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Sample records for dna helicase xh2

  1. A novel mutation in the putative DNA helicase XH2 is responsible for male-to-female sex reversal associated with an atypical form of the ATR-X syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, A.; Telvi, L.; Galacteros, F.; McElreavey, K. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    We describe a pedigree presenting X-linked severe mental retardation associated with multiple congenital abnormalities and 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, leading in one family member to female gender assignment. Female carriers are unaffected. The dysmorphic features are similar to those described in the {alpha}-thalassemia and mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome, although there is no clinical evidence of {alpha}-thalassemia in this family. In addition, the family had other clinical features not previously observed in the ATR-X syndrome, including partial optic-nerve atrophy and partial ocular albinism. Mutations in a putative DNA helicase, termed XH2, have been reported to give rise to the ATR-X syndrome. We screened the YCH2 gene for mutations in affected members of the family and identified a 4-bp deletion at an intron/exon boundary that removes an invariant 3{prime} splice-acceptor site. The mutation cosegregates with the syndrome. The genomic deletion causes missplicing of the pre-mRNA, which results in the loss of 8 bp of coding sequence, thereby generating a frameshift and a downstream premature stop codon. Our finding increases the range of clinical features associated with mutations in the XH2 gene. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Werner helicase wings DNA binding

    OpenAIRE

    Hoadley, Kelly A.; Keck, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In this issue of Structure, Kitano et al. describe the structure of the DNA-bound winged-helix domain from the Werner helicase. This structure of a RecQ/DNA complex offers insights into the DNA unwinding mechanisms of RecQ family helicases.

  3. Bypass of a protein barrier by a replicative DNA helicase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Wang, Xindan; Loveland, Anna B.; Tappin, Inger; Rudner, David Z.; Hurwitz, Jerard; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    Replicative DNA helicases generally unwind DNA as a single hexamer that encircles and translocates along one strand of the duplex while excluding the complementary strand (known as steric exclusion). By contrast, large T antigen, the replicative DNA helicase of the simian virus 40 (SV40), is

  4. DNA Structure Specificity Conferred on a Replicative Helicase by Its Loader*

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Milind K.; Atkinson, John; McGlynn, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic replicative helicases can translocate along single-stranded and double-stranded DNA, with the central cavity of these multimeric ring helicases being able to accommodate both forms of DNA. Translocation by such helicases along single-stranded DNA results in the unwinding of forked DNA by steric exclusion and appears critical in unwinding of parental strands at the replication fork, whereas translocation over double-stranded DNA has no well-defined role. We have foun...

  5. Mechanism of Archaeal MCM Helicase Recruitment to DNA Replication Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Rachel Y.; Abeyrathne, Priyanka D.; Bell, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cellular DNA replication origins direct the recruitment of replicative helicases via the action of initiator proteins belonging to the AAA+ superfamily of ATPases. Archaea have a simplified subset of the eukaryotic DNA replication machinery proteins and possess initiators that appear ancestral to both eukaryotic Orc1 and Cdc6. We have reconstituted origin-dependent recruitment of the homohexameric archaeal MCM in vitro with purified recombinant proteins. Using this system, we reveal that archaeal Orc1-1 fulfills both Orc1 and Cdc6 functions by binding to a replication origin and directly recruiting MCM helicase. We identify the interaction interface between these proteins and reveal how ATP binding by Orc1-1 modulates recruitment of MCM. Additionally, we provide evidence that an open-ring form of the archaeal MCM homohexamer is loaded at origins. PMID:26725007

  6. Protein Displacement by Herpes Helicase-Primase and the Key Role of UL42 during Helicase-Coupled DNA Synthesis by the Herpes Polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Sarah Michelle; Kuchta, Robert D

    2017-05-30

    The herpes helicase-primase (UL5-UL8-UL52) very inefficiently unwinds double-stranded DNA. To better understand the mechanistic consequences of this inefficiency, we investigated protein displacement activity by UL5-UL8-UL52, as well as the impact of coupling DNA synthesis by the herpes polymerase with helicase activity. While the helicase can displace proteins bound to the lagging strand template, bound proteins significantly impede helicase activity. Remarkably, UL5-UL8-UL52, an extremely inefficient helicase, disrupts the exceptionally tight interaction between streptavidin and biotin on the lagging strand template. It also unwinds DNA containing streptavidin bound to the leading strand template, although it does not displace the streptavidin. These data suggest that the helicase may largely or completely wrap around the lagging strand template, with minimal interactions with the leading strand template. We utilized synthetic DNA minicircles to study helicase activity coupled with the herpes polymerase-processivity factor (UL30-UL42). Coupling greatly enhances unwinding of DNA, although bound proteins still inhibit helicase activity. Surprisingly, while UL30-UL42 and two noncognate polymerases (Klenow Fragment and T4 DNA polymerase) all stimulate unwinding of DNA by the helicase, the isolated UL30 polymerase (i.e., no UL42 processivity factor) binds to the replication fork but in a manner that is incompetent in terms of coupled helicase-polymerase activity.

  7. Dynamic DNA Helicase-DNA Polymerase Interactions Assure Processive Replication Fork Movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdan, Samir M.; Johnson, Donald E.; Tanner, Nathan A.; Lee, Jong-Bong; Qimron, Udi; Tabor, Stanley; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Richardson, Charles C.

    2007-01-01

    A single copy of bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase and DNA helicase advance the replication fork with a processivity greater than 17,000 nucleotides. Nonetheless, the polymerase transiently dissociates from the DNA without leaving the replisome. Ensemble and single-molecule techniques demonstrate that

  8. Three-dimensional structure of N-terminal domain of DnaB helicase and helicase-primase interactions in Helicobacter pylori.

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    Tara Kashav

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Replication initiation is a crucial step in genome duplication and homohexameric DnaB helicase plays a central role in the replication initiation process by unwinding the duplex DNA and interacting with several other proteins during the process of replication. N-terminal domain of DnaB is critical for helicase activity and for DnaG primase interactions. We present here the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD of H. pylori DnaB (HpDnaB helicase at 2.2 A resolution and compare the structural differences among helicases and correlate with the functional differences. The structural details of NTD suggest that the linker region between NTD and C-terminal helicase domain plays a vital role in accurate assembly of NTD dimers. The sequence analysis of the linker regions from several helicases reveals that they should form four helix bundles. We also report the characterization of H. pylori DnaG primase and study the helicase-primase interactions, where HpDnaG primase stimulates DNA unwinding activity of HpDnaB suggesting presence of helicase-primase cohort at the replication fork. The protein-protein interaction study of C-terminal domain of primase and different deletion constructs of helicase suggests that linker is essential for proper conformation of NTD to interact strongly with HpDnaG. The surface charge distribution on the primase binding surface of NTDs of various helicases suggests that DnaB-DnaG interaction and stability of the complex is most probably charge dependent. Structure of the linker and helicase-primase interactions indicate that HpDnaB differs greatly from E.coli DnaB despite both belong to gram negative bacteria.

  9. Structural basis for DNA strand separation by a hexameric replicative helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Yuriy; Stead, Jonathan A.; Ryzhenkova, Ksenia; Whelan, Fiona; Lamber, Ekaterina P.; Antson, Alfred; Sanders, Cyril M.; Orlova, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Hexameric helicases are processive DNA unwinding machines but how they engage with a replication fork during unwinding is unknown. Using electron microscopy and single particle analysis we determined structures of the intact hexameric helicase E1 from papillomavirus and two complexes of E1 bound to a DNA replication fork end-labelled with protein tags. By labelling a DNA replication fork with streptavidin (dsDNA end) and Fab (5′ ssDNA) we located the positions of these labels on the helicase surface, showing that at least 10 bp of dsDNA enter the E1 helicase via a side tunnel. In the currently accepted ‘steric exclusion’ model for dsDNA unwinding, the active 3′ ssDNA strand is pulled through a central tunnel of the helicase motor domain as the dsDNA strands are wedged apart outside the protein assembly. Our structural observations together with nuclease footprinting assays indicate otherwise: strand separation is taking place inside E1 in a chamber above the helicase domain and the 5′ passive ssDNA strands exits the assembly through a separate tunnel opposite to the dsDNA entry point. Our data therefore suggest an alternative to the current general model for DNA unwinding by hexameric helicases. PMID:26240379

  10. Enzymatic activities and DNA substrate specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA helicase XPB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasingham, Seetha V; Zegeye, Ephrem Debebe; Homberset, Håvard; Rossi, Marie L; Laerdahl, Jon K; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Tønjum, Tone

    2012-01-01

    XPB, also known as ERCC3 and RAD25, is a 3' → 5' DNA repair helicase belonging to the superfamily 2 of helicases. XPB is an essential core subunit of the eukaryotic basal transcription factor complex TFIIH. It has two well-established functions: in the context of damaged DNA, XPB facilitates nucleotide excision repair by unwinding double stranded DNA (dsDNA) surrounding a DNA lesion; while in the context of actively transcribing genes, XPB facilitates initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription at gene promoters. Human and other eukaryotic XPB homologs are relatively well characterized compared to conserved homologs found in mycobacteria and archaea. However, more insight into the function of bacterial helicases is central to understanding the mechanism of DNA metabolism and pathogenesis in general. Here, we characterized Mycobacterium tuberculosis XPB (Mtb XPB), a 3'→5' DNA helicase with DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Mtb XPB efficiently catalyzed DNA unwinding in the presence of significant excess of enzyme. The unwinding activity was fueled by ATP or dATP in the presence of Mg(2+)/Mn(2+). Consistent with the 3'→5' polarity of this bacterial XPB helicase, the enzyme required a DNA substrate with a 3' overhang of 15 nucleotides or more. Although Mtb XPB efficiently unwound DNA model substrates with a 3' DNA tail, it was not active on substrates containing a 3' RNA tail. We also found that Mtb XPB efficiently catalyzed ATP-independent annealing of complementary DNA strands. These observations significantly enhance our understanding of the biological roles of Mtb XPB.

  11. Enzymatic activities and DNA substrate specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA helicase XPB.

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    Seetha V Balasingham

    Full Text Available XPB, also known as ERCC3 and RAD25, is a 3' → 5' DNA repair helicase belonging to the superfamily 2 of helicases. XPB is an essential core subunit of the eukaryotic basal transcription factor complex TFIIH. It has two well-established functions: in the context of damaged DNA, XPB facilitates nucleotide excision repair by unwinding double stranded DNA (dsDNA surrounding a DNA lesion; while in the context of actively transcribing genes, XPB facilitates initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription at gene promoters. Human and other eukaryotic XPB homologs are relatively well characterized compared to conserved homologs found in mycobacteria and archaea. However, more insight into the function of bacterial helicases is central to understanding the mechanism of DNA metabolism and pathogenesis in general. Here, we characterized Mycobacterium tuberculosis XPB (Mtb XPB, a 3'→5' DNA helicase with DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Mtb XPB efficiently catalyzed DNA unwinding in the presence of significant excess of enzyme. The unwinding activity was fueled by ATP or dATP in the presence of Mg(2+/Mn(2+. Consistent with the 3'→5' polarity of this bacterial XPB helicase, the enzyme required a DNA substrate with a 3' overhang of 15 nucleotides or more. Although Mtb XPB efficiently unwound DNA model substrates with a 3' DNA tail, it was not active on substrates containing a 3' RNA tail. We also found that Mtb XPB efficiently catalyzed ATP-independent annealing of complementary DNA strands. These observations significantly enhance our understanding of the biological roles of Mtb XPB.

  12. A mechanical mechanism for translocation of ring-shaped helicases on DNA and its demonstration in a macroscopic simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y. C.

    2018-04-01

    The asymmetry in the two-layered ring structure of helicases and the random thermal fluctuations of the helicase and DNA molecules are considered as the bases for the generation of the force required for translocation of the ring-shaped helicase on DNA. The helicase comprises a channel at its center with two unequal ends, through which strands of DNA can pass. The random collisions between the portion of the DNA strand in the central channel and the wall of the channel generate an impulsive force toward the small end. This impulsive force is the starting point for the helicase to translocate along the DNA with the small end in front. Such a physical mechanism may serve as a complementary for the chemomechanical mechanism of the translocation of helicase on DNA. When the helicase arrives at the junction of ssDNA and dsDNA (a fork), the collision between the helicase and the closest base pair may produce a sufficient impulsive force to break the weak hydrogen bond of the base pair. Thus, the helicase may advance and repeat the process of unwinding the dsDNA strand. This mechanism was tested in a macroscopic simulation system where the helicase was simulated using a truncated-cone structure and DNA was simulated with bead chains. Many features of translocation and unwinding such as translocation on ssDNA and dsDNA, unwinding of dsDNA, rewinding, strand switching, and Holliday junction resolution were reproduced.

  13. DNA binding and unwinding by Hel308 helicase requires dual functions of a winged helix domain.

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    Northall, Sarah J; Buckley, Ryan; Jones, Nathan; Penedo, J Carlos; Soultanas, Panos; Bolt, Edward L

    2017-09-01

    Hel308 helicases promote genome stability linked to DNA replication in archaea, and have homologues in metazoans. In the crystal structure of archaeal Hel308 bound to a tailed DNA duplex, core helicase domains encircle single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a "ratchet" for directional translocation. A winged helix domain (WHD) is also present, but its function is mysterious. We investigated the WHD in full-length Hel308, identifying that mutations in a solvent exposed α-helix resulted in reduced DNA binding and unwinding activities. When isolated from the rest of Hel308, the WHD protein alone bound to duplex DNA but not ssDNA, and DNA binding by WHD protein was abolished by the same mutations as were analyzed in full-length Hel308. Isolated WHD from a human Hel308 homologue (HelQ) also bound to duplex DNA. By disrupting the interface between the Hel308 WHD and a RecA-like domain, a topology typical of Ski2 helicases, we show that this is crucial for ATPase and helicase activities. The data suggest a model in which the WHD promotes activity of Hel308 directly, through binding to duplex DNA that is distinct from ssDNA binding by core helicase, and indirectly through interaction with the RecA-like domain. We propose how the WHD may contribute to ssDNA translocation, resulting in DNA helicase activity or in removal of other DNA bound proteins by "reeling" ssDNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooperation of DNA-PKcs and WRN helicase in the maintenance of telomeric D-loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumoto-Matsuo, Rika; Opresko, Patricia L; Ramsden, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Werner syndrome is an inherited human progeriod syndrome caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Werner Syndrome protein, WRN. It has both 3'-5' DNA helicase and exonuclease activities, and is suggested to have roles in many aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair and telomere...... D-loop model substrate. In addition, the length of telomeric G-tails decreases in DNA-PKcs knockdown cells, and this phenotype is reversed by overexpression of WRN helicase. These results suggest that WRN and DNA-PKcs may cooperatively prevent G-tail shortening in vivo....

  15. Human exonuclease 1 and BLM helicase interact to resect DNA and initiate DNA repair

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    Nimonkar, Amitabh V.; Özsoy, A. Zeynep; Genschel, Jochen; Modrich, Paul; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    The error-free repair of double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination requires processing of broken ends. These processed ends are substrates for assembly of DNA strand exchange proteins that mediate DNA strand invasion. Here, we establish that human BLM helicase, a member of the RecQ family, stimulates the nucleolytic activity of human exonuclease 1 (hExo1), a 5′→3′ double-stranded DNA exonuclease. The stimulation is specific because other RecQ homologs fail to stimulate hExo1. Stimulation of DNA resection by hExo1 is independent of BLM helicase activity and is, instead, mediated by an interaction between the 2 proteins. Finally, we show that DNA ends resected by hExo1 and BLM are used by human Rad51, but not its yeast or bacterial counterparts, to promote homologous DNA pairing. This in vitro system recapitulates initial steps of homologous recombination and provides biochemical evidence for a role of BLM and Exo1 in the initiation of recombinational DNA repair. PMID:18971343

  16. Structure, function and evolution of the animal mitochondrial replicative DNA helicase.

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    Kaguni, Laurie S; Oliveira, Marcos T

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial replicative DNA helicase is essential for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. Deleterious mutations in the gene that encodes it cause mitochondrial dysfunction manifested in developmental delays, defects and arrest, limited life span, and a number of human pathogenic phenotypes that are recapitulated in animals across taxa. In fact, the replicative mtDNA helicase was discovered with the identification of human disease mutations in its nuclear gene, and based upon its deduced amino acid sequence homology with bacteriophage T7 gene 4 protein (T7 gp4), a bi-functional primase-helicase. Since that time, numerous investigations of its structure, mechanism, and physiological relevance have been reported, and human disease alleles have been modeled in the human, mouse, and Drosophila systems. Here, we review this literature and draw evolutionary comparisons that serve to shed light on its divergent features.

  17. Cooperation of DNA-PKcs and WRN helicase in the maintenance of telomeric D-loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumoto-Matsuo, Rika; Opresko, Patricia L; Ramsden, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Werner syndrome is an inherited human progeriod syndrome caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Werner Syndrome protein, WRN. It has both 3'-5' DNA helicase and exonuclease activities, and is suggested to have roles in many aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair and telomere...... maintenance. The DNA-PK complex also functions in both DNA double strand break repair and telomere maintenance. Interaction between WRN and the DNA-PK complex has been reported in DNA double strand break repair, but their possible cooperation at telomeres has not been reported. This study analyzes thein vitro...... D-loop model substrate. In addition, the length of telomeric G-tails decreases in DNA-PKcs knockdown cells, and this phenotype is reversed by overexpression of WRN helicase. These results suggest that WRN and DNA-PKcs may cooperatively prevent G-tail shortening in vivo....

  18. Binding Affinities among DNA Helicase-Primase, DNA Polymerase, and Replication Intermediates in the Replisome of Bacteriophage T7*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huidong; Tang, Yong; Lee, Seung-Joo; Wei, Zeliang; Cao, Jia; Richardson, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a replication loop on the lagging strand facilitates coordinated synthesis of the leading- and lagging-DNA strands and provides a mechanism for recycling of the lagging-strand DNA polymerase. As an Okazaki fragment is completed, the loop is released, and a new loop is formed as the synthesis of a new Okazaki fragment is initiated. Loop release requires the dissociation of the complex formed by the interactions among helicase, DNA polymerase, and DNA. The completion of the Okazaki fragment may result in either a nick or a single-stranded DNA region. In the replication system of bacteriophage T7, the dissociation of the polymerase from either DNA region is faster than that observed for the dissociation of the helicase from DNA polymerase, implying that the replication loop is released more likely through the dissociation of the lagging-strand DNA from polymerase, retaining the polymerase at replication fork. Both dissociation of DNA polymerase from DNA and that of helicase from a DNA polymerase·DNA complex are much faster at a nick DNA region than the release from a ssDNA region. These results suggest that the replication loop is released as a result of the nick formed when the lagging-strand DNA polymerase encounters the previously synthesized Okazaki fragment, releasing lagging-strand DNA and retaining DNA polymerase at the replication fork for the synthesis of next Okazaki fragment. PMID:26620561

  19. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

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    Noonan James P

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of variable lengths. The BLM DNA helicase has been shown to localize to the ND10 (nuclear domain 10 or PML (promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, where it associates with TOPIIIα, and to the nucleolus. Results This report demonstrates that the N-terminal domain of BLM is responsible for localization of the protein to the nuclear bodies, while the C-terminal domain directs the protein to the nucleolus. Deletions of the N-terminal domain of BLM have little effect on sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome stability as compared to helicase and C-terminal mutations which can increase SCE frequency and chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion The helicase activity and the C-terminal domain of BLM are critical for maintaining genomic stability as measured by the sister chromatid exchange assay. The localization of BLM into the nucleolus by the C-terminal domain appears to be more important to genomic stability than localization in the nuclear bodies.

  20. Helicase and polymerase move together close to the fork junction and copy DNA in one-nucleotide steps

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    Pandey, Manjula; Patel, Smita S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY By simultaneously measuring DNA synthesis and dNTP hydrolysis, we show that T7 DNA polymerase and T7 gp4 helicase move in sync during leading strand synthesis taking one-nucleotide steps and hydrolyzing one dNTP per base-pair unwound-copied. The cooperative catalysis enables the helicase and polymerase to move at a uniformly fast rate without GC-dependency or idling with futile NTP hydrolysis. We show that the helicase and polymerase are located close to the replication fork junction. This architecture enables the polymerase to use its strand-displacement synthesis to increase the unwinding rate while the helicase aids this process by translocating along single-stranded DNA and trapping the unwound bases. Thus, in contrast to the helicase-only unwinding model, our results suggest a new model where the helicase and polymerase are moving in one-nucleotide steps and DNA synthesis drives fork unwinding and a role of the helicase is to trap the unwound bases and prevent DNA reannealing. PMID:24630996

  1. Helicase and Polymerase Move Together Close to the Fork Junction and Copy DNA in One-Nucleotide Steps

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    Manjula Pandey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available By simultaneously measuring DNA synthesis and dNTP hydrolysis, we show that T7 DNA polymerase and T7 gp4 helicase move in sync during leading-strand synthesis, taking one-nucleotide steps and hydrolyzing one dNTP per base-pair unwound/copied. The cooperative catalysis enables the helicase and polymerase to move at a uniformly fast rate without guanine:cytosine (GC dependency or idling with futile NTP hydrolysis. We show that the helicase and polymerase are located close to the replication fork junction. This architecture enables the polymerase to use its strand-displacement synthesis to increase the unwinding rate, whereas the helicase aids this process by translocating along single-stranded DNA and trapping the unwound bases. Thus, in contrast to the helicase-only unwinding model, our results suggest a model in which the helicase and polymerase are moving in one-nucleotide steps, DNA synthesis drives fork unwinding, and a role of the helicase is to trap the unwound bases and prevent DNA reannealing.

  2. Mycobacterium smegmatis Lhr Is a DNA-dependent ATPase and a 3'-to-5' DNA translocase and helicase that prefers to unwind 3'-tailed RNA:DNA hybrids.

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    Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2013-05-17

    We are interested in the distinctive roster of helicases of Mycobacterium, a genus of the phylum Actinobacteria that includes the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its avirulent relative Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we identify and characterize M. smegmatis Lhr as the exemplar of a novel clade of superfamily II helicases, by virtue of its biochemical specificities and signature domain organization. Lhr is a 1507-amino acid monomeric nucleic acid-dependent ATPase that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to drive unidirectional 3'-to-5' translocation along single strand DNA and to unwind duplexes en route. The ATPase is more active in the presence of calcium than magnesium. ATP hydrolysis is triggered by either single strand DNA or single strand RNA, yet the apparent affinity for a DNA activator is 11-fold higher than for an RNA strand of identical size and nucleobase sequence. Lhr is 8-fold better at unwinding an RNA:DNA hybrid than it is at displacing a DNA:DNA duplex of identical nucleobase sequence. The truncated derivative Lhr-(1-856) is an autonomous ATPase, 3'-to-5' translocase, and RNA:DNA helicase. Lhr-(1-856) is 100-fold better RNA:DNA helicase than DNA:DNA helicase. Lhr homologs are found in bacteria representing eight different phyla, being especially prevalent in Actinobacteria (including M. tuberculosis) and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia coli).

  3. The helicase DinG responds to stress due to DNA double strand breaks.

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    Stephan A Frye

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis (Nm is a Gram-negative nasopharyngeal commensal that can cause septicaemia and meningitis. The neisserial DNA damage-inducible protein DinG is a helicase related to the mammalian helicases XPD and FANCJ. These helicases belong to superfamily 2, are ATP dependent and exert 5' → 3' directionality. To better understand the role of DinG in neisserial genome maintenance, the Nm DinG (DinGNm enzymatic activities were assessed in vitro and phenotypical characterization of a dinG null mutant (NmΔdinG was performed. Like its homologues, DinGNm possesses 5' → 3' directionality and prefers DNA substrates containing a 5'-overhang. ATPase activity of DinGNm is strictly DNA-dependent and DNA unwinding activity requires nucleoside triphosphate and divalent metal cations. DinGNm directly binds SSBNm with a Kd of 313 nM. Genotoxic stress analysis demonstrated that NmΔdinG was more sensitive to double-strand DNA breaks (DSB induced by mitomycin C (MMC than the Nm wildtype, defining the role of neisserial DinG in DSB repair. Notably, when NmΔdinG cells grown under MMC stress assessed by quantitative mass spectrometry, 134 proteins were shown to be differentially abundant (DA compared to unstressed NmΔdinG cells. Among the DNA replication, repair and recombination proteins affected, polymerase III subunits and recombinational repair proteins RuvA, RuvB, RecB and RecD were significantly down regulated while TopA and SSB were upregulated under stress condition. Most of the other DA proteins detected are involved in metabolic functions. The present study shows that the helicase DinG is probably involved in regulating metabolic pathways as well as in genome maintenance.

  4. Molecular insights into DNA interference by CRISPR-associated nuclease-helicase Cas3.

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    Gong, Bei; Shin, Minsang; Sun, Jiali; Jung, Che-Hun; Bolt, Edward L; van der Oost, John; Kim, Jeong-Sun

    2014-11-18

    Mobile genetic elements in bacteria are neutralized by a system based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. Type I CRISPR-Cas systems use a "Cascade" ribonucleoprotein complex to guide RNA specifically to complementary sequence in invader double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), a process called "interference." After target recognition by Cascade, formation of an R-loop triggers recruitment of a Cas3 nuclease-helicase, completing the interference process by destroying the invader dsDNA. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of CRISPR interference, we analyzed crystal structures of Cas3 from the bacterium Thermobaculum terrenum, with and without a bound ATP analog. The structures reveal a histidine-aspartate (HD)-type nuclease domain fused to superfamily-2 (SF2) helicase domains and a distinct C-terminal domain. Binding of ATP analog at the interface of the SF2 helicase RecA-like domains rearranges a motif V with implications for the enzyme mechanism. The HD-nucleolytic site contains two metal ions that are positioned at the end of a proposed nucleic acid-binding tunnel running through the SF2 helicase structure. This structural alignment suggests a mechanism for 3' to 5' nucleolytic processing of the displaced strand of invader DNA that is coordinated with ATP-dependent 3' to 5' translocation of Cas3 along DNA. In agreement with biochemical studies, the presented Cas3 structures reveal important mechanistic details on the neutralization of genetic invaders by type I CRISPR-Cas systems.

  5. Distinct functions of human RecQ helicases during DNA replication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Václav; Dobrovolná, Jana; Janščák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 225, červen (2017), s. 20-26 ISSN 0301-4622 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05743S; GA MŠk LH14037 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : DNA replication * Replication stress * RecQ helicases * Genomic instability * Cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2016

  6. Relocalization of nuclear DNA helicase II during the growth period of bovine oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baran, V.; Kovářová, Hana; Klíma, Jiří; Hozák, Pavel; Motlík, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 125, 1-2 (2006), s. 155-164 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/03/0857 Grant - others:Slovenská Akademie věd(SK) VEGA 2/3065/23 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA helicase II * fibroblasts * oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor : 3.220, year: 2006

  7. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

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    Christopher N Merrikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes or co-directional (leading strand genes orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life

  8. Mycobacterium smegmatis SftH exemplifies a distinctive clade of superfamily II DNA-dependent ATPases with 3′ to 5′ translocase and helicase activities

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva, Lyudmila; Shuman, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial DNA helicases are nucleic acid-dependent NTPases that play important roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair. We are interested in the DNA helicases of Mycobacteria, a genus of the phylum Actinobacteria, which includes the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its avirulent relative Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we identify and characterize M. smegmatis SftH, a superfamily II helicase with a distinctive domain structure, comprising an N-terminal NTPase domain and...

  9. DNA secondary structure of the released strand stimulates WRN helicase action on forked duplexes without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byungchan, E-mail: bbccahn@mail.ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Life Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Bohr, Vilhelm A. [Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, Biomedical Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities. {yields} We found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. {yields} These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently. -- Abstract: Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by aging-related phenotypes and genomic instability. WS is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a nuclear protein, Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ helicase family, that interestingly possesses both helicase and exonuclease activities. Previous studies have shown that the two activities act in concert on a single substrate. We investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities and found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently, and we propose that the uncoordinated action may be relevant to the in vivo activity of WRN.

  10. Dual Nuclease and Helicase Activities of Helicobacter pylori AddAB Are Required for DNA Repair, Recombination, and Mouse Infectivity*

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, Susan K.; Fero, Jutta; Salama, Nina R.; Smith, Gerald R.

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is associated with disease-causing inflammation that elicits DNA damage in both bacterial and host cells. Bacteria must repair their DNA to persist. The H. pylori AddAB helicase-exonuclease is required for DNA repair and efficient stomach colonization. To dissect the role of each activity in DNA repair and infectivity, we altered the AddA and AddB nuclease (NUC) domains and the AddA helicase (HEL) domain by site-directed mutagenesis. Extracts...

  11. Mutational analysis of an archaeal minichromosome maintenance protein exterior hairpin reveals critical residues for helicase activity and DNA binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster Aaron S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mini-chromosome maintenance protein (MCM complex is an essential replicative helicase for DNA replication in Archaea and Eukaryotes. While the eukaryotic complex consists of six homologous proteins (MCM2-7, the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has only one MCM protein (ssoMCM, six subunits of which form a homohexamer. We have recently reported a 4.35Å crystal structure of the near full-length ssoMCM. The structure reveals a total of four β-hairpins per subunit, three of which are located within the main channel or side channels of the ssoMCM hexamer model generated based on the symmetry of the N-terminal Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (mtMCM structure. The fourth β-hairpin, however, is located on the exterior of the hexamer, near the exit of the putative side channels and next to the ATP binding pocket. Results In order to better understand this hairpin's role in DNA binding and helicase activity, we performed a detailed mutational and biochemical analysis of nine residues on this exterior β-hairpin (EXT-hp. We examined the activities of the mutants related to their helicase function, including hexamerization, ATPase, DNA binding and helicase activities. The assays showed that some of the residues on this EXT-hp play a role for DNA binding as well as for helicase activity. Conclusions These results implicate several current theories regarding helicase activity by this critical hexameric enzyme. As the data suggest that EXT-hp is involved in DNA binding, the results reported here imply that the EXT-hp located near the exterior exit of the side channels may play a role in contacting DNA substrate in a manner that affects DNA unwinding.

  12. Single molecule measurements of DNA helicase activity with magnetic tweezers and t-test based step-finding analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Yeonee; Strub, Marie-Paule; Neuman, Keir C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers is a versatile and easy to implement single-molecule technique that has become increasingly prevalent in the study of nucleic acid based molecular motors. Here, we provide a description of the magnetic tweezers instrument and guidelines for measuring and analyzing DNA helicase activity. Along with experimental methods, we describe a robust method of single-molecule trajectory analysis based on the Student’s t-test that accommodates continuous transitions in addition to the discrete transitions assumed in most widely employed analysis routines. To illustrate the single-molecule unwinding assay and the analysis routine, we provide DNA unwinding measurements of Escherichia coli RecQ helicase under a variety of conditions (Na+, ATP, temperature, and DNA substrate geometry). These examples reveal that DNA unwinding measurements under various conditions can aid in elucidating the unwinding mechanism of DNA helicase but also emphasize that environmental effects on DNA helicase activity must be considered in relation to in vivo activity and mechanism. PMID:27131595

  13. Remodeling and Control of Homologous Recombination by DNA Helicases and Translocases that Target Recombinases and Synapsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northall, Sarah J.; Ivančić-Baće, Ivana; Soultanas, Panos; Bolt, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Recombinase enzymes catalyse invasion of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) into homologous duplex DNA forming “Displacement loops” (D-loops), a process called synapsis. This triggers homologous recombination (HR), which can follow several possible paths to underpin DNA repair and restart of blocked and collapsed DNA replication forks. Therefore, synapsis can be a checkpoint for controlling whether or not, how far, and by which pathway, HR proceeds to overcome an obstacle or break in a replication fork. Synapsis can be antagonized by limiting access of a recombinase to ssDNA and by dissociation of D-loops or heteroduplex formed by synapsis. Antagonists include DNA helicases and translocases that are identifiable in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and which target synaptic and pre-synaptic DNA structures thereby controlling HR at early stages. Here we survey these events with emphasis on enabling DNA replication to be resumed from sites of blockage or collapse. We also note how knowledge of anti-recombination activities could be useful to improve efficiency of CRISPR-based genome editing. PMID:27548227

  14. The Q Motif Is Involved in DNA Binding but Not ATP Binding in ChlR1 Helicase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ding

    Full Text Available Helicases are molecular motors that couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the unwinding of structured DNA or RNA and chromatin remodeling. The conversion of energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into unwinding and remodeling is coordinated by seven sequence motifs (I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, and VI. The Q motif, consisting of nine amino acids (GFXXPXPIQ with an invariant glutamine (Q residue, has been identified in some, but not all helicases. Compared to the seven well-recognized conserved helicase motifs, the role of the Q motif is less acknowledged. Mutations in the human ChlR1 (DDX11 gene are associated with a unique genetic disorder known as Warsaw Breakage Syndrome, which is characterized by cellular defects in genome maintenance. To examine the roles of the Q motif in ChlR1 helicase, we performed site directed mutagenesis of glutamine to alanine at residue 23 in the Q motif of ChlR1. ChlR1 recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from HEK293T cells. ChlR1-Q23A mutant abolished the helicase activity of ChlR1 and displayed reduced DNA binding ability. The mutant showed impaired ATPase activity but normal ATP binding. A thermal shift assay revealed that ChlR1-Q23A has a melting point value similar to ChlR1-WT. Partial proteolysis mapping demonstrated that ChlR1-WT and Q23A have a similar globular structure, although some subtle conformational differences in these two proteins are evident. Finally, we found ChlR1 exists and functions as a monomer in solution, which is different from FANCJ, in which the Q motif is involved in protein dimerization. Taken together, our results suggest that the Q motif is involved in DNA binding but not ATP binding in ChlR1 helicase.

  15. The RecQ helicase-topoisomerase III-Rmi1 complex: a DNA structure-specific 'dissolvasome'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2007-01-01

    RecQ helicases, together with topoisomerase III and Rmi1 family proteins, form an evolutionarily conserved complex that is essential for the maintenance of genome integrity. This complex, which we term RTR, is capable of, or has been implicated in, the processing of a diverse array of DNA...

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hrq1 helicase activity is affected by the sequence but not the length of single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Bochman, Matthew L

    2017-05-13

    Mutations in the human RecQ4 DNA helicase are associated with three different diseases characterized by genomic instability. To gain insight into how RecQ4 dysfunction leads to these pathologies, several groups have used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ4 homolog Hrq1 as an experimental model. Hrq1 displays many of the same functions as RecQ4 in vivo and in vitro. However, there is some disagreement in the literature about the effects of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) length on Hrq1 helicase activity and the ability of Hrq1 to anneal complementary ssDNA oligonucleotides into duplex DNA. Here, we present a side-by-side comparison of Hrq1 and RecQ4 helicase activity, demonstrating that in both cases, long random-sequence 3' ssDNA tails inhibit DNA unwinding in vitro in a length-dependent manner. This appears to be due to the formation of secondary structures in the random-sequence ssDNA because Hrq1 preferentially unwound poly(dT)-tailed forks independent of ssDNA length. Further, RecQ4 is capable of ssDNA strand annealing and annealing-dependent strand exchange, but Hrq1 lacks these activities. These results establish the importance of DNA sequence in Hrq1 helicase activity, and the absence of Hrq1 strand annealing activity explains the previously identified discrepancies between S. cerevisiae Hrq1 and human RecQ4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intercomparison of XH2O Data from the GOSAT TANSO-FTS (TIR and SWIR and Ground-Based FTS Measurements: Impact of the Spatial Variability of XH2O on the Intercomparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ohyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric water vapor (H2O is extremely high, and therefore it is difficult to accurately evaluate the measurement precision of H2O data by a simple comparison between the data derived from two different instruments. We determined the measurement precisions of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of H2O (XH2O retrieved independently from spectral radiances in the thermal infrared (TIR and the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR regions measured using a Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, by an intercomparison between the two TANSO-FTS XH2O data products and the ground-based FTS XH2O data. Furthermore, the spatial variability of XH2O was also estimated in the intercomparison process. Mutually coincident XH2O data above land for the period ranging from April 2009 to May 2014 were intercompared with different spatial coincidence criteria. We found that the precisions of the TANSO-FTS TIR and TANSO-FTS SWIR XH2O were 7.3%–7.7% and 3.5%–4.5%, respectively, and that the spatial variability of XH2O was 6.7% within a radius of 50 km and 18.5% within a radius of 200 km. These results demonstrate that, in order to accurately evaluate the measurement precision of XH2O, it is necessary to set more rigorous spatial coincidence criteria or to take into account the spatial variability of XH2O as derived in the present study.

  18. Mechanism and stoichiometry of interaction of DnaG primase with DnaB helicase of Escherichia coli in RNA primer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkova, Atanaska V; Khopde, Sujata M; Biswas, Subhasis B

    2003-12-26

    Initiation and synthesis of RNA primers in the lagging strand of the replication fork in Escherichia coli requires the replicative DnaB helicase and the DNA primase, the DnaG gene product. In addition, the physical interaction between these two replication enzymes appears to play a role in the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication. In vitro, DnaB helicase stimulates primase to synthesize primers on single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotide templates. Earlier studies hypothesized that multiple primase molecules interact with each DnaB hexamer and single-stranded DNA. We have examined this hypothesis and determined the exact stoichiometry of primase to DnaB hexamer. We have also demonstrated that ssDNA binding activity of the DnaB helicase is necessary for directing the primase to the initiator trinucleotide and synthesis of 11-20-nucleotide long primers. Although, association of these two enzymes determines the extent and rate of synthesis of the RNA primers in vitro, direct evidence of the formation of primase-DnaB complex has remained elusive in E. coli due to the transient nature of their interaction. Therefore, we stabilized this complex using a chemical cross-linker and carried out a stoichiometric analysis of this complex by gel filtration. This allowed us to demonstrate that the primase-helicase complex of E. coli is comprised of three molecules of primase bound to one DnaB hexamer. Fluorescence anisotropy studies of the interaction of DnaB with primase, labeled with the fluorescent probe Ru(bipy)3, and Scatchard analysis further supported this conclusion. The addition of DnaC protein, leading to the formation of the DnaB-DnaC complex, to the simple priming system resulted in the synthesis of shorter primers. Therefore, interactions of the DnaB-primase complex with other replication factors might be critical for determining the physiological length of the RNA primers in vivo and the overall kinetics of primer synthesis.

  19. Essential and distinct roles of the F-box and helicase domains of Fbh1 in DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinagawa Hideo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are induced by exogenous insults such as ionizing radiation and chemical exposure, and they can also arise as a consequence of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. Failure to repair DSBs can lead to genomic instability or cell death and cancer in higher eukaryotes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbh1 gene encodes an F-box DNA helicase previously described to play a role in the Rhp51 (an orthologue of S. cerevisiae RAD51-dependent recombinational repair of DSBs. Fbh1 fused to GFP localizes to discrete nuclear foci following DNA damage. Results To determine the functional roles of the highly conserved F-box and helicase domains, we have characterized fbh1 mutants carrying specific mutations in these domains. We show that the F-box mutation fbh1-fb disturbs the nuclear localization of Fbh1, conferring an fbh1 null-like phenotype. Moreover, nuclear foci do not form in fbh1-fb cells with DNA damage even if Fbh1-fb is targeted to the nucleus by fusion to a nuclear localization signal sequence. In contrast, the helicase mutation fbh1-hl causes the accumulation of Fbh1 foci irrespective of the presence of DNA damage and confers damage sensitivity greater than that conferred by the null allele. Additional mutation of the F-box alleviates the hypermorphic phenotype of the fbh1-hl mutant. Conclusion These results suggest that the F-box and DNA helicase domains play indispensable but distinct roles in Fbh1 function. Assembly of the SCFFbh1 complex is required for both the nuclear localization and DNA damage-induced focus formation of Fbh1 and is therefore prerequisite for the Fbh1 recombination function.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DinG is a structure-specific helicase that unwinds G4 DNA: implications for targeting G4 DNA as a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Roshan Singh; Desingu, Ambika; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Subramanya, Shreelakshmi; Rao, Desirazu N; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2014-09-05

    The significance of G-quadruplexes and the helicases that resolve G4 structures in prokaryotes is poorly understood. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is GC-rich and contains >10,000 sequences that have the potential to form G4 structures. In Escherichia coli, RecQ helicase unwinds G4 structures. However, RecQ is absent in M. tuberculosis, and the helicase that participates in G4 resolution in M. tuberculosis is obscure. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis DinG (MtDinG) exhibits high affinity for ssDNA and ssDNA translocation with a 5' → 3' polarity. Interestingly, MtDinG unwinds overhangs, flap structures, and forked duplexes but fails to unwind linear duplex DNA. Our data with DNase I footprinting provide mechanistic insights and suggest that MtDinG is a 5' → 3' polarity helicase. Notably, in contrast to E. coli DinG, MtDinG catalyzes unwinding of replication fork and Holliday junction structures. Strikingly, we find that MtDinG resolves intermolecular G4 structures. These data suggest that MtDinG is a multifunctional structure-specific helicase that unwinds model structures of DNA replication, repair, and recombination as well as G4 structures. We finally demonstrate that promoter sequences of M. tuberculosis PE_PGRS2, mce1R, and moeB1 genes contain G4 structures, implying that G4 structures may regulate gene expression in M. tuberculosis. We discuss these data and implicate targeting G4 structures and DinG helicase in M. tuberculosis could be a novel therapeutic strategy for culminating the infection with this pathogen. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction–Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction–Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can ‘turnover’, albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. ‘DNA sliding’). PMID:22523084

  2. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction-Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2012-08-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction-Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼ 200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can 'turnover', albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. 'DNA sliding').

  3. XPD Helicase: Shifting the Inchworm into Reverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Directional translocation by helicases results in duplex separation and displacement of bound proteins which allows for the DNA processing events associated with DNA repair, replication, recombination, and transcription. Unresolved questions regarding DNA helicases include: (1) how is directional translocation determined in SF2 helicases; (2) do…

  4. Mitochondrial helicases and mitochondrial genome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Aamann, Maria Diget; Kulikowicz, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Helicases are essential enzymes that utilize the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to drive unwinding of nucleic acid duplexes. Helicases play roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism including DNA repair, DNA replication and transcription. The subcellular locations and functions of several helicases...

  5. Plant organellar DNA primase-helicase synthesizes RNA primers for organellar DNA polymerases using a unique recognition sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta-Castro, Antolín; Baruch-Torres, Noe; Brieba, Luis G

    2017-10-13

    DNA primases recognize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) sequences to synthesize RNA primers during lagging-strand replication. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes an ortholog of the DNA primase-helicase from bacteriophage T7, dubbed AtTwinkle, that localizes in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Herein, we report that AtTwinkle synthesizes RNA primers from a 5'-(G/C)GGA-3' template sequence. Within this sequence, the underlined nucleotides are cryptic, meaning that they are essential for template recognition but are not instructional during RNA synthesis. Thus, in contrast to all primases characterized to date, the sequence recognized by AtTwinkle requires two nucleotides (5'-GA-3') as a cryptic element. The divergent zinc finger binding domain (ZBD) of the primase module of AtTwinkle may be responsible for template sequence recognition. During oligoribonucleotide synthesis, AtTwinkle shows a strong preference for rCTP as its initial ribonucleotide and a moderate preference for rGMP or rCMP incorporation during elongation. RNA products synthetized by AtTwinkle are efficiently used as primers for plant organellar DNA polymerases. In sum, our data strongly suggest that AtTwinkle primes organellar DNA polymerases during lagging strand synthesis in plant mitochondria and chloroplast following a primase-mediated mechanism. This mechanism contrasts to lagging-strand DNA replication in metazoan mitochondria, in which transcripts synthesized by mitochondrial RNA polymerase prime mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Mutation and Methylation Analysis of the Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA Binding 5 Gene in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie L. Gorringe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromodomain, helicase, DNA binding 5 (CHD5 is a member of a subclass of the chromatin remodeling Swi/Snf proteins and has recently been proposed as a tumor suppressor in a diverse range of human cancers. We analyzed all 41 coding exons of CHD5 for somatic mutations in 123 primary ovarian cancers as well as 60 primary breast cancers using high-resolution melt analysis. We also examined methylation of the CHD5 promoter in 48 ovarian cancer samples by methylation-specific single-stranded conformation polymorphism and bisulfite sequencing. In contrast to previous studies, no mutations were identified in the breast cancers, but somatic heterozygous missense mutations were identified in 3 of 123 ovarian cancers. We identified promoter methylation in 3 of 45 samples with normal CHD5 and in 2 of 3 samples with CHD5 mutation, suggesting these tumors may have biallelic inactivation of CHD5. Hemizygous copy number loss at CHD5 occurred in 6 of 85 samples as assessed by single nucleotide polymorphism array. Tumors with CHD5 mutation or methylation were more likely to have mutation of KRAS or BRAF (P = .04. The aggregate frequency of CHD5 haploinsufficiency or inactivation is 16.2% in ovarian cancer. Thus, CHD5 may play a role as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer; however, it is likely that there is another target of the frequent copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity observed at 1p36.

  7. DNA unwinding by ASCC3 helicase is coupled to ALKBH3 dependent DNA alkylation repair and cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dango, Sebastian; Mosammaparast, Nima; Sowa, Mathew E.; Xiong, Li-Jun; Wu, Feizhen; Park, Keyjung; Rubin, Mark; Gygi, Steve; Harper, J. Wade; Shi, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Summary Demethylation by the AlkB dioxygenases represents an important mechanism for repair of N-alkylated nucleotides. However, little is known about their functions in mammalian cells. We report the purification of the ALKBH3 complex and demonstrate its association with the Activating Signal Co-integrator Complex (ASCC). ALKBH3 is overexpressed in various cancers, and both ALKBH3 and ASCC are important for alkylation damage resistance in these tumor cell lines. ASCC3, the largest subunit of ASCC, encodes a 3′-5′ DNA helicase, whose activity is crucial for the generation of single-stranded DNA upon which ALKBH3 preferentially functions for dealkylation. In cell lines that are dependent on ALKBH3 and ASCC3 for alkylation damage resistance, loss of ALKBH3 or ASCC3 leads to increased 3-methylcytosine and reduced cell proliferation, which correlates with pH2A.X and 53BP1 foci formation. Our data provide a molecular mechanism by which ALKBH3 collaborates with ASCC to maintain genomic integrity in a cell type specific manner. PMID:22055184

  8. DNA2 cooperates with the WRN and BLM RecQ helicases to mediate long-range DNA end resection in human cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturzenegger, A.; Burdová, Kamila; Kanagaraj, R.; Levikova, M.; Pinto, C.; Cejka, P.; Janščák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 39 (2014), s. 27314-27326 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/0281 Grant - others:Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A-129747; Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A_146206; Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) PP00P3 133636; University of Zurich(CH) FK-13-098 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : DNA Damage * DNA Helicase * DNA Recombination * DNA Repair * Genomic Instability * RecQ Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.573, year: 2014

  9. The N-terminal 45-kDa Domain of Dna2 Endonuclease/Helicase Targets the Enzyme to Secondary Structure DNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Miju; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Do-Hyung; Kang, Young-Hoon; Bae, Sung-Ho; Seo, Yeon-Soo

    2013-01-01

    The removal of initiating primers from the 5′-ends of each Okazaki fragment, required for the generation of contiguous daughter strands, can be catalyzed by the combined action of DNA polymerase δ and Fen1. When the flaps generated by displacement of DNA synthesis activity of polymerase δ become long enough to bind replication protein A or form hairpin structures, the helicase/endonuclease enzyme, Dna2, becomes critical because of its ability to remove replication protein A-coated or secondary structure flaps. In this study, we show that the N-terminal 45-kDa domain of Dna2 binds hairpin structures, allowing the enzyme to target secondary structure flap DNA. We found that this activity was essential for the efficient removal of hairpin flaps by the endonuclease activity of Dna2 with the aid of its helicase activity. Thus, the efficient removal of hairpin structure flaps requires the coordinated action of all three functional domains of Dna2. We also found that deletion of the N-terminal 45-kDa domain of Dna2 led to a partial loss of the intra-S-phase checkpoint function and an increased rate of homologous recombination in yeast. We discuss the potential roles of the N-terminal domain of Dna2 in the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:23344960

  10. The Caenorhabditis elegans WRN helicase promotes double-strand DNA break repair by mediating end resection and checkpoint activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jin-Sun; Koo, Hyeon-Sook

    2017-07-01

    The protein associated with Werner syndrome (WRN), is involved in DNA repair, checkpoint activation, and telomere maintenance. To better understand the involvement of WRN in double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair, we analyzed the combinatorial role of WRN-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans WRN helicase, in conjunction with EXO-1 and DNA-2 nucleases. We found that WRN-1 cooperates with DNA-2 to resect DSB ends in a pathway acting in parallel to EXO-1. The wrn-1 mutants show an aberrant accumulation of replication protein A (RPA) and RAD-51, and the same pattern of accumulation is also observed in checkpoint-defective strains. We conclude that WRN-1 plays a conserved role in the resection of DSB ends and mediates checkpoint signaling, thereby influencing levels of RPA and RAD-51. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Human RECQ5 helicase promotes repair of DNA double-strand breaks by synthesis-dependent strand annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paliwal, S.; Kanagaraj, R.; Sturzenegger, A.; Burdová, Kamila; Janščák, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2014), s. 2380-2390 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0565; GA ČR GAP305/10/0281 Grant - others:Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A-129747; Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 31003A_146206 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Human RECQ5 helicase * DNA double-strand breaks * mitotic homologous recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  12. BLM helicase measures DNA unwound before switching strands and hRPA promotes unwinding reinitiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yodh, J.G.; Stevens, B.C.; Kanagaraj, R.; Janščák, Pavel; Ha, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2009), s. 405-416 ISSN 0261-4189 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Bloom syndrome * FRET * helicase * hRPA * single molecule Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.993, year: 2009

  13. Molecular architecture of the recombinant human MCM2-7 helicase in complex with nucleotides and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boskovic, Jasminka; Bragado-Nilsson, Elisabeth; Saligram Prabhakar, Bhargav

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is a key biological process that involves different protein complexes whose assembly is rigorously regulated in a successive order. One of these complexes is a replicative hexameric helicase, the MCM complex, which is essential for the initiation and elongation phases of replication....... After the assembly of a double heterohexameric MCM2-7 complex at replication origins in G1, the 2 heterohexamers separate from each other and associate with Cdc45 and GINS proteins in a CMG complex that is capable of unwinding dsDNA during S phase. Here, we have reconstituted and characterized...... the purified human MCM2-7 (hMCM2-7) hexameric complex by co-expression of its 6 different subunits in insect cells. The conformational variability of the complex has been analyzed by single particle electron microscopy in the presence of different nucleotide analogs and DNA. The interaction with nucleotide...

  14. Mycobacterium smegmatis SftH exemplifies a distinctive clade of superfamily II DNA-dependent ATPases with 3' to 5' translocase and helicase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, Lyudmila; Shuman, Stewart

    2012-08-01

    Bacterial DNA helicases are nucleic acid-dependent NTPases that play important roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair. We are interested in the DNA helicases of Mycobacteria, a genus of the phylum Actinobacteria, which includes the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its avirulent relative Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we identify and characterize M. smegmatis SftH, a superfamily II helicase with a distinctive domain structure, comprising an N-terminal NTPase domain and a C-terminal DUF1998 domain (containing a putative tetracysteine metal-binding motif). We show that SftH is a monomeric DNA-dependent ATPase/dATPase that translocates 3' to 5' on single-stranded DNA and has 3' to 5' helicase activity. SftH homologs are found in bacteria representing 12 different phyla, being especially prevalent in Actinobacteria (including M. tuberculosis). SftH homologs are evident in more than 30 genera of Archaea. Among eukarya, SftH homologs are present in plants and fungi.

  15. Mycobacterial UvrD1 is a Ku-dependent DNA helicase that plays a role in multiple DNA repair events, including double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Krishna Murari; Stephanou, Nicolas C; Gao, Feng; Glickman, Michael S; Shuman, Stewart

    2007-05-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens have a Ku-dependent nonhomologous end joining pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. Here we identify mycobacterial UvrD1 as a novel interaction partner for Ku in a genome-wide yeast two-hybrid screen. UvrD1 per se is a vigorous DNA-dependent ATPase but a feeble DNA helicase. Ku stimulates UvrD1 to catalyze ATP-dependent unwinding of 3'-tailed DNAs. UvrD1, Ku, and DNA form a stable ternary complex in the absence of ATP. The Ku binding determinants are located in the distinctive C-terminal segment of UvrD1. A second mycobacterial paralog, UvrD2, is a vigorous Ku-independent DNA helicase. Ablation of UvrD1 sensitizes Mycobacterium smegmatis to killing by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and to a single chromosomal break generated by I-SceI endonuclease. The physical and functional interactions of bacterial Ku and UvrD1 highlight the potential for cross-talk between components of nonhomologous end joining and nucleotide excision repair pathways.

  16. Structure and function of DnaA N-terminal domains: specific sites and mechanisms in inter-DnaA interaction and in DnaB helicase loading on oriC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshito; Jo, Takaaki; Matsuda, Yusaku; Matsunaga, Chika; Katayama, Tsutomu; Ueda, Tadashi

    2007-06-15

    DnaA forms a homomultimeric complex with the origin of chromosomal replication (oriC) to unwind duplex DNA. The interaction of the DnaA N terminus with the DnaB helicase is crucial for the loading of DnaB onto the unwound region. Here, we determined the DnaA N terminus structure using NMR. This region (residues 1-108) consists of a rigid region (domain I) and a flexible region (domain II). Domain I has an alpha-alpha-beta-beta-alpha-beta motif, similar to that of the K homology (KH) domain, and has weak affinity for oriC single-stranded DNA, consistent with KH domain function. A hydrophobic surface carrying Trp-6 most likely forms the interface for domain I dimerization. Glu-21 is located on the opposite surface of domain I from the Trp-6 site and is crucial for DnaB helicase loading. These findings suggest a model for DnaA homomultimer formation and DnaB helicase loading on oriC.

  17. DndEi Exhibits Helicase Activity Essential for DNA Phosphorothioate Modification and ATPase Activity Strongly Stimulated by DNA Substrate with a GAAC/GTTC Motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Jiang, Pan; Cao, Bo; Cheng, Qiuxiang; Kong, Lingxin; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Hu, Qinghai; You, Delin

    2016-01-15

    Phosphorothioate (PT) modification of DNA, in which the non-bridging oxygen of the backbone phosphate group is replaced by sulfur, is governed by the DndA-E proteins in prokaryotes. To better understand the biochemical mechanism of PT modification, functional analysis of the recently found PT-modifying enzyme DndEi, which has an additional domain compared with canonical DndE, from Riemerella anatipestifer is performed in this study. The additional domain is identified as a DNA helicase, and functional deletion of this domain in vivo leads to PT modification deficiency, indicating an essential role of helicase activity in PT modification. Subsequent analysis reveals that the additional domain has an ATPase activity. Intriguingly, the ATPase activity is strongly stimulated by DNA substrate containing a GAAC/GTTC motif (i.e. the motif at which PT modifications occur in R. anatipestifer) when the additional domain and the other domain (homologous to canonical DndE) are co-expressed as a full-length DndEi. These results reveal that PT modification is a biochemical process with DNA strand separation and intense ATP hydrolysis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB Is a Robust DNA-Stimulated ATPase That Also Possesses Structure-Specific ATP-Dependent DNA Helicase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Manoj; Kumar, Mohan B J; Muniyappa, K

    2016-10-18

    Much is known about the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway; however, very little is understood about the proteins involved and the molecular mechanism of NER in mycobacteria. In this study, we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB (MtUvrB), which exists in solution as a monomer, binds to DNA in a structure-dependent manner. A systematic examination of MtUvrB substrate specificity reveals that it associates preferentially with single-stranded DNA, duplexes with 3' or 5' overhangs, and linear duplex DNA with splayed arms. Whereas E. coli UvrB (EcUvrB) binds weakly to undamaged DNA and has no ATPase activity, MtUvrB possesses intrinsic ATPase activity that is greatly stimulated by both single- and double-stranded DNA. Strikingly, we found that MtUvrB, but not EcUvrB, possesses the DNA unwinding activity characteristic of an ATP-dependent DNA helicase. The helicase activity of MtUvrB proceeds in the 3' to 5' direction and is strongly modulated by a nontranslocating 5' single-stranded tail, indicating that in addition to the translocating strand it also interacts with the 5' end of the substrate. The fraction of DNA unwound by MtUvrB decreases significantly as the length of the duplex increases: it fails to unwind duplexes longer than 70 bp. These results, on one hand, reveal significant mechanistic differences between MtUvrB and EcUvrB and, on the other, support an alternative role for UvrB in the processing of key DNA replication intermediates. Altogether, our findings provide insights into the catalytic functions of UvrB and lay the foundation for further understanding of the NER pathway in M. tuberculosis.

