; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Ming-Ming; SHIi, Yu-Hua; Wu, Lan; Sun, Wei; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-12-01

    Hyoscyami Semen, the mature dried seed of Hyoscyamus niger L., has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat human diseases. Hyoscyami Semen is found in local markets in China. In markets, sellers and buyers commonly inadvertently mix the seeds of H. niger with the seeds of related species such as Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees, Astragalus complanatus R. Br., Cuscuta australis R. Br., Cuscuta chinensis Lam., and Impatiens balsamina L. because of their similar morphologies or similar names. Thus, developing a reliable method for discriminating H. niger seeds from its adulterants is necessary to reduce confusion and ensure the safe use of Hyoscyami Semen. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of high-resolution melting analysis combined with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) with internal transcribed spacer 2 to discriminate H. niger. Our results show that Bar-HRM successfully identified the adulterants and detected the proportion of H. niger DNA extract within an admixture. In particular, HRM detected H. niger DNA extract in A. complanatus DNA extract at concentrations as low as 1%. In conclusion, the Bar-HRM method developed in the present study for authenticating H. niger is rapid and cost-effective. It can be used in the future to guarantee the purity of Hyoscyami Semen for the clinical use. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The flexible loop L1 of the H3K4 demethylase JARID1B ARID domain has a crucial role in DNA-binding activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Wenming; Peng, Yu; Lin, Donghai

    2010-01-01

    JARID1B, a member of the JmjC demethylase family, has a crucial role in H3K4me3 demethylation. The ARID domain is a potential DNA-binding domain of JARID1B. Previous studies indicate that a GC-rich DNA motif is the specific target of the ARID domain. However, the details of the interaction between the ARID domain and duplex DNA require further study. Here, we utilized NMR spectroscopy to assign the backbone amino acids and mapped the DNA-binding sites of the human JARID1B ARID domain. Perturbations to 1 H- 15 N correlation spectra revealed that the flexible loop L1 of ARID was the main DNA-binding interface. EMSA and intrinsic fluorescence experiments demonstrated that mutations on loop L1 strongly reduced the DNA-binding activity of JARID1B ARID. Furthermore, transfection of mutant forms resulted in a distinct loss of intrinsic H3K4 demethylase activity, implying that the flexible loop L1 made a major contribution to sustaining the DNA-binding ability of JARID1B ARID domain.

  4. Mapping the structural and dynamical features of multiple p53 DNA binding domains: insights into loop 1 intrinsic dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Lukman

    Full Text Available The transcription factor p53 regulates cellular integrity in response to stress. p53 is mutated in more than half of cancerous cells, with a majority of the mutations localized to the DNA binding domain (DBD. In order to map the structural and dynamical features of the DBD, we carried out multiple copy molecular dynamics simulations (totaling 0.8 μs. Simulations show the loop 1 to be the most dynamic element among the DNA-contacting loops (loops 1-3. Loop 1 occupies two major conformational states: extended and recessed; the former but not the latter displays correlations in atomic fluctuations with those of loop 2 (~24 Å apart. Since loop 1 binds to the major groove whereas loop 2 binds to the minor groove of DNA, our results begin to provide some insight into the possible mechanism underpinning the cooperative nature of DBD binding to DNA. We propose (1 a novel mechanism underlying the dynamics of loop 1 and the possible tread-milling of p53 on DNA and (2 possible mutations on loop 1 residues to restore the transcriptional activity of an oncogenic mutation at a distant site.

  5. The crystal structure of the Sox4 HMG domain-DNA complex suggests a mechanism for positional interdependence in DNA recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Ralf; Ng, Calista K L; Narasimhan, Kamesh; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2012-04-01

    It has recently been proposed that the sequence preferences of DNA-binding TFs (transcription factors) can be well described by models that include the positional interdependence of the nucleotides of the target sites. Such binding models allow for multiple motifs to be invoked, such as principal and secondary motifs differing at two or more nucleotide positions. However, the structural mechanisms underlying the accommodation of such variant motifs by TFs remain elusive. In the present study we examine the crystal structure of the HMG (high-mobility group) domain of Sox4 [Sry (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome)-related HMG box 4] bound to DNA. By comparing this structure with previously solved structures of Sox17 and Sox2, we observed subtle conformational differences at the DNA-binding interface. Furthermore, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility-shift assays we validated the positional interdependence of two nucleotides and the presence of a secondary Sox motif in the affinity landscape of Sox4. These results suggest that a concerted rearrangement of two interface amino acids enables Sox4 to accommodate primary and secondary motifs. The structural adaptations lead to altered dinucleotide preferences that mutually reinforce each other. These analyses underline the complexity of the DNA recognition by TFs and provide an experimental validation for the conceptual framework of positional interdependence and secondary binding motifs.

  6. Effect of pH on the Structure and DNA Binding of the FOXP2 Forkhead Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blane, Ashleigh; Fanucchi, Sylvia

    2015-06-30

    Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is a transcription factor expressed in cardiovascular, intestinal, and neural tissues during embryonic development and is implicated in language development. FOXP2 like other FOX proteins contains a DNA binding domain known as the forkhead domain (FHD). The FHD interacts with DNA by inserting helix 3 into the major groove. One of these DNA-protein interactions is a direct hydrogen bond that is formed with His554. FOXP2 is localized in the nuclear compartment that has a pH of 7.5. Histidine contains an imidazole side chain in which the amino group typically has a pKa of ~6.5. It seems possible that pH fluctuations around 6.5 may result in changes in the protonation state of His554 and thus the ability of the FOXP2 FHD to bind DNA. To investigate the effect of pH on the FHD, both the structure and the binding affinity were studied in the pH range of 5-9. This was done in the presence and absence of DNA. The structure was assessed using size exclusion chromatography, far-UV circular dichroism, and intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence. The results indicated that while pH did not affect the secondary structure in the presence or absence of DNA, the tertiary structure was pH sensitive and the protein was less compact at low pH. Furthermore, the presence of DNA caused the protein to become more compact at low pH and also had the potential to increase the dimerization propensity. Fluorescence anisotropy was used to investigate the effect of pH on the FOXP2 FHD DNA binding affinity. It was found that pH had a direct effect on binding affinity. This was attributed to the altered hydrogen bonding patterns upon protonation or deprotonation of His554. These results could implicate pH as a means of regulating transcription by the FOXP2 FHD, which may also have repercussions for the behavior of this protein in cancer cells.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the HMG domain of Sox17 in complex with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Palasingam, Paaventhan; Venkatachalam, Rajakannan; Baburajendran, Nithya; Cheng, Jason; Jauch, Ralf; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of the Sox17 HMG domain bound to LAMA1 enhancer DNA-element crystals that diffracted to 2.75 Å resolution were obtained. Sox17 is a member of the SRY-related high-mobility group (HMG) of transcription factors that have been shown to direct endodermal differentiation in early mammalian development. The LAMA1 gene encoding the α-chain of laminin-1 has been reported to be directly bound and regulated by Sox17. This paper describes the details of initial crystallization attempts with the HMG domain of mouse Sox17 (mSox17-HMG) with a 16-mer DNA element derived from the LAMA1 enhancer and optimization strategies to obtain a better diffracting crystal. The best diffracting crystal was obtained in a condition containing 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 7.4, 0.2 M MgCl 2 , 30% PEG 3350 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A highly redundant in-house data set was collected to 2.75 Å resolution with 99% completeness. The presence of the mSox17-HMG–DNA complex within the crystals was confirmed and Matthews analysis indicated the presence of one complex per asymmetric unit

  8. GCR1, a transcriptional activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, complexes with RAP1 and can function without its DNA binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, J; Zeng, X; Gao, W; Santangelo, G M

    1993-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficient expression of glycolytic and translational component genes requires two DNA binding proteins, RAP1 (which binds to UASRPG) and GCR1 (which binds to the CT box). We generated deletions in GCR1 to test the validity of several different models for GCR1 function. We report here that the C-terminal half of GCR1, which includes the domain required for DNA binding to the CT box in vitro, can be removed without affecting GCR1-dependent transcription of either the glycolytic gene ADH1 or the translational component genes TEF1 and TEF2. We have also identified an activation domain within a segment of the GCR1 protein (the N-terminal third) that is essential for in vivo function. RAP1 and GCR1 can be co-immunoprecipitated from whole cell extracts, suggesting that they form a complex in vivo. The data are most consistent with a model in which GCR1 is attracted to DNA through contact with RAP1. Images PMID:8508768

  9. A Simple Method for DNA Extraction from Mature Date Palm Leaves: Impact of Sand Grinding and Composition of Lysis Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bakir, Mohammad A.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Ahamed, Anis; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.; Al Sadoon, Mohammad; Bahkali, Ali H.; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Molecular marker techniques have been widely used for cultivar identification of inbred date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.; Arecaceae) and biodiversity conservation. Isolation of highly pure DNA is the prerequisite for PCR amplification and subsequent use such as DNA fingerprinting and sequencing of genes that have recently been developed for barcoding. To avoid problems related to the preservation and use of liquid nitrogen, we examined sterile sand for grinding the date palm leaves. Individual and combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and lithium chloride (LiCl) with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for a DNA yield of sufficient purity and PCR amplification were evaluated in this study. Presence of LiCl and PVP alone or together in the lysis buffer did not significantly improve the DNA yield and purity compared with the addition of NaCl. Our study suggested that grinding of date palm leaf with sterile sand and inclusion of NaCl (1.4 M) in the lysis buffer without the costly use of liquid nitrogen, PVP and LiCl, provides a DNA yield of sufficient purity, suitable for PCR amplification. PMID:20957085

  10. RING finger and WD repeat domain 3 (RFWD3) associates with replication protein A (RPA) and facilitates RPA-mediated DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangfeng; Chu, Jessica; Yucer, Nur; Leng, Mei; Wang, Shih-Ya; Chen, Benjamin P C; Hittelman, Walter N; Wang, Yi

    2011-06-24

    DNA damage response is crucial for maintaining genomic integrity and preventing cancer by coordinating the activation of checkpoints and the repair of damaged DNA. Central to DNA damage response are the two checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR that phosphorylate a wide range of substrates. RING finger and WD repeat domain 3 (RFWD3) was initially identified as a substrate of ATM/ATR from a proteomic screen. Subsequent studies showed that RFWD3 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates p53 in vitro and positively regulates p53 levels in response to DNA damage. We report here that RFWD3 associates with replication protein A (RPA), a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that plays essential roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. Binding of RPA to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is generated by DNA damage and repair, is essential for the recruitment of DNA repair factors to damaged sites and the activation of checkpoint signaling. We show that RFWD3 is physically associated with RPA and rapidly localizes to sites of DNA damage in a RPA-dependent manner. In vitro experiments suggest that the C terminus of RFWD3, which encompass the coiled-coil domain and the WD40 domain, is necessary for binding to RPA. Furthermore, DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of RPA and RFWD3 is dependent upon each other. Consequently, loss of RFWD3 results in the persistent foci of DNA damage marker γH2AX and the repair protein Rad51 in damaged cells. These findings suggest that RFWD3 is recruited to sites of DNA damage and facilitates RPA-mediated DNA damage signaling and repair.

  11. The role of the PHP domain associated with DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 in base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2012-11-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is one of the most commonly used DNA repair pathways involved in genome stability. X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) play critical roles in BER, especially in filling single-nucleotide gaps. In addition to a polymerase core domain, bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain with phosphoesterase activity which is also required for BER. However, the role of the PHP domain of PolX in bacterial BER remains unresolved. We found that the PHP domain of Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) functions as two types of phosphoesterase in BER, including a 3'-phosphatase and an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease. Experiments using T. thermophilus HB8 cell lysates revealed that the majority of the 3'-phosphatase and AP endonuclease activities are attributable to the another phosphoesterase in T. thermophilus HB8, endonuclease IV (ttEndoIV). However, ttPolX possesses significant 3'-phosphatase activity in ΔttendoIV cell lysate, indicating possible complementation. Our experiments also reveal that there are only two enzymes that display the 3'-phosphatase activity in the T. thermophilus HB8 cell, ttPolX and ttEndoIV. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of ΔttpolX, ΔttendoIV, and ΔttpolX/ΔttendoIV using hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitrite supports the hypothesis that ttPolX functions as a backup for ttEndoIV in BER. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A chimeric protein composed of NuMA fused to the DNA binding domain of LANA is sufficient for the ori-P-dependent DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsaki, Eriko; Ueda, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome is stably maintained in KSHV-infected PEL cell lines during cell division. We previously showed that accumulation of LANA in the nuclear matrix fraction could be important for the latent DNA replication, and that the functional significance of LANA should be its recruitment of ori-P to the nuclear matrix. Here, we investigated whether the forced localization of the LANA-DNA binding domain (DBD) to the nuclear matrix facilitated ori-P-containing plasmid replication. We demonstrated that chimeric proteins constructed by fusion of LANA DBD with the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA), which is one of the components of the nuclear matrix, could bind with ori-P and enhance replication of an ori-P-containing plasmid, compared with that in the presence of DBD alone. These results further suggested that the ori-P recruitment to the nuclear matrix through the binding with DBD is important for latent viral DNA replication. - Highlights: •KSHV replication in latency depends on LANA localization to the nuclear matrix. •LANA DBD was fused with NuMA, a nuclear matrix protein, at the N- and C-terminus. •NuMA-DBD was in the nuclear matrix and supported the ori-P dependent replication. •LANA in the nuclear matrix should be important for the KSHV replication in latency.

  13. A chimeric protein composed of NuMA fused to the DNA binding domain of LANA is sufficient for the ori-P-dependent DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsaki, Eriko; Ueda, Keiji, E-mail: kueda@virus.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome is stably maintained in KSHV-infected PEL cell lines during cell division. We previously showed that accumulation of LANA in the nuclear matrix fraction could be important for the latent DNA replication, and that the functional significance of LANA should be its recruitment of ori-P to the nuclear matrix. Here, we investigated whether the forced localization of the LANA-DNA binding domain (DBD) to the nuclear matrix facilitated ori-P-containing plasmid replication. We demonstrated that chimeric proteins constructed by fusion of LANA DBD with the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA), which is one of the components of the nuclear matrix, could bind with ori-P and enhance replication of an ori-P-containing plasmid, compared with that in the presence of DBD alone. These results further suggested that the ori-P recruitment to the nuclear matrix through the binding with DBD is important for latent viral DNA replication. - Highlights: •KSHV replication in latency depends on LANA localization to the nuclear matrix. •LANA DBD was fused with NuMA, a nuclear matrix protein, at the N- and C-terminus. •NuMA-DBD was in the nuclear matrix and supported the ori-P dependent replication. •LANA in the nuclear matrix should be important for the KSHV replication in latency.

  14. A multi-domain protein for beta1 integrin-targeted DNA delivery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Fortunati (Elisabetta); E.M.E. Ehlert (Ehrich); N.D. van Loo; C. Wyman (Claire); J.A. Eble; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); B.J. Scholte (Bob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe development of effective receptor-targeted nonviral vectors for use in vivo is complicated by a number of technical problems. One of these is the low efficiency of the conjugation procedures used to couple protein ligands to the DNA condensing carrier molecules. We have made and

  15. Birth of scale-free molecular networks and the number of distinct DNA and protein domains per genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhetsky, A; Gomez, S M

    2001-10-01

    Current growth in the field of genomics has provided a number of exciting approaches to the modeling of evolutionary mechanisms within the genome. Separately, dynamical and statistical analyses of networks such as the World Wide Web and the social interactions existing between humans have shown that these networks can exhibit common fractal properties-including the property of being scale-free. This work attempts to bridge these two fields and demonstrate that the fractal properties of molecular networks are linked to the fractal properties of their underlying genomes. We suggest a stochastic model capable of describing the evolutionary growth of metabolic or signal-transduction networks. This model generates networks that share important statistical properties (so-called scale-free behavior) with real molecular networks. In particular, the frequency of vertices connected to exactly k other vertices follows a power-law distribution. The shape of this distribution remains invariant to changes in network scale: a small subgraph has the same distribution as the complete graph from which it is derived. Furthermore, the model correctly predicts that the frequencies of distinct DNA and protein domains also follow a power-law distribution. Finally, the model leads to a simple equation linking the total number of different DNA and protein domains in a genome with both the total number of genes and the overall network topology. MatLab (MathWorks, Inc.) programs described in this manuscript are available on request from the authors. ar345@columbia.edu.

  16. The DnaJ-like zinc finger domain protein PSA2 affects light acclimation and chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids and the assembly of thylakoid membranes are critical for the photoautotrophic growth of plants. Different factors are involved in these two processes. In recent years, members of the DnaJ-like zinc finger domain proteins have been found to take part in the biogenesis and/or the maintenance of plastids. One member of this family of proteins, PSA2, was recently found to localize to the thylakoid lumen and regulate the accumulation of photosystem I. In this study, we report that the silencing of PSA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in variegated leaves and retarded growth. Although both chlorophylls and total carotenoids decreased in the psa2 mutant, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin accumulated in the mutant seedlings grown under growth condition. Lower levels of non-photochemical quenching and electron transport rate were also found in the psa2 mutant seedlings under growth condition compared with those of the wild-type plants, indicating an impaired capability to acclimate to normal light irradiance when PSA2 was silenced. Moreover, we also observed an abnormal assembly of grana thylakoids and poorly developed stroma thylakoids in psa2 chloroplasts. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PSA2 is a member of the DnaJ-like zinc finger domain protein family that affects light acclimation and chloroplast development.

  17. Interaction of the phosphorylated DNA-binding domain in nuclear receptor CAR with its ligand-binding domain regulates CAR activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Min, Jungki; Sobhany, Mack; Pedersen, Lars C; Mutoh, Shingo; Negishi, Masahiko

    2018-01-05

    The nuclear protein constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR or NR1I3) regulates several liver functions such as drug and energy metabolism and cell growth or death, which are often involved in the development of diseases such as diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. CAR undergoes a conversion from inactive homodimers to active heterodimers with retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), and phosphorylation of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) at Thr-38 in CAR regulates this conversion. Here, we uncovered the molecular mechanism by which this phosphorylation regulates the intramolecular interaction between CAR's DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD), enabling the homodimer-heterodimer conversion. Phosphomimetic substitution of Thr-38 with Asp increased co-immunoprecipitation of the CAR DBD with CAR LBD in Huh-7 cells. Isothermal titration calorimetry assays also revealed that recombinant CAR DBD-T38D, but not nonphosphorylated CAR DBD, bound the CAR LBD peptide. This DBD-LBD interaction masked CAR's dimer interface, preventing CAR homodimer formation. Of note, EGF signaling weakened the interaction of CAR DBD T38D with CAR LBD, converting CAR to the homodimer form. The DBD-T38D-LBD interaction also prevented CAR from forming a heterodimer with RXRα. However, this interaction opened up a CAR surface, allowing interaction with protein phosphatase 2A. Thr-38 dephosphorylation then dissociated the DBD-LBD interaction, allowing CAR heterodimer formation with RXRα. We conclude that the intramolecular interaction of phosphorylated DBD with the LBD enables CAR to adapt a transient monomer configuration that can be converted to either the inactive homodimer or the active heterodimer.

  18. High-affinity DNA-binding Domains of Replication Protein A (RPA) Direct SMARCAL1-dependent Replication Fork Remodeling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Kamakoti P.; Bétous, Rémy; Cortez, David

    2015-01-01

    SMARCAL1 catalyzes replication fork remodeling to maintain genome stability. It is recruited to replication forks via an interaction with replication protein A (RPA), the major ssDNA-binding protein in eukaryotic cells. In addition to directing its localization, RPA also activates SMARCAL1 on some fork substrates but inhibits it on others, thereby conferring substrate specificity to SMARCAL1 fork-remodeling reactions. We investigated the mechanism by which RPA regulates SMARCAL1. Our results indicate that although an interaction between SMARCAL1 and RPA is essential for SMARCAL1 activation, the location of the interacting surface on RPA is not. Counterintuitively, high-affinity DNA binding of RPA DNA-binding domain (DBD) A and DBD-B near the fork junction makes it easier for SMARCAL1 to remodel the fork, which requires removing RPA. We also found that RPA DBD-C and DBD-D are not required for SMARCAL1 regulation. Thus, the orientation of the high-affinity RPA DBDs at forks dictates SMARCAL1 substrate specificity. PMID:25552480

  19. High-affinity DNA-binding domains of replication protein A (RPA) direct SMARCAL1-dependent replication fork remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Kamakoti P; Bétous, Rémy; Cortez, David

    2015-02-13

    SMARCAL1 catalyzes replication fork remodeling to maintain genome stability. It is recruited to replication forks via an interaction with replication protein A (RPA), the major ssDNA-binding protein in eukaryotic cells. In addition to directing its localization, RPA also activates SMARCAL1 on some fork substrates but inhibits it on others, thereby conferring substrate specificity to SMARCAL1 fork-remodeling reactions. We investigated the mechanism by which RPA regulates SMARCAL1. Our results indicate that although an interaction between SMARCAL1 and RPA is essential for SMARCAL1 activation, the location of the interacting surface on RPA is not. Counterintuitively, high-affinity DNA binding of RPA DNA-binding domain (DBD) A and DBD-B near the fork junction makes it easier for SMARCAL1 to remodel the fork, which requires removing RPA. We also found that RPA DBD-C and DBD-D are not required for SMARCAL1 regulation. Thus, the orientation of the high-affinity RPA DBDs at forks dictates SMARCAL1 substrate specificity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Human pro. cap alpha. 1)(I) collagen: cDNA sequence for the C-propeptide domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, J K; Raassina, M; Virta, A; Vuorio, E

    1988-01-11

    The authors have previously constructed a cDNA clone pHCAL1, covering most of the C-terminal propeptide domain of human pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen mRNA,by inserting a 678 bp EcoRI-XhoI fragment of cDNA into pBR322. Since the XhoI/SalI ligation prevented removal of the insert, they used the same strategy to obtain a similar clone in pUC8. RNA was isolated from fetal calvarial bones. The cDNA was digested with EcoRI and XhoI and fractionated on a 1 % agarose gel. Fragments of 650-700 bp were cloned in pUC8 at the polylinker site, which now permits easy removal of the insert. The new clone was named pHCAL1U since the RNA was isolated from another individual. The approach outlined is useful for studies on individual variation which is important to recognize when searching for disease-related mutations in type I collagen.

  1. The Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway Is Regulated by an Interaction between Ubiquitin and the E2-like Fold Domain of FANCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer A; Frost, Mark G; Carroll, Eilis; Rowe, Michelle L; Howard, Mark J; Sidhu, Ateesh; Chaugule, Viduth K; Alpi, Arno F; Walden, Helen

    2015-08-21

    The Fanconi Anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway is essential for the recognition and repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICL). Inefficient repair of these ICL can lead to leukemia and bone marrow failure. A critical step in the pathway is the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 by the RING E3 ligase FANCL. FANCL comprises 3 domains, a RING domain that interacts with E2 conjugating enzymes, a central domain required for substrate interaction, and an N-terminal E2-like fold (ELF) domain. The ELF domain is found in all FANCL homologues, yet the function of the domain remains unknown. We report here that the ELF domain of FANCL is required to mediate a non-covalent interaction between FANCL and ubiquitin. The interaction involves the canonical Ile44 patch on ubiquitin, and a functionally conserved patch on FANCL. We show that the interaction is not necessary for the recognition of the core complex, it does not enhance the interaction between FANCL and Ube2T, and is not required for FANCD2 monoubiquitination in vitro. However, we demonstrate that the ELF domain is required to promote efficient DNA damage-induced FANCD2 monoubiquitination in vertebrate cells, suggesting an important function of ubiquitin binding by FANCL in vivo. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. The role of the C-domain of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein in ssDNA binding and dsDNA helix-destabilization: Kinetic, single-molecule, and cross-linking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Kiran; Anderson, Brian; Perdana, Hendrik; Malinowski, Matthew A.; Win, Aye T.; Williams, Mark C.

    2018-01-01

    The model single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4, gene 32 protein (gp32) has well-established roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. gp32 is a single-chain polypeptide consisting of three domains. Based on thermodynamics and kinetics measurements, we have proposed that gp32 can undergo a conformational change where the acidic C-terminal domain binds internally to or near the single-stranded (ss) DNA binding surface in the core (central) domain, blocking ssDNA interaction. To test this model, we have employed a variety of experimental approaches and gp32 variants to characterize this conformational change. Utilizing stopped-flow methods, the association kinetics of wild type and truncated forms of gp32 with ssDNA were measured. When the C-domain is present, the log-log plot of k vs. [NaCl] shows a positive slope, whereas when it is absent (*I protein), there is little rate change with salt concentration, as expected for this model.A gp32 variant lacking residues 292–296 within the C-domain, ΔPR201, displays kinetic properties intermediate between gp32 and *I. The single molecule force-induced DNA helix-destabilizing activitiesas well as the single- and double-stranded DNA affinities of ΔPR201 and gp32 truncated at residue 295 also fall between full-length protein and *I. Finally, chemical cross-linking of recombinant C-domain and gp32 lacking both N- and C-terminal domains is inhibited by increasing concentrations of a short single-stranded oligonucleotide, and the salt dependence of cross-linking mirrors that expected for the model. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence in support of this model that have been obtained through structural probes. PMID:29634784

  3. In Situ Dark Adaptation Enhances the Efficiency of DNA Extraction from Mature Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Leaves, Facilitating the Identification of Partial Sequences of the 18S rRNA and Isoprene Synthase (IspS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csengele E. Barta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mature oak (Quercus spp. leaves, although abundantly available during the plants’ developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites. We optimized a rapid, commercial kit based method to extract genomic DNA from dark- and light-adapted leaves. We demonstrated that in situ dark adaptation increases the yield and quality of genomic DNA obtained from mature oak leaves, yielding templates of sufficiently high quality for direct downstream applications, such as PCR amplification and gene identification. The quality of templates isolated from dark-adapted pin oak leaves particularly improved the amplification of larger fragments in our experiments. From DNA extracts prepared with our optimized method, we identified for the first time partial segments of the genes encoding 18S rRNA and isoprene synthase (IspS from pin oak (Quercus palustris, whose full genome has not yet been sequenced.

  4. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the central zinc-binding domain of the human Mcm10 DNA-replication factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Nam Young; Bae, Won Jin; Chang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Young Chang; Cho, Yunje

    2008-01-01

    Mcm10 is a highly conserved nuclear protein that plays a key role in the initiation and elongation processes of DNA replication by providing a physical link between the Mcm2–7 complex and DNA polymerases. In this study, the central domain of human Mcm10 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of PEG 3350. The initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires the tightly controlled assembly of a set of replication factors. Mcm10 is a highly conserved nuclear protein that plays a key role in the initiation and elongation processes of DNA replication by providing a physical link between the Mcm2–7 complex and DNA polymerases. The central domain, which contains the CCCH zinc-binding motif, is most conserved within Mcm10 and binds to DNA and several proteins, including proliferative cell nuclear antigen. In this study, the central domain of human Mcm10 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of PEG 3350. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.6 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystals formed belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 99.5, c = 133.0 Å. According to Matthews coefficient calculations, the crystals were predicted to contain six MCM10 central domain molecules in the asymmetric unit

  5. Dynamics of water around the complex structures formed between the KH domains of far upstream element binding protein and single-stranded DNA molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy, E-mail: sanjoy@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Molecular Modeling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2015-07-28

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) binding proteins specifically bind to the single-stranded regions of the DNA and protect it from premature annealing, thereby stabilizing the DNA structure. We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the aqueous solutions of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein complexed with two short ss-DNA segments. Attempts have been made to explore the influence of the formation of such complex structures on the microscopic dynamics and hydrogen bond properties of the interfacial water molecules. It is found that the water molecules involved in bridging the ss-DNA segments and the protein domains form a highly constrained thin layer with extremely retarded mobility. These water molecules play important roles in freezing the conformational oscillations of the ss-DNA oligomers and thereby forming rigid complex structures. Further, it is demonstrated that the effect of complexation on the slow long-time relaxations of hydrogen bonds at the interface is correlated with hindered motions of the surrounding water molecules. Importantly, it is observed that the highly restricted motions of the water molecules bridging the protein and the DNA components in the complexed forms originate from more frequent hydrogen bond reformations.

  6. Dengue E Protein Domain III-Based DNA Immunisation Induces Strong Antibody Responses to All Four Viral Serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Poggianella

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV infection is a major emerging disease widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world affecting several millions of people. Despite constants efforts, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is yet available. Here we show a novel design of a DNA immunisation strategy that resulted in the induction of strong antibody responses with high neutralisation titres in mice against all four viral serotypes. The immunogenic molecule is an engineered version of the domain III (DIII of the virus E protein fused to the dimerising CH3 domain of the IgG immunoglobulin H chain. The DIII sequences were also codon-optimised for expression in mammalian cells. While DIII alone is very poorly secreted, the codon-optimised fusion protein is rightly expressed, folded and secreted at high levels, thus inducing strong antibody responses. Mice were immunised using gene-gun technology, an efficient way of intradermal delivery of the plasmid DNA, and the vaccine was able to induce neutralising titres against all serotypes. Additionally, all sera showed reactivity to a recombinant DIII version and the recombinant E protein produced and secreted from mammalian cells in a mono-biotinylated form when tested in a conformational ELISA. Sera were also highly reactive to infective viral particles in a virus-capture ELISA and specific for each serotype as revealed by the low cross-reactive and cross-neutralising activities. The serotype specific sera did not induce antibody dependent enhancement of infection (ADE in non-homologous virus serotypes. A tetravalent immunisation protocol in mice showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well.

  7. The disordered C-terminal domain of human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 contributes to its stability via intramolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Muralidhar L; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hegde, Pavana M; Holthauzen, Luis Marcelo F; Li, Jing; Oezguen, Numan; Hilser, Vincent J; Tainer, John A; Mitra, Sankar

    2013-07-10

    NEIL1 [Nei (endonuclease VIII)-like protein 1], one of the five mammalian DNA glycosylases that excise oxidized DNA base lesions in the human genome to initiate base excision repair, contains an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (CTD; ~100 residues), not conserved in its Escherichia coli prototype Nei. Although dispensable for NEIL1's lesion excision and AP lyase activities, this segment is required for efficient in vivo enzymatic activity and may provide an interaction interface for many of NEIL1's interactions with other base excision repair proteins. Here, we show that the CTD interacts with the folded domain in native NEIL1 containing 389 residues. The CTD is poised for local folding in an ordered structure that is induced in the purified fragment by osmolytes. Furthermore, deletion of the disordered tail lacking both Tyr and Trp residues causes a red shift in NEIL1's intrinsic Trp-specific fluorescence, indicating a more solvent-exposed environment for the Trp residues in the truncated protein, which also exhibits reduced stability compared to the native enzyme. These observations are consistent with stabilization of the native NEIL1 structure via intramolecular, mostly electrostatic, interactions that were disrupted by mutating a positively charged (Lys-rich) cluster of residues (amino acids 355-360) near the C-terminus. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis confirms the flexibility and dynamic nature of NEIL1's CTD, a feature that may be critical to providing specificity for NEIL1's multiple, functional interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yucheol; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2010-11-01

    A BRICHOS domain-containing leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 1-like cDNA was cloned from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and designated as AbLECT-1. A full-length (705 bp) of AbLECT-1 cDNA was composed of a 576 bp open reading frame that translates into a putative peptide of 192 amino acids. Deduced amino acid sequence of AbLECT-1 had 15.5- and 27.8% identity and similarity to human LECT-1, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis results showed that the mRNA of AbLECT-1 was constitutively expressed in abalone hemocytes, gills, mantle, muscle, digestive tract and hepatopancreas in a tissue-specific manner. Moreover, the AbLECT-1 transcription level was induced in hemocytes after challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes suggesting that it may be involved in immune response reactions in abalone. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of a bifunctional, paired-like DNA-binding domain and a transpositional enhancer in Sleeping Beauty transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Khare, Dheeraj; Behlke, Joachim; Heinemann, Udo; Plasterk, Ronald H; Ivics, Zoltán

    2002-09-13

    Sleeping Beauty (SB) is the most active Tc1/mariner-like transposon in vertebrate species. Each of the terminal inverted repeats (IRs) of SB contains two transposase-binding sites (DRs). This feature, termed the IR/DR structure, is conserved in a group of Tc1-like transposons. The DNA-binding region of SB transposase, similar to the paired domain of Pax proteins, consists of two helix-turn-helix subdomains (PAI + RED = PAIRED). The N-terminal PAI subdomain was found to play a dominant role in contacting the DRs. Transposase was able to bind to mutant sites retaining the 3' part of the DRs; thus, primary DNA binding is not sufficient to determine the specificity of the transposition reaction. The PAI subdomain was also found to bind to a transpositional enhancer-like sequence within the left IR of SB, and to mediate protein-protein interactions between transposase subunits. A tetrameric form of the transposase was detected in solution, consistent with an interaction between the IR/DR structure and a transposase tetramer. We propose a model in which the transpositional enhancer and the PAI subdomain stabilize complexes formed by a transposase tetramer bound at the IR/DR. These interactions may result in enhanced stability of synaptic complexes, which might explain the efficient transposition of Sleeping Beauty in vertebrate cells.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments on the breakage-reunion domain of the DNA gyrase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piton, Jérémie; Matrat, Stéphanie; Petrella, Stéphanie; Jarlier, Vincent; Aubry, Alexandra; Mayer, Claudine

    2009-01-01

    The breakage-reunion domain of M. tuberculosis DNA gyrase was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. One of the four crystal forms obtained belonged to space group C2 and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 Å. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase, a nanomachine that is involved in the regulation of DNA topology, is the only type II topoisomerase present in this organism and hence is the sole target for fluoroquinolone action. The breakage-reunion domain of the A subunit plays an essential role in DNA binding during the catalytic cycle. Two constructs of 53 and 57 kDa (termed GA53BK and GA57BK) corresponding to this domain have been overproduced, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected from four crystal forms. The resolution limits ranged from 4.6 to 2.7 Å depending on the crystal form. The best diffracting crystals belonged to space group C2, with a biological dimer in the asymmetric unit. This is the first report of the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the breakage-reunion domain of DNA gyrase from a species containing one unique type II topoisomerase

  11. In silico studies on structure-function of DNA GCC- box binding domain of brassica napus DREB1 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamarunnisa, S.; Hussain, M.