  19. Structure of a Novel DNA-binding Domain of Helicase-like Transcription Factor (HLTF) and Its Functional Implication in DNA Damage Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishiki, Asami; Hara, Kodai; Ikegaya, Yuzu; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sato, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-05-22

    HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor) is a yeast RAD5 homolog found in mammals. HLTF has E3 ubiquitin ligase and DNA helicase activities, and plays a pivotal role in the template-switching pathway of DNA damage tolerance. HLTF has an N-terminal domain that has been designated the HIRAN (HIP116 and RAD5 N-terminal) domain. The HIRAN domain has been hypothesized to play a role in DNA binding; however, the structural basis of, and functional evidence for, the HIRAN domain in DNA binding has remained unclear. Here we show for the first time the crystal structure of the HIRAN domain of human HLTF in complex with DNA. The HIRAN domain is composed of six β-strands and two α-helices, forming an OB-fold structure frequently found in ssDNA-binding proteins, including in replication factor A (RPA). Interestingly, this study reveals that the HIRAN domain interacts with not only with a single-stranded DNA but also with a duplex DNA. Furthermore, the structure unexpectedly clarifies that the HIRAN domain specifically recognizes the 3'-end of DNA. These results suggest that the HIRAN domain functions as a sensor to the 3'-end of the primer strand at the stalled replication fork and that the domain facilitates fork regression. HLTF is recruited to a damaged site through the HIRAN domain at the stalled replication fork. Furthermore, our results have implications for the mechanism of template switching. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Comparison of XH2O Retrieved from GOSAT Short-Wavelength Infrared Spectra with Observations from the TCCON Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dupuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the atmospheric distribution of water (H 2 O is crucial for global warming studies and climate change mitigation. In this context, reliable satellite data are extremely valuable for their global and continuous coverage, once their quality has been assessed. Short-wavelength infrared spectra are acquired by the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT. From these, column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor (XH 2 O have been retrieved at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan and are available as a Level 2 research product. We compare the NIES XH 2 O data, Version 02.21, with retrievals from the ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON, Version GGG2014. The datasets are in good overall agreement, with GOSAT data showing a slight global low bias of −3.1% ± 24.0%, good consistency over different locations (station bias of −1.53% ± 10.35% and reasonable correlation with TCCON (R = 0.89. We identified two potential sources of discrepancy between the NIES and TCCON retrievals over land. While the TCCON XH 2 O amounts can reach 6000–7000 ppm when the atmospheric water content is high, the correlated NIES values do not exceed 5500 ppm. This could be due to a dry bias of TANSO-FTS in situations of high humidity and aerosol content. We also determined that the GOSAT-TCCON differences directly depend on the altitude difference between the TANSO-FTS footprint and the TCCON site. Further analysis will account for these biases, but the NIES V02.21 XH 2 O product, after public release, can already be useful for water cycle studies.

  1. All-electron molecular Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations - Properties of the XH4 and XH2 molecules and the reaction energy XH4 yields XH2 + H2, X = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.

    1992-01-01

    Relativistic corrections to a number of properties of the Group IV hydrides are calculated using the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The use of first-order perturbation theory is sufficient to obtain relativistic corrections for Ge, but the effects of spin-orbit interaction and other higher-order effects begin to show for Sn and become important for Pb. The energy of the reaction XH4 yields XH2 + H2 (X = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) is also calculated. The results are compared with relativistic effective core potential calculations, first-order perturbation theory calculations, and limited experimental data.

  2. Drosophila DNA polymerase theta utilizes both helicase-like and polymerase domains during microhomology-mediated end joining and interstrand crosslink repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagan, Kelly; Armstrong, Robin L; Witsell, Alice; Roy, Upasana; Renedo, Nikolai; Baker, Amy E; Schärer, Orlando D; McVey, Mitch

    2017-05-01

    Double strand breaks (DSBs) and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are toxic DNA lesions that can be repaired through multiple pathways, some of which involve shared proteins. One of these proteins, DNA Polymerase θ (Pol θ), coordinates a mutagenic DSB repair pathway named microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) and is also a critical component for bypass or repair of ICLs in several organisms. Pol θ contains both polymerase and helicase-like domains that are tethered by an unstructured central region. While the role of the polymerase domain in promoting MMEJ has been studied extensively both in vitro and in vivo, a function for the helicase-like domain, which possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity, remains unclear. Here, we utilize genetic and biochemical analyses to examine the roles of the helicase-like and polymerase domains of Drosophila Pol θ. We demonstrate an absolute requirement for both polymerase and ATPase activities during ICL repair in vivo. However, similar to mammalian systems, polymerase activity, but not ATPase activity, is required for ionizing radiation-induced DSB repair. Using a site-specific break repair assay, we show that overall end-joining efficiency is not affected in ATPase-dead mutants, but there is a significant decrease in templated insertion events. In vitro, Pol θ can efficiently bypass a model unhooked nitrogen mustard crosslink and promote DNA synthesis following microhomology annealing, although ATPase activity is not required for these functions. Together, our data illustrate the functional importance of the helicase-like domain of Pol θ and suggest that its tethering to the polymerase domain is important for its multiple functions in DNA repair and damage tolerance.

  3. The UL8 subunit of the helicase-primase complex of herpes simplex virus promotes DNA annealing and has a high affinity for replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermek, Oya; Weller, Sandra K; Griffith, Jack D

    2017-09-22

    During lytic infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA is replicated by a mechanism involving DNA recombination. For instance, replication of the HSV-1 genome produces X- and Y-branched structures, reminiscent of recombination intermediates. HSV-1's replication machinery includes a trimeric helicase-primase composed of helicase (UL5) and primase (UL52) subunits and a third subunit, UL8. UL8 has been reported to stimulate the helicase and primase activities of the complex in the presence of ICP8, an HSV-1 protein that functions as an annealase, a protein that binds complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and facilitates its annealing to duplex DNA. UL8 also influences the intracellular localization of the UL5/UL52 subunits, but UL8's catalytic activities are not known. In this study we used a combination of biochemical techniques and transmission electron microscopy. First, we report that UL8 alone forms protein filaments in solution. Moreover, we also found that UL8 binds to ssDNAs >50-nucletides long and promotes the annealing of complementary ssDNA to generate highly branched duplex DNA structures. Finally, UL8 has a very high affinity for replication fork structures containing a gap in the lagging strand as short as 15 nucleotides, suggesting that UL8 may aid in directing or loading the trimeric complex onto a replication fork. The properties of UL8 uncovered here suggest that UL8 may be involved in the generation of the X- and Y-branched structures that are the hallmarks of HSV replication. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Cas3 is a single-stranded DNA nuclease and ATP-dependent helicase in the CRISPR/Cas immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkunas, Tomas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Fremaux, Christophe; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Horvath, Philippe; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2011-04-06

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a recently discovered adaptive prokaryotic immune system that provides acquired immunity against foreign nucleic acids by utilizing small guide crRNAs (CRISPR RNAs) to interfere with invading viruses and plasmids. In Escherichia coli, Cas3 is essential for crRNA-guided interference with virus proliferation. Cas3 contains N-terminal HD phosphohydrolase and C-terminal Superfamily 2 (SF2) helicase domains. Here, we provide the first report of the cloning, expression, purification and in vitro functional analysis of the Cas3 protein of the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR4 (Ecoli subtype) system. Cas3 possesses a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-stimulated ATPase activity, which is coupled to unwinding of DNA/DNA and RNA/DNA duplexes. Cas3 also shows ATP-independent nuclease activity located in the HD domain with a preference for ssDNA substrates. To dissect the contribution of individual domains, Cas3 separation-of-function mutants (ATPase(+)/nuclease(-) and ATPase(-)/nuclease(+)) were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. We propose that the Cas3 ATPase/helicase domain acts as a motor protein, which assists delivery of the nuclease activity to Cascade-crRNA complex targeting foreign DNA.

  5. Development of Reverse Transcription Thermostable Helicase-Dependent DNA Amplification for the Detection of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinghai; Chen, Chanfa; Xiao, Xizhi; Deng, Ming Jun

    2016-11-01

    A protocol for the reverse transcription-helicase-dependent amplification (RT-HDA) of isothermal DNA was developed for the detection of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Specific primers, which were based on the highly conserved region of the N gene sequence in TSWV, were used for the amplification of virus's RNA. The LOD of RT-HDA, reverse transcriptase-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were conducted using 10-fold serial dilution of RNA eluates. TSWV sensitivity in RT-HDA and RT-LAMP was 4 pg RNA compared with 40 pg RNA in RT-PCR. The specificity of RT-HDA for TSWV was high, showing no cross-reactivity with other tomato and Tospovirus viruses including cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tomato black ring virus (TBRV), tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), or impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV). The RT-HDA method is effective for the detection of TSWV in plant samples and is a potential tool for early and rapid detection of TSWV.

  6. Helicase-Dependent Isothermal Amplification of DNA and RNA by Using Self-Avoiding Molecular Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zunyi; McLendon, Chris; Hutter, Daniel; Bradley, Kevin M; Hoshika, Shuichi; Frye, Carole B; Benner, Steven A

    2015-06-15

    Assays that detect DNA or RNA (xNA) are highly sensitive, as small amounts of xNA can be amplified by PCR. Unfortunately, PCR is inconvenient in low-resource environments, and requires equipment and power that might not be available in these environments. Isothermal procedures, which avoid thermal cycling, are often confounded by primer dimers, off-target priming, and other artifacts. Here, we show how a "self avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS) eliminates these artifacts and gives clean amplicons in a helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (SAMRS-HDA). We also show that incorporating SAMRS into the 3'-ends of primers facilitates the design and screening of primers for HDA assays. Finally, we show that SAMRS-HDA can be twofold multiplexed, difficult to achieve with HDA using standard primers. Thus, SAMRS-HDA is a more versatile approach than standard HDA, with a broader applicability for xNA-targeted diagnostics and research. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Unwinding after high salinity stress: Pea DNA helicase 45 over- expression in tobacco confers high salinity tolerance without affecting yield (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuteja, N.

    2005-01-01

    Soil salinity is an increasing threat for agriculture and is a major factor in reducing plant productivity; therefore, it is necessary to obtain salinity-tolerant varieties. A typical characteristic of soil salinity is the induction of multiple stress- inducible genes. Some of the genes encoding osmolytes, ion channels or enzymes are able to confer salinity-tolerant phenotypes when transferred to sensitive plants. As salinity stress affects the cellular gene-expression machinery, it is evident that molecules involved in nucleic acid processing including helicases, are likely to be affected as well. DNA helicases unwind duplex DNA and are involved in replication, repair, recombination and transcription while RNA helicases unfold the secondary structures in RNA and are involved in transcription, ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation. We have earlier reported the isolation of a pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH45) that exhibits striking homology with eIF-4A (Plant J. 24:219-230,2000). Here we report that PDH45 mRNA is induced in pea seedlings in response to high salt and its over- expression driven by a constitutive CAMV-355-promoter in tobacco plants confers salinity tolerance, thus suggesting a new pathway for manipulating stress tolerance in crop plants. The T0 transgenic plants showed high-levels of PDH45 protein in normal and stress conditions, as compared to wild type (WT) plants. The T0 transgenics also showed tolerance to high salinity as tested by a leaf disc senescence assay. The T1 transgenics were able to grow to maturity and set normal viable seeds under continuous salinity stress, without any reduction in plant yield, in terms of seed weight. Measurement of Na/sup +/ ions in different parts of the plant showed higher accumulation in the old leaves and negligible in seeds of T1 transgenic lines as compared with the WT plants. The possible mechanism of salinity tolerance will be discussed. Over-expression of PDH45 provides a possible example of the

  8. Thermodynamics, dielectric permittivity and phase diagrams of the Rb1-x(NH4xH2PO4 type proton glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Sorokov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cluster pseudospin model of proton glasses, which takes into account the energy levels of protons around the PO4 group, the long-range interactions between the hydrogen bonds, and an internal random deformational field is used to investigate thermodynamical characteristics, longitudinal and transverse dielectric permittivities of Rb1-x(ND4xD2PO4 and Rb1-x(NH4xH2AsO4 compounds. A review of experimental and theoretical works on the Rb1-x(NH4xH2PO4 type crystals is presented.

  9. Revised genetic map of the distal end of the F transfer operon: implications for DNA helicase I, nicking at oriT, and conjugal DNA transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, B A; Minkley, E G

    1987-07-01

    The DNA transfer stage of conjugation requires the products of the F sex factor genes traMYDIZ and the cis-acting site oriT. Previous interpretation of genetic and protein analyses suggested that traD, traI, and traZ mapped as contiguous genes at the distal end of the transfer operon and saturated this portion of the F transfer region (which ends with an IS3 element). Using antibodies prepared against the purified TraD and TraI proteins, we analyzed the products encoded by a collection of chimeric plasmids constructed with various segments of traDIZ DNA. We found the traI gene to be located 1 kilobase to the right of the position suggested on previous maps. This creates an unsaturated space between traD and traI where unidentified tra genes may be located and leaves insufficient space between traI and IS3 for coding the 94-kilodalton protein previously thought to be the product of traZ. We found that the 94-kilodalton protein arose from a translational restart and corresponds to the carboxy terminus of traI; we named it TraI*. The precise physical location of the traZ gene and the identity of its product are unknown. The oriT nicking activity known as TraZ may stem from unassigned regions between traD and traI and between traI and IS3, but a more interesting possibility is that it is actually a function of traI. On our revised map, the position of a previously detected RNA polymerase-binding site corresponds to a site at the amino terminus of traI rather than a location 1 kilobase into the coding region of the gene. Furthermore, the physical and genetic comparison of the F traD and traI genes with those of the closely related F-like conjugative plasmids R1 and R100 is greatly simplified. The translational organization we found for traI, together with its identity as the structural gene for DNA helicase I, suggests a possible functional link to several other genes from which translational restart polypeptides are expressed. These include the primases of the

  10. The DNA repair endonuclease XPG interacts directly and functionally with the WRN helicase defective in Werner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trego, Kelly S.; Chernikova, Sophia B.; Davalos, Albert R.; Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Finger, L. David; Ng, Cliff; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Yannone, Steven M.; Tainer, John A.; Campisi, Judith; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2011-04-20

    XPG is a structure-specific endonuclease required for nucleotide excision repair (NER). XPG incision defects result in the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum, whereas truncating mutations of XPG cause the severe postnatal progeroid developmental disorder Cockayne syndrome. We show that XPG interacts directly with WRN protein, which is defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome, and that the two proteins undergo similar sub-nuclear redistribution in S-phase and co-localize in nuclear foci. The co-localization was observed in mid- to late-S-phase, when WRN moves from nucleoli to nuclear foci that have been shown to contain protein markers of both stalled replication forks and telomeric proteins. We mapped the interaction between XPG and WRN to the C-terminal domains of each and show that interaction with the C-terminal domain of XPG strongly stimulates WRN helicase activity. WRN also possesses a competing DNA single-strand annealing activity that, combined with unwinding, has been shown to coordinate regression of model replication forks to form Holliday junction/chicken foot intermediate structures. We tested whether XPG stimulated WRN annealing activity and found that XPG itself has intrinsic strand annealing activity that requires the unstructured R- and C-terminal domains, but not the conserved catalytic core or endonuclease activity. Annealing by XPG is cooperative, rather than additive, with WRN annealing. Taken together, our results suggest a novel function for XPG in S-phase that is at least in part carried out coordinately with WRN, and which may contribute to the severity of the phenotypes that occur upon loss of XPG.

  11. Helicases as molecular motors: An insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Tuteja, Renu

    2006-12-01

    Helicases are one of the smallest motors of biological system, which harness the chemical free energy of ATP hydrolysis to catalyze the opening of energetically stable duplex nucleic acids and thereby are involved in almost all aspect of nucleic acid metabolism including replication, repair, recombination, transcription, translation, and ribosome biogenesis. Basically, they break the hydrogen bonding between the duplex helix and translocate unidirectionally along the bound strand. Mostly all the helicases contain some conserved signature motifs, which act as an engine to power the unwinding. After the discovery of the first prokaryotic DNA helicase from Escherichia coli bacteria in 1976 and the first eukaryotic one from the lily plant in 1978, many more (>100) have been isolated. All the helicases share some common properties, including nucleic acid binding, NTP hydrolysis and unwinding of the duplex. Many helicases have been crystallized and their structures have revealed an underlying common structural fold for their function. The defects in helicases gene have also been reported to be responsible for variety of human genetic disorders, which can lead to cancer, premature aging or mental retardation. Recently, a new role of a helicase in abiotic stress signaling in plant has been discovered. Overall, helicases act as essential molecular tools for cellular machinery and help in maintaining the integrity of genome. Here an overview of helicases has been covered which includes history, biochemical assay, properties, classification, role in human disease and mechanism of unwinding and translocation.

  12. Regulation of gene expression by the BLM helicase correlates with the presence of G-quadruplex DNA motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Tang, Weiliang; Robles, Ana I

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genetic instability and cancer predisposition, and caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Bloom syndrome, RecQ helicase-like (BLM) protein. To determine whether altered gene expression might be responsible for pathologic...

  13. DNA Sequences Proximal to Human Mitochondrial DNA Deletion Breakpoints Prevalent in Human Disease Form G-quadruplexes, a Class of DNA Structures Inefficiently Unwound by the Mitochondrial Replicative Twinkle Helicase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Sommers, Joshua A.; Zhou, Jun; Kaplan, Daniel L.; Spelbrink, Johannes N.; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Brosh, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA deletions are prominent in human genetic disorders, cancer, and aging. It is thought that stalling of the mitochondrial replication machinery during DNA synthesis is a prominent source of mitochondrial genome instability; however, the precise molecular determinants of defective mitochondrial replication are not well understood. In this work, we performed a computational analysis of the human mitochondrial genome using the “Pattern Finder” G-quadruplex (G4) predictor algorithm to assess whether G4-forming sequences reside in close proximity (within 20 base pairs) to known mitochondrial DNA deletion breakpoints. We then used this information to map G4P sequences with deletions characteristic of representative mitochondrial genetic disorders and also those identified in various cancers and aging. Circular dichroism and UV spectral analysis demonstrated that mitochondrial G-rich sequences near deletion breakpoints prevalent in human disease form G-quadruplex DNA structures. A biochemical analysis of purified recombinant human Twinkle protein (gene product of c10orf2) showed that the mitochondrial replicative helicase inefficiently unwinds well characterized intermolecular and intramolecular G-quadruplex DNA substrates, as well as a unimolecular G4 substrate derived from a mitochondrial sequence that nests a deletion breakpoint described in human renal cell carcinoma. Although G4 has been implicated in the initiation of mitochondrial DNA replication, our current findings suggest that mitochondrial G-quadruplexes are also likely to be a source of instability for the mitochondrial genome by perturbing the normal progression of the mitochondrial replication machinery, including DNA unwinding by Twinkle helicase. PMID:25193669

  14. XPD helicase speeds through a molecular traffic jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Ilya J; Greene, Eric C

    2009-09-11

    Helicases and other DNA translocases must travel along crowded substrates. In this issue, Honda et al. (2009) report that the archaeal XPD helicase can bypass a single-stranded DNA-binding protein without either molecule being ejected from the DNA.

  15. Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY Is an RNA-Activated ATPase/dATPase and 3'-to-5' Helicase That Unwinds 3'-Tailed RNA Duplexes and RNA:DNA Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uson, Maria Loressa; Ordonez, Heather; Shuman, Stewart

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacteria have a large and distinctive ensemble of DNA helicases that function in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Little is known about the roster of RNA helicases in mycobacteria or their roles in RNA transactions. The 912-amino-acid Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY (MSMEG_3885) protein is a bacterial homolog of the Mtr4 and Ski2 helicases that regulate RNA 3' processing and turnover by the eukaryal exosome. Here we characterize HelY as an RNA-stimulated ATPase/dATPase and an ATP/dATP-dependent 3'-to-5' helicase. HelY requires a 3' single-strand RNA tail (a loading RNA strand) to displace the complementary strand of a tailed RNA:RNA or RNA:DNA duplex. The findings that HelY ATPase is unresponsive to a DNA polynucleotide cofactor and that HelY is unable to unwind a 3'-tailed duplex in which the loading strand is DNA distinguish HelY from other mycobacterial nucleoside triphosphatases/helicases characterized previously. The biochemical properties of HelY, which resemble those of Mtr4/Ski2, hint at a role for HelY in mycobacterial RNA catabolism. RNA helicases play crucial roles in transcription, RNA processing, and translation by virtue of their ability to alter RNA secondary structure or remodel RNA-protein interactions. In eukarya, the RNA helicases Mtr4 and Ski2 regulate RNA 3' resection by the exosome. Mycobacterium smegmatis HelY, a bacterial homolog of Mtr4/Ski2, is characterized here as a unidirectional helicase, powered by RNA-dependent ATP/dATP hydrolysis, that tracks 3' to 5' along a loading RNA strand to displace the complementary strand of a tailed RNA:RNA or RNA:DNA duplex. The biochemical properties of HelY suggest a role in bacterial RNA transactions. HelY homologs are present in pathogenic mycobacteria (e.g., M. tuberculosis and M. leprae) and are widely prevalent in Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria but occur sporadically elsewhere in the bacterial domain. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Thermophilic helicase-dependent DNA amplification using the IsoAmp™ SE experimental kit for rapid detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiushin, Sergey; Tong, Yanhong; Timoney, John; Lemieux, Bertrand; Schlegel, Anne; Kong, Huimin

    2011-09-01

    A simple and portable assay for detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi has been developed based on amplification of S. equi-specific sequence using a thermophilic helicase-dependent reaction followed by visual detection of the amplicon in a disposable lateral flow cassette. An experimental kit (IsoAmp™ SE) was evaluated. Analytical sensitivity was 50 copies of S. equi genomic DNA per reaction. The IsoAmp SE assay had 100% specificity when applied to nasal swabs and washes. The assay was more sensitive than culture but less sensitive than nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The test requires neither expensive equipment nor extensive training of personnel, provides a practical alternative to culture or PCR assays for detection of S. equi in clinical samples, and expedites identification of atypical colonies of S. equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus in the laboratory.

  17. Mycobacterium smegmatis RqlH defines a novel clade of bacterial RecQ-like DNA helicases with ATP-dependent 3'-5' translocase and duplex unwinding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Heather; Unciuleac, Mihaela; Shuman, Stewart

    2012-05-01

    The Escherichia coli RecQ DNA helicase participates in a pathway of DNA repair that operates in parallel to the recombination pathway driven by the multisubunit helicase-nuclease machine RecBCD. The model mycobacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis executes homologous recombination in the absence of its helicase-nuclease machine AdnAB, though it lacks a homolog of E. coli RecQ. Here, we identify and characterize M. smegmatis RqlH, a RecQ-like helicase with a distinctive domain structure. The 691-amino acid RqlH polypeptide consists of a RecQ-like ATPase domain (amino acids 1-346) and tetracysteine zinc-binding domain (amino acids 435-499), separated by an RqlH-specific linker. RqlH lacks the C-terminal HRDC domain found in E. coli RecQ. Rather, the RqlH C-domain resembles bacterial ComF proteins and includes a phosphoribosyltransferase-like module. We show that RqlH is a DNA-dependent ATPase/dATPase that translocates 3'-5' on single-stranded DNA and has 3'-5' helicase activity. These functions inhere to RqlH-(1-505), a monomeric motor unit comprising the ATPase, linker and zinc-binding domains. RqlH homologs are distributed widely among bacterial taxa. The mycobacteria that encode RqlH lack a classical RecQ, though many other Actinobacteria have both RqlH and RecQ. Whereas E. coli K12 encodes RecQ but lacks a homolog of RqlH, other strains of E. coli have both RqlH and RecQ.

  18. Use of a restriction enzyme-digested PCR product as substrate for helicase assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Ho; Reeve, John N; Kelman, Zvi

    2005-01-13

    DNA helicases play essential roles in many cellular processes. The currently available techniques to generate substrates for helicase assays are fairly complicated and need some expertise not available in all laboratories. Here, a PCR-based method to generate a substrate for a helicase assay is described, and its application for several archaeal, bacterial and viral enzymes is demonstrated.

  19. Overcoming natural replication barriers: differential helicase requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ranjith P; Shah, Kartik A; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Mirkin, Sergei M; Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2012-02-01

    DNA sequences that form secondary structures or bind protein complexes are known barriers to replication and potential inducers of genome instability. In order to determine which helicases facilitate DNA replication across these barriers, we analyzed fork progression through them in wild-type and mutant yeast cells, using 2-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis of the replication intermediates. We show that the Srs2 protein facilitates replication of hairpin-forming CGG/CCG repeats and prevents chromosome fragility at the repeat, whereas it does not affect replication of G-quadruplex forming sequences or a protein-bound repeat. Srs2 helicase activity is required for hairpin unwinding and fork progression. Also, the PCNA binding domain of Srs2 is required for its in vivo role of replication through hairpins. In contrast, the absence of Sgs1 or Pif1 helicases did not inhibit replication through structural barriers, though Pif1 did facilitate replication of a telomeric protein barrier. Interestingly, replication through a protein barrier but not a DNA structure barrier was modulated by nucleotide pool levels, illuminating a different mechanism by which cells can regulate fork progression through protein-mediated stall sites. Our analyses reveal fundamental differences in the replication of DNA structural versus protein barriers, with Srs2 helicase activity exclusively required for fork progression through hairpin structures.

  20. Evidence for the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG helicase in DNA repair and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Roshan S; Basavaraju, Shivakumar; Somyajit, Kumar; Jain, Akshatha; Subramanya, Shreelakshmi; Muniyappa, Kalappa; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2013-04-01

    In order to survive and replicate in a variety of stressful conditions during its life cycle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must possess mechanisms to safeguard the integrity of the genome. Although DNA repair and recombination related genes are thought to play key roles in the repair of damaged DNA in all organisms, so far only a few of them have been functionally characterized in the tubercle bacillus. In this study, we show that M. tuberculosis RecG (MtRecG) expression was induced in response to different genotoxic agents. Strikingly, expression of MtRecG in Escherichia coli ∆recG mutant strain provided protection against mitomycin C, methyl methane sulfonate and UV induced cell death. Purified MtRecG exhibited higher binding affinity for the Holliday junction (HJ) compared with a number of canonical recombinational DNA repair intermediates. Notably, although MtRecG binds at the core of the mobile and immobile HJs, and with higher binding affinity for the immobile HJ, branch migration was evident only in the case of the mobile HJ. Furthermore, immobile HJs stimulate MtRecG ATPase activity less efficiently than mobile HJs. In addition to HJ substrates, MtRecG exhibited binding affinity for a variety of branched DNA structures including three-way junctions, replication forks, flap structures, forked duplex and a D-loop structure, but demonstrated strong unwinding activity on replication fork and flap DNA structures. Together, these results support that MtRecG plays an important role in processes related to DNA metabolism under normal as well as stress conditions. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  1. Structural basis for the function of DEAH helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yangzi; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Nielsen, Klaus Hvid

    2010-01-01

    DEAH helicases participate in pre‐messenger RNA splicing and ribosome biogenesis. The structure of yeast Prp43p‐ADP reveals the homology of DEAH helicases to DNA helicases and the presence of an oligonucleotide‐binding motif. A β‐hairpin from the second RecA domain is wedged between two carboxy......‐terminal domains and blocks access to the occluded RNA binding site formed by the RecA domains and a C‐terminal domain. ATP binding and hydrolysis are likely to induce conformational changes in the hairpin that are important for RNA unwinding or ribonucleoprotein remodelling. The structure of Prp43p provides...

  2. Introgression, Generational Expression and Salinity Tolerance Conferred by the Pea DNA Helicase 45 Transgene into Two Commercial Rice Genotypes, BR28 and BR47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sudip; Amin, U S Mahzabin; Sarker, Sarah; Rahman, M Sazzadur; Amin, Ruhul; Karim, Rezaul; Tuteja, Narendra; Seraj, Zeba I

    2018-02-01

    DNA helicase (PDH45) from the pea plant (Pisum sativum) is a member of the DEAD box protein family and plays a vital regulatory role in saline stress tolerance in plants. We previously reported that over-expression of PDH45 gene confers both seedling and reproductive stage salinity tolerance to a Bangladeshi rice landrace, Binnatoa (BA). In this study, transgenic BA-containing PDH45 (♂) was crossed with two different farmer-popular BRRI rice varieties (♀), BR28 and BR47, in a contained net house. F 1 plants positive for the transgene and having recipient phenotype were advanced from F 1 to F 5 . Expression of the PDH45 gene was detected in all generations. The expression level of PDH45 was 200-fold higher in the donor compared to the two recipient genotypes but without any effect on their salt stress tolerance ability in various assays. Under 120 mM NaCl stress at seedling stage, all rice genotypes showed vigorous growth, higher chlorophyll content, lower electrolyte leakage and lower LDS (Leaf Damage Score) compared to their corresponding wild types. At the reproductive stage under continuous salinity stress at 80 mM NaCl, the cross-bred lines BR28 and BR47 showed significantly better spikelet fertility and yield per plant, which were two- and 2.5-folds, respectively, than their corresponding wild types. The PDH45 transgene was observed to increase the expression of 6 salt stress-related downstream genes at 150 mM NaCl stress to similar differential degrees in the donor and recipient genotypes. However, the expression of OsLEA was significantly higher in transgenic BR28 compared to transgenic BR47, where the latter shows comparatively higher salt tolerance. The study shows stability of transgene expression across generations. It also demonstrates that there may be an effect of background genotype on transgene expression. Moreover, some downstream effects of the transgene may also be genotype-specific.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus helicase but not Escherichia coli helicase stimulates S. aureus primase activity and maintains initiation specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Scott A; Larson, Marilynn A; Griep, Mark A; Hinrichs, Steven H

    2006-07-01

    Bacterial primases are essential for DNA replication due to their role in polymerizing the formation of short RNA primers repeatedly on the lagging-strand template and at least once on the leading-strand template. The ability of recombinant Staphylococcus aureus DnaG primase to utilize different single-stranded DNA templates was tested using oligonucleotides of the sequence 5'-CAGA (CA)5 XYZ (CA)3-3', where XYZ represented the variable trinucleotide. These experiments demonstrated that S. aureus primase synthesized RNA primers predominately on templates containing 5'-d(CTA)-3' or TTA and to a much lesser degree on GTA-containing templates, in contrast to results seen with the Escherichia coli DnaG primase recognition sequence 5'-d(CTG)-3'. Primer synthesis was initiated complementarily to the middle nucleotide of the recognition sequence, while the third nucleotide, an adenosine, was required to support primer synthesis but was not copied into the RNA primer. The replicative helicases from both S. aureus and E. coli were tested for their ability to stimulate either S. aureus or E. coli primase. Results showed that each bacterial helicase could only stimulate the cognate bacterial primase. In addition, S. aureus helicase stimulated the production of full-length primers, whereas E. coli helicase increased the synthesis of only short RNA polymers. These studies identified important differences between E. coli and S. aureus related to DNA replication and suggest that each bacterial primase and helicase may have adapted unique properties optimized for replication.

  4. Viral hijacking of a replicative helicase loader and its implications for helicase loading control and phage replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Iris V.; Berger, James M.

    2016-05-31

    Replisome assembly requires the loading of replicative hexameric helicases onto origins by AAA+ ATPases. How loader activity is appropriately controlled remains unclear. Here, we use structural and biochemical analyses to establish how an antimicrobial phage protein interferes with the function of theStaphylococcus aureusreplicative helicase loader, DnaI. The viral protein binds to the loader’s AAA+ ATPase domain, allowing binding of the host replicative helicase but impeding loader self-assembly and ATPase activity. Close inspection of the complex highlights an unexpected locus for the binding of an interdomain linker element in DnaI/DnaC-family proteins. We find that the inhibitor protein is genetically coupled to a phage-encoded homolog of the bacterial helicase loader, which we show binds to the host helicase but not to the inhibitor itself. These findings establish a new approach by which viruses can hijack host replication processes and explain how loader activity is internally regulated to prevent aberrant auto-association.

  5. FBH1 Helicase Disrupts RAD51 Filaments in Vitro and Modulates Homologous Recombination in Mammalian Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimandlová, Jitka; Zagelbaum, J.; Payne, M.J.; Chu, W.K.; Shevelev, Igor; Hanada, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Reid, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Janščák, Pavel; Rothenberg, E.; Hickson, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 288, č. 47 (2013), s. 34168-34180 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/0281 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : DNA damage * DNA helicase * DNA recombination * DNA repair * DNA replication Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.600, year: 2013

  6. A role for the fission yeast Rqh1 helicase in chromosome segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Win, Thein Z; Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2005-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rqh1 protein is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family. Members of this protein family are mutated in several human genome instability syndromes, including Bloom, Werner and Rothmund-Thomson syndromes. RecQ helicases participate in recombination repair of stalled......DNA repeat by deletion of reb1+ partially suppresses rqh1delta phenotypes. These data are consistent with the function of the Top3-RecQ complex in maintenance of the rDNA structure by processing aberrant chromosome structures arising from DNA replication. The chromosome segregation defects seen...... in the absence of functional RecQ helicases may contribute to the pathogenesis of human RecQ helicase disorders....

  7. Synthesis and SAR studies of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine derivatives as potent inhibitors of Bloom helicase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Andrew S; Dexheimer, Thomas S; Gileadi, Opher

    2013-01-01

    Human cells utilize a variety of complex DNA repair mechanisms in order to combat constant mutagenic and cytotoxic threats from both exogenous and endogenous sources. The RecQ family of DNA helicases, which includes Bloom helicase (BLM), plays an important function in DNA repair by unwinding comp...

  8. High-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus helicase inhibitors using fluorescence-quenching phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Hidenori; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Miyata, Ryo; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Noda, Naohiro

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a novel high-throughput screening assay of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) helicase inhibitors using the fluorescence-quenching phenomenon via photoinduced electron transfer between fluorescent dyes and guanine bases. We prepared double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with a 5'-fluorescent-dye (BODIPY FL)-labeled strand hybridized with a complementary strand, the 3'-end of which has guanine bases. When dsDNA is unwound by helicase, the dye emits fluorescence owing to its release from the guanine bases. Our results demonstrate that this assay is suitable for quantitative assay of HCV NS3 helicase activity and useful for high-throughput screening for inhibitors. Furthermore, we applied this assay to the screening for NS3 helicase inhibitors from cell extracts of microorganisms, and found several cell extracts containing potential inhibitors.

  9. Putting two heads together to unwind DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Thomas J; Bell, Stephen P

    2009-11-13

    The loading of replicative helicases onto DNA is tightly regulated in all organisms, yet the molecular mechanisms for this event remain poorly defined. Remus et al. (2009) provide important insights into helicase loading in eukaryotes, showing that the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase encircles double-stranded DNA as head-to-head double hexamers.

  10. Overexpression of a pea DNA helicase (PDH45) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) confers improvement of cellular level tolerance and productivity under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjulatha, M; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Kumar, A Manoj; Sudhakar, Chinta; Prasad, T G; Tuteja, Narendra; Udayakumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Peanut, a major edible oil seed crop globally is predominantly grown under rainfed conditions and suffers yield losses due to drought. Development of drought-tolerant varieties through transgenic technology is a valid approach. Besides superior water relation traits like water mining, intrinsic cellular level tolerance mechanisms are important to sustain the growth under stress. To achieve this objective, the focus of this study was to pyramid drought adaptive traits by overexpressing a stress responsive helicase, PDH45 in the background of a genotype with superior water relations. PCR, Southern, and RT-PCR analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of the PDH45 gene in peanut transgenics. At the end of T₃ generation, eight transgenic events were identified as promising based on stress tolerance and improvement in productivity. Several transgenic lines showed stay-green phenotype and increased chlorophyll stability under stress and reduced chlorophyll retardation under etherel-induced simulated stress conditions. Stress-induced root growth was also substantially higher in the case of transformants. This was reflected in increased WUE (low Δ¹³C) and improved growth rates and productivity. The transgenics showed 17.2 and 26.75 % increase in yield under non-stress and stress conditions over wild type ascertaining the feasibility of trait pyramiding strategy for the development of drought-tolerant peanut.

  11. The annealing helicase and branch migration activities of Drosophila HARP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Kassavetis

    Full Text Available HARP (SMARCAL1, MARCAL1 is an annealing helicase that functions in the repair and restart of damaged DNA replication forks through its DNA branch migration and replication fork regression activities. HARP is conserved among metazoans. HARP from invertebrates differs by the absence of one of the two HARP-specific domain repeats found in vertebrates. The annealing helicase and branch migration activity of invertebrate HARP has not been documented. We found that HARP from Drosophila melanogaster retains the annealing helicase activity of human HARP, the ability to disrupt D-loops and to branch migrate Holliday junctions, but fails to regress model DNA replication fork structures. A comparison of human and Drosophila HARP on additional substrates revealed that both HARPs are competent in branch migrating a bidirectional replication bubble composed of either DNA:DNA or RNA:DNA hybrid. Human, but not Drosophila, HARP is also capable of regressing a replication fork structure containing a highly stable poly rG:dC hybrid. Persistent RNA:DNA hybrids in vivo can lead to replication fork arrest and genome instability. The ability of HARP to strand transfer hybrids may signify a hybrid removal function for this enzyme, in vivo.

  12. The Cellular DNA Helicase ChlR1 Regulates Chromatin and Nuclear Matrix Attachment of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E2 Protein and High-Copy-Number Viral Genome Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leanne; McFarlane-Majeed, Laura; Campos-León, Karen; Roberts, Sally; Parish, Joanna L

    2017-01-01

    In papillomavirus infections, the viral genome is established as a double-stranded DNA episome. To segregate the episomes into daughter cells during mitosis, they are tethered to cellular chromatin by the viral E2 protein. We previously demonstrated that the E2 proteins of diverse papillomavirus types, including bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), associate with the cellular DNA helicase ChlR1. This virus-host interaction is important for the tethering of BPV E2 to mitotic chromatin and the stable maintenance of BPV episomes. The role of the association between E2 and ChlR1 in the HPV16 life cycle is unresolved. Here we show that an HPV16 E2 Y131A mutant (E2 Y131A ) had significantly reduced binding to ChlR1 but retained transcriptional activation and viral origin-dependent replication functions. Subcellular fractionation of keratinocytes expressing E2 Y131A showed a marked change in the localization of the protein. Compared to that of wild-type E2 (E2 WT ), the chromatin-bound pool of E2 Y131A was decreased, concomitant with an increase in nuclear matrix-associated protein. Cell cycle synchronization indicated that the shift in subcellular localization of E2 Y131A occurred in mid-S phase. A similar alteration between the subcellular pools of the E2 WT protein occurred upon ChlR1 silencing. Notably, in an HPV16 life cycle model in primary human keratinocytes, mutant E2 Y131A genomes were established as episomes, but at a markedly lower copy number than that of wild-type HPV16 genomes, and they were not maintained upon cell passage. Our studies indicate that ChlR1 is an important regulator of the chromatin association of E2 and of the establishment and maintenance of HPV16 episomes. Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a major cause of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. During infection, the circular DNA genome of HPV persists within the nucleus, independently of the host cell chromatin. Persistence of infection

  13. MCM Paradox: Abundance of Eukaryotic Replicative Helicases and Genomic Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial component of DNA replication licensing system, minichromosome maintenance (MCM 2–7 complex acts as the eukaryotic DNA replicative helicase. The six related MCM proteins form a heterohexamer and bind with ORC, CDC6, and Cdt1 to form the prereplication complex. Although the MCMs are well known as replicative helicases, their overabundance and distribution patterns on chromatin present a paradox called the “MCM paradox.” Several approaches had been taken to solve the MCM paradox and describe the purpose of excess MCMs distributed beyond the replication origins. Alternative functions of these MCMs rather than a helicase had also been proposed. This review focuses on several models and concepts generated to solve the MCM paradox coinciding with their helicase function and provides insight into the concept that excess MCMs are meant for licensing dormant origins as a backup during replication stress. Finally, we extend our view towards the effect of alteration of MCM level. Though an excess MCM constituent is needed for normal cells to withstand stress, there must be a delineation of the threshold level in normal and malignant cells. This review also outlooks the future prospects to better understand the MCM biology.

  14. A Rad53 Independent Function of Rad9 Becomes Crucial for Genome Maintenance in the Absence of the RecQ Helicase Sgs1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ida; Bentsen, Iben Bach; Andersen, Anni Hangaard

    2013-01-01

    The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses...

  15. A presumed DNA helicase, encoded by the excision repair gene ERCC-3 is involved in the human repair disorders xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne's syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Weeda (Geert); R.C.A. van Ham; W. Vermeulen (Wim); D. Bootsma (Dirk); A.J. van der Eb; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe human gene ERCC-3 specifically corrects the defect in an early step of the DNA excision repair pathway of UV-sensitive rodent mutants of complementation group 3. The predicted 782 animo acid ERCC-3 protein harbors putative nucleotide, chromatin, and helix-turn-helix DNA binding

  16. Structure of a helicase–helicase loader complex reveals insights into the mechanism of bacterial primosome assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Eliason, William K.; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2013-09-19

    During the assembly of the bacterial loader-dependent primosome, helicase loader proteins bind to the hexameric helicase ring, deliver it onto the oriC DNA and then dissociate from the complex. Here, to provide a better understanding of this key process, we report the crystal structure of the ~570-kDa prepriming complex between the Bacillus subtilis loader protein and the Bacillus stearothermophilus helicase, as well as the helicase-binding domain of primase with a molar ratio of 6:6:3 at 7.5 Å resolution. The overall architecture of the complex exhibits a three-layered ring conformation. Moreover, the structure combined with the proposed model suggests that the shift from the ‘open-ring’ to the ‘open-spiral’ and then the ‘closed-spiral’ state of the helicase ring due to the binding of single-stranded DNA may be the cause of the loader release.

  17. Two-state model for helicase translocation and unwinding of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debashish; Betterton, M. D.

    2008-06-01

    Helicases are molecular motors that unwind double-stranded nucleic acids (dsNA), such as DNA and RNA. Typically a helicase translocates along one of the NA single strands while unwinding and uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis as an energy source. Here we model a helicase motor that can switch between two states, which could represent two different points in the ATP hydrolysis cycle. Our model is an extension of the earlier Betterton-Jülicher model of helicases to incorporate switching between two states. The main predictions of the model are the speed of unwinding of the dsNA and fluctuations around the average unwinding velocity. Motivated by a recent claim that the NS3 helicase of Hepatitis C virus follows a flashing-ratchet mechanism, we have compared the experimental results for the NS3 helicase with a special limit of our model which corresponds to the flashing-ratchet scenario. Our model accounts for one key feature of the experimental data on NS3 helicase. However, contradictory observations in experiments carried out under different conditions limit the ability to compare the model to experiments.

  18. RNA Helicases at work: binding and rearranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2010-01-01

    RNA helicases are ubiquitous, highly conserved enzymes that participate in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. These proteins bind or remodel RNA or RNA–protein complexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. How RNA helicases physically perform their cellular tasks has been a longstanding question, but in recent years, intriguing models have started to link structure, mechanism and biological function for some RNA helicases. This review outlines our current view on major structural and mechanistic themes of RNA helicase function, and on emerging physical models for cellular roles of these enzymes. PMID:20813532

  19. Stress-induced Oryza sativa BAT1 dual helicase exhibits unique bipolar translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Tarique, Mohammed; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Renu

    2015-11-01

    HLA-B associated transcript 1 (BAT1) protein, also named as spliceosome RNA helicase UAP56, is a member of the DExD/H-box family of helicases. However, regulation under stress, biochemical properties, and functions of plant homologue of BAT1 are poorly understood. Here, we report the purification and detailed biochemical characterization of the Oryza sativa homologue of BAT1 (OsBAT1/UAP56) protein (52 kDa) and regulation of its transcript under abiotic stress. OsBAT1 transcript levels are enhanced in rice seedlings in response to abiotic stress including salt stress and abscisic acid. Purified OsBAT1 protein exhibits the DNA- and RNA-dependent ATPase, RNA helicase, and DNA- and RNA-binding activities. Interestingly OsBAT1 also exhibits unique DNA helicase activity, which has not been reported so far in any BAT1 homologue. Moreover, OsBAT1 translocates in both the 3' to 5' and 5' to 3' directions, which is also a unique property. The K m value for OsBAT1 DNA helicase is 0.9753 nM and for RNA helicase is 1.7536 nM, respectively. This study demonstrates several unique characteristics of OsBAT1 especially its ability to unwind both DNA and RNA duplexes; bipolar translocation and its transcript upregulation under abiotic stresses indicate that it is a multifunctional protein. Overall, this study represents significant contribution in advancing our knowledge regarding functions of OsBAT1 in RNA and DNA metabolism and its putative role in abiotic stress signaling in plants.

  20. RecQ Helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai Balle; Hickson, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    a critical role in homologous recombination at multiple steps, including end-resection, displacement loop formation, branch migration and double Holliday junction dissolution. In addition, recent evidence has revealed a role for BLM/Sgs1 in the stabilisation and repair of replication forks damaged during...... a perturbed S-phase. Finally BLM also plays a role in the suppression and/or resolution of ultra-fine anaphase DNA bridges that form between sister-chromatids during mitosis....

  1. XPD Helicase Structures and Activities: Insights into the Cancer and Aging Phenotypes from XPD Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainer, John; Fan, Li; Fuss, Jill O.; Cheng, Quen J.; Arvai, Andrew S.; Hammel, Michal; Roberts, Victoria A.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Tainer, John A.

    2008-06-02

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  2. Multiple Cdt1 molecules act at each origin to load replication-competent Mcm2-7 helicases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Thomas J; Bell, Stephen P

    2011-11-01

    Eukaryotic origins of replication are selected by loading a head-to-head double hexamer of the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase around origin DNA. Cdt1 plays an essential but transient role during this event; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Through analysis of Cdt1 mutations, we demonstrate that Cdt1 performs multiple functions during helicase loading. The C-terminus of Cdt1 binds Mcm2-7, and this interaction is required for efficient origin recruitment of both proteins. We show that origin recognition complex (ORC) and Cdc6 recruit multiple Cdt1 molecules to the origin during helicase loading, and disruption of this multi-Cdt1 intermediate prevents helicase loading. Although dispensable for loading Mcm2-7 double hexamers that are topologically linked to DNA, the essential N-terminal domain of Cdt1 is required to load Mcm2-7 complexes that are competent for association with the Cdc45 and GINS helicase-activating proteins and replication initiation. Our data support a model in which origin-bound ORC and Cdc6 recruit two Cdt1 molecules to initiate double-hexamer formation prior to helicase loading and demonstrate that Cdt1 influences the replication competence of loaded Mcm2-7 helicases.

  3. Multiple Cdt1 molecules act at each origin to load replication-competent Mcm2–7 helicases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Thomas J; Bell, Stephen P

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic origins of replication are selected by loading a head-to-head double hexamer of the Mcm2–7 replicative helicase around origin DNA. Cdt1 plays an essential but transient role during this event; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Through analysis of Cdt1 mutations, we demonstrate that Cdt1 performs multiple functions during helicase loading. The C-terminus of Cdt1 binds Mcm2–7, and this interaction is required for efficient origin recruitment of both proteins. We show that origin recognition complex (ORC) and Cdc6 recruit multiple Cdt1 molecules to the origin during helicase loading, and disruption of this multi-Cdt1 intermediate prevents helicase loading. Although dispensable for loading Mcm2–7 double hexamers that are topologically linked to DNA, the essential N-terminal domain of Cdt1 is required to load Mcm2–7 complexes that are competent for association with the Cdc45 and GINS helicase-activating proteins and replication initiation. Our data support a model in which origin-bound ORC and Cdc6 recruit two Cdt1 molecules to initiate double-hexamer formation prior to helicase loading and demonstrate that Cdt1 influences the replication competence of loaded Mcm2–7 helicases. PMID:22045335

  4. A general method of analysis of ligand binding to competing macromolecules using the spectroscopic signal originating from a reference macromolecule. Application to Escherichia coli replicative helicase DnaB protein nucleic acid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezewska, M J; Bujalowski, W

    1996-02-20

    MCT method by applying it to the binding of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase to unmodified, nonfluorescent single-stranded nucleic acids where the interactions are not accompanied by any adequate spectroscopic signal changes. In order to analyze simultaneous binding of a ligand to different competing nucleic acid lattices, we introduced the combined application of the McGhee-von Hippel theory and the Epstein combinatorial approach for the binding of a large ligand to a linear, homogeneous nucleic acid lattice. Our approach allows one to perform a direct fit of the entire experimental isotherm for the protein binding to two competing nucleic acid lattices without resorting to complex numerical calculations.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis, structures and optical properties of A2Zn3(SeO3)4·XH2O (A=Li, Na, K; X=2 or 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunsheng; Mei, Dajiang; Xu, Jingli; Wu, Yuandong

    2015-12-01

    New alkali metal zinc selenites, A2Zn3(SeO3)4·XH2O (A=Li, Na, K; X=2 or 0) were prepared through hydrothermal reactions. Li2Zn3(SeO3)4·2H2O (1) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with lattice parameters a=8.123(4), b=9.139(4), c=7.938(3) Å, β=112.838(9)°. Na2Zn3(SeO3)4·2H2O (2) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice parameters a=15.7940(18), b=6.5744(8), c=14.6787(17) Å, β=107.396(3)°. K2Zn3(SeO3)4 (3) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with lattice parameters a=11.3584(12), b=8.6091(9), c=13.6816(14) Å, β=93.456(2)°. The anionic structures are composed of [Zn3O12]18- sheets, chains, and "isolated" units in compound 1, 2, 3, respectively, and trigonal pyramids SeO32-. The compounds were characterized by the solid state UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, infrared spectra and thermogravimetric analysis.

  6. RECQ5 Helicase Cooperates with MUS81 Endonuclease in Processing Stalled Replication Forks at Common Fragile Sites during Mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, Stefano; Hasanova, Zdenka; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    The MUS81-EME1 endonuclease cleaves late replication intermediates at common fragile sites (CFSs) during early mitosis to trigger DNA-repair synthesis that ensures faithful chromosome segregation. Here, we show that these DNA transactions are promoted by RECQ5 DNA helicase in a manner dependent...

  7. Substrate specific stimulation of NEIL1 by WRN but not the other human RecQ helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2010-01-01

    NEIL1, the mammalian homolog of Escherichia coli endonuclease VIII, is a DNA glycosylase that repairs ring-fragmented purines, saturated pyrimidines and several oxidative lesions like 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxycytosine, etc. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that Werner Syndrome...... protein (WRN), one of the five human RecQ helicases, stimulates NEIL1 DNA glycosylase activity on oxidative DNA lesions. The goal of this study was to extend this observation and analyze the interaction between NEIL1 and all five human RecQ helicases. The DNA substrate specificity of the interaction...

  8. RNA helicase HEL-1 promotes longevity by specifically activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mihwa; Seo, Keunhee; Hwang, Wooseon; Koo, Hee Jung; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Yang, Jae-Seong; Han, Seong Kyu; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Sanguk; Jang, Sung Key; Lee, Yoontae; Nam, Hong Gil; Lee, Seung-Jae V.

    2015-01-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance of RNA helicases in aging has not been explored. Here, we report that a large fraction of RNA helicases regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we show that a DEAD-box RNA helicase, helicase 1 (HEL-1), promotes longevity by specifically activating the DAF-16/forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor signaling pathway. We find that HEL-1 is required for the longevity conferred by reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) and is sufficient for extending lifespan. We further show that the expression of HEL-1 in the intestine and neurons contributes to longevity. HEL-1 enhances the induction of a large fraction of DAF-16 target genes. Thus, the RNA helicase HEL-1 appears to promote longevity in response to decreased IIS as a transcription coregulator of DAF-16. Because HEL-1 and IIS are evolutionarily well conserved, a similar mechanism for longevity regulation via an RNA helicase-dependent regulation of FOXO signaling may operate in mammals, including humans. PMID:26195740

  9. Helicase properties of the Escherichia coli UvrAb protein complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, E.Y.; Grossman, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Escherichia coli UvrA protein has an associated ATPase activity with a turnover number affected by the presence of UvrB protein as well as by DNA. Specifically, the structure of DNA significantly influences the turnover rate of the UvrAB ATPase activity. Double-stranded DNA maximally activates the turnover rate 10-fold whereas single-stranded DNA maximally activates the turnover rate 20-fold, suggesting that the mode of interaction of UvrAB protein with different DNAs is distinctive. We have previously shown that the UvrAB protein complex, driven by the binding energy of ATP, can locally unwind supercoiled DNA. The nature of the DNA unwinding activity and single-stranded DNA activation of ATPase activity suggest potential helicase activity. In the presence of a number of helicase substrates, the UvrAB complex, indeed, manifests a strand-displacement activity-unwinding short duplexes and D-loop DNA, thereby generating component DNA structures. The energy for the activity is derived from ATP or dATP hydrolysis. Unlike the E. coli DnaB, the UvrAB helicase is sensitive to UV-induced photoproducts

  10. Interaction between the helicases genetically linked to Fanconi anemia group J and Bloom's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhasini, Avvaru N; Rawtani, Nina A; Wu, Yuliang

    2011-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) and Fanconi anemia (FA) are autosomal recessive disorders characterized by cancer and chromosomal instability. BS and FA group J arise from mutations in the BLM and FANCJ genes, respectively, which encode DNA helicases. In this work, FANCJ and BLM were found to interact...

  11. Dissection of the functional domains of an archaeal holliday junction helicase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Ye; Chu, Mingzhu; Li, Yansheng

    2012-01-01

    the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii (StoHjm) and its truncated derivatives, and characterization of the StoHjm proteins revealed that the N-terminal module (residues 1-431) alone was capable of ATP hydrolysis and DNA binding, while the C-terminal one (residues 415-704) was responsible for regulating...... the helicase activity. The region involved in StoHjm-StoHjc (Hjc from S. tokodaii) interaction was identified as part of domain II, domain III (Winged Helix motif), and domain IV (residues 366-645) for StoHjm. We present evidence supporting that StoHjc regulates the helicase activity of StoHjm by inducing...

  12. FBH1 helicase disrupts RAD51 filaments in vitro and modulates homologous recombination in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simandlova, Jitka; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Payne, Miranda J

    2013-01-01

    Efficient repair of DNA double strand breaks and interstrand cross-links requires the homologous recombination (HR) pathway, a potentially error-free process that utilizes a homologous sequence as a repair template. A key player in HR is RAD51, the eukaryotic ortholog of bacterial RecA protein. RAD....... Using a combination of molecular genetic, biochemical, and single-molecule biophysical techniques, we provide mechanistic insight into the mode of action of the FBH1 helicase as a regulator of RAD51-dependent HR in mammalian cells. We show that FBH1 binds directly to RAD51 and is able to disrupt RAD51...... filaments on DNA through its ssDNA translocase function. Consistent with this, a mutant mouse embryonic stem cell line with a deletion in the FBH1 helicase domain fails to limit RAD51 chromatin association and shows hyper-recombination. Our data are consistent with FBH1 restraining RAD51 DNA binding under...

  13. Physical and functional interactions between Werner syndrome helicase and mismatch-repair initiation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saydam, Nurten; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Dietschy, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a severe recessive disorder characterized by premature aging, cancer predisposition and genomic instability. The gene mutated in WS encodes a bi-functional enzyme called WRN that acts as a RecQ-type DNA helicase and a 3'-5' exonuclease, but its exact role in DNA metabolism...... stimulate the helicase activity of WRN specifically on forked DNA structures with a 3'-single-stranded arm. The stimulatory effect of MutSalpha on WRN-mediated unwinding is enhanced by a G/T mismatch in the DNA duplex ahead of the fork. The MutLalpha protein known to bind to the MutS alpha......-heteroduplex complexes has no effect on WRN-mediated DNA unwinding stimulated by MutSalpha, nor does it affect DNA unwinding by WRN alone. Our data are consistent with results of genetic experiments in yeast suggesting that MMR factors act in conjunction with a RecQ-type helicase to reject recombination between...

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the RecQ helicase catalytic core from Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Sheng-Chia; Huang, Chi-Hung; Yang, Chia-Shin; Chang, Chi-Huang; Kuan, Shu-Min; Chan, Nei-Li; Chen, Yeh

    2012-01-01

    The DrRecQ helicase catalytic core has been crystallized to a resolution of 2.9 Å. The determination of its structure will lead to structural and functional insight into the DNA repair mechanism. The RecQ proteins are a highly conserved group of DNA helicases which play crucial roles in the maintenance of genome stability. DrRecQ from the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is a special member of the RecQ family because it contains three Helicase-and-RNase-D-C-terminal (HRDC) domains at the C-terminus. The helicase catalytic core is essential for ATPase and DNA-unwinding activities. In this work, the helicase catalytic core of DrRecQ was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour diffusion method and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.9 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 84.75, b = 95.61, c = 183.83 Å

  15. Purification and crystallization of Kokobera virus helicase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Colibus, Luigi; Speroni, Silvia [Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Coutard, Bruno [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS et Université Aix-Marseille I et II, ESIL, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 09 (France); Forrester, Naomi L.; Gould, Ernest [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (formerly Institute of Virology), Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Canard, Bruno [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS et Université Aix-Marseille I et II, ESIL, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 09 (France); Mattevi, Andrea, E-mail: mattevi@ipvgen.unipv.it [Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å. Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 (or P3{sub 2}21), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å.

  16. Purification and crystallization of Kokobera virus helicase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Colibus, Luigi; Speroni, Silvia; Coutard, Bruno; Forrester, Naomi L.; Gould, Ernest; Canard, Bruno; Mattevi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å. Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3 1 21 (or P3 2 21), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å

  17. DNA unwinding assay using streptavidin-bound oligonucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelman Zvi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicases play essential roles in many cellular processes including replication, transcription and translation. Most helicases translocate along one strand of the duplex while displacing the complementary strand (of either DNA or RNA. Thus, helicases have directionality. They move along nucleic acids in either the 3'→ 5' or 5'→ 3' direction. The directionality of helicases with low activity or of those that cannot initiate duplex unwinding from a substrate that contains only one single-stranded overhang region is difficult to determine. Results An improved assay to determine helicase directionality was developed that uses a substrate containing biotinylated oligonucleotides. As a proof of concept, it was shown that the substrates substantially improve helicase activity and directionality determination for several DNA helicases in comparison to more traditional substrates. In addition, a universal substrate that can be used to determine the directionality of both 3'→ 5' and 5'→ 3' helicases was developed. Conclusion It is shown here that the use of a biotin-streptavidin complex as a helicase substrate improves helicase activity and the determination of helicase directionality. The method described is simpler that the currently available techniques.

  18. Molecular determinants of nucleolar translocation of RNA helicase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhe; Kenworthy, Rachael; Green, Christopher; Tang, Hengli

    2007-01-01

    RNA helicase A (RHA) is a member of the DEAH-box family of DNA/RNA helicases involved in multiple cellular processes and the life cycles of many viruses. The subcellular localization of RHA is dynamic despite its steady-state concentration in the nucleoplasm. We have previously shown that it shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and the cytoplasm by virtue of a bidirectional nuclear transport domain (NTD) located in its carboxyl terminus. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants for its translocation within the nucleus and, more specifically, its redistribution from the nucleoplasm to nucleolus or the perinucleolar region. We found that low temperature treatment, transcription inhibition or replication of hepatitis C virus caused the intranuclear redistribution of the protein, suggesting that RHA shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm and becomes trapped in the nucleolus or the perinucleolar region upon blockade of transport to the nucleoplasm. Both the NTD and ATPase activity were essential for RHA's transport to the nucleolus or perinucleolar region. One of the double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD II) was also required for this nucleolar translocation (NoT) phenotype. RNA interference studies revealed that RHA is essential for survival of cultured hepatoma cells and the ATPase activity appears to be important for this critical role

  19. Characterization of the Neisseria meningitidis Helicase RecG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Tesfaye Beyene

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis (Nm is a Gram-negative oral commensal that opportunistically can cause septicaemia and/or meningitis. Here, we overexpressed, purified and characterized the Nm DNA repair/recombination helicase RecG (RecGNm and examined its role during genotoxic stress. RecGNm possessed ATP-dependent DNA binding and unwinding activities in vitro on a variety of DNA model substrates including a Holliday junction (HJ. Database searching of the Nm genomes identified 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the recGNm including 37 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs, and 7 of the nsSNPs were located in the codons for conserved active site residues of RecGNm. A transient reduction in transformation of DNA was observed in the Nm ΔrecG strain as compared to the wildtype. The gene encoding recGNm also contained an unusually high number of the DNA uptake sequence (DUS that facilitate transformation in neisserial species. The differentially abundant protein profiles of the Nm wildtype and ΔrecG strains suggest that expression of RecGNm might be linked to expression of other proteins involved in DNA repair, recombination and replication, pilus biogenesis, glycan biosynthesis and ribosomal activity. This might explain the growth defect that was observed in the Nm ΔrecG null mutant.

  20. Unique Helicase Determinants in the Essential Conjugative TraI Factor from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Plasmid pCU1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Krystle J.; Nash, Rebekah P.; Redinbo, Mathew R. (UNC)

    2014-06-16

    The widespread development of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a major health emergency. Conjugative DNA plasmids, which harbor a wide range of antibiotic resistance genes, also encode the protein factors necessary to orchestrate the propagation of plasmid DNA between bacterial cells through conjugative transfer. Successful conjugative DNA transfer depends on key catalytic components to nick one strand of the duplex DNA plasmid and separate the DNA strands while cell-to-cell transfer occurs. The TraI protein from the conjugative Salmonella plasmid pCU1 fulfills these key catalytic roles, as it contains both single-stranded DNA-nicking relaxase and ATP-dependent helicase domains within a single, 1,078-residue polypeptide. In this work, we unraveled the helicase determinants of Salmonella pCU1 TraI through DNA binding, ATPase, and DNA strand separation assays. TraI binds DNA substrates with high affinity in a manner influenced by nucleic acid length and the presence of a DNA hairpin structure adjacent to the nick site. TraI selectively hydrolyzes ATP, and mutations in conserved helicase motifs eliminate ATPase activity. Surprisingly, the absence of a relatively short (144-residue) domain at the extreme C terminus of the protein severely diminishes ATP-dependent strand separation. Collectively, these data define the helicase motifs of the conjugative factor TraI from Salmonella pCU1 and reveal a previously uncharacterized C-terminal functional domain that uncouples ATP hydrolysis from strand separation activity.

  1. Physical interaction of RECQ5 helicase with RAD51 facilitates its anti-recombinase activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwendener, S.; Raynard, S.; Paliwal, S.; Cheng, A.; Kanagaraj, R.; Shevelev, Igor; Stark, J.M.; Sung, P.; Janscak, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 21 (2010), s. 15739-15745 ISSN 0021-9258 Grant - others:NIH(US) R01CA120954; NIH(US) ES015632; SNSF(CH) 3100A0-116008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : DNA helicase * double-strand breaks * homologous recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.328, year: 2010

  2. Hrq1, a Homolog of the Human RecQ4 Helicase, Acts Catalytically and Structurally to Promote Genome Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Bochman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human RecQ4 (hRecQ4 affects cancer and aging but is difficult to study because it is a fusion between a helicase and an essential replication factor. Budding yeast Hrq1 is homologous to the disease-linked helicase domain of RecQ4 and, like hRecQ4, is a robust 3′-5′ helicase. Additionally, Hrq1 has the unusual property of forming heptameric rings. Cells lacking Hrq1 exhibited two DNA damage phenotypes: hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs and telomere addition to DNA breaks. Both activities are rare; their coexistence in a single protein is unprecedented. Resistance to ICLs requires helicase activity, but suppression of telomere addition does not. Hrq1 also affects telomere length by a noncatalytic mechanism, as well as telomerase-independent telomere maintenance. Because Hrq1 binds telomeres in vivo, it probably affects them directly. Thus, the tumor-suppressing activity of RecQ4 could be due to a role in ICL repair and/or suppression of de novo telomere addition.

  3. Arabidopsis RecQsim, a plant-specific member of the RecQ helicase family, can suppress the MMS hypersensitivity of the yeast sgs1 mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherieh-Najjar, MB; de Vries, OMH; Kroon, JTM; Wright, EL; Elborough, KM; Hille, J; Dijkwel, PP

    The Arabidopsis genome contains seven genes that belong to the RecQ family of ATP-dependent DNA helicases. RecQ members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGS1) and man (WRN, BLM and RecQL4) are involved in DNA recombination, repair and genome stability maintenance, but little is known about the function

  4. A Novel Rrm3 Function in Restricting DNA Replication via an Orc5-Binding Domain Is Genetically Separable from Rrm3 Function as an ATPase/Helicase in Facilitating Fork Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syed, Salahuddin; Madsen, Claus Desler; Rasmussen, Lene J.

    2016-01-01

    In response to replication stress cells activate the intra-S checkpoint, induce DNA repair pathways, increase nucleotide levels, and inhibit origin firing. Here, we report that Rrm3 associates with a subset of replication origins and controls DNA synthesis during replication stress. The N...... Rrm3 function are distinct. Although both lesion types activate the DNA-damage checkpoint, we find that the resultant increase in nucleotide levels is not sufficient for continued DNA synthesis under replication stress. Together, our findings suggest a role of Rrm3, via its Orc5-binding domain...

  5. The function and architecture of DEAH/RHA helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yangzi; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Nielsen, Klaus Hvid

    2012-01-01

    Helicases are ubiquitous enzymes that participate in every aspect of nucleic acid metabolism. The DEAH/RHA family of helicases are involved in a variety of cellular processes including transcriptional and translational regulation, pre-mRNA splicing, pre-rRNA processing, mRNA export and decay......, in addition to the innate immune response. Recently, the first crystal structures of a DEAH/RHA helicase unveiled the unique structural features of this helicase family. These structures furthermore illuminate the molecular mechanism of these proteins and provide a framework for analysis of their interaction...

  6. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. New roles of the human Suv3 helicase in genome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Susanne Trillingsgaard

    During her PhD studies, Susanne Trillingsgaard Venø carried out research into the role of the human Suv3 protein in stabilising the human genome – DNA. Suv3 is a helicase that separates the two strands of the DNA’s double helix. Throughout our lives, the DNA in our cells is constantly exposed...... maintenance. Based on these new research results, the Suv3 protein could be a valuable model for genome stability as an important factor in our understanding of why we get old....

  8. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-valence manganese fluorophosphate and analogues with clathrate-like structures: Mn(III)6F12(PO3(OH))8[Na8(Kx(H3O)4-x(H2O)2)M(IV)(OH)6] (M(IV) = Mn, Ti, Ge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei-Jian; Wang, Jing-Quan; Huang, Ya-Xi; Sun, Zhi-Mei; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2015-05-07

    A novel, mixed- and high-valence manganese (Mn(3+)/Mn(4+)) fluorophosphate, Mn(III)6F12(PO3(OH))8[Na8(Kx(H3O)4-x(H2O)2)Mn(IV)(OH)6] (denoted as MN), has been prepared via a water-deficient hydrothermal route with phosphoric acid as the sole solvent. This compound features a cubic three-dimensional open-framework structure built from corner-sharing [Mn(III)O4F2] octahedra and [HPO4] groups, which encapsulates a clathrate-like "guest cluster" of Na8(Kx(H3O)4-x(H2O)2)Mn(IV)(OH)6. The guest cluster is architecturally composed of a [Mn(IV)(OH)6] octahedron in a cubic cage of Na(+) cations, which in turn is surrounded by an octahedral arrangement of K(+)/H2O ions, resulting in an unprecedented octahedral @ cubic @ octahedral @ cubic arrangement (OCOC). The +4 oxidation state of Mn in the guest cluster has been confirmed by the synthesis of isotypic Ti- and Ge- analogues (denoted as TI and GE) using TiO2 and GeO2 as the replacement for MnO2 in the starting materials. The compounds MN, TI and GE are not stable in aqueous solution and are peeled off layer-by-layer after the absorption of water. This report provides a new route for the synthesis of mixed- and high-valence manganese phosphates that cannot be produced by conventional hydrothermal methods.

  9. Structural basis of Zika virus helicase in recognizing its substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn2+ and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn2+. The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication.

  10. The role of RecQ helicases in non-homologous end-joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott; Shamanna, Raghavendra A

    2014-01-01

    -strand break repair. Double-strand breaks can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) using sister chromatids as templates to facilitate precise DNA repair, or by an HR-independent mechanism known as non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) (error-prone). NHEJ is a non-templated DNA repair process, in which DNA...... termini are directly ligated. Canonical NHEJ requires DNA-PKcs and Ku70/80, while alternative NHEJ pathways are DNA-PKcs and Ku70/80 independent. This review discusses the role of RecQ helicases in NHEJ, alternative (or back-up) NHEJ (B-NHEJ) and microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ) in V(D)J...... recombination, class switch recombination and telomere maintenance....

  11. Staphylococcal SCCmec elements encode an active MCM-like helicase and thus may be replicative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Roman, Christina A.; Misiura, Agnieszka; Pigli, Ying Z.; Boyle-Vavra, Susan; Rice , Phoebe A. (UC)

    2016-08-29

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public-health threat worldwide. Although the mobile genomic island responsible for this phenotype, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC), has been thought to be nonreplicative, we predicted DNA-replication-related functions for some of the conserved proteins encoded by SCC. We show that one of these, Cch, is homologous to the self-loading initiator helicases of an unrelated family of genomic islands, that it is an active 3'-to-5' helicase and that the adjacent ORF encodes a single-stranded DNA–binding protein. Our 2.9-Å crystal structure of intact Cch shows that it forms a hexameric ring. Cch, like the archaeal and eukaryotic MCM-family replicative helicases, belongs to the pre–sensor II insert clade of AAA+ ATPases. Additionally, we found that SCC elements are part of a broader family of mobile elements, all of which encode a replication initiator upstream of their recombinases. Replication after excision would enhance the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  13. The helicase domain of Polθ counteracts RPA to promote alt-NHEJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Kent, Tatiana; Deng, Sarah K; McDevitt, Shane; Kashkina, Ekaterina; Hoang, Trung M; Pomerantz, Richard T; Sfeir, Agnel

    2017-12-01

    Mammalian polymerase theta (Polθ) is a multifunctional enzyme that promotes error-prone DNA repair by alternative nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ). Here we present structure-function analyses that reveal that, in addition to the polymerase domain, Polθ-helicase activity plays a central role during double-strand break (DSB) repair. Our results show that the helicase domain promotes chromosomal translocations by alt-NHEJ in mouse embryonic stem cells and also suppresses CRISPR-Cas9- mediated gene targeting by homologous recombination (HR). In vitro assays demonstrate that Polθ-helicase activity facilitates the removal of RPA from resected DSBs to allow their annealing and subsequent joining by alt-NHEJ. Consistent with an antagonistic role for RPA during alt-NHEJ, inhibition of RPA1 enhances end joining and suppresses recombination. Taken together, our results reveal that the balance between HR and alt-NHEJ is controlled by opposing activities of Polθ and RPA, providing further insight into the regulation of repair-pathway choice in mammalian cells.

  14. The eIF4AIII RNA helicase is a critical determinant of human cytomegalovirus replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehr, Ben; Lenarcic, Erik; Cecil, Chad; Moorman, Nathaniel J., E-mail: nmoorman@med.unc.edu

    2016-02-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was recently shown to encode a large number of spliced mRNAs. While the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts has been extensively studied, the role of host mRNA export factors in HCMV mRNA trafficking remains poorly defined. We found that the eIF4AIII RNA helicase, a component of the exon junction complex, was necessary for efficient virus replication. Depletion of eIF4AIII limited viral DNA accumulation, export of viral mRNAs from the nucleus, and the production of progeny virus. However eIF4AIII was dispensable for the association of viral transcripts with ribosomes. We found that pateamine A, a natural compound that inhibits both eIF4AI/II and eIF4AIII, has potent antiviral activity and inhibits HCMV replication throughout the virus lytic cycle. Our results demonstrate that eIF4AIII is required for efficient HCMV replication, and suggest that eIF4A family helicases may be a new class of targets for the development of host-directed antiviral therapeutics. - Highlights: • The host eIF4AIII RNA helicase is required for efficient HCMV replication. • Depleting eIF4AIII inhibited the nuclear export of HCMV mRNAs. • HCMV mRNAs did not require eIF4AIII to associate with polyribosomes. • The eIF4A family helicases may be new targets for host-directed antiviral drugs.

  15. The eIF4AIII RNA helicase is a critical determinant of human cytomegalovirus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziehr, Ben; Lenarcic, Erik; Cecil, Chad; Moorman, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was recently shown to encode a large number of spliced mRNAs. While the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts has been extensively studied, the role of host mRNA export factors in HCMV mRNA trafficking remains poorly defined. We found that the eIF4AIII RNA helicase, a component of the exon junction complex, was necessary for efficient virus replication. Depletion of eIF4AIII limited viral DNA accumulation, export of viral mRNAs from the nucleus, and the production of progeny virus. However eIF4AIII was dispensable for the association of viral transcripts with ribosomes. We found that pateamine A, a natural compound that inhibits both eIF4AI/II and eIF4AIII, has potent antiviral activity and inhibits HCMV replication throughout the virus lytic cycle. Our results demonstrate that eIF4AIII is required for efficient HCMV replication, and suggest that eIF4A family helicases may be a new class of targets for the development of host-directed antiviral therapeutics. - Highlights: • The host eIF4AIII RNA helicase is required for efficient HCMV replication. • Depleting eIF4AIII inhibited the nuclear export of HCMV mRNAs. • HCMV mRNAs did not require eIF4AIII to associate with polyribosomes. • The eIF4A family helicases may be new targets for host-directed antiviral drugs.

  16. Analysis of the Enzymatic Activity of an NS3 Helicase Genotype 3a Variant Sequence Obtained from a Relapse Patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola J S Provazzi

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV is a species of diverse genotypes that infect over 170 million people worldwide, causing chronic inflammation, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV genotype 3a is common in Brazil, and it is associated with a relatively poor response to current direct-acting antiviral therapies. The HCV NS3 protein cleaves part of the HCV polyprotein, and cellular antiviral proteins. It is therefore the target of several HCV drugs. In addition to its protease activity, NS3 is also an RNA helicase. Previously, HCV present in a relapse patient was found to harbor a mutation known to be lethal to HCV genotype 1b. The point mutation encodes the amino acid substitution W501R in the helicase RNA binding site. To examine how the W501R substitution affects NS3 helicase activity in a genotype 3a background, wild type and W501R genotype 3a NS3 alleles were sub-cloned, expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant proteins were purified and characterized. The impact of the W501R allele on genotype 2a and 3a subgenomic replicons was also analyzed. Assays monitoring helicase-catalyzed DNA and RNA unwinding revealed that the catalytic efficiency of wild type genotype 3a NS3 helicase was more than 600 times greater than the W501R protein. Other assays revealed that the W501R protein bound DNA less than 2 times weaker than wild type, and both proteins hydrolyzed ATP at similar rates. In Huh7.5 cells, both genotype 2a and 3a subgenomic HCV replicons harboring the W501R allele showed a severe defect in replication. Since the W501R allele is carried as a minor variant, its replication would therefore need to be attributed to the trans-complementation by other wild type quasispecies.

  17. Physical and functional interactions between Werner syndrome helicase and mismatch-repair initiation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saydam, Nurten; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Dietschy, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    is poorly understood. Here we show that WRN physically interacts with the MSH2/MSH6 (MutSalpha), MSH2/MSH3 (MutSbeta) and MLH1/PMS2 (MutLalpha) heterodimers that are involved in the initiation of mismatch repair (MMR) and the rejection of homeologous recombination. MutSalpha and MutSbeta can strongly......Werner syndrome (WS) is a severe recessive disorder characterized by premature aging, cancer predisposition and genomic instability. The gene mutated in WS encodes a bi-functional enzyme called WRN that acts as a RecQ-type DNA helicase and a 3'-5' exonuclease, but its exact role in DNA metabolism...... stimulate the helicase activity of WRN specifically on forked DNA structures with a 3'-single-stranded arm. The stimulatory effect of MutSalpha on WRN-mediated unwinding is enhanced by a G/T mismatch in the DNA duplex ahead of the fork. The MutLalpha protein known to bind to the MutS alpha...

  18. Decrease in Lymphoid Specific Helicase and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Is Associated with Metastasis and Genome Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Jiantao; Shi, Ying; Chen, Ling; Lai, Weiwei; Yan, Bin; Jiang, Yiqun; Xiao, Desheng; Xi, Sichuan; Cao, Ya; Liu, Shuang; Cheng, Yan; Tao, Yongguang

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification as a hallmark in cancer. Conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes plays an important biological role in embryonic stem cells, development, aging and disease. Lymphoid specific helicase (LSH), a chromatin remodeling factor, is regarded as a reader of 5-hmC. Recent reports show that the level of 5-hmC is altered in various types of cancers. However, the change...

  19. CTXφ Replication Depends on the Histone-Like HU Protein and the UvrD Helicase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriel Martínez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae bacterium is the agent of cholera. The capacity to produce the cholera toxin, which is responsible for the deadly diarrhea associated with cholera epidemics, is encoded in the genome of a filamentous phage, CTXφ. Rolling-circle replication (RCR is central to the life cycle of CTXφ because amplification of the phage genome permits its efficient integration into the genome and its packaging into new viral particles. A single phage-encoded HUH endonuclease initiates RCR of the proto-typical filamentous phages of enterobacteriaceae by introducing a nick at a specific position of the double stranded DNA form of the phage genome. The rest of the process is driven by host factors that are either essential or crucial for the replication of the host genome, such as the Rep SF1 helicase. In contrast, we show here that the histone-like HU protein of V. cholerae is necessary for the introduction of a nick by the HUH endonuclease of CTXφ. We further show that CTXφ RCR depends on a SF1 helicase normally implicated in DNA repair, UvrD, rather than Rep. In addition to CTXφ, we show that VGJφ, a representative member of a second family of vibrio integrative filamentous phages, requires UvrD and HU for RCR while TLCφ, a satellite phage, depends on Rep and is independent from HU.

  20. DRH1, a p68-related RNA helicase gene, is required for chromosome breakage in Tetrahymena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. McDaniel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The p68 DEAD box helicases comprise a widely conserved protein family involved in a large range of biological processes including transcription, splicing and translation. The genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophile encodes two p68-like helicases, Drh1p and Lia2p. We show that DRH1 is essential for growth and completion of development. In growing cells, Drh1p is excluded from the nucleus and accumulates near cortical basal bodies. In contrast, during sexual reproduction, this protein localizes to meiotic micronuclei, initially in punctate foci in regions where centromeres and telomeres are known to reside and later in post-zygotic differentiating somatic macronuclei. Differentiation of the macronuclear genome involves extensive DNA rearrangements including fragmentation of the five pairs of germline-derived chromosomes into 180 chromosomal sub-fragments that are stabilized by de novo telomere deletion. In addition, thousands of internal eliminated sequences (IESs are excised from loci dispersed throughout the genome. Strains with DRH1 deleted from the germline nuclei, which do not express the protein during post-zygotic development, fail to fragment the developing macronuclear chromosomes. IES excision still occurs in the absence of DRH1 zygotic expression; thus, Drh1p is the first protein found to be specifically required for chromosome breakage but not DNA elimination.

  1. A conserved helicase processivity factor is needed for conjugation and replication of an integrative and conjugative element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Thomas

    Full Text Available Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs are agents of horizontal gene transfer and have major roles in evolution and acquisition of new traits, including antibiotic resistances. ICEs are found integrated in a host chromosome and can excise and transfer to recipient bacteria via conjugation. Conjugation involves nicking of the ICE origin of transfer (oriT by the ICE-encoded relaxase and transfer of the nicked single strand of ICE DNA. For ICEBs1 of Bacillus subtilis, nicking of oriT by the ICEBs1 relaxase NicK also initiates rolling circle replication. This autonomous replication of ICEBs1 is critical for stability of the excised element in growing cells. We found a conserved and previously uncharacterized ICE gene that is required for conjugation and replication of ICEBs1. Our results indicate that this gene, helP (formerly ydcP, encodes a helicase processivity factor that enables the host-encoded helicase PcrA to unwind the double-stranded ICEBs1 DNA. HelP was required for both conjugation and replication of ICEBs1, and HelP and NicK were the only ICEBs1 proteins needed for replication from ICEBs1 oriT. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we measured association of HelP, NicK, PcrA, and the host-encoded single-strand DNA binding protein Ssb with ICEBs1. We found that NicK was required for association of HelP and PcrA with ICEBs1 DNA. HelP was required for association of PcrA and Ssb with ICEBs1 regions distal, but not proximal, to oriT, indicating that PcrA needs HelP to progress beyond nicked oriT and unwind ICEBs1. In vitro, HelP directly stimulated the helicase activity of the PcrA homologue UvrD. Our findings demonstrate that HelP is a helicase processivity factor needed for efficient unwinding of ICEBs1 for conjugation and replication. Homologues of HelP and PcrA-type helicases are encoded on many known and putative ICEs. We propose that these factors are essential for ICE conjugation, replication, and genetic stability.

  2. A conserved helicase processivity factor is needed for conjugation and replication of an integrative and conjugative element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jacob; Lee, Catherine A; Grossman, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are agents of horizontal gene transfer and have major roles in evolution and acquisition of new traits, including antibiotic resistances. ICEs are found integrated in a host chromosome and can excise and transfer to recipient bacteria via conjugation. Conjugation involves nicking of the ICE origin of transfer (oriT) by the ICE-encoded relaxase and transfer of the nicked single strand of ICE DNA. For ICEBs1 of Bacillus subtilis, nicking of oriT by the ICEBs1 relaxase NicK also initiates rolling circle replication. This autonomous replication of ICEBs1 is critical for stability of the excised element in growing cells. We found a conserved and previously uncharacterized ICE gene that is required for conjugation and replication of ICEBs1. Our results indicate that this gene, helP (formerly ydcP), encodes a helicase processivity factor that enables the host-encoded helicase PcrA to unwind the double-stranded ICEBs1 DNA. HelP was required for both conjugation and replication of ICEBs1, and HelP and NicK were the only ICEBs1 proteins needed for replication from ICEBs1 oriT. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we measured association of HelP, NicK, PcrA, and the host-encoded single-strand DNA binding protein Ssb with ICEBs1. We found that NicK was required for association of HelP and PcrA with ICEBs1 DNA. HelP was required for association of PcrA and Ssb with ICEBs1 regions distal, but not proximal, to oriT, indicating that PcrA needs HelP to progress beyond nicked oriT and unwind ICEBs1. In vitro, HelP directly stimulated the helicase activity of the PcrA homologue UvrD. Our findings demonstrate that HelP is a helicase processivity factor needed for efficient unwinding of ICEBs1 for conjugation and replication. Homologues of HelP and PcrA-type helicases are encoded on many known and putative ICEs. We propose that these factors are essential for ICE conjugation, replication, and genetic stability.

  3. Collaborating functions of BLM and DNA topoisomerase I in regulating human rDNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grierson, Patrick M.; Acharya, Samir; Groden, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an inherited disorder caused by loss of function of the recQ-like BLM helicase. It is characterized clinically by severe growth retardation and cancer predisposition. BLM localizes to PML nuclear bodies and to the nucleolus; its deficiency results in increased intra- and inter-chromosomal recombination, including hyper-recombination of rDNA repeats. Our previous work has shown that BLM facilitates RNA polymerase I-mediated rRNA transcription in the nucleolus (Grierson et al., 2012 [18]). This study uses protein co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) to identify a direct interaction of DNA topoisomerase I with the C-terminus of BLM in the nucleolus. In vitro helicase assays demonstrate that DNA topoisomerase I stimulates BLM helicase activity on a nucleolar-relevant RNA:DNA hybrid, but has an insignificant effect on BLM helicase activity on a control DNA:DNA duplex substrate. Reciprocally, BLM enhances the DNA relaxation activity of DNA topoisomerase I on supercoiled DNA substrates. Our study suggests that BLM and DNA topoisomerase I function coordinately to modulate RNA:DNA hybrid formation as well as relaxation of DNA supercoils in the context of nucleolar transcription

  4. Vaccinia virions lacking the RNA helicase nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase II are defective in early transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C H; Shuman, S

    1996-12-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutations (ts10, ts18, and ts39) of the vaccinia virus RNA helicase nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase II (NPH-II) result in the production of noninfectious progeny virions at the restrictive temperature. The noninfectious mutant particles contain the wild-type complement of virion core and envelope polypeptides, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results of Western blot (immunoblot) analysis indicate that these particles lack NPH-II, whereas other enzymatic components of the virus core are present. These components include the following: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunits rpo147, rpo132, rpo94, rpo35, rpo30, rpo22, and rpo18; early transcription initiation factor subunits A8 and D6; mRNA capping enzyme subunits D1 and D12; RNA cap 2'-O-methyltransferase; A18 DNA helicase; DNA-dependent ATPase NPH-I; and DNA topoisomerase. Although RNA polymerase is encapsidated by the mutant viruses, mRNA synthesis in vitro by permeabilized mutant virions is only 5 to 20% that of the wild-type virus, as judged by nucleoside monophosphate incorporation into acid-insoluble material. Moreover, the transcripts synthesized by the mutant particles are longer than normal and remain virion associated. Transcription initiation by mutant virions occurs accurately at an endogenous genomic promoter, albeit at reduced levels (1 to 7%) compared with that of wild-type virions. In contrast, extracts of the mutant virions catalyze the wild-type level of transcription from an exogenous template containing an early promoter. We conclude that NPH-II is required for early mRNA synthesis uniquely in the context of the virus particle. Possible roles in transcription termination and RNA transport are discussed.

  5. Sumoylation of RecQ helicase controls the fate of dysfunctional telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Ofer; Miller, Kyle M; Ferreira, Miguel Godinho; Cooper, Julia Promisel

    2009-03-13

    Genome stability depends upon the RecQ helicases, which are conserved from bacteria to man, but little is known about how their myriad activities are regulated. Fission yeast lacking the telomere protein Taz1 (mammalian TRF1/TRF2 ortholog) lose many hallmarks of telomeres, including accurate replication and local protection from DNA repair reactions. Here we show that the RecQ homolog, Rqh1, is sumoylated. Surprisingly, Rqh1 acts on taz1Delta telomeres in a deleterious way, promoting telomere breakage and entanglement. Mutation of Rqh1 sumoylation sites rescues taz1Delta cells from these hazards without dramatically affecting nontelomeric Rqh1 functions. The prominence of Rqh1 in the etiology of several different telomere defects supports the idea that they originate from a common underlying lesion--aberrant processing of the stalled telomeric replication forks that accumulate in the absence of Taz1. Our work underscores the principle that RecQ helicases are "double-edged swords" whose activity, while necessary for maintaining genome-wide stability, must be vigilantly controlled.

  6. The ATP-Dependent RNA Helicase DDX3X Modulates Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadivjam, Bita; Stegen, Camille; Hogue-Racine, Marc-Aurèle; El Bilali, Nabil; Döhner, Katinka; Sodeik, Beate; Lippé, Roger

    2017-04-15

    The human protein DDX3X is a DEAD box ATP-dependent RNA helicase that regulates transcription, mRNA maturation, and mRNA export and translation. DDX3X concomitantly modulates the replication of several RNA viruses and promotes innate immunity. We previously showed that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a human DNA virus, incorporates DDX3X into its mature particles and that DDX3X is required for optimal HSV-1 infectivity. Here, we show that viral gene expression, replication, and propagation depend on optimal DDX3X protein levels. Surprisingly, DDX3X from incoming viral particles was not required for the early stages of the HSV-1 infection, but, rather, the protein controlled the assembly of new viral particles. This was independent of the previously reported ability of DDX3X to stimulate interferon type I production. Instead, both the lack and overexpression of DDX3X disturbed viral gene transcription and thus subsequent genome replication. This suggests that in addition to its effect on RNA viruses, DDX3X impacts DNA viruses such as HSV-1 by an interferon-independent pathway. IMPORTANCE Viruses interact with a variety of cellular proteins to complete their life cycle. Among them is DDX3X, an RNA helicase that participates in most aspects of RNA biology, including transcription, splicing, nuclear export, and translation. Several RNA viruses and a limited number of DNA viruses are known to manipulate DDX3X for their own benefit. In contrast, DDX3X is also known to promote interferon production to limit viral propagation. Here, we show that DDX3X, which we previously identified in mature HSV-1 virions, stimulates HSV-1 gene expression and, consequently, virion assembly by a process that is independent of its ability to promote the interferon pathway. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Insights into the architecture of the replicative helicase from the structure of an archaeal MCM homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Brian; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Costa, Alessandro; Onesti, Silvia; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Lin, Yuyen; Cann, Isaac K O; Nair, Satish K

    2009-02-13

    The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins, members of the AAA+ (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) superfamily, are believed to constitute the replicative helicase in eukaryotic and archaeal species. Here, we present the 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of a monomeric MCM homolog from Methanopyrus kandleri, the first crystallographic structure of a full-length MCM. We also present an 18 A cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of the hexameric MCM from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, and fit the atomic resolution crystal structure into the reconstruction in order to generate an atomic model for the oligomeric assembly. These structural data reveal a distinct active site topology consisting of a unique arrangement of critical determinants. The structures also provide a molecular framework for understanding the functional contributions of trans-acting elements that facilitate intersubunit crosstalk in response to DNA binding and ATP hydrolysis.

  8. Escherichia coli DnaB Helicase–DnaC Protein Complex: Allosteric Effects of the Nucleotides on the Nucleic Acid Binding and the Kinetic Mechanism of NTP Hydrolysis. 3†

    OpenAIRE

    Roychowdhury, Anasuya; Szymanski, Michal R.; Jezewska, Maria J.; Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    Allosteric interactions between the DNA- and NTP-binding sites of the Escherichia coli DnaB helicase engaged in the DnaB–DnaC complex and the mechanism of NTP hydrolysis by the complex have been examined using the fluorescence titration, analytical ultracentrifugation, and rapid quench-flow technique. Surprisingly, the ssDNA affinity of the DnaB–DnaC complex is independent of the structure of the phosphate group of the cofactor bound to the helicase. Thus, the DnaC protein eliminates the anta...

  9. Mechanisms of DNA binding and regulation of Bacillus anthracis DNA primase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhasis B; Wydra, Eric; Biswas, Esther E

    2009-08-11

    DNA primases are pivotal enzymes in chromosomal DNA replication in all organisms. In this article, we report unique mechanistic characteristics of recombinant DNA primase from Bacillus anthracis. The mechanism of action of B. anthracis DNA primase (DnaG(BA)) may be described in several distinct steps as follows. Its mechanism of action is initiated when it binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in the form of a trimer. Although DnaG(BA) binds to different DNA sequences with moderate affinity (as expected of a mobile DNA binding protein), we found that DnaG(BA) bound to the origin of bacteriophage G4 (G4ori) with approximately 8-fold higher affinity. DnaG(BA) was strongly stimulated (>or=75-fold) by its cognate helicase, DnaB(BA), during RNA primer synthesis. With the G4ori ssDNA template, DnaG(BA) formed short (primers in the absence of DnaB(BA). The presence of DnaB(BA) increased the rate of primer synthesis. The observed stimulation of primer synthesis by cognate DnaB(BA) is thus indicative of a positive effector role for DnaB(BA). By contrast, Escherichia coli DnaB helicase (DnaB(EC)) did not stimulate DnaG(BA) and inhibited primer synthesis to near completion. This observed effect of E. coli DnaB(EC) is indicative of a strong negative effector role for heterologous DnaB(EC). We conclude that DnaG(BA) is capable of interacting with DnaB proteins from both B. anthracis and E. coli; however, between DnaB proteins derived from these two organisms, only the homologous DNA helicase (DnaB(BA)) acted as a positive effector of primer synthesis.

  10. Bi-directional routing of DNA mismatch repair protein human exonuclease 1 to replication foci and DNA double strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberti, Sascha E; Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Wang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA metabolism, including replication, recombination and repair, substantiated by its interactions with PCNA, DNA helicases BLM and WRN, and several DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. We investigated the sub-nuclear localization of hEXO1 during S-phas...

  11. Inhibition of RNA Helicases of ssRNA+ Virus Belonging to Flaviviridae, Coronaviridae and Picornaviridae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Briguglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many viral pathogens encode the motor proteins named RNA helicases which display various functions in genome replication. General strategies to design specific and selective drugs targeting helicase for the treatment of viral infections could act via one or more of the following mechanisms: inhibition of the NTPase activity, by interferences with ATP binding and therefore by limiting the energy required for the unwinding and translocation, or by allosteric mechanism and therefore by stabilizing the conformation of the enzyme in low helicase activity state; inhibition of nucleic acids binding to the helicase; inhibition of coupling of ATP hydrolysis to unwinding; inhibition of unwinding by sterically blocking helicase translocation. Recently, by in vitro screening studies, it has been reported that several benzotriazole, imidazole, imidazodiazepine, phenothiazine, quinoline, anthracycline, triphenylmethane, tropolone, pyrrole, acridone, small peptide, and Bananin derivatives are endowed with helicase inhibition of pathogen viruses belonging to Flaviviridae, Coronaviridae, and Picornaviridae families.

  12. A comprehensive web resource on RNA helicases from the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, P; Gasteiger, E; Bairoch, A

    2000-04-01

    Members of the RNA helicase protein family are defined by several motifs that have been widely conserved during evolution. They are found in all organisms-from bacteria to humans-and many viruses. The minimum number of RNA helicases present within a eukaryotic cell can be predicted from the complete sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Recent progress in the functional analysis of various family members has confirmed the significance of RNA helicases for most cellular RNA metabolic processes. We have assembled a web resource that focuses on RNA helicases from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It includes descriptions of RNA helicases and their functions, links to sequence- and yeast-specific databases, an extensive list of references, and links to non-yeast helicase web resources. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. RNA helicase domains of viral origin in proteins of insect retrotransposons: possible source for evolutionary advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Y. Morozov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer of helicase-encoding sequence from positive-stranded RNA viruses to LINE transposons in insect genomes was described. TRAS family transposons encoding an ORF2 protein, which comprised all typical functional domains and an additional helicase domain, were found to be preserved in many families during the evolution of the order Lepidoptera. In the present paper, in species of orders Hemiptera and Orthoptera, we found helicase domain-encoding sequences integrated into ORF1 of retrotransposons of the Jockey family. RNA helicases encoded by transposons of TRAS and Jockey families represented separate brunches in a phylogenetic tree of helicase domains and thus could be considered as independently originated in the evolution of insect transposons. Transcriptome database analyses revealed that both TRAS and Jockey transposons encoding the helicase domain represented transcribed genome sequences. Moreover, the transposon-encoded helicases were found to contain the full set of conserved motifs essential for their enzymatic activities. Taking into account the previously reported ability of RNA helicase encoded by TRAS ORF2 to suppress post-transcriptional RNA silencing, we propose possible scenarios of evolutionary fixation of actively expressed functional helicases of viral origin in insect retrotransposons as genetic elements advantageous for both transposons and their insect hosts.

  14. Structure of eukaryotic CMG helicase at a replication fork and implications to replisome architecture and origin initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Roxana; Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; de Luna Almeida Santos, Ruda; Sun, Jingchuan; Zhang, Dan; Yurieva, Olga; Li, Huilin; O'Donnell, Michael E

    2017-01-31

    The eukaryotic CMG (Cdc45, Mcm2-7, GINS) helicase consists of the Mcm2-7 hexameric ring along with five accessory factors. The Mcm2-7 heterohexamer, like other hexameric helicases, is shaped like a ring with two tiers, an N-tier ring composed of the N-terminal domains, and a C-tier of C-terminal domains; the C-tier contains the motor. In principle, either tier could translocate ahead of the other during movement on DNA. We have used cryo-EM single-particle 3D reconstruction to solve the structure of CMG in complex with a DNA fork. The duplex stem penetrates into the central channel of the N-tier and the unwound leading single-strand DNA traverses the channel through the N-tier into the C-tier motor, 5'-3' through CMG. Therefore, the N-tier ring is pushed ahead by the C-tier ring during CMG translocation, opposite the currently accepted polarity. The polarity of the N-tier ahead of the C-tier places the leading Pol ε below CMG and Pol α-primase at the top of CMG at the replication fork. Surprisingly, the new N-tier to C-tier polarity of translocation reveals an unforeseen quality-control mechanism at the origin. Thus, upon assembly of head-to-head CMGs that encircle double-stranded DNA at the origin, the two CMGs must pass one another to leave the origin and both must remodel onto opposite strands of single-stranded DNA to do so. We propose that head-to-head motors may generate energy that underlies initial melting at the origin.

  15. Deciphering the Role of Alternative Non-Homologous End Joining (Alt-NHEJ) DNA Repair in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    dependent manner (Figure 3b). We compared ssDNA annealing reactions with ATP versus a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog ( AMP - PNP). The results show that...Polq-helicase annealing occurs in the presence of ATP, but not AMP -PNP, which demonstrates that ATP hydrolysis is required to promote annealing in the...annealing in the presence and absence of ATP/ AMP -PNP and indicated amounts of Polq–helicase. % dsDNA indicated. (c) Schematic of Polq–polymerase

  16. Recent advances in DNA repair and recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, L A; Jones, N J

    1998-09-11

    The subjects of the talks at this 1-day DNA Repair Network meeting, held at City University, London on December 15, 1997, encompassed a range of topics and reflected some of the current areas of research in the United Kingdom. Topics included DNA double-strand break repair, V(D)J recombination, DNA ligases, the RecQ family of helicases and Bloom's syndrome, UVB and immunosuppression, the repair of oxidative damage and mismatch repair mechanisms.

  17. A novel role of the Dna2 translocase function in DNA break resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam S; Daley, James M; Pham, Nhung Tuyet; Niu, Hengyao; Xue, Xiaoyu; Ira, Grzegorz; Sung, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination entails nucleolytic resection of the 5' strand at break ends. Dna2, a flap endonuclease with 5'-3' helicase activity, is involved in the resection process. The Dna2 helicase activity has been implicated in Okazaki fragment processing during DNA replication but is thought to be dispensable for DNA end resection. Unexpectedly, we found a requirement for the helicase function of Dna2 in end resection in budding yeast cells lacking exonuclease 1. Biochemical analysis reveals that ATP hydrolysis-fueled translocation of Dna2 on ssDNA facilitates 5' flap cleavage near a single-strand-double strand junction while attenuating 3' flap incision. Accordingly, the ATP hydrolysis-defective dna2-K1080E mutant is less able to generate long products in a reconstituted resection system. Our study thus reveals a previously unrecognized role of the Dna2 translocase activity in DNA break end resection and in the imposition of the 5' strand specificity of end resection. © 2017 Miller et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Defects of mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William C

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase γ in concert with accessory proteins such as the mitochondrial DNA helicase, single-stranded DNA binding protein, topoisomerase, and initiating factors. Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication or nucleotide metabolism can cause mitochondrial genetic diseases due to mitochondrial DNA deletions, point mutations, or depletion, which ultimately cause loss of oxidative phosphorylation. These genetic diseases include mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes such as Alpers or early infantile hepatocerebral syndromes, and mitochondrial DNA deletion disorders, such as progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia-neuropathy, or mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. This review focuses on our current knowledge of genetic defects of mitochondrial DNA replication (POLG, POLG2, C10orf2, and MGME1) that cause instability of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. microRNAs targeting DEAD-box helicases are involved in salinity stress response in rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Macovei Anca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa L., one of the most important food crop in the world, is considered to be a salt-sensitive crop. Excess levels of salt adversely affect all the major metabolic activities, including cell wall damage, cytoplasmic lysis and genomic stability. In order to cope with salt stress, plants have evolved high degrees of developmental plasticity, including adaptation via cascades of molecular networks and changes in gene expression profiles. Posttranscriptional regulation, through the activity of microRNAs, also plays an important role in the plant response to salinity conditions. MicroRNAs are small endogenous RNAs that modulate gene expression and are involved in the most essential physiological processes, including plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. Results In the present study, we investigated the expression profiles of osa-MIR414, osa-MIR408 and osa-MIR164e along with their targeted genes, under salinity stress conditions in wild type and transgenic rice plants ectopically expressing the PDH45 (Pea DNA Helicase gene. The present miRNAs were predicted to target the OsABP (ATP-Binding Protein, OsDSHCT (DOB1/SK12/helY-like DEAD-box Helicase and OsDBH (DEAD-Box Helicase genes, included in the DEAD-box helicase family. An in silico characterization of the proteins was performed and the miRNAs predicted targets were validated by RLM-5′RACE. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the OsABP, OsDBH and OsDSHCT genes were up-regulated in response to 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatments. The present study also highlighted an increased accumulation of the gene transcripts in wild type plants, with the exception of the OsABP mRNA which showed the highest level (15.1-fold change compared to control in the transgenic plants treated with 200 mM NaCl. Salinity treatments also affected the expression of osa-MIR414, osa-MIR164e and osa-MIR408, found to be significantly down-regulated, although the changes in mi

  20. Helicase domain encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus RNA1 determines systemic infection of Cmr1 in pepper.

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    Won-Hee Kang

    Full Text Available The Cmr1 gene in peppers confers resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus isolate-P0 (CMV-P0. Cmr1 restricts the systemic spread of CMV strain-Fny (CMV-Fny, whereas this gene cannot block the spread of CMV isolate-P1 (CMV-P1 to the upper leaves, resulting in systemic infection. To identify the virulence determinant of CMV-P1, six reassortant viruses and six chimeric viruses derived from CMV-Fny and CMV-P1 cDNA clones were used. Our results demonstrate that the C-terminus of the helicase domain encoded by CMV-P1 RNA1 determines susceptibility to systemic infection, and that the helicase domain contains six different amino acid substitutions between CMV-Fny and CMV-P1(. To identify the key amino acids of the helicase domain determining systemic infection with CMV-P1, we then constructed amino acid substitution mutants. Of the mutants tested, amino acid residues at positions 865, 896, 957, and 980 in the 1a protein sequence of CMV-P1 affected the systemic infection. Virus localization studies with GFP-tagged CMV clones and in situ localization of virus RNA revealed that these four amino acid residues together form the movement determinant for CMV-P1 movement from the epidermal cell layer to mesophyll cell layers. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CMV-P1 and a chimeric virus with four amino acid residues of CMV-P1 accumulated more genomic RNA in inoculated leaves than did CMV-Fny, indicating that those four amino acids are also involved in virus replication. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the helicase domain is responsible for systemic infection by controlling virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. Whereas four amino acids are responsible for acquiring virulence in CMV-Fny, six amino acid (positions at 865, 896, 901, 957, 980 and 993 substitutions in CMV-P1 were required for complete loss of virulence in 'Bukang'.

  1. microRNAs targeting DEAD-box helicases are involved in salinity stress response in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovei, Anca; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-10-08

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.), one of the most important food crop in the world, is considered to be a salt-sensitive crop. Excess levels of salt adversely affect all the major metabolic activities, including cell wall damage, cytoplasmic lysis and genomic stability. In order to cope with salt stress, plants have evolved high degrees of developmental plasticity, including adaptation via cascades of molecular networks and changes in gene expression profiles. Posttranscriptional regulation, through the activity of microRNAs, also plays an important role in the plant response to salinity conditions. MicroRNAs are small endogenous RNAs that modulate gene expression and are involved in the most essential physiological processes, including plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In the present study, we investigated the expression profiles of osa-MIR414, osa-MIR408 and osa-MIR164e along with their targeted genes, under salinity stress conditions in wild type and transgenic rice plants ectopically expressing the PDH45 (Pea DNA Helicase) gene. The present miRNAs were predicted to target the OsABP (ATP-Binding Protein), OsDSHCT (DOB1/SK12/helY-like DEAD-box Helicase) and OsDBH (DEAD-Box Helicase) genes, included in the DEAD-box helicase family. An in silico characterization of the proteins was performed and the miRNAs predicted targets were validated by RLM-5'RACE. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the OsABP, OsDBH and OsDSHCT genes were up-regulated in response to 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatments. The present study also highlighted an increased accumulation of the gene transcripts in wild type plants, with the exception of the OsABP mRNA which showed the highest level (15.1-fold change compared to control) in the transgenic plants treated with 200 mM NaCl. Salinity treatments also affected the expression of osa-MIR414, osa-MIR164e and osa-MIR408, found to be significantly down-regulated, although the changes in miRNA expression were limited. Osa-MIR414, osa-MIR164

  2. Analysis of the RNA helicase p68 (Ddx5) as a transcriptional regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Samantha M; Fuller-Pace, Frances V

    2010-01-01

    The DEAD box RNA helicase p68 (Ddx5) has been demonstrated to act as a transcriptional co-activator for a number of highly regulated transcription factors (e.g. estrogen receptor alpha and the tumour suppressor p53) and to be recruited to promoters of genes that are responsive to activation of these transcription factors, suggesting that it may play a role in transcription initiation. We have investigated the function of p68 as a co-activator of the tumour suppressor p53, with a particular emphasis on the importance of p68 in the induction of p53 transcriptional activity by DNA damage. These studies have involved RNAi-mediated suppression of p68 in cells expressing wild-type p53 and determining its effect on the expression of cellular p53 target genes in response to DNA damage. Additionally a significant amount of our research has focused on the study of the role of p68 in transcriptional initiation; this has included an investigation of the recruitment of p68 to the promoters of p53-responsive genes and of the importance of p68 in influencing recruitment of p53. Here we present detailed methods for RNAi knock-down of p68 expression, determination of its effect on expression of p53-responsive genes by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting, and chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques for determining recruitment of p68 and p53 to p53-responsive promoters.

  3. Decrease in Lymphoid Specific Helicase and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Is Associated with Metastasis and Genome Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jiantao; Shi, Ying; Chen, Ling; Lai, Weiwei; Yan, Bin; Jiang, Yiqun; Xiao, Desheng; Xi, Sichuan; Cao, Ya; Liu, Shuang; Cheng, Yan; Tao, Yongguang

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification as a hallmark in cancer. Conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes plays an important biological role in embryonic stem cells, development, aging and disease. Lymphoid specific helicase (LSH), a chromatin remodeling factor, is regarded as a reader of 5-hmC. Recent reports show that the level of 5-hmC is altered in various types of cancers. However, the change in 5-hmC levels in cancer and associated metastasis is not well defined. We report that the level of 5-hmC was decreased in metastatic tissues of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, breast cancer, and colon cancer relative to that in non-metastasis tumor tissues. Furthermore, our data show that TET2, but not TET3, interacted with LSH, whereas LSH increased TET2 expression through silencing miR-26b-5p and miR-29c-5p. Finally, LSH promoted genome stability by silencing satellite expression by affecting 5-hmC levels in pericentromeric satellite repeats, and LSH was resistant to cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Our data indicate that 5-hmC might serve as a metastasis marker for cancer and that the decreased expression of LSH is likely one of the mechanisms of genome instability underlying 5-hmC loss in cancer.

  4. Uncoupling of Protease trans-Cleavage and Helicase Activities in Pestivirus NS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fengwei; Lu, Guoliang; Li, Ling; Gong, Peng; Pan, Zishu

    2017-11-01

    The nonstructural protein NS3 from the Flaviviridae family is a multifunctional protein that contains an N-terminal protease and a C-terminal helicase, playing essential roles in viral polyprotein processing and genome replication. Here we report a full-length crystal structure of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS) at a 2.35-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously unidentified ∼2,200-Å 2 intramolecular protease-helicase interface comprising three clusters of interactions, representing a "closed" global conformation related to the NS3-NS4A cis -cleavage event. Although this conformation is incompatible with protease trans -cleavage, it appears to be functionally important and beneficial to the helicase activity, as the mutations designed to perturb this conformation impaired both the helicase activities in vitro and virus production in vivo Our work reveals important features of protease-helicase coordination in pestivirus NS3 and provides a key basis for how different conformational states may explicitly contribute to certain functions of this natural protease-helicase fusion protein. IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses encode helicases to aid their RNA genome replication and transcription by unwinding structured RNA. Being naturally fused to a protease participating in viral polyprotein processing, the NS3 helicases encoded by the Flaviviridae family viruses are unique. Therefore, how these two enzyme modules coordinate in a single polypeptide is of particular interest. Here we report a previously unidentified conformation of pestivirus NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS). This conformational state is related to the protease cis -cleavage event and is optimal for the function of helicase. This work provides an important basis to understand how different enzymatic activities of NS3 may be achieved by the coordination between the protease and helicase through different

  5. Cloning and expression of NS3 helicase fragment of hepatitis C virus and the study of its immunoreactivity in HCV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrou Sadri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver failure worldwide. Current therapies applied for this disease are not fully effective and produce side effects in most cases. Non-structural protein 3 helicase (NS3 of HCV is one of the key enzymes in viral replication and infection. Therefore, this region is a promising target to design new drugs and therapies against HCV infection. The aim of this study was cloning and expression of HCV NS3 helicase fragment in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 using pET102/D-TOPO expression vector and studying immunoreactivity of the expressed antigen in Iranian infected with hepatitis C. Materials and Methods: The viral RNA was extracted from the serum of HCV infected patient. The NS3 helicase region was amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR product was directionally cloned into the expression vector pET102/D-TOPO and transformed into the BL21 strain of E. coli (DE3. The transformed bacteria were then induced by adding 1mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG into the culture medium to enhance the protein expression. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were carried out to identify the protein under investigation, and finally purified recombinant fusion protein was used as the antigen for ELISA method. Results: Theinsertion of theDNA fragment of the NS3 regioninto the expression vectorwas further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the successful expression of the recombinant protein of interest. Furthermore, immunoreactivity of fusion NS3 helicase was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. Conclusion: It seems that this recombinant protein could be a useful source of antigen for future studies on HCV diagnosis and therapy.

  6. The overexpression of Twinkle helicase ameliorates the progression of cardiac fibrosis and heart failure in pressure overload model in mice.

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    Atsushi Tanaka

    Full Text Available Myocardial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number decreases in heart failure. In post-myocardial infarction mice, increasing mtDNA copy number by overexpressing mitochondrial transcription factor attenuates mtDNA deficiency and ameliorates pathological remodeling thereby markedly improving survival. However, the functional significance of increased mtDNA copy number in hypertensive heart disease remains unknown. We addressed this question using transgenic mice that overexpress Twinkle helicase (Twinkle; Tg, the mtDNA helicase, and examined whether Twinkle overexpression protects the heart from left ventricular (LV remodeling and failure after pressure overload created by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Twinkle overexpression increased mtDNA copy number by 2.2 ± 0.1-fold. Heart weight, LV diastolic volume and wall thickness were comparable between Tg and wild type littermates (WT at 28 days after TAC operation. LV end-diastolic pressure increased in WT after TAC (8.6 ± 2.8 mmHg, and this increase was attenuated in Tg (4.6 ± 2.6 mmHg. Impaired LV fractional shortening after TAC operation was also suppressed in Tg, as measured by echocardiography (WT: 16.2 ± 7.2% vs Tg: 20.7 ± 6.2%. These LV functional improvements were accompanied by a decrease in interstitial fibrosis (WT: 10.6 ± 1.1% vs Tg: 3.0 ± 0.6%. In in vitro studies, overexpressing Twinkle using an adenovirus vector in cultured cardiac fibroblasts significantly suppressed mRNA of collagen 1a, collagen 3a and connective tissue growth factor, and angiotensin II-induced transforming growth factor β1 expression. The findings suggest that Twinkle overexpression prevents LV function deterioration. In conclusion, Twinkle overexpression increases mtDNA copy number and ameliorates the progression of LV fibrosis and heart failure in a mouse pressure overload model. Increasing mtDNA copy number by Twinkle overexpression could be a novel therapeutic strategy for hypertensive heart disease.

  7. Loss of the BRCA1-interacting helicase BRIP1 results in abnormal mammary acinar morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Daino

    Full Text Available BRIP1 is a DNA helicase that directly interacts with the C-terminal BRCT repeat of the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA1 and plays an important role in BRCA1-dependent DNA repair and DNA damage-induced checkpoint control. Recent studies implicate BRIP1 as a moderate/low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene. However, the phenotypic effects of BRIP1 dysfunction and its role in breast cancer tumorigenesis remain unclear. To explore the function of BRIP1 in acinar morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells, we generated BRIP1-knockdown MCF-10A cells by short hairpin RNA (shRNA-mediated RNA interference and examined its effect in a three-dimensional culture model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to identify alterations in gene expression in BRIP1-knockdown cells compared with control cells. The microarray data were further investigated using the pathway analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA for pathway identification. BRIP1 knockdown in non-malignant MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells by RNA interference induced neoplastic-like changes such as abnormal cell adhesion, increased cell proliferation, large and irregular-shaped acini, invasive growth, and defective lumen formation. Differentially expressed genes, including MCAM, COL8A1, WIPF1, RICH2, PCSK5, GAS1, SATB1, and ELF3, in BRIP1-knockdown cells compared with control cells were categorized into several functional groups, such as cell adhesion, polarity, growth, signal transduction, and developmental process. Signaling-pathway analyses showed dysregulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways, involving LPA receptor, Myc, Wnt, PI3K, PTEN as well as DNA damage response, in BRIP1-knockdown cells. Loss of BRIP1 thus disrupts normal mammary morphogenesis and causes neoplastic-like changes, possibly via dysregulating multiple cellular signaling pathways functioning in the normal development of mammary glands.

  8. Primuline Derivatives That Mimic RNA to Stimulate Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase-catalyzed ATP Hydrolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Noreena L.; Shadrick, William R.; Mukherjee, Sourav; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J.; Schoenen, Frank J.; Frick, David N.