    2012-01-01

    DREB1 is a transcriptional factor, which selectively binds with the promoters of the genes involved in stress response in the plants. Homology of DREB protein and its binding element have been detected in the genome of many plants. However, only a few reports exist that discusses the binding properties of this protein with the gene (s) promoter. In the present study, we have undertaken studies exploring the structure-function relationship of Brassica napus DREB1. Multiple sequence alignment, protein homology modeling and intermolecular docking of GCC-box binding domain (GBD) of the said protein was carried out using atomic coordinates of GBD from Arabdiopsis thaliana and GCC-box containing DNA respectively. Similarities and/or identities in multiple, sequence alignment, particularly at the functionally important amino acids, strongly suggested the binding specificity of B. napus DREB1 to GCC-box. Similarly, despite 56% sequence homology, tertiary structures of both template and modeled protein were found to be extremely similar as indicated by root mean square deviation of 0.34 A. More similarities were established between GBD of both A. thaliana and B. napus DREB1 by conducting protein docking with the DNA containing GCC-box. It appears that both proteins interact through their beta-sheet with the major DNA groove including both nitrogen bases and phosphate and sugar moieties. Additionally, in most cases the interacting residues were also found to be identical. Briefly, this study attempts to elucidate the molecular basis of DREB1 interaction with its target sequence in the promoter. (author)

  12. The N-terminal domain of the repressor of Staphylococcus aureus phage Φ11 possesses an unusual dimerization ability and DNA binding affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Biswas

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage Φ11 uses Staphylococcus aureus as its host and, like lambdoid phages, harbors three homologous operators in between its two divergently oriented repressor genes. None of the repressors of Φ11, however, showed binding to all three operators, even at high concentrations. To understand why the DNA binding mechanism of Φ11 repressors does not match that of lambdoid phage repressors, we studied the N-terminal domain of the Φ11 lysogenic repressor, as it harbors a putative helix-turn-helix motif. Our data revealed that the secondary and tertiary structures of the N-terminal domain were different from those of the full-length repressor. Nonetheless, the N-terminal domain was able to dimerize and bind to the operators similar to the intact repressor. In addition, the operator base specificity, binding stoichiometry, and binding mechanism of this domain were nearly identical to those of the whole repressor. The binding affinities of the repressor and its N-terminal domain were reduced to a similar extent when the temperature was increased to 42°C. Both proteins also adequately dislodged a RNA polymerase from a Φ11 DNA fragment carrying two operators and a promoter. Unlike the intact repressor, the binding of the N-terminal domain to two adjacent operator sites was not cooperative in nature. Taken together, we suggest that the dimerization and DNA binding abilities of the N-terminal domain of the Φ11 repressor are distinct from those of the DNA binding domains of other phage repressors.

  13. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-binding to Nucleotide-binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Dixon, Christopher H.; Gittens, William H.; Townsend, Philip D.; Sharples, Gary J.; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L. W.; Cann, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception. However, it is unknown whether other NLR proteins are also able to bind DNA. Nor is it known how DNA binding relates to the ATPase activity intrinsic to NLR switch function required to immune activation. Here we investigate these issues using a recombinant protein corresponding to the N-terminal coiled-coil and nucleotide-binding domain regions of the I-2 NLR of tomato. Wild type I-2 protein bound nucleic acids with a preference of ssDNA ≈ dsDNA > ssRNA, which is distinct from Rx1. I-2 induced bending and melting of DNA. Notably, ATP enhanced DNA binding relative to ADP in the wild type protein, the null P-loop mutant K207R, and the autoactive mutant S233F. DNA binding was found to activate the intrinsic ATPase activity of I-2. Because DNA binding by I-2 was decreased in the presence of ADP when compared with ATP, a cyclic mechanism emerges; activated ATP-associated I-2 binds to DNA, which enhances ATP hydrolysis, releasing ADP-bound I-2 from the DNA. Thus DNA binding is a general property of at least a subset of NLR proteins, and NLR activation is directly linked to its activity at DNA. PMID:26601946

  14. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-binding to Nucleotide-binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Dixon, Christopher H; Gittens, William H; Townsend, Philip D; Sharples, Gary J; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L W; Cann, Martin J

    2016-01-15

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception. However, it is unknown whether other NLR proteins are also able to bind DNA. Nor is it known how DNA binding relates to the ATPase activity intrinsic to NLR switch function required to immune activation. Here we investigate these issues using a recombinant protein corresponding to the N-terminal coiled-coil and nucleotide-binding domain regions of the I-2 NLR of tomato. Wild type I-2 protein bound nucleic acids with a preference of ssDNA ≈ dsDNA > ssRNA, which is distinct from Rx1. I-2 induced bending and melting of DNA. Notably, ATP enhanced DNA binding relative to ADP in the wild type protein, the null P-loop mutant K207R, and the autoactive mutant S233F. DNA binding was found to activate the intrinsic ATPase activity of I-2. Because DNA binding by I-2 was decreased in the presence of ADP when compared with ATP, a cyclic mechanism emerges; activated ATP-associated I-2 binds to DNA, which enhances ATP hydrolysis, releasing ADP-bound I-2 from the DNA. Thus DNA binding is a general property of at least a subset of NLR proteins, and NLR activation is directly linked to its activity at DNA. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Crystal structure and DNA-binding property of the ATPase domain of bacterial mismatch repair endonuclease MutL from Aquifex aeolicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Kenji; Iino, Hitoshi; Baba, Seiki; Kumasaka, Takashi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yano, Takato

    2017-09-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects mismatched bases that are generated mainly by DNA replication errors. The repair system excises the error-containing single-stranded region and enables the re-synthesis of the strand. In the early reactions of MMR, MutL endonuclease incises the newly-synthesized/error-containing strand of the duplex to initiate the downstream excision reaction. MutL endonuclease consists of the N-terminal ATPase and C-terminal endonuclease domains. In this study, we report the crystal structure of the ATPase domain of MutL endonuclease from Aquifex aeolicus. The overall structure of the domain was similar to those of human MutL homologs and Escherichia coli MutL, although E. coli MutL has no endonuclease activity. The ATPase domain was comprised of two subdomains: the N-terminal ATP-binding subdomain and the C-terminal α-β sandwich subdomain. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment identified DNA-interacting eight basic amino acid residues, which were distributed across both the two subdomains and formed a DNA-binding cleft. Docking simulation between the structures of the ATPase and endonuclease domains generated a reliable model structure for the full-length A. aeolicus MutL, which satisfies our previous result of small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. On the basis of the model structure and further experimental results, we concluded that the two separate DNA-binding sites in the full-length A. aeolicus MutL simultaneously bind a dsDNA molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutation and crystallization of the first KH domain of human polycytosine-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) in complex with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoga, Yano M. K.; Traore, Daouda A. K.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The successful preparation of a mutant KH domain representing the first KH domain of PCBP1 and its crystallization in complex with a C-rich DNA are reported. This structure is anticipated to provide high-resolution information that will allow better understanding of the basis of cytosine specificity by PCBPs. Polycytosine-binding proteins (PCBPs) are triple KH-domain proteins that play an important role in the regulation of translation of eukaryotic mRNA. They are also utilized by viral RNA and have been shown to interact with ssDNA. Underlying their function is the specific recognition of C-rich nucleotides by their KH domains. However, the structural basis of this recognition is only partially understood. Here, the preparation of a His-tagged KH domain is described, representing the first domain of PCBP1 that incorporates a C54S mutation as well as the addition of a C-terminal tryptophan. This construct has facilitated the preparation of highly diffracting crystals in complex with C-rich DNA (sequence ACCCCA). Crystals of the KH1–DNA complex were grown using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in 0.1 M phosphate–citrate pH 4.2, 40%(v/v) PEG 300. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.77 Å resolution and the diffraction was consistent with space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 38.59, b = 111.88, c = 43.42 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 93.37°. The structure of the KH1–DNA complex will further our insight into the basis of cytosine specificity by PCBPs

  17. Analysis of capsid portal protein and terminase functional domains: interaction sites required for DNA packaging in bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; Rao, V B; Black, L W

    1999-06-04

    Bacteriophage DNA packaging results from an ATP-driven translocation of concatemeric DNA into the prohead by the phage terminase complexed with the portal vertex dodecamer of the prohead. Functional domains of the bacteriophage T4 terminase and portal gene 20 product (gp20) were determined by mutant analysis and sequence localization within the structural genes. Interaction regions of the portal vertex and large terminase subunit (gp17) were determined by genetic (terminase-portal intergenic suppressor mutations), biochemical (column retention of gp17 and inhibition of in vitro DNA packaging by gp20 peptides), and immunological (co-immunoprecipitation of polymerized gp20 peptide and gp17) studies. The specificity of the interaction was tested by means of a phage T4 HOC (highly antigenicoutercapsid protein) display system in which wild-type, cs20, and scrambled portal peptide sequences were displayed on the HOC protein of phage T4. Binding affinities of these recombinant phages as determined by the retention of these phages by a His-tag immobilized gp17 column, and by co-immunoprecipitation with purified terminase supported the specific nature of the portal protein and terminase interaction sites. In further support of specificity, a gp20 peptide corresponding to a portion of the identified site inhibited packaging whereas the scrambled sequence peptide did not block DNA packaging in vitro. The portal interaction site is localized to 28 residues in the central portion of the linear sequence of gp20 (524 residues). As judged by two pairs of intergenic portal-terminase suppressor mutations, two separate regions of the terminase large subunit gp17 (central and COOH-terminal) interact through hydrophobic contacts at the portal site. Although the terminase apparently interacts with this gp20 portal peptide, polyclonal antibody against the portal peptide appears unable to access it in the native structure, suggesting intimate association of gp20 and gp17 possibly

  18. Isolation and characterisation of the cDNA encoding a glycosylated accessory protein of pea chloroplast DNA polymerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaikwad, A; Tewari, K K; Kumar, D; Chen, W; Mukherjee, S K

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding p43, a DNA binding protein from pea chloroplasts (ct) that binds to cognate DNA polymerase and stimulates the polymerase activity, has been cloned and characterised. The characteristic sequence motifs of hydroxyproline-rich glyco-proteins (HRGP) are present in the cDNA corres-ponding to the N-terminal domain of the mature p43. The protein was found to be highly O-arabinosylated. Chemically deglycosylated p43 (i.e. p29) retains its binding to both DNA and pea ct-DNA polymeras...

  19. Redox-sensitive structural change in the A-domain of HMGB1 and its implication for the binding to cisplatin modified DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Tochio, Naoya; Takeuchi, Aya; Uewaki, Jun-ichi; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Tate, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The structure of the oxidized A-domain of human HMGB1 was solved. •Phe38 ring was flipped in the oxidized structure from that in the reduced form. •The flipped ring disables the intercalation into the cisplatinated lesions. •The functionally relevant redox-dependent structural change was described. -- Abstract: HMGB1 (high-mobility group B1) is a ubiquitously expressed bifunctional protein that acts as a nuclear protein in cells and also as an inflammatory mediator in the extracellular space. HMGB1 changes its functions according to the redox states in both intra- and extra-cellular environments. Two cysteines, Cys23 and Cys45, in the A-domain of HMGB1 form a disulfide bond under oxidative conditions. The A-domain with the disulfide bond shows reduced affinity to cisplatin modified DNA. We have solved the oxidized A-domain structure by NMR. In the structure, Phe38 has a flipped ring orientation from that found in the reduced form; the phenyl ring in the reduced form intercalates into the platinated lesion in DNA. The phenyl ring orientation in the oxidized form is stabilized through intramolecular hydrophobic contacts. The reorientation of the Phe38 ring by the disulfide bond in the A-domain may explain the reduced HMGB1 binding affinity towards cisplatinated DNA

  20. Euchromatin islands in large heterochromatin domains are enriched for CTCF binding and differentially DNA-methylated regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Bo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organization of higher order chromatin is an emerging epigenetic mechanism for understanding development and disease. We and others have previously observed dynamic changes during differentiation and oncogenesis in large heterochromatin domains such as Large Organized Chromatin K (lysine modifications (LOCKs, of histone H3 lysine-9 dimethylation (H3K9me2 or other repressive histone posttranslational modifications. The microstructure of these regions has not previously been explored. Results We analyzed the genome-wide distribution of H3K9me2 in two human pluripotent stem cell lines and three differentiated cells lines. We identified > 2,500 small regions with very low H3K9me2 signals in the body of LOCKs, which were termed as euchromatin islands (EIs. EIs are 6.5-fold enriched for DNase I Hypersensitive Sites and 8-fold enriched for the binding of CTCF, the major organizer of higher-order chromatin. Furthermore, EIs are 2–6 fold enriched for differentially DNA-methylated regions associated with tissue types (T-DMRs, reprogramming (R-DMRs and cancer (C-DMRs. Gene ontology (GO analysis suggests that EI-associated genes are functionally related to organ system development, cell adhesion and cell differentiation. Conclusions We identify the existence of EIs as a finer layer of epigenomic architecture within large heterochromatin domains. Their enrichment for CTCF sites and DNAse hypersensitive sites, as well as association with DMRs, suggest that EIs play an important role in normal epigenomic architecture and its disruption in disease.

  1. Thermodynamics of complex structures formed between single-stranded DNA oligomers and the KH domains of the far upstream element binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy, E-mail: sanjoy@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in [Molecular Modeling Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-05-28

    The noncovalent interaction between protein and DNA is responsible for regulating the genetic activities in living organisms. The most critical issue in this problem is to understand the underlying driving force for the formation and stability of the complex. To address this issue, we have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein (FBP) complexed with two single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) oligomers in aqueous media. Attempts have been made to calculate the individual components of the net entropy change for the complexation process by adopting suitable statistical mechanical approaches. Our calculations reveal that translational, rotational, and configurational entropy changes of the protein and the DNA components have unfavourable contributions for this protein-DNA association process and such entropy lost is compensated by the entropy gained due to the release of hydration layer water molecules. The free energy change corresponding to the association process has also been calculated using the Free Energy Perturbation (FEP) method. The free energy gain associated with the KH4–DNA complex formation has been found to be noticeably higher than that involving the formation of the KH3–DNA complex.

  2. Enhancing T cell activation and antiviral protection by introducing the HIV-1 protein transduction domain into a DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, J A; Lindencrona, J A; Charo, J; Whitton, J L

    2001-10-10

    Protein transduction domains (PTD), which can transport proteins or peptides across biological membranes, have been identified in several proteins of viral, invertebrate, and vertebrate origin. Here, we evaluate the immunological and biological consequences of including PTD in synthetic peptides and in DNA vaccines that contain CD8(+) T cell epitopes from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Synthetic PTD-peptides did not induce detectable CD8(+) T cell responses. However, fusion of an open reading frame encoding a PTD to an epitope minigene caused transfected tissue culture cells to stimulate epitope-specific T cells much more effectively. Kinetic studies indicated that the epitope reached the surface of transfected cells more rapidly and that the number of transfected cells needed to stimulate T cell responses was reduced by 35- to 50-fold when compared to cells transfected with a standard minigene plasmid. The mechanism underlying the effect of PTD linkage is not clear, but transit of the PTD-attached epitope from transfected cells to nontransfected cells (cross presentation) seemed to play, at most, a minimal role. Mice immunized once with the plasmid encoding the PTD-linked epitope showed a markedly accelerated CD8(+) T cell response and, unlike mice immunized with a standard plasmid, were completely protected against a normally lethal LCMV challenge administered only 8 days post-immunization.

  3. Biophysical characterization of the basic cluster in the transcription repression domain of human MeCP2 with AT-rich DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ameeq Ul; Lee, Yejin; Hwang, Eunha; Bang, Jeong Kyu; Hong, Eunmi; Byun, Youngjoo; Song, Ji-Joon; Jeon, Young Ho

    2018-01-01

    MeCP2 is a chromatin associated protein which is highly expressed in brain and relevant with Rett syndrome (RTT). There are AT-hook motifs in MeCP2 which can bind with AT-rich DNA, suggesting a role in chromatin binding. Here, we report the identification and characterization of another AT-rich DNA binding motif (residues 295 to 313) from the C-terminal transcription repression domain of MeCP2 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and isothermal calorimetry (ITC). This motif shows a micromolar affinity to AT-rich DNA, and it binds to the minor groove of DNA like AT-hook motifs. Together with the previous studies, our results provide an insight into a critical role of this motif in chromatin structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Amino acids 16-275 of minute virus of mice NS1 include a domain that specifically binds (ACCA)2-3-containing DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouw, M; Pintel, D J

    1998-11-10

    GST-NS1 purified from Escherichia coli and insect cells binds double-strand DNA in an (ACCA)2-3-dependent fashion under similar ionic conditions, independent of the presence of anti-NS1 antisera or exogenously supplied ATP and interacts with single-strand DNA and RNA in a sequence-independent manner. An amino-terminal domain (amino acids 1-275) of NS1 [GST-NS1(1-275)], representing 41% of the full-length NS1 molecule, includes a domain that binds double-strand DNA in a sequence-specific manner at levels comparable to full-length GST-NS1, as well as single-strand DNA and RNA in a sequence-independent manner. The deletion of 15 additional amino-terminal amino acids yielded a molecule [GST-NS1(1-275)] that maintained (ACCA)2-3-specific double-strand DNA binding; however, this molecule was more sensitive to increasing ionic conditions than full-length GST-NS1 and GST-NS1(1-275) and could not be demonstrated to bind single-strand nucleic acids. A quantitative filter binding assay showed that E. coli- and baculovirus-expressed GST-NS1 and E. coli GST-NS1(1-275) specifically bound double-strand DNA with similar equilibrium kinetics [as measured by their apparent equilibrium DNA binding constants (KD)], whereas GST-NS1(16-275) bound 4- to 8-fold less well. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. Characterization of the roles of the catalytic domains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligase D in Ku-dependent error-prone DNA end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Douglas; DeBeaux, Austin; Shi, Runhua; Doherty, Aidan J; Harrison, Lynn

    2010-09-01

    We previously established an Escherichia coli strain capable of re-circularizing linear plasmid DNA by expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ku (Mt-Ku) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligase D (Mt-LigD) proteins from the E.coli chromosome. Repair was predominately mutagenic due to deletions at the termini. We hypothesized that these deletions could be due to a nuclease activity of Mt-LigD that was previously detected in vitro. Mt-LigD has three domains: an N-terminal polymerase domain (PolDom), a central domain with 3'-phosphoesterase and nuclease activity and a C-terminal ligase domain (LigDom). We generated bacterial strains expressing Mt-Ku and mutant versions of Mt-LigD. Plasmid re-circularization experiments in bacteria showed that the PolDom alone had no re-circularization activity. However, an increase in the total and accurate repair was found when the central domain was deleted. This provides further evidence that this central domain does have nuclease activity that can generate deletions during repair. Deletion of only the PolDom of Mt-LigD resulted in a complete loss of accurate repair and a significant reduction in total repair. This is in agreement with published in vitro work indicating that the PolDom is the major Mt-Ku-binding site. Interestingly, the LigDom alone was able to re-circularize plasmid DNA but only in an Mt-Ku-dependent manner, suggesting a potential second site for Ku-LigD interaction. This work has increased our understanding of the mutagenic repair by Mt-Ku and Mt-LigD and has extended the in vitro biochemical experiments by examining the importance of the Mt-LigD domains during repair in bacteria.

  6. The BAH domain of ORC1 links H4K20me2 to DNA replication licensing and Meier-Gorlin syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alex J; Song, Jikui; Cheung, Peggie; Ishibe-Murakami, Satoko; Yamazoe, Sayumi; Chen, James K; Patel, Dinshaw J; Gozani, Or [Stanford; (MSKCC); (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The recognition of distinctly modified histones by specialized 'effector' proteins constitutes a key mechanism for transducing molecular events at chromatin to biological outcomes. Effector proteins influence DNA-templated processes, including transcription, DNA recombination and DNA repair; however, no effector functions have yet been identified within the mammalian machinery that regulate DNA replication. Here we show that ORC1 - a component of ORC (origin of replication complex), which mediates pre-DNA replication licensing - contains a bromo adjacent homology (BAH) domain that specifically recognizes histone H4 dimethylated at lysine 20 (H4K20me2). Recognition of H4K20me2 is a property common to BAH domains present within diverse metazoan ORC1 proteins. Structural studies reveal that the specificity of the BAH domain for H4K20me2 is mediated by a dynamic aromatic dimethyl-lysine-binding cage and multiple intermolecular contacts involving the bound peptide. H4K20me2 is enriched at replication origins, and abrogating ORC1 recognition of H4K20me2 in cells impairs ORC1 occupancy at replication origins, ORC chromatin loading and cell-cycle progression. Mutation of the ORC1 BAH domain has been implicated in the aetiology of Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS), a form of primordial dwarfism, and ORC1 depletion in zebrafish results in an MGS-like phenotype. We find that wild-type human ORC1, but not ORC1-H4K20me2-binding mutants, rescues the growth retardation of orc1 morphants. Moreover, zebrafish depleted of H4K20me2 have diminished body size, mirroring the phenotype of orc1 morphants. Together, our results identify the BAH domain as a novel methyl-lysine-binding module, thereby establishing the first direct link between histone methylation and the metazoan DNA replication machinery, and defining a pivotal aetiological role for the canonical H4K20me2 mark, via ORC1, in primordial dwarfism.

  7. Generation of antibodies against disintegrin and cysteine-rich domains by DNA immunization: An approach to neutralize snake venom-induced haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidgi Syed Anwer Abdo Hasson

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Antibodies generated against the E. ocellatus venom prothrombin activator-like metalloprotease and disintegrin-cysteine-rich domains modulated and inhibited the catalytic activity both in vitro and in vivo of venom metalloproteinase disintegrin cysteine rich molecules. Thus, generating of venom specific-toxin antibodies by DNA immunization offer a more rational treatment of snake envenoming than conventional antivenom.

  8. DNA-binding site of major regulatory protein alpha 4 specifically associated with promoter-regulatory domains of alpha genes of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Kristie, T M; Roizman, B

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 genes form at least five groups (alpha, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 1, and gamma 2) whose expression is coordinately regulated and sequentially ordered in a cascade fashion. Previous studies have shown that functional alpha 4 gene product is essential for the transition from alpha to beta protein synthesis and have suggested that alpha 4 gene expression is autoregulatory. We have previously reported that labeled DNA fragments containing promoter-regulatory domains of thr...

  9. Site-directed mutational analysis of structural interactions of low molecule compounds binding to the N-terminal 8 kDa domain of DNA polymerase β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Shizuka; Kamisuki, Shinji; Takata, Kei-ichi; Kasai, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Seisuke; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Ohta, Keisuke; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the mode of inhibition of DNA polymerase β (pol. β) by long chain fatty acids and a bile acid, involving binding analyses to the N-terminal 8-kDa DNA binding domain. Here we describe a site-directed mutational analysis in which the key amino acids (L11, K35, H51, K60, L77, and T79), which are direct interaction sites in the domain, were substituted with K, A, A, A, K, and A, respectively. And their pol. β interactions with a C24-long chain fatty acid, nervonic acid (NA), and a bile acid, lithocholic acid (LCA), were investigated by gel mobility shift assay and NMR spectroscopy. In the case of K35A, there was complete loss of DNA binding activity while K60A hardly has any activity. In contrast the other mutations had no appreciable effects. Thus, K35 and K60 are key amino acid sites for binding to template DNA. The DNA binding activities of L11K, H51A, and T79A as well as the wild type were inhibited by NA to the same extent. T79A demonstrated a disturbed interaction with LCA. 1 H- 15 N HSQC NMR analysis indicated that despite their many similarities, the wild-type and the mutant proteins displayed some significant chemical shift differences. Not only were the substituted amino acid residues three-dimensionally shifted, but some amino acids which are positioned far distant from the key amino acids showed a shift. These results suggest that the interaction surface was significantly distorted with the result that LCA could not bind to the domain. These findings confirm our previous biochemical and 3D structural proposals concerning inhibition by NA and LCA

  10. The kinase domain residue serine 173 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chk1 kinase is critical for the response to DNA replication stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Coulton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While mammalian Chk1 kinase regulates replication origins, safeguards fork integrity and promotes fork progression, yeast Chk1 acts only in G1 and G2. We report here that the mutation of serine 173 (S173A in the kinase domain of fission yeast Chk1 abolishes the G1-M and S-M checkpoints with little impact on the G2-M arrest. This separation-of-function mutation strongly reduces the Rad3-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 at serine 345 during logarithmic growth, but not when cells experience exogenous DNA damage. Loss of S173 lowers the restrictive temperature of a catalytic DNA polymerase epsilon mutant (cdc20.M10 and is epistatic with a mutation in DNA polymerase delta (cdc6.23 when DNA is alkylated by methyl-methanesulfate (MMS. The chk1-S173A allele is uniquely sensitive to high MMS concentrations where it displays a partial checkpoint defect. A complete checkpoint defect occurs only when DNA replication forks break in cells without the intra-S phase checkpoint kinase Cds1. Chk1-S173A is also unable to block mitosis when the G1 transcription factor Cdc10 (cdc10.V50 is impaired. We conclude that serine 173, which is equivalent to lysine 166 in the activation loop of human Chk1, is only critical in DNA polymerase mutants or when forks collapse in the absence of Cds1.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two N-terminal fragments of the DNA-cleavage domain of topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Stephen B., E-mail: bmbsbc@bmb.leeds.ac.uk [Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Makris, George [Omega Mediation Hellas Ltd, Clinical and Pharma Consulting, 11525 N. Psychiko, Athens (Greece); Phillips, Simon E. V.; Thomas, Christopher D. [Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-01

    The crystallization and data collection of topoisomerase IV from S. aureus is described. Phasing by molecular replacement proved difficult owing to the presence of translational NCS and strategies used to overcome this are discussed. DNA topoisomerase IV removes undesirable topological features from DNA molecules in order to help maintain chromosome stability. Two constructs of 56 and 59 kDa spanning the DNA-cleavage domain of the A subunit of topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus (termed GrlA56 and GrlA59) have been crystallized. Crystals were grown at 291 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 3350 as a precipitant. Preliminary X-ray analysis revealed that GrlA56 crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, diffract to a resolution of 2.9 Å and possess unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 171.5, c = 87.8 Å, β = 90.1°, while crystals of GrlA59 belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.5, b = 171.89, c = 87.9 Å. These crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.8 Å. This is the first report of the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the DNA-cleavage domain of a topoisomerase IV from a Gram-positive organism.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two N-terminal fragments of the DNA-cleavage domain of topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Stephen B.; Makris, George; Phillips, Simon E. V.; Thomas, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and data collection of topoisomerase IV from S. aureus is described. Phasing by molecular replacement proved difficult owing to the presence of translational NCS and strategies used to overcome this are discussed. DNA topoisomerase IV removes undesirable topological features from DNA molecules in order to help maintain chromosome stability. Two constructs of 56 and 59 kDa spanning the DNA-cleavage domain of the A subunit of topoisomerase IV from Staphylococcus aureus (termed GrlA56 and GrlA59) have been crystallized. Crystals were grown at 291 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 3350 as a precipitant. Preliminary X-ray analysis revealed that GrlA56 crystals belong to space group P2 1 , diffract to a resolution of 2.9 Å and possess unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 171.5, c = 87.8 Å, β = 90.1°, while crystals of GrlA59 belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.5, b = 171.89, c = 87.9 Å. These crystals diffract to a resolution of 2.8 Å. This is the first report of the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the DNA-cleavage domain of a topoisomerase IV from a Gram-positive organism

  13. Editing of misaligned 3'-termini by an intrinsic 3'-5' exonuclease activity residing in the PHP domain of a family X DNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Benito; Lázaro, José M; Villar, Laurentino; Salas, Margarita; de Vega, Miguel

    2008-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis gene yshC encodes a family X DNA polymerase (PolX(Bs)), whose biochemical features suggest that it plays a role during DNA repair processes. Here, we show that, in addition to the polymerization activity, PolX(Bs) possesses an intrinsic 3'-5' exonuclease activity specialized in resecting unannealed 3'-termini in a gapped DNA substrate. Biochemical analysis of a PolX(Bs) deletion mutant lacking the C-terminal polymerase histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain, present in most of the bacterial/archaeal PolXs, as well as of this separately expressed protein region, allow us to state that the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of PolX(Bs) resides in its PHP domain. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of PolX(Bs) His339 and His341 residues, evolutionary conserved in the PHP superfamily members, demonstrated that the predicted metal binding site is directly involved in catalysis of the exonucleolytic reaction. The implications of the unannealed 3'-termini resection by the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of PolX(Bs) in the DNA repair context are discussed.

  14. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Clemens, Adam; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-04-24

    The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm.

  15. Crystal optimization and preliminary diffraction data analysis of the Smad1 MH1 domain bound to a palindromic SBE DNA element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajendran, Nithya; Palasingam, Paaventhan; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Jauch, Ralf; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of palindromic SBE DNA-bound Smad1 MH1 domain diffracting to 2.7 Å resolution have been obtained. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway regulates diverse processes such as cell differentiation, anterior/posterior axis specification, cell growth and the formation of extra-embryonic tissues. The transcription factor Smad1 relays the BMP signal from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it binds short DNA-sequence motifs and regulates gene expression. However, how Smad1 selectively targets particular genomic regions is poorly understood. In order to understand the physical basis of the specific interaction of Smad1 with DNA and to contrast it with the highly homologous but functionally distinct Smad3 protein, the DNA-binding Mad-homology 1 (MH1) domain of Smad1 was cocrystallized with a 17-mer palindromic Smad-binding element (SBE). The extensive optimizations of the length, binding-site spacing and terminal sequences of the DNA element in combination with the other crystallization parameters necessary for obtaining diffraction-quality crystals are described here. A 2.7 Å resolution native data set was collected at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Centre, Taiwan, from crystals grown in a solution containing 0.2 M ammonium tartrate dibasic, 20% PEG 3350, 3% 2-propanol and 10% glycerol. The data set was indexed and merged in space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.94, b = 77.49, c = 83.78 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The solvent content in the unit cell is consistent with the presence of two Smad1 MH1 molecules bound to the duplex DNA in the asymmetric unit

  16. Mutations of amino acids in the DNA-recognition domain of Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA protein alter its sub-nuclear localization and affect formation of replication compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Richard; Heston, Lee; Shedd, Duane; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Miller, George

    2008-01-01

    foci. The speckled appearance of R179A and Y180E was more regular and clearly defined in EBV-positive than in EBV-negative 293 cells. The Y180E late-mutant induced EA-D, but prevented EA-D from localizing to globular replication compartments. These results show that individual amino acids within the basic domain influence localization of the ZEBRA protein and its capacity to induce EA-D to become located in mature viral replication compartments. Furthermore, these mutant ZEBRA proteins delineate several stages in the processes of nuclear re-organization which accompany lytic EBV replication

  17. Protein intercalation in DNA as one of main modes of fixation of the most stable chromatin loop domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. I. Chopei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main mechanism of DNA track formation during comet assay of nucleoids, obtained after removal of cell membranes and most of proteins, is the extension to anode of negatively supercoiled DNA loops attached to proteins, remaining in nucleoid after lysis treatment. The composition of these residual protein structures and the nature of their strong interaction with the loop ends remain poorly studied. In this work we investigated the influence of chloroquine intercalation and denaturation of nucleoid proteins on the efficiency of electrophoretic track formation during comet assay. The results obtained suggest that even gentle protein denaturation is sufficient to reduce considerably the effectiveness of the DNA loop migration due to an increase in the loops size. The same effect was observed under local DNA unwinding upon chloroquine intercalation around the sites of the attachment of DNA to proteins. The topological interaction (protein intercalation into the double helix between DNA loop ends and nucleoid proteins is discussed.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Pax9 paired domain bound to a DC5 enhancer DNA element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kamesh; Hilbig, Antonia; Udayasuryan, Barath; Jayabal, Sriram; Kolatkar, Prasanna R; Jauch, Ralf

    2014-10-01

    Pax genes belong to a family of metazoan transcription factors that are known to play a critical role in eye, ear, kidney and neural development. The mammalian Pax family of transcription factors is characterized by a ∼128-amino-acid DNA-binding paired domain that makes sequence-specific contacts with DNA. The diversity in Pax gene activities emerges from complex modes of interaction with enhancer regions and heterodimerization with multiple interaction partners. Based on in vitro optimal binding-site selection studies and enhancer identification assays, it has been suggested that Pax proteins may recognize and bind their target DNA elements with different binding modes/topologies, however this hypothesis has not yet been structurally explored. One of the most extensively studied DNA target elements of the Pax6 paired domain is the eye-lens specific DC5 (δ-crystallin) enhancer element. In order to shed light on Pax6-DC5 DNA interactions, the related paired-domain prototype Pax9 was crystallized with the minimal δ-crystallin DC5 enhancer element and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was attempted. A 3.0 Å resolution native data set was collected at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven from crystals grown in a solution consisting of 10%(w/v) PEG 20K, 20%(v/v) PEG 550 MME, 0.03 M NaNO3, 0.03 M Na2HPO4, 0.03 M NH2SO4, 0.1 M MES/imidazole pH 6.5. The data set was indexed and merged in space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.74, b = 165.59, c = 70.14 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The solvent content in the unit cell is consistent with the presence of one Pax9 paired domain bound to duplex DNA in the asymmetric unit.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Pax9 paired domain bound to a DC5 enhancer DNA element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kamesh; Hilbig, Antonia; Udayasuryan, Barath; Jayabal, Sriram; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.; Jauch, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Pax genes belong to a family of metazoan transcription factors that are known to play a critical role in eye, ear, kidney and neural development. The mammalian Pax family of transcription factors is characterized by a ∼128-amino-acid DNA-binding paired domain that makes sequence-specific contacts with DNA. The diversity in Pax gene activities emerges from complex modes of interaction with enhancer regions and heterodimerization with multiple interaction partners. Based on in vitro optimal binding-site selection studies and enhancer identification assays, it has been suggested that Pax proteins may recognize and bind their target DNA elements with different binding modes/topologies, however this hypothesis has not yet been structurally explored. One of the most extensively studied DNA target elements of the Pax6 paired domain is the eye-lens specific DC5 (δ-crystallin) enhancer element. In order to shed light on Pax6–DC5 DNA interactions, the related paired-domain prototype Pax9 was crystallized with the minimal δ-crystallin DC5 enhancer element and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was attempted. A 3.0 Å resolution native data set was collected at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven from crystals grown in a solution consisting of 10%(w/v) PEG 20K, 20%(v/v) PEG 550 MME, 0.03 M NaNO3, 0.03 M Na2HPO4, 0.03 M NH2SO4, 0.1 M MES/imidazole pH 6.5. The data set was indexed and merged in space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.74, b = 165.59, c = 70.14 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The solvent content in the unit cell is consistent with the presence of one Pax9 paired domain bound to duplex DNA in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25286939

  20. Predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains using a systematic approach to identifying a set of informative physicochemical and biochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Existing methods of predicting DNA-binding proteins used valuable features of physicochemical properties to design support vector machine (SVM) based classifiers. Generally, selection of physicochemical properties and determination of their corresponding feature vectors rely mainly on known properties of binding mechanism and experience of designers. However, there exists a troublesome problem for designers that some different physicochemical properties have similar vectors of representing 20 amino acids and some closely related physicochemical properties have dissimilar vectors. Results This study proposes a systematic approach (named Auto-IDPCPs) to automatically identify a set of physicochemical and biochemical properties in the AAindex database to design SVM-based classifiers for predicting and analyzing DNA-binding domains/proteins. Auto-IDPCPs consists of 1) clustering 531 amino acid indices in AAindex into 20 clusters using a fuzzy c-means algorithm, 2) utilizing an efficient genetic algorithm based optimization method IBCGA to select an informative feature set of size m to represent sequences, and 3) analyzing the selected features to identify related physicochemical properties which may affect the binding mechanism of DNA-binding domains/proteins. The proposed Auto-IDPCPs identified m=22 features of properties belonging to five clusters for predicting DNA-binding domains with a five-fold cross-validation accuracy of 87.12%, which is promising compared with the accuracy of 86.62% of the existing method PSSM-400. For predicting DNA-binding sequences, the accuracy of 75.50% was obtained using m=28 features, where PSSM-400 has an accuracy of 74.22%. Auto-IDPCPs and PSSM-400 have accuracies of 80.73% and 82.81%, respectively, applied to an independent test data set of DNA-binding domains. Some typical physicochemical properties discovered are hydrophobicity, secondary structure, charge, solvent accessibility, polarity, flexibility, normalized Van Der

  1. Mutations in the DNA-binding domain of NR2E3 affect in vivo dimerization and interaction with CRX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Roduit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NR2E3 (PNR is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for proper photoreceptor determination and differentiation. In humans, mutations in NR2E3 have been associated with the recessively inherited enhanced short wavelength sensitive (S- cone syndrome (ESCS and, more recently, with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. NR2E3 acts as a suppressor of the cone generation program in late mitotic retinal progenitor cells. In adult rod photoreceptors, NR2E3 represses cone-specific gene expression and acts in concert with the transcription factors CRX and NRL to activate rod-specific genes. NR2E3 and CRX have been shown to physically interact in vitro through their respective DNA-binding domains (DBD. The DBD also contributes to homo- and heterodimerization of nuclear receptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed NR2E3 homodimerization and NR2E3/CRX complex formation in an in vivo situation by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET(2. NR2E3 wild-type protein formed homodimers in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. NR2E3 homodimerization was impaired in presence of disease-causing mutations in the DBD, except for the p.R76Q and p.R104W mutant proteins. Strikingly, the adRP-linked p.G56R mutant protein interacted with CRX with a similar efficiency to that of NR2E3 wild-type and p.R311Q proteins. In contrast, all other NR2E3 DBD-mutant proteins did not interact with CRX. The p.G56R mutant protein was also more effective in abolishing the potentiation of rhodospin gene transactivation by the NR2E3 wild-type protein. In addition, the p.G56R mutant enhanced the transrepression of the M- and S-opsin promoter, while all other NR2E3 DBD-mutants did not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest different disease mechanisms in adRP- and ESCS-patients carrying NR2E3 mutations. Titration of CRX by the p.G56R mutant protein acting as a repressor in trans may account for the severe clinical phenotype in adRP patients.

  2. DNA Binding Drugs Targeting the Regulatory DNA Binding Site of the ETS Domain Family Transcription Factor Associated With Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yong-Dong

    1999-01-01

    .... The key approach is to prevent the binding of two transcription factors, ESX and AP-2, to the consensus DNA binding sites contained within the Her2/neu promoter resulting in inhibition of transcription factor function...

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a complex formed between the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 and the DNA breakage–reunion domain of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Marcus J.; Flatman, Ruth H.; Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Maxwell, Anthony; Lawson, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of a complex formed between the 59 kDa N-terminal fragment of the E. coli DNA gyrase A subunit and the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 were obtained and X-ray data were recorded to a resolution of 2.75 Å. Crystals of a complex formed between the 59 kDa N-terminal fragment of the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A subunit (also known as the breakage–reunion domain) and the antibiotic simocyclinone D8 were grown by vapour diffusion. The complex crystallized with I-centred orthorhombic symmetry and X-ray data were recorded to a resolution of 2.75 Å from a single crystal at the synchrotron. DNA gyrase is an essential bacterial enzyme and thus represents an attractive target for drug development

  4. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.

    2013-01-01

    A 5′ truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

  5. The C-Terminal Domain of Cernunnos/XLF Is Dispensable for DNA Repair In Vivo▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malivert, Laurent; Callebaut, Isabelle; Rivera-Munoz, Paola; Fischer, Alain; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Revy, Patrick; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The core nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway is composed of seven factors: Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Artemis, XRCC4 (X4), DNA ligase IV (L4), and Cernunnos/XLF (Cernunnos). Although Cernunnos and X4 are structurally related and participate in the same complex together with L4, they have distinct functions during DNA repair. L4 relies on X4 but not on Cernunnos for its stability, and L4 is required for optimal interaction of Cernunnos with X4. We demonstrate here, using in vitro-generated Cernunnos mutants and a series of functional assays in vivo, that the C-terminal region of Cernunnos is dispensable for its activity during DNA repair. PMID:19103754

  6. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe

    2016-02-24

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Agos but rigid for eukaryotic Agos. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  7. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhe; Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yanli; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-03-17

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Ago's but rigid for eukaryotic Ago's.

  8. The C-terminal domain of the bacterial SSB protein acts as a DNA maintenance hub at active chromosome replication forks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Costes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated in vivo the role of the carboxy-terminal domain of the Bacillus subtilis Single-Stranded DNA Binding protein (SSB(Cter as a recruitment platform at active chromosomal forks for many proteins of the genome maintenance machineries. We probed this SSB(Cter interactome using GFP fusions and by Tap-tag and biochemical analysis. It includes at least 12 proteins. The interactome was previously shown to include PriA, RecG, and RecQ and extended in this study by addition of DnaE, SbcC, RarA, RecJ, RecO, XseA, Ung, YpbB, and YrrC. Targeting of YpbB to active forks appears to depend on RecS, a RecQ paralogue, with which it forms a stable complex. Most of these SSB partners are conserved in bacteria, while others, such as the essential DNA polymerase DnaE, YrrC, and the YpbB/RecS complex, appear to be specific to B. subtilis. SSB(Cter deletion has a moderate impact on B. subtilis cell growth. However, it markedly affects the efficiency of repair of damaged genomic DNA and arrested replication forks. ssbΔCter mutant cells appear deficient in RecA loading on ssDNA, explaining their inefficiency in triggering the SOS response upon exposure to genotoxic agents. Together, our findings show that the bacterial SSB(Cter acts as a DNA maintenance hub at active chromosomal forks that secures their propagation along the genome.

  9. Structure-based design of a disulfide-linked oligomeric form of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen DNA-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of forming the ‘lock-washer’ conformation of the origin-binding domain of SV40 large T antigen in solution, using structure-based analysis an intermolecular disulfide bridge was engineered into the origin-binding domain to generate higher order oligomers in solution. The 1.7 Å resolution structure shows that the mutant forms a spiral in the crystal and has the de novo disulfide bond at the protein interface, although structural rearrangements at the interface are observed relative to the wild type. The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS–PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner

  10. Solid-state NMR chemical-shift perturbations indicate domain reorientation of the DnaG primase in the primosome of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiennet, Carole [Université de Lorraine, CNRS, CRM2, UMR 7036 (France); Wiegand, Thomas [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Bazin, Alexandre [Université de Lyon 1, Molecular Microbiology and Structural Biochemistry, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Cadalbert, Riccardo [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Kunert, Britta; Lacabanne, Denis [Université de Lyon 1, Molecular Microbiology and Structural Biochemistry, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Gutsche, Irina [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS), CNRS, IBS, CEA, IBS (France); Terradot, Laurent, E-mail: l.terradot@ibcp.fr [Université de Lyon 1, Molecular Microbiology and Structural Biochemistry, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [Université de Lyon 1, Molecular Microbiology and Structural Biochemistry, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France)

    2016-03-15

    We here investigate the interactions between the DnaB helicase and the C-terminal domain of the corresponding DnaG primase of Helicobacter pylori using solid-state NMR. The difficult crystallization of this 387 kDa complex, where the two proteins interact in a six to three ratio, is circumvented by simple co-sedimentation of the two proteins directly into the MAS-NMR rotor. While the amount of information that can be extracted from such a large protein is still limited, we can assign a number of amino-acid residues experiencing significant chemical-shift perturbations upon helicase-primase complex formation. The location of these residues is used as a guide to model the interaction interface between the two proteins in the complex. Chemical-shift perturbations also reveal changes at the interaction interfaces of the hexameric HpDnaB assembly on HpDnaG binding. A structural model of the complex that explains the experimental findings is obtained.

  11. A Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus pUL33 Required To Release Monomeric Viral Genomes from Cleaved Concatemeric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kui; Dang, Xiaoqun; Baines, Joel D

    2017-10-15

    Monomeric herpesvirus DNA is cleaved from concatemers and inserted into preformed capsids through the actions of the viral terminase. The terminase of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is composed of three subunits encoded by U L 15, U L 28, and U L 33. The U L 33-encoded protein (pU L 33) interacts with pU L 28, but its precise role in the DNA cleavage and packaging reaction is unclear. To investigate the function of pU L 33, we generated a panel of recombinant viruses with either deletions or substitutions in the most conserved regions of U L 33 using a bacterial artificial chromosome system. Deletion of 11 amino acids (residues 50 to 60 or residues 110 to 120) precluded viral replication, whereas the truncation of the last 10 amino acids from the pU L 33 C terminus did not affect viral replication or the interaction of pU L 33 with pU L 28. Mutations that replaced the lysine at codon 110 and the arginine at codon 111 with alanine codons failed to replicate, and the pU L 33 mutant interacted with pU L 28 less efficiently. Interestingly, genomic termini of the large (L) and small (S) components were detected readily in cells infected with these mutants, indicating that concatemeric DNA was cleaved efficiently. However, the release of monomeric genomes as assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was greatly diminished, and DNA-containing capsids were not observed. These results suggest that pU L 33 is necessary for one of the two viral DNA cleavage events required to release individual genomes from concatemeric viral DNA. IMPORTANCE This paper shows a role for pU L 33 in one of the two DNA cleavage events required to release monomeric genomes from concatemeric viral DNA. This is the first time that such a phenotype has been observed and is the first identification of a function of this protein relevant to DNA packaging other than its interaction with other terminase components. Copyright © 2017 Yang et al.

  12. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  13. Crystal optimization and preliminary diffraction data analysis of the Smad1 MH1 domain bound to a palindromic SBE DNA element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburajendran, Nithya; Palasingam, Paaventhan; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Jauch, Ralf; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway regulates diverse processes such as cell differentiation, anterior/posterior axis specification, cell growth and the formation of extra-embryonic tissues. The transcription factor Smad1 relays the BMP signal from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it binds short DNA-sequence motifs and regulates gene expression. However, how Smad1 selectively targets particular genomic regions is poorly understood. In order to understand the physical basis of the specific interaction of Smad1 with DNA and to contrast it with the highly homologous but functionally distinct Smad3 protein, the DNA-binding Mad-homology 1 (MH1) domain of Smad1 was cocrystallized with a 17-mer palindromic Smad-binding element (SBE). The extensive optimizations of the length, binding-site spacing and terminal sequences of the DNA element in combination with the other crystallization parameters necessary for obtaining diffraction-quality crystals are described here. A 2.7 Å resolution native data set was collected at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Centre, Taiwan, from crystals grown in a solution containing 0.2 M ammonium tartrate dibasic, 20% PEG 3350, 3% 2-­propanol and 10% glycerol. The data set was indexed and merged in space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.94, b = 77.49, c = 83.78 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The solvent content in the unit cell is consistent with the presence of two Smad1 MH1 molecules bound to the duplex DNA in the asymmetric unit. PMID:19923727

  14. Direct imaging of hexaamine-ruthenium(III) in domain boundaries in monolayers of single-stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Mikala; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Wengel, J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe adsorption and identification of the binding sites of [Ru(NH3)(6)](3+) (RuHex) molecules in a closely packed monolayer of a 13-base ss-DNA on Au(111) electrodes by electrochemical in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), cyclic voltammetry and interfacial capacitance data. In situ...

  15. Enhancement of DNA vaccine potency through linkage of antigen to filamentous bacteriophage coat protein III domain I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta, Àngel M; Suárez, Eduardo; Larsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Although DNA-based cancer vaccines have been successfully tested in mouse models, a major drawback of cancer vaccination still remains, namely that tumour antigens are weak and fail to generate a vigorous immune response in tumour-bearing patients. Genetic technology offers strategies for promoti...

  16. Synergy between the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis HupB is essential for high-affinity binding, DNA supercoiling and inhibition of RecA-promoted strand exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharadamma, N; Khan, Krishnendu; Kumar, Sandeep; Patil, K Neelakanteshwar; Hasnain, Seyed E; Muniyappa, K

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of DNA architectural proteins containing two functional domains derived from two different architectural proteins is an interesting emerging research theme in the field of nucleoid structure and function. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HupB, unlike Escherichia coli HU, is a two-domain protein that, in the N-terminal region, shows broad sequence homology with bacterial HU. The long C-terminal extension, on the other hand, contains seven PAKK/KAAK motifs, which are characteristic of the histone H1/H5 family of proteins. In this article, we describe several aspects of HupB function, in comparison with its truncated derivatives lacking either the C-terminus or N-terminus. We found that HupB binds a variety of DNA repair and replication intermediates with K(d) values in the nanomolar range. By contrast, the N-terminal fragment of M. tuberculosis HupB (HupB(MtbN)) showed diminished DNA-binding activity, with K(d) values in the micromolar range, and the C-terminal domain was completely devoid of DNA-binding activity. Unlike HupB(MtbN) , HupB was able to constrain DNA in negative supercoils and introduce negative superhelical turns into relaxed DNA. Similarly, HupB exerted a robust inhibitory effect on DNA strand exchange promoted by cognate and noncognate RecA proteins, whereas HupB(MtbN), even at a 50-fold molar excess, had no inhibitory effect. Considered together, these results suggest that synergy between the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of HupB is essential for its DNA-binding ability, and to modulate the topological features of DNA, which has implications for processes such as DNA compaction, gene regulation, homologous recombination, and DNA repair. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  17. A Simple Method for DNA Extraction from Mature Date Palm Leaves: Impact of Sand Grinding and Composition of Lysis Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al Sadoon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular marker techniques have been widely used for cultivar identification of inbred date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.; Arecaceae and biodiversity conservation. Isolation of highly pure DNA is the prerequisite for PCR amplification and subsequent use such as DNA fingerprinting and sequencing of genes that have recently been developed for barcoding. To avoid problems related to the preservation and use of liquid nitrogen, we examined sterile sand for grinding the date palm leaves. Individual and combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and lithium chloride (LiCl with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB method for a DNA yield of sufficient purity and PCR amplification were evaluated in this study. Presence of LiCl and PVP alone or together in the lysis buffer did not significantly improve the DNA yield and purity compared with the addition of NaCl. Our study suggested that grinding of date palm leaf with sterile sand and inclusion of NaCl (1.4 M in the lysis buffer without the costly use of liquid nitrogen, PVP and LiCl, provides a DNA yield of sufficient purity, suitable for PCR amplification.

  18. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  19. The C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T4 terminase docks on the prohead portal clip region during DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Thomas, Julie A.; Black, Lindsay W.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage ATP-based packaging motors translocate DNA into a pre-formed prohead through a dodecameric portal ring channel to high density. We investigated portal–terminase docking interactions at specifically localized residues within a terminase-interaction region (aa279–316) in the phage T4 portal protein gp20 equated to the clip domain of the SPP1 portal crystal structure by 3D modeling. Within this region, three residues allowed A to C mutations whereas three others did not, consistent with informatics analyses showing the tolerated residues are not strongly conserved evolutionarily. About 7.5 nm was calculated by FCS-FRET studies employing maleimide Alexa488 dye labeled A316C proheads and gp17 CT-ReAsH supporting previous work docking the C-terminal end of the T4 terminase (gp17) closer to the N-terminal GFP-labeled portal (gp20) than the N-terminal end of the terminase. Such a terminase–portal orientation fits better to a proposed “DNA crunching” compression packaging motor and to portal determined DNA headful cutting. PMID:24074593

  20. Acrolein inhibits cytokine gene expression by alkylating cysteine and arginine residues in the NF-kappaB1 DNA binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; Li, Jimei; Jonscher, Karen; Yang, Teng-Chieh; Reigan, Philip; Quintana, Megan; Harvey, Jean; Freed, Brian M

    2007-07-06

    Cigarette smoke is a potent inhibitor of pulmonary T cell responses, resulting in decreased immune surveillance and an increased incidence of respiratory tract infections. The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke (acrolein and crotonaldehyde) inhibited production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human T cells but did not inhibit production of IL-8. The saturated aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde) in cigarette smoke were inactive. Acrolein inhibited induction of NF-kappaB DNA binding activity after mitogenic stimulation of T cells but had no effect on induction of NFAT or AP-1. Acrolein inhibited NF-kappaB1 (p50) binding to the IL-2 promoter in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay by >99%. Using purified recombinant p50 in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we demonstrated that acrolein was 2000-fold more potent than crotonaldehyde in blocking DNA binding to an NF-kappaB consensus sequence. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that acrolein alkylated two amino acids (Cys-61 and Arg-307) in the DNA binding domain. Crotonaldehyde reacted with Cys-61, but not Arg-307, whereas the saturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke did not react with p50. These experiments demonstrate that aldehydes in cigarette smoke can regulate gene expression by direct modification of a transcription factor.

  1. Determining the role of missense mutations in the POU domain of HNF1A that reduce the DNA-binding affinity: A computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha P

    Full Text Available Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3 is a non-ketotic form of diabetes associated with poor insulin secretion. Over the past years, several studies have reported the association of missense mutations in the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Alpha (HNF1A with MODY3. Missense mutations in the POU homeodomain (POUH of HNF1A hinder binding to the DNA, thereby leading to a dysfunctional protein. Missense mutations of the HNF1A were retrieved from public databases and subjected to a three-step computational mutational analysis to identify the underlying mechanism. First, the pathogenicity and stability of the mutations were analyzed to determine whether they alter protein structure and function. Second, the sequence conservation and DNA-binding sites of the mutant positions were assessed; as HNF1A protein is a transcription factor. Finally, the biochemical properties of the biological system were validated using molecular dynamic simulations in Gromacs 4.6.3 package. Two arginine residues (131 and 203 in the HNF1A protein are highly conserved residues and contribute to the function of the protein. Furthermore, the R131W, R131Q, and R203C mutations were predicted to be highly deleterious by in silico tools and showed lower binding affinity with DNA when compared to the native protein using the molecular docking analysis. Triplicate runs of molecular dynamic (MD simulations (50ns revealed smaller changes in patterns of deviation, fluctuation, and compactness, in complexes containing the R131Q and R131W mutations, compared to complexes containing the R203C mutant complex. We observed reduction in the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, compactness, and electrostatic potential, as well as the loss of salt bridges, in the R203C mutant complex. Substitution of arginine with cysteine at position 203 decreases the affinity of the protein for DNA, thereby destabilizing the protein. Based on our current findings, the MD approach is an important

  2. SOXE transcription factors form selective dimers on non-compact DNA motifs through multifaceted interactions between dimerization and high-mobility group domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Jankowski, Aleksander; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Prabhakar, Shyam; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-05-27

    The SOXE transcription factors SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10 are master regulators of mammalian development directing sex determination, gliogenesis, pancreas specification and neural crest development. We identified a set of palindromic SOX binding sites specifically enriched in regulatory regions of melanoma cells. SOXE proteins homodimerize on these sequences with high cooperativity. In contrast to other transcription factor dimers, which are typically rigidly spaced, SOXE group proteins can bind cooperatively at a wide range of dimer spacings. Using truncated forms of SOXE proteins, we show that a single dimerization (DIM) domain, that precedes the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) domain, is sufficient for dimer formation, suggesting that DIM : HMG rather than DIM:DIM interactions mediate the dimerization. All SOXE members can also heterodimerize in this fashion, whereas SOXE heterodimers with SOX2, SOX4, SOX6 and SOX18 are not supported. We propose a structural model where SOXE-specific intramolecular DIM:HMG interactions are allosterically communicated to the HMG of juxtaposed molecules. Collectively, SOXE factors evolved a unique mode to combinatorially regulate their target genes that relies on a multifaceted interplay between the HMG and DIM domains. This property potentially extends further the diversity of target genes and cell-specific functions that are regulated by SOXE proteins.

  3. SOXE transcription factors form selective dimers on non-compact DNA motifs through multifaceted interactions between dimerization and high-mobility group domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Heng; Jankowski, Aleksander; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The SOXE transcription factors SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10 are master regulators of mammalian development directing sex determination, gliogenesis, pancreas specification and neural crest development. We identified a set of palindromic SOX binding sites specifically enriched in regulatory regions of melanoma cells. SOXE proteins homodimerize on these sequences with high cooperativity. In contrast to other transcription factor dimers, which are typically rigidly spaced, SOXE group proteins can bind cooperatively at a wide range of dimer spacings. Using truncated forms of SOXE proteins, we show that a single dimerization (DIM) domain, that precedes the DNA binding high mobility group (HMG) domain, is sufficient for dimer formation, suggesting that DIM : HMG rather than DIM:DIM interactions mediate the dimerization. All SOXE members can also heterodimerize in this fashion, whereas SOXE heterodimers with SOX2, SOX4, SOX6 and SOX18 are not supported. We propose a structural model where SOXE-specific intramolecular DIM:HMG interactions are allosterically communicated to the HMG of juxtaposed molecules. Collectively, SOXE factors evolved a unique mode to combinatorially regulate their target genes that relies on a multifaceted interplay between the HMG and DIM domains. This property potentially extends further the diversity of target genes and cell-specific functions that are regulated by SOXE proteins. PMID:26013289

  4. Structural studies of the yeast DNA damage-inducible protein Ddi1 reveal domain architecture of this eukaryotic protein family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trempe, J. F.; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Sivá, Monika; Ratcliffe, C. D. H.; Veverka, Václav; Hoegl, A.; Ménade, M.; Feng, X.; Shenker, S.; Svoboda, Michal; Kožíšek, Milan; Konvalinka, Jan; Gehring, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Sep 20 (2016), č. článku 33671. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11205; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ubiquitin-associated domains * ray solution scattering * torsion angle dynamics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/articles/srep33671

  5. Characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk, a bifunctional DNA/RNA end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2',3' -phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5' -OH polynucleotide kinase domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Annum; Shuman, Stewart

    2016-11-28

    5' and 3' end healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5' -OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase and 3' -PO 4 or 2',3' -cyclic-PO 4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate the 5' -PO 4 and 3' -OH termini required for sealing by classic polynucleotide ligases. End healing and sealing enzymes are present in diverse bacterial taxa, often organized as modular units within a single multifunctional polypeptide or as subunits of a repair complex. Here we identify and characterize Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as a novel bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2',3' -phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5' -OH polynucleotide kinase P-loop domain. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5' -OH polynucleotides (9-mers or longer) in the presence of magnesium and any NTP donor. HD-Pnk dephosphorylates RNA 2',3' -cyclic phosphate, RNA 3' -phosphate, RNA 2' -phosphate, and DNA 3' -phosphate ends in the presence of a transition metal cofactor, which can be nickel, copper or cobalt. HD-Pnkp homologs are present in genera from eleven bacterial phyla and are often encoded in an operon with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase. The present study provides insights to the diversity of nucleic acid repair strategies via the characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnkp as the exemplar of a novel clade of dual 5' and 3' end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5' -OH termini and dephosphorylate 2',3' -cyclic-PO 4 , 3' -PO 4 , and 2' -PO 4 ends. The distinctive feature of HD-Pnk is its domain composition: a fusion of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module to a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Homologs of Runella HD-Pnk with the same domain composition, domain order, and similar polypeptide size are distributed widely among genera from eleven bacterial phyla. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Compensatory functions and interdependency of the DNA-binding domain of BRCA2 with the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abo, Muthana; Dejsuphong, Donniphat; Hirota, Kouji; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-02-01

    BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 are key players in cellular tolerance to chemotherapeutic agents, including camptothecin, cisplatin, and PARP inhibitor. The N-terminal segment of BRCA2 interacts with PALB2, thus contributing to the formation of the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex. To understand the role played by BRCA2 in this complex, we deleted its N-terminal segment and generated BRCA2(Δ)(N) mutant cells. Although previous studies have suggested that BRCA1-PALB2 plays a role in the recruitment of BRCA2 to DNA-damage sites, BRCA2(Δ)(N) mutant cells displayed a considerably milder phenotype than did BRCA2(-/-) null-deficient cells. We hypothesized that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of BRCA2 might compensate for a defect in BRCA2(ΔN) that prevented stable interaction with PALB2. To test this hypothesis, we disrupted the DBD of BRCA2 in wild-type and BRCA2(Δ)(N) cells. Remarkably, although the resulting BRCA2(Δ)(DBD) cells displayed a moderate phenotype, the BRCA2(Δ)(N+ΔDBD) cells displayed a very severe phenotype, as did the BRCA2(-/-) cells, suggesting that the N-terminal segment and the DBD play a substantially overlapping role in the functionality of BRCA2. We also showed that the formation of both the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex and the DBD is required for efficient recruitment of BRCA2 to DNA-damage sites. Our study revealed the essential role played by both the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex and the DBD in the functionality of BRCA2, as each can compensate for the other in the recruitment of BRCA2 to DNA-damage sites. This knowledge adds to our ability to accurately predict the efficacy of antimalignant therapies for patients carrying mutations in the BRCA2 gene.

  7. Next-Generation DNA Sequencing of VH/VL Repertoires: A Primer and Guide to Applications in Single-Domain Antibody Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A

    2018-01-01

    Immunogenetic analyses of expressed antibody repertoires are becoming increasingly common experimental investigations and are critical to furthering our understanding of autoimmunity, infectious disease, and cancer. Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technologies have now made it possible to interrogate antibody repertoires to unprecedented depths, typically by sequencing of cDNAs encoding immunoglobulin variable domains. In this chapter, we describe simple, fast, and reliable methods for producing and sequencing multiplex PCR amplicons derived from the variable regions (V H , V H H or V L ) of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We include complete protocols and primer sets for amplicon sequencing of V H /V H H/V L repertoires directly from human, mouse, and llama lymphocytes as well as from phage-displayed V H /V H H/V L libraries; these can be easily be adapted to other types of amplicons with little modification. The resulting amplicons are diverse and representative, even using as few as 10 3 input B cells, and their generation is relatively inexpensive, requiring no special equipment and only a limited set of primers. In the absence of heavy-light chain pairing, single-domain antibodies are uniquely amenable to NGS analyses. We present a number of applications of NGS technology useful in discovery of single-domain antibodies from phage display libraries, including: (i) assessment of library functionality; (ii) confirmation of desired library randomization; (iii) estimation of library diversity; and (iv) monitoring the progress of panning experiments. While the case studies presented here are of phage-displayed single-domain antibody libraries, the principles extend to other types of in vitro display libraries.

  8. The Bacteriophage lambdaDNA packaging enzyme: Identification of four structural domains of the gpNu1 subunit using limited proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAMELA ARAYA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lambda DNA terminase, the enzyme that cleaves virion-length chromosomes from multigenomic concatemers and packages them into the bacteriophage head, is composed of two subunits, gpNu1 and gpA. Direct determination of the structure of gpNu1, the smaller subunit, has not been possible because of its insolubility in aqueous solutions. Therefore, to identify smaller and potentially water-soluble domains of gpNu1, we analyzed the nature of the products obtained by limited digestion of the protein with several proteases. The gpNu1 subunit was obtained from E.coli cells transfected with the plasmid pH6-Nu1 that overproduces the protein. Incubation of gpNu1 solubized in 2.5 M guanidinium chloride with chymotrypsin resulted in the formation of at least eight discrete protein bands, while treatment with endoproteinase glu-C and bromelain yielded three and one major bands, respectively. The peptides generated by digestion with the various proteases were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and transferred to Immobilon membranes. Amino acid sequencing of the peptides allowed for the precise assignment of their N-terminal amino acid, while their estimated molecular weights permitted the identification of their C-terminal ends. The results reveal that in the presence of 2.5 M guanidinium chloride, gpNu1 is partially folded in at least four distinct structural domains that correspond to functional domains as determined by previously reported genetic experiments. This information is key to design new plasmids to overproduce these domains for further structural analysis.

  9. Melatonin in maturation media fails to improve oocyte maturation, embryo development rates and DNA damage of bovine embryos Melatonina no meio de maturação não melhorou as taxas de maturação dos ovócitos, de desenvolvimento embrionário e a fragmentação do DNA dos embriões bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Takada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MEL acts as a powerful scavenger of free radicals and direct gonadal responses to melatonin have been reported in the literature. Few studies, however, have evaluated the effect of MEL during in vitro maturation (IVM on bovine embryos. This study tested the addition of MEL to maturation medium (MM with no gonadotropins on nuclear maturation and embryo development rates and the incidence of DNA damage in resulting embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were aspirated from abattoir ovaries and cultured in MM (TCM-199 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum - FCS at 39ºC and 5% CO2 in air. After 24 hours of culture in MM with 0.5 µg mL-1 FSH and 5.0 µg mL-1 LH; 10-9 M MEL or 10-9 M MEL, 0.5 µg mL-1 FSH and 5.0 µg mL-1 LH, the oocytes were stained with Hoechst 33342 to evaluate nuclear maturation rate. After in vitro fertilization and embryo culture, development rates were evaluated and the blastocysts were assessed for DNA damage by Comet assay. There was no effect of melatonin added to the MM, alone or in combination with gonadotropins, on nuclear maturation, cleavage and blastocyst rates. These rates ranged between 88% to 90%, 85% to 88% and 42% to 46%, respectively. The extent of DNA damage in embryos was also not affected by MEL supplementation during IVM. The addition of 10-9 M MEL to the MM failed to improve nuclear maturation and embryo development rates and the incidence of DNA damage in resulting embryos, but was able to properly substitute for gonadotropins during IVM.Melatonin (MEL atua como um potente redutor de radicais livres. Efeito direto da MEL na função gonadal também foi observado. Existem poucos estudos relacionados ao efeito da MEL durante a maturação no desenvolvimento embrionário in vitro. Avaliou-se a adição de MEL no meio de maturação (sem gonadotrofinas nas taxas de maturação nuclear e de desenvolvimento embrionário e na incidência de fragmentação do DNA nos embriões produzidos in vitro

  10. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  11. A role for the malignant brain tumour (MBT domain protein LIN-61 in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Johnson

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumour (MBT domain proteins are transcriptional repressors that function within Polycomb complexes. Some MBT genes are tumour suppressors, but how they prevent tumourigenesis is unknown. The Caenorhabditis elegans MBT protein LIN-61 is a member of the synMuvB chromatin-remodelling proteins that control vulval development. Here we report a new role for LIN-61: it protects the genome by promoting homologous recombination (HR for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. lin-61 mutants manifest numerous problems associated with defective HR in germ and somatic cells but remain proficient in meiotic recombination. They are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and interstrand crosslinks but not UV light. Using a novel reporter system that monitors repair of a defined DSB in C. elegans somatic cells, we show that LIN-61 contributes to HR. The involvement of this MBT protein in HR raises the possibility that MBT-deficient tumours may also have defective DSB repair.