    2013-01-01

    ATP hydrolysis fuels the ability of helicases and related proteins to translocate on nucleic acids and separate base pairs. As a consequence, nucleic acid binding stimulates the rate at which a helicase catalyzes ATP hydrolysis. In this study, we searched a library of small molecule helicase inhibitors for compounds that stimulate ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 helicase, which is an important antiviral drug target. Two compounds were found that stimulate HCV helicase-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, both of which are amide derivatives synthesized from the main component of the yellow dye primuline. Both compounds possess a terminal pyridine moiety, which was critical for stimulation. Analogs lacking a terminal pyridine inhibited HCV helicase catalyzed ATP hydrolysis. Unlike other HCV helicase inhibitors, the stimulatory compounds differentiate between helicases isolated from various HCV genotypes and related viruses. The compounds only stimulated ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by NS3 purified from HCV genotype 1b. They inhibited helicases from other HCV genotypes (e.g. 1a and 2a) or related flaviviruses (e.g. Dengue virus). The stimulatory compounds interacted with HCV helicase in the absence of ATP with dissociation constants of about 2 μm. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that the stimulatory compounds bind in the HCV helicase RNA-binding cleft near key residues Arg-393, Glu-493, and Ser-231. PMID:23703611

  9. Coupling DNA unwinding activity with primer synthesis in the bacteriophage T4 primosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosas, Maria; Spiering, Michelle M.; Zhuang, Zhihao; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Croquette, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The unwinding and priming activities of the bacteriophage T4 primosome, which consists of a hexameric helicase (gp41) translocating 5′ to 3′ and an oligomeric primase (gp61) synthesizing primers 5′ to 3′, has been investigated on DNA hairpins manipulated by a magnetic trap. We find that the T4 primosome continuously unwinds the DNA duplex while allowing for primer synthesis through a primosome disassembly mechanism or a novel DNA looping mechanism. A fused gp61-gp41 primosome unwinds and primes DNA exclusively via the DNA looping mechanism. Other proteins within the replisome control the partitioning of these two mechanisms disfavoring primosome disassembly thereby increasing primase processivity. In contrast priming in bacteriophage T7 involves discrete pausing of the primosome and in Escherichia coli appears to be associated primarily with dissociation of the primase from the helicase. Thus nature appears to use several strategies to couple the disparate helicase and primase activities within primosomes. PMID:19838204

  10. Molecular Dynamics of the ZIKA Virus NS3 Helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenolt, Bryan; Rick, Steven; The Rick Group Team

    The recent outbreaks of the ZIKA virus (ZIKV) and its connection to microcephaly in newborns has raised its awareness as a global threat and many scientific research efforts are currently underway in attempt to create a vaccine. Molecular Dynamics is a powerful method of investigating the physical behavior of protein complexes. ZIKV is comprised of 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins. The NS3 helicase protein appears to play a significant role in the replication complex and its inhibition could be a crucial source of antiviral drug design. This research primarily focuses on studying the structural dynamics, over the course of few hundred nanoseconds, of NS3 helicase in the free state, as well as in complex form with human ssRNA, ATP, and an analogue of GTP. RMSD and RMSF plots of each simulation will provide details on the forces involved in the overall stability of the active and inactive states. Furthermore, free energy calculations on a per residue level will reveal the most interactive residues between states and ultimately the primary driving force behind these interactions. Together these analyses will provide highly relevant information on the binding surface chemistry and thus serve as the basis for potential drug design.

  11. BLM–DNA2–RPA–MRN and EXO1–BLM–RPA–MRN constitute two DNA end resection machineries for human DNA break repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimonkar, Amitabh V.; Genschel, Jochen; Kinoshita, Eri; Polaczek, Piotr; Campbell, Judith L.; Wyman, Claire; Modrich, Paul; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Repair of dsDNA breaks requires processing to produce 3′-terminated ssDNA. We biochemically reconstituted DNA end resection using purified human proteins: Bloom helicase (BLM); DNA2 helicase/nuclease; Exonuclease 1 (EXO1); the complex comprising MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (MRN); and Replication protein A (RPA). Resection occurs via two routes. In one, BLM and DNA2 physically and specifically interact to resect DNA in a process that is ATP-dependent and requires BLM helicase and DNA2 nuclease functions. RPA is essential for both DNA unwinding by BLM and enforcing 5′ → 3′ resection polarity by DNA2. MRN accelerates processing by recruiting BLM to the end. In the other, EXO1 resects the DNA and is stimulated by BLM, MRN, and RPA. BLM increases the affinity of EXO1 for ends, and MRN recruits and enhances the processivity of EXO1. Our results establish two of the core machineries that initiate recombinational DNA repair in human cells. PMID:21325134

  12. Helicase-primase inhibitor amenamevir for herpesvirus infection: Towards practical application for treating herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, K

    2017-11-01

    Valacyclovir and famciclovir enabled successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection by their phosphorylation with viral thymidine kinase. Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) inhibit the progression of the replication fork, an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands. The HPIs amenamevir and pritelivir have a novel mechanism of action, once-daily administration with nonrenal excretory characteristics, and clinical efficacy for genital herpes. Amenamevir exhibits anti-VZV and anti-HSV activity while pritelivir only has anti-HSV activity. A clinical trial of amenamevir for herpes zoster has been completed, and amenamevir has been licensed and successfully used in 20,000 patients with herpes zoster so far in Japan. We have characterized the features of the antiviral action of amenamevir and, unlike acyclovir, the drug's antiviral activity is not influenced by the viral replication cycle. Amenamevir is opening a new era of antiherpes therapy. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  13. A rapid Salmonella detection method involving thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification and a lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin-Jun; Zhou, Tian-Jiao; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that is widespread in the environment and can cause serious human and animal disease. Since conventional culture methods to detect Salmonella are time-consuming and laborious, rapid and accurate techniques to detect this pathogen are critically important for food safety and diagnosing foodborne illness. In this study, we developed a rapid, simple and portable Salmonella detection strategy that combines thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA) with a lateral flow assay to provide a detection result based on visual signals within 90 min. Performance analyses indicated that the method had detection limits for DNA and pure cultured bacteria of 73.4-80.7 fg and 35-40 CFU, respectively. Specificity analyses showed no cross reactions with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella and Campylobacter jejuni. The results for detection in real food samples showed that 1.3-1.9 CFU/g or 1.3-1.9 CFU/mL of Salmonella in contaminated chicken products and infant nutritional cereal could be detected after 2 h of enrichment. The same amount of Salmonella in contaminated milk could be detected after 4 h of enrichment. This tHDA-strip can be used for the rapid detection of Salmonella in food samples and is particularly suitable for use in areas with limited equipment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural investigations of the Bacillus subtilis SPP1 phage G39P helicase inhibitor loading protein

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, S

    2002-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis SPPI phage encoded protein G39P is a loader and inhibitor of the phage G40P replicative helicase involved in the initiation of phage DNA replication. The 2.4A crystal structure of a C-terminal truncated variant of G39P was solved using multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion exploiting the anomalous signal of seleno- methionine substituted protein. Inspection of the electron density maps revealed the asymmetric unit contained three independent G39P monomers, composed of 3 alpha-helices and their connecting loops. However, the model only accounted for the first 67 residues of the protein, as there was no interpretable electron density for residues 68 to 112. A preliminary NMR investigation revealed the C-terminal region of the protein had rapid internal motion and formed no well-defined stable fold that involved immobilized side chains. This is consistent with the X-ray analysis that displayed no electron density for these residues. A detailed comparison of NMR spectra from the C-termina...

  15. Managing Single-Stranded DNA during Replication Stress in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Sabatinos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication fork stalling generates a variety of responses, most of which cause an increase in single-stranded DNA. ssDNA is a primary signal of replication distress that activates cellular checkpoints. It is also a potential source of genome instability and a substrate for mutation and recombination. Therefore, managing ssDNA levels is crucial to chromosome integrity. Limited ssDNA accumulation occurs in wild-type cells under stress. In contrast, cells lacking the replication checkpoint cannot arrest forks properly and accumulate large amounts of ssDNA. This likely occurs when the replication fork polymerase and helicase units are uncoupled. Some cells with mutations in the replication helicase (mcm-ts mimic checkpoint-deficient cells, and accumulate extensive areas of ssDNA to trigger the G2-checkpoint. Another category of helicase mutant (mcm4-degron causes fork stalling in early S-phase due to immediate loss of helicase function. Intriguingly, cells realize that ssDNA is present, but fail to detect that they accumulate ssDNA, and continue to divide. Thus, the cellular response to replication stalling depends on checkpoint activity and the time that replication stress occurs in S-phase. In this review we describe the signs, signals, and symptoms of replication arrest from an ssDNA perspective. We explore the possible mechanisms for these effects. We also advise the need for caution when detecting and interpreting data related to the accumulation of ssDNA.

  16. Crystal structures of the methyltransferase and helicase from the ZIKA 1947 MR766 Uganda strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukrejewska, Malgorzata; Derewenda, Urszula; Radwanska, Malwina; Engel, Daniel A.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2017-08-15

    Two nonstructural proteins encoded byZika virusstrain MR766 RNA, a methyltransferase and a helicase, were crystallized and their structures were solved and refined at 2.10 and 2.01 Å resolution, respectively. The NS5 methyltransferase contains a boundS-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) co-substrate. The NS3 helicase is in the apo form. Comparison with published crystal structures of the helicase in the apo, nucleotide-bound and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)-bound states suggests that binding of ssRNA to the helicase may occur through conformational selection rather than induced fit.

  17. Animal Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Grzegorz L.; Oliveira, Marcos T.; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication highlight the diversity of both the mechanisms utilized and the structural and functional organization of the proteins at mtDNA replication fork, despite the simplicity of the animal mtDNA genome. DNA polymerase γ, mtDNA helicase and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein- the key replisome proteins, have evolved distinct structural features and biochemical properties. These appear to be correlated with mtDNA genomic features in different metazoan taxa and with their modes of DNA replication, although a substantial integrative research is warranted to establish firmly these links. To date, several modes of mtDNA replication have been described for animals: rolling circle, theta, strand-displacement, and RITOLS/bootlace. Resolution of a continuing controversy relevant to mtDNA replication in mammals/vertebrates will have a direct impact on the mechanistic interpretation of mtDNA-related human diseases. Here we review these subjects, integrating earlier and recent data to provide a perspective on the major challenges for future research. PMID:27241933

  18. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  19. Oxygen isotopic exchange probes of ATP hydrolysis by RNA helicases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, David D

    2012-01-01

    It is often possible to obtain a detailed understanding of the forward steps in ATP hydrolysis because they are thermodynamically favored and usually occur rapidly. However, it is difficult to obtain the reverse rates for ATP resynthesis because they are thermodynamically disfavored and little of their product, ATP, accumulates. Isotopic exchange reactions provide access to these reverse reactions because isotopic changes accumulate over time due to multiple reversals of hydrolysis, even in the absence of net resynthesis of significant amounts of ATP. Knowledge of both the forward and reverse rates allows calculation of the free energy changes at each step and how it changes when coupled to an energy-requiring conformational step such as unwinding of an RNA helix. This chapter describes the principal types of oxygen isotopic exchange reactions that are applicable to ATPases, in general, and helicases, in particular, their application and their interpretation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biophysical Characterization of G-Quadruplex Recognition in the PITX1 mRNA by the Specificity Domain of the Helicase RHAU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O Ariyo

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids rich in guanine are able to fold into unique structures known as G-quadruplexes. G-quadruplexes consist of four tracts of guanylates arranged in parallel or antiparallel strands that are aligned in stacked G-quartet planes. The structure is further stabilized by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds and monovalent cations centered between the planes. RHAU (RNA helicase associated with AU-rich element is a member of the ATP-dependent DExH/D family of RNA helicases and can bind and resolve G-quadruplexes. RHAU contains a core helicase domain with an N-terminal extension that enables recognition and full binding affinity to RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes. PITX1, a member of the bicoid class of homeobox proteins, is a transcriptional activator active during development of vertebrates, chiefly in the anterior pituitary gland and several other organs. We have previously demonstrated that RHAU regulates PITX1 levels through interaction with G-quadruplexes at the 3'-end of the PITX1 mRNA. To understand the structural basis of G-quadruplex recognition by RHAU, we characterize a purified minimal PITX1 G-quadruplex using a variety of biophysical techniques including electrophoretic mobility shift assays, UV-VIS spectroscopy, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our biophysical analysis provides evidence that the RNA G-quadruplex, but not its DNA counterpart, can adopt a parallel orientation, and that only the RNA can interact with N-terminal domain of RHAU via the tetrad face of the G-quadruplex. This work extends our insight into how the N-terminal region of RHAU recognizes parallel G-quadruplexes.

  1. Regulation of DEAH/RHA helicases by G-patch proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases from the DEAH/RHA family are present in all the processes of RNA metabolism. The function of two helicases from this family, Prp2 and Prp43, is regulated by protein partners containing a G-patch domain. The G-patch is a glycine-rich domain discovered by sequence alignment, involved in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interaction. Although it has been shown to stimulate the helicase's enzymatic activities, the precise role of the G-patch domain remains unclear. The role of G-patch proteins in the regulation of Prp43 activity has been studied in the two biological processes in which it is involved: splicing and ribosome biogenesis. Depending on the pathway, the activity of Prp43 is modulated by different G-patch proteins. A particular feature of the structure of DEAH/RHA helicases revealed by the Prp43 structure is the OB-fold domain in C-terminal part. The OB-fold has been shown to be a platform responsible for the interaction with G-patch proteins and RNA. Though there is still no structural data on the G-patch domain, in the current model, the interaction between the helicase, the G-patch protein, and RNA leads to a cooperative binding of RNA and conformational changes of the helicase.

  2. Frequency of Werner helicase 1367 polymorphism and age-related morbidity in an elderly Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.C. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a premature aging disease caused by a mutation in the WRN gene. The gene was identified in 1996 and its product acts as a DNA helicase and exonuclease. Some specific WRN polymorphic variants were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The identification of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for complex diseases affecting older people can improve their prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. We investigated WRN codon 1367 polymorphism in 383 residents in a district of the city of São Paulo, who were enrolled in an Elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study. Their mean age was 79.70 ± 5.32 years, ranging from 67 to 97. This population was composed of 262 females (68.4% and 121 males (31.6% of European (89.2%, Japanese (3.3%, Middle Eastern (1.81%, and mixed and/or other origins (5.7%. There are no studies concerning this polymorphism in Brazilian population. These subjects were evaluated clinically every two years. The major health problems and morbidities affecting this cohort were cardiovascular diseases (21.7%, hypertension (83.7%, diabetes (63.3%, obesity (41.23%, dementia (8.0%, depression (20.0%, and neoplasia (10.8%. Their prevalence is similar to some urban elderly Brazilian samples. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR and digested with PmaCI. Allele frequencies were 0.788 for the cysteine and 0.211 for the arginine. Genotype distributions were within that expected for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Female gender was associated with hypertension and obesity. Logistic regression analysis did not detect significant association between the polymorphism and morbidity. These findings confirm those from Europeans and differ from Japanese population.

  3. Structure and Function of the PriC DNA Replication Restart Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Sarah R; Cornilescu, Claudia C; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Metz, Alice; Leroux, Maxime; Hu, Kaifeng; Sandler, Steven J; Markley, John L; Keck, James L

    2016-08-26

    Collisions between DNA replication complexes (replisomes) and barriers such as damaged DNA or tightly bound protein complexes can dissociate replisomes from chromosomes prematurely. Replisomes must be reloaded under these circumstances to avoid incomplete replication and cell death. Bacteria have evolved multiple pathways that initiate DNA replication restart by recognizing and remodeling abandoned replication forks and reloading the replicative helicase. In vitro, the simplest of these pathways is mediated by the single-domain PriC protein, which, along with the DnaC helicase loader, can load the DnaB replicative helicase onto DNA bound by the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein (SSB). Previous biochemical studies have identified PriC residues that mediate interactions with ssDNA and SSB. However, the mechanisms by which PriC drives DNA replication restart have remained poorly defined due to the limited structural information available for PriC. Here, we report the NMR structure of full-length PriC from Cronobacter sakazakii PriC forms a compact bundle of α-helices that brings together residues involved in ssDNA and SSB binding at adjacent sites on the protein surface. Disruption of these interaction sites and of other conserved residues leads to decreased DnaB helicase loading onto SSB-bound DNA. We also demonstrate that PriC can directly interact with DnaB and the DnaB·DnaC complex. These data lead to a model in which PriC acts as a scaffold for recruiting DnaB·DnaC to SSB/ssDNA sites present at stalled replication forks. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Single-molecule studies of fork dynamics in Escherichia coli DNA replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; Hamdan, Samir M.; Jergic, Slobodan; Loscha, Karin V.; Schaeffer, Patrick M.; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2008-01-01

    We present single-molecule studies of the Escherichia coli replication machinery. We visualize individual E. coli DNA polymerase III (Pol III) holoenzymes engaging in primer extension and leading-strand synthesis. When coupled to the replicative helicase DnaB, Pol III mediates leading-strand

  5. MAGNETIC TWEEZERS FOR THE STUDY OF DNA TRACKING MOTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosas, Maria; Meglio, Adrien; Spiering, Michelle M.; Ding, Fangyuan; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Barre, François-Xavier; Saleh, Omar A.; Allemand, Jean François; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation methods have opened a new vista on the study of molecular motors. Here we describe the use of magnetic traps for the investigation of the mechanism of DNA based motors, in particular helicases and translocases. PMID:20627163

  6. Translocation, switching and gating: potential roles for ATP in long-range communication on DNA by Type III restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczelkun, Mark D

    2011-04-01

    To cleave DNA, the Type III RM (restriction-modification) enzymes must communicate the relative orientation of two recognition sequences, which may be separated by many thousands of base pairs. This long-range interaction requires ATP hydrolysis by a helicase domain, and both active (DNA translocation) and passive (DNA sliding) modes of motion along DNA have been proposed. Potential roles for ATP binding and hydrolysis by the helicase domains are discussed, with a focus on bipartite ATPases that act as molecular switches.

  7. DbpA is a region-specific RNA helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Anthony F T; Gentry, Riley C; Koculi, Eda

    2017-03-01

    DbpA is a DEAD-box RNA helicase implicated in RNA structural rearrangements in the peptidyl transferase center. DbpA contains an RNA binding domain, responsible for tight binding of DbpA to hairpin 92 of 23S ribosomal RNA, and a RecA-like catalytic core responsible for double-helix unwinding. It is not known if DbpA unwinds only the RNA helices that are part of a specific RNA structure, or if DbpA unwinds any RNA helices within the catalytic core's grasp. In other words, it is not known if DbpA is a site-specific enzyme or region-specific enzyme. In this study, we used protein and RNA engineering to investigate if DbpA is a region-specific or a site-specific enzyme. Our data suggest that DbpA is a region-specific enzyme. This conclusion has an important implication for the physiological role of DbpA. It suggests that during ribosome assembly, DbpA could bind with its C-terminal RNA binding domain to hairpin 92, while its catalytic core may unwind any double-helices in its vicinity. The only requirement for a double-helix to serve as a DbpA substrate is for the double-helix to be positioned within the catalytic core's grasp. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Rad53 independent function of Rad9 becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of the Recq helicase Sgs1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nielsen

    Full Text Available The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses, replisome stability and dissolution of double Holliday junctions during homologous recombination. In this study we investigate a possible genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD9 in the cellular response to methyl methane sulphonate (MMS induced damage and compare this with the genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD24. The Rad9 protein, an adaptor for effector kinase activation, plays well-characterized roles in the DNA damage checkpoint response, whereas Rad24 is characterized as a sensor protein also in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Here we unveil novel insights into the cellular response to MMS-induced damage. Specifically, we show a strong synergistic functionality between SGS1 and RAD9 for recovery from MMS induced damage and for suppression of gross chromosomal rearrangements, which is not the case for SGS1 and RAD24. Intriguingly, it is a Rad53 independent function of Rad9, which becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of Sgs1. Despite this, our dissection of the MMS checkpoint response reveals parallel, but unequal pathways for Rad53 activation and highlights significant differences between MMS- and hydroxyurea (HU-induced checkpoint responses with relation to the requirement of the Sgs1 interacting partner Topoisomerase III (Top3. Thus, whereas earlier studies have documented a Top3-independent role of Sgs1 for an HU-induced checkpoint response, we show here that upon MMS treatment, Sgs1 and Top3 together define a minor but parallel pathway to that of Rad9.

  9. The structure and function of an RNA polymerase interaction domain in the PcrA/UvrD helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kelly; Lin, Chia-Liang; Smith, Abigail J; Cronin, Nora; Fisher, Gemma; Eftychidis, Vasileios; McGlynn, Peter; Savery, Nigel J; Wigley, Dale B; Dillingham, Mark S

    2017-04-20

    The PcrA/UvrD helicase functions in multiple pathways that promote bacterial genome stability including the suppression of conflicts between replication and transcription and facilitating the repair of transcribed DNA. The reported ability of PcrA/UvrD to bind and backtrack RNA polymerase (1,2) might be relevant to these functions, but the structural basis for this activity is poorly understood. In this work, we define a minimal RNA polymerase interaction domain in PcrA, and report its crystal structure at 1.5 Å resolution. The domain adopts a Tudor-like fold that is similar to other RNA polymerase interaction domains, including that of the prototype transcription-repair coupling factor Mfd. Removal or mutation of the interaction domain reduces the ability of PcrA/UvrD to interact with and to remodel RNA polymerase complexes in vitro. The implications of this work for our understanding of the role of PcrA/UvrD at the interface of DNA replication, transcription and repair are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Incorporation into the prereplicative complex activates the Mcm2–7 helicase for Cdc7–Dbf4 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Laura I.; Randell, John C.W.; Takara, Thomas J.; Uchima, Lilen; Bell, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    The essential S-phase kinase Cdc7–Dbf4 acts at eukaryotic origins of replication to trigger a cascade of protein associations that activate the Mcm2–7 replicative helicase. Also known as Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), this kinase preferentially targets chromatin-associated Mcm2–7 complexes that are assembled on the DNA during prereplicative complex (pre-RC) formation. Here we address the mechanisms that control the specificity of DDK action. We show that incorporation of Mcm2–7 into the pre-RC increased the level and changes the specificity of DDK phosphorylation of this complex. In the context of the pre-RC, DDK preferentially targets a conformationally distinct subpopulation of Mcm2–7 complexes that is tightly linked to the origin DNA. This targeting requires DDK to tightly associate with Mcm2–7 complexes in a Dbf4-dependent manner. Importantly, we find that DDK association with and phosphorylation of origin-linked Mcm2–7 complexes require prior phosphorylation of the pre-RC. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms that ensure that DDK action is spatially and temporally restricted to the origin-bound Mcm2–7 complexes that will drive replication fork movement during S phase and suggest new mechanisms to regulate origin activity. PMID:19270162

  11. Non-B DNA-forming sequences and WRN deficiency independently increase the frequency of base substitution in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacolla, Albino; Wang, Guliang; Jain, Aklank

    2011-01-01

    Although alternative DNA secondary structures (non-B DNA) can induce genomic rearrangements, their associated mutational spectra remain largely unknown. The helicase activity of WRN, which is absent in the human progeroid Werner syndrome, is thought to counteract this genomic instability. We dete...

  12. FBH1 co-operates with MUS81 in inducing DNA double-strand breaks and cell death following replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Chu, Wai Kit; Haahr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The molecular events occurring following the disruption of DNA replication forks are poorly characterized, despite extensive use of replication inhibitors such as hydroxyurea in the treatment of malignancies. Here, we identify a key role for the FBH1 helicase in mediating DNA double-strand break...... disrupted alleles of Fbh1. We also show that FBH1 through its helicase activity co-operates with the MUS81 nuclease in promoting the endonucleolytic DNA cleavage following prolonged replication stress. Accordingly, MUS81 and EME1-depleted cells show increased resistance to the cytotoxic effects...... of replication stress. Our data suggest that FBH1 helicase activity is required to eliminate cells with excessive replication stress through the generation of MUS81-induced DNA double-strand breaks....

  13. DNA end resection by CtIP and exonuclease 1 prevents genomic instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eid, Wassim; Steger, Martin; El-Shemerly, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    End resection of DNA-which is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination-relies first on the partnership between MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) and CtIP, followed by a processive step involving helicases and exonucleases such as exonuclease 1 (EXO1). In this s......End resection of DNA-which is essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination-relies first on the partnership between MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) and CtIP, followed by a processive step involving helicases and exonucleases such as exonuclease 1 (EXO1...... of DNA-PK-dependent radial chromosome formation. Thus, our study identifies new functions of CtIP and EXO1 in DNA end resection and provides new information on the regulation of DSB repair pathways, which is a key factor in the maintenance of genome integrity....

  14. Topology and regulation of the human eIF4A/4G/4H helicase complex in translation initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marintchev, Assen; Edmonds, Katherine A.; Marintcheva, Boriana; Hendrickson, Elthea; Oberer, Monika; Suzuki, Chikako; Herdy, Barbara; Sonenberg, Nahum; Wagner, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Summary The RNA helicase eIF4A plays a key role in unwinding of mRNA and scanning during translation initiation. Free eIF4A is a poor helicase and requires the accessory proteins eIF4G and eIF4H. However, the structure of the helicase complex and the mechanisms of stimulation of eIF4A activity have remained elusive. Here we report the topology of the eIF4A/4G/4H helicase complex, which is built from multiple experimentally observed domain-domain contacts. Remarkably, some of the interactions are continuously rearranged during the ATP binding/hydrolysis cycle of the helicase. We show that the accessory proteins modulate the affinity of eIF4A for ATP by interacting simultaneously with both helicase domains and promoting either the closed, ATP-bound conformation or the open, nucleotide-free conformation. The topology of the complex and the spatial arrangement of the RNA-binding surfaces offer insights into their roles in stimulation of helicase activity and the mechanisms of mRNA unwinding and scanning. PMID:19203580

  15. Yeast as a model system to study RecQ helicase function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Thomas M; Hickson, Ian David

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the highly conserved RecQ helicase, BLM, cause the rare cancer predisposition disorder, Bloom's syndrome. The orthologues of BLM in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are SGS1 and rqh1(+), respectively. Studies in these yeast species have revealed a plethora...

  16. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of the BLM Helicase Modulates Chromosome Stability in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Dexheimer, Thomas S; Rosenthal, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    The Bloom's syndrome protein, BLM, is a member of the conserved RecQ helicase family. Although cell lines lacking BLM exist, these exhibit progressive genomic instability that makes distinguishing primary from secondary effects of BLM loss problematic. In order to be able to acutely disable BLM...

  17. The logic of DNA replication in double-stranded DNA viruses: insights from global analysis of viral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Darius; Krupovic, Mart; Venclovas, Česlovas

    2016-06-02

    Genomic DNA replication is a complex process that involves multiple proteins. Cellular DNA replication systems are broadly classified into only two types, bacterial and archaeo-eukaryotic. In contrast, double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses feature a much broader diversity of DNA replication machineries. Viruses differ greatly in both completeness and composition of their sets of DNA replication proteins. In this study, we explored whether there are common patterns underlying this extreme diversity. We identified and analyzed all major functional groups of DNA replication proteins in all available proteomes of dsDNA viruses. Our results show that some proteins are common to viruses infecting all domains of life and likely represent components of the ancestral core set. These include B-family polymerases, SF3 helicases, archaeo-eukaryotic primases, clamps and clamp loaders of the archaeo-eukaryotic type, RNase H and ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We also discovered a clear correlation between genome size and self-sufficiency of viral DNA replication, the unanticipated dominance of replicative helicases and pervasive functional associations among certain groups of DNA replication proteins. Altogether, our results provide a comprehensive view on the diversity and evolution of replication systems in the DNA virome and uncover fundamental principles underlying the orchestration of viral DNA replication. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Characterization of papillomavirus E1 helicase mutants defective for interaction with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradet-Turcotte, Amelie; Brault, Karine; Titolo, Steve; Howley, Peter M.; Archambault, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The E1 helicase from BPV and HPV16 interacts with Ubc9 to facilitate viral genome replication. We report that HPV11 E1 also interacts with Ubc9 in vitro and in the yeast two-hybrid system. Residues in E1 involved in oligomerization (353-435) were sufficient for binding to Ubc9 in vitro, but the origin-binding and ATPase domains were additionally required in yeast. Nuclear accumulation of BPV E1 was shown previously to depend on its interaction with Ubc9 and sumoylation on lysine 514. In contrast, HPV11 and HPV16 E1 mutants defective for Ubc9 binding remained nuclear even when the SUMO pathway was inhibited. Furthermore, we found that K514 in BPV E1 and the analogous K559 in HPV11 E1 are not essential for nuclear accumulation of E1. These results suggest that the interaction of E1 with Ubc9 is not essential for its nuclear accumulation but, rather, depends on its oligomerization and binding to DNA and ATP.

  19. Transcriptomic and Protein Expression Analysis Reveals Clinicopathological Significance of Bloom Syndrome Helicase (BLM) in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Agarwal, Devika; Doherty, Rachel; Moseley, Paul M; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Alshareeda, Alaa T; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Y T; Ellis, Ian O; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-01

    Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) has key roles in homologous recombination repair, telomere maintenance, and DNA replication. Germ-line mutations in the BLM gene causes Bloom syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by premature aging and predisposition to multiple cancers, including breast cancer. The clinicopathologic significance of BLM in sporadic breast cancers is unknown. We investigated BLM mRNA expression in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1,950) and validated in an external dataset of 2,413 tumors. BLM protein level was evaluated in the Nottingham Tenovus series comprising 1,650 breast tumors. BLM mRNA overexpression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, larger tumor size, estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)), progesterone receptor-negative (PR(-)), and triple-negative phenotypes (ps < 0.0001). BLM mRNA overexpression was also linked to aggressive molecular phenotypes, including PAM50.Her2 (P < 0.0001), PAM50.Basal (P < 0.0001), and PAM50.LumB (P < 0.0001) and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/high proliferation; P < 0.0001). PAM50.LumA tumors and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/low proliferation) were more likely to express low levels of BLM mRNA (ps < 0.0001). Integrative molecular clusters (intClust) intClust.1 (P < 0.0001), intClust.5 (P < 0.0001), intClust.9 (P < 0.0001), and intClust.10 (P < 0.0001) were also more likely in tumors with high BLM mRNA expression. BLM mRNA overexpression was associated with poor breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS; ps < 0.000001). At the protein level, altered subcellular localization with high cytoplasmic BLM and low nuclear BLM was linked to aggressive phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, BLM mRNA and BLM protein levels independently influenced BCSS. This is the first and the largest study to provide evidence that BLM is a promising biomarker in breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Methods of introducing nucleic acids into cellular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, Marc J.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Mosberg, Joshua A.; Church, George M.

    2017-06-27

    A method of introducing a nucleic acid sequence into a cell is provided where the cell has impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaG primase activity or impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaB helicase activity, or larger or increased gaps or distance between Okazaki fragments or lowered or reduced frequency of Okazaki fragment initiation, or the cell has increased single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on the lagging strand of the replication fork including transforming the cell through recombination with a nucleic acid oligomer.

  1. Molecular and Functional Characterization of RecD, a Novel Member of the SF1 Family of Helicases, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhare, Shivendra Singh; Umesh, T G; Muniyappa, K

    2015-05-08

    The annotated whole-genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed the presence of a putative recD gene; however, the biochemical characteristics of its encoded protein product (MtRecD) remain largely unknown. Here, we show that MtRecD exists in solution as a stable homodimer. Protein-DNA binding assays revealed that MtRecD binds efficiently to single-stranded DNA and linear duplexes containing 5' overhangs relative to the 3' overhangs but not to blunt-ended duplex. Furthermore, MtRecD bound more robustly to a variety of Y-shaped DNA structures having ≥18-nucleotide overhangs but not to a similar substrate containing 5-nucleotide overhangs. MtRecD formed more salt-tolerant complexes with Y-shaped structures compared with linear duplex having 3' overhangs. The intrinsic ATPase activity of MtRecD was stimulated by single-stranded DNA. Site-specific mutagenesis of Lys-179 in motif I abolished the ATPase activity of MtRecD. Interestingly, although MtRecD-catalyzed unwinding showed a markedly higher preference for duplex substrates with 5' overhangs, it could also catalyze significant unwinding of substrates containing 3' overhangs. These results support the notion that MtRecD is a bipolar helicase with strong 5' → 3' and weak 3' → 5' unwinding activities. The extent of unwinding of Y-shaped DNA structures was ∼3-fold lower compared with duplexes with 5' overhangs. Notably, direct interaction between MtRecD and its cognate RecA led to inhibition of DNA strand exchange promoted by RecA. Altogether, these studies provide the first detailed characterization of MtRecD and present important insights into the type of DNA structure the enzyme is likely to act upon during the processes of DNA repair or homologous recombination. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Targeting helicase-dependent amplification products with an electrochemical genosensor for reliable and sensitive screening of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Dos Santos Junior, J Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2015-08-18

    Cultivation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their use in food and feed is constantly expanding; thus, the question of informing consumers about their presence in food has proven of significant interest. The development of sensitive, rapid, robust, and reliable methods for the detection of GMOs is crucial for proper food labeling. In response, we have experimentally characterized the helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) and sequence-specific detection of a transgene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter (CaMV35S), inserted into most transgenic plants. HDA is one of the simplest approaches for DNA amplification, emulating the bacterial replication machinery, and resembling PCR but under isothermal conditions. However, it usually suffers from a lack of selectivity, which is due to the accumulation of spurious amplification products. To improve the selectivity of HDA, which makes the detection of amplification products more reliable, we have developed an electrochemical platform targeting the central sequence of HDA copies of the transgene. A binary monolayer architecture is built onto a thin gold film where, upon the formation of perfect nucleic acid duplexes with the amplification products, these are enzyme-labeled and electrochemically transduced. The resulting combined system increases genosensor detectability up to 10(6)-fold, allowing Yes/No detection of GMOs with a limit of detection of ∼30 copies of the CaMV35S genomic DNA. A set of general utility rules in the design of genosensors for detection of HDA amplicons, which may assist in the development of point-of-care tests, is also included. The method provides a versatile tool for detecting nucleic acids with extremely low abundance not only for food safety control but also in the diagnostics and environmental control areas.

  3. Molecular insights into DNA interference by CRISPR-associated nuclease-helicase Cas3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, B.; Shin, M.; Sun, J.; Jung, C.H.; Bolt, E.L.; Oost, van der J.; Kim, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements in bacteria are neutralized by a system based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. Type I CRISPR-Cas systems use a “Cascade” ribonucleoprotein complex to guide RNA specifically to complementary sequence

  4. Global analysis of double-strand break processing reveals in vivo properties of the helicase-nuclease complex AddAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung B K; Spille, Jan-Hendrik; Cisse, Ibrahim I; Laub, Michael T

    2017-05-01

    In bacteria, double-strand break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination is thought to be initiated through the bi-directional degradation and resection of DNA ends by a helicase-nuclease complex such as AddAB. The activity of AddAB has been well-studied in vitro, with translocation speeds between 400-2000 bp/s on linear DNA suggesting that a large section of DNA around a break site is processed for repair. However, the translocation rate and activity of AddAB in vivo is not known, and how AddAB is regulated to prevent excessive DNA degradation around a break site is unclear. To examine the functions and mechanistic regulation of AddAB inside bacterial cells, we developed a next-generation sequencing-based approach to assay DNA processing after a site-specific DSB was introduced on the chromosome of Caulobacter crescentus. Using this assay we determined the in vivo rates of DSB processing by AddAB and found that putative chi sites attenuate processing in a RecA-dependent manner. This RecA-mediated regulation of AddAB prevents the excessive loss of DNA around a break site, limiting the effects of DSB processing on transcription. In sum, our results, taken together with prior studies, support a mechanism for regulating AddAB that couples two key events of DSB repair-the attenuation of DNA-end processing and the initiation of homology search by RecA-thereby helping to ensure that genomic integrity is maintained during DSB repair.

  5. RECQL4 localizes to mitochondria and preserves mitochondrial DNA integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croteau, Deborah L; Rossi, Marie L; Canugovi, Chandrika

    2012-01-01

    in premature aging. There is no information about whether any of the RecQ helicases play roles in mitochondrial biogenesis, which is strongly implicated in the aging process. Here, we used microscopy to visualize RECQL4 in mitochondria. Fractionation of human and mouse cells also showed that RECQL4 was present......RECQL4 is associated with Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome (RTS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by premature aging, genomic instability, and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is a member of the RecQ helicase family, and has many similarities to WRN protein, which is also implicated...... in mitochondria. Q-PCR amplification of mitochondrial DNA demonstrated that mtDNA damage accumulated in RECQL4-deficient cells. Microarray analysis suggested that mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways might be affected in RTS. Measurements of mitochondrial bioenergetics showed a reduction in the mitochondrial...

  6. Roles of the linker region of RNA helicase A in HIV-1 RNA metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    Full Text Available RNA helicase A (RHA promotes multiple steps in HIV-1 production including transcription and translation of viral RNA, annealing of primer tRNA(Lys3 to viral RNA, and elevating the ratio of unspliced to spliced viral RNA. At its amino terminus are two double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs that are essential for RHA-viral RNA interaction. Linking the dsRBDs to the core helicase domain is a linker region containing 6 predicted helices. Working in vitro with purified mutant RHAs containing deletions of individual helices reveals that this region may regulate the enzyme's helicase activity, since deletion of helix 2 or 3 reduces the rate of unwinding RNA by RHA. The biological significance of this finding was then examined during HIV-1 production. Deletions in the linker region do not significantly affect either RHA-HIV-1 RNA interaction in vivo or the incorporation of mutant RHAs into progeny virions. While the partial reduction in helicase activity of mutant RHA containing a deletion of helices 2 or 3 does not reduce the ability of RHA to stimulate viral RNA synthesis, the promotion of tRNA(Lys3 annealing to viral RNA is blocked. In contrast, deletion of helices 4 or 5 does not affect the ability of RHA to promote tRNA(Lys3 annealing, but reduces its ability to stimulate viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, RHA stimulation of viral RNA synthesis results in an increased ratio of unspliced to spliced viral RNA, and this increase is not inhibited by deletions in the linker region, nor is the pattern of splicing changed within the ∼ 4.0 kb or ∼ 1.8 kb HIV-1 RNA classes, suggesting that RHA's effect on suppressing splicing is confined mainly to the first 5'-splice donor site. Overall, the differential responses to the mutations in the linker region of RHA reveal that RHA participates in HIV-1 RNA metabolism by multiple distinct mechanisms.

  7. The human RecQ helicases BLM and RECQL4 cooperate to preserve genome stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, D.K.; Popuri, V.; Kulikowicz, T.; Shevelev, Igor; Ghosh, A.K.; Ramamoorthy, M.; Rossi, M.L.; Janščák, Pavel; Croteau, D.L.; Bohr, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 14 (2012), s. 6632-6648 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/10/0281 Grant - others:NIH(US) Z01-AG000726-17 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : RecQ helicase * genome stability * BLM * RECQL4 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.278, year: 2012

  8. DEAD-box RNA helicase is dispensable for mitochondrial translation in Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richterová, Lenka; Vávrová, Zuzana; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 1 (2011), 300-303 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667; GA MŠk LC07032; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trypanosoma * Mitochondrial translation * RNA helicase * Cytochrome c oxidase * Mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2011

  9. Novel benzoxazole inhibitor of dengue virus replication that targets the NS3 helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Berhanu, Aklile; Dai, Dongcheng; Jones, Kevin F; Cardwell, Kara B; Schneider, Christine; Yang, Guang; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar; Harver, Chris; Wineinger, Kristin A; Page, Jessica; Stavale, Eric; Stone, Melialani A; Fuller, Kathleen P; Lovejoy, Candace; Leeds, Janet M; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the predominant mosquito-borne viral pathogen that infects humans with an estimated 50 to 100 million infections per year worldwide. Over the past 50 years, the incidence of dengue disease has increased dramatically and the virus is now endemic in more than 100 countries. Moreover, multiple serotypes of DENV are now found in the same geographic region, increasing the likelihood of more severe forms of disease. Despite extensive research, there are still no approved vaccines or therapeutics commercially available to treat DENV infection. Here we report the results of a high-throughput screen of a chemical compound library using a whole-virus assay that identified a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DENV, ST-610, that potently and selectively inhibits all four serotypes of DENV replication in vitro. Sequence analysis of drug-resistant virus isolates has identified a single point mutation, A263T, in the NS3 helicase domain that confers resistance to this compound. ST-610 inhibits DENV NS3 helicase RNA unwinding activity in a molecular-beacon-based helicase assay but does not inhibit nucleoside triphosphatase activity based on a malachite green ATPase assay. ST-610 is nonmutagenic, is well tolerated (nontoxic) in mice, and has shown efficacy in a sublethal murine model of DENV infection with the ability to significantly reduce viremia and viral load compared to vehicle controls.

  10. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant.The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities.To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  11. Rv0004 is a new essential member of the mycobacterial DNA replication machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Mann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication is fundamental for life, yet a detailed understanding of bacterial DNA replication is limited outside the organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Many bacteria, including mycobacteria, encode no identified homologs of helicase loaders or regulators of the initiator protein DnaA, despite these factors being essential for DNA replication in E. coli and B. subtilis. In this study we discover that a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv0004, from the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for bacterial viability and that depletion of Rv0004 leads to a block in cell cycle progression. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches, we found that Rv0004 has a role in DNA replication, interacts with DNA and the replicative helicase DnaB, and affects DnaB-DnaA complex formation. We also identify a conserved domain in Rv0004 that is predicted to structurally resemble the N-terminal protein-protein interaction domain of DnaA. Mutation of a single conserved tryptophan within Rv0004's DnaA N-terminal-like domain leads to phenotypes similar to those observed upon Rv0004 depletion and can affect the association of Rv0004 with DnaB. In addition, using live cell imaging during depletion of Rv0004, we have uncovered a previously unappreciated role for DNA replication in coordinating mycobacterial cell division and cell size. Together, our data support that Rv0004 encodes a homolog of the recently identified DciA family of proteins found in most bacteria that lack the DnaC-DnaI helicase loaders in E. coli and B. subtilis. Therefore, the mechanisms of Rv0004 elucidated here likely apply to other DciA homologs and reveal insight into the diversity of bacterial strategies in even the most conserved biological processes.

  12. Significance of monoclonal antibodies against the conserved epitopes within non-structural protein 3 helicase of hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Bian

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 of hepatitis C virus (HCV, codes for protease and helicase carrying NTPase enzymatic activities, plays a crucial role in viral replication and an ideal target for diagnosis, antiviral therapy and vaccine development. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to NS3 helicase were characterized by epitope mapping and biological function test. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies were produced to the truncated NS3 helicase of HCV-1b (T1b-rNS3, aa1192-1459. Six mAbs recognized 8/29 16mer peptides, which contributed to identify 5 linear and 1 discontinuous putative epitope sequences. Seven mAbs reacted with HCV-2a JFH-1 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells by immunofluorescent staining, of which 2E12 and 3E5 strongly bound to the exposed linear epitope (1231PTGSGKSTK(1239 (EP05 or core motif (1373IPFYGKAI(1380 (EP21, respectively. Five other mAbs recognized semi-conformational or conformational epitopes of HCV helicase. MAb 2E12 binds to epitope EP05 at the ATP binding site of motif I in domain 1, while mAb 3E5 reacts with epitope EP21 close to helicase nucleotide binding region of domain 2. Epitope EP05 is totally conserved and EP21 highly conserved across HCV genotypes. These two epitope peptides reacted strongly with 59-79% chronic and weakly with 30-58% resolved HCV infected blood donors, suggesting that these epitopes were dominant in HCV infection. MAb 2E12 inhibited 50% of unwinding activity of NS3 helicase in vitro. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognize highly conserved epitopes at crucial functional sites within NS3 helicase, which may become important antibodies for diagnosis and antiviral therapy in chronic HCV infection.

  13. A holistic evolutionary and structural study of flaviviridae provides insights into the function and inhibition of HCV helicase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Vlachakis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Viral RNA helicases are involved in duplex unwinding during the RNA replication of the virus. It is suggested that these helicases represent very promising antiviral targets. Viruses of the flaviviridae family are the causative agents of many common and devastating diseases, including hepatitis, yellow fever and dengue fever. As there is currently no available anti-Flaviviridae therapy, there is urgent need for the development of efficient anti-viral pharmaceutical strategies. Herein, we report the complete phylogenetic analysis across flaviviridae alongside a more in-depth evolutionary study that revealed a series of conserved and invariant amino acids that are predicted to be key to the function of the helicase. Structural molecular modelling analysis revealed the strategic significance of these residues based on their relative positioning on the 3D structures of the helicase enzymes, which may be used as pharmacological targets. We previously reported a novel series of highly potent HCV helicase inhibitors, and we now re-assess their antiviral potential using the 3D structural model of the invariant helicase residues. It was found that the most active compound of the series, compound C4, exhibited an IC50 in the submicromolar range, whereas its stereoisomer (compound C12 was completely inactive. Useful insights were obtained from molecular modelling and conformational search studies via molecular dynamics simulations. C12 tends to bend and lock in an almost “U” shape conformation, failing to establish vital interactions with the active site of HCV. On the contrary, C4 spends most of its conformational time in a straight, more rigid formation that allows it to successfully block the passage of the oligonucleotide in the ssRNA channel of the HCV helicase. This study paves the way and provides the necessary framework for the in-depth analysis required to enable the future design of new and potent anti-viral agents.

  14. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xianlin; Wu, Wenzhe; Qiu, Yang; Shu, Ting; Zhao, Xiaolu; Yin, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3′-to-5′ unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16), another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings increase our

  15. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Xia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71, which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3'-to-5' unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16, another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings

  16. Interaction of RECQ4 and MCM10 is important for efficient DNA replication origin firing in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliszczak, Maciej; Sedlackova, Hana; Pitchai, Ganesha P

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly coordinated process that is initiated at multiple replication origins in eukaryotes. These origins are bound by the origin recognition complex (ORC), which subsequently recruits the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase in a Cdt1/Cdc6-dependent manner. In budding yeast, two esse...

  17. X-ray structure of the pestivirus NS3 helicase and its conformation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorici, M Alejandra; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Kwok, Jane; Vonrhein, Clemens; Perez, Javier; Lamp, Benjamin; Bricogne, Gerard; Rümenapf, Till; Vachette, Patrice; Rey, Félix A

    2015-04-01

    Pestiviruses form a genus in the Flaviviridae family of small enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. Viral replication in this family requires the activity of a superfamily 2 RNA helicase contained in the C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). NS3 features two conserved RecA-like domains (D1 and D2) with ATPase activity, plus a third domain (D3) that is important for unwinding nucleic acid duplexes. We report here the X-ray structure of the pestivirus NS3 helicase domain (pNS3h) at a 2.5-Å resolution. The structure deviates significantly from that of NS3 of other genera in the Flaviviridae family in D3, as it contains two important insertions that result in a narrower nucleic acid binding groove. We also show that mutations in pNS3h that rescue viruses from which the core protein is deleted map to D3, suggesting that this domain may be involved in interactions that facilitate particle assembly. Finally, structural comparisons of the enzyme in different crystalline environments, together with the findings of small-angle X-ray-scattering studies in solution, show that D2 is mobile with respect to the rest of the enzyme, oscillating between closed and open conformations. Binding of a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog locks pNS3h in a conformation that is more compact than the closest apo-form in our crystals. Together, our results provide new insight and bring up new questions about pNS3h function during pestivirus replication. Although pestivirus infections impose an important toll on the livestock industry worldwide, little information is available about the nonstructural proteins essential for viral replication, such as the NS3 helicase. We provide here a comparative structural and functional analysis of pNS3h with respect to its orthologs in other viruses of the same family, the flaviviruses and hepatitis C virus. Our studies reveal differences in the nucleic acid binding groove that could have implications for understanding the

  18. Transient association of MCM complex proteins with the nuclear matrix during initiation of mammalian DNA replication

    OpenAIRE

    Hesketh, Emma L; Knight, John RP; Wilson, Rosemary HC; Chong, James PJ; Coverley, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7) is the putative DNA helicase in eukaryotes, and essential for DNA replication. By applying serial extractions to mammalian cells synchronized by release from quiescence, we reveal dynamic changes to the sub-nuclear compartmentalization of MCM2 as cells pass through late G1 and early S phase, identifying a brief window when MCM2 becomes transiently attached to the nuclear-matrix. The data distinguish 3 states that correspond to loose association ...

  19. Genome-Wide Comparative In Silico Analysis of the RNA Helicase Gene Family in Zea mays and Glycine max: A Comparison with Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2013-01-01

    RNA helicases are enzymes that are thought to unwind double-stranded RNA molecules in an energy-dependent fashion through the hydrolysis of NTP. RNA helicases are associated with all processes involving RNA molecules, including nuclear transcription, editing, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export, and organelle gene expression. The involvement of RNA helicase in response to stress and in plant growth and development has been reported previously. While their importance in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa has been partially studied, the function of RNA helicase proteins is poorly understood in Zea mays and Glycine max. In this study, we identified a total of RNA helicase genes in Arabidopsis and other crop species genome by genome-wide comparative in silico analysis. We classified the RNA helicase genes into three subfamilies according to the structural features of the motif II region, such as DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box, and different species showed different patterns of alternative splicing. Secondly, chromosome location analysis showed that the RNA helicase protein genes were distributed across all chromosomes with different densities in the four species. Thirdly, phylogenetic tree analyses identified the relevant homologs of DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box RNA helicase proteins in each of the four species. Fourthly, microarray expression data showed that many of these predicted RNA helicase genes were expressed in different developmental stages and different tissues under normal growth conditions. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of 10 genes in Arabidopsis and 13 genes in Zea mays were in close agreement with the microarray expression data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comparative genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Glycine max. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of

  20. Genome-wide comparative in silico analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Zea mays and Glycine max: a comparison with Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruirui; Zhang, Shizhong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2013-01-01

    RNA helicases are enzymes that are thought to unwind double-stranded RNA molecules in an energy-dependent fashion through the hydrolysis of NTP. RNA helicases are associated with all processes involving RNA molecules, including nuclear transcription, editing, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export, and organelle gene expression. The involvement of RNA helicase in response to stress and in plant growth and development has been reported previously. While their importance in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa has been partially studied, the function of RNA helicase proteins is poorly understood in Zea mays and Glycine max. In this study, we identified a total of RNA helicase genes in Arabidopsis and other crop species genome by genome-wide comparative in silico analysis. We classified the RNA helicase genes into three subfamilies according to the structural features of the motif II region, such as DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box, and different species showed different patterns of alternative splicing. Secondly, chromosome location analysis showed that the RNA helicase protein genes were distributed across all chromosomes with different densities in the four species. Thirdly, phylogenetic tree analyses identified the relevant homologs of DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box RNA helicase proteins in each of the four species. Fourthly, microarray expression data showed that many of these predicted RNA helicase genes were expressed in different developmental stages and different tissues under normal growth conditions. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of 10 genes in Arabidopsis and 13 genes in Zea mays were in close agreement with the microarray expression data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comparative genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Glycine max. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of

  1. Competition between the DNA unwinding and strand pairing activities of the Werner and Bloom syndrome proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orren David K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The premature aging and cancer-prone Werner and Bloom syndromes are caused by defects in the RecQ helicase enzymes WRN and BLM, respectively. Recently, both WRN and BLM (as well as several other RecQ members have been shown to possess a strand annealing activity in addition to the requisite DNA unwinding activity. Since an annealing function would appear to directly oppose the action of a helicase, we have examined in this study the dynamic equilibrium between unwinding and annealing mediated by either WRN or BLM. Results Our investigation into the competition between annealing and unwinding demonstrates that, under standard reaction conditions, WRN- or BLM-mediated annealing can partially or completely mask unwinding as measured in standard helicase assays. Several strategies were employed to suppress the annealing activity so that the actual strength of WRN- or BLM-dependent unwinding could be more accurately assessed. Interestingly, if a DNA oligomer complementary to one strand of the DNA substrate to be unwound is added during the helicase reaction, both WRN and BLM unwinding is enhanced, presumably by preventing protein-mediated re-annealing. This strategy allowed measurement of WRN-catalyzed unwinding of long (80 base pair duplex regions and fully complementary, blunt-ended duplexes, both of which were otherwise quite refractory to the helicase activity of WRN. Similarly, the addition of trap strand stimulated the ability of BLM to unwind long and blunt-ended duplexes. The stimulatory effect of the human replication protein A (hRPA, the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA binding protein on both WRN- and BLM-dependent unwinding was also re-examined in light of its possible role in preventing re-annealing. Our results show that hRPA influences the outcome of WRN and BLM helicase assays by both inhibiting re-annealing and directly promoting unwinding, with the larger contribution from the latter mechanism. Conclusion These

  2. Structural and functional analysis of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box helicase Prp28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möhlmann, Sina [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mathew, Rebecca [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Neumann, Piotr; Schmitt, Andreas [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Lührmann, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ficner, Ralf, E-mail: rficner@uni-goettingen.de [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of the helicase domain of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box protein Prp28 was solved by SAD. The binding of ADP and ATP by Prp28 was studied biochemically and analysed with regard to the crystal structure. The DEAD-box protein Prp28 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing as it plays a key role in the formation of an active spliceosome. Prp28 participates in the release of the U1 snRNP from the 5′-splice site during association of the U5·U4/U6 tri-snRNP, which is a crucial step in the transition from a pre-catalytic spliceosome to an activated spliceosome. Here, it is demonstrated that the purified helicase domain of human Prp28 (hPrp28ΔN) binds ADP, whereas binding of ATP and ATPase activity could not be detected. ATP binding could not be observed for purified full-length hPrp28 either, but within an assembled spliceosomal complex hPrp28 gains ATP-binding activity. In order to understand the structural basis for the ATP-binding deficiency of isolated hPrp28, the crystal structure of hPrp28ΔN was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. In the crystal the helicase domain adopts a wide-open conformation, as the two RecA-like domains are extraordinarily displaced from the productive ATPase conformation. Binding of ATP is hindered by a closed conformation of the P-loop, which occupies the space required for the γ-phosphate of ATP.

  3. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Dehghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells, posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles.

  4. DExD/H-Box Helicase 36 Signaling via Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88 Contributes to NF-κB Activation to Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyuan Jing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available DExD/H-box helicase 36 (DHX36 is known to be an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that unwinds the guanine-quadruplexes DNA or RNA, but emerging data suggest that it also functions as pattern recognition receptor in innate immunity. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the swine industry worldwide. Interstitial pneumonia is considered to be one of the most obvious clinical signs of PRRSV infection, suggesting that the inflammatory response plays an important role in PRRSV pathogenesis. However, whether DHX36 is involved in PRRSV-induced inflammatory cytokine expression remains unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection increased the expression of DHX36. Knockdown of DHX36 and its adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88 by small-interfering RNA in MARC-145 cells significantly reduced NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after PRRSV infection. Further investigation revealed that PRRSV nucleocapsid protein interacted with the N-terminal quadruplex binding domain of DHX36, which in turn augmented nucleocapsid protein-induced NF-κB activation. Taken together, our results suggest that DHX36–MyD88 has a relevant role in the recognition of PRRSV nucleocapsid protein and in the subsequent activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway.

  5. The nuclear import of RNA helicase A is mediated by importin-α3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratani, Satoko; Oishi, Takayuki; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Nakazawa, Minako; Fujii, Ryouji; Imamoto, Naoko; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2006-01-01

    RNA helicase A (RHA), an ATPase/helicase, regulates the gene expression at various steps including transcriptional activation and RNA processing. RHA is known to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We identified the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of RHA and analyzed the nuclear import mechanisms. The NLS of RHA (RHA-NLS) consisting of 19 amino acid residues is highly conserved through species and does not have the consensus classical NLS. In vitro nuclear import assays revealed that the nuclear import of RHA was Ran-dependent and mediated with the classical importin-α/β-dependent pathway. The binding assay indicated that the basic residues in RHA-NLS were used for interaction with importin-α. Furthermore, the nuclear import of RHA-NLS was supported by importin-α1 and preferentially importin-α3. Our results indicate that the nuclear import of RHA is mediated by the importin-α3/importin-β-dependent pathway and suggest that the specificity for importin may regulate the functions of cargo proteins

  6. An antiviral response directed by PKR phosphorylation of the RNA helicase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Sadler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR is a key regulator of the innate immune response. Activation of PKR during viral infection culminates in phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha to inhibit protein translation. A broad range of regulatory functions has also been attributed to PKR. However, as few additional PKR substrates have been identified, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, PKR is shown to interact with an essential RNA helicase, RHA. Moreover, RHA is identified as a substrate for PKR, with phosphorylation perturbing the association of the helicase with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA. Through this mechanism, PKR can modulate transcription, as revealed by its ability to prevent the capacity of RHA to catalyze transactivating response (TAR-mediated type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 gene regulation. Consequently, HIV-1 virions packaged in cells also expressing the decoy RHA peptides subsequently had enhanced infectivity. The data demonstrate interplay between key components of dsRNA metabolism, both connecting RHA to an important component of innate immunity and delineating an unanticipated role for PKR in RNA metabolism.

  7. DNA polymerase beta participates in mitochondrial DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykora, P; Kanno, S; Akbari, M

    2017-01-01

    We have detected DNA polymerase beta (Polβ), known as a key nuclear base excision repair (BER) protein, in mitochondrial protein extracts derived from mammalian tissue and cells. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence affected the amount of Polβ in the mitochondria. Using Polβ fragments, mitocho......We have detected DNA polymerase beta (Polβ), known as a key nuclear base excision repair (BER) protein, in mitochondrial protein extracts derived from mammalian tissue and cells. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence affected the amount of Polβ in the mitochondria. Using Polβ fragments......, mitochondrial-specific protein partners were identified, with the interactors mainly functioning in DNA maintenance and mitochondrial import. Of particular interest was the identification of the proteins TWINKLE, SSBP1 and TFAM, all of which are mitochondria specific DNA effectors and are known to function...... in the nucleoid. Polβ directly interacted with, and influenced the activity of, the mitochondrial helicase TWINKLE. Human kidney cells with Polβ knock-out (KO) had higher endogenous mtDNA damage. Mitochondrial extracts derived from heterozygous Polβ mouse tissue and KO cells had lower nucleotide incorporation...