  12. Structural and dynamic studies of the dimerization and DNA-binding domains of the transcription factors v-Myc and Max

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieber, W.

    2001-05-01

    In the present work, solution structural and dynamic properties of the dimerization and DNA binding domains of the transcription factors v-Myc and Max were characterized by NMR and CD spectroscopy. It could be demonstrated that v-Myc in the absence of its authentic binding partner Max does not homodimerize, but exists in a monomeric and prestructured form. Two separated α-helical regions in the leucine zipper region and in the basic-H1 region, respectively, could be identified, while the latter appeared to be less stable. Both helices lack stabilizing tertiary side chain interactions and represent exceptional examples for loosely coupled, structured segments in a native protein. The structure of v-Myc is dynamic and can be described as a distribution of conformational substates. Motion within the substates comprise fast (picosecond to nanosecond) local backbone fluctuations like helical fraying, whereas motion between the substates comprise the relative orientation of the two helices and occur at larger time scales (microsecond to millisecond). The preformation of the specific protein and DNA binding sites, leucine zipper and the basic region, presumably allows rapid and accurate recognition of the respective binding partners. v-Myc-Max and Max-Max protein preparations were shown to form stable dimers. Thermodynamic analysis of the dissociation reactions of v-Myc-Max revealed a significant higher stability of the heterodimer than of the Max-Max homodimer over the whole temperature range. It could be demonstrated that the restricted conformational space of the v-Myc bHLHZip domain reduces the entropy penalty associated with dimerization and contributes to the preference of Max to form heterodimers with v-Myc rather than homodimers. (author)

  13. A Novel Rrm3 Function in Restricting DNA Replication via an Orc5-Binding Domain Is Genetically Separable from Rrm3 Function as an ATPase/Helicase in Facilitating Fork Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Salahuddin; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene J.; Schmidt, Kristina H.

    2016-01-01

    In response to replication stress cells activate the intra-S checkpoint, induce DNA repair pathways, increase nucleotide levels, and inhibit origin firing. Here, we report that Rrm3 associates with a subset of replication origins and controls DNA synthesis during replication stress. The N-terminal domain required for control of DNA synthesis maps to residues 186–212 that are also critical for binding Orc5 of the origin recognition complex. Deletion of this domain is lethal to cells lacking the replication checkpoint mediator Mrc1 and leads to mutations upon exposure to the replication stressor hydroxyurea. This novel Rrm3 function is independent of its established role as an ATPase/helicase in facilitating replication fork progression through polymerase blocking obstacles. Using quantitative mass spectrometry and genetic analyses, we find that the homologous recombination factor Rdh54 and Rad5-dependent error-free DNA damage bypass act as independent mechanisms on DNA lesions that arise when Rrm3 catalytic activity is disrupted whereas these mechanisms are dispensable for DNA damage tolerance when the replication function is disrupted, indicating that the DNA lesions generated by the loss of each Rrm3 function are distinct. Although both lesion types activate the DNA-damage checkpoint, we find that the resultant increase in nucleotide levels is not sufficient for continued DNA synthesis under replication stress. Together, our findings suggest a role of Rrm3, via its Orc5-binding domain, in restricting DNA synthesis that is genetically and physically separable from its established catalytic role in facilitating fork progression through replication blocks. PMID:27923055

  14. A Novel Rrm3 Function in Restricting DNA Replication via an Orc5-Binding Domain Is Genetically Separable from Rrm3 Function as an ATPase/Helicase in Facilitating Fork Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Salahuddin; Desler, Claus; Rasmussen, Lene J; Schmidt, Kristina H

    2016-12-01

    In response to replication stress cells activate the intra-S checkpoint, induce DNA repair pathways, increase nucleotide levels, and inhibit origin firing. Here, we report that Rrm3 associates with a subset of replication origins and controls DNA synthesis during replication stress. The N-terminal domain required for control of DNA synthesis maps to residues 186-212 that are also critical for binding Orc5 of the origin recognition complex. Deletion of this domain is lethal to cells lacking the replication checkpoint mediator Mrc1 and leads to mutations upon exposure to the replication stressor hydroxyurea. This novel Rrm3 function is independent of its established role as an ATPase/helicase in facilitating replication fork progression through polymerase blocking obstacles. Using quantitative mass spectrometry and genetic analyses, we find that the homologous recombination factor Rdh54 and Rad5-dependent error-free DNA damage bypass act as independent mechanisms on DNA lesions that arise when Rrm3 catalytic activity is disrupted whereas these mechanisms are dispensable for DNA damage tolerance when the replication function is disrupted, indicating that the DNA lesions generated by the loss of each Rrm3 function are distinct. Although both lesion types activate the DNA-damage checkpoint, we find that the resultant increase in nucleotide levels is not sufficient for continued DNA synthesis under replication stress. Together, our findings suggest a role of Rrm3, via its Orc5-binding domain, in restricting DNA synthesis that is genetically and physically separable from its established catalytic role in facilitating fork progression through replication blocks.

  15. Conserved helicase domain of human RecQ4 is required for strand annealing-independent DNA unwinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Marie L; Ghosh, Avik K; Kulikowicz, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Humans have five members of the well conserved RecQ helicase family: RecQ1, Bloom syndrome protein (BLM), Werner syndrome protein (WRN), RecQ4, and RecQ5, which are all known for their roles in maintaining genome stability. BLM, WRN, and RecQ4 are associated with premature aging and cancer...... provide the first evidence that human RecQ4's unwinding is independent of strand annealing, and that it does not require the presence of excess ssDNA. Moreover, we demonstrate that a point mutation of the conserved lysine in the Walker A motif abolished helicase activity, implying that not the N...... activities and protein partners of RecQ4 are conserved with those of the other RecQ helicases....

  16. Origin of the diversity in DNA recognition domains in phasevarion associated modA genes of pathogenic Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Beatson, Scott A; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Phase variable restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified in a range of pathogenic bacteria. In some it has been demonstrated that the random switching of the mod (DNA methyltransferase) gene mediates the coordinated expression of multiple genes and constitutes a phasevarion (phase variable regulon). ModA of Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae contain a highly variable, DNA recognition domain (DRD) that defines the target sequence that is modified by methylation and is used to define modA alleles. 18 distinct modA alleles have been identified in H. influenzae and the pathogenic Neisseria. To determine the origin of DRD variability, the 18 modA DRDs were used to search the available databases for similar sequences. Significant matches were identified between several modA alleles and mod gene from distinct bacterial species, indicating one source of the DRD variability was via horizontal gene transfer. Comparison of DRD sequences revealed significant mosaicism, indicating exchange between the Neisseria and H. influenzae modA alleles. Regions of high inter- and intra-allele similarity indicate that some modA alleles had undergone recombination more frequently than others, generating further diversity. Furthermore, the DRD from some modA alleles, such as modA12, have been transferred en bloc to replace the DRD from different modA alleles.

  17. HDJC9, a novel human type C DnaJ/HSP40 member interacts with and cochaperones HSP70 through the J domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Chaofeng; Chen Taoyong; Li Nan; Yang Mingjin; Wan Tao; Cao Xuetao

    2007-01-01

    HSP40s are a subfamily of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and play important roles in regulation of cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis by serving as chaperones for HSP70s. Up to date hundreds of HSP40 proteins derived from various species ranging from Escherichia coli to homo sapiens have been identified. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel human type C DnaJ homologue, HDJC9, containing a typical N-terminal J domain. HDJC9 is upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels upon various stress and mitogenic stimulations. HDJC9 is mainly localized in cell nuclei under normal culture conditions while it is transported into cytoplasm and plasma membrane upon heat shock stress through a non-classical and lipid-dependent pathway. HDJC9 can interact with HSP70s and activate the ATPase activity of HSP70s, both of which are dependent on the J domain. Our data suggest that HDJC9 is a novel cochaperone for HSP70s

  18. SIRT6 Acts as a Negative Regulator in Dengue Virus-Induced Inflammatory Response by Targeting the DNA Binding Domain of NF-κB p65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 mediated NF-κB activation. The sirtuin core domain of SIRT6 is required for the inhibition of NF-κB p65 function. SIRT6 interacts with the DNA binding domain of p65 and competes with p65 to occupy the Il6 promoter during DENV infection. Collectively, our study demonstrates that SIRT6 negatively regulates DENV-induced inflammatory response via RLR and TLR3 signaling pathways.

  19. The C'-terminal interaction domain of the thyroid hormone receptor confers the ability of the DNA site to dictate positive or negative transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, J.M.; Glass, C.K.; Adler, S.; Nelson, C.A.; Rosenfeld, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate mechanisms responsible for positive and negative transcriptional control, the authors have utilized two types of promoters that are diffferentially regulated by thyroid hormone (T 3 ) receptors. Promoters containing the palindromic T 3 response element TCAGGTCA TGACCTGA are positively regulated by the T 3 receptor after the administration of T 3 , whereas otherwise identical promoters containing the estrogen response element TCAGGTCA CTG TGACCTGA can be regulated negatively; converse effects are observed with the estrogen receptor. They describe evidence that the transcriptional inhibitory effects of the T 3 or estrogen receptors on the estrogen or T 3 response elements, respectively, are imposed by amino acid sequences in the C'-terminal region that colocalize with dimerization and hormone-binding domains and that these sequences can transfer inhibitory functions to other classes of transcription factors. Removal of the C'-terminal dimerization and hormone-binding domains of either the αT 3 or estrogen receptors permits each receptor to act constitutively to enhance transcription on both T 3 and estrogen response elements. It is, therefore, suggested that protein-protein interactions between receptor C' termini limit the subset of DNA binding sites on which transcriptional activation occurs

  20. A conserved motif in the linker domain of STAT1 transcription factor is required for both recognition and release from high-affinity DNA-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüntelmann, Bettina; Staab, Julia; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Binding to specific palindromic sequences termed gamma-activated sites (GAS) is a hallmark of gene activation by members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family of cytokine-inducible transcription factors. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the signal-dependent finding of target genes by STAT dimers have not yet been very well studied. In this study, we have characterized a sequence motif in the STAT1 linker domain which is highly conserved among the seven human STAT proteins and includes surface-exposed residues in close proximity to the bound DNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that a lysine residue in position 567 of the full-length molecule is required for GAS recognition. The substitution of alanine for this residue completely abolished both binding to high-affinity GAS elements and transcriptional activation of endogenous target genes in cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ), while the time course of transient nuclear accumulation and tyrosine phosphorylation were virtually unchanged. In contrast, two glutamic acid residues (E559 and E563) on each monomer are important for the dissociation of dimeric STAT1 from DNA and, when mutated to alanine, result in elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 as well as prolonged IFNγ-stimulated nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that the kinetics of signal-dependent GAS binding is determined by an array of glutamic acid residues located at the interior surface of the STAT1 dimer. These negatively charged residues appear to align the long axis of the STAT1 dimer in a position perpendicular to the DNA, thereby facilitating the interaction between lysine 567 and the phosphodiester backbone of a bound GAS element, which is a prerequisite for transient gene induction.

  1. Methylation-sensitive linking libraries enhance gene-enriched sequencing of complex genomes and map DNA methylation domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Arvind K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many plant genomes are resistant to whole-genome assembly due to an abundance of repetitive sequence, leading to the development of gene-rich sequencing techniques. Two such techniques are hypomethylated partial restriction (HMPR and methylation spanning linker libraries (MSLL. These libraries differ from other gene-rich datasets in having larger insert sizes, and the MSLL clones are designed to provide reads localized to "epigenetic boundaries" where methylation begins or ends. Results A large-scale study in maize generated 40,299 HMPR sequences and 80,723 MSLL sequences, including MSLL clones exceeding 100 kb. The paired end reads of MSLL and HMPR clones were shown to be effective in linking existing gene-rich sequences into scaffolds. In addition, it was shown that the MSLL clones can be used for anchoring these scaffolds to a BAC-based physical map. The MSLL end reads effectively identified epigenetic boundaries, as indicated by their preferential alignment to regions upstream and downstream from annotated genes. The ability to precisely map long stretches of fully methylated DNA sequence is a unique outcome of MSLL analysis, and was also shown to provide evidence for errors in gene identification. MSLL clones were observed to be significantly more repeat-rich in their interiors than in their end reads, confirming the correlation between methylation and retroelement content. Both MSLL and HMPR reads were found to be substantially gene-enriched, with the SalI MSLL libraries being the most highly enriched (31% align to an EST contig, while the HMPR clones exhibited exceptional depletion of repetitive DNA (to ~11%. These two techniques were compared with other gene-enrichment methods, and shown to be complementary. Conclusion MSLL technology provides an unparalleled approach for mapping the epigenetic status of repetitive blocks and for identifying sequences mis-identified as genes. Although the types and natures of

  2. Changes in pH and NADPH regulate the DNA binding activity of neuronal PAS domain protein 2, a mammalian circadian transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Katsuhiro; Tajima, Fumihisa; Ishijima, Sumio; Sagami, Ikuko

    2015-01-20

    Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) is a core clock transcription factor that forms a heterodimer with BMAL1 to bind the E-box in the promoter of clock genes and is regulated by various environmental stimuli such as heme, carbon monoxide, and NAD(P)H. In this study, we investigated the effects of pH and NADPH on the DNA binding activity of NPAS2. In an electrophoretic mobility shift (EMS) assay, the pH of the reaction mixture affected the DNA binding activity of the NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimer but not that of the BMAL1/BMAL1 homodimer. A change in pH from 7.0 to 7.5 resulted in a 1.7-fold increase in activity in the absence of NADPH, and NADPH additively enhanced the activity up to 2.7-fold at pH 7.5. The experiments using truncated mutants revealed that N-terminal amino acids 1-61 of NPAS2 were sufficient to sense the change in both pH and NADPH. We further analyzed the kinetics of formation and DNA binding of the NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimer at various pH values. In the absence of NADPH, a change in pH from 6.5 to 8.0 decreased the KD(app) value of the E-box from 125 to 22 nM, with an 8-fold increase in the maximal level of DNA binding for the NPAS2/BMAL1 heterodimer. The addition of NADPH resulted in a further decrease in KD(app) to 9 nM at pH 8.0. Furthermore, NPAS2-dependent transcriptional activity in a luciferase assay using NIH3T3 cells also increased with the pH of the culture medium. These results suggest that NPAS2 has a role as a pH and metabolite sensor in regulating circadian rhythms.

  3. RPA-1 from Leishmania amazonensis (LaRPA-1) structurally differs from other eukaryote RPA-1 and interacts with telomeric DNA via its N-terminal OB-fold domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, R S; Fernandes, C; Perez, A M; Vasconcelos, E J R; Siqueira-Neto, J L; Fontes, M R; Cano, M I N

    2014-12-20

    Replication protein A-1 (RPA-1) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in DNA metabolism. We previously demonstrated the interaction between LaRPA-1 and telomeric DNA. Here, we expressed and purified truncated mutants of LaRPA-1 and used circular dichroism measurements and molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that the tertiary structure of LaRPA-1 differs from human and yeast RPA-1. LaRPA-1 interacts with telomeric ssDNA via its N-terminal OB-fold domain, whereas RPA from higher eukaryotes show different binding modes to ssDNA. Our results show that LaRPA-1 is evolutionary distinct from other RPA-1 proteins and can potentially be used for targeting trypanosomatid telomeres. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Binding of the N-Terminal Domain of the Lactococcal Bacteriophage TP901-1 CI Repressor to Its Target DNA: A Crystallography, Small Angle Scattering, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kristian Erik Høpfner; Rasmussen, Kim K.; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing

    2013-01-01

    In most temperate bacteriophages, regulation of the choice of lysogenic or lytic life cycle is controlled by a CI repressor protein. Inhibition of transcription is dependent on a helix–turn–helix motif, often located in the N-terminal domain (NTD), which binds to specific DNA sequences (operator ...

  5. A point mutation in the DNA-binding domain of HPV-2 E2 protein increases its DNA-binding capacity and reverses its transcriptional regulatory activity on the viral early promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human papillomavirus (HPV E2 protein is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein. The transcriptional activity of HPV E2 is mediated by binding to its specific binding sites in the upstream regulatory region of the HPV genomes. Previously we reported a HPV-2 variant from a verrucae vulgaris patient with huge extensive clustered cutaneous, which have five point mutations in its E2 ORF, L118S, S235P, Y287H, S293R and A338V. Under the control of HPV-2 LCR, co-expression of the mutated HPV E2 induced an increased activity on the viral early promoter. In the present study, a series of mammalian expression plasmids encoding E2 proteins with one to five amino acid (aa substitutions for these mutations were constructed and transfected into HeLa, C33A and SiHa cells. Results CAT expression assays indicated that the enhanced promoter activity was due to the co-expressions of the E2 constructs containing A338V mutation within the DNA-binding domain. Western blots analysis demonstrated that the transiently transfected E2 expressing plasmids, regardless of prototype or the A338V mutant, were continuously expressed in the cells. To study the effect of E2 mutations on its DNA-binding activity, a serial of recombinant E2 proteins with various lengths were expressed and purified. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA showed that the binding affinity of E2 protein with A338V mutation to both an artificial probe with two E2 binding sites or HPV-2 and HPV-16 promoter-proximal LCR sequences were significantly stronger than that of the HPV-2 prototype E2. Furthermore, co-expression of the construct containing A338V mutant exhibited increased activities on heterologous HPV-16 early promoter P97 than that of prototype E2. Conclusions These results suggest that the mutation from Ala to Val at aa 338 is critical for E2 DNA-binding and its transcriptional regulation.

  6. Innate immune response of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells to poxvirus infection is subverted by vaccinia E3 via its Z-DNA/RNA binding domain.

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    Hua Cao

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs play important roles in antiviral innate immunity by producing type I interferon (IFN. In this study, we assess the immune responses of primary human pDCs to two poxviruses, vaccinia and myxoma virus. Vaccinia, an orthopoxvirus, was used for immunization against smallpox, a contagious human disease with high mortality. Myxoma virus, a Leporipoxvirus, causes lethal disease in rabbits, but is non-pathogenic in humans. We report that myxoma virus infection of human pDCs induces IFN-α and TNF production, whereas vaccinia infection does not. Co-infection of pDCs with myxoma virus plus vaccinia blocks myxoma induction effects. We find that heat-inactivated vaccinia (Heat-VAC; by incubating the virus at 55°C for 1 h gains the ability to induce IFN-α and TNF in primary human pDCs. Induction of IFN-α in pDCs by myxoma virus or Heat-VAC is blocked by chloroquine, which inhibits endosomal acidification required for TLR7/9 signaling, and by inhibitors of cellular kinases PI3K and Akt. Using purified pDCs from genetic knockout mice, we demonstrate that Heat-VAC-induced type I IFN production in pDCs requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7 and its adaptor MyD88, transcription factor IRF7 and the type I IFN feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1. These results indicate that (i vaccinia virus, but not myxoma virus, expresses inhibitor(s of the poxvirus sensing pathway(s in pDCs; and (ii Heat-VAC infection fails to produce inhibitor(s but rather produces novel activator(s, likely viral RNA transcripts that are sensed by the TLR7/MyD88 pathway. Using vaccinia gene deletion mutants, we show that the Z-DNA/RNA binding domain at the N-terminus of the vaccinia immunomodulatory E3 protein is an antagonist of the innate immune response of human pDCs to poxvirus infection and TLR agonists. The myxoma virus ortholog of vaccinia E3 (M029 lacks the N-terminal Z-DNA/RNA binding domain, which might contribute to the immunostimulating

  7. Innate Immune Response of Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells to Poxvirus Infection Is Subverted by Vaccinia E3 via Its Z-DNA/RNA Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peihong; Wang, Weiyi; Li, Hao; Yuan, Jianda; Wang, Fangjin; Fang, Chee-Mun; Pitha, Paula M; Liu, Jia; Condit, Richard C; McFadden, Grant; Merghoub, Taha; Houghton, Alan N; Young, James W; Shuman, Stewart; Deng, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play important roles in antiviral innate immunity by producing type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we assess the immune responses of primary human pDCs to two poxviruses, vaccinia and myxoma virus. Vaccinia, an orthopoxvirus, was used for immunization against smallpox, a contagious human disease with high mortality. Myxoma virus, a Leporipoxvirus, causes lethal disease in rabbits, but is non-pathogenic in humans. We report that myxoma virus infection of human pDCs induces IFN-α and TNF production, whereas vaccinia infection does not. Co-infection of pDCs with myxoma virus plus vaccinia blocks myxoma induction effects. We find that heat-inactivated vaccinia (Heat-VAC; by incubating the virus at 55°C for 1 h) gains the ability to induce IFN-α and TNF in primary human pDCs. Induction of IFN-α in pDCs by myxoma virus or Heat-VAC is blocked by chloroquine, which inhibits endosomal acidification required for TLR7/9 signaling, and by inhibitors of cellular kinases PI3K and Akt. Using purified pDCs from genetic knockout mice, we demonstrate that Heat-VAC-induced type I IFN production in pDCs requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7 and its adaptor MyD88, transcription factor IRF7 and the type I IFN feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1. These results indicate that (i) vaccinia virus, but not myxoma virus, expresses inhibitor(s) of the poxvirus sensing pathway(s) in pDCs; and (ii) Heat-VAC infection fails to produce inhibitor(s) but rather produces novel activator(s), likely viral RNA transcripts that are sensed by the TLR7/MyD88 pathway. Using vaccinia gene deletion mutants, we show that the Z-DNA/RNA binding domain at the N-terminus of the vaccinia immunomodulatory E3 protein is an antagonist of the innate immune response of human pDCs to poxvirus infection and TLR agonists. The myxoma virus ortholog of vaccinia E3 (M029) lacks the N-terminal Z-DNA/RNA binding domain, which might contribute to the immunostimulating properties of

  8. The ANGULATA7 gene encodes a DnaJ-like zinc finger-domain protein involved in chloroplast function and leaf development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Nortes, Tamara; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Ponce, María Rosa; Candela, Héctor; Micol, José Luis

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of mutants with altered leaf shape and pigmentation has previously allowed the identification of nuclear genes that encode plastid-localized proteins that perform essential functions in leaf growth and development. A large-scale screen previously allowed us to isolate ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants with small rosettes and pale green leaves with prominent marginal teeth, which were assigned to a phenotypic class that we dubbed Angulata. The molecular characterization of the 12 genes assigned to this phenotypic class should help us to advance our understanding of the still poorly understood relationship between chloroplast biogenesis and leaf morphogenesis. In this article, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of the angulata7-1 (anu7-1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which we found to be a hypomorphic allele of the EMB2737 gene, which was previously known only for its embryonic-lethal mutations. ANU7 encodes a plant-specific protein that contains a domain similar to the central cysteine-rich domain of DnaJ proteins. The observed genetic interaction of anu7-1 with a loss-of-function allele of GENOMES UNCOUPLED1 suggests that the anu7-1 mutation triggers a retrograde signal that leads to changes in the expression of many genes that normally function in the chloroplasts. Many such genes are expressed at higher levels in anu7-1 rosettes, with a significant overrepresentation of those required for the expression of plastid genome genes. Like in other mutants with altered expression of plastid-encoded genes, we found that anu7-1 exhibits defects in the arrangement of thylakoidal membranes, which appear locally unappressed. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα-encoding (GNAS genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

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    Mullen Michael P

    2011-01-01

    43101491 SNP. Following adjustment for multiple-testing, significant association (q ≤ 0.05 remained between the rs41694646 SNP and four traits (animal stature, body depth, direct calving difficulty and milk yield only. Notably, the single SNP in the bovine NESP55 gene (rs41694656 was associated (P ≤ 0.01 with somatic cell count--an often-cited indicator of resistance to mastitis and overall health status of the mammary system--and previous studies have demonstrated that the chromosomal region to where the GNAS domain maps underlies an important quantitative trait locus for this trait. This association, however, was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. The three remaining SNPs assayed were not associated with any of the performance traits analysed in this study. Analysis of all pairwise linkage disequilibrium (r2 values suggests that most allele substitution effects for the assayed SNPs observed are independent. Finally, the polymorphic coding SNP in the putative bovine NESP55 gene was used to test the imprinting status of this gene across a range of foetal bovine tissues. Conclusions Previous studies in other mammalian species have shown that DNA sequence variation within the imprinted GNAS gene cluster contributes to several physiological and metabolic disorders, including obesity in humans and mice. Similarly, the results presented here indicate an important role for the imprinted GNAS cluster in underlying complex performance traits in cattle such as animal growth, calving, fertility and health. These findings suggest that GNAS domain-associated polymorphisms may serve as important genetic markers for future livestock breeding programs and support previous studies that candidate imprinted loci may act as molecular targets for the genetic improvement of agricultural populations. In addition, we present new evidence that the bovine NESP55 gene is epigenetically regulated as a maternally expressed imprinted gene in placental and intestinal tissues

  10. A novel mutation in homeobox DNA binding domain of HOXC13 gene underlies pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (ECTD9) in a Pakistani family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar Kamal; Muhammad, Noor; Aziz, Abdul; Khan, Sher Alam; Shah, Khadim; Nasir, Abdul; Khan, Muzammil Ahmad; Khan, Saadullah

    2017-04-12

    Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (PHNED) is a congenital disorder of hair abnormalities and nail dysplasia. Both autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance fashion of PHNED occurs. In literature, to date, five different forms of PHNED have been reported at molecular level, having three genes known and two loci with no gene yet. In this study, a four generations consanguineous family of Pakistani origin with autosomal recessive PHNED was investigated. Affected members exhibited PHNED phenotypes with involvement of complete hair loss and nail dysplasia. To screen for mutation in the genes (HOXC13, KRT74, KRT85), its coding exons and exons-intron boundaries were sequenced. The 3D models of normal and mutated HOXC13 were predicted by using homology modeling. Through investigating the family to known loci, the family was mapped to ectodermal dysplasia 9 (ECTD9) loci with genetic address of 12q13.13. Mutation screening revealed a novel missense mutation (c.929A > C; p.Asn310Thr) in homeobox DNA binding domain of HOXC13 gene in affected members of the family. Due to mutation, loss of hydrogen bonding and difference in potential energy occurs, which may resulting in alteration of protein function. This is the first mutation reported in homeodomain, while 5 th mutation reported in HOXC13 gene causing PHNED.

  11. Activation of Fetal γ-globin Gene Expression via Direct Protein Delivery of Synthetic Zinc-finger DNA-Binding Domains

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    Mir A Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of γ-globin expression has been shown to ameliorate disease phenotypes associated with mutations in the adult β-globin gene, including sickle cell disease. Specific mutations in the promoter of the γ-globin genes are known to prevent repression of the genes in the adult and thus lead to hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. One such hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin is associated with a sequence located 567 bp upstream of the Gγ-globin gene which assembles a GATA-containing repressor complex. We generated two synthetic zinc-finger DNA-binding domains (ZF-DBDs targeting this sequence. The -567Gγ ZF-DBDs associated with high affinity and specificity with the target site in the γ-globin gene promoter. We delivered the -567Gγ ZF-DBDs directly to primary erythroid cells. Exposure of these cells to the recombinant -567Gγ ZF-DBDs led to increased expression of the γ-globin gene. Direct protein delivery of ZF-DBDs that compete with transcription regulatory proteins will have broad implications for modulating gene expression in analytical or therapeutic settings.

  12. Mediator binds to boundaries of chromosomal interaction domains and to proteins involved in DNA looping, RNA metabolism, chromatin remodeling, and actin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereji, Razvan V; Bharatula, Vasudha; Elfving, Nils; Blomberg, Jeanette; Larsson, Miriam; Morozov, Alexandre V; Broach, James R; Björklund, Stefan

    2017-09-06

    Mediator is a multi-unit molecular complex that plays a key role in transferring signals from transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. We have combined biochemical purification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator from chromatin with chromatin immunoprecipitation in order to reveal Mediator occupancy on DNA genome-wide, and to identify proteins interacting specifically with Mediator on the chromatin template. Tandem mass spectrometry of proteins in immunoprecipitates of mediator complexes revealed specific interactions between Mediator and the RSC, Arp2/Arp3, CPF, CF 1A and Lsm complexes in chromatin. These factors are primarily involved in chromatin remodeling, actin assembly, mRNA 3'-end processing, gene looping and mRNA decay, but they have also been shown to enter the nucleus and participate in Pol II transcription. Moreover, we have found that Mediator, in addition to binding Pol II promoters, occupies chromosomal interacting domain (CID) boundaries and that Mediator in chromatin associates with proteins that have been shown to interact with CID boundaries, such as Sth1, Ssu72 and histone H4. This suggests that Mediator plays a significant role in higher-order genome organization. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  14. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  15. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  16. Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-resistant rickets with alopecia resulting from a novel missense mutation in the DNA-binding domain of the vitamin D receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Peter J.; Wang, Jining; Srivastava, Tarak; Feldman, David

    2009-01-01

    The rare genetic recessive disease, hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets (HVDRR), is caused by mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that result in resistance to the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3 or calcitriol). In this study, we examined the VDR from a young boy with clinical features of HVDRR including severe rickets, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and partial alopecia. The pattern of alopecia was very unusual with areas of total baldness, adjacent to normal hair and regions of scant hair. The child failed to improve on oral calcium and vitamin D therapy but his abnormal chemistries and his bone x-rays normalized with intravenous calcium therapy. We found that the child was homozygous for a unique missense mutation in the VDR gene that converted valine to methionine at amino acid 26 (V26M) in the VDR DNA-binding domain (DBD). The mutant VDR was studied in the patient’s cultured skin fibroblasts and found to exhibit normal [3H]1,25-(OH)2D3 binding and protein expression. However, the fibroblasts were unresponsive to treatment with high concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 as demonstrated by their failure to induce CYP24A1 gene expression, a marker of 1,25(OH)2D3 responsiveness. We recreated the V26M mutation in the WT VDR and showed that in transfected COS-7 cells the mutation abolished 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated transactivation. The mutant VDR exhibited normal ligand-induced binding to RXRα and to the coactivator DRIP205. However, the V26M mutation inhibited VDR binding to a consensus vitamin D response element (VDRE). In summary, we have identified a novel V26M mutation in the VDR DBD as the molecular defect in a patient with HVDRR and an unusual pattern of alopecia. PMID:19815438

  17. An elastic network model of HK97 capsid maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon K; Jernigan, Robert L; Chirikjian, Gregory S

    2003-08-01

    The structure of the capsid of bacteriophage HK97 has been solved at various stages of maturity by crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, and has been reported previously in the literature. Typically the capsid assembles through polymerization and maturation processes. Maturation is composed of proteolytic cleavages to the precursor capsid (called Prohead II), expansion triggered by DNA packaging (in which the largest conformational changes of the capsid appear), and covalent cross-links of neighboring subunits to create the mature capsid called Head II. We apply a coarse-grained elastic network interpolation (ENI) to generate a feasible pathway for conformational change from Prohead II to Head II. The icosahedral symmetry of the capsid structure offers a significant computational advantage because it is not necessary to consider the whole capsid structure but only an asymmetric unit consisting of one hexamer plus an additional subunit from an adjacent pentamer. We also analyze normal modes of the capsid structure using an elastic network model which is also subject to symmetry constraints. Using our model, we can visualize the smooth evolution of capsid expansion and revisit in more detail several interesting geometric changes recognized in early experimental works such as rigid body motion of two compact domains (A and P) with two refolding extensions (N-arm and E-loop) and track the approach of the two particular residues associated with isopeptide bonds that make hexagonal cross-links in Head II. The feasibility of the predicted pathway is also supported by the results of our normal mode analysis.

  18. Editing of misaligned 3′-termini by an intrinsic 3′–5′ exonuclease activity residing in the PHP domain of a family X DNA polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Benito; Lázaro, José M.; Villar, Laurentino; de Vega, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis gene yshC encodes a family X DNA polymerase (PolXBs), whose biochemical features suggest that it plays a role during DNA repair processes. Here, we show that, in addition to the polymerization activity, PolXBs possesses an intrinsic 3′–5′ exonuclease activity specialized in resecting unannealed 3′-termini in a gapped DNA substrate. Biochemical analysis of a PolXBs deletion mutant lacking the C-terminal polymerase histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain, present in most of the bacterial/archaeal PolXs, as well as of this separately expressed protein region, allow us to state that the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity of PolXBs resides in its PHP domain. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of PolXBs His339 and His341 residues, evolutionary conserved in the PHP superfamily members, demonstrated that the predicted metal binding site is directly involved in catalysis of the exonucleolytic reaction. The implications of the unannealed 3′-termini resection by the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity of PolXBs in the DNA repair context are discussed. PMID:18776221

  19. Impact of low-frequency hotspot mutation R282Q on the structure of p53 DNA-binding domain as revealed by crystallography at 1.54 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Chao [Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Tan, Yu-Hong [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Shaw, Gary [Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Zhou, Zheng; Bai, Yawen [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Luo, Ray [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ji, Xinhua, E-mail: jix@ncifcrf.gov [Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The impact of hotspot mutation R282Q on the structure of human p53 DNA-binding domain has been characterized by X-ray crystallography and molecular-dynamics simulations. Tumor suppressor p53 is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein and its central DNA-binding domain (DBD) harbors six hotspots (Arg175, Gly245, Arg248, Arg249, Arg273 and Arg282) for human cancers. Here, the crystal structure of a low-frequency hotspot mutant, p53DBD(R282Q), is reported at 1.54 Å resolution together with the results of molecular-dynamics simulations on the basis of the structure. In addition to eliminating a salt bridge, the R282Q mutation has a significant impact on the properties of two DNA-binding loops (L1 and L3). The L1 loop is flexible in the wild type, but it is not flexible in the mutant. The L3 loop of the wild type is not flexible, whereas it assumes two conformations in the mutant. Molecular-dynamics simulations indicated that both conformations of the L3 loop are accessible under biological conditions. It is predicted that the elimination of the salt bridge and the inversion of the flexibility of L1 and L3 are directly or indirectly responsible for deactivating the tumor suppressor p53.

  20. Distinct DNA-binding surfaces in the ATPase and linker domains of MutLγ determine its substrate specificities and exert separable functions in meiotic recombination and mismatch repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corentin Claeys Bouuaert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mlh1-Mlh3 (MutLγ is a mismatch repair factor with a central role in formation of meiotic crossovers, presumably through resolution of double Holliday junctions. MutLγ has DNA-binding, nuclease, and ATPase activities, but how these relate to one another and to in vivo functions are unclear. Here, we combine biochemical and genetic analyses to characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae MutLγ. Limited proteolysis and atomic force microscopy showed that purified recombinant MutLγ undergoes ATP-driven conformational changes. In vitro, MutLγ displayed separable DNA-binding activities toward Holliday junctions (HJ and, surprisingly, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA, which was not predicted from current models. MutLγ bound DNA cooperatively, could bind multiple substrates simultaneously, and formed higher-order complexes. FeBABE hydroxyl radical footprinting indicated that the DNA-binding interfaces of MutLγ for ssDNA and HJ substrates only partially overlap. Most contacts with HJ substrates were located in the linker regions of MutLγ, whereas ssDNA contacts mapped within linker regions as well as the N-terminal ATPase domains. Using yeast genetic assays for mismatch repair and meiotic recombination, we found that mutations within different DNA-binding surfaces exert separable effects in vivo. For example, mutations within the Mlh1 linker conferred little or no meiotic phenotype but led to mismatch repair deficiency. Interestingly, mutations in the N-terminal domain of Mlh1 caused a stronger meiotic defect than mlh1Δ, suggesting that the mutant proteins retain an activity that interferes with alternative recombination pathways. Furthermore, mlh3Δ caused more chromosome missegregation than mlh1Δ, whereas mlh1Δ but not mlh3Δ partially alleviated meiotic defects of msh5Δ mutants. These findings illustrate functional differences between Mlh1 and Mlh3 during meiosis and suggest that their absence impinges on chromosome segregation not only via reduced

  1. Specific mutations in the C-terminus domain of HBV surface antigen significantly correlate with low level of serum HBV-DNA in patients with chronic HBV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirabelli, Carmen; Surdo, Matteo; van Hemert, Formijn; Lian, Zhichao; Salpini, Romina; Cento, Valeria; Cortese, Maria Francesca; Aragri, Marianna; Pollicita, Michela; Alteri, Claudia; Bertoli, Ada; Berkhout, Ben; Micheli, Valeria; Gubertini, Guido; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Romano, Sara; Visca, Michela; Bernassola, Martina; Longo, Roberta; de Sanctis, Giuseppe Maria; Trimoulet, Pascal; Fleury, Hervè; Marino, Nicoletta; Mazzotta, Francesco; Cappiello, Giuseppina; Spanò, Alberto; Sarrecchia, Cesare; Zhang, Jing Maria; Andreoni, Massimo; Angelico, Mario; Verheyen, Jens; Perno, Carlo Federico; Svicher, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Background: To define HBsAg-mutations correlated with different serum HBV-DNA levels in HBV chronically-infected drug-naive patients. Methods: This study included 187 patients stratified into the following ranges of serum HBV-DNA: 12-2000 IU/ml, 2000-100,000 IU/ml, and > 100,000 IU/ml.

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  3. The Staphylococcus aureus group II biotin protein ligase BirA is an effective regulator of biotin operon transcription and requires the DNA binding domain for full enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Sarah K; Cronan, John E

    2016-11-01

    Group II biotin protein ligases (BPLs) are characterized by the presence of an N-terminal DNA binding domain that functions in transcriptional regulation of the genes of biotin biosynthesis and transport. The Staphylococcus aureus Group II BPL which is called BirA has been reported to bind an imperfect inverted repeat located upstream of the biotin synthesis operon. DNA binding by other Group II BPLs requires dimerization of the protein which is triggered by synthesis of biotinoyl-AMP (biotinoyl-adenylate), the intermediate in the ligation of biotin to its cognate target proteins. However, the S. aureus BirA was reported to dimerize and bind DNA in the absence of biotin or biotinoyl-AMP (Soares da Costa et al. (2014) Mol Microbiol 91: 110-120). These in vitro results argued that the protein would be unable to respond to the levels of biotin or acceptor proteins and thus would lack the regulatory properties of the other characterized BirA proteins. We tested the regulatory function of the protein using an in vivo model system and examined its DNA binding properties in vitro using electrophoretic mobility shift and fluorescence anisotropy analyses. We report that the S. aureus BirA is an effective regulator of biotin operon transcription and that the prior data can be attributed to artifacts of mobility shift analyses. We also report that deletion of the DNA binding domain of the S. aureus BirA results in loss of virtually all of its ligation activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. RPA homologs and ssDNA processing during meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jonathan; Abby, Emilie; Livera, Gabriel; Martini, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is a specialized process that involves homologous chromosome pairing and strand exchange to guarantee proper chromosome segregation and genetic diversity. The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during meiotic recombination differs from those during mitotic recombination in that the homologous chromosome rather than the sister chromatid is the preferred repair template. The processing of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) formed on intermediate recombination structures is central to driving the specific outcomes of DSB repair during meiosis. Replication protein A (RPA) is the main ssDNA-binding protein complex involved in DNA metabolism. However, the existence of RPA orthologs in plants and the recent discovery of meiosis specific with OB domains (MEIOB), a widely conserved meiosis-specific RPA1 paralog, strongly suggest that multiple RPA complexes evolved and specialized to subdivide their roles during DNA metabolism. Here we review ssDNA formation and maturation during mitotic and meiotic recombination underlying the meiotic specific features. We describe and discuss the existence and properties of MEIOB and multiple RPA subunits in plants and highlight how they can provide meiosis-specific fates to ssDNA processing during homologous recombination. Understanding the functions of these RPA homologs and how they interact with the canonical RPA subunits is of major interest in the fields of meiosis and DNA repair.

  5. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the HMG domain of the chondrogenesis master regulator Sox9 in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified DNA element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivekanandan, Saravanan; Moovarkumudalvan, Balasubramanian; Lescar, Julien; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2015-10-30

    Sox9 is a fundamental sex-determining gene and the master regulator of chondrogenesis, and is involved in the development of various vital organs such as testes, kidney, heart and brain, and in skeletal development. Similar to other known Sox transcription factors, Sox9 recognizes and binds DNA with the consensus sequence C(T/A)TTG(T/A)(T/A) through the highly conserved HMG domain. Nonetheless, the molecular basis of the functional specificity of Sox9 in key developmental processes is still unclear. As an initial step towards a mechanistic understanding of Sox9 transcriptional regulation, the current work describes the details of the purification of the mouse Sox9 HMG domain (mSox9HMG), its crystallization in complex with a ChIP-Seq-identified FOXP2 promoter DNA element and the X-ray diffraction data analysis of this complex. The mSox9HMG–FOXP2 promoter DNA complex was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 20% PEG 3350 in 200 mMsodium/potassium phosphate with 100 mMbis-tris propane at pH 8.5. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and the complex crystallized in the tetragonal space groupP41212, with unit-cell parametersa=b= 99.49,c= 45.89 Å. Crystal-packing parameters revealed that asymmetric unit contained one mSox9HMG–FOXP2 promoter DNA complex with an estimated solvent content of 64%.

  6. The PCNA interaction protein box sequence in Rad54 is an integral part of its ATPase domain and is required for efficient DNA repair and recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Sebesta, Marek; Sisakova, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Rad54 is an ATP-driven translocase involved in the genome maintenance pathway of homologous recombination (HR). Although its activity has been implicated in several steps of HR, its exact role(s) at each step are still not fully understood. We have identified a new interaction between Rad54...... and the replicative DNA clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). This interaction was only mildly weakened by the mutation of two key hydrophobic residues in the highly-conserved PCNA interaction motif (PIP-box) of Rad54 (Rad54-AA). Intriguingly, the rad54-AA mutant cells displayed sensitivity to DNA damage...

  7. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  8. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  9. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  11. The SANT2 domain of the murine tumor cell DnaJ-like protein 1 human homologue interacts with alpha1-antichymotrypsin and kinetically interferes with its serpin inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroczynska, Barbara; Evangelista, Christina M; Samant, Shalaka S; Elguindi, Ebrahim C; Blond, Sylvie Y

    2004-03-19

    The murine tumor cell DnaJ-like protein 1 or MTJ1/ERdj1 is a membrane J-domain protein enriched in microsomal and nuclear fractions. We previously showed that its lumenal J-domain stimulates the ATPase activity of the molecular chaperone BiP/GRP78 (Chevalier, M., Rhee, H., Elguindi, E. C., and Blond, S. Y. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 19620-19627). MTJ1/ERdj1 also contains a large carboxyl-terminal cytosolic extension composed of two tryptophan-mediated repeats or SANT domains for which the function(s) is unknown. Here we describe the cloning of the human homologue HTJ1 and its interaction with alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin (ACT), a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) family. The interaction was initially identified in a two-hybrid screening and further confirmed in vitro by dot blots, native electrophoresis, and fluorescence studies. The second SANT domain of HTJ1 (SANT2) was found to be sufficient for binding to ACT, both in yeast and in vitro. Single tryptophan-alanine substitutions at two strictly conserved residues significantly (Trp-497) or totally (Trp-520) abolished the interaction with ACT. SANT2 binds to human ACT with an intrinsic affinity equal to 0.5 nm. Preincubation of ACT with nearly stoichiometric concentrations of SANT2 wild-type but not SANT2: W520A results in an apparent loss of ACT inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin. Kinetic analysis indicates that the formation of the covalent inhibitory complex ACT-chymotrypsin is significantly delayed in the presence of SANT2 with no change on the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. This work demonstrates for the first time that the SANT2 domain of MTJ1/HTJ1/ERdj1 mediates stable and high affinity protein-protein interactions.

  12. Solution structure and DNA-binding properties of the C-terminal domain of UvrC from E.coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Folkers, G.E.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Boelens, R.; Wechselberger, R.W.; Niztayev, A.; Kaptein, R.

    2002-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the UvrC protein (UvrC CTD) is essential for 5' incision in the prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair process. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the UvrC CTD using heteronuclear NMR techniques. The structure shows two helix±hairpin±helix (HhH) motifs

  13. Molecular cloning and cold shock induced overexpression of the DNA encoding phor sensor domain from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a target molecule for novel anti-tubercular drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langi, Gladys Emmanuella Putri; Moeis, Maelita R.; Ihsanawati, Giri-Rachman, Ernawati Arifin

    2014-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the sole cause of Tuberculosis (TB), is still a major global problem. The discovery of new anti-tubercular drugs is needed to face the increasing TB cases, especially to prevent the increase of cases with resistant Mtb. A potential novel drug target is the Mtb PhoR sensor domain protein which is the histidine kinase extracellular domain for receiving environmental signals. This protein is the initial part of the two-component system PhoR-PhoP regulating 114 genes related to the virulence of Mtb. In this study, the gene encoding PhoR sensor domain (SensPhoR) was subcloned from pGEM-T SensPhoR from the previous study (Suwanto, 2012) to pColdII. The construct pColdII SensPhoR was confirmed through restriction analysis and sequencing. Using the construct, SensPhoR was overexpressed at 15°C using Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Low temperature was chosen because according to the solubility prediction program of recombinant proteins from The University of Oklahama, the PhoR sensor domain has a chance of 79.8% to be expressed as insoluble proteins in Escherichia coli's (E. coli) cytoplasm. This prediction is also supported by other similar programs: PROSO and PROSO II. The SDS PAGE result indicated that the PhoR sensor domain recombinant protein was overexpressed. For future studies, this protein will be purified and used for structure analysis which can be used to find potential drugs through rational drug design.

  14. ICoNOs MM: The IT-enabled Collaborative Networked Organizations Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Tapia, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to introduce a comprehensive model for assessing and improving maturity of business-IT alignment (B-ITa) in collaborative networked organizations (CNOs): the ICoNOs MM. This two dimensional maturity model (MM) addresses five levels of maturity as well as four domains to

  15. Transcriptional switching by the MerR protein: Activation and repression mutants implicate distinct DNA and mercury(II) binding domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewchuk, L.M.; Helmann, J.D.; Ross, W.; Park, S.J.; Summers, A.O.; Walsh, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to mercuric compounds is controlled by the MerR metalloregulatory protein. The MerR protein functions as both a transcriptional repressor and a mercuric ion dependent transcriptional activator. Chemical mutagenesis of the cloned merR structural gene has led to the identification of mutant proteins that are specifically deficient in transcriptional repression, activation, or both. Five mutant proteins have been overproduced, purified to homogeneity, and assayed for ability to dimerize, bind mer operator DNA, and bind mercuric ion. A mutation in the recognition helix of a proposed helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif (E22K) yields protein deficient in both activation and repression in vivo (a - r - ) and deficient in operator binding in vitro. In contrast, mutations in three of the four MerR cysteine residues are repression competent but activation deficient (a - r + ) in vivo. In vitro, the purified cysteine mutant proteins bind to the mer operator site with near wild-type affinity but are variable deficient in binding the in vivo inducer mercury(II) ion. A subset of the isolated proteins also appears compromised in their ability to form dimers at low protein concentrations. These data support a model in which DNA-bound MerR dimer binds one mercuric ion and transmits this occupancy information to a protein region involved in transcriptional activation

  16. A novel nuclear DnaJ protein, DNAJC8, can suppress the formation of spinocerebellar ataxia 3 polyglutamine aggregation in a J-domain independent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Norie [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Kamiguchi, Kenjiro; Nakanishi, Katsuya; Sokolovskya, Alice; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Yasuaki; Murai, Aiko; Yamamoto, Eri; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Kochin, Vitaly [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Chiba, Susumu [Department of Neurology, Clinical Brain Research Laboratory, Toyokura Memorial Hall, Sapporo Yamano-ue Hospital (Japan); Shimohama, Shun [Department of Neurology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Sato, Noriyuki [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Torigoe, Toshihiko, E-mail: torigoe@sapmed.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)

    2016-06-10

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases comprise neurodegenerative disorders caused by expression of expanded polyQ-containing proteins. The cytotoxicity of the expanded polyQ-containing proteins is closely associated with aggregate formation. In this study, we report that a novel J-protein, DNAJ (HSP40) Homolog, Subfamily C, Member 8 (DNAJC8), suppresses the aggregation of polyQ-containing protein in a cellular model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), which is also known as Machado-Joseph disease. Overexpression of DNAJC8 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells significantly reduced the polyQ aggregation and apoptosis, and DNAJC8 was co-localized with the polyQ aggregation in the cell nucleus. Deletion mutants of DNAJC8 revealed that the C-terminal domain of DNAJC8 was essential for the suppression of polyQ aggregation, whereas the J-domain was dispensable. Furthermore, 22-mer oligopeptide derived from C-termilal domain could suppress the polyQ aggregation. These results indicate that DNAJC8 can suppress the polyQ aggregation via a distinct mechanism independent of HSP70-based chaperone machinery and have a unique protective role against the aggregation of expanded polyQ-containing proteins such as pathogenic ataxin-3 proteins.

  17. Concrete domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  18. An intact sequence-specific DNA-binding domain is required for human cytomegalovirus-mediated sequestration of p53 and may promote in vivo binding to the viral genome during infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenke, Kyle; Samuel, Melanie A.; McDowell, Eric T.; Toerne, Melissa A.; Fortunato, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    The p53 protein is stabilized during infection of primary human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). However, the p53 in HCMV-infected cells is unable to activate its downstream targets. HCMV accomplishes this inactivation, at least in part, by sequestering p53 into viral replication centers within the cell's nucleus soon after they are established. In order to better understand the interplay between HCMV and p53 and the mechanism of sequestration, we constructed a panel of mutant p53-GFP fusion constructs for use in transfection/infection experiments. These mutants affected several post-translational modification sites and several sites within the central sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of the protein. Two categories of p53 sequestration were observed when the mutant constructs were transfected into primary fibroblasts and then infected at either high or low multiplicity. The first category, including all of the post-translational modification mutants, showed sequestration comparable to a wild-type (wt) control, while the second category, mutants affecting the DNA-binding core, were not specifically sequestered above control GFP levels. This suggested that the DNA-binding ability of the protein was required for sequestration. When the HCMV genome was analyzed for p53 consensus binding sites, 21 matches were found, which localized either to the promoters or the coding regions of viral proteins involved in DNA replication and processing as well as structural proteins. An analysis of in vivo binding to these identified sites via chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed differential binding to several of the sites over the course of infection

  19. Domain Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  20. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  1. Potent Inhibition of HhaI DNA Methylase by the Aglycon of 2-(1H)-Pyrimidinone Riboside (Zebularine) at the GCGC Recognition Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, Víctor E.; Kelley, James A.; Eritja Casadellà, Ramón; Vanbemmel, Dana; Christman, Judith K.

    2003-01-01

    A short oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) with 2-(1H)-pyrimidinone at the HhaI DNA methyltransferase target site (GCGC) is shown to induce a level of inhibition of methyl transfer and thermal stability of the complex with the enzyme identical to that achieved with a similar ODN substituted with 5-azacytosine. The drugs responsible for these effects - zebularine and 5-azacytidine/2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine - are contrasted in terms of chemical stability and possible metabolic activation by a brief struct...

  2. TcA, the putative transposase of the C. elegans Tc1 transposon, has an N-terminal DNA binding domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Schukkink, R F; Plasterk, R H

    1990-01-01

    Tc1 is a transposon present in several copies in the genome of all natural isolates of the nematode C.elegans; it is actively transposing in many strains. In those strains Tc1 insertion is the main cause of spontaneous mutations. The transposon contains one large ORF that we call TcA; we assume that the TcA protein is the transposase of Tc1. We expressed TcA in E.coli, purified the protein and showed that it has a strong affinity for DNA (both single stranded and double stranded). A fusion pr...

  3. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    Basement membranes contain several proteoglycans, and those bearing heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans such as perlecan and agrin usually predominate. Most mammalian basement membranes also contain chondroitin sulfate, and a core protein, bamacan, has been partially characterized. We have now....... The protein sequence has low overall homology, apart from very small NH2- and COOH-terminal motifs. At the junctions between the distal globular domains and the coiled-coil regions lie glycosylation sites, with up to three N-linked oligosaccharides and probably three chondroitin chains. Three other Ser...

  4. Nuclear receptors from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi lack a zinc-finger DNA-binding domain: lineage-specific loss or ancestral condition in the emergence of the nuclear receptor superfamily?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reitzel Adam M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear receptors (NRs are an ancient superfamily of metazoan transcription factors that play critical roles in regulation of reproduction, development, and energetic homeostasis. Although the evolutionary relationships among NRs are well-described in two prominent clades of animals (deuterostomes and protostomes, comparatively little information has been reported on the diversity of NRs in early diverging metazoans. Here, we identified NRs from the phylum Ctenophora and used a phylogenomic approach to explore the emergence of the NR superfamily in the animal kingdom. In addition, to gain insight into conserved or novel functions, we examined NR expression during ctenophore development. Results We report the first described NRs from the phylum Ctenophora: two from Mnemiopsis leidyi and one from Pleurobrachia pileus. All ctenophore NRs contained a ligand-binding domain and grouped with NRs from the subfamily NR2A (HNF4. Surprisingly, all the ctenophore NRs lacked the highly conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD. NRs from Mnemiopsis were expressed in different regions of developing ctenophores. One was broadly expressed in the endoderm during gastrulation. The second was initially expressed in the ectoderm during gastrulation, in regions corresponding to the future tentacles; subsequent expression was restricted to the apical organ. Phylogenetic analyses of NRs from ctenophores, sponges, cnidarians, and a placozoan support the hypothesis that expansion of the superfamily occurred in a step-wise fashion, with initial radiations in NR family 2, followed by representatives of NR families 3, 6, and 1/4 originating prior to the appearance of the bilaterian ancestor. Conclusions Our study provides the first description of NRs from ctenophores, including the full complement from Mnemiopsis. Ctenophores have the least diverse NR complement of any animal phylum with representatives that cluster with only one subfamily (NR2A. Ctenophores and

  5. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  6. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  7. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  8. A remote palm domain residue of RB69 DNA polymerase is critical for enzyme activity and influences the conformation of the active site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jacewicz

    Full Text Available Non-conserved amino acids that are far removed from the active site can sometimes have an unexpected effect on enzyme catalysis. We have investigated the effects of alanine replacement of residues distant from the active site of the replicative RB69 DNA polymerase, and identified a substitution in a weakly conserved palm residue (D714A, that renders the enzyme incapable of sustaining phage replication in vivo. D714, located several angstroms away from the active site, does not contact the DNA or the incoming dNTP, and our apoenzyme and ternary crystal structures of the Pol(D714A mutant demonstrate that D714A does not affect the overall structure of the protein. The structures reveal a conformational change of several amino acid side chains, which cascade out from the site of the substitution towards the catalytic center, substantially perturbing the geometry of the active site. Consistent with these structural observations, the mutant has a significantly reduced k pol for correct incorporation. We propose that the observed structural changes underlie the severe polymerization defect and thus D714 is a remote, non-catalytic residue that is nevertheless critical for maintaining an optimal active site conformation. This represents a striking example of an action-at-a-distance interaction.

  9. The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochun; Chini, Claudia Christiano Silva; He, Miao; Mer, Georges; Chen, Junjie

    2003-10-24

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully understood. We show that the BRCA1 BRCT domain directly interacts with phosphorylated BRCA1-Associated Carboxyl-terminal Helicase (BACH1). This specific interaction between BRCA1 and phosphorylated BACH1 is cell cycle regulated and is required for DNA damage-induced checkpoint control during the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle. Further, we show that two other BRCT domains interact with their respective physiological partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thirteen additional BRCT domains also preferentially bind phospho-peptides rather than nonphosphorylated control peptides. These data imply that the BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain involved in cell cycle control.

  10. Estrogen receptor alpha regulates expression of the breast cancer 1 associated ring domain 1 (BARD1) gene through intronic DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creekmore, Amy L; Ziegler, Yvonne S; Bonéy, Jamie L; Nardulli, Ann M

    2007-03-15

    We have used a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based cloning strategy to isolate and identify genes associated with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. One of the gene regions isolated was a 288bp fragment from the ninth intron of the breast cancer 1 associated ring domain (BARD1) gene. We demonstrated that ERalpha associated with this region of the endogenous BARD 1 gene in MCF-7 cells, that ERalpha bound to three of five ERE half sites located in the 288bp BARD1 region, and that this 288bp BARD1 region conferred estrogen responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. Importantly, treatment of MCF-7 cells with estrogen increased BARD1 mRNA and protein levels. These findings demonstrate that ChIP cloning strategies can be utilized to successfully isolate regulatory regions that are far removed from the transcription start site and assist in identifying cis elements involved in conferring estrogen responsiveness.

  11. Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I-Mediated Repression of PDZ-LIM Domain-Containing Protein 2 Involves DNA Methylation But Independent of the Viral Oncoprotein Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengrong Yan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. Our recent studies have shown that one important mechanism of HTLV-I-Mediated tumorigenesis is through PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 (PDLIM2 repression, although the involved mechanism remains unknown. Here, we further report that HTLV-I-Mediated PDLIM2 repression was a pathophysiological event and the PDLIM2 repression involved DNA methylation. Whereas DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3b but not 3a were upregulated in HTLV-I-transformed T cells, the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC restored PDLIM2 expression and induced death of these malignant cells. Notably, the PDLIM2 repression was independent of the viral regulatory protein Tax because neither short-term induction nor long-term stable expression of Tax could downregulate PDLIM2 expression. These studies provide important insights into PDLIM2 regulation, HTLV-I leukemogenicity, long latency, and cancer health disparities. Given the efficient antitumor activity with no obvious toxicity of 5-aza-dC, these studies also suggest potential therapeutic strategies for ATL.

  12. cDNA for the human β2-adrenergic receptor: a protein with multiple membrane-spanning domains and encoded by a gene whose chromosomal location is shared with that of the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobilka, B.K.; Dixon, R.A.F.; Frielle, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding the human β 2 -adrenergic receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence (413 residues) is that of a protein containing seven clusters of hydrophobic amino acids suggestive of membrane-spanning domains. While the protein is 87% identical overall with the previously cloned hamster β 2 -adrenergic receptor, the most highly conserved regions are the putative transmembrane helices (95% identical) and cytoplasmic loops (93% identical), suggesting that these regions of the molecule harbor important functional domains. Several of the transmembrane helices also share lesser degrees of identity with comparable regions of select members of the opsin family of visual pigments. They have localized the gene for the β 2 -adrenergic receptor to q31-q32 on chromosome 5. This is the same position recently determined for the gene encoding the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor and is adjacent to that for the FMS protooncogene, which encodes the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor

  13. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  14. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  15. A Molecular Staple: D-Loops in the I Domain of Bacteriophage P22 Coat Protein Make Important Intercapsomer Contacts Required for Procapsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, Nadia G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophage P22, a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus, has a nonconserved 124-amino-acid accessory domain inserted into its coat protein, which has the canonical HK97 protein fold. This I domain is involved in virus capsid size determination and stability, as well as protein folding. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of the I domain revealed the presence of a D-loop, which was hypothesized to make important intersubunit contacts between coat proteins in adjacent capsomers. Here we show that amino acid substitutions of residues near the tip of the D-loop result in aberrant assembly products, including tubes and broken particles, highlighting the significance of the D-loops in proper procapsid assembly. Using disulfide cross-linking, we showed that the tips of the D-loops are positioned directly across from each other both in the procapsid and the mature virion, suggesting their importance in both states. Our results indicate that D-loop interactions act as “molecular staples” at the icosahedral 2-fold symmetry axis and significantly contribute to stabilizing the P22 capsid for DNA packaging. IMPORTANCE Many dsDNA viruses have morphogenic pathways utilizing an intermediate capsid, known as a procapsid. These procapsids are assembled from a coat protein having the HK97 fold in a reaction driven by scaffolding proteins or delta domains. Maturation of the capsid occurs during DNA packaging. Bacteriophage HK97 uniquely stabilizes its capsid during maturation by intercapsomer cross-linking, but most virus capsids are stabilized by alternate means. Here we show that the I domain that is inserted into the coat protein of bacteriophage P22 is important in the process of proper procapsid assembly. Specifically, the I domain allows for stabilizing interactions across the capsid 2-fold axis of symmetry via a D-loop. When amino acid residues at the tip of the D-loop are mutated, aberrant assembly products, including tubes, are formed instead

  16. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  17. Characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk, a Bifunctional DNA/RNA End-Healing Enzyme Composed of an N-Terminal 2′,3′-Phosphoesterase HD Domain and a C-Terminal 5′-OH Polynucleotide Kinase Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Annum

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT 5′- and 3′-end-healing reactions are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5′-OH ends are phosphorylated by a polynucleotide kinase (Pnk) and 3′-PO4 or 2′,3′-cyclic-PO4 ends are hydrolyzed by a phosphoesterase to generate the 5′-PO4 and 3′-OH termini required for sealing by classic polynucleotide ligases. End-healing and sealing enzymes are present in diverse bacterial taxa, often organized as modular units within a single multifunctional polypeptide or as subunits of a repair complex. Here we identify and characterize Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as a novel bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of an N-terminal 2′,3′-phosphoesterase HD domain and a C-terminal 5′-OH polynucleotide kinase P-loop domain. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5′-OH polynucleotides (9-mers or longer) in the presence of magnesium and any nucleoside triphosphate donor. HD-Pnk dephosphorylates RNA 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate, RNA 3′-phosphate, RNA 2′-phosphate, and DNA 3′-phosphate ends in the presence of a transition metal cofactor, which can be nickel, copper, or cobalt. HD-Pnk homologs are present in genera from 11 bacterial phyla and are often encoded in an operon with a putative ATP-dependent polynucleotide ligase. IMPORTANCE The present study provides insights regarding the diversity of nucleic acid repair strategies via the characterization of Runella slithyformis HD-Pnk as the exemplar of a novel clade of dual 5′- and 3′-end-healing enzymes that phosphorylate 5′-OH termini and dephosphorylate 2′,3′-cyclic-PO4, 3′-PO4, and 2′-PO4 ends. The distinctive feature of HD-Pnk is its domain composition, i.e., a fusion of an N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase module and a C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase module. Homologs of Runella HD-Pnk with the same domain composition, same domain order, and similar polypeptide sizes are distributed widely among genera from 11 bacterial phyla. PMID:27895092

  18. Four levels of hierarchical organization, including noncovalent chainmail, brace the mature tumor herpesvirus capsid against pressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Hong; Hui, Wong Hoi; Shah, Sanket; Jih, Jonathan; O'Connor, Christine M; Sherman, Michael B; Kedes, Dean H; Schein, Stan

    2014-10-07

    Like many double-stranded DNA viruses, tumor gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus withstand high internal pressure. Bacteriophage HK97 uses covalent chainmail for this purpose, but how this is achieved noncovalently in the much larger gammaherpesvirus capsid is unknown. Our cryoelectron microscopy structure of a gammaherpesvirus capsid reveals a hierarchy of four levels of organization: (1) Within a hexon capsomer, each monomer of the major capsid protein (MCP), 1,378 amino acids and six domains, interacts with its neighboring MCPs at four sites. (2) Neighboring capsomers are linked in pairs by MCP dimerization domains and in groups of three by heterotrimeric triplex proteins. (3) Small (∼280 amino acids) HK97-like domains in MCP monomers alternate with triplex heterotrimers to form a belt that encircles each capsomer. (4) One hundred sixty-two belts concatenate to form noncovalent chainmail. The triplex heterotrimer orchestrates all four levels and likely drives maturation to an angular capsid that can withstand pressurization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  20. Cooperative interactions between paired domain and homeodomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S; Desplan, C

    1996-09-01

    The Pax proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators involved in many developmental processes in all higher eukaryotes. They are characterized by the presence of a paired domain (PD), a bipartite DNA binding domain composed of two helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs,the PAI and RED domains. The PD is also often associated with a homeodomain (HD) which is itself able to form homo- and hetero-dimers on DNA. Many of these proteins therefore contain three HTH motifs each able to recognize DNA. However, all PDs recognize highly related DNA sequences, and most HDs also recognize almost identical sites. We show here that different Pax proteins use multiple combinations of their HTHs to recognize several types of target sites. For instance, the Drosophila Paired protein can bind, in vitro, exclusively through its PAI domain, or through a dimer of its HD, or through cooperative interaction between PAI domain and HD. However, prd function in vivo requires the synergistic action of both the PAI domain and the HD. Pax proteins with only a PD appear to require both PAI and RED domains, while a Pax-6 isoform and a new Pax protein, Lune, may rely on the RED domain and HD. We propose a model by which Pax proteins recognize different target genes in vivo through various combinations of their DNA binding domains, thus expanding their recognition repertoire.

  1. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  2. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The demise of chloroplast DNA in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Beth A; Oldenburg, Delene J; Bendich, Arnold J

    2004-09-01

    Although it might be expected that chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) would be stably maintained in mature leaves, we report the surprising observation that cpDNA levels decline during plastid development in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) until most of the leaves contain little or no DNA long before the onset of senescence. We measured the cpDNA content in developing cotyledons, rosette leaves, and cauline leaves. The amount of cpDNA per chloroplast decreases as the chloroplasts develop, reaching undetectable levels in mature leaves. In young cauline leaves, most individual molecules of cpDNA are found in complex, branched forms. In expanded cauline leaves, cpDNA is present in smaller branched forms only at the base of the leaf and is virtually absent in the distal part of the leaf. We conclude that photosynthetic activity may persist long after the demise of the cpDNA. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  4. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  5. Information Security Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Information Security Maturity Model

    2011-01-01

    To ensure security, it is important to build-in security in both the planning and the design phases andadapt a security architecture which makes sure that regular and security related tasks, are deployedcorrectly. Security requirements must be linked to the business goals. We identified four domains thataffect security at an organization namely, organization governance, organizational culture, thearchitecture of the systems, and service management. In order to identify and explore the strengt...