  8. The helicase and ATPase activities of RECQL4 are compromised by mutations reported in three human patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Borch; Dunn, Christopher A; Keijzers, Guido

    2012-01-01

    -dead, had marginal ATPase activity and may be structurally compromised, while the other two showed greatly reduced helicase and ATPase activities. The remaining biochemical activities and ability to recruit to damage sites were not significantly impaired for any of the mutants. Our findings demonstrate...

  9. Effects of the NUP98-DDX10 oncogene on primary human CD34+ cells: role of a conserved helicase motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, E R; Abdul-Nabi, A M; Takeda, A; Yaseen, N R

    2010-05-01

    NUP98 gene rearrangements occur in acute myeloid leukemia and result in the expression of fusion proteins. One of the most frequent is NUP98-DDX10 that fuses a portion of NUP98 to a portion of DDX10, a putative DEAD-box RNA helicase. Here, we show that NUP98-DDX10 dramatically increases proliferation and self-renewal of primary human CD34+ cells, and disrupts their erythroid and myeloid differentiation. It localizes to their nuclei and extensively deregulates gene expression. Comparison to another leukemogenic NUP98 fusion, NUP98-HOXA9, reveals a number of genes deregulated by both oncoproteins, including HOX genes, COX-2, MYCN, ANGPT1, REN, HEY1, SOX4 and others. These genes may account for the similar leukemogenic properties of NUP98 fusion oncogenes. The YIHRAGRTAR sequence in the DDX10 portion of NUP98-DDX10 represents a major motif shared by DEAD-box RNA helicases that is required for ATP binding, RNA-binding and helicase functions. Mutating this motif diminished the in vitro transforming ability of NUP98-DDX10, indicating that it has a role in leukemogenesis. These data show for the first time the in vitro transforming ability of NUP98-DDX10 and show that it is partially dependent on one of the consensus helicase motifs of DDX10. They also point to common pathways that may underlie leukemogenesis by different NUP98 fusions.

  10. Cryo-EM Structure of a Relaxase Reveals the Molecular Basis of DNA Unwinding during Bacterial Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilangovan, Aravindan; Kay, Christopher W M; Roier, Sandro; El Mkami, Hassane; Salvadori, Enrico; Zechner, Ellen L; Zanetti, Giulia; Waksman, Gabriel

    2017-05-04

    Relaxases play essential roles in conjugation, the main process by which bacteria exchange genetic material, notably antibiotic resistance genes. They are bifunctional enzymes containing a trans-esterase activity, which is responsible for nicking the DNA strand to be transferred and for covalent attachment to the resulting 5'-phosphate end, and a helicase activity, which is responsible for unwinding the DNA while it is being transported to a recipient cell. Here we show that these two activities are carried out by two conformers that can both load simultaneously on the origin of transfer DNA. We solve the structure of one of these conformers by cryo electron microscopy to near-atomic resolution, elucidating the molecular basis of helicase function by relaxases and revealing insights into the mechanistic events taking place in the cell prior to substrate transport during conjugation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-essential MCM-related proteins mediate a response to DNA damage in the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Alison D; Chong, James P J

    2017-05-01

    The single minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein found in most archaea has been widely studied as a simplified model for the MCM complex that forms the catalytic core of the eukaryotic replicative helicase. Organisms of the order Methanococcales are unusual in possessing multiple MCM homologues. The Methanococcus maripaludis S2 genome encodes four MCM homologues, McmA-McmD. DNA helicase assays reveal that the unwinding activity of the three MCM-like proteins is highly variable despite sequence similarities and suggests additional motifs that influence MCM function are yet to be identified. While the gene encoding McmA could not be deleted, strains harbouring individual deletions of genes encoding each of the other MCMs display phenotypes consistent with these proteins modulating DNA damage responses. M. maripaludis S2 is the first archaeon in which MCM proteins have been shown to influence the DNA damage response.

  12. Mapping DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes following long-range communication between DNA sites in different orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aelst, Kara; Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes are single-chain proteins comprising an Mrr-family nuclease, a superfamily 2 helicase-like ATPase, a coupler domain, a methyltransferase, and a DNA-recognition domain. Upon recognising an unmodified DNA target site, the helicase-like domain hydrolyzes ATP to cause site release (remodeling activity) and to then drive downstream translocation consuming 1–2 ATP per base pair (motor activity). On an invading foreign DNA, double-strand breaks are introduced at random wherever two translocating enzymes form a so-called collision complex following long-range communication between a pair of target sites in inverted (head-to-head) repeat. Paradoxically, structural models for collision suggest that the nuclease domains are too far apart (>30 bp) to dimerise and produce a double-strand DNA break using just two strand-cleavage events. Here, we examined the organisation of different collision complexes and how these lead to nuclease activation. We mapped DNA cleavage when a translocating enzyme collides with a static enzyme bound to its site. By following communication between sites in both head-to-head and head-to-tail orientations, we could show that motor activity leads to activation of the nuclease domains via distant interactions of the helicase or MTase-TRD. Direct nuclease dimerization is not required. To help explain the observed cleavage patterns, we also used exonuclease footprinting to demonstrate that individual Type ISP domains can swing off the DNA. This study lends further support to a model where DNA breaks are generated by multiple random nicks due to mobility of a collision complex with an overall DNA-binding footprint of ∼30 bp. PMID:26507855

  13. Mapping DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes following long-range communication between DNA sites in different orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aelst, Kara; Saikrishnan, Kayarat; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-12-02

    The prokaryotic Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes are single-chain proteins comprising an Mrr-family nuclease, a superfamily 2 helicase-like ATPase, a coupler domain, a methyltransferase, and a DNA-recognition domain. Upon recognising an unmodified DNA target site, the helicase-like domain hydrolyzes ATP to cause site release (remodeling activity) and to then drive downstream translocation consuming 1-2 ATP per base pair (motor activity). On an invading foreign DNA, double-strand breaks are introduced at random wherever two translocating enzymes form a so-called collision complex following long-range communication between a pair of target sites in inverted (head-to-head) repeat. Paradoxically, structural models for collision suggest that the nuclease domains are too far apart (>30 bp) to dimerise and produce a double-strand DNA break using just two strand-cleavage events. Here, we examined the organisation of different collision complexes and how these lead to nuclease activation. We mapped DNA cleavage when a translocating enzyme collides with a static enzyme bound to its site. By following communication between sites in both head-to-head and head-to-tail orientations, we could show that motor activity leads to activation of the nuclease domains via distant interactions of the helicase or MTase-TRD. Direct nuclease dimerization is not required. To help explain the observed cleavage patterns, we also used exonuclease footprinting to demonstrate that individual Type ISP domains can swing off the DNA. This study lends further support to a model where DNA breaks are generated by multiple random nicks due to mobility of a collision complex with an overall DNA-binding footprint of ∼30 bp. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Crystal Structure of the Phage T4 Recombinase UvsX and Its Functional Interaction with the T4 SF2 Helicase UvsW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Stefan; Webb, Michael R.; Galkin, Vitold; Egelman, Edward H.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; White, Stephen W. (Duke); (UV); (SJCH)

    2012-07-11

    Bacteriophage T4 provides an important model system for studying the mechanism of homologous recombination. We have determined the crystal structure of the T4 UvsX recombinase, and the overall architecture and fold closely resemble those of RecA, including a highly conserved ATP binding site. Based on this new structure, we reanalyzed electron microscopy reconstructions of UvsX-DNA filaments and docked the UvsX crystal structure into two different filament forms: a compressed filament generated in the presence of ADP and an elongated filament generated in the presence of ATP and aluminum fluoride. In these reconstructions, the ATP binding site sits at the protomer interface, as in the RecA filament crystal structure. However, the environment of the ATP binding site is altered in the two filament reconstructions, suggesting that nucleotide cannot be as easily accommodated at the protomer interface of the compressed filament. Finally, we show that the phage helicase UvsW completes the UvsX-promoted strand-exchange reaction, allowing the generation of a simple nicked circular product rather than complex networks of partially exchanged substrates.

  15. The DEAD/DEAH box helicase, DDX11, is essential for the survival of advanced melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Chitralekha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite continuous efforts to identify genes that are pivotal regulators of advanced melanoma and closely related to it, to determine which of these genes have to be blocked in their function to keep this highly aggressive disease in check, it is far from clear which molecular pathway(s and specific genes therein, is the Achilles’ heel of primary and metastatic melanoma. In this report, we present data, which document that the DEAD-box helicase DDX11, which is required for sister chromatid cohesion, is a crucial gatekeeper for melanoma cell survival. Methods Performing immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis, we determined expression of DDX11 in melanoma tissues and cell lines. Following transfection of melanoma cells with a DDX11-specific siRNA, we conducted a qPCR analysis to determine downregulation of DDX11 in the transfected melanoma cells. In subsequent studies, which focused upon an analysis of fluorescently labeled as well as Giesma-stained chromosome spreads, a proliferation analysis and apoptosis assays, we determined the impact of suppressing DDX11 expression on melanoma cells representing advanced melanoma. Result The findings of the study presented herein document that DDX11 is upregulated with progression from noninvasive to invasive melanoma, and that it is expressed at high levels in advanced melanoma. Furthermore, and equally important, we demonstrate that blocking the expression of DDX11 leads not only to inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation and severe defects in chromosome segregation, but also drives melanoma cells rapidly into massive apoptosis. Conclusion To date, little is known as to whether helicases play a role in melanoma development and specifically, in the progression from early to advanced melanoma. In this report, we show that the helicase DDX11 is expressed at high levels in primary and metastatic melanoma, and that interfering with its expression leads to severe chromosome

  16. Role of the ATPase/helicase maleless (MLE in the assembly, targeting, spreading and function of the male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morra Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male-specific lethal (MSL complex of Drosophila remodels the chromatin of the X chromosome in males to enhance the level of transcription of most X-linked genes, and thereby achieve dosage compensation. The core complex consists of five proteins and one of two non-coding RNAs. One of the proteins, MOF (males absent on the first, is a histone acetyltransferase that specifically acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16. Another protein, maleless (MLE, is an ATP-dependent helicase with the ability to unwind DNA/RNA or RNA/RNA substrates in vitro. Recently, we showed that the ATPase activity of MLE is sufficient for the hypertranscription of genes adjacent to a high-affinity site by MSL complexes located at that site. The helicase activity is required for the spreading of the complex to the hundreds of positions along the X chromosome, where it is normally found. In this study, to further understand the role of MLE in the function of the MSL complex, we analyzed its relationship to the other complex components by creating a series of deletions or mutations in its putative functional domains, and testing their effect on the distribution and function of the complex in vivo. Results The presence of the RB2 RNA-binding domain is necessary for the association of the MSL3 protein with the other complex subunits. In its absence, the activity of the MOF subunit was compromised, and the complex failed to acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16. Deletion of the RB1 RNA-binding domain resulted in complexes that maintained substantial acetylation activity but failed to spread beyond the high-affinity sites. Flies bearing this mutation exhibited low levels of roX RNAs, indicating that these RNAs failed to associate with the proteins of the complex and were degraded, or that MLE contributes to their synthesis. Deletion of the glycine-rich C-terminal region, which contains a nuclear localization sequence, caused a substantial level of retention of the

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG binds and unwinds model DNA substrates with a preference for Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Ephrem Debebe; Balasingham, Seetha V; Laerdahl, Jon K; Homberset, Håvard; Tønjum, Tone

    2012-08-01

    The RecG enzyme, a superfamily 2 helicase, is present in nearly all bacteria. Here we report for the first time that the recG gene is also present in the genomes of most vascular plants as well as in green algae, but is not found in other eukaryotes or archaea. The precise function of RecG is poorly understood, although ample evidence shows that it plays critical roles in DNA repair, recombination and replication. We further demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG (RecG(Mtb)) DNA binding activity had a broad substrate specificity, whereas it only unwound branched-DNA substrates such as Holliday junctions (HJs), replication forks, D-loops and R-loops, with a strong preference for the HJ as a helicase substrate. In addition, RecG(Mtb) preferentially bound relatively long (≥40 nt) ssDNA, exhibiting a higher affinity for the homopolymeric nucleotides poly(dT), poly(dG) and poly(dC) than for poly(dA). RecG(Mtb) helicase activity was supported by hydrolysis of ATP or dATP in the presence of Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+) or Fe(2+). Like its Escherichia coli orthologue, RecG(Mtb) is also a strictly DNA-dependent ATPase.

  18. Post-licensing Specification of Eukaryotic Replication Origins by Facilitated Mcm2-7 Sliding along DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Julien; Kumar, Charanya; Lynch, Gerard; Yadav, Tejas; Whitehouse, Iestyn; Remus, Dirk

    2015-12-03

    Eukaryotic genomes are replicated from many origin sites that are licensed by the loading of the replicative DNA helicase, Mcm2-7. How eukaryotic origin positions are specified remains elusive. Here we show that, contrary to the bacterial paradigm, eukaryotic replication origins are not irrevocably defined by selection of the helicase loading site, but can shift in position after helicase loading. Using purified proteins we show that DNA translocases, including RNA polymerase, can push budding yeast Mcm2-7 double hexamers along DNA. Displaced Mcm2-7 double hexamers support DNA replication initiation distal to the loading site in vitro. Similarly, in yeast cells that are defective for transcription termination, collisions with RNA polymerase induce a redistribution of Mcm2-7 complexes along the chromosomes, resulting in a corresponding shift in DNA replication initiation sites. These results reveal a eukaryotic origin specification mechanism that departs from the classical replicon model, helping eukaryotic cells to negotiate transcription-replication conflict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two modes of interaction of the single-stranded DNA-binding protein of bacteriophage T7 with the DNA polymerase-thioredoxin complex

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sharmistha

    2010-04-06

    The DNA polymerase encoded by bacteriophage T7 has low processivity. Escherichia coli thioredoxin binds to a segment of 76 residues in the thumb subdomain of the polymerase and increases the processivity. The binding of thioredoxin leads to the formation of two basic loops, loops A and B, located within the thioredoxin-binding domain (TBD). Both loops interact with the acidic C terminus of the T7 helicase. A relatively weak electrostatic mode involves the C-terminal tail of the helicase and the TBD, whereas a high affinity interaction that does not involve the C-terminal tail occurs when the polymerase is in a polymerization mode. T7 gene 2.5 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (gp2.5) also has an acidic C-terminal tail. gp2.5 also has two modes of interaction with the polymerase, but both involve the C-terminal tail of gp2.5. An electrostatic interaction requires the basic residues in loops A and B, and gp2.5 binds to both loops with similar affinity as measured by surface plasmon resonance. When the polymerase is in a polymerization mode, the C terminus of gene 2.5 protein interacts with the polymerase in regions outside the TBD.gp2.5 increases the processivity of the polymerase-helicase complex during leading strand synthesis. When loop B of the TBD is altered, abortive DNA products are observed during leading strand synthesis. Loop B appears to play an important role in communication with the helicase and gp2.5, whereas loop A plays a stabilizing role in these interactions. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Acquisition of full-length viral helicase domains by insect retrotransposon-encoded polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina eLazareva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent metagenomic studies in insects identified many sequences unexpectedly closely related to plant virus genes. Here we describe a new example of this kind, insect R1 LINEs with an additional C-terminal domain in their open reading frame 2. This domain is similar to NTPase/helicase (SF1H domains, which are found in replicative proteins encoded by plant viruses of the genus Tobamovirus. We hypothesize that the SF1H domain could be acquired by LINEs, directly or indirectly, upon insect feeding on virus-infected plants. Possible functions of this domain in LINE transposition and involvement in LINEs counteraction the silencing-based cell defense against retrotransposons are discussed.

  1. The helicase senataxin suppresses the antiviral transcriptional response and controls viral biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew S.; Rialdi, Alexander; Ho, Jessica Sook Yuin; Tilove, Micah; Martinez-Gil, Luis; Moshkina, Natasha P.; Peralta, Zuleyma; Noel, Justine; Melegari, Camilla; Maestre, Ana; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Madrenas, Joaquín; Heinz, Sven; Benner, Chris; Young, John A. T.; Feagins, Alicia R.; Basler, Christopher; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Becherel, Olivier J.; Lavin, Martin F.; van Bakel, Harm; Marazzi, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The human helicase senataxin (SETX) is implicated in the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS4) and ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA2). Here, we reveal a role for SETX in controlling the antiviral response. Cells depleted for SETX and AOA2 patient-derived SETX-deficient cells exhibit increased expression of antiviral mediators in response to infection. Mechanistically, we propose a model whereby SETX attenuates RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) activity at genes stimulated upon viral sensing, thus controlling the magnitude of the host response to pathogens and the biogenesis of numerous RNA viruses (e. g. Influenza A virus and West Nile virus). Our data indicate a potentially causal link between SETX inborn errors, susceptibility to infection and development of neurologic disorders. PMID:25822250

  2. Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutations in Bad Response to Refrigeration 2 (Brr2) Impair ATPase and Helicase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Sarah; Guthrie, Christine

    2016-06-03

    Brr2 is an RNA-dependent ATPase required to unwind the U4/U6 snRNA duplex during spliceosome assembly. Mutations within the ratchet helix of the Brr2 RNA binding channel result in a form of degenerative human blindness known as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The biochemical consequences of these mutations on Brr2's RNA binding, helicase, and ATPase activity have not yet been characterized. Therefore, we identified the largest construct of Brr2 that is soluble in vitro, which truncates the first 247 amino acids of the N terminus (Δ247-Brr2), to characterize the effects of the RP mutations on Brr2 activity. The Δ247-Brr2 RP mutants exhibit a gradient of severity of weakened RNA binding, reduced helicase activity, and reduced ATPase activity compared with wild type Δ247-Brr2. The globular C-terminal Jab1/Mpn1-like domain of Prp8 increases the ability of Δ247-Brr2 to bind the U4/U6 snRNA duplex at high pH and increases Δ247-Brr2's RNA-dependent ATPase activity and the extent of RNA unwinding. However, this domain of Prp8 does not differentially affect the Δ247-Brr2 RP mutants compared with the wild type Δ247-Brr2. When stimulated by Prp8, wild type Δ247-Brr2 is able to unwind long stable duplexes in vitro, and even the RP mutants capable of binding RNA with tight affinity are incapable of fully unwinding short duplex RNAs. Our data suggest that the RP mutations within the ratchet helix impair Brr2 translocation through RNA helices. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Srs2: the "Odd-Job Man" in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Victoria; Krejci, Lumir

    2010-03-02

    Homologous recombination plays a key role in the maintenance of genome integrity, especially during DNA replication and the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Just a single un-repaired break can lead to aneuploidy, genetic aberrations or cell death. DSBs are caused by a vast number of both endogenous and exogenous agents including genotoxic chemicals or ionizing radiation, as well as through replication of a damaged template DNA or the replication fork collapse. It is essential for cell survival to recognise and process DSBs as well as other toxic intermediates and launch most appropriate repair mechanism. Many helicases have been implicated to play role in these processes, however their detail roles, specificities and co-operativity in the complex protein-protein interaction networks remain unclear. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about Saccharomyces cerevisiae helicase Srs2 and its effect on multiple DNA metabolic processes that generally affect genome stability. It would appear that Srs2 functions as an "Odd-Job Man" in these processes to make sure that the jobs proceed when and where they are needed. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional characterization of a conserved archaeal viral operon revealing single-stranded DNA binding, annealing and nuclease activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yang; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt; White, Malcolm F.

    2015-01-01

    encoding proteins of unknown function and forming an operon with ORF207 (gp19). SIRV2 gp17 was found to be a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein different in structure from all previously characterized ssDNA binding proteins. Mutagenesis of a few conserved basic residues suggested a U......-shaped binding path for ssDNA. The recombinant gp18 showed an ssDNA annealing activity often associated with helicases and recombinases. To gain insight into the biological role of the entire operon, we characterized SIRV2 gp19 and showed it to possess a 5'→3' ssDNA exonuclease activity, in addition...... for rudiviruses and the close interaction among the ssDNA binding, annealing and nuclease proteins strongly point to a role of the gene operon in genome maturation and/or DNA recombination that may function in viral DNA replication/repair....

  5. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  6. DEAD-Box RNA Helicases are among the Constituents of the Tobacco Pollen mRNA Storing Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Potěšil, D.; Zdráhal, Z.; Honys, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2013) ISSN 2329-9029 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P321; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/1462; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13049 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Translation * mRNA storage * RNA helicase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Structure of the frequency-interacting RNA helicase: a protein interaction hub for the circadian clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Karen S.; Hurley, Jennifer M.; Widom, Joanne; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Crane, Brian R.

    2016-06-23

    In the Neurospora crassa circadian clock, a protein complex of frequency (FRQ), casein kinase 1a (CK1a), and the FRQ-interacting RNA Helicase (FRH) rhythmically represses gene expression by the white-collar complex (WCC). FRH crystal structures in several conformations and bound to ADP/RNA reveal differences between FRH and the yeast homolog Mtr4 that clarify the distinct role of FRH in the clock. The FRQ-interacting region at the FRH N-terminus has variable structure in the absence of FRQ. A known mutation that disrupts circadian rhythms (R806H) resides in a positively charged surface of the KOW domain, far removed from the helicase core. Here, we show that changes to other similarly located residues modulate interactions with the WCC and FRQ. A V142G substitution near the N-terminus also alters FRQ and WCC binding to FRH, but produces an unusual short clock period. Finally, these data support the assertion that FRH helicase activity does not play an essential role in the clock, but rather FRH acts to mediate contacts among FRQ, CK1a and the WCC through interactions involving its N-terminus and KOW module.

  8. Zebrafish P54 RNA helicases are cytoplasmic granule residents that are required for development and stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zampedri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions. In zebrafish embryos exposed to heat shock, some proportion of P54a and P54b helicases move to larger granules that exhibit the properties of genuine stress granules. Knockdown of P54a and/or P54b in zebrafish embryos produces developmental abnormalities restricted to the posterior trunk; further, these embryos do not form stress granules, and their survival upon exposure to heat-shock conditions is compromised. Our observations fit the model that cells lacking stress granules have no resilience or ability to recover once the stress has ended, indicating that stress granules play an essential role in the way organisms adapt to a changing environment.

  9. Structural Studies of RNA Helicases Involved in Eukaryotic Pre-mRNA Splicing, Ribosome Biogenesis, and Translation Initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yangzi

    and ligates the neighbouring exons to generate mature mRNAs. Prp43 is an RNA helicase of the DEAH/RHA family. In yeast, once mRNAs are released, Prp43 catalyzes the disassembly of spliceosomes. The 18S, 5.8S and 25S rRNAs are transcribed as a single polycistronic transcript—the 35S pre......-rRNA. It is nucleolytically cleaved and chemically modified to generate mature rRNAs, which assemble with ribosomal proteins to form the ribosome. Prp43 is required for the processing of the 18S rRNA. Using X-ray crystallography, I determined a high resolution structure of Prp43 bound to ADP, the first structure of a DEAH....../RHA helicase. It defined the conserved structural features of all DEAH/RHA helicases, and unveiled a novel nucleotide binding site. Additionally a preliminary low resolution structure of a ternary complex comprising Prp43, a non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue, and a single-stranded RNA, was obtained. The ribosome...

  10. Inhibition of RecBCD enzyme by antineoplastic DNA alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegielewska, Barbara; Beerman, Terry A; Bianco, Piero R

    2006-09-01

    To understand how bulky adducts might perturb DNA helicase function, three distinct DNA-binding agents were used to determine the effects of DNA alkylation on a DNA helicase. Adozelesin, ecteinascidin 743 (Et743) and hedamycin each possess unique structures and sequence selectivity. They bind to double-stranded DNA and alkylate one strand of the duplex in cis, adding adducts that alter the structure of DNA significantly. The results show that Et743 was the most potent inhibitor of DNA unwinding, followed by adozelesin and hedamycin. Et743 significantly inhibited unwinding, enhanced degradation of DNA, and completely eliminated the ability of the translocating RecBCD enzyme to recognize and respond to the recombination hotspot chi. Unwinding of adozelesin-modified DNA was accompanied by the appearance of unwinding intermediates, consistent with enzyme entrapment or stalling. Further, adozelesin also induced "apparent" chi fragment formation. The combination of enzyme sequestering and pseudo-chi modification of RecBCD, results in biphasic time-courses of DNA unwinding. Hedamycin also reduced RecBCD activity, albeit at increased concentrations of drug relative to either adozelesin or Et743. Remarkably, the hedamycin modification resulted in constitutive activation of the bottom-strand nuclease activity of the enzyme, while leaving the ability of the translocating enzyme to recognize and respond to chi largely intact. Finally, the results show that DNA alkylation does not significantly perturb the allosteric interaction that activates the enzyme for ATP hydrolysis, as the efficiency of ATP utilization for DNA unwinding is affected only marginally. These results taken together present a unique response of RecBCD enzyme to bulky DNA adducts. We correlate these effects with the recently determined crystal structure of the RecBCD holoenzyme bound to DNA.

  11. Double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase Irc3p is directly involved in mitochondrial genome maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedman, Tiina; Gaidutšik, Ilja; Villemson, Karin; Hou, YingJian; Sedman, Juhan

    2014-12-01

    Nucleic acid-dependent ATPases are involved in nearly all aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism. Previous studies have described a number of mitochondrial helicases. However, double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPases, including translocases or enzymes remodeling DNA-protein complexes, have not been identified in mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae. Here, we demonstrate that Irc3p is a mitochondrial double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase of the Superfamily II. In contrast to the other mitochondrial Superfamily II enzymes Mss116p, Suv3p and Mrh4p, which are RNA helicases, Irc3p has a direct role in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance. Specific Irc3p-dependent mtDNA metabolic intermediates can be detected, including high levels of double-stranded DNA breaks that accumulate in irc3Δ mutants. irc3Δ-related topology changes in rho- mtDNA can be reversed by the deletion of mitochondrial RNA polymerase RPO41, suggesting that Irc3p counterbalances adverse effects of transcription on mitochondrial genome stability. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Induction of a protective response in mice by the dengue virus NS3 protein using DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Yorio, Anna Paula; Gonçalves, Antônio J S; Vidale, Mariana M; Costa, Emmerson C B; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Motta, Marcia A; Freire, Marcos S; Alves, Ada M B

    2011-01-01

    The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serino-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies have been undertaken evaluating the use of this protein as a protective antigen against dengue, as well as other flavivirus. In the present work, we investigate the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines based on the NS3 protein from DENV2. Different recombinant plasmids were constructed, encoding either the full-length NS3 protein or only its functional domains (protease and helicase), fused or not to a signal peptide (t-PA). The recombinant proteins were successfully expressed in transfected BHK-21 cells, and only plasmids encoding the t-PA signal sequence mediated protein secretion. Balb/c mice were immunized with the different DNA vaccines and challenged with a lethal dose of DENV2. Most animals immunized with plasmids encoding the full-length NS3 or the helicase domain survived challenge, regardless of the presence of the t-PA. However, some mice presented clinical signs of infection with high morbidity (hind leg paralysis and hunched posture), mainly in animal groups immunized with the DNA vaccines based on the helicase domain. On the other hand, inoculation with plasmids encoding the protease domain did not induce any protection, since mortality and morbidity rates in these mouse groups were similar to those detected in the control animals. The cellular immune response was analyzed by ELISPOT with a specific-CD8+ T cell NS3 peptide. Results revealed that the DNA vaccines based on the full-length protein induced the production of INF-γ, thus suggesting the involvement of this branch of the immune system in the protection.

  13. Specificity and function of Archaeal DNA replication initiator proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Rachel Y.; Xu, Yanqun; Gadelha, Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomes with multiple DNA replication origins are a hallmark of Eukaryotes and some Archaea. All eukaryal nuclear replication origins are defined by the origin recognition complex (ORC) that recruits the replicative helicase MCM(2-7) via Cdc6 and Cdt1. We find that the three origins in the si......Chromosomes with multiple DNA replication origins are a hallmark of Eukaryotes and some Archaea. All eukaryal nuclear replication origins are defined by the origin recognition complex (ORC) that recruits the replicative helicase MCM(2-7) via Cdc6 and Cdt1. We find that the three origins...... in the single chromosome of the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus are specified by distinct initiation factors. While two origins are dependent on archaeal homologs of eukaryal Orc1 and Cdc6, the third origin is instead reliant on an archaeal Cdt1 homolog. We exploit the nonessential nature of the orc1-1 gene...... to investigate the role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in initiator function in vivo and in vitro. We find that the ATP-bound form of Orc1-1 is proficient for replication and implicates hydrolysis of ATP in downregulation of origin activity. Finally, we reveal that ATP and DNA binding by Orc1-1 remodels...

  14. The expanding functions of cellular helicases: the tombusvirus RNA replication enhancer co-opts the plant eIF4AIII-like AtRH2 and the DDX5-like AtRH5 DEAD-box RNA helicases to promote viral asymmetric RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kovalev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. Several of the co-opted host factors bind to the viral RNA, which plays multiple roles, including mRNA function, as an assembly platform for the viral replicase (VRC, template for RNA synthesis, and encapsidation during infection. It is likely that remodeling of the viral RNAs and RNA-protein complexes during the switch from one step to another requires RNA helicases. In this paper, we have discovered a second group of cellular RNA helicases, including the eIF4AIII-like yeast Fal1p and the DDX5-like Dbp3p and the orthologous plant AtRH2 and AtRH5 DEAD box helicases, which are co-opted by tombusviruses. Unlike the previously characterized DDX3-like AtRH20/Ded1p helicases that bind to the 3' terminal promoter region in the viral minus-strand (-RNA, the other class of eIF4AIII-like RNA helicases bind to a different cis-acting element, namely the 5' proximal RIII(- replication enhancer (REN element in the TBSV (-RNA. We show that the binding of AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases to the TBSV (-RNA could unwind the dsRNA structure within the RIII(- REN. This unique characteristic allows the eIF4AIII-like helicases to perform novel pro-viral functions involving the RIII(- REN in stimulation of plus-strand (+RNA synthesis. We also show that AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases are components of the tombusvirus VRCs based on co-purification experiments. We propose that eIF4AIII-like helicases destabilize dsRNA replication intermediate within the RIII(- REN that promotes bringing the 5' and 3' terminal (-RNA sequences in close vicinity via long-range RNA-RNA base pairing. This newly formed RNA structure promoted by eIF4AIII helicase together with AtRH20 helicase might facilitate the recycling of the viral replicases for multiple rounds of (+-strand synthesis, thus resulting in asymmetrical viral replication.

  15. The expanding functions of cellular helicases: the tombusvirus RNA replication enhancer co-opts the plant eIF4AIII-like AtRH2 and the DDX5-like AtRH5 DEAD-box RNA helicases to promote viral asymmetric RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Nikolay; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. Several of the co-opted host factors bind to the viral RNA, which plays multiple roles, including mRNA function, as an assembly platform for the viral replicase (VRC), template for RNA synthesis, and encapsidation during infection. It is likely that remodeling of the viral RNAs and RNA-protein complexes during the switch from one step to another requires RNA helicases. In this paper, we have discovered a second group of cellular RNA helicases, including the eIF4AIII-like yeast Fal1p and the DDX5-like Dbp3p and the orthologous plant AtRH2 and AtRH5 DEAD box helicases, which are co-opted by tombusviruses. Unlike the previously characterized DDX3-like AtRH20/Ded1p helicases that bind to the 3' terminal promoter region in the viral minus-strand (-)RNA, the other class of eIF4AIII-like RNA helicases bind to a different cis-acting element, namely the 5' proximal RIII(-) replication enhancer (REN) element in the TBSV (-)RNA. We show that the binding of AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases to the TBSV (-)RNA could unwind the dsRNA structure within the RIII(-) REN. This unique characteristic allows the eIF4AIII-like helicases to perform novel pro-viral functions involving the RIII(-) REN in stimulation of plus-strand (+)RNA synthesis. We also show that AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases are components of the tombusvirus VRCs based on co-purification experiments. We propose that eIF4AIII-like helicases destabilize dsRNA replication intermediate within the RIII(-) REN that promotes bringing the 5' and 3' terminal (-)RNA sequences in close vicinity via long-range RNA-RNA base pairing. This newly formed RNA structure promoted by eIF4AIII helicase together with AtRH20 helicase might facilitate the recycling of the viral replicases for multiple rounds of (+)-strand synthesis, thus resulting in asymmetrical viral replication.

  16. Near-atomic structural model for bacterial DNA replication initiation complex and its functional insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masahiro; Noguchi, Yasunori; Sakiyama, Yukari; Kawakami, Hironori; Katayama, Tsutomu; Takada, Shoji

    2016-12-13

    Upon DNA replication initiation in Escherichia coli, the initiator protein DnaA forms higher-order complexes with the chromosomal origin oriC and a DNA-bending protein IHF. Although tertiary structures of DnaA and IHF have previously been elucidated, dynamic structures of oriC-DnaA-IHF complexes remain unknown. Here, combining computer simulations with biochemical assays, we obtained models at almost-atomic resolution for the central part of the oriC-DnaA-IHF complex. This complex can be divided into three subcomplexes; the left and right subcomplexes include pentameric DnaA bound in a head-to-tail manner and the middle subcomplex contains only a single DnaA. In the left and right subcomplexes, DnaA ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) domain III formed helices with specific structural differences in interdomain orientations, provoking a bend in the bound DNA. In the left subcomplex a continuous DnaA chain exists, including insertion of IHF into the DNA looping, consistent with the DNA unwinding function of the complex. The intervening spaces in those subcomplexes are crucial for DNA unwinding and loading of DnaB helicases. Taken together, this model provides a reasonable near-atomic level structural solution of the initiation complex, including the dynamic conformations and spatial arrangements of DnaA subcomplexes.

  17. Small-Molecule Inhibitors Targeting DNA Repair and DNA Repair Deficiency in Research and Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, Sarah R; Spies, M Ashley; Spies, Maria

    2017-09-21

    To maintain stable genomes and to avoid cancer and aging, cells need to repair a multitude of deleterious DNA lesions, which arise constantly in every cell. Processes that support genome integrity in normal cells, however, allow cancer cells to develop resistance to radiation and DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics. Chemical inhibition of the key DNA repair proteins and pharmacologically induced synthetic lethality have become instrumental in both dissecting the complex DNA repair networks and as promising anticancer agents. The difficulty in capitalizing on synthetically lethal interactions in cancer cells is that many potential targets do not possess well-defined small-molecule binding determinates. In this review, we discuss several successful campaigns to identify and leverage small-molecule inhibitors of the DNA repair proteins, from PARP1, a paradigm case for clinically successful small-molecule inhibitors, to coveted new targets, such as RAD51 recombinase, RAD52 DNA repair protein, MRE11 nuclease, and WRN DNA helicase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct detection of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage via helicase-dependent isothermal amplification and chip hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frech Georges C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus constitutes one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. One out of every three individuals naturally carries S. aureus in their anterior nares, and nasal carriage is associated with a significantly higher infection rate in hospital settings. Nasal carriage can be either persistent or intermittent, and it is the persistent carriers who, as a group, are at the highest risk of infection and who have the highest nasal S. aureus cell counts. Prophylactic decolonization of S. aureus from patients’ noses is known to reduce the incidence of postsurgical infections, and there is a clear rationale for rapid identification of nasal S. aureus carriers among hospital patients. Findings A molecular diagnostic assay was developed which is based on helicase-dependent target amplification and amplicon detection by chip hybridization to a chip surface, producing a visible readout. Nasal swabs from 70 subjects were used to compare the molecular assay against culturing on “CHROMagar Staph aureus” agar plates. The overall relative sensitivity was 89%, and the relative specificity was 94%. The sensitivity rose to 100% when excluding low-count subjects (S. aureus colony-forming units per swab. Conclusions This molecular assay is much faster than direct culture and has sensitivity that is appropriate for identification of high-count (>100 S. aureus colony-forming units per swab nasal S. aureus carriers who are at greatest risk for nosocomial infections.

  19. AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE 1 and Helicase FANCM Antagonize Meiotic Crossovers by Distinct Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Girard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic crossovers (COs generate genetic diversity and are critical for the correct completion of meiosis in most species. Their occurrence is tightly constrained but the mechanisms underlying this limitation remain poorly understood. Here we identified the conserved AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE-1 (FIGL1 as a negative regulator of meiotic CO formation. We show that Arabidopsis FIGL1 limits CO formation genome-wide, that FIGL1 controls dynamics of the two conserved recombinases DMC1 and RAD51 and that FIGL1 hinders the interaction between homologous chromosomes, suggesting that FIGL1 counteracts DMC1/RAD51-mediated inter-homologue strand invasion to limit CO formation. Further, depleting both FIGL1 and the previously identified anti-CO helicase FANCM synergistically increases crossover frequency. Additionally, we showed that the effect of mutating FANCM on recombination is much lower in F1 hybrids contrasting from the phenotype of inbred lines, while figl1 mutation equally increases crossovers in both contexts. This shows that the modes of action of FIGL1 and FANCM are differently affected by genomic contexts. We propose that FIGL1 and FANCM represent two successive barriers to CO formation, one limiting strand invasion, the other disassembling D-loops to promote SDSA, which when both lifted, leads to a large increase of crossovers, without impairing meiotic progression.

  20. RK-33 Radiosensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells by Blocking the RNA Helicase DDX3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Vesuna, Farhad; Tantravedi, Saritha; Bol, Guus M.; Heerma van Voss, Marise R.; Nugent, Katriana; Malek, Reem; Gabrielson, Kathleen; van Diest, Paul J.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Raman, Venu

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males and the second highest cause of cancer-related mortality. We identified an RNA helicase gene, DDX3 (DDX3X), which is overexpressed in prostate cancers, and whose expression is directly correlated with high Gleason scores. Knockdown of DDX3 in the aggressive prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and 22Rv1 resulted in significantly reduced clonogenicity. To target DDX3, we rationally designed a small molecule, RK-33, which docks into the ATP-binding domain of DDX3. Functional studies indicated that RK-33 preferentially bound to DDX3 and perturbed its activity. RK-33 treatment of prostate cancer cell lines DU145, 22Rv1, and LNCaP (which have high DDX3 levels) decreased proliferation and induced a G1 phase cell-cycle arrest. Conversely, the low DDX3–expressing cell line, PC3, exhibited few changes following RK-33 treatment. Importantly, combination studies using RK-33 and radiation exhibited synergistic effects both in vitro and in a xenograft model of prostate cancer demonstrating the role of RK-33 as a radiosensitizer. Taken together, these results indicate that blocking DDX3 by RK-33 in combination with radiation treatment is a viable option for treating locally advanced prostate cancer. PMID:27634756

  1. Functional Dynamics of Hexameric Helicase Probed by Hydrogen Exchange and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radou, Gaël; Dreyer, Frauke N.; Tuma, Roman; Paci, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The biological function of large macromolecular assemblies depends on their structure and their dynamics over a broad range of timescales; for this reason, it is a significant challenge to investigate these assemblies using conventional experimental techniques. One of the most promising experimental techniques is hydrogen-deuterium exchange detected by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe to our knowledge a new computational method for quantitative interpretation of deuterium exchange kinetics and apply it to a hexameric viral helicase P4 that unwinds and translocates RNA into a virus capsid at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Room-temperature dynamics probed by a hundred nanoseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations is sufficient to predict the exchange kinetics of most sequence fragments and provide a residue-level interpretation of the low-resolution experimental results. The strategy presented here is also a valuable tool to validate experimental data, e.g., assignments, and to probe mechanisms that cannot be observed by x-ray crystallography, or that occur over timescales longer than those that can be realistically simulated, such as the opening of the hexameric ring. PMID:25140434

  2. UPF1 helicase promotes TSN-mediated miRNA decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbarbary, Reyad A; Miyoshi, Keita; Hedaya, Omar; Myers, Jason R; Maquat, Lynne E

    2017-07-15

    While microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the vast majority of protein-encoding transcripts, little is known about how miRNAs themselves are degraded. We recently described Tudor-staphylococcal/micrococcal-like nuclease (TSN)-mediated miRNA decay (TumiD) as a cellular pathway in which the nuclease TSN promotes the decay of miRNAs that contain CA and/or UA dinucleotides. While TSN-mediated degradation of either protein-free or AGO2-loaded miRNAs does not require the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1 in vitro, we report here that cellular TumiD requires UPF1. Results from experiments using AGO2-loaded miRNAs in duplex with target mRNAs indicate that UPF1 can dissociate miRNAs from their mRNA targets, making the miRNAs susceptible to TumiD. miR-seq (deep sequencing of miRNAs) data reveal that the degradation of ∼50% of candidate TumiD targets in T24 human urinary bladder cancer cells is augmented by UPF1. We illustrate the physiological relevance by demonstrating that UPF1-augmented TumiD promotes the invasion of T24 cells in part by degrading anti-invasive miRNAs so as to up-regulate the expression of proinvasive proteins. © 2017 Elbarbary et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Multiple functions of DDX3 RNA helicase in gene regulation, tumorigenesis and viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASUO eARIUMI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is a multifunctional protein involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including transcription, splicing, mRNA nuclear export, translation, RNA decay and ribosome biogenesis. In addition, DDX3 is also implicated in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, Wnt-ß-catenin signaling, tumorigenesis, and viral infection. Notably, recent studies suggest that DDX3 is a component of anti-viral innate immune signaling pathways. Indeed, DDX3 contributes to enhance the induction of anti-viral mediators, interferon regulatory factor (IRF 3 and type I interferon (IFN. However, DDX3 seems to be an important target for several viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and poxvirus. DDX3 interacts with HIV-1 Rev or HCV Core protein and modulates its function. At least, DDX3 is required for both HIV-1 and HCV replication. Therefore, DDX3 could be a novel therapeutic target for the development of drug against HIV-1 and HCV.

  4. The Interrelationship of Helicase and Nuclease Domains during DNA Translocation by the Molecular Motor EcoR124I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šišáková, Eva; Weiserová, Marie; Dekker, C.; Seidel, R.; Szczelkun, M. D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 384, č. 5 (2008), s. 1273-1286 ISSN 0022-2836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/07/0325 Grant - others:XE(XE) Eu projekt BioNano-Switch 043288 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : single molecule * enzyme disorder * translocase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.146, year: 2008

  5. A robust assay to measure DNA topology-dependent protein binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tamara R; Solà, Maria; Holt, Ian J; Neuman, Keir C

    2015-04-20

    DNA structure and topology pervasively influence aspects of DNA metabolism including replication, transcription and segregation. However, the effects of DNA topology on DNA-protein interactions have not been systematically explored due to limitations of standard affinity assays. We developed a method to measure protein binding affinity dependence on the topology (topological linking number) of supercoiled DNA. A defined range of DNA topoisomers at equilibrium with a DNA binding protein is separated into free and protein-bound DNA populations using standard nitrocellulose filter binding techniques. Electrophoretic separation and quantification of bound and free topoisomers combined with a simple normalization procedure provide the relative affinity of the protein for the DNA as a function of linking number. Employing this assay we measured topology-dependent DNA binding of a helicase, a type IB topoisomerase, a type IIA topoisomerase, a non-specific mitochondrial DNA binding protein and a type II restriction endonuclease. Most of the proteins preferentially bind negatively supercoiled DNA but the details of the topology-dependent affinity differ among proteins in ways that expose differences in their interactions with DNA. The topology-dependent binding assay provides a robust and easily implemented method to probe topological influences on DNA-protein interactions for a wide range of DNA binding proteins. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Soybean oil transesterification: Study of using Nb2O5.xH2O as catalyst in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic and environmental reasons show a trend towards replacing fossil fuels with biofuels such as those from triglycerides. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oils and animal fat through several processes such as transesterification, esterification, usually with methanol, ethanol or through pyrolysis, all of them in the presence of an acid or basis catalyst. The use of solid catalysts in biodiesel production has the following advantages: easy recovery and reuse, thus decreasing process costs and amount of waste generated.1 Some of the problems in the use of solid catalysts are: low concentration of active sites, microporosity, and leaching of active sites.2 Studies aiming at developing methodologies involving hydrated niobium oxide as catalyst in biodiesel production have been carried out by our research group.3,4 Parameters such as the use of assistant solvent to increase the boiling point of the mixture (toluene, ethylene glycol, and DMSO, pre-thermal treatment (calcinations and catalyst molar concentration were initially assessed in esterification, oleic acid, and methanol reactions.  From these studies we could observe that high temperatures and excessive alcohol favor esterification reactions.  The best reaction conditions were then used as models and employed in transesterification reactions of soybean oil.  DMSO (Dimethyl sulfoxide was the solvent used to increase the reaction medium temperature without evaporating all the methanol. Transesterification reactions were carried out with soybean oil (0.5 g, methanol (0.85 g, DMSO (2.50 ml, and hydrated niobium oxide as catalyst in ratios of 20% and 100% (in relation to oil mass.  Catalyst was employed without pretreatment and after pretreatment at 115 °C, 300 °C, and 500 °C. The reactions occurred at 170 °C, under reflux for 48 hours.  A reaction without a catalyst was also carried out. All the reactions have shown conversion using CCD and they have been determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

  7. Nanomechanical microcantilever operated in vibration modes with use of RNA aptamer as receptor molecules for label-free detection of HCV helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyo Seon; Lee, Sang-Myung; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Park, Jung Ho; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Tae Song

    2007-11-30

    We report the nanomechanical microcantilevers operated in vibration modes (oscillation) with use of RNA aptamers as receptor molecules for label-free detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase. The nanomechanical detection principle is that the ligand-receptor binding on the microcantilever surface induces the dynamic response change of microcantilevers. We implemented the label-free detection of HCV helicase in the low concentration as much as 100 pg/ml from measuring the dynamic response change of microcantilevers. Moreover, from the recent studies showing that the ligand-receptor binding generates the surface stress on the microcantilever, we estimate the surface stress, on the oscillating microcantilevers, induced by ligand-receptor binding, i.e. binding between HCV helicase and RNA aptamer. In this article, it is suggested that the oscillating microcantilevers with use of RNA aptamers as receptor molecules may enable one to implement the sensitive label-free detection of very small amount of small-scale proteins.

  8. Differential Involvement of the Five RNA Helicases in Adaptation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 to Low Growth Temperatures ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pandiani, Franck; Brillard, Julien; Bornard, Isabelle; Michaud, Caroline; Chamot, Stéphanie; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Broussolle, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 possesses five RNA helicase-encoding genes overexpressed under cold growth conditions. Out of the five corresponding mutants, only the {Delta}cshA, {Delta}cshB, and {Delta}cshC strains were cold sensitive. Growth of the {Delta}cshA strain was also reduced at 30°C but not at 37°C. The cold phenotype was restored with the cshA gene for the {Delta}cshA strain and partially for the {Delta}cshB strain but not for the {Delta}cshC strain, suggesting different functions at ...

  9. The roles of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ helicase SGS1 in meiotic genome surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Dipak Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ helicase Sgs1 is essential for mitotic and meiotic genome stability. The stage at which Sgs1 acts during meiosis is subject to debate. Cytological experiments showed that a deletion of SGS1 leads to an increase in synapsis initiation complexes and axial associations leading to the proposal that it has an early role in unwinding surplus strand invasion events. Physical studies of recombination intermediates implicate it in the dissolution of double Holliday junctions between sister chromatids.In this work, we observed an increase in meiotic recombination between diverged sequences (homeologous recombination and an increase in unequal sister chromatid events when SGS1 is deleted. The first of these observations is most consistent with an early role of Sgs1 in unwinding inappropriate strand invasion events while the second is consistent with unwinding or dissolution of recombination intermediates in an Mlh1- and Top3-dependent manner. We also provide data that suggest that Sgs1 is involved in the rejection of 'second strand capture' when sequence divergence is present. Finally, we have identified a novel class of tetrads where non-sister spores (pairs of spores where each contains a centromere marker from a different parent are inviable. We propose a model for this unusual pattern of viability based on the inability of sgs1 mutants to untangle intertwined chromosomes. Our data suggest that this role of Sgs1 is not dependent on its interaction with Top3. We propose that in the absence of SGS1 chromosomes may sometimes remain entangled at the end of pre-meiotic replication. This, combined with reciprocal crossing over, could lead to physical destruction of the recombined and entangled chromosomes. We hypothesise that Sgs1, acting in concert with the topoisomerase Top2, resolves these structures.This work provides evidence that Sgs1 interacts with various partner proteins to maintain genome stability throughout

  10. Identification of the DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3 as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerma van Voss, Marise R; Vesuna, Farhad; Trumpi, Kari; Brilliant, Justin; Berlinicke, Cynthia; de Leng, Wendy; Kranenburg, Onno; Offerhaus, G Johan; Bürger, Horst; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J; Raman, Venu

    2015-09-29

    Identifying druggable targets in the Wnt-signaling pathway can optimize colorectal cancer treatment. Recent studies have identified a member of the RNA helicase family DDX3 (DDX3X) as a multilevel activator of Wnt signaling in cells without activating mutations in the Wnt-signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated whether DDX3 plays a role in the constitutively active Wnt pathway that drives colorectal cancer. We determined DDX3 expression levels in 303 colorectal cancers by immunohistochemistry. 39% of tumors overexpressed DDX3. High cytoplasmic DDX3 expression correlated with nuclear β-catenin expression, a marker of activated Wnt signaling. Functionally, we validated this finding in vitro and found that inhibition of DDX3 with siRNA resulted in reduced TCF4-reporter activity and lowered the mRNA expression levels of downstream TCF4-regulated genes. In addition, DDX3 knockdown in colorectal cancer cell lines reduced proliferation and caused a G1 arrest, supporting a potential oncogenic role of DDX3 in colorectal cancer. RK-33 is a small molecule inhibitor designed to bind to the ATP-binding site of DDX3. Treatment of colorectal cancer cell lines and patient-derived 3D cultures with RK-33 inhibited growth and promoted cell death with IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 8 μM. The highest RK-33 sensitivity was observed in tumors with wild-type APC-status and a mutation in CTNNB1. Based on these results, we conclude that DDX3 has an oncogenic role in colorectal cancer. Inhibition of DDX3 with the small molecule inhibitor RK-33 causes inhibition of Wnt signaling and may therefore be a promising future treatment strategy for a subset of colorectal cancers.

  11. DNA cleavage by Type ISP Restriction–Modification enzymes is initially targeted to the 3′-5′ strand

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aelst, Kara; Šišáková, Eva; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which a double-stranded DNA break is produced following collision of two translocating Type I Restriction–Modification enzymes is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the related Type ISP Restriction–Modification enzymes LlaGI and LlaBIII can cooperate to cleave DNA following convergent translocation and collision. When one of these enzymes is a mutant protein that lacks endonuclease activity, DNA cleavage of the 3′-5′ strand relative to the wild-type enzyme still occurs, with the same kinetics and at the same collision loci as for a reaction between two wild-type enzymes. The DNA nicking activity of the wild-type enzyme is still activated by a protein variant entirely lacking the Mrr nuclease domain and by a helicase mutant that cannot translocate. However, the helicase mutant cannot cleave the DNA despite the presence of an intact nuclease domain. Cleavage by the wild-type enzyme is not activated by unrelated protein roadblocks. We suggest that the nuclease activity of the Type ISP enzymes is activated following collision with another Type ISP enzyme and requires adenosine triphosphate binding/hydrolysis but, surprisingly, does not require interaction between the nuclease domains. Following the initial rapid endonuclease activity, additional DNA cleavage events then occur more slowly, leading to further processing of the initial double-stranded DNA break. PMID:23221632

  12. Structural basis of asymmetric DNA methylation and ATP-triggered long-range diffusion by EcoP15I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yogesh K.; Chan, Siu-Hong; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2015-06-01

    Type III R-M enzymes were identified >40 years ago and yet there is no structural information on these multisubunit enzymes. Here we report the structure of a Type III R-M system, consisting of the entire EcoP15I complex (Mod2Res1) bound to DNA. The structure suggests how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to long-range diffusion of a helicase on DNA, and how a dimeric methyltransferase functions to methylate only one of the two DNA strands. We show that the EcoP15I motor domains are specifically adapted to bind double-stranded DNA and to facilitate DNA sliding via a novel `Pin' domain. We also uncover unexpected `division of labour', where one Mod subunit recognizes DNA, while the other Mod subunit methylates the target adenine--a mechanism that may extend to adenine N6 RNA methylation in mammalian cells. Together the structure sheds new light on the mechanisms of both helicases and methyltransferases in DNA and RNA metabolism.

  13. DNA cleavage by Type ISP Restriction-Modification enzymes is initially targeted to the 3'-5' strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aelst, Kara; Šišáková, Eva; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which a double-stranded DNA break is produced following collision of two translocating Type I Restriction-Modification enzymes is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the related Type ISP Restriction-Modification enzymes LlaGI and LlaBIII can cooperate to cleave DNA following convergent translocation and collision. When one of these enzymes is a mutant protein that lacks endonuclease activity, DNA cleavage of the 3'-5' strand relative to the wild-type enzyme still occurs, with the same kinetics and at the same collision loci as for a reaction between two wild-type enzymes. The DNA nicking activity of the wild-type enzyme is still activated by a protein variant entirely lacking the Mrr nuclease domain and by a helicase mutant that cannot translocate. However, the helicase mutant cannot cleave the DNA despite the presence of an intact nuclease domain. Cleavage by the wild-type enzyme is not activated by unrelated protein roadblocks. We suggest that the nuclease activity of the Type ISP enzymes is activated following collision with another Type ISP enzyme and requires adenosine triphosphate binding/hydrolysis but, surprisingly, does not require interaction between the nuclease domains. Following the initial rapid endonuclease activity, additional DNA cleavage events then occur more slowly, leading to further processing of the initial double-stranded DNA break.

  14. Chromatin Controls DNA Replication Origin Selection, Lagging-Strand Synthesis, and Replication Fork Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurat, Christoph F; Yeeles, Joseph T P; Patel, Harshil; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F X

    2017-01-05

    The integrity of eukaryotic genomes requires rapid and regulated chromatin replication. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. Using purified yeast replication proteins and fully chromatinized templates, we have reconstituted this process in vitro. We show that chromatin enforces DNA replication origin specificity by preventing non-specific MCM helicase loading. Helicase activation occurs efficiently in the context of chromatin, but subsequent replisome progression requires the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription). The FACT-associated Nhp6 protein, the nucleosome remodelers INO80 or ISW1A, and the lysine acetyltransferases Gcn5 and Esa1 each contribute separately to maximum DNA synthesis rates. Chromatin promotes the regular priming of lagging-strand DNA synthesis by facilitating DNA polymerase α function at replication forks. Finally, nucleosomes disrupted during replication are efficiently re-assembled into regular arrays on nascent DNA. Our work defines the minimum requirements for chromatin replication in vitro and shows how multiple chromatin factors might modulate replication fork rates in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recombinational DNA repair and human disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larry H.; Schild, David

    2002-11-30

    We review the genes and proteins related to the homologous recombinational repair (HRR) pathway that are implicated in cancer through either genetic disorders that predispose to cancer through chromosome instability or the occurrence of somatic mutations that contribute to carcinogenesis. Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), and an ataxia-like disorder (ATLD), are chromosome instability disorders that are defective in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), NBS, and Mre11 genes, respectively. These genes are critical in maintaining cellular resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), which kills largely by the production of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Bloom syndrome involves a defect in the BLM helicase, which seems to play a role in restarting DNA replication forks that are blocked at lesions, thereby promoting chromosome stability. The Werner syndrome gene (WRN) helicase, another member of the RecQ family like BLM, has very recently been found to help mediate homologous recombination. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically complex chromosomal instability disorder involving seven or more genes, one of which is BRCA2. FA may be at least partially caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxidative species. The breast cancer-associated BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are strongly implicated in HRR; BRCA2 associates with Rad51 and appears to regulate its activity. We discuss in detail the phenotypes of the various mutant cell lines and the signaling pathways mediated by the ATM kinase. ATM's phosphorylation targets can be grouped into oxidative stress-mediated transcriptional changes, cell cycle checkpoints, and recombinational repair. We present the DNA damage response pathways by using the DSB as the prototype lesion, whose incorrect repair can initiate and augment karyotypic abnormalities.

  16. The chromatin-remodeling factor CHD4 coordinates signaling and repair after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorthe Helena; Poinsignon, Catherine; Gudjonsson, Thorkell

    2010-01-01

    -dependent chromatin-remodeling protein CHD4 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4) as a factor that becomes transiently immobilized on chromatin after IR. Knockdown of CHD4 triggers enhanced Cdc25A degradation and p21(Cip1) accumulation, which lead to more pronounced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition...... and extended cell cycle delay. At DNA double-strand breaks, depletion of CHD4 disrupts the chromatin response at the level of the RNF168 ubiquitin ligase, which in turn impairs local ubiquitylation and BRCA1 assembly. These cell cycle and chromatin defects are accompanied by elevated spontaneous and IR......-induced DNA breakage, reduced efficiency of DNA repair, and decreased clonogenic survival. Thus, CHD4 emerges as a novel genome caretaker and a factor that facilitates both checkpoint signaling and repair events after DNA damage....

  17. Identification and Analysis of Novel Inhibitors against NS3 Helicase and NS5B RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase from Hepatitis C Virus 1b (Con1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV leads to severe liver diseases, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-structural protein 3 helicase (NS3h and non-structural protein 5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B are involved in the replication of HCV RNA genome, and have been proved to be excellent targets for discovery of direct-acting antivirals. In this study, two high-throughput screening systems, fluorescence polarization (FP-based ssDNA binding assay and fluorescence intensity (FI-based dsRNA formation assay, were constructed to identify candidate NS3h and NS5B inhibitors, respectively. A library of approximately 800 small molecules and crude extracts, derived from marine microorganisms or purchased from the National Compound Resource Center, China, were screened, with three hits selected for further study. Natural compound No.3A5, isolated from marine fungi, inhibited NS3h activity with an IC50 value of 2.8 μM. We further demonstrated that compound No.3A5 inhibited the abilities of NS3h to bind ssDNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assay and to hydrolyze ATP. The NS3h-inhibitory activity of compound No.3A5 was reversible in our dilution assay, which indicated there was no stable NS3h-No.3A5 complex formed. Additionally, compound No.3A5 exhibited no binding selectivity on NS3h or single strand binding protein of Escherichia coli. In NS5B assays, commercial compounds No.39 and No.94 previously reported as kinase inhibitors were found to disrupt dsRNA formation, and their IC50 values were 62.9 and 18.8 μM, respectively. These results highlight how identifying new uses for existing drugs is an effective method for discovering novel HCV inhibitors. To our knowledge, all inhibitors reported in this study were originally discovered with HCV anti-non-structural protein activities in vitro.

  18. A Cold-Inducible DEAD-Box RNA Helicase from Arabidopsis thaliana Regulates Plant Growth and Development under Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuelin; Tabata, Daisuke; Imai, Ryozo

    2016-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases comprise a large family and are involved in a range of RNA processing events. Here, we identified one of the Arabidopsis thaliana DEAD-box RNA helicases, AtRH7, as an interactor of Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN 3 (AtCSP3), which is an RNA chaperone involved in cold adaptation. Promoter:GUS transgenic plants revealed that AtRH7 is expressed ubiquitously and that its levels of the expression are higher in rapidly growing tissues. Knockout mutant lines displayed several morphological alterations such as disturbed vein pattern, pointed first true leaves, and short roots, which resemble ribosome-related mutants of Arabidopsis. In addition, aberrant floral development was also observed in rh7 mutants. When the mutants were germinated at low temperature (12°C), both radicle and first leaf emergence were severely delayed; after exposure of seedlings to a long period of cold, the mutants developed aberrant, fewer, and smaller leaves. RNA blots and circular RT-PCR revealed that 35S and 18S rRNA precursors accumulated to higher levels in the mutants than in WT under both normal and cold conditions, suggesting the mutants are partially impaired in pre-rRNA processing. Taken together, the results suggest that AtRH7 affects rRNA biogenesis and plays an important role in plant growth under cold.

  19. Human Nup98 regulates the localization and activity of DExH/D-box helicase DHX9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Juliana S; Montpetit, Ben; Wozniak, Richard W

    2017-02-21

    Beyond their role at nuclear pore complexes, some nucleoporins function in the nucleoplasm. One such nucleoporin, Nup98, binds chromatin and regulates gene expression. To gain insight into how Nup98 contributes to this process, we focused on identifying novel binding partners and understanding the significance of these interactions. Here we report on the identification of the DExH/D-box helicase DHX9 as an intranuclear Nup98 binding partner. Various results, including in vitro assays, show that the FG/GLFG region of Nup98 binds to N- and C-terminal regions of DHX9 in an RNA facilitated manner. Importantly, binding of Nup98 stimulates the ATPase activity of DHX9, and a transcriptional reporter assay suggests Nup98 supports DHX9-stimulated transcription. Consistent with these observations, our analysis revealed that Nup98 and DHX9 bind interdependently to similar gene loci and their transcripts. Based on our results, we propose that Nup98 functions as a co-factor that regulates DHX9 and, potentially, other RNA helicases.

  20. CRISPR-Mediated Drug-Target Validation Reveals Selective Pharmacological Inhibition of the RNA Helicase, eIF4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeting translation initiation is an emerging anti-neoplastic strategy that capitalizes on de-regulated upstream MAPK and PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways in cancers. A key regulator of translation that controls ribosome recruitment flux is eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 4F, a hetero-trimeric complex composed of the cap binding protein eIF4E, the scaffolding protein eIF4G, and the RNA helicase eIF4A. Small molecule inhibitors targeting eIF4F display promising anti-neoplastic activity in preclinical settings. Among these are some rocaglate family members that are well tolerated in vivo, deplete eIF4F of its eIF4A helicase subunit, have shown activity as single agents in several xenograft models, and can reverse acquired resistance to MAPK and PI3K-mTOR targeted therapies. Herein, we highlight the power of using genetic complementation approaches and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing for drug-target validation ex vivo and in vivo, linking the anti-tumor properties of rocaglates to eIF4A inhibition.

  1. A Cold-Inducible DEAD-Box RNA Helicase from Arabidopsis thaliana Regulates Plant Growth and Development under Low Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Liu

    Full Text Available DEAD-box RNA helicases comprise a large family and are involved in a range of RNA processing events. Here, we identified one of the Arabidopsis thaliana DEAD-box RNA helicases, AtRH7, as an interactor of Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN 3 (AtCSP3, which is an RNA chaperone involved in cold adaptation. Promoter:GUS transgenic plants revealed that AtRH7 is expressed ubiquitously and that its levels of the expression are higher in rapidly growing tissues. Knockout mutant lines displayed several morphological alterations such as disturbed vein pattern, pointed first true leaves, and short roots, which resemble ribosome-related mutants of Arabidopsis. In addition, aberrant floral development was also observed in rh7 mutants. When the mutants were germinated at low temperature (12°C, both radicle and first leaf emergence were severely delayed; after exposure of seedlings to a long period of cold, the mutants developed aberrant, fewer, and smaller leaves. RNA blots and circular RT-PCR revealed that 35S and 18S rRNA precursors accumulated to higher levels in the mutants than in WT under both normal and cold conditions, suggesting the mutants are partially impaired in pre-rRNA processing. Taken together, the results suggest that AtRH7 affects rRNA biogenesis and plays an important role in plant growth under cold.

  2. RecBCD (Exonuclease V) is inhibited by DNA adducts produced by cisplatin and ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Y; Chung, Long H; Kava, Hieronimus W; Murray, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    The presence of adducts on the DNA double-helix can have major consequences for the efficient functioning of DNA repair enzymes. E. coli RecBCD (exonuclease V) is involved in recombinational repair of double-strand breaks that are caused by defective DNA replication, DNA damaging agents and other factors. The holoenzyme possesses a bipolar helicase activity which helps unwind DNA from both 3'- and 5'-directions and is coupled with a potent exonuclease activity that is also capable of digesting DNA from both 3'- and 5'-ends. In this study, DNA sequences were damaged with cisplatin or UV followed by RecBCD treatment. DNA damaging agents such as cisplatin and UV induce the formation of intrastrand adducts in the DNA template. It was demonstrated that RecBCD degradation was inhibited by either cisplatin-damaged or UV-damaged DNA sequences. This is the first occasion that RecBCD has been demonstrated to be inhibited by DNA adducts induced by cisplatin or UV. In addition, we quantified the amounts of DNA remaining after RecBCD treatment and observed that the level of inhibition was concentration and dose dependent. A DNA-targeted 9-aminoacridinecarboxamide cisplatin analogue was also found to inhibit RecBCD activity. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ATP-dependent partitioning of the DNA template into supercoiled domains by Escherichia coli UvrAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hyeon-Sook; Liu, L.F.; Claassen, L.; Grossman, L.

    1991-01-01

    The helicase action of the Escherichia coli UvrAB complex on a covalently closed circular DNA template was monitored using bacterial DNA topoisomerase I, which specifically removes negative supercoils. In the presence of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I and ATP, the UvrAB complex gradually introduced positive supercoils into the input relaxed plasmid DNA template. Positive supercoils were not produced when E. coli DNA topoisomerase I was replaced by eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I or when both E. coli and eukaryotic DNA topoisomerases I were added simultaneously. These results suggest that like other DNA helix-tracking processes, the ATP-dependent action of the UvrAM complex on duplex DNA simultaneously generates both positive and negative supercoils, which are not constrained by protein binding but are torsionally strained. The supercoiling activity of UvrAB on UV-damaged DNA was also studied using UV-damaged plasmid DNA and a mutant UvrA protein that lacks the 40 C-terminal amino acids and is defective in preferential binding to UV-damaged DNA. UvrAB was found to preferentially supercoil the UV-damaged DNA template, whereas the mutant protein supercoiled UV-damaged and undamaged DNA with equal efficiency. The authors results therefore suggest that the DNA helix-tracking activity of UvrAB may be involved in searching and/or prepriming the damaged DNA for UvrC incision. A possible role of supercoiled domains in the incision process is discussed

  4. A temperature-sensitive allele of a putative mRNA splicing helicase down-regulates many cell wall genes and causes radial swelling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howles, Paul A; Gebbie, Leigh K; Collings, David A; Varsani, Arvind; Broad, Ronan C; Ohms, Stephen; Birch, Rosemary J; Cork, Ann H; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    The putative RNA helicase encoded by the Arabidopsis gene At1g32490 is a homolog of the yeast splicing RNA helicases Prp2 and Prp22. We isolated a temperature-sensitive allele (rsw12) of the gene in a screen for root radial swelling mutants. Plants containing this allele grown at the restrictive temperature showed weak radial swelling, were stunted with reduced root elongation, and contained reduced levels of cellulose. The role of the protein was further explored by microarray analysis. By using both fold change cutoffs and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate coexpression of genes, we found that the radial swelling phenotype was not linked to genes usually associated with primary cell wall biosynthesis. Instead, the mutation has strong effects on expression of secondary cell wall related genes. Many genes potentially associated with secondary walls were present in the most significant WGCNA module, as were genes coding for arabinogalactans and proteins with GPI anchors. The proportion of up-regulated genes that possess introns in rsw12 was above that expected if splicing was unrelated to the activity of the RNA helicase, suggesting that the helicase does indeed play a role in splicing in Arabidopsis. The phenotype may be due to a change in the expression of one or more genes coding for cell wall proteins.

  5. The bovine papilloma virus E1 protein has ATPase activity essential to viral DNA replication and efficient transformation in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, P; Thorner, L; Parker, L M; Botchan, M

    1994-10-01

    The bovine papilloma virus (BPV) E1 protein essential to viral DNA replication has recently been shown to associate via direct protein-DNA interactions with the viral origin of replication and to be an ATP-dependent helicase. We show here that in accordance with the latter function, the E1 gene product has intrinsic ATPase activity. Mutations placed throughout the nucleotide binding consensus element abolish the ATPase activity of E1 and render BPV genomes harboring such mutations defective for episomal replication and impaired for oncogenic transformation.

  6. Bacteriophage SPP1 DNA replication strategies promote viral and disable host replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Elena M; Zinder, John C; Manhart, Carol M; Lo Piano, Ambra; McHenry, Charles S; Ayora, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    Complex viruses that encode their own initiation proteins and subvert the host's elongation apparatus have provided valuable insights into DNA replication. Using purified bacteriophage SPP1 and Bacillus subtilis proteins, we have reconstituted a rolling circle replication system that recapitulates genetically defined protein requirements. Eleven proteins are required: phage-encoded helicase (G40P), helicase loader (G39P), origin binding protein (G38P) and G36P single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB); and host-encoded PolC and DnaE polymerases, processivity factor (β(2)), clamp loader (τ-δ-δ') and primase (DnaG). This study revealed a new role for the SPP1 origin binding protein. In the presence of SSB, it is required for initiation on replication forks that lack origin sequences, mimicking the activity of the PriA replication restart protein in bacteria. The SPP1 replisome is supported by both host and viral SSBs, but phage SSB is unable to support B. subtilis replication, likely owing to its inability to stimulate the PolC holoenzyme in the B. subtilis context. Moreover, phage SSB inhibits host replication, defining a new mechanism by which bacterial replication could be regulated by a viral factor.

  7. Structural insights into the cryptic DNA-dependent ATPase activity of UvrB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Jitka; Ceschini, Simona; Ryan, James; Geddes, Stella; Waters, Timothy R; Barrett, Tracey E

    2006-03-17

    The UvrABC pathway is a ubiquitously occurring mechanism targeted towards the repair of bulky base damage. Key to this process is UvrB, a DNA-dependent limited helicase that acts as a lesion recognition element whilst part of a tracking complex involving UvrA, and as a DNA-binding platform required for the presentation of damage to UvrC for subsequent processing. We have been able to determine the structure of a ternary complex involving UvrB* (a C-terminal truncation of full-length UvrB), a polythymine trinucleotide and ADP. This structure has highlighted the roles of key conserved residues in DNA binding distinct from those of the beta-hairpin, where most of the attention in previous studies has been focussed. We are also the first to report the structural basis underlying conformational re-modelling of the beta-hairpin that is absolutely required for DNA binding and how this event results in an ATPase primed for catalysis. Our data provide the first insights at the molecular level into the transformation of UvrB into an active helicase.

  8. The cellular RNA helicase UAP56 is required for prevention of double-stranded RNA formation during influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisskirchen, Christian; Ludersdorfer, Thomas H; Müller, Dominik A; Moritz, Eva; Pavlovic, Jovan

    2011-09-01

    The cellular DEAD box RNA helicase UAP56 plays a pivotal role in the efficient transcription/replication of influenza A virus. UAP56 is recruited by the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A viruses, and recent data revealed that the RNA helicase is required for the nuclear export of a subset of spliced and unspliced viral mRNAs. The fact that influenza viruses do not produce detectable amounts of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates during transcription/replication suggests the involvement of cellular RNA helicases. Hence, we examined whether the RNA-unwinding activity of UAP56 or its paralog URH49 plays a role in preventing the accumulation of dsRNA during infection. First, our data showed that not only UAP56 but also its paralog URH49 can interact with NPs of avian and human influenza A viruses. The small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of either RNA helicase reduced the transport of M1 and hemagglutinin (HA) mRNAs and, to a lesser extent, NP and NS1 mRNAs into the cytoplasm. Moreover, we found that virus infection of UAP56-depleted cells leads to the rapid accumulation of dsRNA in the perinuclear region. In parallel, we observed a robust virus-mediated activation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR), indicating that the cellular RNA helicase UAP56 may be recruited by influenza virus to prevent dsRNA formation. The accumulation of dsRNA was blocked when actinomycin D or cycloheximide was used to inhibit viral transcription/replication or translation, respectively. In summary, we demonstrate that UAP56 is utilized by influenza A viruses to prevent the formation of dsRNA and, hence, the activation of the innate immune response.

  9. Developmental and pathological changes in the human cardiac muscle mitochondrial DNA organization, replication and copy number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko L O Pohjoismäki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult human heart mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has recently been shown to have a complex organization with abundant dimeric molecules, branched structures and four-way junctions. In order to understand the physiological significance of the heart-specific mtDNA maintenance mode and to find conditions that modify human heart mtDNA structure and replication, we analyzed healthy human heart of various ages as well as several different heart diseases, including ischemic heart disease, dilated as well as hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, and several mitochondrial disorders. By using one- and two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, various enzymatic treatments and quantitative PCR we found that in human newborns heart mtDNA has a simple organization, lacking junctional forms and dimers. The adult-type branched forms are acquired in the early childhood, correlating with an increase in mtDNA copy number. Mitochondrial disorders involving either mutations in the mtDNA polymerase gamma (PolGalpha or mtDNA helicase Twinkle, while having no obvious cardiac manifestation, show distinct mtDNA maintenance phenotypes, which are not seen in various types of diseased heart or in mitochondrial disorders caused by point mutations or large-scale deletions of mtDNA. The findings suggest a link between cardiac muscle development, mtDNA copy number, replication mode and topological organization. Additionally, we show that Twinkle might have a direct role in the maintenance of four-way junctions in human heart mtDNA.

  10. Single molecular biology: coming of age in DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Lou, Hui-Qiang

    2017-09-20

    DNA replication is an essential process of the living organisms. To achieve precise and reliable replication, DNA polymerases play a central role in DNA synthesis. Previous investigations have shown that the average rates of DNA synthesis on the leading and lagging strands in a replisome must be similar to avoid the formation of significant gaps in the nascent strands. The underlying mechanism has been assumed to be coordination between leading- and lagging-strand polymerases. However, Kowalczykowski's lab members recently performed single molecule techniques in E. coli and showed the real-time behavior of a replisome. The leading- and lagging-strand polymerases function stochastically and independently. Furthermore, when a DNA polymerase is paused, the helicase slows down in a self-regulating fail-safe mechanism, akin to a ''dead-man's switch''. Based on the real-time single-molecular observation, the authors propose that leading- and lagging-strand polymerases synthesize DNA stochastically within a Gaussian distribution. Along with the development and application of single-molecule techniques, we will witness a new age of DNA replication and other biological researches.

  11. Motif III in superfamily 2 "helicases" helps convert the binding energy of ATP into a high-affinity RNA binding site in the yeast DEAD-box protein Ded1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banroques, Josette; Doère, Monique; Dreyfus, Marc; Linder, Patrick; Tanner, N Kyle

    2010-03-05

    Motif III in the putative helicases of superfamily 2 is highly conserved in both its sequence and its structural context. It typically consists of the sequence alcohol-alanine-alcohol (S/T-A-S/T). Historically, it was thought to link ATPase activity with a "helicase" strand displacement activity that disrupts RNA or DNA duplexes. DEAD-box proteins constitute the largest family of superfamily 2; they are RNA-dependent ATPases and ATP-dependent RNA binding proteins that, in some cases, are able to disrupt short RNA duplexes. We made mutations of motif III (S-A-T) in the yeast DEAD-box protein Ded1 and analyzed in vivo phenotypes and in vitro properties. Moreover, we made a tertiary model of Ded1 based on the solved structure of Vasa. We used Ded1 because it has relatively high ATPase and RNA binding activities; it is able to displace moderately stable duplexes at a large excess of substrate. We find that the alanine and the threonine in the second and third positions of motif III are more important than the serine, but that mutations of all three residues have strong phenotypes. We purified the wild-type and various mutants expressed in Escherichia coli. We found that motif III mutations affect the RNA-dependent hydrolysis of ATP (k(cat)), but not the affinity for ATP (K(m)). Moreover, mutations alter and reduce the affinity for single-stranded RNA and subsequently reduce the ability to disrupt duplexes. We obtained intragenic suppressors of the S-A-C mutant that compensate for the mutation by enhancing the affinity for ATP and RNA. We conclude that motif III and the binding energy of gamma-PO(4) of ATP are used to coordinate motifs I, II, and VI and the two RecA-like domains to create a high-affinity single-stranded RNA binding site. It also may help activate the beta,gamma-phosphoanhydride bond of ATP. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Ryan A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 encodes 10 proteins, known collectively as the replisome, that are responsible for the replication of the phage genome. The replisomal proteins can be subdivided into three activities; the replicase, responsible for duplicating DNA, the primosomal proteins, responsible for unwinding and Okazaki fragment initiation, and the Okazaki repair proteins. The replicase includes the gp43 DNA polymerase, the gp45 processivity clamp, the gp44/62 clamp loader complex, and the gp32 single-stranded DNA binding protein. The primosomal proteins include the gp41 hexameric helicase, the gp61 primase, and the gp59 helicase loading protein. The RNaseH, a 5' to 3' exonuclease and T4 DNA ligase comprise the activities necessary for Okazaki repair. The T4 provides a model system for DNA replication. As a consequence, significant effort has been put forth to solve the crystallographic structures of these replisomal proteins. In this review, we discuss the structures that are available and provide comparison to related proteins when the T4 structures are unavailable. Three of the ten full-length T4 replisomal proteins have been determined; the gp59 helicase loading protein, the RNase H, and the gp45 processivity clamp. The core of T4 gp32 and two proteins from the T4 related phage RB69, the gp43 polymerase and the gp45 clamp are also solved. The T4 gp44/62 clamp loader has not been crystallized but a comparison to the E. coli gamma complex is provided. The structures of T4 gp41 helicase, gp61 primase, and T4 DNA ligase are unknown, structures from bacteriophage T7 proteins are discussed instead. To better understand the functionality of T4 DNA replication, in depth structural analysis will require complexes between proteins and DNA substrates. A DNA primer template bound by gp43 polymerase, a fork DNA substrate bound by RNase H, gp43 polymerase bound to gp32 protein, and RNase H bound to gp32 have been crystallographically determined. The

  13. The Smc5/6 complex regulates the yeast Mph1 helicase at RNA-DNA hybrid-mediated DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuente-Barquero, Juan; Luke-Glaser, Sarah; Graf, Marco

    2017-01-01

    accumulate, e.g. in RNase H or THO-complex mutants and at short telomeres. Mph1, however is a double-edged sword, whose action at hybrids must be regulated by the Smc5/6 complex. This is underlined by the observation that simultaneous inactivation of RNase H2 and Smc5/6 results in Mph1-dependent synthetic...

  14. UvrD Participation in Nucleotide Excision Repair Is Required for the Recovery of DNA Synthesis following UV-Induced Damage in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley N. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UvrD is a DNA helicase that participates in nucleotide excision repair and several replication-associated processes, including methyl-directed mismatch repair and recombination. UvrD is capable of displacing oligonucleotides from synthetic forked DNA structures in vitro and is essential for viability in the absence of Rep, a helicase associated with processing replication forks. These observations have led others to propose that UvrD may promote fork regression and facilitate resetting of the replication fork following arrest. However, the molecular activity of UvrD at replication forks in vivo has not been directly examined. In this study, we characterized the role UvrD has in processing and restoring replication forks following arrest by UV-induced DNA damage. We show that UvrD is required for DNA synthesis to recover. However, in the absence of UvrD, the displacement and partial degradation of the nascent DNA at the arrested fork occur normally. In addition, damage-induced replication intermediates persist and accumulate in uvrD mutants in a manner that is similar to that observed in other nucleotide excision repair mutants. These data indicate that, following arrest by DNA damage, UvrD is not required to catalyze fork regression in vivo and suggest that the failure of uvrD mutants to restore DNA synthesis following UV-induced arrest relates to its role in nucleotide excision repair.

  15. DNA structure modulates the oligomerization properties of the AAV initiator protein Rep68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mansilla-Soto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Rep68 is a multifunctional protein of the adeno-associated virus (AAV, a parvovirus that is mostly known for its promise as a gene therapy vector. In addition to its role as initiator in viral DNA replication, Rep68 is essential for site-specific integration of the AAV genome into human chromosome 19. Rep68 is a member of the superfamily 3 (SF3 helicases, along with the well-studied initiator proteins simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40-LTag and bovine papillomavirus (BPV E1. Structurally, SF3 helicases share two domains, a DNA origin interaction domain (OID and an AAA(+ motor domain. The AAA(+ motor domain is also a structural feature of cellular initiators and it functions as a platform for initiator oligomerization. Here, we studied Rep68 oligomerization in vitro in the presence of different DNA substrates using a variety of biophysical techniques and cryo-EM. We found that a dsDNA region of the AAV origin promotes the formation of a complex containing five Rep68 subunits. Interestingly, non-specific ssDNA promotes the formation of a double-ring Rep68, a known structure formed by the LTag and E1 initiator proteins. The Rep68 ring symmetry is 8-fold, thus differing from the hexameric rings formed by the other SF3 helicases. However, similiar to LTag and E1, Rep68 rings are oriented head-to-head, suggesting that DNA unwinding by the complex proceeds bidirectionally. This novel Rep68 quaternary structure requires both the DNA binding and AAA(+ domains, indicating cooperativity between these regions during oligomerization in vitro. Our study clearly demonstrates that Rep68 can oligomerize through two distinct oligomerization pathways, which depend on both the DNA structure and cooperativity of Rep68 domains. These findings provide insight into the dynamics and oligomeric adaptability of Rep68 and serve as a step towards understanding the role of this multifunctional protein during AAV DNA replication and site-specific integration.

  16. Functional roles of the N- and C-terminal regions of the human mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical studies of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replisome demonstrate that the mtDNA polymerase and the mtDNA helicase are stimulated by the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB. Unlike Escherichia coli SSB, bacteriophage T7 gp2.5 and bacteriophage T4 gp32, mtSSBs lack a long, negatively charged C-terminal tail. Furthermore, additional residues at the N-terminus (notwithstanding the mitochondrial presequence are present in the sequence of species across the animal kingdom. We sought to analyze the functional importance of the N- and C-terminal regions of the human mtSSB in the context of mtDNA replication. We produced the mature wild-type human mtSSB and three terminal deletion variants, and examined their physical and biochemical properties. We demonstrate that the recombinant proteins adopt a tetrameric form, and bind single-stranded DNA with similar affinities. They also stimulate similarly the DNA unwinding activity of the human mtDNA helicase (up to 8-fold. Notably, we find that unlike the high level of stimulation that we observed previously in the Drosophila system, stimulation of DNA synthesis catalyzed by human mtDNA polymerase is only moderate, and occurs over a narrow range of salt concentrations. Interestingly, each of the deletion variants of human mtSSB stimulates DNA synthesis at a higher level than the wild-type protein, indicating that the termini modulate negatively functional interactions with the mitochondrial replicase. We discuss our findings in the context of species-specific components of the mtDNA replisome, and in comparison with various prokaryotic DNA replication machineries.

  17. Recycling of protein subunits during DNA translocation and cleavage by Type I restriction-modification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Michelle; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2011-09-01

    The Type I restriction-modification enzymes comprise three protein subunits; HsdS and HsdM that form a methyltransferase (MTase) and HsdR that associates with the MTase and catalyses Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent DNA translocation and cleavage. Here, we examine whether the MTase and HsdR components can 'turnover' in vitro, i.e. whether they can catalyse translocation and cleavage events on one DNA molecule, dissociate and then re-bind a second DNA molecule. Translocation termination by both EcoKI and EcoR124I leads to HsdR dissociation from linear DNA but not from circular DNA. Following DNA cleavage, the HsdR subunits appear unable to dissociate even though the DNA is linear, suggesting a tight interaction with the cleaved product. The MTases of EcoKI and EcoAI can dissociate from DNA following either translocation or cleavage and can initiate reactions on new DNA molecules as long as free HsdR molecules are available. In contrast, the MTase of EcoR124I does not turnover and additional cleavage of circular DNA is not observed by inclusion of RecBCD, a helicase-nuclease that degrades the linear DNA product resulting from Type I cleavage. Roles for Type I restriction endonuclease subunit dynamics in restriction alleviation in the cell are discussed.

  18. HTLV-1 Tax plugs and freezes UPF1 helicase leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Francesca; Robin, Jean-Philippe; Kanaan, Joanne; Borowiak, Malgorzata; Croquette, Vincent; Le Hir, Hervé; Jalinot, Pierre; Mocquet, Vincent

    2018-01-30

    Up-Frameshift Suppressor 1 Homolog (UPF1) is a key factor for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a cellular process that can actively degrade mRNAs. Here, we study NMD inhibition during infection by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) and characterise the influence of the retroviral Tax factor on UPF1 activity. Tax interacts with the central helicase core domain of UPF1 and might plug the RNA channel of UPF1, reducing its affinity for nucleic acids. Furthermore, using a single-molecule approach, we show that the sequential interaction of Tax with a RNA-bound UPF1 freezes UPF1: this latter is less sensitive to the presence of ATP and shows translocation defects, highlighting the importance of this feature for NMD. These mechanistic insights reveal how HTLV-1 hijacks the central component of NMD to ensure expression of its own genome.

  19. Direct Detection of Unnatural DNA Nucleotides dNaM and d5SICS using the MspA Nanopore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Craig

    Full Text Available Malyshev et al. showed that the four-letter genetic code within a living organism could be expanded to include the unnatural DNA bases dNaM and d5SICS. However, verification and detection of these unnatural bases in DNA requires new sequencing techniques. Here we provide proof of concept detection of dNaM and d5SICS in DNA oligomers via nanopore sequencing using the nanopore MspA. We find that both phi29 DNA polymerase and Hel308 helicase are capable of controlling the motion of DNA containing dNaM and d5SICS through the pore and that single reads are sufficient to detect the presence and location of dNaM and d5SICS within single molecules.

  20. Cellular RNA Helicase DDX1 Is Involved in Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp14-Induced Interferon-Beta Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanrong; Wu, Wei; Xie, Lilan; Wang, Dang; Ke, Qiyun; Hou, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoli; Fang, Ying; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV) of porcine, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets and leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. Unlike most CoVs that antagonize type I interferon (IFN) production, previous studies showed that TGEV infection induces IFN-I production both in vivo and in vitro . However, the underlying mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that TGEV infection significantly facilitated IFN-β production as well as activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells. Screening of TGEV-encoded proteins demonstrated that non-structural protein 14 (nsp14) was the most potent IFN-β inducer and induced IFN-β production mainly by activating NF-κB but not IRF3. Further analysis showed that nsp14 interacted with DDX1, a member of the DExD/H helicase family. Knockdown of DDX1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreased nsp14-induced IFN-β production and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TGEV-induced IFN-β production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression were decreased in cells transfected with DDX1-specific siRNA, indicating the vital role of DDX1 to TGEV-induced IFN-β responses. In summary, our data revealed a potential coactivator role of host RNA helicase DDX1 to the induction of IFN-β response initiated by TGEV and demonstrated that nsp14 is an important IFN inducer among the TGEV-encoded proteins.

  1. Cellular RNA Helicase DDX1 Is Involved in Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp14-Induced Interferon-Beta Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, an enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV of porcine, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets and leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. Unlike most CoVs that antagonize type I interferon (IFN production, previous studies showed that TGEV infection induces IFN-I production both in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism(s remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that TGEV infection significantly facilitated IFN-β production as well as activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB in porcine kidney (PK-15 cells. Screening of TGEV-encoded proteins demonstrated that non-structural protein 14 (nsp14 was the most potent IFN-β inducer and induced IFN-β production mainly by activating NF-κB but not IRF3. Further analysis showed that nsp14 interacted with DDX1, a member of the DExD/H helicase family. Knockdown of DDX1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA significantly decreased nsp14-induced IFN-β production and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TGEV-induced IFN-β production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression were decreased in cells transfected with DDX1-specific siRNA, indicating the vital role of DDX1 to TGEV-induced IFN-β responses. In summary, our data revealed a potential coactivator role of host RNA helicase DDX1 to the induction of IFN-β response initiated by TGEV and demonstrated that nsp14 is an important IFN inducer among the TGEV-encoded proteins.

  2. Sensing and control of bluetongue virus infection in epithelial cells via RIG-I and MDA5 helicases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Emilie; Doceul, Virginie; Lara, Estelle; Adam, Micheline; Breard, Emmanuel; Sailleau, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Meyer, Gilles; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Ruscanu, Suzana; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Vitour, Damien

    2012-11-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), an arthropod-borne member of the Reoviridae family, is a double-stranded RNA virus that causes an economically important livestock disease that has spread across Europe in recent decades. Production of type I interferon (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-α/β]) has been reported in vivo and in vitro upon BTV infection. However, the cellular sensors and signaling pathways involved in this process remain unknown. Here we studied the mechanisms responsible for the production of IFN-β in response to BTV serotype 8. Upon BTV infection of A549 cells, expression of IFN-β and other proinflammatory cytokines was strongly induced at both the protein and mRNA levels. This response appeared to be dependent on virus replication, since exposure to UV-inactivated virus failed to induce IFN-β. We also demonstrated that BTV infection activated the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 and nuclear factor κB. We investigated the role of several pattern recognition receptors in this response and showed that expression of IFN-β was greatly reduced after small-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown of the RNA helicase encoded by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) or melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). In contrast, silencing of MyD88, Toll-like receptor 3, or the recently described DexD/H-box helicase DDX1 sensor had no or a weak effect on IFN-β induction, suggesting that the RIG-I-like receptor pathway is specifically engaged for BTV sensing. Moreover, we also showed that overexpression of either RIG-I or MDA5 impaired BTV expression in infected A549 cells. Overall, this indicates that RIG-I and MDA5 can both contribute to the recognition and control of BTV infection.

  3. Are the SSB-Interacting Proteins RecO, RecG, PriA and the DnaB-Interacting Protein Rep Bound to Progressing Replication Forks in Escherichia coli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentchikou, Esma; Chagneau, Carine; Long, Emilie; Matelot, Mélody; Allemand, Jean-François; Michel, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    In all organisms several enzymes that are needed upon replication impediment are targeted to replication forks by interaction with a replication protein. In most cases these proteins interact with the polymerase clamp or with single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB). In Escherichia coli an accessory replicative helicase was also shown to interact with the DnaB replicative helicase. Here we have used cytological observation of Venus fluorescent fusion proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in live E. coli cells to determine whether DNA repair and replication restart proteins that interact with a replication protein travel with replication forks. A custom-made microscope that detects active replisome molecules provided that they are present in at least three copies was used. Neither the recombination proteins RecO and RecG, nor the replication accessory helicase Rep are detected specifically in replicating cells in our assay, indicating that either they are not present at progressing replication forks or they are present in less than three copies. The Venus-PriA fusion protein formed foci even in the absence of replication forks, which prevented us from reaching a conclusion.

  4. Radio-sensitization of WRN helicase deficient cancer cells by targeting homologous recombination pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pooja; Saha, Bhaskar; Patro, Birija Sankar; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are primarily repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, it is well established that a subset DSBs which are accumulated in IR-induced G2 phase are dependent on homologous recombination (HR). DNA repair deficient tumor cells have been shown to accumulate high levels of DNA damage. Consequently, these cells become hyperdependent on DNA damage response pathways, including the CHK1-kinase-mediated HR-repair. These observations suggest that DNA repair deficient tumors should exhibit increased radio-sensitivity under HR inhibition. Genetic defects leading to functional loss of werner (WRN) protein is associated with genomic instability and increased cancer incidence. WRN function is known to be abrogated in several human cancer cells due to hypermethylation of CpGisland-promoter and transcriptional silencing of WRN gene. In the current investigation, using isogenic pairs of cell lines differing only in the WRN function, we showed that WRN-deficient cell lines were hyper-radiosensitive to CHK1 pharmacologic inhibition. Here, we found that unrepaired DSB was drastically increased in WRN-deficient cells vis-à-vis WRN-proficient cells in response to IR and CHK1 inhibitor (CHK1i). Our results revealed a marginal role of NHEJ pathway accountable for the radio-sensitivity of WRN-deficient cells. Interestingly, silencing CTIP, a HR protein required for RAD51 loading, significantly abrogated the CHK1i-mediated radiosensitivity in WRN-deficient cells. Silencing of WRN or CTIP individually led to no significant difference in the extent of DNA end resection, as required during HR pathway. Imperatively, our results revealed that WRN and CTIP together play a complementary role in executing DNA end resection during HR-mediated repair of IR induced DSBs. Altogether, our data indicated that inhibition of IR-induced HR pathway at RAD51 loading, but not at DSB end resection, make the WRN-deficient cancer cells

  5. The Escherichia coli Tus-Ter replication fork barrier causes site-specific DNA replication perturbation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Sass, Ehud; Suski, Catherine; Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-04-07

    Replication fork (RF) pausing occurs at both 'programmed' sites and non-physiological barriers (for example, DNA adducts). Programmed RF pausing is required for site-specific DNA replication termination in Escherichia coli, and this process requires the binding of the polar terminator protein, Tus, to specific DNA sequences called Ter. Here, we demonstrate that Tus-Ter modules also induce polar RF pausing when engineered into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. This heterologous RF barrier is distinct from a number of previously characterized, protein-mediated, RF pause sites in yeast, as it is neither Tof1-dependent nor counteracted by the Rrm3 helicase. Although the yeast replisome can overcome RF pausing at Tus-Ter modules, this event triggers site-specific homologous recombination that requires the RecQ helicase, Sgs1, for its timely resolution. We propose that Tus-Ter can be utilized as a versatile, site-specific, heterologous DNA replication-perturbing system, with a variety of potential applications.

  6. cDNA cloning and transcriptional controlling of a novel low dose radiation-induced gene and its function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Pingkun; Sui Jianli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To clone a novel low dose radiation-induced gene (LRIGx) and study its function as well as its transcriptional changes after irradiation. Methods: Its cDNA was obtained by DDRT-PCR and RACE techniques. Northern blot hybridization was used to investigate the gene transcription. Bioinformatics was employed to analysis structure and function of this gene. Results: LRIGx cDNA was cloned. The sequence of LRIGx was identical to a DNA clone located in human chromosome 20 q 11.2-12 Bioinformatics analysis predicted an encoded protein with a conserved helicase domain. Northern analysis revealed a ∼8.5 kb transcript which was induced after 0.2 Gy as well as 0.02 Gy irradiation, and the transcript level was increased 5 times at 4 h after 0.2 Gy irradiation. The induced level of LRIGx transcript by 2.0 Gy high dose was lower than by 0.2 Gy. Conclusion: A novel low dose radiation-induced gene has been cloned. It encodes a protein with a conserved helicase domain that could involve in DNA metabolism in the cellular process of radiation response

  7. Construction and selection of subtracted cDNA library of mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines with different lymphatic metastasis potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Tang, Jan-Wu; Cui, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Bo; Song, Bo; Sun, Lei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of lymphatic metastasis of hepatocarcinoma, we detected the difference of gene expression between mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines Hca-F and Hca-P with different lymphatic metastasis potential. METHODS: cDNA of Hca-F cells was used as a tester and cDNA of Hca-P cells was used as a driver. cDNAs highly expressed in Hca-F cells were isolated by the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The isolated cDNA was cloned into T/A cloning vector. The ligation products were transformed into DH5 α competent cells. Individual clones were randomly selected and used for PCR amplification. Vector DNA from positive clones was isolated for sequencing. RESULTS: There were 800 positive clones in amplified subtracted cDNA library. Random analysis of 160 clones with PCR showed that 95% of the clones contained 100-700 bp inserts. Analysis of 20 sequenced cDNA clones randomly picked from the SSH library revealed 4 known genes (mouse heat shock protein 84 ku, DNA helicase, ribosomal protein S13 ,ethanol induced 6 gene) and 3 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Four cDNAs showed no homology and presumably represent novel genes. CONCLUSION: A subtracted cDNA library of differentially expressed genes in mouse heptocarcinoma cell lines with different lymphatic metastasis potential was successfully constructed with SSH and T/A cloning techniques. The library is efficient and lays a solid foundation for searching new lymphatic metastasis related genes. The expression of mouse heat shock protein gene, DNA helicase and other 4 novel gene may be different between mouse heptocarcinoma cell lines with different lymphatic metastasis potential. PMID:15285011

  8. Transient association of MCM complex proteins with the nuclear matrix during initiation of mammalian DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Emma L; Knight, John R P; Wilson, Rosemary H C; Chong, James P J; Coverley, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7) is the putative DNA helicase in eukaryotes, and essential for DNA replication. By applying serial extractions to mammalian cells synchronized by release from quiescence, we reveal dynamic changes to the sub-nuclear compartmentalization of MCM2 as cells pass through late G1 and early S phase, identifying a brief window when MCM2 becomes transiently attached to the nuclear-matrix. The data distinguish 3 states that correspond to loose association with chromatin prior to DNA replication, transient highly stable binding to the nuclear-matrix coincident with initiation, and a post-initiation phase when MCM2 remains tightly associated with chromatin but not the nuclear-matrix. The data suggests that functional MCM complex loading takes place at the nuclear-matrix.

  9. The interaction between the helicase DHX33 and IPS-1 as a novel pathway to sense double-stranded RNA and RNA viruses in myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lu, Ning; Yuan, Bin; Weng, Leiyun; Wang, Feng; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, there are at least 60 members of the DExD/H helicase family, many of which are able to sense viral nucleic acids. By screening all known family members, we identified the helicase DHX33 as a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensor in myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). The knockdown of DHX33 using small heteroduplex RNA (shRNA) blocked the ability of mDCs to produce type I interferon (IFN) in response to poly I:C and reovirus. The HELICc domain of DHX33 was shown to bind poly I:C. The interaction between DHX33 and IPS-1 is mediated by the HELICc region of DHX33 and the C-terminal domain of IPS-1 (also referred to MAVS and VISA). The inhibition of DHX33 expression by RNA interference blocked the poly I:C-induced activation of MAP kinases, NF-κB and IRF3. The interaction between the helicase DHX33 and IPS-1 was independent of RIG-I/MDA5 and may be a novel pathway for sensing poly I:C and RNA viruses in mDCs.

  10. RECQ5 helicase promotes resolution of conflicts between replication and transcription in human cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Václav; Dobrovolná, Jana; Hühn, D.; Fryzelkova, Jana; Bartek, Jiří; Janščák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 214, č. 4 (2016), s. 401-415 ISSN 0021-9525 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05743S; GA MŠk LH14037 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : rna-polymerase-ii * fragile sites * homologous recombination * genome instability * dna-replication * genes * fork * protein * stress * brca1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.955, year: 2016

  11. Mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  12. Modeling DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  13. Rapid DNA replication origin licensing protects stem cell pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jacob Peter; Dumitru, Raluca; Coryell, Philip; Baxley, Ryan M; Chen, Weili; Twaroski, Kirk; Webber, Beau R; Tolar, Jakub; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Purvis, Jeremy E; Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2017-11-17

    Complete and robust human genome duplication requires loading minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase complexes at many DNA replication origins, an essential process termed origin licensing. Licensing is restricted to G1 phase of the cell cycle, but G1 length varies widely among cell types. Using quantitative single-cell analyses, we found that pluripotent stem cells with naturally short G1 phases load MCM much faster than their isogenic differentiated counterparts with long G1 phases. During the earliest stages of differentiation toward all lineages, MCM loading slows concurrently with G1 lengthening, revealing developmental control of MCM loading. In contrast, ectopic Cyclin E overproduction uncouples short G1 from fast MCM loading. Rapid licensing in stem cells is caused by accumulation of the MCM loading protein, Cdt1. Prematurely slowing MCM loading in pluripotent cells not only lengthens G1 but also accelerates differentiation. Thus, rapid origin licensing is an intrinsic characteristic of stem cells that contributes to pluripotency maintenance.

  14. The RNA Helicase DeaD Stimulates ExsA Translation To Promote Expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intile, Peter J.; Balzer, Grant J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system (T3SS) is a primary virulence factor important for phagocytic avoidance, disruption of host cell signaling, and host cell cytotoxicity. ExsA is the master regulator of T3SS transcription. The expression, synthesis, and activity of ExsA is tightly regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic regulation consists of the well-characterized ExsECDA partner-switching cascade, while extrinsic factors include global regulators that alter exsA transcription and/or translation. To identify novel extrinsic regulators of ExsA, we conducted a transposon mutagenesis screen in the absence of intrinsic control. Transposon disruptions within gene PA2840, which encodes a homolog of the Escherichia coli RNA-helicase DeaD, significantly reduced T3SS gene expression. Recent studies indicate that E. coli DeaD can promote translation by relieving inhibitory secondary structures within target mRNAs. We report here that PA2840, renamed DeaD, stimulates ExsA synthesis at the posttranscriptional level. Genetic experiments demonstrate that the activity of an exsA translational fusion is reduced in a deaD mutant. In addition, exsA expression in trans fails to restore T3SS gene expression in a deaD mutant. We hypothesized that DeaD relaxes mRNA secondary structure to promote exsA translation and found that altering the mRNA sequence of exsA or the native exsA Shine-Dalgarno sequence relieved the requirement for DeaD in vivo. Finally, we show that purified DeaD promotes ExsA synthesis using in vitro translation assays. Together, these data reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for P. aeruginosa DeaD and add to the complexity of global regulation of T3SS. IMPORTANCE Although members of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases are appreciated for their roles in mRNA degradation and ribosome biogenesis, an additional role in gene regulation is now emerging in bacteria. By relaxing secondary structures in mRNAs, DEAD box

  15. Dna Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  16. Towards observing the encounter of the T7 DNA replication fork with a lesion site at the Single molecule level

    KAUST Repository

    Shirbini, Afnan

    2017-05-01

    Single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assays have been a powerful approach to study various aspects on the mechanism of DNA replication for more than a decade. This technique depends on flow-induced force on a bead attached to a surface-tethered DNA. The difference in the elastic property between double-strand DNA (long) and single-strand DNA (short) at low regime force allows the observation of the beads motion when the dsDNA is converted to ssDNA by the replisome machinery during DNA replication. Here, I aim to develop an assay to track in real-time the encounter of the bacteriophage T7 replisome with abasic lesion site inserted on the leading strand template. I optimized methods to construct the DNA substrate that contains the abasic site and established the T7 leading strand synthesis at the single molecule level. I also optimized various control experiments to remove any interference from the nonspecific interactions of the DNA with the surface. My work established the foundation to image the encounter of the T7 replisome with abasic site and to characterize how the interactions between the helicase and the polymerase could influence the polymerase proofreading ability and its direct bypass of this highly common DNA damage type.

  17. Role of the Pif1-PCNA Complex in Pol δ-Dependent Strand Displacement DNA Synthesis and Break-Induced Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzovetsky, Olga; Kwon, Youngho; Pham, Nhung Tuyet; Kim, Claire; Ira, Grzegorz; Sung, Patrick; Xiong, Yong

    2017-11-14

    The S. cerevisiae Pif1 helicase functions with DNA polymerase (Pol) δ in DNA synthesis during break-induced replication (BIR), a conserved pathway responsible for replication fork repair and telomere recombination. Pif1 interacts with the DNA polymerase processivity clamp PCNA, but the functional significance of the Pif1-PCNA complex remains to be elucidated. Here, we solve the crystal structure of PCNA in complex with a non-canonical PCNA-interacting motif in Pif1. The structure guides the construction of a Pif1 mutant that is deficient in PCNA interaction. This mutation impairs the ability of Pif1 to enhance DNA strand displacement synthesis by Pol δ in vitro and also the efficiency of BIR in cells. These results provide insights into the role of the Pif1-PCNA-Pol δ ensemble during DNA break repair by homologous recombination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The RNA Helicase DHX34 Activates NMD by Promoting a Transition from the Surveillance to the Decay-Inducing Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Hug

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD is a surveillance mechanism that degrades aberrant mRNAs. A complex comprising SMG1, UPF1, and the translation termination factors eRF1 and eRF3 (SURF is assembled in the vicinity of a premature termination codon. Subsequently, an interaction with UPF2, UPF3b, and the exon junction complex induces the formation of the decay-inducing complex (DECID and triggers NMD. We previously identified the RNA helicase DHX34 as an NMD factor in C. elegans and in vertebrates. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which DHX34 activates NMD in human cells. We show that DHX34 is recruited to the SURF complex via its preferential interaction with hypophosphorylated UPF1. A series of molecular transitions induced by DHX34 include enhanced recruitment of UPF2, increased UPF1 phosphorylation, and dissociation of eRF3 from UPF1. Thus, DHX34 promotes mRNP remodeling and triggers the conversion from the SURF complex to the DECID complex resulting in NMD activation.

  19. Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Eiko [Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Animal Science, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe-City 657-8501 (Japan); Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leon, Esther; Matthews, Steve J. [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Structural Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roy, Polly, E-mail: polly.roy@lshtm.ac.uk [Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • NMR analysis on BTV VP6 reveals two large loop regions. • The loss of a loop (aa 34–130) does not affect the overall fold of the protein. • A region of VP6 (aa 34–92) is not required for BTV replication. • A region of VP6 (aa 93–130) plays an essential role in the virus replication. - Abstract: Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of VP6 within the viral capsid and its structure remain unclear. To investigate the requirement of VP6 in BTV replication, we initiated a structural and biological study. Multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were assigned on his-tagged full-length VP6 (329 amino acid residues) as well as several truncated VP6 variants. The analysis revealed a large structured domain with two large loop regions that exhibit significant conformational exchange. One of the loops (amino acid position 34–130) could be removed without affecting the overall fold of the protein. Moreover, using a BTV reverse genetics system, it was possible to demonstrate that the VP6-truncated BTV was viable in BHK cells in the absence of any helper VP6 protein, suggesting that a large portion of this loop region is not absolutely required for BTV replication.

  20. DNA repair in Haemophilus influenzae: isolation and characterization of an ultraviolet sensitive mutator mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    DNA repair in Haemophilus influenzae appears to be quite different from that seen in Escherichia coli in that H. influenzae shows neither SOS nor adaptation phenomena. Repair of DNA lesions in H. influenzae has been seen to occur via recombinational, excision, and mismatch repair pathways acting independently of one another. The author has isolated an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive mutator mutant (mutB1) of H. influenzae Rd which shows deficiencies in both recombinational and mismatch repair pathways. This mutant is sensitive to a variety of DNA damaging agents as well as being hypermutable by alkylating agents and base analogues. MutB1 cells do not show post-UV DNA breakdown but do begin excision after UV irradiation. Genetic transformation with UV-irradiated DNA on mut B1 recipients shows that high (HE) and low (LE) efficiency markers are transformed at a ratio of 1.0 as in the mismatch repair deficient hex 1 mutant; however, kinetics of UV-inactivation experiments indicate that HE markers are sensitized and act as LE markers do on wild type recipients. Thus, the mutB gene product appears to play a role in both DNA repair and genetic transformation. A model is outlined which presents a role for a DNA helicase in both DNA repair and genetic transformation of H. influenzae

  1. Double-stranded DNA dissociates into single strands when dragged into a poor solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuxun; Yu, Jin; Kühner, Ferdinand; Schulten, Klaus; Gaub, Hermann E

    2007-11-28

    DNA displays a richness of biologically relevant supramolecular structures, which depend on both sequence and ambient conditions. The effect of dragging double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) from water into poor solvent on the double-stranded structure is still unclear because of condensation. Here, we employed single molecule techniques based on atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the change in structure and mechanics of DNA during the ambient change. We found that the two strands are split apart when the dsDNA is pulled at one strand from water into a poor solvent. The findings were corroborated by MD simulations where dsDNA was dragged from water into poor solvent, revealing details of the strand separation at the water/poor solvent interface. Because the structure of DNA is of high polarity, all poor solvents show a relatively low polarity. We speculate that the principle of spontaneous unwinding/splitting of dsDNA by providing a low-polarity (in other word, hydrophobic) micro-environment is exploited as one of the catalysis mechanisms of helicases.

  2. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J.; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert [Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Gagnon, David [Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal (IRCM), 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Gjoerup, Ole [Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Archambault, Jacques [Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal (IRCM), 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Bullock, Peter A., E-mail: Peter.Bullock@tufts.edu [Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication. - Highlights: • Development of a high-throughput screening assay for JCV DNA replication using C33A cells. • Evidence that T-ag fails to accumulate in the nuclei of established glioma cell lines. • Evidence that NF-1 directly promotes JCV DNA replication in C33A cells. • Proof-of-concept that the HTS assay can be used to identify pharmacological inhibitor of JCV DNA replication.

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrD1 and UvrA proteins suppress DNA strand exchange promoted by cognate and noncognate RecA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pawan; Patil, K Neelakanteshwar; Khanduja, Jasbeer Singh; Kumar, P Sanjay; Williams, Alan; Rossi, Franca; Rizzi, Menico; Davis, Elaine O; Muniyappa, K

    2010-06-15

    DNA helicases are present in all kingdoms of life and play crucial roles in processes of DNA metabolism such as replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. To date, however, the role of DNA helicases during homologous recombination in mycobacteria remains unknown. In this study, we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrD1 more efficiently inhibited the strand exchange promoted by its cognate RecA, compared to noncognate Mycobacterium smegmatis or Escherichia coli RecA proteins. The M. tuberculosis UvrD1(Q276R) mutant lacking the helicase and ATPase activities was able to block strand exchange promoted by mycobacterial RecA proteins but not of E. coli RecA. We observed that M. tuberculosis UvrA by itself has no discernible effect on strand exchange promoted by E. coli RecA but impedes the reaction catalyzed by the mycobacterial RecA proteins. Our data also show that M. tuberculosis UvrA and UvrD1 can act together to inhibit strand exchange promoted by mycobacterial RecA proteins. Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that UvrD1 and UvrA might act together in vivo to counter the deleterious effects of RecA nucleoprotein filaments and/or facilitate the dissolution of recombination intermediates. Finally, we provide direct experimental evidence for a physical interaction between M. tuberculosis UvrD1 and RecA on one hand and RecA and UvrA on the other hand. These observations are consistent with a molecular mechanism, whereby M. tuberculosis UvrA and UvrD1, acting together, block DNA strand exchange promoted by cognate and noncognate RecA proteins.

  4. Slx4 becomes phosphorylated after DNA damage in a Mec1/Tel1-dependent manner and is required for repair of DNA alkylation damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flott, Sonja; Rouse, John

    2005-01-01

    Members of the RecQ family of DNA helicases, mutated in several syndromes associated with cancer predisposition, are key regulators of genome stability. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SLX4 gene is required for cell viability in the absence of Sgs1, the only yeast RecQ helicase. SLX4 encodes one subunit of the heterodimeric Slx1–Slx4 endonuclease, although its cellular function is not clear. Slx1–Slx4 was reported to preferentially cleave replication fork-like structures in vitro, and cells lacking SLX4 are hypersensitive to DNA alkylation damage. Here we report that Slx4 becomes phosphorylated in cells exposed to a wide range of genotoxins. Even though it has been proposed that the role of Slx4 is restricted to S-phase, Slx4 phosphorylation is observed in cells arrested in G1 or G2 phases of the cell cycle, but not during an unperturbed cell cycle. Slx4 phosphorylation is completely abolished in cells lacking the Mec1 and Tel1 protein kinases, critical regulators of genome stability, but is barely affected in the absence of both Rad53 and Chk1 kinases. Finally we show that, whereas both Slx1 and Slx4 are dispensable for activation of cell-cycle checkpoints, Slx4, but not Slx1, is required for repair of DNA alkylation damage in both aynchronously growing cells and in G2-phase-arrested cells. These results reveal Slx4 as a new target of the Mec1/Tel1 kinases, with a crucial role in DNA repair that is not restricted to the processing of stalled replisomes. PMID:15975089

  5. DNA Recognition by the DNA Primase of Bacteriophage T7: A Structure Function Study of the Zinc-Binding Domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabayov, B.; Lee, S.; Akabayov, S.; Rekhi, S.; Zhu, B.; Richardson, C.

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of oligoribonucleotide primers for lagging-strand DNA synthesis in the DNA replication system of bacteriophage T7 is catalyzed by the primase domain of the gene 4 helicase-primase. The primase consists of a zinc-binding domain (ZBD) and an RNA polymerase (RPD) domain. The ZBD is responsible for recognition of a specific sequence in the ssDNA template whereas catalytic activity resides in the RPD. The ZBD contains a zinc ion coordinated with four cysteine residues. We have examined the ligation state of the zinc ion by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and biochemical analysis of genetically altered primases. The ZBD of primase engaged in catalysis exhibits considerable asymmetry in coordination to zinc, as evidenced by a gradual increase in electron density of the zinc together with elongation of the zinc-sulfur bonds. Both wild-type primase and primase reconstituted from purified ZBD and RPD have a similar electronic change in the level of the zinc ion as well as the configuration of the ZBD. Single amino acid replacements in the ZBD (H33A and C36S) result in the loss of both zinc binding and its structural integrity. Thus the zinc in the ZBD may act as a charge modulation indicator for the surrounding sulfur atoms necessary for recognition of specific DNA sequences.

  6. Mesencephalic complex I deficiency does not correlate with parkinsonism in mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Eino J H; Paetau, Anders; Suomalainen, Anu

    2013-08-01

    Genetic evidence from recessively inherited Parkinson's disease has indicated a clear causative role for mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. This role has long been discussed based on findings that toxic inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complex I caused parkinsonism and that tissues of patients with Parkinson's disease show complex I deficiency. Disorders of mitochondrial DNA maintenance are a common cause of inherited neurodegenerative disorders, and lead to mitochondrial DNA deletions or depletion and respiratory chain defect, including complex I deficiency. However, parkinsonism associates typically with defects of catalytic domain of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. Surprisingly, however, not all mutations affecting DNA polymerase gamma manifest as parkinsonism, but, for example, spacer region mutations lead to spinocerebellar ataxia and/or severe epilepsy. Furthermore, defective Twinkle helicase, a close functional companion of DNA polymerase gamma in mitochondrial DNA replication, results in infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia, epilepsy or adult-onset mitochondrial myopathy, but not typically parkinsonism. Here we sought for clues for this specificity in the neurological manifestations of mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders by studying mesencephalic neuropathology of patients with DNA polymerase gamma or Twinkle defects, with or without parkinsonism. We show here that all patients with mitochondrial DNA maintenance disorders had neuronopathy in substantia nigra, most severe in DNA polymerase gamma-associated parkinsonism. The oculomotor nucleus was also affected, but less severely. In substantia nigra, all patients had a considerable decrease of respiratory chain complex I, but other respiratory chain enzymes were not affected. Complex I deficiency did not correlate with parkinsonism, age, affected gene or inheritance. We conclude that the cell number in substantia nigra correlated well with parkinsonism in DNA polymerase gamma

  7. Solid-state NMR chemical-shift perturbations indicate domain reorientation of the DnaG primase in the primosome of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiennet, Carole [Université de Lorraine, CNRS, CRM2, UMR 7036 (France); Wiegand, Thomas [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Bazin, Alexandre [Université de Lyon 1, Molecular Microbiology and Structural Biochemistry, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Cadalbert, Riccardo [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Kunert, Britta; Lacabanne, Denis [Université de Lyon 1, Molecular Microbiology and Structural Biochemistry, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Gutsche, Irina [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS), CNRS, IBS, CEA, IBS (France); Terradot, Laurent, E-mail: l.terradot@ibcp.fr [Université de Lyon 1, Molecular Microbiology and Structural Biochemistry, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [Université de Lyon 1, Molecular Microbiology and Structural Biochemistry, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France)

    2016-03-15

    We here investigate the interactions between the DnaB helicase and the C-terminal domain of the corresponding DnaG primase of Helicobacter pylori using solid-state NMR. The difficult crystallization of this 387 kDa complex, where the two proteins interact in a six to three ratio, is circumvented by simple co-sedimentation of the two proteins directly into the MAS-NMR rotor. While the amount of information that can be extracted from such a large protein is still limited, we can assign a number of amino-acid residues experiencing significant chemical-shift perturbations upon helicase-primase complex formation. The location of these residues is used as a guide to model the interaction interface between the two proteins in the complex. Chemical-shift perturbations also reveal changes at the interaction interfaces of the hexameric HpDnaB assembly on HpDnaG binding. A structural model of the complex that explains the experimental findings is obtained.