  6. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  7. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  8. Mature Microsatellites: Mechanisms Underlying Dinucleotide Microsatellite Mutational Biases in Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste, Beverly A.; Ananda, Guruprasad; Strubczewski, Noelle; Lutzkanin, Andrew; Khoo, Su Jen; Srikanth, Abhinaya; Kim, Nari; Makova, Kateryna D.; Krasilnikova, Maria M.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    Dinucleotide microsatellites are dynamic DNA sequences that affect genome stability. Here, we focused on mature microsatellites, defined as pure repeats of lengths above the threshold and unlikely to mutate below it in a single mutational event. We investigated the prevalence and mutational behavior of these sequences by using human genome sequence data, human cells in culture, and purified DNA polymerases. Mature dinucleotides (?10 units) are present within exonic sequences of >350 genes, re...

  9. A Methodological Demonstration of Set-theoretical Approach to Social Media Maturity Models Using Necessary Condition Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...... and evaluate some of arguments presented by previous conceptual focused social media maturity models....... by applying the Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) technique to derive maturity stages and stage boundaries conditions. The ontology is to view stages (boundaries) in maturity models as a collection of necessary condition. Using social media maturity data, we demonstrate the strength of our approach...

  10. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  11. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  12. Somatic mutations, allele loss, and DNA methylation of the Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1 gene reveals association with early age of diagnosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Y Shull

    Full Text Available The Cub and Sushi Multiple Domains 1 (CSMD1 gene, located on the short arm of chromosome 8, codes for a type I transmembrane protein whose function is currently unknown. CSMD1 expression is frequently lost in many epithelial cancers. Our goal was to characterize the relationships between CSMD1 somatic mutations, allele imbalance, DNA methylation, and the clinical characteristics in colorectal cancer patients.We sequenced the CSMD1 coding regions in 54 colorectal tumors using the 454FLX pyrosequencing platform to interrogate 72 amplicons covering the entire coding sequence. We used heterozygous SNP allele ratios at multiple CSMD1 loci to determine allelic balance and infer loss of heterozygosity. Finally, we performed methylation-specific PCR on 76 colorectal tumors to determine DNA methylation status for CSMD1 and known methylation targets ALX4, RUNX3, NEUROG1, and CDKN2A.Using 454FLX sequencing and confirming with Sanger sequencing, 16 CSMD1 somatic mutations were identified in 6 of the 54 colorectal tumors (11%. The nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation ratio of the 16 somatic mutations was 15:1, a ratio significantly higher than the expected 2:1 ratio (p = 0.014. This ratio indicates a presence of positive selection for mutations in the CSMD1 protein sequence. CSMD1 allelic imbalance was present in 19 of 37 informative cases (56%. Patients with allelic imbalance and CSMD1 mutations were significantly younger (average age, 41 years than those without somatic mutations (average age, 68 years. The majority of tumors were methylated at one or more CpG loci within the CSMD1 coding sequence, and CSMD1 methylation significantly correlated with two known methylation targets ALX4 and RUNX3. C:G>T:A substitutions were significantly overrepresented (47%, suggesting extensive cytosine methylation predisposing to somatic mutations.Deep amplicon sequencing and methylation-specific PCR reveal that CSMD1 alterations can correlate with earlier clinical

  13. The escherichia coli chromosome replication initiator protein, DnaA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Malene

    The experimental work presented in this thesis involve mutational analysis of the DNA binding domain of the DnaA protein and analysis of the A184V substitution in the ATP area of domain III and other amino acid substitutions found in the DnaA5 and DnaA4G proteins....

  14. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  15. DNA topology and transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is a complex assembly that compacts DNA inside the nucleus while providing the necessary level of accessibility to regulatory factors conscripted by cellular signaling systems. In this superstructure, DNA is the subject of mechanical forces applied by variety of molecular motors. Rather than being a rigid stick, DNA possesses dynamic structural variability that could be harnessed during critical steps of genome functioning. The strong relationship between DNA structure and key genomic processes necessitates the study of physical constrains acting on the double helix. Here we provide insight into the source, dynamics, and biology of DNA topological domains in the eukaryotic cells and summarize their possible involvement in gene transcription. We emphasize recent studies that might inspire and impact future experiments on the involvement of DNA topology in cellular functions. PMID:24755522

  16. p53 DNA结合域与抗癌多肽的拉伸分子动力学研究%Steered Molecular Dynamics of an Anticancer Peptide Interacting With The p53 DNA-binding Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许先进; 苏计国; 陈慰祖; 王存新; CANNISTRARO Salvatore; BIZZARRI Anna-Rita

    2014-01-01

    The p28 peptide,derived from the blue copper protein azurin,is known to enhance the anticancer capabilities of the tumor suppressor p53 likely binding to its DNA-binding domain (DBD).The p28-p53 DBD complex has been investigated by steered molecular dynamics in order to characterize the unbinding process at atomic resolution.We found that the unbinding of the complex follows a candidate pathway with a well-defined detaching sequence between the partners.The analysis of the unbinding force and the calculation of the irreversible work done along several unbinding paths have allowed us to extract information on the energy landscape regulating the unbinding process.%研究发现,取自蓝铜蛋白azur的一段多肽p28能够进入癌细胞,结合到肿瘤抑制因子p53的DNA结合域上,进而增加p53的抗癌能力.本工作中,通过拉伸分子动力学方法,在原子尺度上研究了p28-p53 DBD复合物的解离过程.分析结果显示复合物的解离过程遵循着一定的分离顺序.对解离力的分析以及对沿着解离路径的不可逆做功的计算,使我们能够从复合物的能量地貌中提取有用的信息,而这些信息也决定了复合物的解离过程.

  17. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  18. Promoting the Affective Domain within Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade Higher Education Institutions have experienced tremendous growth in enrollments. To meet this demand, many higher education institutions have embraced online education and its requisite technologies. Online education has matured, and studies focusing on the cognitive domain indicate that distance education is as effective as the…

  19. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  20. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  1. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  2. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  3. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  4. Developmental "roots" in mature biological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert F; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2009-04-01

    Young children tend to claim that moving artifacts and nonliving natural kinds are alive, but neglect to ascribe life to plants. This research tested whether adults exhibit similar confusions when verifying life status in a speeded classification task. Experiment 1 showed that undergraduates encounter greater difficulty (reduced accuracy and increased response times) in determining life status for plants, relative to animals, and for natural and moving nonliving things, relative to artifacts and non-moving things. Experiment 2 replicated these effects in university biology professors. The professors showed a significantly reduced effect size for living things, as compared with the students, but still showed greater difficulty for plants than animals, even as no differences from the students were apparent in their responses to nonliving things. These results suggest that mature biological knowledge relies on a developmental foundation that is not radically overwritten or erased with the profound conceptual changes that accompany mastery of the domain.

  5. The Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) Maturity Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahl, Bernd; Obach, Michael; Yaghmaei, Emad

    2017-01-01

    Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is an approach to research and innovation governance aiming to ensure that research purpose, process and outcomes are acceptable, sustainable and even desirable. In order to achieve this ambitious aim, RRI must be relevant to research and innovation...... in industry. In this paper, we discuss a way of understanding and representing RRI that resonates with private companies and lends itself to practical implementation and action. We propose the development of an RRI maturity model in the tradition of other well-established maturity models, linked...... with a corporate research and development (R&D) process. The foundations of this model lie in the discourse surrounding RRI and selected maturity models from other domains as well as the results of extensive empirical investigation. The model was tested in three industry environments and insights from these case...

  6. Isolation of cDNA clones coding for human tissue factor: primary structure of the protein and cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, E.K.; Horton, R.; Bloem, L.

    1987-01-01

    Tissue factor is a membrane-bound procoagulant protein that activates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation in the presence of factor VII and calcium. λ Phage containing the tissue factor gene were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs indicates that tissue factor is synthesized as a higher molecular weight precursor with a leader sequence of 32 amino acids, while the mature protein is a single polypeptide chain composed of 263 residues. The derived primary structure of tissue factor has been confirmed by comparison to protein and peptide sequence data. The sequence of the mature protein suggests that there are three distinct domains: extracellular, residues 1-219; hydrophobic, residues 220-242; and cytoplasmic, residues 243-263. Three potential N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites occur in the extracellular domain. The amino acid sequence of tissue factor shows no significant homology with the vitamin K-dependent serine proteases, coagulation cofactors, or any other protein in the National Biomedical Research Foundation sequence data bank (Washington, DC)

  7. Conversion of DNA gyrase into a conventional type II topoisomerase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Maxwell, A

    1996-01-01

    DNA gyrase is unique among topoisomerases in its ability to introduce negative supercoils into closed-circular DNA. We have demonstrated that deletion of the C-terminal DNA-binding domain of the A subunit of gyrase gives rise to an enzyme that cannot supercoil DNA but relaxes DNA in an ATP-depend...

  8. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  9. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  10. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  11. Toward The Reconstitution of the Maturation of Okazaki Fragments Multiprotein Complex in Human At The Single Molecule Level

    KAUST Repository

    Joudeh, Luay

    2017-01-01

    The maturation of Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand in eukaryotes is mediated by a highly coordinated multistep process involving several proteins that ensure the accurate and efficient replication of genomic DNA. Human proliferating cell

  12. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  13. Methylation changes associated with early maturation stages in the Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Figueroa Andrés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early maturation in the Atlantic salmon is an interesting subject for numerous research lines. Prior to sea migration, parr can reach sexual maturation and successfully fertilize adult female eggs during the reproductive season. These individuals are known as precocious parr, mature parr or "sneakers". Reasons for early maturation are unknown and this transitory stage is usually considered to be a threshold trait. Here, we compare methylation patterns between mature and immature salmon parr from two different rivers in order to infer if such methylation differences may be related to their maturation condition. First we analyzed genetic differences between rivers by means of AFLPs. Then, we compared the DNA methylation differences between mature and immature parrs, using a Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP, which is a modification of the AFLPs method by making use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of restriction enzymes isoschizomeres to cytosine methylation. The tissues essayed included brain, liver and gonads. Results AFLPs statistical analysis showed that there was no significant differentiation between rivers or a significant differentiation between maturation states in each river. MSAP statistical analysis showed that among the three tissues sampled, the gonads had the highest number of significant single-locus variation among populations with 74 loci followed by brain with 70 and finally liver with only 12. Principal components analysis (PCA of the MSAP profiles revealed different profiles among different tissues (liver, brain and testis clearly separating maturation states in the testis tissue when compared to the liver. Conclusions Our results reveal that genetically-similar mature and immature salmon parr present high levels of DNA methylation variation in two of the three analyzed tissues. We hypothesize that early maturation may be mostly mediated by epigenetic processes rather than by

  14. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  15. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  16. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, where collection of needle tissues is extremely difficult has been standardized. The extracted DNA was comparable to that obtained from the needle tissue in terms of yield and purity. The yield of extracted DNA ranged ...

  17. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  18. Polyphenolics free DNA isolation and optimization of PCR-RAPD for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and good quality high molecular weight DNA samples. DNA was isolated from the mature and fresh young tender leaves obtained from various Italian wild populations of fennel. We performed a modified cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide ...

  19. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  20. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  1. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruta, Mayumi [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Shimada, Midori, E-mail: midorism@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle [Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, 26 rue d’Ulm, CNRS UMR 3244, 75248 ParisCedex 05 (France); Nakanishi, Makoto, E-mail: mkt-naka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.

  2. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.

  3. Global impact of mature biofilm lifestyle on Escherichia coli K-12 gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloin, C.; Valle, J.; Latour-Lambert, P.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of biofilm results in a major lifestyle switch that is thought to affect the expression of multiple genes and operons. We used DNA arrays to study the global effect of biofilm formation on gene expression in mature Escherichia coli K-12 biofilm. We show that, when biofilm is compared...... that 20 of these genes are required for the formation of mature biofilm. This group includes 11 genes of previously unknown function. These results constitute a comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptional response triggered in mature E. coli biofilms and provide insights into its physiological...

  4. Structural and Histone Binding Ability Characterizations of Human PWWP Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram; Amaya, Maria F.; Xu, Chao; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Qiu, Wei; Wang, Yanming; Min, Jinrong (Toronto); (Penn)

    2013-09-25

    The PWWP domain was first identified as a structural motif of 100-130 amino acids in the WHSC1 protein and predicted to be a protein-protein interaction domain. It belongs to the Tudor domain 'Royal Family', which consists of Tudor, chromodomain, MBT and PWWP domains. While Tudor, chromodomain and MBT domains have long been known to bind methylated histones, PWWP was shown to exhibit histone binding ability only until recently. The PWWP domain has been shown to be a DNA binding domain, but sequence analysis and previous structural studies show that the PWWP domain exhibits significant similarity to other 'Royal Family' members, implying that the PWWP domain has the potential to bind histones. In order to further explore the function of the PWWP domain, we used the protein family approach to determine the crystal structures of the PWWP domains from seven different human proteins. Our fluorescence polarization binding studies show that PWWP domains have weak histone binding ability, which is also confirmed by our NMR titration experiments. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of the BRPF1 PWWP domain in complex with H3K36me3, and HDGF2 PWWP domain in complex with H3K79me3 and H4K20me3. PWWP proteins constitute a new family of methyl lysine histone binders. The PWWP domain consists of three motifs: a canonical {beta}-barrel core, an insertion motif between the second and third {beta}-strands and a C-terminal {alpha}-helix bundle. Both the canonical {beta}-barrel core and the insertion motif are directly involved in histone binding. The PWWP domain has been previously shown to be a DNA binding domain. Therefore, the PWWP domain exhibits dual functions: binding both DNA and methyllysine histones.

  5. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  6. Structure-based domain assignment in Leishmania infantum EndoG: characterization of a pH-dependent regulatory switch and a C-terminal extension that largely dictates DNA substrate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Cristina; Sánchez-Murcia, Pedro A; Rico, Eva; Bravo, Ana; Menéndez, Margarita; Gago, Federico; Jiménez-Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-09-06

    Mitochondrial endonuclease G from Leishmania infantum (LiEndoG) participates in the degradation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during parasite cell death and is catalytically inactive at a pH of 8.0 or above. The presence, in the primary sequence, of an acidic amino acid-rich insertion exclusive to trypanosomatids and its spatial position in a homology-built model of LiEndoG led us to postulate that this peptide stretch might act as a pH sensor for self-inhibition. We found that a LiEndoG variant lacking residues 145-180 is indeed far more active than its wild-type counterpart at pH values >7.0. In addition, we discovered that (i) LiEndoG exists as a homodimer, (ii) replacement of Ser211 in the active-site SRGH motif with the canonical aspartate from the DRGH motif of other nucleases leads to a catalytically deficient enzyme, (iii) the activity of the S211D variant can be restored upon the concomitant replacement of Ala247 with Arg and (iv) a C-terminal extension is responsible for the observed preferential cleavage of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and ssDNA-dsDNA junctions. Taken together, our results support the view that LiEndoG is a multidomain molecular machine whose nuclease activity can be subtly modulated or even abrogated through architectural changes brought about by environmental conditions and interaction with other binding partners. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. E-learning process maturity level: a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, A.; Santoso, H. B.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    ICT advancement is a sure thing with the impact influencing many domains, including learning in both formal and informal situations. It leads to a new mindset that we should not only utilize the given ICT to support the learning process, but also improve it gradually involving a lot of factors. These phenomenon is called e-learning process evolution. Accordingly, this study attempts to explore maturity level concept to provide the improvement direction gradually and progression monitoring for the individual e-learning process. Extensive literature review, observation, and forming constructs are conducted to develop a conceptual framework for e-learning process maturity level. The conceptual framework consists of learner, e-learning process, continuous improvement, evolution of e-learning process, technology, and learning objectives. Whilst, evolution of e-learning process depicted as current versus expected conditions of e-learning process maturity level. The study concludes that from the e-learning process maturity level conceptual framework, it may guide the evolution roadmap for e-learning process, accelerate the evolution, and decrease the negative impact of ICT. The conceptual framework will be verified and tested in the future study.

  8. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  9. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  10. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope...... of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models...

  11. A Proteomic Approach to Identify Phosphorylation-Dependent Targets of BRCT Domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Songyang, Zhou

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition, BRCT domains are found in many proteins that regulate DNA damage repair, cell cycle, and genome stability, implying a more global role of BRCT domains in genome stability surveillance...

  12. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet

    2018-01-01

    is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain

  13. IBM1, a JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase, is involved in the regulation of RNA-directed DNA methylation through the epigenetic control of RDR2 and DCL3 expression in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Di; Dai, Yan; Wang, Xuncheng; Wang, Zhenjie; He, Hang; Yang, Hongchun; Cao, Ying; Deng, Xing Wang; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Small RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is an important epigenetic pathway in Arabidopsis that controls the expression of multiple genes and several developmental processes. RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) and DICER-LIKE 3 (DCL3) are necessary factors in 24-nt small interfering RNA (siRNA) biogenesis, which is part of the RdDM pathway. Here, we found that Increase in BONSAI Methylation 1 (IBM1), a conserved JmjC family histone demethylase, is directly associated with RDR2 and DCL3 chromatin. The mutation of IBM1 induced the hypermethylation of H3K9 and DNA non-CG sites within RDR2 and DCL3, which repressed their expression. A genome-wide analysis suggested that the reduction in RDR2 and DCL3 expression affected siRNA biogenesis in a locus-specific manner and disrupted RdDM-directed gene repression. Together, our results suggest that IBM1 regulates gene expression through two distinct pathways: direct association to protect genes from silencing by preventing the coupling of histone and DNA methylation, and indirect silencing of gene expression through RdDM-directed repression. PMID:22772985

  14. DNA adducts in senescent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubatz, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Perturbations in DNA repair and other metabolic processes during development and aging might affect the steady-state level of genomic damage. The persistence or accumulation of DNA lesions in postmitotic cells could have a significant impact on proper cellular function, interfering with gene regulation for example. To test the notion that DNA damage increases as a function of age in non-dividing cells, DNA was purified from heart tissue of C57BL/6Nia mice at different ages and analyzed by post labeling techniques to detect DNA adducts. In the present experiments, four-dimensional, thin-layer chromatography was used to isolate aromatic adducts that were labeled with carrier-free (γ- 32 P) ATP under DNA-P excess conditions. The complexity and frequency of aromatic adducts varied between DNA samples. Several adducts were present in all preparations and were clearly more abundant in nucleotide maps of mature and old heart DNA. However, a direct correlation with age was not observed. In contrast, experiments in which aromatic adducts were first isolated by phase-transfer to 1-butanol, then labeled with excess (γ- 32 P)ATP indicated that there was an age-related increase in these adducts. The results are consistent with their earlier studies that showed alkyl adducts increased during aging of mouse myocardium and suggest that a common repair pathway might be involved

  15. DNA Binding by the Ribosomal DNA Transcription Factor Rrn3 Is Essential for Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H.; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A.; Rothblum, Lawrence I.

    2013-01-01

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382–400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I. PMID:23393135

  16. DNA binding by the ribosomal DNA transcription factor rrn3 is essential for ribosomal DNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A; Rothblum, Lawrence I

    2013-03-29

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382-400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I.

  17. A novel heavy domain antibody library with functionally optimized complementarity determining regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Aalund Mandrup

    Full Text Available Today a number of synthetic antibody libraries of different formats have been created and used for the selection of a large number of recombinant antibodies. One of the determining factors for successful isolation of recombinant antibodies from libraries lies in the quality of the libraries i.e. the number of correctly folded, functional antibodies contained in the library. Here, we describe the construction of a novel, high quality, synthetic single domain antibody library dubbed Predator. The library is based on the HEL4 domain antibody with the addition of recently reported mutations concerning the amino acid composition at positions critical for the folding characteristics and aggregation propensities of domain antibodies. As a unique feature, the CDR3 of the library was designed to mimic the natural human immune response by designating amino acids known to be prevalent in functional antibodies to the diversity in CDR3. CDR randomizations were performed using trinucleotide synthesis to avoid the presence of stop codons. Furthermore a novel cycle free elongation method was used for the conversion of the synthesized single stranded DNA containing the randomized CDRs into double stranded DNA of the library. In addition a modular approach has been adopted for the scaffold in which each CDR region is flanked by unique restrictions sites, allowing easy affinity maturation of selected clones by CDR shuffling. To validate the quality of the library, one round phage display selections were performed on purified antigens and highly complex antigen mixtures such as cultured eukaryotic cells resulting in several specific binders. The further characterization of some of the selected clones, however, indicates a reduction in thermodynamic stability caused by the inclusion the additional mutations to the HEL4 scaffold.

  18. Modeling DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  19. Extracellular DNA metabolism in Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eChimileski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular DNA is found in all environments and is a dynamic component of the micro-bial ecosystem. Microbial cells produce and interact with extracellular DNA through many endogenous mechanisms. Extracellular DNA is processed and internalized for use as genetic information and as a major source of macronutrients, and plays several key roles within prokaryotic biofilms. Hypersaline sites contain some of the highest extracellular DNA con-centrations measured in nature–a potential rich source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus for halophilic microorganisms. We conducted DNA growth studies for the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii DS2 and show that this model Halobacteriales strain is capable of using exogenous double-stranded DNA as a nutrient. Further experiments with varying medium composition, DNA concentration and DNA types revealed that DNA is utilized primarily as a phosphorus source, that growth on DNA is concentration-dependent and that DNA isolated from different sources is metabolized selectively, with a bias against highly divergent methylated DNA sources. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy experiments showed that labeled DNA colocalized with Haloferax volcanii cells. The gene Hvo_1477 was also identified using a comparative genomic approach as a factor likely to be involved in extracellular DNA processing at the cell surface, and deletion of Hvo_1477 created an H. volcanii strain deficient in its ability to grow on extracellular DNA. Widespread distribution of Hvo_1477 homologs in archaea suggests metabolism of extracellular DNA may be of broad ecological and physiological relevance in this domain of life.

  20. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  1. The Application of Work Domain Analysis to Defining Australia’s Air Combat Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Capability. References Brady, A., Naikar, N., & Treadwell, A. (2013). Organisational storytelling with work domain analysis: Case study of air power...UNCLASSIFIED 20 Brady, A., Naikar, N., & Treadwell, A. (2013). Organisational storytelling with work domain analysis: Case study of air power doctrine and...maturity model? A framework of general design principles for maturity model and its demonstration in business process management. Proceedings of the

  2. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  3. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. GROWING UP IS HARD TO DO: AN EMPIRICAL EVALUATION OF MATURATION AND DESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael; Posick, Chad; White, Helene R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose With an increase in longitudinal datasets and analyses, scholars have made theoretical advances toward understanding desistance, using biological, social, and psychological factors. In an effort to integrate the theoretical views on desistance, some scholars have argued that each of these views represents a piece of adult maturation. Yet to date, research has not empirically examined an integrated perspective. The purpose of this study is to conduct an exploratory examination of various “domains” of maturation to determine whether they explain desistance from crime separately and as a whole. Methods Using the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project, a longitudinal study spanning ages 12–31, we develop exploratory measures of maturation in five domains: 1) adult social roles, 2) identity/cognitive, 3) psychosocial, 4) civic, and 5) neurocognitive. We then utilize growth curve models to examine the relationship between these domains and crime over time. Results Although each of the domains is associated with crime at the bivariate level, only three (i.e., psychosocial, identity/cognitive transformation, and adult social role) remain significant in the growth curve models (2 in within-individual analyses). In addition, a combined measure of maturation is related to crime, indicating that greater maturation through emerging adulthood has a negative effect on criminal behavior and is, therefore, a factor influencing desistance. Conclusions Maturation emerges as a promising approach to integrating the multiple theoretical views that characterize the literature on desistance from crime. Further research should develop additional domains and determine the best approach for measurement. PMID:28580234

  5. A maturity model for blockchain adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaiqing; Chen, Kun; Xu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of the blockchain technology and its various applications has rendered it important to understand the guidelines for adopting it. Methods: The comparative analysis method is used to analyze different dimensions of the maturity model, which is mainly based on the commonly used capability maturity model. Results: The blockchain maturity model and its adoption process have been discussed and presented. Conclusions: This study serves as a guide to institutions to...

  6. Chromatin domains and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransz, P.; Meier, I.

    2009-01-01

    The inheritance of biological traits involves not only the transfer of genetic information in the form of DNA, but also epigenetic information. The latter is encrypted in a DNA component, methylation of cytosine residues, and in non-DNA components such as histone modifications, non-histone proteins,

  7. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  8. Comparative transcriptome analyses of a late-maturing mandarin mutant and its original cultivar reveals gene expression profiling associated with citrus fruit maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of late maturity in fruit are good agronomic traits for extending the harvest period and marketing time. However, underlying molecular basis of the late-maturing mechanism in fruit is largely unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to late-maturing characteristics from a late-maturing mutant ‘Huawan Wuzishatangju’ (HWWZSTJ (Citrus reticulata Blanco and its original line ‘Wuzishatangju’ (WZSTJ. A total of approximately 17.0 Gb and 84.2 M paried-end reads were obtained. DEGs were significantly enriched in the pathway of photosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, chlorophyll and abscisic acid (ABA metabolism. Thirteen candidate transcripts related to chlorophyll metabolism, carotenoid biosynthesis and ABA metabolism were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR at all fruit maturing stages of HWWZSTJ and WZSTJ. Chlorophyllase (CLH and divinyl reductase (DVR from chlorophyll metabolism, phytoene synthase (PSY and capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (CCS from carotenoid biosynthesis, and abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase (AB1 and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 from ABA metabolism were cloned and analyzed. The expression pattern of NCED1 indicated its role in the late-maturing characteristics of HWWZSTJ. There were 270 consecutive bases missing in HWWZSTJ in comparison with full-length sequences of NCED1 cDNA from WZSTJ. Those results suggested that NCED1 might play an important role in the late maturity of HWWZSTJ. This study provides new information on complex process that results in the late maturity of Citrus fruit at the transcriptional level.

  9. DNA Camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    1 DNA Camouflage Supplementary Information Bijan Zakeri1,2*, Timothy K. Lu1,2*, Peter A. Carr2,3* 1Department of Electrical Engineering and...ll.mit.edu). Distribution A: Public Release   2 Supplementary Figure 1 DNA camouflage with the 2-state device. (a) In the presence of Cre, DSD-2[α...10 1 + Cre 1 500 1,000 length (bp) chromatogram alignment template − Cre   4 Supplementary Figure 3 DNA camouflage with a switchable

  10. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  11. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  12. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  13. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  14. Identification and characterization of human polyserase-3, a novel protein with tandem serine-protease domains in the same polypeptide chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabaya Cecilia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously described the identification and characterization of polyserase-1 and polyserase-2, two human serine proteases containing three different catalytic domains within the same polypeptide chain. Polyserase-1 shows a complex organization and it is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein which can generate three independent serine protease domains as a consequence of post-translational processing events. The two first domains are enzymatically active. By contrast, polyserase-2 is an extracellular glycosylated protein whose three protease domains remain embedded in the same chain, and only the first domain possesses catalytic activity. Results Following our interest in the study of the human degradome, we have cloned a human liver cDNA encoding polyserase-3, a new protease with tandem serine protease domains in the same polypeptide chain. Comparative analysis of polyserase-3 with the two human polyserases described to date, revealed that this novel polyprotein is more closely related to polyserase-2 than to polyserase-1. Thus, polyserase-3 is a secreted protein such as polyserase-2, but lacks additional domains like the type II transmembrane motif and the low-density lipoprotein receptor module present in the membrane-anchored polyserase-1. Moreover, analysis of post-translational mechanisms operating in polyserase-3 maturation showed that its two protease domains remain as integral parts of the same polypeptide chain. This situation is similar to that observed in polyserase-2, but distinct from polyserase-1 whose protease domains are proteolytically released from the original chain to generate independent units. Immunolocalization studies indicated that polyserase-3 is secreted as a non-glycosylated protein, thus being also distinct from polyserase-2, which is a heavily glycosylated protein. Enzymatic assays indicated that recombinant polyserase-3 degrades the α-chain of fibrinogen as well as pro

  15. DNA-binding proteins essential for protein-primed bacteriophage ø29 DNA replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Salas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis phage Φ29 has a linear, double-stranded DNA 19 kb long with an inverted terminal repeat of 6 nucleotides and a protein covalently linked to the 5’ ends of the DNA. This protein, called terminal protein (TP, is the primer for the initiation of replication, a reaction catalyzed by the viral DNA polymerase at the two DNA ends. The DNA polymerase further elongates the nascent DNA chain in a processive manner, coupling strand displacement with elongation. The viral protein p5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB that binds to the single strands generated by strand displacement during the elongation process. Viral protein p6 is a double-stranded DNA binding protein (DBP that preferentially binds to the origins of replication at the Φ29 DNA ends and is required for the initiation of replication. Both SSB and DBP are essential for Φ29 DNA amplification. This review focuses on the role of these phage DNA-binding proteins in Φ29 DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on the implication of several B. subtilis DNA-binding proteins in different processes of the viral cycle. We will revise the enzymatic activities of the Φ29 DNA polymerase: TP-deoxynucleotidylation, processive DNA polymerization coupled to strand displacement, 3’-5’ exonucleolysis and pyrophosphorolysis. The resolution of the Φ29 DNA polymerase structure has shed light on the translocation mechanism and the determinants responsible for processivity and strand displacement. These two properties have made Φ29 DNA polymerase one of the main enzymes used in the current DNA amplification technologies. The determination of the structure of Φ29 TP revealed the existence of three domains: the priming domain, where the primer residue Ser232, as well as Phe230, involved in the determination of the initiating nucleotide, are located, the intermediate domain, involved in DNA polymerase binding, and the N-terminal domain, responsible for DNA binding

  16. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  17. A maturity model for industrial supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameri, A.P.; McKay, K.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an evolutionary view of supply chains to suggest a series of distinct, contextual phases for supply chain execution and what maturity might mean at each phase. For example, what is best practice in a mature industry might not be best practice in a pioneering situation.Three

  18. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  19. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  20. POSTTREATMENT NEUROBLASTOMA MATURATION TO GANGLIONIC CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ryzhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can differentiate into more mature forms in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors, such as medulloblastomas with increased nodularity, as well as neuroblastomas. The authors describe 2 cases of neuroblastoma maturation into ganglioneuroblastoma 5 months after chemotherapy in a 2-year-old girl and 3 years after radiotherapy in a 16-year-old girl.

  1. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  2. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  3. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  4. Correlation of Improved Version of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Indicator with Other Growth Maturity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The correlation between middle phalanx of 3rd finger (MP3 and cervical vertebral maturation method (CVMI and CVMS was higher as compared to the correlation of either of the cervical vertebral maturation method or MP3 with dental maturation indicator.

  5. Assessing healthcare process maturity: challenges of using a business process maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Doi: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259105 The quality of healthcare services is influenced by the maturity of healthcare processes used to develop it. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve organizational processes. In the last decade, a number of maturity models

  6. Role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in porcine oocyte in vitro maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Li; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is critical for the DNA damage response, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. Significant effort has focused on elucidating the relationship between ATM and other nuclear signal transducers; however, little is known about the connection between ATM and oocyte meiotic maturation. We investigated the function of ATM in porcine oocytes. ATM was expressed at all stages of oocyte maturation and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Furthermore, the ATM-specific inhibitor KU-55933 blocked porcine oocyte maturation, reducing the percentages of oocytes that underwent germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and first polar body extrusion. KU-55933 also decreased the expression of DNA damage-related genes (breast cancer 1, budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1, and P53) and reduced the mRNA and protein levels of AKT and other cell cycle-regulated genes that are predominantly expressed during G2/M phase, including bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, cell division cycle protein 2, cyclinB1, and AKT. KU-55933 treatment decreased the developmental potential of blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation and increased the level of apoptosis. Together, these data suggested that ATM influenced the meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes, potentially by decreasing their sensitivity to DNA strand breaks, stimulating the AKT pathway, and/or altering the expression of other maternal genes. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  8. Evolutionistic or revolutionary paths? A PACS maturity model for strategic situational planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, Rogier; Batenburg, Ronald; Lederman, Reeva

    2010-07-01

    While many hospitals are re-evaluating their current Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), few have a mature strategy for PACS deployment. Furthermore, strategies for implementation, strategic and situational planning methods for the evolution of PACS maturity are scarce in the scientific literature. Consequently, in this paper we propose a strategic planning method for PACS deployment. This method builds upon a PACS maturity model (PMM), based on the elaboration of the strategic alignment concept and the maturity growth path concept previously developed in the PACS domain. First, we review the literature on strategic planning for information systems and information technology and PACS maturity. Secondly, the PMM is extended by applying four different strategic perspectives of the Strategic Alignment Framework whereupon two types of growth paths (evolutionistic and revolutionary) are applied that focus on a roadmap for PMM. This roadmap builds a path to get from one level of maturity and evolve to the next. An extended method for PACS strategic planning is developed. This method defines eight distinctive strategies for PACS strategic situational planning that allow decision-makers in hospitals to decide which approach best suits their hospitals' current situation and future ambition and what in principle is needed to evolve through the different maturity levels. The proposed method allows hospitals to strategically plan for PACS maturation. It is situational in that the required investments and activities depend on the alignment between the hospital strategy and the selected growth path. The inclusion of both strategic alignment and maturity growth path concepts make the planning method rigorous, and provide a framework for further empirical research and clinical practice.