  8. An interaction between human papillomavirus 16 E2 and TopBP1 is required for optimum viral DNA replication and episomal genome establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Mary M; Mackintosh, Lorna J; Bodily, Jason M; Dornan, Edward S; Laimins, Laimonis A; Morgan, Iain M

    2012-12-01

    In human papillomavirus DNA replication, the viral protein E2 forms homodimers and binds to 12-bp palindromic DNA sequences surrounding the origin of DNA replication. Via a protein-protein interaction, it then recruits the viral helicase E1 to an A/T-rich origin of replication, whereupon a dihexamer forms, resulting in DNA replication initiation. In order to carry out DNA replication, the viral proteins must interact with host factors that are currently not all known. An attractive cellular candidate for regulating viral replication is TopBP1, a known interactor of the E2 protein. In mammalian DNA replication, TopBP1 loads DNA polymerases onto the replicative helicase after the G(1)-to-S transition, and this process is tightly cell cycle controlled. The direct interaction between E2 and TopBP1 would allow E2 to bypass this cell cycle control, resulting in DNA replication more than once per cell cycle, which is a requirement for the viral life cycle. We report here the generation of an HPV16 E2 mutant compromised in TopBP1 interaction in vivo and demonstrate that this mutant retains transcriptional activation and repression functions but has suboptimal DNA replication potential. Introduction of this mutant into a viral life cycle model results in the failure to establish viral episomes. The results present a potential new antiviral target, the E2-TopBP1 interaction, and increase our understanding of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the E2-TopBP1 interaction is essential.

  9. 53BP1 nuclear bodies form around DNA lesions generated by mitotic transmission of chromosomes under replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Claudia; Savic, Velibor; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2011-01-01

    stress increases the frequency of chromosomal lesions that are transmitted to daughter cells. Throughout G1, these lesions are sequestered in nuclear compartments marked by p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and other chromatin-associated genome caretakers. We show that the number of such 53BP1 nuclear bodies...... increases after genetic ablation of BLM, a DNA helicase associated with dissolution of entangled DNA. Conversely, 53BP1 nuclear bodies are partially suppressed by knocking down SMC2, a condensin subunit required for mechanical stability of mitotic chromosomes. Finally, we provide evidence that 53BP1 nuclear...... bodies shield chromosomal fragile sites sequestered in these compartments against erosion. Together, these data indicate that restoration of DNA or chromatin integrity at loci prone to replication problems requires mitotic transmission to the next cell generations....

  10. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.

    2008-01-01

    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  11. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL I ARTICLE. DNA Vaccines. P N Rangarajan. History of Vaccine Development. The year 1996 marked the 200th anniversary of the first vaccine developed against smallpox by Edward Jenner. In the now- famous 1796 experiment, Jenner scratched ...

  12. Hyperstretching DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenraad, Koen; Biebricher, Andreas S.; Sebregts, Maarten; Ten Bensel, Brian; Peterman, Erwin J.G.; Wuite, Gijs J L; Heller, Iddo; Storm, Cornelis; Van Der Schoot, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of DNA is highly susceptible to changes by mechanical and biochemical cues in vivo and in vitro. In particular, large increases in base pair spacing compared to regular B-DNA are effected by mechanical (over)stretching and by intercalation of compounds that are widely

  13. The DNA translocase RAD5A acts independently of the other main DNA repair pathways, and requires both its ATPase and RING domain for activity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Tobias; Mannuß, Anja; Kobbe, Daniela; Knoll, Alexander; Trapp, Oliver; Dorn, Annika; Puchta, Holger

    2017-08-01

    Multiple pathways exist to repair DNA damage induced by methylating and crosslinking agents in Arabidopsis thaliana. The SWI2/SNF2 translocase RAD5A, the functional homolog of budding yeast Rad5 that is required for the error-free branch of post-replicative repair, plays a surprisingly prominent role in the repair of both kinds of lesions in Arabidopsis. Here we show that both the ATPase domain and the ubiquitination function of the RING domain of the Arabidopsis protein are essential for the cellular response to different forms of DNA damage. To define the exact role of RAD5A within the complex network of DNA repair pathways, we crossed the rad5a mutant line with mutants of different known repair factors of Arabidopsis. We had previously shown that RAD5A acts independently of two main pathways of replication-associated DNA repair defined by the helicase RECQ4A and the endonuclease MUS81. The enhanced sensitivity of all double mutants tested in this study indicates that the repair of damaged DNA by RAD5A also occurs independently of nucleotide excision repair (AtRAD1), single-strand break repair (AtPARP1), as well as microhomology-mediated double-strand break repair (AtTEB). Moreover, RAD5A can partially complement for a deficient AtATM-mediated DNA damage response in plants, as the double mutant shows phenotypic growth defects. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. WRN Exonuclease Structure, Molecular Mechanism, and DNA EndProcessing Role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Yannone, Steven M.; Holden, Lauren G.; Hitomi, Chiharu; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Han, Seungil; Cooper, PriscillaK.; Chen, David J.; Tainer, John A.

    2006-02-15

    WRN is unique among the five human RecQ DNA helicases by having a functional exonuclease domain (WRN-exo) and being defective in the premature aging and cancer-related disorder Werner syndrome. Here, we characterize WRN-exo crystal structures, biochemical activity and participation in DNA end-joining. Metal ion complex structures, active site mutations and activity assays reveal a two-metal-ion mediated nuclease mechanism. The DNA end-binding Ku70/80 complex specifically stimulates WRN-exo activity, and structure-based mutational inactivation of WRN-exo alters DNA end-joining in human cells. We furthermore establish structural and biochemical similarities of WRN-exo to DnaQ family replicative proofreading exonucleases, with WRN-specific adaptations consistent with dsDNA specificity and functionally important conformational changes. These results indicate WRN-exo is a human DnaQ family member and support analogous proof-reading activities that are stimulated by Ku70/80 with implications for WRN functions in age related pathologies and maintenance of genomic integrity.

  15. Top2 and Sgs1-Top3 Act Redundantly to Ensure rDNA Replication Termination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla Mundbjerg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Faithful DNA replication with correct termination is essential for genome stability and transmission of genetic information. Here we have investigated the potential roles of Topoisomerase II (Top2 and the RecQ helicase Sgs1 during late stages of replication. We find that cells lacking Top2 and Sgs1 (or Top3 display two different characteristics during late S/G2 phase, checkpoint activation and accumulation of asymmetric X-structures, which are both independent of homologous recombination. Our data demonstrate that checkpoint activation is caused by a DNA structure formed at the strongest rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB during replication termination, and consistently, checkpoint activation is dependent on the RFB binding protein, Fob1. In contrast, asymmetric X-structures are formed independent of Fob1 at less strong rDNA replication fork barriers. However, both checkpoint activation and formation of asymmetric X-structures are sensitive to conditions, which facilitate fork merging and progression of replication forks through replication fork barriers. Our data are consistent with a redundant role of Top2 and Sgs1 together with Top3 (Sgs1-Top3 in replication fork merging at rDNA barriers. At RFB either Top2 or Sgs1-Top3 is essential to prevent formation of a checkpoint activating DNA structure during termination, but at less strong rDNA barriers absence of the enzymes merely delays replication fork merging, causing an accumulation of asymmetric termination structures, which are solved over time.

  16. Evolutionary-conserved telomere-linked helicase genes of fission yeast are repressed by silencing factors, RNAi components and the telomere-binding protein Taz1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. R.; Ibarra, P. T.; Thon, G.

    2006-01-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the RNAi machinery and proteins mediating heterochromatin formation regulate the transcription of non-coding centromeric repeats. These repeats share a high sequence similarity with telomere-linked helicase (tlh) genes, implying an ancestral relationship between the two....... Mutations and conditions perturbing histone acetylation had similar effects further demonstrating that the tlh genes are normally repressed by heterochromatin. In contrast, mutations in the RNAi factors Dcr1, Ago1 or Rdp1 led only to a modest derepression of the tlh genes indicating an alternate pathway...

  17. Cesarean Section and Interferon-Induced Helicase Gene Polymorphisms Combine to Increase Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Ezio; Warncke, Katharina; Winkler, Christiane; Wallner, Maike; Ziegler, Anette-G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing. Delivery by cesarean section is also more prevalent, and it is suggested that cesarean section is associated with type 1 diabetes risk. We examine associations between cesarean delivery, islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes, and genes involved in type 1 diabetes susceptibility. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cesarean section was examined as a risk factor in 1,650 children born to a parent with type 1 diabetes and followed from birth for the development of islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes. RESULTS Children delivered by cesarean section (n = 495) had more than twofold higher risk for type 1 diabetes than children born by vaginal delivery (hazard ratio [HR] 2.5; 95% CI 1.4–4.3; P = 0.001). Cesarean section did not increase the risk for islet autoantibodies (P = 0.6) but was associated with a faster progression to diabetes after the appearance of autoimmunity (P = 0.015). Cesarean section–associated risk was independent of potential confounder variables (adjusted HR 2.7;1.5–5.0; P = 0.001) and observed in children with and without high-risk HLA genotypes. Interestingly, cesarean section appeared to interact with immune response genes, including CD25 and in particular the interferon-induced helicase 1 gene, where increased risk for type 1 diabetes was only seen in children who were delivered by cesarean section and had type 1 diabetes–susceptible IFIH1 genotypes (12-year risk, 9.1 vs. cesarean section may be linked to viral responses in the preclinical autoantibody-positive disease phase. PMID:22110093

  18. Chlorosis caused by two recessively interacting genes reveals a role of RNA helicase in hybrid breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Björn; Nurmi, Markus; Fischer, Axel; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Holm, Svante; Vaid, Neha; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Walther, Dirk; Hoefgen, Rainer; Weigel, Detlef; Laitinen, Roosa A E

    2017-07-01

    Hybrids often differ in fitness from their parents. They may be superior, translating into hybrid vigour or heterosis, but they may also be markedly inferior, because of hybrid weakness or incompatibility. The underlying genetic causes for the latter can often be traced back to genes that evolve rapidly because of sexual or host-pathogen conflicts. Hybrid weakness may manifest itself only in later generations, in a phenomenon called hybrid breakdown. We have characterized a case of hybrid breakdown among two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Shahdara (Sha, Tajikistan) and Lövvik-5 (Lov-5, Northern Sweden). In addition to chlorosis, a fraction of the F 2 plants have defects in leaf and embryo development, and reduced photosynthetic efficiency. Hybrid chlorosis is due to two major-effect loci, of which one, originating from Lov-5, appears to encode an RNA helicase (AtRH18). To examine the role of the chlorosis allele in the Lövvik area, in addition to eight accessions collected in 2009, we collected another 240 accessions from 15 collections sites, including Lövvik, from Northern Sweden in 2015. Genotyping revealed that Lövvik collection site is separated from the rest. Crosses between 109 accessions from this area and Sha revealed 85 cases of hybrid chlorosis, indicating that the chlorosis-causing allele is common in this area. These results suggest that hybrid breakdown alleles not only occur at rapidly evolving loci, but also at genes that code for conserved processes. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. RNA Helicase DDX5 Regulates MicroRNA Expression and Contributes to Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Basal Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Daojing; Huang, Jing; Hu, Zhi

    2011-11-15

    RNA helicase DDX5 (also p68) is involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism and serves as a transcriptional co-regulator, but its functional role in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we report an integrative biology study of DDX5 in breast cancer, encompassing quantitative proteomics, global MicroRNA profiling, and detailed biochemical characterization of cell lines and human tissues. We showed that protein expression of DDX5 increased progressively from the luminal to basal breast cancer cell lines, and correlated positively with that of CD44 in the basal subtypes. Through immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays containing over 200 invasive human ductal carcinomas, we observed that DDX5 was upregulated in the majority of malignant tissues, and its expression correlated strongly with those of Ki67 and EGFR in the triple-negative tumors. We demonstrated that DDX5 regulated a subset of MicroRNAs including miR-21 and miR-182 in basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of DDX5 resulted in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and reduction of cellular proliferation. The effects were accompanied by upregulation of tumor suppressor PDCD4 (a known miR-21 target); as well as upregulation of cofilin and profilin, two key proteins involved in actin polymerization and cytoskeleton maintenance, as a consequence of miR-182 downregulation. Treatment with miR-182 inhibitors resulted in morphologic phenotypes resembling those induced by DDX5 knockdown. Using bioinformatics tools for pathway and network analyses, we confirmed that the network for regulation of actin cytoskeleton was predominantly enriched for the predicted downstream targets of miR-182. Our results reveal a new functional role of DDX5 in breast cancer via the DDX5→miR-182→actin cytoskeleton pathway, and suggest the potential clinical utility of DDX5 and its downstream MicroRNAs in the theranostics of breast cancer.

  20. Mycobacteria exploit three genetically distinct DNA double-strand break repair pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Barkan, Daniel; Redelman-Sidi, Gil; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on their DNA repair pathways to resist genomic damage inflicted by the host. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are especially threatening to bacterial viability. DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR) requires nucleases that resect DSB ends and a strand exchange protein that facilitates homology search. RecBCD and RecA perform these functions in Escherichia coli and constitute the major pathway of error-free DSB repair. Mycobacteria, including the human pathogen M. tuberculosis, elaborate an additional error-prone pathway of DSB repair via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) catalysed by Ku and DNA ligase D (LigD). Little is known about the relative contributions of HR and NHEJ to mycobacterial chromosome repair, the factors that dictate pathway choice, or the existence of additional DSB repair pathways. Here we demonstrate that Mycobacterium smegmatis has three DSB repair pathway options: HR, NHEJ and a novel mechanism of single-strand annealing (SSA). Inactivation of NHEJ or SSA is compensated by elevated HR. We find that mycobacterial RecBCD does not participate in HR or confer resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), but is required for the RecA-independent SSA pathway. In contrast, the mycobacterial helicase-nuclease AdnAB participates in the RecA-dependent HR pathway, and is a major determinant of resistance to IR and oxidative DNA damage. These findings reveal distinctive features of mycobacterial DSB repair, most notably the dedication of the RecBCD and AdnAB helicase-nuclease machines to distinct repair pathways. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  2. Specificity and Function of Archaeal DNA Replication Initiator Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Y. Samson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomes with multiple DNA replication origins are a hallmark of Eukaryotes and some Archaea. All eukaryal nuclear replication origins are defined by the origin recognition complex (ORC that recruits the replicative helicase MCM(2-7 via Cdc6 and Cdt1. We find that the three origins in the single chromosome of the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus are specified by distinct initiation factors. While two origins are dependent on archaeal homologs of eukaryal Orc1 and Cdc6, the third origin is instead reliant on an archaeal Cdt1 homolog. We exploit the nonessential nature of the orc1-1 gene to investigate the role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in initiator function in vivo and in vitro. We find that the ATP-bound form of Orc1-1 is proficient for replication and implicates hydrolysis of ATP in downregulation of origin activity. Finally, we reveal that ATP and DNA binding by Orc1-1 remodels the protein’s structure rather than that of the DNA template.

  3. Essential and non-essential DNA replication genes in the model halophilic Archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DasSarma Shiladitya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer systems in Archaea, including many components of the DNA replication machinery, are similar to those found in eukaryotes. Functional assignments of archaeal DNA replication genes have been primarily based upon sequence homology and biochemical studies of replisome components, but few genetic studies have been conducted thus far. We have developed a tractable genetic system for knockout analysis of genes in the model halophilic archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and used it to determine which DNA replication genes are essential. Results Using a directed in-frame gene knockout method in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, we examined nineteen genes predicted to be involved in DNA replication. Preliminary bioinformatic analysis of the large haloarchaeal Orc/Cdc6 family, related to eukaryotic Orc1 and Cdc6, showed five distinct clades of Orc/Cdc6 proteins conserved in all sequenced haloarchaea. Of ten orc/cdc6 genes in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, only two were found to be essential, orc10, on the large chromosome, and orc2, on the minichromosome, pNRC200. Of the three replicative-type DNA polymerase genes, two were essential: the chromosomally encoded B family, polB1, and the chromosomally encoded euryarchaeal-specific D family, polD1/D2 (formerly called polA1/polA2 in the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 genome sequence. The pNRC200-encoded B family polymerase, polB2, was non-essential. Accessory genes for DNA replication initiation and elongation factors, including the putative replicative helicase, mcm, the eukaryotic-type DNA primase, pri1/pri2, the DNA polymerase sliding clamp, pcn, and the flap endonuclease, rad2, were all essential. Targeted genes were classified as non-essential if knockouts were obtained and essential based on statistical analysis and/or by demonstrating the inability to isolate chromosomal knockouts except in the presence of a complementing plasmid copy of the gene. Conclusion The results showed that ten

  4. DNA data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  5. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  6. DNA nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  7. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hauk

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1, which is essential in yeast and known as DDX3 in humans, shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and takes part in several basic processes including RNA processing and translation. A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out of the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that Xpo1 and Ran[GTP] together reduce the RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase activities of Ded1. Binding and inhibition of Ded1 by Xpo1 depend on the affinity of the Ded1 nuclear export sequence (NES for Xpo1 and the presence of Ran[GTP]. Association with Xpo1/Ran[GTP] reduces RNA-stimulated ATPase activity of Ded1 by increasing the apparent KM for the RNA substrate. Despite the increased KM, the Ded1:Xpo1:Ran[GTP] ternary complex retains the ability to bind single stranded RNA, suggesting that Xpo1/Ran[GTP] may modulate the substrate specificity of Ded1. These results demonstrate that, in addition to transport, exportins such as Xpo1 also have the capability to alter enzymatic activities of their cargo.

  8. A DEAD box RNA helicase is essential for mRNA export and important for development and stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Dong, Chun-Hai; Lee, Hojoung; Zhu, Jianhua; Xiong, Liming; Gong, Deming; Stevenson, Becky; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2005-01-01

    An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, cryophyte, was isolated and found to have an enhanced cold stress-induction of the master regulator of cold tolerance, C-repeat binding factor 2 (CBF2), and its downstream target genes. The mutant is more tolerant to chilling and freezing stresses but is more sensitive to heat stress. Under warm but not cold growth temperatures, the mutant has a reduced stature and flowers earlier. Under long day conditions, flowering of the mutant is insensitive to vernalization. The mutant is also hypersensitive to the phytohormone abscisic acid. The mutation was found in a DEAD box RNA helicase gene that is identical to the previously identified low expression of osmotically responsive genes 4 (LOS4) locus, which was defined by the los4-1 mutation that reduces cold regulation of CBFs and their target genes and renders Arabidopsis plants chilling sensitive. We show evidence suggesting that the CRYOPHYTE/LOS4 protein may be enriched in the nuclear rim. In situ poly(A) hybridization indicates that the export of poly(A)+ RNAs is blocked in the cryophyte/los4-2 mutant at warm or high temperatures but not at low temperatures, whereas the los4-1 mutation weakens mRNA export at both low and warm temperatures. These results demonstrate an important role of the CRYOPHYTE/LOS4 RNA helicase in mRNA export, plant development, and stress responses.

  9. Regulation of m6A Transcripts by the 3'→5' RNA Helicase YTHDC2 Is Essential for a Successful Meiotic Program in the Mammalian Germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, Magdalena Natalia; Pandey, Radha Raman; Mendel, Mateusz; Homolka, David; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Pillai, Ramesh S

    2017-10-19

    N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) is an essential internal RNA modification that is critical for gene expression control in most organisms. Proteins with a YTH domain recognize m 6 A marks and are mediators of molecular functions like RNA splicing, mRNA decay, and translation control. Here we demonstrate that YTH domain-containing 2 (YTHDC2) is an m 6 A reader that is essential for male and female fertility in mice. High-throughput mapping of the m 6 A transcriptome and expression analysis in the Yhtdc2 mutant testes reveal an upregulation of m 6 A-enriched transcripts. Our biochemical studies indicate that YTHDC2 is an RNA-induced ATPase with a 3'→5' RNA helicase activity. Furthermore, YTHDC2 recruits the 5'→3' exoribonuclease XRN1 via Ankyrin repeats that are inserted in between the RecA modules of the RNA helicase domain. Our studies reveal a role for YTHDC2 in modulating the levels of m 6 A-modified germline transcripts to maintain a gene expression program that is conducive for progression through meiosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The helicase and RNaseIIIa domains of Arabidopsis Dicer-Like1 modulate catalytic parameters during MicroRNA biogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chenggang

    2012-04-03

    Dicer-Like1 (DCL1), an RNaseIII endonuclease, and Hyponastic Leaves1 (HYL1), a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, are core components of the plant microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis machinery. hyl1 mutants accumulate low levels of miRNAs and display pleiotropic developmental phenotypes. We report the identification of five new hyl1 suppressor mutants, all of which are alleles of DCL1. These new alleles affect either the helicase or the RNaseIIIa domains of DCL1, highlighting the critical functions of these domains. Biochemical analysis of the DCL1 suppressor variants reveals that they process the primary transcript (pri-miRNA) more efficiently than wild-type DCL1, with both higher Kcat and lower Km values. The DCL1 variants largely rescue wild-type miRNA accumulation levels in vivo, but do not rescue the MIRNA processing precision defects of the hyl1 mutant. In vitro, the helicase domain confers ATP dependence on DCL1-catalyzed MIRNA processing, attenuates DCL1 cleavage activity, and is required for precise MIRNA processing of some substrates. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists.

  11. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van

    2015-01-01

    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  12. Guardians of the mycobacterial genome: A review on DNA repair systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep

    2017-12-01

    The genomic integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is continuously threatened by the harsh survival conditions inside host macrophages, due to immune and antibiotic stresses. Faithful genome maintenance and repair must be accomplished under stress for the bacillus to survive in the host, necessitating a robust DNA repair system. The importance of DNA repair systems in pathogenesis is well established. Previous examination of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed homologues of almost all the major DNA repair systems, i.e. nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, recent developments in the field have pointed to the presence of novel proteins and pathways in mycobacteria. Homologues of archeal mismatch repair proteins were recently reported in mycobacteria, a pathway previously thought to be absent. RecBCD, the major nuclease-helicase enzymes involved in HR in E. coli, were implicated in the single-strand annealing (SSA) pathway. Novel roles of archeo-eukaryotic primase (AEP) polymerases, previously thought to be exclusive to NHEJ, have been reported in BER. Many new proteins with a probable role in DNA repair have also been discovered. It is now realized that the DNA repair systems in M. tuberculosis are highly evolved and have redundant backup mechanisms to mend the damage. This review is an attempt to summarize our current understanding of the DNA repair systems in M. tuberculosis.

  13. Translocation-coupled DNA cleavage by the Type ISP restriction-modification enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Mahesh K; Nirwan, Neha; Diffin, Fiona M; van Aelst, Kara; Kulkarni, Manasi; Pernstich, Christian; Szczelkun, Mark D; Saikrishnan, Kayarat

    2015-11-01

    Production of endonucleolytic double-strand DNA breaks requires separate strand cleavage events. Although catalytic mechanisms for simple, dimeric endonucleases are known, there are many complex nuclease machines that are poorly understood. Here we studied the single polypeptide Type ISP restriction-modification (RM) enzymes, which cleave random DNA between distant target sites when two enzymes collide after convergent ATP-driven translocation. We report the 2.7-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a Type ISP enzyme-DNA complex, revealing that both the helicase-like ATPase and nuclease are located upstream of the direction of translocation, an observation inconsistent with simple nuclease-domain dimerization. Using single-molecule and biochemical techniques, we demonstrate that each ATPase remodels its DNA-protein complex and translocates along DNA without looping it, leading to a collision complex in which the nuclease domains are distal. Sequencing of the products of single cleavage events suggests a previously undescribed endonuclease model, where multiple, stochastic strand-nicking events combine to produce DNA scission.

  14. NS3 from Hepatitis C Virus Strain JFH-1 Is an Unusually Robust Helicase That Is Primed To Bind and Unwind Viral RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ting; Ren, Xiaoming; Adams, Rebecca L.; Pyle, Anna Marie; Ou, J. -H. James

    2017-10-25

    Hepatitis C viruses (HCV) encode a helicase enzyme that is essential for viral replication and assembly (nonstructural protein 3 [NS3]). This helicase has become the focus of extensive basic research on the general helicase mechanism, and it is also of interest as a novel drug target. Despite the importance of this protein, mechanistic work on NS3 has been conducted almost exclusively on variants from HCV genotype 1. Our understanding of NS3 from the highly active HCV strains that are used to study HCV genetics and mechanism in cell culture (such as JFH-1) is lacking. We therefore set out to determine whether NS3 from the replicatively efficient genotype 2a strain JFH-1 displays novel functional or structural properties. Using biochemical assays for RNA binding and duplex unwinding, we show that JFH-1 NS3 binds RNA much more rapidly than the previously studied NS3 variants from genotype 1b. Unlike NS3 variants from other genotypes, JFH-1 NS3 binds RNA with high affinity in a functionally active form that is capable of immediately unwinding RNA duplexes without undergoing rate-limiting conformational changes that precede activation. Unlike other superfamily 2 (SF2) helicases, JFH-1 NS3 does not require long 3' overhangs, and it unwinds duplexes that are flanked by only a few nucleotides, as in the folded HCV genome. To understand the physical basis for this, we solved the crystal structure of JFH-1 NS3, revealing a novel conformation that contains an open, positively charged RNA binding cleft that is primed for productive interaction with RNA targets, potentially explaining robust replication by HCV JFH-1.

    IMPORTANCEGenotypes of HCV are as divergent as different types of flavivirus, and yet mechanistic features of HCV variants are presumed to be held in common. One of the most well-studied components of the HCV replication complex is a helicase known as nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). We set out to determine whether this important

  15. A transcription fork model for Pol IV and Pol V-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaard, C S; Haag, J R; Pontes, O M F; Blevins, T; Cocklin, R

    2012-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) are required for the biogenesis of 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing at target loci transcribed by nuclear multisubunit RNA polymerase V (Pol V). Pol IV and RDR2 physically associate and RDR2's polymerase activity in vitro is dependent on Pol IV. RDR2 transcription of nascent Pol IV transcripts might result in discontinuous second strands, analogous to lagging-strand Okazaki fragments generated during DNA replication. In vitro, Pol V is unable to displace nontemplate DNA during transcriptional elongation. This suggests a need for DNA duplex unwinding by helper proteins, perhaps analogous to the helicase-mediated duplex unwinding that occurs at replication forks to enable leading strand synthesis by DNA polymerase ε. A multiprotein complex (DRD1, DMS3, DMS11, RDM1) known to enable Pol V transcription might facilitate duplex unwinding via ATP-dependent DNA translocase, single-stranded DNA binding, and cohesin-like strand capture activities. These considerations are discussed and incorporated into a "transcription fork" model for Pol IV and Pol V-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation.

  16. Re-evaluating the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis during initiation of DNA sliding by Type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; Bollins, Jack; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-12-15

    DNA cleavage by the Type III restriction enzymes requires long-range protein communication between recognition sites facilitated by thermally-driven 1D diffusion. This 'DNA sliding' is initiated by hydrolysis of multiple ATPs catalysed by a helicase-like domain. Two distinct ATPase phases were observed using short oligoduplex substrates; the rapid consumption of ∼10 ATPs coupled to a protein conformation switch followed by a slower phase, the duration of which was dictated by the rate of dissociation from the recognition site. Here, we show that the second ATPase phase is both variable and only observable when DNA ends are proximal to the recognition site. On DNA with sites more distant from the ends, a single ATPase phase coupled to the conformation switch was observed and subsequent site dissociation required little or no further ATP hydrolysis. The overall DNA dissociation kinetics (encompassing site release, DNA sliding and escape via a DNA end) were not influenced by the second phase. Although the data simplifies the ATP hydrolysis scheme for Type III restriction enzymes, questions remain as to why multiple ATPs are hydrolysed to prepare for DNA sliding. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Phosphorylated STAT5 directly facilitates parvovirus B19 DNA replication in human erythroid progenitors through interaction with the MCM complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Safder S; Zou, Wei; Xu, Peng; Deng, Xuefeng; Kleiboeker, Steve; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-05-01

    Productive infection of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) exhibits high tropism for burst forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) and colony forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) progenitor cells in human bone marrow and fetal liver. This exclusive restriction of the virus replication to human erythroid progenitor cells is partly due to the intracellular factors that are essential for viral DNA replication, including erythropoietin signaling. Efficient B19V replication also requires hypoxic conditions, which upregulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathway, and phosphorylated STAT5 is essential for virus replication. In this study, our results revealed direct involvement of STAT5 in B19V DNA replication. Consensus STAT5-binding elements were identified adjacent to the NS1-binding element within the minimal origins of viral DNA replication in the B19V genome. Phosphorylated STAT5 specifically interacted with viral DNA replication origins both in vivo and in vitro, and was actively recruited within the viral DNA replication centers. Notably, STAT5 interacted with minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, suggesting that STAT5 directly facilitates viral DNA replication by recruiting the helicase complex of the cellular DNA replication machinery to viral DNA replication centers. The FDA-approved drug pimozide dephosphorylates STAT5, and it inhibited B19V replication in ex vivo expanded human erythroid progenitors. Our results demonstrated that pimozide could be a promising antiviral drug for treatment of B19V-related diseases.

  18. Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jo Halaby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80 has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

  19. Carcinogenic heavy metals replace Ca2+ for DNA binding and annealing activities of mono-ubiquitinated annexin A1 homodimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Aiko; Corcoran, George B; Hirata, Fusao

    2010-10-01

    Mono-ubiquitinated annexin A1 was purified from rat liver nuclei. The homodimer form of mono-ubiquitinated annexin A1 was able to unwind dsDNA in a Mg(2+)- and ATP-dependent manner, and to anneal ssDNA in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Phospholipids decreased the concentration of Ca(2+) required for maximal annealing activity. Heavy metals such as As(3+), Cr(6+), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) substituted for Ca(2+) in the ssDNA binding and annealing activities of annexin A1. While these metals inhibited the unwinding of dsDNA by nuclear annexin A1 in the presence of Mg(2+) and ATP, they enhanced dsDNA-dependent ATPase activity of annexin A1. Heavy metals may have produced dsDNA, a substrate for the DNA unwinding reaction, via the DNA annealing reaction. DNA synthesomes were isolated from L5178Y tk(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells in exponential growth, and were found to contain helicase activities. The As(3+)- or Cr(6+)-induced increases in ssDNA binding activity of DNA synthesomes were reduced by a mono-specific anti-annexin A1 antibody, but not by anti-Ig antibody. Anti-annexin A1 antibody also blocked the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of As(3+) or Cr(6+) towards DNA unwinding and annealing activities of DNA synthesomes. Based on these observations, it can be concluded that the effects of heavy metals on DNA annealing and unwinding activities are mediated, at least in substantial part, through actions of the mono-ubiquitinated annexin A1 homodimer. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. What Is Mitochondrial DNA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  1. Identification of novel pathway partners of p68 and p72 RNA helicases through Oncomine meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giguère Vincent

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oncomine™ database is an online collection of microarrays from various sources, usually cancer-related, and contains many "multi-arrays" (collections of analyzed microarrays, in a single study. As there are often many hundreds of tumour samples/microarrays within a single multi-array results from coexpressed genes can be analyzed, and are fully searchable. This gives a potentially significant list of coexpressed genes, which is important to define pathways in which the gene of interest is involved. However, to increase the likelihood of revealing truly significant coexpressed genes we have analyzed their frequency of occurrence over multiple studies (meta-analysis, greatly increasing the significance of results compared to those of a single study. Results We have used the DEAD-box proteins p68(Ddx5 and p72(Ddx17 as models for this coexpression frequency analysis as there are defined functions for these proteins in splicing and transcription (known functions which we could use as a basis for quality control. Furthermore, as these proteins are highly similar, interact together, and may be to some degree functionally redundant, we then analyzed the overlap between coexpressed genes of p68 and p72. This final analysis gave us a highly significant list of coexpressed genes, clustering mainly in splicing and transcription (recapitulating their published roles, but also revealing new pathways such as cytoskeleton remodelling and protein folding. We have further tested a predicted pathway partner, RNA helicase A(Dhx9 in a reciprocal meta-analysis that identified p68 and p72 as being coexpressed, and further show a direct interaction of Dhx9 with p68 and p72, attesting to the predictive nature of this technique. Conclusion In summary we have extended the capabilities of Oncomine™ by analyzing the frequency of coexpressed genes over multiple studies, and furthermore assessing the overlap with a known pathway partner (in this

  2. Systematic analysis of DNA crosslink repair pathways during development and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David M; Rieckher, Matthias; Williams, Ashley B; Schumacher, Björn

    2017-09-19

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are generated by endogenous sources and chemotherapeutics, and pose a threat to genome stability and cell survival. Using Caenorhabditis elegans mutants, we identify DNA repair factors that protect against the genotoxicity of ICLs generated by trioxsalen/ultraviolet A (TMP/UVA) during development and aging. Mutations in nucleotide excision repair (NER) components (e.g. XPA-1 and XPF-1) imparted extreme sensitivity to TMP/UVA relative to wild-type animals, manifested as developmental arrest, defects in adult tissue morphology and functionality, and shortened lifespan. Compensatory roles for global-genome (XPC-1) and transcription-coupled (CSB-1) NER in ICL sensing were exposed. The analysis also revealed contributions of homologous recombination (BRC-1/BRCA1), the MUS-81, EXO-1, SLX-1 and FAN-1 nucleases, and the DOG-1 (FANCJ) helicase in ICL resolution, influenced by the replicative-status of the cell/tissue. No obvious or critical role in ICL repair was seen for non-homologous end-joining (cku-80) or base excision repair (nth-1, exo-3), the Fanconi-related proteins BRC-2 (BRCA2/FANCD1) and FCD-2 (FANCD2), the WRN-1 or HIM-6 (BLM) helicases, or the GEN-1 or MRT-1 (SNM1) nucleases. Our efforts uncover replication-dependent and -independent ICL repair networks, and establish nematodes as a model for investigating the repair and consequences of DNA crosslinks in metazoan development and in adult post-mitotic and proliferative germ cells. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  3. E1-mediated recruitment of a UAF1-USP deubiquitinase complex facilitates human papillomavirus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Michaël; Gagnon, David; Archambault, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 helicase promotes viral DNA replication through its DNA unwinding activity and association with host factors. The E1 proteins from anogenital HPV types interact with the cellular WD repeat-containing factor UAF1 (formerly known as p80). Specific amino acid substitutions in E1 that impair this interaction inhibit maintenance of the viral episome in immortalized keratinocytes and reduce viral DNA replication by up to 70% in transient assays. In this study, we determined by affinity purification of UAF1 that it interacts with three deubiquitinating enzymes in C33A cervical carcinoma cells: USP1, a nuclear protein, and the two cytoplasmic enzymes USP12 and USP46. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that E1 assembles into a ternary complex with UAF1 and any one of these three USPs. Moreover, expression of E1 leads to a redistribution of USP12 and USP46 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies further revealed that E1 recruits these threes USPs to the viral origin in association with UAF1. The function of USP1, USP12, and USP46 in viral DNA replication was investigated by overproduction of catalytically inactive versions of these enzymes in transient assays. All three dominant negative USPs reduced HPV31 DNA replication by up to 60%, an effect that was specific, as it was not observed in assays performed with a truncated E1 lacking the UAF1-binding domain or with bovine papillomavirus 1 E1, which does not bind UAF1. These results highlight the importance of the USP1, USP12, and USP46 deubiquitinating enzymes in anogenital HPV DNA replication. Human papillomaviruses are small DNA tumor viruses that induce benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosa. HPV types that infect the anogenital tract are the etiological agents of cervical cancer, the majority of anal cancers, and a growing proportion of head-and-neck cancers. Replication of the HPV genome requires the viral protein E1, a DNA helicase

  4. Cryo-EM structure of Mcm2-7 double hexamer on DNA suggests a lagging-strand DNA extrusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yasunori; Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; Schneider, Sarah; Zhao, Gongpu; Li, Huilin

    2017-01-01

    During replication initiation, the core component of the helicase—the Mcm2-7 hexamer—is loaded on origin DNA as a double hexamer (DH). The two ring-shaped hexamers are staggered, leading to a kinked axial channel. How the origin DNA interacts with the axial channel is not understood, but the interaction could provide key insights into Mcm2-7 function and regulation. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of the Mcm2-7 DH on dsDNA and show that the DNA is zigzagged inside the central channel. Several of the Mcm subunit DNA-binding loops, such as the oligosaccharide–oligonucleotide loops, helix 2 insertion loops, and presensor 1 (PS1) loops, are well defined, and many of them interact extensively with the DNA. The PS1 loops of Mcm 3, 4, 6, and 7, but not 2 and 5, engage the lagging strand with an approximate step size of one base per subunit. Staggered coupling of the two opposing hexamers positions the DNA right in front of the two Mcm2–Mcm5 gates, with each strand being pressed against one gate. The architecture suggests that lagging-strand extrusion initiates in the middle of the DH that is composed of the zinc finger domains of both hexamers. To convert the Mcm2-7 DH structure into the Mcm2-7 hexamer structure found in the active helicase, the N-tier ring of the Mcm2-7 hexamer in the DH-dsDNA needs to tilt and shift laterally. We suggest that these N-tier ring movements cause the DNA strand separation and lagging-strand extrusion. PMID:29078375

  5. Type III restriction endonuclease EcoP15I is a heterotrimeric complex containing one Res subunit with several DNA-binding regions and ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszomirski, Karol H; Curth, Ute; Alves, Jürgen; Mackeldanz, Petra; Möncke-Buchner, Elisabeth; Schutkowski, Mike; Krüger, Detlev H; Reuter, Monika

    2012-04-01

    For efficient DNA cleavage, the Type III restriction endonuclease EcoP15I communicates with two inversely oriented recognition sites in an ATP-dependent process. EcoP15I consists of methylation (Mod) and restriction (Res) subunits forming a multifunctional enzyme complex able to methylate or to cleave DNA. In this study, we determined by different analytical methods that EcoP15I contains a single Res subunit in a Mod(2)Res stoichiometry. The Res subunit comprises a translocase (Tr) domain carrying functional motifs of superfamily 2 helicases and an endonuclease domain with a PD..D/EXK motif. We show that the isolated Tr domain retains ATP-hydrolyzing activity and binds single- and double-stranded DNA in a sequence-independent manner. To localize the regions of DNA binding, we screened peptide arrays representing the entire Res sequence for their ability to interact with DNA. We discovered four DNA-binding regions in the Tr domain and two DNA-binding regions in the endonuclease domain. Modelling of the Tr domain shows that these multiple DNA-binding regions are located on the surface, free to interact with DNA. Interestingly, the positions of the DNA-binding regions are conserved among other Type III restriction endonucleases.

  6. WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of

  7. SORPTION OF ARSENATE AND ARSENITE ON RUO2·XH2O: ANALYSIS OF SORBED PHASE OXIDATION STATE BY XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic contamination in water, soil and sediment is a global problem. Awareness of the problems created by As contamination have increased in recent years due to reports from Asia describing immense health problems due to As in drinking water [1, 2]. Changes in the U.S. regulati...

  8. Investigating asymmetric salt profiles for nanopore DNA sequencing with biological porin MspA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian C Nova

    Full Text Available Nanopore DNA sequencing is a promising single-molecule analysis technology. This technique relies on a DNA motor enzyme to control movement of DNA precisely through a nanopore. Specific experimental buffer conditions are required based on the preferred operating conditions of the DNA motor enzyme. While many DNA motor enzymes typically operate in salt concentrations under 100 mM, salt concentration simultaneously affects signal and noise magnitude as well as DNA capture rate in nanopore sequencing, limiting standard experimental conditions to salt concentrations greater than ~100 mM in order to maintain adequate resolution and experimental throughput. We evaluated the signal contribution from ions on both sides of the membrane (cis and trans by varying cis and trans [KCl] independently during phi29 DNA Polymerase-controlled translocation of DNA through the biological porin MspA. Our studies reveal that during DNA translocation, the negatively charged DNA increases cation selectivity through MspA with the majority of current produced by the flow of K+ ions from trans to cis. Varying trans [K+] has dramatic effects on the signal magnitude, whereas changing cis [Cl-] produces only small effects. Good signal-to-noise can be maintained with cis [Cl-] as small as 20 mM, if the concentration of KCl on the trans side is kept high. These results demonstrate the potential of using salt-sensitive motor enzymes (helicases, polymerases, recombinases in nanopore systems and offer a guide for selecting buffer conditions in future experiments to simultaneously optimize signal, throughput, and enzyme activity.

  9. DNA nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Nadrian C Seeman

    2003-01-01

    Since Watson and Crick’s determination of its structure nearly 50 years ago, DNA has come to fill our lives in many areas, from genetic counseling to forensics, from genomics to gene therapy. These, and other ways in which DNA affects human activities, are related to its function as genetic material, not just our genetic material, but the genetic material of all living organisms. Here, we will ignore DNA’s biological role; rather, we will discuss how the properties that make it so successful ...

  10. Rapid detection and identification of viral and bacterial fish pathogens using a DNA array‐based multiplex assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, B.; Frans, I.; Heusdens, C.

    2011-01-01

    Fish diseases can be caused by a variety of diverse organisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa, and pose a universal threat to the ornamental fish industry and aquaculture. The lack of rapid, accurate and reliable means by which fish pathogens can be detected and identified has been...... one of the main limitations in fish pathogen diagnosis and fish disease management and has consequently stimulated the search for alternative diagnostic techniques. Here, we describe a method based on multiplex and broad‐range PCR amplification combined with DNA array hybridization...... for the simultaneous detection and identification of all cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV‐1, CyHV‐2 and CyHV‐3) and some of the most important fish pathogenic Flavobacterium species, including F. branchiophilum, F. columnare and F. psychrophilum. For virus identification, the DNA polymerase and helicase genes were...

  11. Intracytoplasmic stable expression of IgG1 antibody targeting NS3 helicase inhibits replication of highly efficient hepatitis C Virus 2a clone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementi Massimo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major public health problem with more than 170 million cases of chronic infections worldwide. There is no protective vaccine currently available for HCV, therefore the development of novel strategy to prevent chronic infection is important. We reported earlier that a recombinant human antibody clone blocks viral NS3 helicase activity and inhibits replication of HCV 1b virus. This study was performed further to explore the mechanism of action of this recombinant antibody and to determine whether or not this antibody inhibits replication and infectivity of a highly efficient JFH1 HCV 2a virus clone. Results The antiviral effect of intracellular expressed antibody against the HCV 2a virus strain was examined using a full-length green fluorescence protein (GFP labeled infectious cell culture system. For this purpose, a Huh-7.5 cell line stably expressing the NS3 helicase gene specific IgG1 antibody was prepared. Replication of full-length HCV-GFP chimera RNA and negative-strand RNA was strongly inhibited in Huh-7.5 cells stably expressing NS3 antibody but not in the cells expressing an unrelated control antibody. Huh-7.5 cells stably expressing NS3 helicase antibody effectively suppressed infectious virus production after natural infection and the level of HCV in the cell free supernatant remained undetectable after first passage. In contrast, Huh-7.5 cells stably expressing an control antibody against influenza virus had no effect on virus production and high-levels of infectious HCV were detected in culture supernatants over four rounds of infectivity assay. A recombinant adenovirus based expression system was used to demonstrate that Huh-7.5 replicon cell line expressing the intracellular antibody strongly inhibited the replication of HCV-GFP RNA. Conclusion Recombinant human anti-HCV NS3 antibody clone inhibits replication of HCV 2a virus and infectious virus production. Intracellular

  12. DNA Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ellen S.; Bertino, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity that allow students to work through the exercise of DNA profiling and to grapple with some analytical and ethical questions involving a couple arranging with a surrogate mother to have a baby. Can be used to teach the principles of restriction enzyme digestion, gel electrophoresis, and probe hybridization. (MDH)

  13. NMR structure of the N-terminal domain of the replication initiator protein DnaA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemmer, David E.; Lowery, Thomas J.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Kim, Rosalind; Yokota, Hisao; Wemmer, David E.

    2007-08-07

    DnaA is an essential component in the initiation of bacterial chromosomal replication. DnaA binds to a series of 9 base pair repeats leading to oligomerization, recruitment of the DnaBC helicase, and the assembly of the replication fork machinery. The structure of the N-terminal domain (residues 1-100) of DnaA from Mycoplasma genitalium was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The backbone r.m.s.d. for the first 86 residues was 0.6 +/- 0.2 Angstrom based on 742 NOE, 50 hydrogen bond, 46 backbone angle, and 88 residual dipolar coupling restraints. Ultracentrifugation studies revealed that the domain is monomeric in solution. Features on the protein surface include a hydrophobic cleft flanked by several negative residues on one side, and positive residues on the other. A negatively charged ridge is present on the opposite face of the protein. These surfaces may be important sites of interaction with other proteins involved in the replication process. Together, the structure and NMR assignments should facilitate the design of new experiments to probe the protein-protein interactions essential for the initiation of DNA replication.

  14. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert; Gagnon, David; Gjoerup, Ole; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Loss of CHD1 causes DNA repair defects and enhances prostate cancer therapeutic responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kari, Vijayalakshmi; Mansour, Wael Yassin; Raul, Sanjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The CHD1 gene, encoding the chromo-domain helicase DNA-binding protein-1, is one of the most frequently deleted genes in prostate cancer. Here, we examined the role of CHD1 in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in prostate cancer cells. We show that CHD1 is required for the recruitment of Ct......-homologous end joining. Together, we provide evidence for a previously unknown role of CHD1 in DNA DSB repair via HR and show that CHD1 depletion sensitizes cells to PARP inhibitors, which has potential therapeutic relevance. Our findings suggest that CHD1 deletion, like BRCA1/2 mutation in ovarian cancer, may......IP to chromatin and subsequent end resection during DNA DSB repair. Our data support a role for CHD1 in opening the chromatin around the DSB to facilitate the recruitment of homologous recombination (HR) proteins. Consequently, depletion of CHD1 specifically affects HR-mediated DNA repair but not non...

  16. The Role of the N-Terminal Domains of Bacterial Initiator DnaA in the Assembly and Regulation of the Bacterial Replication Initiation Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2017-01-01

    The primary role of the bacterial protein DnaA is to initiate chromosomal replication. The DnaA protein binds to DNA at the origin of chromosomal replication (oriC) and assembles into a filament that unwinds double-stranded DNA. Through interaction with various other proteins, DnaA also controls the frequency and/or timing of chromosomal replication at the initiation step. Escherichia coli DnaA also recruits DnaB helicase, which is present in unwound single-stranded DNA and in turn recruits other protein machinery for replication. Additionally, DnaA regulates the expression of certain genes in E. coli and a few other species. Acting as a multifunctional factor, DnaA is composed of four domains that have distinct, mutually dependent roles. For example, C-terminal domain IV interacts with double-stranded DnaA boxes. Domain III drives ATP-dependent oligomerization, allowing the protein to form a filament that unwinds DNA and subsequently binds to and stabilizes single-stranded DNA in the initial replication bubble; this domain also interacts with multiple proteins that control oligomerization. Domain II constitutes a flexible linker between C-terminal domains III–IV and N-terminal domain I, which mediates intermolecular interactions between DnaA and binds to other proteins that affect DnaA activity and/or formation of the initiation complex. Of these four domains, the role of the N-terminus (domains I–II) in the assembly of the initiation complex is the least understood and appears to be the most species-dependent region of the protein. Thus, in this review, we focus on the function of the N-terminus of DnaA in orisome formation and the regulation of its activity in the initiation complex in different bacteria. PMID:28489024

  17. Involvement of Werner syndrome protein in MUTYH-mediated repair of oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Parasuraman, Prasanna; Mihaljevic, Boris; van Loon, Barbara; Burdova, Kamila; König, Christiane; Furrer, Antonia; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Hübscher, Ulrich; Janscak, Pavel

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species constantly generated as by-products of cellular metabolism readily attack genomic DNA creating mutagenic lesions such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxo-G) that promote aging. 8-oxo-G:A mispairs arising during DNA replication are eliminated by base excision repair initiated by the MutY DNA glycosylase homologue (MUTYH). Here, by using formaldehyde crosslinking in mammalian cell extracts, we demonstrate that the WRN helicase/exonuclease defective in the premature aging disorder Werner syndrome (WS) is recruited to DNA duplex containing an 8-oxo-G:A mispair in a manner dependent on DNA polymerase λ (Polλ) that catalyzes accurate DNA synthesis over 8-oxo-G. Similarly, by immunofluorescence, we show that Polλ is required for accumulation of WRN at sites of 8-oxo-G lesions in human cells. Moreover, we show that nuclear focus formation of WRN and Polλ induced by oxidative stress is dependent on ongoing DNA replication and on the presence of MUTYH. Cell viability assays reveal that depletion of MUTYH suppresses the hypersensitivity of cells lacking WRN and/or Polλ to oxidative stress. Biochemical studies demonstrate that WRN binds to the catalytic domain of Polλ and specifically stimulates DNA gap filling by Polλ over 8-oxo-G followed by strand displacement synthesis. Our results suggest that WRN promotes long-patch DNA repair synthesis by Polλ during MUTYH-initiated repair of 8-oxo-G:A mispairs.

  18. CgII cleaves DNA using a mechanism distinct from other ATP-dependent restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toliusis, Paulius; Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas; Szczelkun, Mark D; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2017-08-21

    The restriction endonuclease CglI from Corynebacterium glutamicum recognizes an asymmetric 5'-GCCGC-3' site and cleaves the DNA 7 and 6/7 nucleotides downstream on the top and bottom DNA strands, respectively, in an NTP-hydrolysis dependent reaction. CglI is composed of two different proteins: an endonuclease (R.CglI) and a DEAD-family helicase-like ATPase (H.CglI). These subunits form a heterotetrameric complex with R2H2 stoichiometry. However, the R2H2·CglI complex has only one nuclease active site sufficient to cut one DNA strand suggesting that two complexes are required to introduce a double strand break. Here, we report studies to evaluate the DNA cleavage mechanism of CglI. Using one- and two-site circular DNA substrates we show that CglI does not require two sites on the same DNA for optimal catalytic activity. However, one-site linear DNA is a poor substrate, supporting a mechanism where CglI complexes must communicate along the one-dimensional DNA contour before cleavage is activated. Based on experimental data, we propose that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis by CglI produces translocation on DNA preferentially in a downstream direction from the target, although upstream translocation is also possible. Our results are consistent with a mechanism of CglI action that is distinct from that of other ATP-dependent restriction-modification enzymes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Circular DNA Intermediate in the Duplication of Nile Tilapia vasa Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Koji; Conte, Matthew A.; Kocher, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    vasa is a highly conserved RNA helicase involved in animal germ cell development. Among vertebrate species, it is typically present as a single copy per genome. Here we report the isolation and sequencing of BAC clones for Nile tilapia vasa genes. Contrary to a previous report that Nile tilapia have a single copy of the vasa gene, we find evidence for at least three vasa gene loci. The vasa gene locus was duplicated from the original site and integrated into two distant novel sites. For one of these insertions we find evidence that the duplication was mediated by a circular DNA intermediate. This mechanism of gene duplication may explain the origin of isolated gene duplicates during the evolution of fish genomes. These data provide a foundation for studying the role of multiple vasa genes in the development of tilapia gonads, and will contribute to investigations of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and evolution in cichlid fishes. PMID:22216289

  20. Circular DNA intermediate in the duplication of Nile tilapia vasa genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Fujimura

    Full Text Available vasa is a highly conserved RNA helicase involved in animal germ cell development. Among vertebrate species, it is typically present as a single copy per genome. Here we report the isolation and sequencing of BAC clones for Nile tilapia vasa genes. Contrary to a previous report that Nile tilapia have a single copy of the vasa gene, we find evidence for at least three vasa gene loci. The vasa gene locus was duplicated from the original site and integrated into two distant novel sites. For one of these insertions we find evidence that the duplication was mediated by a circular DNA intermediate. This mechanism of gene duplication may explain the origin of isolated gene duplicates during the evolution of fish genomes. These data provide a foundation for studying the role of multiple vasa genes in the development of tilapia gonads, and will contribute to investigations of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and evolution in cichlid fishes.

  1. Structure of the SPRY domain of the human RNA helicase DDX1, a putative interaction platform within a DEAD-box protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Julian N.; Meinhart, Anton, E-mail: anton.meinhart@mpimf-heidelberg.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-08-25

    The structure of the SPRY domain of the human RNA helicase DDX1 was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The SPRY domain provides a putative protein–protein interaction platform within DDX1 that differs from other SPRY domains in its structure and conserved regions. The human RNA helicase DDX1 in the DEAD-box family plays an important role in RNA processing and has been associated with HIV-1 replication and tumour progression. Whereas previously described DEAD-box proteins have a structurally conserved core, DDX1 shows a unique structural feature: a large SPRY-domain insertion in its RecA-like consensus fold. SPRY domains are known to function as protein–protein interaction platforms. Here, the crystal structure of the SPRY domain of human DDX1 (hDSPRY) is reported at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure reveals two layers of concave, antiparallel β-sheets that stack onto each other and a third β-sheet beneath the β-sandwich. A comparison with SPRY-domain structures from other eukaryotic proteins showed that the general β-sandwich fold is conserved; however, differences were detected in the loop regions, which were identified in other SPRY domains to be essential for interaction with cognate partners. In contrast, in hDSPRY these loop regions are not strictly conserved across species. Interestingly, though, a conserved patch of positive surface charge is found that may replace the connecting loops as a protein–protein interaction surface. The data presented here comprise the first structural information on DDX1 and provide insights into the unique domain architecture of this DEAD-box protein. By providing the structure of a putative interaction domain of DDX1, this work will serve as a basis for further studies of the interaction network within the hetero-oligomeric complexes of DDX1 and of its recruitment to the HIV-1 Rev protein as a viral replication factor.

  2. period -1 encodes an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that influences nutritional compensation of the Neurospora circadian clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Jillian M.; Bartholomai, Bradley M.; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Baker, Scott E.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2015-12-08

    Mutants in the period-1 (prd-1) gene, characterized by a recessive allele, display a reduced growth rate and period lengthening of the developmental cycle controlled by the circadian clock. We refined the genetic location of prd-1 and used whole genome sequencing to find the mutation defining it, confirming the identity of prd-1 by rescuing the mutant circadian phenotype via transformation. PRD-1 is an RNA helicase whose orthologs, DDX5 and DDX17 in humans and Dbp2p in yeast, are implicated in various processes including transcriptional regulation, elongation, and termination, 23 ribosome biogenesis, and RNA decay. Although prdi-1smutantssiois an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, member of a sub-family display a long period (~25 hrs) circadian developmental cycle, they interestingly display a wild type period when the core circadian oscillator is tracked using a frq-luciferase transcriptional fusion under conditions of limiting nutritional carbon; the core oscillator runs with a long period under glucose-sufficient conditions. Thus PRD-1 clearly impacts the circadian oscillator and is not only part of a metabolic oscillator ancillary to the core clock. PRD-1 is an essential protein and its expression is neither light-regulated nor clock-regulated. However, it is transiently induced by glucose; in the presence of sufficient glucose PRD-1 is in the nucleus until glucose runs out which elicits its disappearance from the nucleus. Because circadian period length is carbon concentration-dependent, prd­-1 may be formally viewed as clock mutant with defective nutritional compensation of circadian period length.