  9. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.

    2008-01-01

    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  10. Hyperstretching DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenraad, Koen; Biebricher, Andreas S.; Sebregts, Maarten; Ten Bensel, Brian; Peterman, Erwin J.G.; Wuite, Gijs J L; Heller, Iddo; Storm, Cornelis; Van Der Schoot, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of DNA is highly susceptible to changes by mechanical and biochemical cues in vivo and in vitro. In particular, large increases in base pair spacing compared to regular B-DNA are effected by mechanical (over)stretching and by intercalation of compounds that are widely

  11. Chromatin challenges during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Rocha, Walter; Verreault, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inheritance and maintenance of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are central for eukaryotic life. To orchestrate DNA-replication and -repair processes in the context of chromatin is a challenge, both in terms of accessibility and maintenance of chromatin organization. To meet...... the challenge of maintenance, cells have evolved efficient nucleosome-assembly pathways and chromatin-maturation mechanisms that reproduce chromatin organization in the wake of DNA replication and repair. The aim of this Review is to describe how these pathways operate and to highlight how the epigenetic...... landscape may be stably maintained even in the face of dramatic changes in chromatin structure....

  12. Recognition and cleavage of 5-methylcytosine DNA by bacterial SRA-HNH proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Tiesheng; Yamada-Mabuchi, Megumu; Zhao, Gong; Li, Li; liu, Guang; Ou, Hong-Yu; Deng, Zixin; Zheng, Yu; He, Xinyi

    2015-01-01

    SET and RING-finger-associated (SRA) domain is involved in establishment and maintenance of DNA methylation in eukaryotes. Proteins containing SRA domains exist in mammals, plants, even microorganisms. It has been established that mammalian SRA domain recognizes 5-methylcytosine (5mC) through a base-flipping mechanism. Here, we identified and characterized two SRA domain-containing proteins with the common domain architecture of N-terminal SRA domain and C-terminal HNH nuclease domain, Sco533...

  13. The Effect of Growth Hormone on Lipid Accumulation or Maturation in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adipogenesis of adipocytes includes two stages: initiation and maturation. Growth hormone (GH secretion is decreased in obese subjects and GH levels are inversely correlated with abdominal fat mass. The effects of growth hormone (GH on lipids accumulation or maturation of adipocytes remains elusive. Methods: In the present study, effect of GH on lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo was examined. cDNA microarray, quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR and western blotting was used to analyze the expression of genes related to adipocyte lipid accumulation or degradation in pre- or mature 3T3-F442A adipocytes treated with GH and in epididymal adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice administrated with GH. Level of adiponectin in supernatants of cultured F442A adipocytes was determined by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. Results: We found that in 3T3-F442A especially 6 days post initiation of adipogenesis, GH intervention resulted in decreased expression of adipocyte maturation regulators (C/EBPα, PPARγ and prominent genes related to lipid synthesis such as FAS and FABP, while the expression of UCP1 was markedly enhanced. cDNA microarray analysis and qPCR showed that the expression of SOCS2 and Adipor2 was increased under GH-treatment in mature 3T3-F442A adipocytes. GH treatment increased the mRNA expression of adiponectin and UCP1 in mature adipocytes. The above results were confirmed by in vivo study. Conclusions: GH potentially negatively modulates the maturation and accumulation of lipid in adipocytes.

  14. Genomic DNA extraction from sapwood of Pinus roxburghii for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashish

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... A method for extraction of genomic DNA from sapwood tissues of mature tall trees of Pinus roxburghii, .... DNA as a template. PCR was performed on a thermal cycler. (Biorad, Mycycler) incorporating 10 ng genomic DNA to a 25 µl reaction mix containing 1X Taq buffer, 3 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM each of dNTPs ...

  15. Signatures of DNA target selectivity by ETS transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Gregory M K; Kim, Hye Mi

    2017-05-27

    The ETS family of transcription factors is a functionally heterogeneous group of gene regulators that share a structurally conserved, eponymous DNA-binding domain. DNA target specificity derives from combinatorial interactions with other proteins as well as intrinsic heterogeneity among ETS domains. Emerging evidence suggests molecular hydration as a fundamental feature that defines the intrinsic heterogeneity in DNA target selection and susceptibility to epigenetic DNA modification. This perspective invokes novel hypotheses in the regulation of ETS proteins in physiologic osmotic stress, their pioneering potential in heterochromatin, and the effects of passive and pharmacologic DNA demethylation on ETS regulation.

  16. Cloning of the cDNA for murine von Willebrand factor and identification of orthologous genes reveals the extent of conservation among diverse species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Mohan S; Duhé, Roy J; Kermode, John C

    2007-05-01

    Interaction of von Willebrand factor (VWF) with circulating platelets promotes hemostasis when a blood vessel is injured. The A1 domain of VWF is responsible for the initial interaction with platelets and is well conserved among species. Knowledge of the cDNA and genomic DNA sequences for human VWF allowed us to predict the cDNA sequence for murine VWF in silico and amplify its entire coding region by RT-PCR. The murine VWF cDNA has an open reading frame of 8,442 bp, encoding a protein of 2,813 amino acid residues with 83% identity to human pre-pro-VWF. The same strategy was used to predict in silico the cDNA sequence for the ortholog of VWF in a further six species. Many of these predictions diverged substantially from the putative Reference Sequences derived by ab initio methods. Our predicted sequences indicated that the VWF gene has a conserved structure of 52 exons in all seven mammalian species examined, as well as in the chicken. There is a minor structural variation in the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes insofar as the VWF gene in this species has 53 exons. Comparison of the translated amino acid sequences also revealed a high degree of conservation. In particular, the cysteine residues are conserved precisely throughout both the pro-peptide and the mature VWF sequence in all species, with a minor exception in the pufferfish VWF ortholog where two adjacent cysteine residues are omitted. The marked conservation of cysteine residues emphasizes the importance of the intricate pattern of disulfide bonds in governing the structure of pro-VWF and regulating the function of the mature VWF protein. It should also be emphasized that many of the conserved features of the VWF gene and protein were obscured when the comparison among species was based on the putative Reference Sequences instead of our predicted cDNA sequences.

  17. Exonuclease 1 and its versatile roles in DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzers, Guido; Liu, Dekang; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2016-01-01

    Exonuclease 1 (EXO1) is a multifunctional 5' → 3' exonuclease and a DNA structure-specific DNA endonuclease. EXO1 plays roles in DNA replication, DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and DNA double-stranded break repair (DSBR) in lower and higher eukaryotes and contributes to meiosis, immunoglobulin...... maturation, and micro-mediated end-joining in higher eukaryotes. In human cells, EXO1 is also thought to play a role in telomere maintenance. Mutations in the human EXO1 gene correlate with increased susceptibility to some cancers. This review summarizes recent studies on the enzymatic functions...

  18. A nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain plays an important role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanuk; Lee, Hwa Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-04-16

    Although several chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation (CRM) domain-containing proteins have been characterized for intron splicing and rRNA processing during chloroplast gene expression, the functional role of a majority of CRM domain proteins in plant growth and development as well as chloroplast RNA metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the developmental and stress response roles of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein harboring a single CRM domain (At4g39040), designated CFM4, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of CFM4-GFP fusion proteins revealed that CFM4 is localized to chloroplasts. The loss-of-function T-DNA insertion mutants for CFM4 (cfm4) displayed retarded growth and delayed senescence, suggesting that CFM4 plays a role in growth and development of plants under normal growth conditions. In addition, cfm4 mutants showed retarded seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. No alteration in the splicing patterns of intron-containing chloroplast genes was observed in the mutant plants, but the processing of 16S and 4.5S rRNAs was abnormal in the mutant plants. Importantly, CFM4 was determined to possess RNA chaperone activity. These results suggest that the chloroplast-targeted CFM4, one of two Arabidopsis genes encoding a single CRM domain-containing protein, harbors RNA chaperone activity and plays a role in the Arabidopsis growth and stress response by affecting rRNA processing in chloroplasts.

  19. Eccentric localization of catalase to protect chromosomes from oxidative damages during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seok; You, Seung Yeop; Cho, Sungrae; Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; Lee, Sukchan; Cho, Dong-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Jeong Su

    2016-09-01

    The maintenance of genomic integrity and stability is essential for the survival of every organism. Unfortunately, DNA is vulnerable to attack by a variety of damaging agents. Oxidative stress is a major cause of DNA damage because reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as by-products of normal cellular metabolism. Cells have developed eloquent antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves from oxidative damage along with aerobic metabolism. Here, we show that catalase (CAT) is present in mouse oocytes to protect the genome from oxidative damage during meiotic maturation. CAT was expressed in the nucleus to form unique vesicular structures. However, after nuclear envelope breakdown, CAT was redistributed in the cytoplasm with particular focus at the chromosomes. Inhibition of CAT activity increased endogenous ROS levels, but did not perturb meiotic maturation. In addition, CAT inhibition produced chromosomal defects, including chromosome misalignment and DNA damage. Therefore, our data suggest that CAT is required not only to scavenge ROS, but also to protect DNA from oxidative damage during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes.

  20. Involvement of the yeast DNA polymerase delta in DNA repair in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giot, L. [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY. (United States); Chanet, R.; Simon, M.; Facca, C.; Faye, G.

    1997-08-15

    The POL3 encoded catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta possesses a highly conserved C-terminal cysteine-rich domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations in some of its cysteine codons display a lethal phenotype, which demonstrates an essential function of this domain. The thermosensitive mutant pol3-13, in which a serine replaces a cysteine of this domain, exhibits a range of defects in DNA repair, such as hypersensitivity to different DNA-damaging agents and deficiency for induced mutagenesis and for recombination. These phenotypes are observed at 24 degrees, a temperature at which DNA replication is almost normal; this differentiates the functions of POL3 in DNA repair and DNA replication. Since spontaneous mutagenesis and spontaneous recombination are efficient in pol3-13, we propose that POL3 plays an important role in DNA repair after irradiation, particularly in the error-prone and recombinational pathways. Extragenic suppressors of pol3-13 are allelic to sdp5-1, previously identified as an extragenic suppressor of pol3-11. SDP5, which is identical to HYS2, encodes a protein homologous to the p50 subunit of bovine and human DNA polymerase delta. SDP5 is most probably the p55 subunit of Pol delta of S. cerevisiae and seems to be associated with the catalytic subunit for both DNA replication and DNA repair. (author)

  1. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  2. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Mapping DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes following long-range communication between DNA sites in different orientations

    OpenAIRE

    van Aelst, Kara; Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes are single-chain proteins comprising an Mrr-family nuclease, a superfamily 2 helicase-like ATPase, a coupler domain, a methyltransferase, and a DNA-recognition domain. Upon recognising an unmodified DNA target site, the helicase-like domain hydrolyzes ATP to cause site release (remodeling activity) and to then drive downstream translocation consuming 1-2 ATP per base pair (motor activity). On an invading foreign DNA, double-strand brea...

  4. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Reveals Structural Fluidity of a Phage T3 DNA Packaging Intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T.

    2012-01-01

    We find a new aspect of DNA packaging-associated structural fluidity for phage T3 capsids. The procedure is (1) glutaraldehyde cross-linking of in vivo DNA packaging intermediates for stabilization of structure and then (2) determining of effective radius by two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis (2d-AGE). The intermediates are capsids with incompletely packaged DNA (ipDNA) and without an external DNA segment; these intermediates are called ipDNA-capsids. We initially increase production of ipDNA-capsids by raising NaCl concentration during in vivo DNA packaging. By 2d-AGE, we find a new state of contracted shell for some particles of one previously identified ipDNA-capsid. The contracted shell-state is found when ipDNA length/mature DNA length (F) is above 0.17, but not at lower F. Some contracted-shell ipDNA-capsids have the phage tail; others do not. The contracted-shell ipDNA-capsids are explained by premature DNA maturation cleavage that makes accessible a contracted-shell intermediate of a cycle of the T3 DNA packaging motor. The analysis of ipDNA-capsids, rather than intermediates with uncleaved DNA, provides a simplifying strategy for a complete biochemical analysis of in vivo DNA packaging. PMID:22222979

  5. Agarose gel electrophoresis reveals structural fluidity of a phage T3 DNA packaging intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T

    2012-01-01

    We find a new aspect of DNA packaging-associated structural fluidity for phage T3 capsids. The procedure is (i) glutaraldehyde cross-linking of in vivo DNA packaging intermediates for the stabilization of structure and then (ii) determining effective radius by two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis (2D-AGE). The intermediates are capsids with incompletely packaged DNA (ipDNA) and without an external DNA segment; these intermediates are called ipDNA-capsids. We initially increase the production of ipDNA-capsids by raising NaCl concentration during in vivo DNA packaging. By 2D-AGE, we find a new state of contracted shell for some particles of one previously identified ipDNA-capsid. The contracted shell-state is found when the ipDNA length/mature DNA length (F) is above 0.17, but not at lower F. Some contracted-shell ipDNA-capsids have the phage tail; others do not. The contracted-shell ipDNA-capsids are explained by premature DNA maturation cleavage that makes accessible a contracted-shell intermediate of a cycle of the T3 DNA packaging motor. The analysis of ipDNA-capsids, rather than intermediates with uncleaved DNA, provides a simplifying strategy for a complete biochemical analysis of in vivo DNA packaging. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Game Maturity Model for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan C; Adriani, Paul; van Houwelingen, Jan Willem; Geerts, A

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Game Maturity Model for the healthcare industry as an extension to the general Game Maturity Model and describes the usage by two case studies of applied health games. The Game Maturity Model for healthcare provides a practical and value-adding method to assess existing games and to determine strategic considerations for application of applied health games. Our forecast is that within 5 years the use and development of applied games will have a role in our daily lives and the way we organize health care that will be similar to the role social media has today.

  7. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  8. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management...

  9. Cellular response to DNA damage. Link between p53 and DNA-PK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles-Passador, I.; Fotedar, R.; Fotedar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cells which lack DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) are very susceptible to ionizing radiation and display an inability to repair double-strand DNA breaks. DNA-PK is a member of a protein kinase family that includes ATR and ATM which have strong homology in their carboxy-terminal kinase domain with Pl-3 kinase. ATM has been proposed to act upstream of p53 in cellular response to ionizing radiation. DNA-PK may similarly interact with p53 in cellular growth control and in mediation of the response to ionizing radiation. (author)

  10. The Smc5/6 complex regulates the yeast Mph1 helicase at RNA-DNA hybrid-mediated DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuente-Barquero, Juan; Luke-Glaser, Sarah; Graf, Marco

    2017-01-01

    of Fanconi anemia protein M (FANCM), is required for cell viability in the absence of RNase H enzymes. The integrity of the Mph1 helicase domain is crucial to prevent the accumulation of RNA-DNA hybrids and RNA-DNA hybrid-dependent DNA damage, as determined by Rad52 foci. Mph1 forms foci when RNA-DNA hybrids...

  11. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  12. DNA data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  13. DNA nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  14. Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide System and Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and Maturation into Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Hagir B.; Zobi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into energetically efficient cardiomyocytes contributes to functional cardiac repair and is envisioned to ameliorate progressive degenerative cardiac diseases. Advanced cell maturation strategies are therefore needed to create abundant mature cardiomyocytes. In this study, we tested whether the redox-sensitive heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide (HO-1/CO) system, operating through mitochondrial biogenesis, acts as a mechanism for ES cell differentiation and cardiomyocyte maturation. Results: Manipulation of HO-1/CO to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis demonstrates a direct pathway to ES cell differentiation and maturation into beating cardiomyocytes that express adult structural markers. Targeted HO-1/CO interventions up- and downregulate specific cardiogenic transcription factors, transcription factor Gata4, homeobox protein Nkx-2.5, heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1, and MEF2C. HO-1/CO overexpression increases cardiac gene expression for myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform, MLC2v, ANP, MHC-β, and sarcomere α-actinin and the major mitochondrial fusion regulators, mitofusin 2 and MICOS complex subunit Mic60. This promotes structural mitochondrial network expansion and maturation, thereby supporting energy provision for beating embryoid bodies. These effects are prevented by silencing HO-1 and by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species scavenging, while disruption of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA depletion by loss of mitochondrial transcription factor A compromise infrastructure. This leads to failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation and contractile dysfunction. Innovation: The capacity to augment cardiomyogenesis via a defined mitochondrial pathway has unique therapeutic potential for targeting ES cell maturation in cardiac disease. Conclusion: Our findings establish the HO-1/CO system and redox regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as

  15. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  16. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  17. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  18. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  19. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  20. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  1. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  2. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  3. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is

  4. Differential recruitment of DNA Ligase I and III to DNA repair sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortusewicz, Oliver; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    DNA ligation is an essential step in DNA replication, repair and recombination. Mammalian cells contain three DNA Ligases that are not interchangeable although they use the same catalytic reaction mechanism. To compare the recruitment of the three eukaryotic DNA Ligases to repair sites in vivo we introduced DNA lesions in human cells by laser microirradiation. Time lapse microscopy of fluorescently tagged proteins showed that DNA Ligase III accumulated at microirradiated sites before DNA Ligase I, whereas we could detect only a faint accumulation of DNA Ligase IV. Recruitment of DNA Ligase I and III to repair sites was cell cycle independent. Mutational analysis and binding studies revealed that DNA Ligase I was recruited to DNA repair sites by interaction with PCNA while DNA Ligase III was recruited via its BRCT domain mediated interaction with XRCC1. Selective recruitment of specialized DNA Ligases may have evolved to accommodate the particular requirements of different repair pathways and may thus enhance efficiency of DNA repair. PMID:16855289

  5. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  6. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  7. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  8. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliarini, Celine; Chaumoitre, Katia; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine; Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliarini, Celine [Faculte Timone, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Chaumoitre, Katia [Hopital Nord, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine [Hopital Timone, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique [Hopital Timone, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France)

    2005-08-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  10. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  11. Autophagy in DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Czarny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage response (DDR involves DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, but autophagy is also suggested to play a role in DDR. Autophagy can be activated in response to DNA-damaging agents, but the exact mechanism underlying this activation is not fully understood, although it is suggested that it involves the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1. mTORC1 represses autophagy via phosphorylation of the ULK1/2–Atg13–FIP200 complex thus preventing maturation of pre-autophagosomal structures. When DNA damage occurs, it is recognized by some proteins or their complexes, such as poly(ADPribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, Mre11–Rad50–Nbs1 (MRN complex or FOXO3, which activate repressors of mTORC1. SQSTM1/p62 is one of the proteins whose levels are regulated via autophagic degradation. Inhibition of autophagy by knockout of FIP200 results in upregulation of SQSTM1/p62, enhanced DNA damage and less efficient damage repair. Mitophagy, one form of autophagy involved in the selective degradation of mitochondria, may also play role in DDR. It degrades abnormal mitochondria and can either repress or activate apoptosis, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. There is a need to clarify the role of autophagy in DDR, as this process may possess several important biomedical applications, involving also cancer therapy.

  12. RADX interacts with single-stranded DNA to promote replication fork stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Lisa; Ho, Teresa; Hoffmann, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) regions form as an intermediate in many DNA-associated transactions. Multiple cellular proteins interact with ssDNA via the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain. The heterotrimeric, multi-OB fold domain-containing Replication Protein A (RPA) complex...... ssDNA-binding activities is critical for avoiding these defects. Our findings establish RADX as an important component of cellular pathways that promote DNA replication integrity under basal and stressful conditions by means of multiple ssDNA-binding proteins....

  13. Structure of the Cpf1 endonuclease R-loop complex after target DNA cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stella, Stefano; Alcón, Pablo; Montoya, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    involved in DNA unwinding to form a CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-DNA hybrid and a displaced DNA strand. The protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) is recognized by the PAM-interacting domain. The loop-lysine helix-loop motif in this domain contains three conserved lysine residues that are inserted in a dentate manner...... and the crRNA-DNA hybrid, avoiding DNA re-annealing. Mutations in key residues reveal a mechanism linking the PAM and DNA nuclease sites. Analysis of the Cpf1 structures proposes a singular working model of RNA-guided DNA cleavage, suggesting new avenues for redesign of Cpf1....

  14. Conformational Dynamics of Thermus aquaticus DNA Polymerase I during Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cuiling; Maxwell, Brian A.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that DNA polymerases have been investigated for many years and are commonly used as tools in a number of molecular biology assays, many details of the kinetic mechanism they use to catalyze DNA synthesis remain unclear. Structural and kinetic studies have characterized a rapid, pre-catalytic open-to-close conformational change of the Finger domain during nucleotide binding for many DNA polymerases including Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I (Taq Pol), a thermostable enzyme c...

  15. Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Abe, Shigeaki; Watari, Fumio; Gao Hong; Sato, Yoshinori; Feng Qingling; Cui Fuzhai

    2009-01-01

    Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

  16. Two Novel Rab2 Interactors Regulate Dense-core Vesicle Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailion, Michael; Hannemann, Mandy; Dalton, Susan; Pappas, Andrea; Watanabe, Shigeki; Hegermann, Jan; Liu, Qiang; Han, Hsiao-Fen; Gu, Mingyu; Goulding, Morgan Q.; Sasidharan, Nikhil; Schuske, Kim; Hullett, Patrick; Eimer, Stefan; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Peptide neuromodulators are released from a unique organelle: the dense-core vesicle. Dense-core vesicles are generated at the trans-Golgi, and then sort cargo during maturation before being secreted. To identify proteins that act in this pathway, we performed a genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We identified two conserved Rab2-binding proteins: RUND-1, a RUN domain protein, and CCCP-1, a coiled-coil protein. RUND-1 and CCCP-1 colocalize with RAB-2 at the Golgi, and rab-2, rund-1 and cccp-1 mutants have similar defects in sorting soluble and transmembrane dense-core vesicle cargos. RUND-1 also interacts with the Rab2 GAP protein TBC-8 and the BAR domain protein RIC-19, a RAB-2 effector. In summary, a new pathway of conserved proteins controls the maturation of dense-core vesicles at the trans-Golgi network. PMID:24698274

  17. Clustering of double strand break-containing chromosome domains is not inhibited by inactivation of major repair proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczyk, P. M.; Stap, C.; Van Oven, C.; Hoebe, R.; Aten, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    For efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) cells rely on a process that involves the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex, which may help to protect non-repaired DNA ends from separating until they can be rejoined by DNA repair proteins. It has been observed that as a secondary effect, this process can lead to unintended clustering of multiple, initially separate, DSB-containing chromosome domains. This work demonstrates that neither inactivation of the major repair proteins XRCC3 and the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) nor inhibition of DNA-PK by vanillin influences the aggregation of DSB-containing chromosome domains. (authors)

  18. Effect of Hyaluronan on Developmental Competence and Quality of Oocytes and Obtained Blastocysts from In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Opiela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hyaluronan (HA during IVM on meiotic maturation, embryonic development, and the quality of oocytes, granulosa cells (GC, and obtained blastocysts. COCs were matured in vitro in control medium and medium with additional 0.035% or 0.07% of exogenous HA. The meiotic maturity did not differ between the analysed groups. The best rate and the highest quality of obtained blastocysts were observed when 0.07% HA was used. A highly significant difference (P<0.001 was noted in the mean number of apoptotic nuclei per blastocyst and in the DCI between the 0.07% HA and the control blastocysts (P<0.01. Our results suggest that addition of 0.035% HA and 0.07% HA to oocyte maturation media does not affect oocyte nuclear maturation and DNA fragmentation. However, the addition of 0.07% HA during IVM decreases the level of blastocysts DNA fragmentation. Finally, our results suggest that it may be risky to increase the HA concentration during IVM above 0.07% as we found significantly higher Bax mRNA expression levels in GC cultured with 0.07% HA. The final concentration of HA being supplemented to oocyte maturation media is critical for the success of the IVP procedure.

  19. Missed cleavage opportunities by FEN1 lead to Okazaki fragment maturation via the long-flap pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.

    2018-01-27

    RNA-DNA hybrid primers synthesized by low fidelity DNA polymerase α to initiate eukaryotic lagging strand synthesis must be removed efficiently during Okazaki fragment (OF) maturation to complete DNA replication. In this process, each OF primer is displaced and the resulting 5\\'-single-stranded flap is cleaved by structure-specific 5\\'-nucleases, mainly Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1), to generate a ligatable nick. At least two models have been proposed to describe primer removal, namely short- and long-flap pathways that involve FEN1 or FEN1 along with Replication Protein A (RPA) and Dna2 helicase/nuclease, respectively. We addressed the question of pathway choice by studying the kinetic mechanism of FEN1 action on short- and long-flap DNA substrates. Using single molecule FRET and rapid quench-flow bulk cleavage assays, we showed that unlike short-flap substrates, which are bound, bent and cleaved within the first encounter between FEN1 and DNA, long-flap substrates can escape cleavage even after DNA binding and bending. Notably, FEN1 can access both substrates in the presence of RPA, but bending and cleavage of long-flap DNA is specifically inhibited. We propose that FEN1 attempts to process both short and long flaps, but occasional missed cleavage of the latter allows RPA binding and triggers the long-flap OF maturation pathway.

  20. Missed cleavage opportunities by FEN1 lead to Okazaki fragment maturation via the long-flap pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.; Rashid, Fahad; Song, Bo; Joudeh, Luay I; Sobhy, Mohamed Abdelmaboud; Tehseen, Muhammad; Hingorani, Manju M; Hamdan, Samir

    2018-01-01

    RNA-DNA hybrid primers synthesized by low fidelity DNA polymerase α to initiate eukaryotic lagging strand synthesis must be removed efficiently during Okazaki fragment (OF) maturation to complete DNA replication. In this process, each OF primer is displaced and the resulting 5'-single-stranded flap is cleaved by structure-specific 5'-nucleases, mainly Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1), to generate a ligatable nick. At least two models have been proposed to describe primer removal, namely short- and long-flap pathways that involve FEN1 or FEN1 along with Replication Protein A (RPA) and Dna2 helicase/nuclease, respectively. We addressed the question of pathway choice by studying the kinetic mechanism of FEN1 action on short- and long-flap DNA substrates. Using single molecule FRET and rapid quench-flow bulk cleavage assays, we showed that unlike short-flap substrates, which are bound, bent and cleaved within the first encounter between FEN1 and DNA, long-flap substrates can escape cleavage even after DNA binding and bending. Notably, FEN1 can access both substrates in the presence of RPA, but bending and cleavage of long-flap DNA is specifically inhibited. We propose that FEN1 attempts to process both short and long flaps, but occasional missed cleavage of the latter allows RPA binding and triggers the long-flap OF maturation pathway.

  1. DNA Topology and the Initiation of Virus DNA Packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Seok Oh

    Full Text Available During progeny assembly, viruses selectively package virion genomes from a nucleic acid pool that includes host nucleic acids. For large dsDNA viruses, including tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses, immature viral DNA is recognized and translocated into a preformed icosahedral shell, the prohead. Recognition involves specific interactions between the viral packaging enzyme, terminase, and viral DNA recognition sites. Generally, viral DNA is recognized by terminase's small subunit (TerS. The large terminase subunit (TerL contains translocation ATPase and endonuclease domains. In phage lambda, TerS binds a sequence repeated three times in cosB, the recognition site. TerS binding to cosB positions TerL to cut the concatemeric DNA at the adjacent nicking site, cosN. TerL introduces staggered nicks in cosN, generating twelve bp cohesive ends. Terminase separates the cohesive ends and remains bound to the cosB-containing end, in a nucleoprotein structure called Complex I. Complex I docks on the prohead's portal vertex and translocation ensues. DNA topology plays a role in the TerSλ-cosBλ interaction. Here we show that a site, I2, located between cosN and cosB, is critically important for an early DNA packaging step. I2 contains a complex static bend. I2 mutations block DNA packaging. I2 mutant DNA is cut by terminase at cosN in vitro, but in vivo, no cos cleavage is detected, nor is there evidence for Complex I. Models for what packaging step might be blocked by I2 mutations are presented.

  2. Application of Ancient DNA Methods to the Study of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Velasco, Marcela

    As one of a limited number of biomolecules recording evolutionary events, DNA provides an unparalleled means of investigating genetic processes. Over three decades, ancient DNA research has matured in many ways, growing alongside technological and methodological advancements. However, due to DNA...... means of investigating genetic processes. Over three decades, ancient DNA research has matured in many ways, growing alongside technological and methodological advancements. However, due to DNA preservation, degradation and contamination, ancient DNA research presents significant limitations...... preservation, degradation and contamination, ancient DNA research presents significant limitations and challenges. Until recently, it was thought that DNA did not survive more than few hundred thousand years, and that it was impossible to retrieve whole genome data from ancient samples preserved under...

  3. An assessment system for the system safety engineering capability maturity model in the case of spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Zhenghai; Liu Zhiming; Wan Yaping; Bai Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    We can improve the processing, the evaluation of capability and promote the user's trust by using system security engineering capability maturity model (SSE-CMM). SSE-CMM is the common method for organizing and implementing safety engineering, and it is a mature method for system safety engineering. Combining capability maturity model (CMM) with total quality management and statistic theory, SSE-CMM turns systems security engineering into a well-defined, mature, measurable, advanced engineering discipline. Lack of domain knowledge, the size of data, the diversity of evidences, the cumbersomeness of processes, and the complexity of matching evidences with problems are the main issues that SSE-CMM assessment has to face. To improve effectively the efficiency of assessment of spent fuel reprocessing system security engineering capability maturity model (SFR-SSE-CMM), in this paper we de- signed an intelligent assessment software based on domain ontology and that uses methods such as ontology, evidence theory, semantic web, intelligent information retrieval and intelligent auto-matching techniques. This software includes four subsystems, which are domain ontology creation and management system, evidence auto collection system, and a problem and evidence matching system. The architecture of the software is divided into five layers: a data layer, an oncology layer, a knowledge layer, a service layer arid a presentation layer. (authors)

  4. Moleculaire diagnostiek bij aanwijzingen voor 'maturity onset diabetes of the young'; resultaten bij 184 patiënten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Losekoot, M.; Broekman, A. J.; Breuning, M. H.; de Koning, E. J. P.; Romijn, J. A.; Maassen, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    To describe the results of mutation analysis of the genes involved in maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) types 1-3. Descriptive. In the period July 2000-October 2003 the DNA from 184 possible MODY patients was analysed for the presence of mutations of the genes involved in MODY types 1, 2

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of DNA-free and DNA-bound TAL effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wan

    Full Text Available TAL (transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs are DNA-binding proteins, containing a modular central domain that recognizes specific DNA sequences. Recently, the crystallographic studies of TALEs revealed the structure of DNA-recognition domain. In this article, molecular dynamics (MD simulations are employed to study two crystal structures of an 11.5-repeat TALE, in the presence and absence of DNA, respectively. The simulated results indicate that the specific binding of RVDs (repeat-variable diresidues with DNA leads to the markedly reduced fluctuations of tandem repeats, especially at the two ends. In the DNA-bound TALE system, the base-specific interaction is formed mainly by the residue at position 13 within a TAL repeat. Tandem repeats with weak RVDs are unfavorable for the TALE-DNA binding. These observations are consistent with experimental studies. By using principal component analysis (PCA, the dominant motions are open-close movements between the two ends of the superhelical structure in both DNA-free and DNA-bound TALE systems. The open-close movements are found to be critical for the recognition and binding of TALE-DNA based on the analysis of free energy landscape (FEL. The conformational analysis of DNA indicates that the 5' end of DNA target sequence has more remarkable structural deformability than the other sites. Meanwhile, the conformational change of DNA is likely associated with the specific interaction of TALE-DNA. We further suggest that the arrangement of N-terminal repeats with strong RVDs may help in the design of efficient TALEs. This study provides some new insights into the understanding of the TALE-DNA recognition mechanism.

  6. Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serwer, Philip, E-mail: serwer@uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (United States); Wright, Elena T. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (United States); Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Wen [Markey Center for Structural Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    DNA packaging of phages phi29, T3 and T7 sometimes produces incompletely packaged DNA with quantized lengths, based on gel electrophoretic band formation. We discover here a packaging ATPase-free, in vitro model for packaged DNA length quantization. We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads). Three tail gene mutations, but no head gene mutations, are present. A variable-length DNA segment leaks from some mutant heads, based on DNase I-protection assay and electron microscopy. The protected DNA segment has quantized lengths, based on restriction endonuclease analysis: six sharp bands of DNA missing 3.7–12.3% of the last end packaged. Native gel electrophoresis confirms quantized DNA expulsion and, after removal of external DNA, provides evidence that capsid radius is the quantization-ruler. Capsid-based DNA length quantization possibly evolved via selection for stalling that provides time for feedback control during DNA packaging and injection. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: • We implement directed evolution- and DNA-sequencing-based phage assembly genetics. • We purify stable, mutant phage heads with a partially leaked mature DNA molecule. • Native gels and DNase-protection show leaked DNA segments to have quantized lengths. • Native gels after DNase I-removal of leaked DNA reveal the capsids to vary in radius. • Thus, we hypothesize leaked DNA quantization via variably quantized capsid radius.

  7. Conserved Domain Database (CDD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  8. DNA methylation and transcriptional trajectories during human development and reprogramming of isogenic pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roost, Matthias S; Slieker, Roderick C; Bialecka, Monika; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Gomes Fernandes, Maria M; He, Nannan; Suchiman, H Eka D; Szuhai, Karoly; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Mummery, Christine L; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2017-01-01

    Determining cell identity and maturation status of differentiated pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) requires knowledge of the transcriptional and epigenetic trajectory of organs during development. Here, we generate a transcriptional and DNA methylation atlas covering 21 organs during human fetal

  9. Recruitment of DNA methyltransferase I to DNA repair sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortusewicz, Oliver; Schermelleh, Lothar; Walter, Joachim; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the replication of genetic and epigenetic information is directly coupled; however, little is known about the maintenance of epigenetic information in DNA repair. Using a laser microirradiation system to introduce DNA lesions at defined subnuclear sites, we tested whether the major DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt1) or one of the two de novo methyltransferases (Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b) are recruited to sites of DNA repair in vivo. Time lapse microscopy of microirradiated mammalian cells expressing GFP-tagged Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, or Dnmt3b1 together with red fluorescent protein-tagged proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed that Dnmt1 and PCNA accumulate at DNA damage sites as early as 1 min after irradiation in S and non-S phase cells, whereas recruitment of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b was not observed. Deletion analysis showed that Dnmt1 recruitment was mediated by the PCNA-binding domain. These data point to a direct role of Dnmt1 in the restoration of epigenetic information during DNA repair. PMID:15956212

  10. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  11. Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chilamakuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions.

  12. Growth, maturation, functional capacities and sport-specific skills in 12-13 year-old- basketball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho e Silva, M. J.; Moreira Carvalho, H.; Goncalves, C. E.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Philippaerts, R. M.; Malina, R. M.

    Aim. The influence of maturity status on body size, functional capacities and basketball-specific skills was evaluated and multivariate relationships between domains of variables were examined in 80 male basketball players 12.0-13.9 years. Methods. Height, body mass and two skinfolds were measured.

  13. Different Binding Properties and Function of CXXC Zinc Finger Domains in Dnmt1 and Tet1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilinger, Daniela; Bultmann, Sebastian; Fellinger, Karin; Hasenöder, Stefan; Wang, Mengxi; Qin, Weihua; Söding, Johannes; Spada, Fabio; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Several mammalian proteins involved in chromatin and DNA modification contain CXXC zinc finger domains. We compared the structure and function of the CXXC domains in the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 and the methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet1. Sequence alignment showed that both CXXC domains have a very similar framework but differ in the central tip region. Based on the known structure of a similar MLL1 domain we developed homology models and designed expression constructs for the isolated CXXC domains of Dnmt1 and Tet1 accordingly. We show that the CXXC domain of Tet1 has no DNA binding activity and is dispensable for catalytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the CXXC domain of Dnmt1 selectively binds DNA substrates containing unmethylated CpG sites. Surprisingly, a Dnmt1 mutant construct lacking the CXXC domain formed covalent complexes with cytosine bases both in vitro and in vivo and rescued DNA methylation patterns in dnmt1−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs) just as efficiently as wild type Dnmt1. Interestingly, neither wild type nor ΔCXXC Dnmt1 re-methylated imprinted CpG sites of the H19a promoter in dnmt1−/− ESCs, arguing against a role of the CXXC domain in restraining Dnmt1 methyltransferase activity on unmethylated CpG sites. PMID:21311766

  14. Different binding properties and function of CXXC zinc finger domains in Dnmt1 and Tet1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Frauer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several mammalian proteins involved in chromatin and DNA modification contain CXXC zinc finger domains. We compared the structure and function of the CXXC domains in the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 and the methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet1. Sequence alignment showed that both CXXC domains have a very similar framework but differ in the central tip region. Based on the known structure of a similar MLL1 domain we developed homology models and designed expression constructs for the isolated CXXC domains of Dnmt1 and Tet1 accordingly. We show that the CXXC domain of Tet1 has no DNA binding activity and is dispensable for catalytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the CXXC domain of Dnmt1 selectively binds DNA substrates containing unmethylated CpG sites. Surprisingly, a Dnmt1 mutant construct lacking the CXXC domain formed covalent complexes with cytosine bases both in vitro and in vivo and rescued DNA methylation patterns in dnmt1⁻/⁻ embryonic stem cells (ESCs just as efficiently as wild type Dnmt1. Interestingly, neither wild type nor ΔCXXC Dnmt1 re-methylated imprinted CpG sites of the H19a promoter in dnmt1⁻/⁻ ESCs, arguing against a role of the CXXC domain in restraining Dnmt1 methyltransferase activity on unmethylated CpG sites.

  15. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    . Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  16. IT Governance Maturity: Developing a Maturity Model Using the Delphi Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Daniël; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2015-01-01

    To advance in maturity, organizations should pay attention to both the hard and soft sides of IT governance (ITG). The hard side is related to processes and structure, the soft side to social aspects like behavior and organizational culture. This paper describes a study to develop an ITG maturity

  17. Escherichia coli DnaE Polymerase Couples Pyrophosphatase Activity to DNA Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lapenta

    Full Text Available DNA Polymerases generate pyrophosphate every time they catalyze a step of DNA elongation. This elongation reaction is generally believed as thermodynamically favoured by the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, catalyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatases. However, the specific action of inorganic pyrophosphatases coupled to DNA replication in vivo was never demonstrated. Here we show that the Polymerase-Histidinol-Phosphatase (PHP domain of Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III α subunit features pyrophosphatase activity. We also show that this activity is inhibited by fluoride, as commonly observed for inorganic pyrophosphatases, and we identified 3 amino acids of the PHP active site. Remarkably, E. coli cells expressing variants of these catalytic residues of α subunit feature aberrant phenotypes, poor viability, and are subject to high mutation frequencies. Our findings indicate that DNA Polymerases can couple DNA elongation and pyrophosphate hydrolysis, providing a mechanism for the control of DNA extension rate, and suggest a promising target for novel antibiotics.

  18. A cDNA Immunization Strategy to Generate Nanobodies against Membrane Proteins in Native Conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Thomas; Menzel, Stephan; Wesolowski, Janusz; Bergmann, Philine; Nissen, Marion; Dubberke, Gudrun; Seyfried, Fabienne; Albrecht, Birte; Haag, Friedrich; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2018-01-01

    Nanobodies (Nbs) are soluble, versatile, single-domain binding modules derived from the VHH variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies naturally occurring in camelids. Nbs hold huge promise as novel therapeutic biologics. Membrane proteins are among the most interesting targets for therapeutic Nbs because they are accessible to systemically injected biologics. In order to be effective, therapeutic Nbs must recognize their target membrane protein in native conformation. However, raising Nbs against membrane proteins in native conformation can pose a formidable challenge since membrane proteins typically contain one or more hydrophobic transmembrane regions and, therefore, are difficult to purify in native conformation. Here, we describe a highly efficient genetic immunization strategy that circumvents these difficulties by driving expression of the target membrane protein in native conformation by cells of the immunized camelid. The strategy encompasses ballistic transfection of skin cells with cDNA expression plasmids encoding one or more orthologs of the membrane protein of interest and, optionally, other costimulatory proteins. The plasmid is coated onto 1 µm gold particles that are then injected into the shaved and depilated skin of the camelid. A gene gun delivers a helium pulse that accelerates the DNA-coated particles to a velocity sufficient to penetrate through multiple layers of cells in the skin. This results in the exposure of the extracellular domains of the membrane protein on the cell surface of transfected cells. Repeated immunization drives somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation of target-specific heavy-chain antibodies. The VHH/Nb coding region is PCR-amplified from B cells obtained from peripheral blood or a lymph node biopsy. Specific Nbs are selected by phage display or by screening of Nb-based heavy-chain antibodies expressed as secretory proteins in transfected HEK cells. Using this strategy, we have successfully generated agonistic

  19. A cDNA Immunization Strategy to Generate Nanobodies against Membrane Proteins in Native Conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobodies (Nbs are soluble, versatile, single-domain binding modules derived from the VHH variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies naturally occurring in camelids. Nbs hold huge promise as novel therapeutic biologics. Membrane proteins are among the most interesting targets for therapeutic Nbs because they are accessible to systemically injected biologics. In order to be effective, therapeutic Nbs must recognize their target membrane protein in native conformation. However, raising Nbs against membrane proteins in native conformation can pose a formidable challenge since membrane proteins typically contain one or more hydrophobic transmembrane regions and, therefore, are difficult to purify in native conformation. Here, we describe a highly efficient genetic immunization strategy that circumvents these difficulties by driving expression of the target membrane protein in native conformation by cells of the immunized camelid. The strategy encompasses ballistic transfection of skin cells with cDNA expression plasmids encoding one or more orthologs of the membrane protein of interest and, optionally, other costimulatory proteins. The plasmid is coated onto 1 µm gold particles that are then injected into the shaved and depilated skin of the camelid. A gene gun delivers a helium pulse that accelerates the DNA-coated particles to a velocity sufficient to penetrate through multiple layers of cells in the skin. This results in the exposure of the extracellular domains of the membrane protein on the cell surface of transfected cells. Repeated immunization drives somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation of target-specific heavy-chain antibodies. The VHH/Nb coding region is PCR-amplified from B cells obtained from peripheral blood or a lymph node biopsy. Specific Nbs are selected by phage display or by screening of Nb-based heavy-chain antibodies expressed as secretory proteins in transfected HEK cells. Using this strategy, we have successfully

  20. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL .... tein vaccines require expensive virus/protein purification tech- niques as ... sphere continue to remain major health hazards in developing nations. ... significance since it can be produced at a very low cost and can be stored ...

  1. DNA Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ellen S.; Bertino, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity that allow students to work through the exercise of DNA profiling and to grapple with some analytical and ethical questions involving a couple arranging with a surrogate mother to have a baby. Can be used to teach the principles of restriction enzyme digestion, gel electrophoresis, and probe hybridization. (MDH)

  2. [Maturation diagnosis in full term hypotrophic fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnke, H D; Gartzke, J; Fleischer, G; Isbruch, E

    1977-01-01

    Foam-Test by Clements is a valuable method for determining the foetus maturity of lungs. We introduce this test along with other parameters for the maturity-diagnosis since one year. In 15% result, the Foam-Test was not applicable because of blood, or meconic amniotic fluid, other wise wrong negative and in 0% wrong positive results. By unmatured child, there was doubtable results with Foam-Test. Since it is important to determine the early delivery of unmatured children, particularly the case of foetus maturity of lungs must be exact, we therefore decided to use the Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotients in some cases. The results of Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotient in unmatured children are almost with the approximated date under two. From this, one must deduce from these children, that the intrauterine unmatured lungs lately took place.

  3. Capability maturity models for offshore organisational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutt, J E; Sharp, J V; Terry, E; Miles, R

    2006-12-01

    The goal setting regime imposed by the UK safety regulator has important implications for an organisation's ability to manage health and safety related risks. Existing approaches to safety assurance based on risk analysis and formal safety assessments are increasingly considered unlikely to create the step change improvement in safety to which the offshore industry aspires and alternative approaches are being considered. One approach, which addresses the important issue of organisational behaviour and which can be applied at a very early stage of design, is the capability maturity model (CMM). The paper describes the development of a design safety capability maturity model, outlining the key processes considered necessary to safety achievement, definition of maturity levels and scoring methods. The paper discusses how CMM is related to regulatory mechanisms and risk based decision making together with the potential of CMM to environmental risk management.

  4. Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tina; Motan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, advances in cancer treatment have led to a dramatic improvement in long term survival. This has led to an increasing focus on quality of life after surviving cancer treatment, with fertility being an important aspect. Given the known reproductive risks of cancer therapies, there has been a growing interest in the field of fertility preservation (also referred to as oncofertility). Mature oocyte cryopreservation is no longer considered experimental and has become a realistic option for reproductive aged women prior to undergoing cancer treatment. Additionally, as cryopreservation techniques improve, mature oocyte cryopreservation is increasing being marketed to healthy women without cancer wishing to delay child bearing, also termed "social egg freezing". This chapter provides a review of the current technology, use, and outcomes of mature oocyte cryopreservation. It also outlines the ethical debate surrounding social egg freezing and directions for future research in female fertility preservation.

  5. Genetic transformation of mature citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Magdalena; Juárez, José; Navarro, Luis; Peña, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    Most woody fruit species have long juvenile periods that drastically prolong the time required to analyze mature traits. Evaluation of characteristics related to fruits is a requisite to release any new variety into the market. Because of a decline in regenerative and transformation potential, genetic transformation procedures usually employ juvenile material as the source of plant tissue, therefore resulting in the production of juvenile plants. Direct transformation of mature material could ensure the production of adult transgenic plants, bypassing in this way the juvenile phase. Invigoration of the source adult material, establishment of adequate transformation and regeneration conditions, and acceleration of plant development through grafting allowed us to produce transgenic mature sweet orange trees flowering and bearing fruits in a short time period.

  6. Participation of ATM in cellular response to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangbing; Song Yi; Mao Jianping; Gong Bo; Dong Yan; Liu Bin; Sun Zhixian

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To clone ATM full length cDNA and cDNA fragments containing some functional domains and to identify proteins that interact with ATM and mediate DNA damage signal transduction in cellular response to DNA damage. Methods: ATM cDNA was amplified from MarthomTM-Ready cDNA kit of human leukocytes by LD-PCR. ATM-interacting proteins were screened by yeast two hybrid system. Results: ATM full-length cDNA and cDNA fragments containing PI3K kinase domain, leucine zipper and proline rich region were amplified from human cDNAs. Several candidate clones that interacted with ATM PI3K domain were identified. Conclusion: ATM mediates DNA damage signal transduction by interacting with many proteins

  7. Foxa2 and Pdx1 cooperatively regulate postnatal maturation of pancreatic β-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Bastidas-Ponce

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The transcription factors (TF Foxa2 and Pdx1 are key regulators of beta-cell (β-cell development and function. Mutations of these TFs or their respective cis-regulatory consensus binding sites have been linked to maturity diabetes of the young (MODY, pancreas agenesis, or diabetes susceptibility in human. Although Foxa2 has been shown to directly regulate Pdx1 expression during mouse embryonic development, the impact of this gene regulatory interaction on postnatal β-cell maturation remains obscure. Methods: In order to easily monitor the expression domains of Foxa2 and Pdx1 and analyze their functional interconnection, we generated a novel double knock-in homozygous (FVFPBFDHom fluorescent reporter mouse model by crossing the previously described Foxa2-Venus fusion (FVF with the newly generated Pdx1-BFP (blue fluorescent protein fusion (PBF mice. Results: Although adult PBF homozygous animals exhibited a reduction in expression levels of Pdx1, they are normoglycemic. On the contrary, despite normal pancreas and endocrine development, the FVFPBFDHom reporter male animals developed hyperglycemia at weaning age and displayed a reduction in Pdx1 levels in islets, which coincided with alterations in β-cell number and islet architecture. The failure to establish mature β-cells resulted in loss of β-cell identity and trans-differentiation towards other endocrine cell fates. Further analysis suggested that Foxa2 and Pdx1 genetically and functionally cooperate to regulate maturation of adult β-cells. Conclusions: Our data show that the maturation of pancreatic β-cells requires the cooperative function of Foxa2 and Pdx1. Understanding the postnatal gene regulatory network of β-cell maturation will help to decipher pathomechanisms of diabetes and identify triggers to regenerate dedifferentiated β-cell mass. Keywords: Foxa2, Pdx1, β-Cell maturation, β-Cell identity, Trans-differentiation

  8. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  9. Expanding the landscape of chromatin modification (CM-related functional domains and genes in human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuye Pu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modification (CM plays a key role in regulating transcription, DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, our knowledge of these processes in humans remains very limited. Here we use computational approaches to study proteins and functional domains involved in CM in humans. We analyze the abundance and the pair-wise domain-domain co-occurrences of 25 well-documented CM domains in 5 model organisms: yeast, worm, fly, mouse and human. Results show that domains involved in histone methylation, DNA methylation, and histone variants are remarkably expanded in metazoan, reflecting the increased demand for cell type-specific gene regulation. We find that CM domains tend to co-occur with a limited number of partner domains and are hence not promiscuous. This property is exploited to identify 47 potentially novel CM domains, including 24 DNA-binding domains, whose role in CM has received little attention so far. Lastly, we use a consensus Machine Learning approach to predict 379 novel CM genes (coding for 329 proteins in humans based on domain compositions. Several of these predictions are supported by very recent experimental studies and others are slated for experimental verification. Identification of novel CM genes and domains in humans will aid our understanding of fundamental epigenetic processes that are important for stem cell differentiation and cancer biology. Information on all the candidate CM domains and genes reported here is publicly available.

  10. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  11. Sequencing and characterization of asclepain f: the first cysteine peptidase cDNA cloned and expressed from Asclepias fruticosa latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Sebastián A; López, Laura M I; Caffini, Néstor O; Natalucci, Claudia L; Canals, Francesc; Avilés, Francesc X

    2009-07-01

    Asclepain f is a papain-like protease previously isolated and characterized from latex of Asclepias fruticosa. This enzyme is a member of the C1 family of cysteine proteases that are synthesized as preproenzymes. The enzyme belongs to the alpha + beta class of proteins, with two disulfide bridges (Cys22-Cys63 and Cys56-Cys95) in the alpha domain, and another one (Cys150-Cys201) in the beta domain, as was determined by molecular modeling. A full-length 1,152 bp cDNA was cloned by RT-RACE-PCR from latex mRNA. The sequence was predicted as an open reading frame of 340 amino acid residues, of which 16 residues belong to the signal peptide, 113 to the propeptide and 211 to the mature enzyme. The full-length cDNA was ligated to pPICZalpha vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant asclepain f showed endopeptidase activity on pGlu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide and was identified by PMF-MALDI-TOF MS. Asclepain f is the first peptidase cloned and expressed from mRNA isolated from plant latex, confirming the presence of the preprocysteine peptidase in the latex.

  12. Adult maturational processes and the facilitating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, M W

    1986-09-01

    The psychoanalytic theory of religion has been seriously limited in its development, largely owing to Freud's emphasis on religion's neurotic elements and an overemphasis on the infantile origins of religious development. This paper offers a conceptual framework and advances the thesis, based on contemporary psychoanalytic, developmental theory, that 1) Erikson's concept of epigenesis has applicability across the life span; 2) that beyond-the-self identity is constituent to human maturation and self-completion; 3) that successful adult maturation requires a mirroring-facilitating environment; and 4) that religious values, meanings, images, and communities play an essential role-as-elements of the facilitating environment of later life.

  13. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues...... for research into questions related to antecedents, process, and performance outcomes of the digitalization of business activities. The assessment follows the logic of first decomposing the business model into the underlying value creation activities and then evaluating the levels of automation...

  14. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  15. SAM pointed domain ETS factor (SPDEF) regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of intestinal goblet cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, Taeko K.; Kazanjian, Avedis [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Whitsett, Jeffrey [Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shroyer, Noah F., E-mail: noah.shroyer@cchmc.org [Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Developmental Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Background and Aims: SPDEF (also termed PDEF or PSE) is an ETS family transcription factor that regulates gene expression in the prostate and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lung. Spdef has been reported to be expressed in the intestine. In this paper, we identify an important role for Spdef in regulating intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and differentiation. Methods: SPDEF expression was inhibited in colon cancer cells to determine its ability to control goblet cell gene activation. The effects of transgenic expression of Spdef on intestinal differentiation and homeostasis were determined. Results: In LS174T colon cancer cells treated with Notch/{gamma}-secretase inhibitor to activate goblet cell gene expression, shRNAs that inhibited SPDEF also repressed expression of goblet cell genes AGR2, MUC2, RETLNB, and SPINK4. Transgenic expression of Spdef caused the expansion of intestinal goblet cells and corresponding reduction in Paneth, enteroendocrine, and absorptive enterocytes. Spdef inhibited proliferation of intestinal crypt cells without induction of apoptosis. Prolonged expression of the Spdef transgene caused a progressive reduction in the number of crypts that expressed Spdef, consistent with its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Conclusions: Spdef was sufficient to inhibit proliferation of intestinal progenitors and induce differentiation into goblet cells; SPDEF was required for activation of goblet cell associated genes in vitro. These data support a model in which Spdef promotes terminal differentiation into goblet cells of a common goblet/Paneth progenitor.

  16. Intramolecular binding mode of the C-terminus of Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Wang, Yao; Mason, Claire E.; Su, Xun-Cheng; Oakley, Aaron J.; Graham, Bim; Huber, Thomas; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Otting, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein (SSB) is an essential protein to protect ssDNA and recruit specific ssDNA-processing proteins. Escherichia coli SSB forms a tetramer at neutral pH, comprising a structurally well-defined ssDNA binding domain (OB-domain) and a disordered C-terminal domain (C-domain) of ∼64 amino acid residues. The C-terminal eight-residue segment of SSB (C-peptide) has been shown to interact with the OB-domain, but crystal structures failed to reveal any electron den...

  17. Arabidopsis RNASE THREE LIKE2 Modulates the Expression of Protein-Coding Genes via 24-Nucleotide Small Interfering RNA-Directed DNA Methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Matelot, Emilie; Hachet, Mélanie; Shamandi, Nahid; Comella, Pascale; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio; Zytnicki, Matthias; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    RNaseIII enzymes catalyze the cleavage of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and have diverse functions in RNA maturation. Arabidopsis thaliana RNASE THREE LIKE2 (RTL2), which carries one RNaseIII and two dsRNA binding (DRB) domains, is a unique Arabidopsis RNaseIII enzyme resembling the budding yeast small interfering RNA (siRNA)-producing Dcr1 enzyme. Here, we show that RTL2 modulates the production of a subset of small RNAs and that this activity depends on both its RNaseIII and DRB domains. However, the mode of action of RTL2 differs from that of Dcr1. Whereas Dcr1 directly cleaves dsRNAs into 23-nucleotide siRNAs, RTL2 likely cleaves dsRNAs into longer molecules, which are subsequently processed into small RNAs by the DICER-LIKE enzymes. Depending on the dsRNA considered, RTL2-mediated maturation either improves (RTL2-dependent loci) or reduces (RTL2-sensitive loci) the production of small RNAs. Because the vast majority of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to transposons and intergenic regions producing 24-nucleotide siRNAs that guide DNA methylation, RTL2 depletion modifies DNA methylation in these regions. Nevertheless, 13% of RTL2-regulated loci correspond to protein-coding genes. We show that changes in 24-nucleotide siRNA levels also affect DNA methylation levels at such loci and inversely correlate with mRNA steady state levels, thus implicating RTL2 in the regulation of protein-coding gene expression. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Concerted action of the PHD, chromo and motor domains regulates the human chromatin remodelling ATPase CHD4

    OpenAIRE

    Morra, Rosa; Lee, Benjamin M; Shaw, Heather; Tuma, Roman; Mancini, Erika J

    2012-01-01

    CHD4, the core subunit of the Nucleosome Remodelling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, is a chromatin remodelling ATPase that, in addition to a helicase domain, harbors tandem plant homeo finger and chromo domains. By using a panel of domain constructs we dissect their roles and demonstrate that DNA binding, histone binding and ATPase activities are allosterically regulated. Molecular shape reconstruction from small-angle X-ray scattering reveals extensive domain-domain interactions, which prov...

  19. DNA replication initiator Cdc6 also regulates ribosomal DNA transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijiao; Xu, Xiaowei; Wang, Guopeng; Lu, Guoliang; Xie, Wenbing; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Hongyin; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2016-04-01

    RNA-polymerase-I-dependent ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription is fundamental to rRNA processing, ribosome assembly and protein synthesis. However, how this process is initiated during the cell cycle is not fully understood. By performing a proteomic analysis of transcription factors that bind RNA polymerase I during rDNA transcription initiation, we identified that the DNA replication initiator Cdc6 interacts with RNA polymerase I and its co-factors, and promotes rDNA transcription in G1 phase in an ATPase-activity-dependent manner. We further showed that Cdc6 is targeted to the nucleolus during late mitosis and G1 phase in a manner that is dependent on B23 (also known as nucleophosmin, NPM1), and preferentially binds to the rDNA promoter through its ATP-binding domain. Overexpression of Cdc6 increases rDNA transcription, whereas knockdown of Cdc6 results in a decreased association of both RNA polymerase I and the RNA polymerase I transcription factor RRN3 with rDNA, and a reduction of rDNA transcription. Furthermore, depletion of Cdc6 impairs the interaction between RRN3 and RNA polymerase I. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Cdc6 also serves as a regulator of rDNA transcription initiation, and indicate a mechanism by which initiation of rDNA transcription and DNA replication can be coordinated in cells. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Structure of the DNA-bound BRCA1 C-terminal region from human replication factor C p140 and model of the protein-DNA complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, M.; AB, E.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Siegal, G.

    2010-01-01

    BRCA1 C-terminal domain (BRCT)-containing proteins are found widely throughout the animal and bacteria kingdoms where they are exclusively involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA metabolism. Whereas most BRCT domains are involved in protein-protein interactions, a small subset has bona fide DNA

  1. cDNA cloning and polymorphic domains of the major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated no relationship between the breeds and polymorphic alleles. All these results therefore indicate that MHC I class molecule of domestic chickens was more influenced by the pressure of common pathogens rather than geographic differences. Key words: Chinese native chicken, ...

  2. cDNA cloning and polymorphic domains of the major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... phylogenetic tree indicated no relationship between the breeds and polymorphic alleles. All these results therefore indicate that MHC I class molecule of domestic chickens was more influenced by the pressure of common pathogens rather than geographic differences. Key words: Chinese native chicken, ...

  3. Cooperative DNA Recognition Modulated by an Interplay between Protein-Protein Interactions and DNA-Mediated Allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Merino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific transcriptional regulation depends on the cooperative association of transcription factors into enhanceosomes. Usually, their DNA-binding cooperativity originates from either direct interactions or DNA-mediated allostery. Here, we performed unbiased molecular simulations followed by simulations of protein-DNA unbinding and free energy profiling to study the cooperative DNA recognition by OCT4 and SOX2, key components of enhanceosomes in pluripotent cells. We found that SOX2 influences the orientation and dynamics of the DNA-bound configuration of OCT4. In addition SOX2 modifies the unbinding free energy profiles of both DNA-binding domains of OCT4, the POU specific and POU homeodomain, despite interacting directly only with the first. Thus, we demonstrate that the OCT4-SOX2 cooperativity is modulated by an interplay between protein-protein interactions and DNA-mediated allostery. Further, we estimated the change in OCT4-DNA binding free energy due to the cooperativity with SOX2, observed a good agreement with experimental measurements, and found that SOX2 affects the relative DNA-binding strength of the two OCT4 domains. Based on these findings, we propose that available interaction partners in different biological contexts modulate the DNA exploration routes of multi-domain transcription factors such as OCT4. We consider the OCT4-SOX2 cooperativity as a paradigm of how specificity of transcriptional regulation is achieved through concerted modulation of protein-DNA recognition by different types of interactions.

  4. Solution structure of telomere binding domain of AtTRB2 derived from Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Won Kyung; Kim, Heeyoun; Kim, Eunhee; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cho, Myeon Haeng; Lee, Weontae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have determined solution structure of Myb domain of AtTRB2. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 is located in the N-terminal region. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 binds to plant telomeric DNA without fourth helix. • Helix 2 and 3 of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 are involved in DNA recognition. • AtTRB2 is a novel protein distinguished from other known plant TBP. - Abstract: Telomere homeostasis is regulated by telomere-associated proteins, and the Myb domain is well conserved for telomere binding. AtTRB2 is a member of the SMH (Single-Myb-Histone)-like family in Arabidopsis thaliana, having an N-terminal Myb domain, which is responsible for DNA binding. The Myb domain of AtTRB2 contains three α-helices and loops for DNA binding, which is unusual given that other plant telomere-binding proteins have an additional fourth helix that is essential for DNA binding. To understand the structural role for telomeric DNA binding of AtTRB2, we determined the solution structure of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 (AtTRB2 1–64 ) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the inter-molecular interaction between AtTRB2 1–64 and telomeric DNA has been characterized by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and NMR titration analyses for both plant (TTTAGGG)n and human (TTAGGG)n telomere sequences. Data revealed that Trp28, Arg29, and Val47 residues located in Helix 2 and Helix 3 are crucial for DNA binding, which are well conserved among other plant telomere binding proteins. We concluded that although AtTRB2 is devoid of the additional fourth helix in the Myb-extension domain, it is able to bind to plant telomeric repeat sequences as well as human telomeric repeat sequences

  5. Solution structure of telomere binding domain of AtTRB2 derived from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji-Hye [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Kyung [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Heeyoun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunhee; Cheong, Chaejoon [Magnetic Resonance Team, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Ochang, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myeon Haeng [Department of Systems Biology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • We have determined solution structure of Myb domain of AtTRB2. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 is located in the N-terminal region. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 binds to plant telomeric DNA without fourth helix. • Helix 2 and 3 of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 are involved in DNA recognition. • AtTRB2 is a novel protein distinguished from other known plant TBP. - Abstract: Telomere homeostasis is regulated by telomere-associated proteins, and the Myb domain is well conserved for telomere binding. AtTRB2 is a member of the SMH (Single-Myb-Histone)-like family in Arabidopsis thaliana, having an N-terminal Myb domain, which is responsible for DNA binding. The Myb domain of AtTRB2 contains three α-helices and loops for DNA binding, which is unusual given that other plant telomere-binding proteins have an additional fourth helix that is essential for DNA binding. To understand the structural role for telomeric DNA binding of AtTRB2, we determined the solution structure of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 (AtTRB2{sub 1–64}) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the inter-molecular interaction between AtTRB2{sub 1–64} and telomeric DNA has been characterized by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and NMR titration analyses for both plant (TTTAGGG)n and human (TTAGGG)n telomere sequences. Data revealed that Trp28, Arg29, and Val47 residues located in Helix 2 and Helix 3 are crucial for DNA binding, which are well conserved among other plant telomere binding proteins. We concluded that although AtTRB2 is devoid of the additional fourth helix in the Myb-extension domain, it is able to bind to plant telomeric repeat sequences as well as human telomeric repeat sequences.

  6. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  7. Mature cystic teratomas: Relationship between histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tumor size, symptoms related to MCT and laterality of the tumor did not differ among the patients according to the MCT contents. Conclusions: Our findings suggest no relationship between the clinical features and histopathological contents of MCTs. Key words: Histopathological contents, mature cystic teratoma, ovarian, ...

  8. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  9. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  10. Plant regeneration in wheat mature embryo culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Haliloğlu

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... Success in genetic engineering of cereals depends on the callus formation and efficient plant regeneration system. Callus formation and plant regeneration of wheat mature embryos ... compiled by modification of methods previously mentioned in ..... of more and readily available nutrition than artificial cul-.

  11. GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN RELATION TO PLASMA ZINC STATUS. Dr. Salwa R. El Batrawy, Dr. Mervat Tawfik M. Tantawi. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial practice at a stage which will not result...

  13. The influence of biological maturation on anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether biological maturation would significantly influence the anthropometric determinants of talent identification among U-14 provincial girl tennis players. Twenty-six of the top thirty-two provincial female players (mean age = 13.21± 0.72 years) from the Northern Gauteng and the ...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or Packing... Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  15. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Florida Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  17. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in or- ganization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project manage- ment maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability. Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and ap- plied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area. The result of analysis shows that con- struction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and servic- es. It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across in- dustries. This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia.

  18. Characterization of the molecular basis of group II intron RNA recognition by CRS1-CRM domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ido; Klipcan, Liron; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Kolton, Max; Shaya, Felix; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren

    2008-08-22

    CRM (chloroplast RNA splicing and ribosome maturation) is a recently recognized RNA-binding domain of ancient origin that has been retained in eukaryotic genomes only within the plant lineage. Whereas in bacteria CRM domains exist as single domain proteins involved in ribosome maturation, in plants they are found in a family of proteins that contain between one and four repeats. Several members of this family with multiple CRM domains have been shown to be required for the splicing of specific plastidic group II introns. Detailed biochemical analysis of one of these factors in maize, CRS1, demonstrated its high affinity and specific binding to the single group II intron whose splicing it facilitates, the plastid-encoded atpF intron RNA. Through its association with two intronic regions, CRS1 guides the folding of atpF intron RNA into its predicted "catalytically active" form. To understand how multiple CRM domains cooperate to achieve high affinity sequence-specific binding to RNA, we analyzed the RNA binding affinity and specificity associated with each individual CRM domain in CRS1; whereas CRM3 bound tightly to the RNA, CRM1 associated specifically with a unique region found within atpF intron domain I. CRM2, which demonstrated only low binding affinity, also seems to form specific interactions with regions localized to domains I, III, and IV. We further show that CRM domains share structural similarities and RNA binding characteristics with the well known RNA recognition motif domain.

  19. Maturation of human oocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek-Sajko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immature oocyte retrieval followed by in vitro maturation is a promi