  3. DEAD-box helicase DDX27 regulates 3′ end formation of ribosomal 47S RNA and stably associates with the PeBoW-complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellner, Markus; Rohrmoser, Michaela [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Forné, Ignasi [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Voss, Kirsten; Burger, Kaspar; Mühl, Bastian; Gruber-Eber, Anita [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Kremmer, Elisabeth [Institute of Molecular Immunology, Helmholtz Center Munich, Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany); Imhof, Axel [Adolf Butenandt Institute, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Schillerstr. 44, Munich 80336 (Germany); Eick, Dirk, E-mail: eick@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Department of Molecular Epigenetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Marchioninistr. 25, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    PeBoW, a trimeric complex consisting of pescadillo (Pes1), block of proliferation (Bop1), and the WD repeat protein 12 (WDR12), is essential for processing and maturation of mammalian 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs. Applying a mass spectrometric analysis, we identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX27 as stably associated factor of the PeBoW-complex. DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW-complex via an evolutionary conserved F×F motif in the N-terminal domain and is recruited to the nucleolus via its basic C-terminal domain. This recruitment is RNA-dependent and occurs independently of the PeBoW-complex. Interestingly, knockdown of DDX27, but not of Pes1, induces the accumulation of an extended form of the primary 47S rRNA. We conclude that DDX27 can interact specifically with the Pes1 and Bop1 but fulfils critical function(s) for proper 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA independently of the PeBoW-complex. - Highlights: • DEAD-box helicase DDX27 is a new constituent of the PeBoW-complex. • The N-terminal F×F motif of DDX27 interacts with the PeBoW components Pes1 and Bop1. • Nucleolar anchoring of DDX27 via its basic C-terminal domain is RNA dependent. • Knockdown of DDX27 induces a specific defect in 3′ end formation of 47S rRNA.

  4. DNA Chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Imagine a world without identity cards; no I-cards for the college or office or bank account or anything! All you are carrying is a small (say, 2cm x 2cm) 'DNA-chip', which has the whole of your genetic profile on it. Your identity cannot get more authentic than that. Imagine a world where marriages are not decided by matching ...

  5. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  6. Stool DNA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The stool DNA test is a noninvasive laboratory test that identifies DNA changes in the cells of a stool sample. ... the presence of cancer. If a stool DNA test detects abnormal DNA, additional testing may be used to investigate the ...

  7. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Phosphorylates DDX41 and Activates Its Binding of dsDNA and STING to Initiate Type 1 Interferon Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Guan Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system senses cytosolic dsDNA and bacterial cyclic dinucleotides and initiates signaling via the adaptor STING to induce type 1 interferon (IFN response. We demonstrate here that BTK-deficient cells have impaired IFN-β production and TBK1/IRF3 activation when stimulated with agonists or infected with pathogens that activate STING signaling. BTK interacts with STING and DDX41 helicase. The kinase and SH3/SH2 interaction domains of BTK bind, respectively, the DEAD-box domain of DDX41 and transmembrane region of STING. BTK phosphorylates DDX41, and its kinase activities are critical for STING-mediated IFN-β production. We show that Tyr364 and Tyr414 of DDX41 are critical for its recognition of AT-rich DNA and binding to STING, and tandem mass spectrometry identifies Tyr414 as the BTK phosphorylation site. Modeling studies further indicate that phospho-Tyr414 strengthens DDX41’s interaction with STING. Hence, BTK plays a critical role in the activation of DDX41 helicase and STING signaling.

  8. Synergistic interactions between RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54, three partially homologous yeast DNA repair genes each in a different repair pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassner, B.J.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable homology has recently been noted between the proteins encoded by the RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These genes are members of the RAD6, RAD3 and RAD50 epistasis groups, respectively, which correspond to the three major DNA repair pathways in yeast. These proteins also share homology with other eucaryotic proteins, including those encoded by SNF2 and MO1 of yeast, brahma and lodestar of Drosophila and the human ERCC6 gene. The homology shares features with known helicases, suggesting a newly identified helicase subfamily. We have constructed a series of congenic single-, double- and triple-deletion mutants involving RAD5, RAD16 and RAD54 to examine the interactions between these genes. Each deletion mutation alone has only a moderate effect on survival after exposure to UV radiation. Each pairwise-double mutant exhibits marked synergism. The triple-deletion mutant displays further synergism. These results confirm the assignment of the RAD54 gene to the RAD50 epistasis group and suggest that the RAD16 gene plays a larger role in DNA repair after exposure to UV radiation than has been suggested previously. Additionally, the proteins encoded by RAD5, RAD16, and RAD54 may compete for the same substrate after damage induced by UV radiation, possibly at an early step in their respective pathways. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Genetic evidence for a role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mph1 in recombinational DNA repair under replicative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Evandro Rocco; Ede, Christopher; Schildmann, Michael; Schürer, Kirsten Anke; Kramer, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    In yeast as in human, DNA helicases play critical roles in assisting replication fork progression. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPH1 gene, homologue of human FANCM, has been involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair. We describe a synthetic growth defect of an mph1 deletion if combined with an srs2 deletion that can result-depending on the genetic background-in synthetic lethality. The lethality is suppressed by mutations in homologous recombination (rad51, rad52, rad55, rad57) and in the DNA damage checkpoint (rad9, rad24, rad17). Importantly, rad54 and mph1, epistatic for damage sensitivity, are subadditive for spontaneous mutator phenotype. Therefore, Mph1 could be placed at the Rad51-mediated strand invasion process, with a function distinct from Rad54. Moreover, siz1 mutation is viable with mph1 and additive for DNA damage sensitivity. mph1 srs2 double mutants, isolated in a background where they are viable, are synergistically sensitive to DNA damage. Moderate overexpression of SGS1 partially suppresses this sensitivity. Finally, we observe an epistatic relationship in terms of sensitivity to camptothecin of mms4 or mus81 to mph1. Overall, our results support a role of Mph1 in assisting replication progression. We propose two models for the resumption of DNA synthesis under replicative stress where Mph1 is placed at the sister chromatid interaction step.

  10. 3′-Terminated Overhangs Regulate DNA Double-Strand Break Processing in Escherichia coli

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    Edyta Đermić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Double-strand breaks (DSBs are lethal DNA lesions, which are repaired by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. To study DSB processing in vivo, we induced DSBs into the E. coli chromosome by γ-irradiation and measured chromosomal degradation. We show that the DNA degradation is regulated by RecA protein concentration and its rate of association with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. RecA decreased DNA degradation in wild-type, recB, and recD strains, indicating that it is a general phenomenon in E. coli. On the other hand, DNA degradation was greatly reduced and unaffected by RecA in the recB1080 mutant (which produces long overhangs and in a strain devoid of four exonucleases that degrade a 3′ tail (ssExos. 3′–5′ ssExos deficiency is epistatic to RecA deficiency concerning DNA degradation, suggesting that bound RecA is shielding the 3′ tail from degradation by 3′–5′ ssExos. Since 3′ tail preservation is common to all these situations, we infer that RecA polymerization constitutes a subset of mechanisms for preserving the integrity of 3′ tails emanating from DSBs, along with 3′ tail’s massive length, or prevention of their degradation by inactivation of 3′–5′ ssExos. Thus, we conclude that 3′ overhangs are crucial in controlling the extent of DSB processing in E. coli. This study suggests a regulatory mechanism for DSB processing in E. coli, wherein 3′ tails impose a negative feedback loop on DSB processing reactions, specifically on helicase reloading onto dsDNA ends.

  11. DNA polymerase θ (POLQ), double-strand break repair, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard D; Doublié, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    DNA polymerase theta (pol θ) is encoded in the genomes of many eukaryotes, though not in fungi. Pol θ is encoded by the POLQ gene in mammalian cells. The C-terminal third of the protein is a family A DNA polymerase with additional insertion elements relative to prokaryotic homologs. The N-terminal third is a helicase-like domain with DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Pol θ is important in the repair of genomic double-strand breaks (DSBs) from many sources. These include breaks formed by ionizing radiation and topoisomerase inhibitors, breaks arising at stalled DNA replication forks, breaks introduced during diversification steps of the mammalian immune system, and DSB induced by CRISPR-Cas9. Pol θ participates in a route of DSB repair termed "alternative end-joining" (altEJ). AltEJ is independent of the DNA binding Ku protein complex and requires DNA end resection. Pol θ is able to mediate joining of two resected 3' ends harboring DNA sequence microhomology. "Signatures" of Pol θ action during altEJ are the frequent utilization of longer microhomologies, and the insertion of additional sequences at joining sites. The mechanism of end-joining employs the ability of Pol θ to tightly grasp a 3' terminus through unique contacts in the active site, allowing extension from minimally paired primers. Pol θ is involved in controlling the frequency of chromosome translocations and preserves genome integrity by limiting large deletions. It may also play a backup role in DNA base excision repair. POLQ is a member of a cluster of similarly upregulated genes that are strongly correlated with poor clinical outcome for breast cancer, ovarian cancer and other cancer types. Inhibition of pol θ is a compelling approach for combination therapy of radiosensitization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. DNA Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Gidrol, X.

    Genomics has revolutionised biological and biomedical research. This revolution was predictable on the basis of its two driving forces: the ever increasing availability of genome sequences and the development of new technology able to exploit them. Up until now, technical limitations meant that molecular biology could only analyse one or two parameters per experiment, providing relatively little information compared with the great complexity of the systems under investigation. This gene by gene approach is inadequate to understand biological systems containing several thousand genes. It is essential to have an overall view of the DNA, RNA, and relevant proteins. A simple inventory of the genome is not sufficient to understand the functions of the genes, or indeed the way that cells and organisms work. For this purpose, functional studies based on whole genomes are needed. Among these new large-scale methods of molecular analysis, DNA microarrays provide a way of studying the genome and the transcriptome. The idea of integrating a large amount of data derived from a support with very small area has led biologists to call these chips, borrowing the term from the microelectronics industry. At the beginning of the 1990s, the development of DNA chips on nylon membranes [1, 2], then on glass [3] and silicon [4] supports, made it possible for the first time to carry out simultaneous measurements of the equilibrium concentration of all the messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcribed RNA in a cell. These microarrays offer a wide range of applications, in both fundamental and clinical research, providing a method for genome-wide characterisation of changes occurring within a cell or tissue, as for example in polymorphism studies, detection of mutations, and quantitative assays of gene copies. With regard to the transcriptome, it provides a way of characterising differentially expressed genes, profiling given biological states, and identifying regulatory channels.

  13. A novel role for RAD54: this host protein modulates geminiviral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliappan, Kosalai; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Suyal, Geetika; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Geminiviruses primarily encode only few factors, such as replication initiator protein (Rep), and need various host cellular machineries for rolling-circle replication (RCR) and/or recombination-dependent replication (RDR). We have identified a host factor, RAD54, in a screen for Rep-interacting partners and observed its role in DNA replication of the geminivirus mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV). We identified the interacting domains ScRAD54 and MYMIV-Rep and observed that ScRAD54 enhanced MYMIV-Rep nicking, ATPase, and helicase activities. An in vitro replication assay demonstrated that the geminiviral DNA replication reaction depends on the viral Rep protein, viral origin of replication sequences, and host cell-cycle proteins. Rad54-deficient yeast nuclear extract did not support in vitro viral DNA replication, while exogenous addition of the purified ScRAD54 protein enhanced replication. The role of RAD54 in in planta replication was confirmed by the transient replication assay; i.e., agroinoculation studies. RAD54 is a well-known recombination/repair protein that uses its DNA-dependent ATPase activity in conjunction with several other host factors. However, this study demonstrates for the first time that the eukaryotic rolling-circle replicon depends on the RAD54 protein.

  14. The ERI-6/7 Helicase Acts at the First Stage of an siRNA Amplification Pathway That Targets Recent Gene Duplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sylvia E. J.; Montgomery, Taiowa A.; Zhang, Chi; Fahlgren, Noah; Breen, Peter C.; Hwang, Alexia; Sullivan, Christopher M.; Carrington, James C.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a class of naturally occuring regulatory RNAs found in fungi, plants, and animals. Some endogenous siRNAs are required to silence transposons or function in chromosome segregation; however, the specific roles of most endogenous siRNAs are unclear. The helicase gene eri-6/7 was identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by the enhanced response to exogenous double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) of the null mutant. eri-6/7 encodes a helicase homologous to small RNA factors Armitage in Drosophila, SDE3 in Arabidopsis, and Mov10 in humans. Here we show that eri-6/7 mutations cause the loss of 26-nucleotide (nt) endogenous siRNAs derived from genes and pseudogenes in oocytes and embryos, as well as deficiencies in somatic 22-nucleotide secondary siRNAs corresponding to the same loci. About 80 genes are eri-6/7 targets that generate the embryonic endogenous siRNAs that silence the corresponding mRNAs. These 80 genes share extensive nucleotide sequence homology and are poorly conserved, suggesting a role for these endogenous siRNAs in silencing of and thereby directing the fate of recently acquired, duplicated genes. Unlike most endogenous siRNAs in C. elegans, eri-6/7–dependent siRNAs require Dicer. We identify that the eri-6/7–dependent siRNAs have a passenger strand that is ∼19 nt and is inset by ∼3–4 nts from both ends of the 26 nt guide siRNA, suggesting non-canonical Dicer processing. Mutations in the Argonaute ERGO-1, which associates with eri-6/7–dependent 26 nt siRNAs, cause passenger strand stabilization, indicating that ERGO-1 is required to separate the siRNA duplex, presumably through endonucleolytic cleavage of the passenger strand. Thus, like several other siRNA–associated Argonautes with a conserved RNaseH motif, ERGO-1 appears to be required for siRNA maturation. PMID:22102828

  15. The ERI-6/7 helicase acts at the first stage of an siRNA amplification pathway that targets recent gene duplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia E J Fischer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs are a class of naturally occuring regulatory RNAs found in fungi, plants, and animals. Some endogenous siRNAs are required to silence transposons or function in chromosome segregation; however, the specific roles of most endogenous siRNAs are unclear. The helicase gene eri-6/7 was identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by the enhanced response to exogenous double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs of the null mutant. eri-6/7 encodes a helicase homologous to small RNA factors Armitage in Drosophila, SDE3 in Arabidopsis, and Mov10 in humans. Here we show that eri-6/7 mutations cause the loss of 26-nucleotide (nt endogenous siRNAs derived from genes and pseudogenes in oocytes and embryos, as well as deficiencies in somatic 22-nucleotide secondary siRNAs corresponding to the same loci. About 80 genes are eri-6/7 targets that generate the embryonic endogenous siRNAs that silence the corresponding mRNAs. These 80 genes share extensive nucleotide sequence homology and are poorly conserved, suggesting a role for these endogenous siRNAs in silencing of and thereby directing the fate of recently acquired, duplicated genes. Unlike most endogenous siRNAs in C. elegans, eri-6/7-dependent siRNAs require Dicer. We identify that the eri-6/7-dependent siRNAs have a passenger strand that is ∼19 nt and is inset by ∼3-4 nts from both ends of the 26 nt guide siRNA, suggesting non-canonical Dicer processing. Mutations in the Argonaute ERGO-1, which associates with eri-6/7-dependent 26 nt siRNAs, cause passenger strand stabilization, indicating that ERGO-1 is required to separate the siRNA duplex, presumably through endonucleolytic cleavage of the passenger strand. Thus, like several other siRNA-associated Argonautes with a conserved RNaseH motif, ERGO-1 appears to be required for siRNA maturation.

  16. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV testing in women; Cervical cancer - HPV DNA test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test ... The HPV DNA test may be done during a Pap smear . You lie on a table and place your feet in stirrups. The ...

  17. Synthesis of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  18. Differential Tus-Ter binding and lock formation: implications for DNA replication termination in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Morgane J J; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2012-10-01

    In E. coli, DNA replication termination occurs at Ter sites and is mediated by Tus. Two clusters of five Ter sites are located on each side of the terminus region and constrain replication forks in a polar manner. The polarity is due to the formation of the Tus-Ter-lock intermediate. Recently, it has been shown that DnaB helicase which unwinds DNA at the replication fork is preferentially stopped at the non-permissive face of a Tus-Ter complex without formation of the Tus-Ter-lock and that fork pausing efficiency is sequence dependent, raising two essential questions: Does the affinity of Tus for the different Ter sites correlate with fork pausing efficiency? Is formation of the Tus-Ter-lock the key factor in fork pausing? The combined use of surface plasmon resonance and GFP-Basta showed that Tus binds strongly to TerA-E and G, moderately to TerH-J and weakly to TerF. Out of these ten Ter sites only two, TerF and H, were not able to form significant Tus-Ter-locks. Finally, Tus's resistance to dissociation from Ter sites and the strength of the Tus-Ter-locks correlate with the differences in fork pausing efficiency observed for the different Ter sites by Duggin and Bell (2009).

  19. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S.; Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.rieder@ars.usda.gov

    2014-03-15

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication. - Highlights: • We examined the role of JMJD6 in FMDV-induced RHA demethylation process. • Using an arginine demethylation assay showed that JMJD6 is involved in RHA demethylation. • A demethylases inhibitor reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of RHA and FMDV titers.

  20. The p68 and p72 DEAD box RNA helicases interact with HDAC1 and repress transcription in a promoter-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brian J; Bates, Gaynor J; Nicol, Samantha M; Gregory, David J; Perkins, Neil D; Fuller-Pace, Frances V

    2004-01-01

    Background p68 (Ddx5) and p72 (Ddx17) are highly related members of the DEAD box family and are established RNA helicases. They have been implicated in growth regulation and have been shown to be involved in both pre-mRNA and pre-rRNA processing. More recently, however, these proteins have been reported to act as transcriptional co-activators for estrogen-receptor alpha (ERα). Furthermore these proteins were shown to interact with co-activators p300/CBP and the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Taken together these reports suggest a role for p68 and p72 in transcriptional activation. Results In this report we show that p68 and p72 can, in some contexts, act as transcriptional repressors. Targeting of p68 or p72 to constitutive promoters leads to repression of transcription; this repression is promoter-specific. Moreover both p68 and p72 associate with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), a well-established transcriptional repression protein. Conclusions It is therefore clear that p68 and p72 are important transcriptional regulators, functioning as co-activators and/or co-repressors depending on the context of the promoter and the transcriptional complex in which they exist. PMID:15298701

  1. The p68 and p72 DEAD box RNA helicases interact with HDAC1 and repress transcription in a promoter-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol Samantha M

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p68 (Ddx5 and p72 (Ddx17 are highly related members of the DEAD box family and are established RNA helicases. They have been implicated in growth regulation and have been shown to be involved in both pre-mRNA and pre-rRNA processing. More recently, however, these proteins have been reported to act as transcriptional co-activators for estrogen-receptor alpha (ERα. Furthermore these proteins were shown to interact with co-activators p300/CBP and the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Taken together these reports suggest a role for p68 and p72 in transcriptional activation. Results In this report we show that p68 and p72 can, in some contexts, act as transcriptional repressors. Targeting of p68 or p72 to constitutive promoters leads to repression of transcription; this repression is promoter-specific. Moreover both p68 and p72 associate with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1, a well-established transcriptional repression protein. Conclusions It is therefore clear that p68 and p72 are important transcriptional regulators, functioning as co-activators and/or co-repressors depending on the context of the promoter and the transcriptional complex in which they exist.

  2. Loss of the RNA helicase SKIV2L2 impairs mitotic progression and replication-dependent histone mRNA turnover in murine cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onderak, Alexis M; Anderson, James T

    2017-06-01

    RNA surveillance via the nuclear exosome requires cofactors such as the helicase SKIV2L2 to process and degrade certain noncoding RNAs. This research aimed to characterize the phenotype associated with RNAi knockdown of Skiv2l2 in two murine cancer cell lines: Neuro2A and P19. SKIV2L2 depletion in Neuro2A and P19 cells induced changes in gene expression indicative of cell differentiation and reduced cellular proliferation by 30%. Propidium iodide-based cell-cycle analysis of Skiv2l2 knockdown cells revealed defective progression through the G2/M phase and an accumulation of mitotic cells, suggesting SKIV2L2 contributes to mitotic progression. Since SKIV2L2 targets RNAs to the nuclear exosome for processing and degradation, we identified RNA targets elevated in cells depleted of SKIV2L2 that could account for the observed twofold increase in mitotic cells. Skiv2l2 knockdown cells accumulated replication-dependent histone mRNAs, among other RNAs, that could impede mitotic progression and indirectly trigger differentiation. © 2017 Onderak and Anderson; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Structure and reconstitution of yeast Mpp6-nuclear exosome complexes reveals that Mpp6 stimulates RNA decay and recruits the Mtr4 helicase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasmuth, Elizabeth V. [Structural Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States; Zinder, John C. [Structural Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States; Tri-Institutional Training Program in Chemical Biology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States; Zattas, Dimitrios [Structural Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States; Das, Mom [Structural Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States; Lima, Christopher D. [Structural Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States

    2017-07-25

    Nuclear RNA exosomes catalyze a range of RNA processing and decay activities that are coordinated in part by cofactors, including Mpp6, Rrp47, and the Mtr4 RNA helicase. Mpp6 interacts with the nine-subunit exosome core, while Rrp47 stabilizes the exoribonuclease Rrp6 and recruits Mtr4, but it is less clear if these cofactors work together. Using biochemistry with Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins, we show that Rrp47 and Mpp6 stimulate exosome-mediated RNA decay, albeit with unique dependencies on elements within the nuclear exosome. Mpp6-exosomes can recruit Mtr4, while Mpp6 and Rrp47 each contribute to Mtr4-dependent RNA decay, with maximal Mtr4-dependent decay observed with both cofactors. The 3.3 Å structure of a twelve-subunit nuclear Mpp6 exosome bound to RNA shows the central region of Mpp6 bound to the exosome core, positioning its Mtr4 recruitment domain next to Rrp6 and the exosome central channel. Genetic analysis reveals interactions that are largely consistent with our model.

  4. Single amino acid change in the helicase domain of the putative RNA replicase of turnip crinkle virus alters symptom intensification by virulent satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collmer, C W; Stenzler, L; Chen, X; Fay, N; Hacker, D; Howell, S H

    1992-01-01

    The virulent satellite [satellite C (sat C)] of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a small pathogenic RNA that intensifies symptoms in TCV-infected turnip plants (Brassica campestris). The virulence of sat C is determined by properties of the satellite itself and is influenced by the helper virus. Symptoms produced in infections with sat C differ in severity depending on the helper virus. The TCV-JI helper virus produces more severe symptoms than the TCV-B helper virus when inoculated with sat C. To find determinants in the TCV helper virus genome that affect satellite virulence, the TCV-JI genome was cloned and the sequence compared to the TCV-B genome. The genomes were found to differ by only five base changes, and only one of the base changes, at nucleotide position 1025, produced an amino acid change, an aspartic acid----glycine in the putative viral replicase. A chimeric TCV genome (TCV-B/JI) containing four of the five base changes (including the base change at position 1025) and a mutant TCV-B genome (TCV-B1025G) containing a single base substitution at position 1025 converted the TCV-B genome into a form that produces severe symptoms with sat C. The base change a position 1025 is located in the helicase of the putative viral replicase, and symptom intensification appears to result from differences in the rate of replication of the satellite supported by the two helper viruses. Images PMID:1370351

  5. Identification of human genes involved in cellular responses to ionizing radiation: molecular and cellular studies of gene encoding the p68 helicase in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaa, F.

    2003-12-01

    Cells submitted to genotoxic factors -like IR- activate several and important mechanisms such as repair, cell cycle arrest or 'apoptosis' to maintain genetic integrity. So, the damaged cells will induce many and different genes. The human transcriptome analysis by 'SSH' method in a human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 γ-irradiated versus not irradiated, allowed to identify about one hundred genes. Among of these genes, we have focused our study on a radio-induced gene encoding the p68 helicase. In the conditions of irradiation used, our results show that the kinetic and the regulation of this gene expression differs between the nature of radiations used. Indeed, in γ-irradiated mammalian cells, ATM, a protein kinase activated by DSB and IR, is required to induce quickly P68 gene via the important transcription factor p53 stabilized by IR. In the case of UVC-irradiated cells, the P68 gene induction is late and the intracellular signalling pathway that lead to this induction is independent from the p53 protein. Finally, we show that the p68 protein under-expression is responsible for an increased radiosensitivity of MCF7 cells. Consequently, we can postulate that the p68 protein is involved in cellular responses to radiations to reduce the increased radiosensitivity of cells exposed to γ-rays. (author)

  6. Low cost extraction and isothermal amplification of DNA for infectious diarrhea diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichu Huang

    Full Text Available In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile DNA in the stool of infected patients. We used helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA to amplify the DNA in a low-cost, thermoplastic reaction chip heated with a pair of commercially available toe warmers, while using a simple Styrofoam insulator. DNA was extracted from known positive and negative stool samples. The DNA extraction protocol utilized an air pressure driven solid phase extraction device run using a standard bicycle pump. The simple heater setup required no electricity or battery and was capable of maintaining the temperature at 65°C±2°C for 55 min, suitable for repeatable HDA amplification. Experiments were performed to explore the adaptability of the system for use in a range of ambient conditions. When compared to a traditional centrifuge extraction protocol and a laboratory thermocycler, this disposable, no power platform achieved approximately the same lower limit of detection (1.25×10(-2 pg of C. difficile DNA while requiring much less raw material and a fraction of the lab infrastructure and cost. This proof of concept study could greatly impact the accessibility of molecular assays for applications in global health.

  7. G-Quadruplexes Involving Both Strands of Genomic DNA Are Highly Abundant and Colocalize with Functional Sites in the Human Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej S Kudlicki

    Full Text Available The G-quadruplex is a non-canonical DNA structure biologically significant in DNA replication, transcription and telomere stability. To date, only G4s with all guanines originating from the same strand of DNA have been considered in the context of the human nuclear genome. Here, I discuss interstrand topological configurations of G-quadruplex DNA, consisting of guanines from both strands of genomic DNA; an algorithm is presented for predicting such structures. I have identified over 550,000 non-overlapping interstrand G-quadruplex forming sequences in the human genome--significantly more than intrastrand configurations. Functional analysis of interstrand G-quadruplex sites shows strong association with transcription initiation, the results are consistent with the XPB and XPD transcriptional helicases binding only to G-quadruplex DNA with interstrand topology. Interstrand quadruplexes are also enriched in origin of replication sites. Several topology classes of interstrand quadruplex-forming sequences are possible, and different topologies are enriched in different types of structural elements. The list of interstrand quadruplex forming sequences, and the computer program used for their prediction are available at the web address http://moment.utmb.edu/allquads.

  8. The crystal structure of the SV40 T-antigen origin binding domain in complex with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Moine, Stephanie; Bochkareva, Elena; Bochkarev, Alexey; Bullock, Peter A; Bohm, Andrew

    2007-02-01

    DNA replication is initiated upon binding of "initiators" to origins of replication. In simian virus 40 (SV40), the core origin contains four pentanucleotide binding sites organized as pairs of inverted repeats. Here we describe the crystal structures of the origin binding domain (obd) of the SV40 large T-antigen (T-ag) both with and without a subfragment of origin-containing DNA. In the co-structure, two T-ag obds are oriented in a head-to-head fashion on the same face of the DNA, and each T-ag obd engages the major groove. Although the obds are very close to each other when bound to this DNA target, they do not contact one another. These data provide a high-resolution structural model that explains site-specific binding to the origin and suggests how these interactions help direct the oligomerization events that culminate in assembly of the helicase-active dodecameric complex of T-ag.

  9. Central role of the Holliday junction helicase RuvAB in vlsE recombination and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious bacteria and protozoa including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. VlsE, a 35 kDa surface-exposed lipoprotein, undergoes antigenic variation during B. burgdorferi infection of mammalian hosts, and is believed to be a critical mechanism by which the spirochetes evade immune clearance. Random, segmental recombination between the expressed vlsE gene and adjacent vls silent cassettes generates a large number of different VlsE variants within the infected host. Although the occurrence and importance of vlsE sequence variation is well established, little is known about the biological mechanism of vlsE recombination. To identify factors important in antigenic variation and vlsE recombination, we screened transposon mutants of genes known to be involved in DNA recombination and repair for their effects on infectivity and vlsE recombination. Several mutants, including those in BB0023 (ruvA, BB0022 (ruvB, BB0797 (mutS, and BB0098 (mutS-II, showed reduced infectivity in immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice. Mutants in ruvA and ruvB exhibited greatly reduced rates of vlsE recombination in C3H/HeN mice, as determined by restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP screening and DNA sequence analysis. In severe combined immunodeficiency (C3H/scid mice, the ruvA mutant retained full infectivity; however, all recovered clones retained the 'parental' vlsE sequence, consistent with low rates of vlsE recombination. These results suggest that the reduced infectivity of ruvA and ruvB mutants is the result of ineffective vlsE recombination and underscores the important role that vlsE recombination plays in immune evasion. Based on functional studies in other organisms, the RuvAB complex of B. burgdorferi may promote branch migration of Holliday junctions during vlsE recombination. Our findings are consistent with those in the accompanying article by Dresser et al., and together

  10. DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span. PMID:26385091

  11. How MCM loading and spreading specify eukaryotic DNA replication initiation sites [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Hyrien

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication origins strikingly differ between eukaryotic species and cell types. Origins are localized and can be highly efficient in budding yeast, are randomly located in early fly and frog embryos, which do not transcribe their genomes, and are clustered in broad (10-100 kb non-transcribed zones, frequently abutting transcribed genes, in mammalian cells. Nonetheless, in all cases, origins are established during the G1-phase of the cell cycle by the loading of double hexamers of the Mcm 2-7 proteins (MCM DHs, the core of the replicative helicase. MCM DH activation in S-phase leads to origin unwinding, polymerase recruitment, and initiation of bidirectional DNA synthesis. Although MCM DHs are initially loaded at sites defined by the binding of the origin recognition complex (ORC, they ultimately bind chromatin in much greater numbers than ORC and only a fraction are activated in any one S-phase. Data suggest that the multiplicity and functional redundancy of MCM DHs provide robustness to the replication process and affect replication time and that MCM DHs can slide along the DNA and spread over large distances around the ORC. Recent studies further show that MCM DHs are displaced along the DNA by collision with transcription complexes but remain functional for initiation after displacement. Therefore, eukaryotic DNA replication relies on intrinsically mobile and flexible origins, a strategy fundamentally different from bacteria but conserved from yeast to human. These properties of MCM DHs likely contribute to the establishment of broad, intergenic replication initiation zones in higher eukaryotes.

  12. Binding of DEAD-box helicase Dhh1 to the 5'-untranslated region of ASH1 mRNA represses localized translation of ASH1 in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianjun; Meng, Xiuhua; Li, Delin; Chen, Shaoyin; Luo, Jianmin; Zhu, Linjie; Singer, Robert H; Gu, Wei

    2017-06-09

    Local translation of specific mRNAs is regulated by dynamic changes in their subcellular localization, and these changes are due to complex mechanisms controlling cytoplasmic mRNA transport. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well suited to studying these mechanisms because many of its transcripts are transported from the mother cell to the budding daughter cell. Here, we investigated the translational control of ASH1 mRNA after transport and localization. We show that although ASH1 transcripts were translated after they reached the bud tip, some mRNAs were bound by the RNA-binding protein Puf6 and were non-polysomal. We also found that the DEAD-box helicase Dhh1 complexed with the untranslated ASH1 mRNA and Puf6. Loss of Dhh1 affected local translation of ASH1 mRNA and resulted in delocalization of ASH1 transcript in the bud. Forcibly shifting the non-polysomal ASH1 mRNA into polysomes was associated with Dhh1 dissociation. We further demonstrated that Dhh1 is not recruited to ASH1 mRNA co-transcriptionally, suggesting that it could bind to ASH1 mRNA within the cytoplasm. Of note, Dhh1 bound to the 5'-UTR of ASH1 mRNA and inhibited its translation in vitro These results suggest that after localization to the bud tip, a portion of the localized ASH1 mRNA becomes translationally inactive because of binding of Dhh1 and Puf6 to the 5'- and 3'-UTRs of ASH1 mRNA. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs to generate crossovers (COs during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  14. RIG-I Helicase-Independent Pathway in Sendai Virus-Activated Dendritic Cells Is Critical for Preventing Lung Metastasis of AT6.3 Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Kato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated highly efficient antitumor immunity against dermal tumors of B16F10 murine melanoma with the use of dendritic cells (DCs activated by replication-competent, as well as nontransmissible-type, recombinant Sendai viruses (rSeV, and proposed a new concept, “immunostimulatory virotherapy,” for cancer immunotherapy. However, there has been little information on the efficacies of thismethod: 1 inmore clinically relevant situations including metastatic diseases, 2 on other tumor types and other animal species, and 3 on the related molecular/cellular mechanisms. In this study, therefore, we investigated the efficacy of vaccinating DCs activated by fusion gene-deleted nontransmissible rSeV on a rat model of lung metastasis using a highly malignant subline of Dunning R-3327 prostate cancer, AT6.3. rSeV/dF-green fluorescent protein (GFP-activated bone marrow-derived DCs (rSeV/dF-GFP-DC, consistent with results previously observed in murine DCs. Vaccination of rSeV/dF-GFP-DC was highly effective at preventing lung metastasis after intravenous loading of R-3327 tumor cells, compared with the effects observed with immature DCs or lipopolysaccharide-activated DCs. Interestingly, neither CTL activity nor DC trafficking showed any apparent difference among groups. Notably, rSeV/dF-DCs expressing a dominant-negative mutant of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I (rSeV/dF-RIGIC-DC, an RNA helicase that recognizes the rSeV genome for inducing type I interferons, largely lost the expression of proinflammatory cytokines without any impairment of antitumor activity. These results indicate the essential role of RIG-I-independent signaling on antimetastatic effect induced by rSeV-activated DCs and may provide important insights to DC-based immunotherapy for advanced malignancies.

  15. Nuclear Export of Pre-Ribosomal Subunits Requires Dbp5, but Not as an RNA-Helicase as for mRNA Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Bettina; Wu, Haijia; Hackmann, Alexandra; Krebber, Heike

    2016-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA-helicase Dbp5/Rat8 is known for its function in nuclear mRNA export, where it displaces the export receptor Mex67 from the mRNA at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Here we show that Dbp5 is also required for the nuclear export of both pre-ribosomal subunits. Yeast temperature-sensitive dbp5 mutants accumulate both ribosomal particles in their nuclei. Furthermore, Dbp5 genetically and physically interacts with known ribosomal transport factors such as Nmd3. Similar to mRNA export we show that also for ribosomal transport Dbp5 is required at the cytoplasmic side of the NPC. However, unlike its role in mRNA export, Dbp5 does not seem to undergo its ATPase cycle for this function, as ATPase-deficient dbp5 mutants that selectively inhibit mRNA export do not affect ribosomal transport. Furthermore, mutants of GLE1, the ATPase stimulating factor of Dbp5, show no major ribosomal export defects. Consequently, while Dbp5 uses its ATPase cycle to displace the export receptor Mex67 from the translocated mRNAs, Mex67 remains bound to ribosomal subunits upon transit to the cytoplasm, where it is detectable on translating ribosomes. Therefore, we propose a model, in which Dbp5 supports ribosomal transport by capturing ribosomal subunits upon their cytoplasmic appearance at the NPC, possibly by binding export factors such as Mex67. Thus, our findings reveal that although different ribonucleoparticles, mRNAs and pre-ribosomal subunits, use shared export factors, they utilize different transport mechanisms.

  16. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  17. Solution NMR structure of the HLTF HIRAN domain: a conserved module in SWI2/SNF2 DNA damage tolerance proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzhnev, Dmitry M. [University of Connecticut Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States); Neculai, Dante [Zhejiang University, School of Medicine (China); Dhe-Paganon, Sirano [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Cancer Biology (United States); Arrowsmith, Cheryl H. [University of Toronto, Structural Genomics Consortium (Canada); Bezsonova, Irina, E-mail: bezsonova@uchc.edu [University of Connecticut Health, Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics (United States)

    2016-11-15

    HLTF is a SWI2/SNF2-family ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme that acts in the error-free branch of DNA damage tolerance (DDT), a cellular mechanism that enables replication of damaged DNA while leaving damage repair for a later time. Human HLTF and a closely related protein SHPRH, as well as their yeast homologue Rad5, are multi-functional enzymes that share E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity required for activation of the error-free DDT. HLTF and Rad5 also function as ATP-dependent dsDNA translocases and possess replication fork reversal activities. Thus, they can convert Y-shaped replication forks into X-shaped Holliday junction structures that allow error-free replication over DNA lesions. The fork reversal activity of HLTF is dependent on 3′-ssDNA-end binding activity of its N-terminal HIRAN domain. Here we present the solution NMR structure of the human HLTF HIRAN domain, an OB-like fold module found in organisms from bacteria (as a stand-alone domain) to plants, fungi and metazoan (in combination with SWI2/SNF2 helicase-like domain). The obtained structure of free HLTF HIRAN is similar to recently reported structures of its DNA bound form, while the NMR analysis also reveals that the DNA binding site of the free domain exhibits conformational heterogeneity. Sequence comparison of N-terminal regions of HLTF, SHPRH and Rad5 aided by knowledge of the HLTF HIRAN structure suggests that the SHPRH N-terminus also includes an uncharacterized structured module, exhibiting weak sequence similarity with HIRAN regions of HLTF and Rad5, and potentially playing a similar functional role.

  18. The Kub5-Hera/RPRD1B interactome: a novel role in preserving genetic stability by regulating DNA mismatch repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Praveen L.; Motea, Edward A.; Fattah, Farjana J.; Zhou, Yunyun; Morales, Julio C.; Xie, Yang; Garner, Harold R.; Boothman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Ku70-binding protein 5 (Kub5)-Hera (K-H)/RPRD1B maintains genetic integrity by concomitantly minimizing persistent R-loops and promoting repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). We used tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry, co-immunoprecipitation and gel-filtration chromatography to define higher-order protein complexes containing K-H scaffolding protein to gain insight into its cellular functions. We confirmed known protein partners (Ku70, RNA Pol II, p15RS) and discovered several novel associated proteins that function in RNA metabolism (Topoisomerase 1 and RNA helicases), DNA repair/replication processes (PARP1, MSH2, Ku, DNA-PKcs, MCM proteins, PCNA and DNA Pol δ) and in protein metabolic processes, including translation. Notably, this approach directed us to investigate an unpredicted involvement of K-H in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) where K-H depletion led to concomitant MMR deficiency and compromised global microsatellite stability. Mechanistically, MMR deficiency in K-H-depleted cells was a consequence of reduced stability of the core MMR proteins (MLH1 and PMS2) caused by elevated basal caspase-dependent proteolysis. Pan-caspase inhibitor treatment restored MMR protein loss. These findings represent a novel mechanism to acquire MMR deficiency/microsatellite alterations. A significant proportion of colon, endometrial and ovarian cancers exhibit k-h expression/copy number loss and may have severe mutator phenotypes with enhanced malignancies that are currently overlooked based on sporadic MSI+ screening. PMID:26819409

  19. DNA damage and autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Both exogenous and endogenous agents are a threat to DNA integrity. Exogenous environmental agents such as ultraviolet (UV) and ionizing radiation, genotoxic chemicals and endogenous byproducts of metabolism including reactive oxygen species can cause alterations in DNA structure (DNA damage). Unrepaired DNA damage has been linked to a variety of human disorders including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Thus, efficient mechanisms to detect DNA lesions, signal their presence and promote their repair have been evolved in cells. If DNA is effectively repaired, DNA damage response is inactivated and normal cell functioning resumes. In contrast, when DNA lesions cannot be removed, chronic DNA damage triggers specific cell responses such as cell death and senescence. Recently, DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, a cellular catabolic process that maintains a balance between synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular components. But the exact mechanisms by which DNA damage triggers autophagy are unclear. More importantly, the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cellular fate is unknown. In this review we analyze evidence that supports a role for autophagy as an integral part of the DNA damage response.

  20. Defects in the DNA repair and transcription gene ERCC2(XPD) in trichothiodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, K.; Salazar, E.P.; Thompson, L.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brittle hair with reduced sulfur content, ichthyosis, peculiar face, and mental and growth retardation. Clinical photosensitivity is present in {approximately}50% of TTD patients but is not associated with an elevated frequency of cancers. Previous complementation studies show that the photosensitivity in nearly all of the studied patients is due to a defect in the same genetic locus that underlies the cancer-prone genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XP-D). Nucleotide-sequence analysis of the ERCC2 cDNA from three TTD cell strains (TTD1VI, TTD3VI, and TTD1RO) revealed mutations within the region from amino acid 713-730 and within previously identified helicase functional domains. The various clinical presentations and DNA repair characteristics of the cell strains can be correlated with the particular mutations found in the ERCC2 locus. Mutations of Arg658 to either His or Cys correlate with TTD cell strains with intermediate UV-sensitivity, mutation of Arg722 to Trp correlates with highly UV-sensitive TTD cell strains, and mutation of Arg683 to Trp correlates with XP-D. Alleles with mutation of Arg616 to Pro or with the combined mutation of Leu461 to Val and deletion of 716-730 are found in both XP-D and TTD cell strains. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Architecture of the human and yeast general transcription and DNA repair factor TFIIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Cimermancic, Peter; Viswanath, Shruthi; Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Kim, Bong; Dehecq, Marine; Raman, Vishnu; Greenberg, Charles H.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Sali, Andrej; Taatjes, Dylan J.; Hahn, Steven; Ranish, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary TFIIH is essential for both RNA polymerase II transcription and DNA repair, and mutations in TFIIH can result in human disease. Here, we determine the molecular architecture of human and yeast TFIIH by an integrative approach using chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry (CXMS) data, biochemical analyses, and previously published electron microscopy maps. We identified four new conserved “topological regions” that function as hubs for TFIIH assembly and more than 35 conserved topological features within TFIIH, illuminating a network of interactions involved in TFIIH assembly and regulation of its activities. We show that one of these conserved regions, the p62/Tfb1 Anchor region, directly interacts with the DNA helicase subunit XPD/Rad3 in native TFIIH and is required for the integrity and function of TFIIH. We also reveal the structural basis for defects in patients with Xeroderma pigmentosum and Trichothiodystrophy, with mutations found at the interface between the p62 Anchor region and the XPD subunit. PMID:26340423

  2. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yih Lau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care diagnostic methods for applications in plant disease detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most common DNA amplification technology used for detecting various plant and animal pathogens. However, subsequent to PCR based assays, several types of nucleic acid amplification technologies have been developed to achieve higher sensitivity, rapid detection as well as suitable for field applications such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification, helicase-dependent amplification, rolling circle amplification, recombinase polymerase amplification, and molecular inversion probe. The principle behind these technologies has been thoroughly discussed in several review papers; herein we emphasize the application of these technologies to detect plant pathogens by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology in detail.

  3. Common mechanisms of DNA translocation motors in bacteria and viruses using one-way revolution mechanism without rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peixuan; Zhao, Zhengyi; Haak, Jeannie; Wang, Shaoying; Wu, Dong; Meng, Bing; Weitao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    dsDNA helix could be advantageous for cell replication such as bacterial binary fission and cell mitosis without the need for topoisomerase or helicase to consume additional energy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Subcloning of DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhl, K

    2001-05-01

    The essence of recombinant DNA technology is the joining of two or more separate segments of DNA to generate a single DNA molecule that is capable of autonomous replication in a given host. The simplest constructions of hybrid DNA molecules involve the cloning of insert sequences into plasmid or bacteriophage cloning vectors. The insert sequences can derive from essentially any organism, and they may be isolated directly from the genome, from mRNA, or from previously cloned DNA segments (in which case, the procedure is termed subcloning). Alternatively, insert DNAs can be created directly by DNA synthesis. This unit provides protocols for the subcloning of DNA fragments and ligation of DNA fragments in gels.

  5. DNA tagged microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2015-05-05

    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  6. DNA computing models

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In this excellent text, the reader is given a comprehensive introduction to the field of DNA computing. The book emphasizes computational methods to tackle central problems of DNA computing, such as controlling living cells, building patterns, and generating nanomachines.

  7. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exogenous damage). Endogenous damage ... of spontaneous DNA-damage due to endogenous factors. He es- timated that around 10,000 potentially mutagenic .... 3 –5 direction is defined as. 'upstream'. A single DNA strand is synthesized in a.

  8. Replication and recombination factors contributing to recombination-dependent bypass of DNA lesions by template switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vanoli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Damage tolerance mechanisms mediating damage-bypass and gap-filling are crucial for genome integrity. A major damage tolerance pathway involves recombination and is referred to as template switch. Template switch intermediates were visualized by 2D gel electrophoresis in the proximity of replication forks as X-shaped structures involving sister chromatid junctions. The homologous recombination factor Rad51 is required for the formation/stabilization of these intermediates, but its mode of action remains to be investigated. By using a combination of genetic and physical approaches, we show that the homologous recombination factors Rad55 and Rad57, but not Rad59, are required for the formation of template switch intermediates. The replication-proficient but recombination-defective rfa1-t11 mutant is normal in triggering a checkpoint response following DNA damage but is impaired in X-structure formation. The Exo1 nuclease also has stimulatory roles in this process. The checkpoint kinase, Rad53, is required for X-molecule formation and phosphorylates Rad55 robustly in response to DNA damage. Although Rad55 phosphorylation is thought to activate recombinational repair under conditions of genotoxic stress, we find that Rad55 phosphomutants do not affect the efficiency of X-molecule formation. We also examined the DNA polymerase implicated in the DNA synthesis step of template switch. Deficiencies in translesion synthesis polymerases do not affect X-molecule formation, whereas DNA polymerase δ, required also for bulk DNA synthesis, plays an important role. Our data indicate that a subset of homologous recombination factors, together with DNA polymerase δ, promote the formation of template switch intermediates that are then preferentially dissolved by the action of the Sgs1 helicase in association with the Top3 topoisomerase rather than resolved by Holliday Junction nucleases. Our results allow us to propose the choreography through which different

  9. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...... for a long period of time before its information is accessed by the cell. Although DNA plays a critical role as an informational storage molecule, it is by no means as unexciting as a computer tape or disk drive. The structure of the DNA described by Watson and Crick in 1953 is a right handed helix of two...

  10. Fast phylogenetic DNA barcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Kasper Munch; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh; Willerslev, Eske

    2008-01-01

    We present a heuristic approach to the DNA assignment problem based on phylogenetic inferences using constrained neighbour joining and non-parametric bootstrapping. We show that this method performs as well as the more computationally intensive full Bayesian approach in an analysis of 500 insect...... DNA sequences obtained from GenBank. We also analyse a previously published dataset of environmental DNA sequences from soil from New Zealand and Siberia, and use these data to illustrate the fact that statistical approaches to the DNA assignment problem allow for more appropriate criteria...... for determining the taxonomic level at which a particular DNA sequence can be assigned....

  11. DNA Sequencing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

  12. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  13. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  14. Yeast Sub1 and human PC4 are G-quadruplex binding proteins that suppress genome instability at co-transcriptionally formed G4 DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christopher R; Singh, Shivani; Hambarde, Shashank; Griffin, Wezley C; Gao, Jun; Chib, Shubeena; Yu, Yang; Ira, Grzegorz; Raney, Kevin D; Kim, Nayun

    2017-06-02

    G-quadruplex or G4 DNA is a non-B secondary DNA structure consisting of a stacked array of guanine-quartets that can disrupt critical cellular functions such as replication and transcription. When sequences that can adopt Non-B structures including G4 DNA are located within actively transcribed genes, the reshaping of DNA topology necessary for transcription process stimulates secondary structure-formation thereby amplifying the potential for genome instability. Using a reporter assay designed to study G4-induced recombination in the context of an actively transcribed locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we tested whether co-transcriptional activator Sub1, recently identified as a G4-binding factor, contributes to genome maintenance at G4-forming sequences. Our data indicate that, upon Sub1-disruption, genome instability linked to co-transcriptionally formed G4 DNA in Top1-deficient cells is significantly augmented and that its highly conserved DNA binding domain or the human homolog PC4 is sufficient to suppress G4-associated genome instability. We also show that Sub1 interacts specifically with co-transcriptionally formed G4 DNA in vivo and that yeast cells become highly sensitivity to G4-stabilizing chemical ligands by the loss of Sub1. Finally, we demonstrate the physical and genetic interaction of Sub1 with the G4-resolving helicase Pif1, suggesting a possible mechanism by which Sub1 suppresses instability at G4 DNA. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. The helical domain of the EcoR124I motor subunit participates in ATPase activity and dsDNA translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Bialevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I restriction-modification enzymes are multisubunit, multifunctional molecular machines that recognize specific DNA target sequences, and their multisubunit organization underlies their multifunctionality. EcoR124I is the archetype of Type I restriction-modification family IC and is composed of three subunit types: HsdS, HsdM, and HsdR. DNA cleavage and ATP-dependent DNA translocation activities are housed in the distinct domains of the endonuclease/motor subunit HsdR. Because the multiple functions are integrated in this large subunit of 1,038 residues, a large number of interdomain contacts might be expected. The crystal structure of EcoR124I HsdR reveals a surprisingly sparse number of contacts between helicase domain 2 and the C-terminal helical domain that is thought to be involved in assembly with HsdM. Only two potential hydrogen-bonding contacts are found in a very small contact region. In the present work, the relevance of these two potential hydrogen-bonding interactions for the multiple activities of EcoR124I is evaluated by analysing mutant enzymes using in vivo and in vitro experiments. Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to provide structural interpretation of the functional data. The results indicate that the helical C-terminal domain is involved in the DNA translocation, cleavage, and ATPase activities of HsdR, and a role in controlling those activities is suggested.

  16. Beyond DNA repair: DNA-PK function in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Jonathan F.; Knudsen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a pivotal component of the DNA repair machinery that governs the response to DNA damage, serving to maintain genome integrity. However, the DNA-PK kinase component was initially isolated with transcriptional complexes, and recent findings have illuminated the impact of DNA-PK-mediated transcriptional regulation on tumor progression and therapeutic response. DNA-PK expression has also been correlated with poor outcome in selected tumor types, furthe...

  17. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  18. Detection and quantitation of single nucleotide polymorphisms, DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    DNA mutation binding proteins alone and as chimeric proteins with nucleases are used with solid supports to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. The solid supports may be flow cytometry beads, DNA chips, glass slides or DNA dips sticks. DNA molecules are coupled to solid supports to form DNA-support complexes. Labeled DNA is used with unlabeled DNA mutation binding proteins such at TthMutS to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by binding which gives an increase in signal. Unlabeled DNA is utilized with labeled chimeras to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by nuclease activity of the chimera which gives a decrease in signal.

  19. DNA repair and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Shakuntla; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Gaur, Sudha

    2012-01-01

    DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecule that encode it's genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as UV light and radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many one million individual molecular lesions per day. Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA encodes. Other lesions include potentially harmful mutation in cell's genome which affect the survival of it's daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure. Inherited mutation that affect DNA repair genes are strongly associated with high cancer risks in humans. Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is strongly associated with specific mutation in the DNA mismatch repair pathway. BRCA1, BRCA2 two famous mutation conferring a hugely increased risk of breast cancer on carrier, are both associated with a large number of DNA repair pathway, especially NHEJ and homologous recombination. Cancer therapy procedures such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy work by overwhelming the capacity of the cell to repair DNA damage, resulting in cell death. Cells that are most rapidly dividing most typically cancer cells are preferentially affected. The side effect is that other non-cancerous but rapidly dividing cells such as stem cells in the bone marrow are also affected. Modern cancer treatment attempt to localize the DNA damage to cells and tissue only associated with cancer, either by physical means (concentrating the therapeutic agent in the region of the tumor) or by biochemical means (exploiting a feature unique to cancer cells in the body). (author)

  20. DNA-based machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  1. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA- REVOLUTIONARY EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidhehi Narayan Nayak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mitochondrion, the sausage-shaped organelle residing in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, apart from being the power house, represents endosymbiotic evolution of a free living organism to intracellular structure. Anthropologically, mitochondrial DNA is the fossilised source to trace the human ancestry particularly of maternal lineage. This article attempts to highlight the various biological functions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA with a note on its forensic application.

  2. Nonisotopic DNA probe techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kricka, Larry J

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this book is to bring together descriptions of the principal nonisotopic methods for DNA hybridization assays, together with experimental details of the methods, including labelling...

  3. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  4. DNA repair genes RAD52 and SRS2, a cell wall synthesis regulator gene SMI1, and the membrane sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 are important in efficient Agrobacterium-mediated yeast transformation with chromosomal T-DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmine, Yuta; Satoh, Yukari; Kiyokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shinji; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2016-04-02

    Plant pathogenic Agrobacterium strains can transfer T-DNA regions of their Ti plasmids to a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, including fungi, in vitro. In the recent decade, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a model host to reveal important host proteins for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT). Further investigation is required to understand the fundamental mechanism of AMT, including interaction at the cell surface, to expand the host range, and to develop new tools. In this study, we screened a yeast mutant library for low AMT mutant strains by advantage of a chromosome type T-DNA, which transfer is efficient and independent on integration into host chromosome. By the mutant screening, we identified four mutant strains (srs2Δ, rad52Δ, smi1Δ and erg28Δ), which showed considerably low AMT efficiency. Structural analysis of T-DNA product replicons in AMT colonies of mutants lacking each of the two DNA repair genes, SRS2 and RAD52, suggested that the genes act soon after T-DNA entry for modification of the chromosomal T-DNA to stably maintain them as linear replicons and to circularize certain T-DNA simultaneously. The cell wall synthesis regulator SMI1 might have a role in the cell surface interaction between the donor and recipient cells, but the smi1Δ mutant exhibited pleiotropic effect, i.e. low effector protein transport as well as low AMT for the chromosomal T-DNA, but relatively high AMT for integrative T-DNAs. The ergosterol synthesis regulator/enzyme-scaffold gene ERG28 probably contributes by sensing a congested environment, because growth of erg28Δ strain was unaffected by the presence of donor bacterial cells, while the growth of the wild-type and other mutant yeast strains was suppressed by their presence. RAD52 and the DNA helicase/anti-recombinase gene SRS2 are necessary to form and maintain artificial chromosomes through the AMT of chromosomal T-DNA. A sterol synthesis scaffold gene ERG28 is important in the high

  5. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial ...

  6. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  7. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Rao is a professor at the. Department of Biochemistry,. Indian Institute of Science,. Bengaluru. His research work primarily focuses on. DNA interacting proteins in prokaryotes. This includes restriction-modification systems, DNA repair proteins from pathogenic bacteria and and proteins involved in horizontal gene ...

  8. Human Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Ian J.; Reyes, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of DNA replication in mitochondria is in its infancy. For many years, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome was regarded as greatly simplified compared to the nucleus. Mammalian mitochondria were reported to lack all DNA repair systems, to eschew DNA recombination, and to possess but a single DNA polymerase, polymerase γ. Polγ was said to replicate mitochondrial DNA exclusively via one mechanism, involving only two priming events and a handful of proteins. In this “strand-displacement model,” leading strand DNA synthesis begins at a specific site and advances approximately two-thirds of the way around the molecule before DNA synthesis is initiated on the “lagging” strand. Although the displaced strand was long-held to be coated with protein, RNA has more recently been proposed in its place. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA molecules with all the features of products of conventional bidirectional replication have been documented, suggesting that the process and regulation of replication in mitochondria is complex, as befits a genome that is a core factor in human health and longevity. PMID:23143808

  9. Dna fingerprinting - review paper

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Renald

    2006-01-01

    Before the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was established, DNA fingerprinting technology has relied for years on Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Variable Number of Tandom Repeats (VNTR) analysis, a very efficient technique but quite laborious and not suitable for high throughput mapping. Since its, development, PCR has provided a new and powerful tool for DNA fingerprinting.

  10. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange

  11. Characterization of muntjac DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.

    1981-05-27

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in muntjac chromosomes is generally proportional to the chromosomal DNA content, but the SCE frequency is reduced in the heterochromatic neck region of the X chromosome. The physical properties of muntjac DNA and the kinetics of repair of UV damage in muntjac heterochromatin and euchromatin were examined and compared with the distribution of sister chromatid exchange.

  12. DNA Microarray Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page. En Español: Tecnología de micromatriz de ADN DNA Microarray Technology What is a DNA microarray? ... this page. En Español: Tecnología de micromatriz de ADN Get Email Updates Privacy Copyright Contact Accessibility Plug- ...

  13. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  14. Whose DNA is this?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taroni, Franco; Biedermann, Alex; Vuille, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    This communication seeks to draw the attention of researchers and practitioners dealing with forensic DNA profiling analyses to the following question: is a scientist's report, offering support to a hypothesis according to which a particular individual is the source of DNA detected during...... evoked during the international conference "The hidden side of DNA profiles. Artifacts, errors and uncertain evidence" held in Rome (April 27th to 28th, 2012). Indeed, despite the fact that this conference brought together some of the world's leading forensic DNA specialists, it appeared clearly...... talk considerably different languages. It thus is fundamental to address this issue of communication about results of forensic DNA analyses, and open a dialogue with practicing non-scientists at large who need to make meaningful use of scientific results to approach and help solve judicial cases...

  15. Racemic DNA crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pradeep K; Collie, Gavin W; Kauffmann, Brice; Huc, Ivan

    2014-12-22

    Racemates increase the chances of crystallization by allowing molecular contacts to be formed in a greater number of ways. With the advent of protein synthesis, the production of protein racemates and racemic-protein crystallography are now possible. Curiously, racemic DNA crystallography had not been investigated despite the commercial availability of L- and D-deoxyribo-oligonucleotides. Here, we report a study into racemic DNA crystallography showing the strong propensity of racemic DNA mixtures to form racemic crystals. We describe racemic crystal structures of various DNA sequences and folded conformations, including duplexes, quadruplexes, and a four-way junction, showing that the advantages of racemic crystallography should extend to DNA. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  17. Regulating DNA Self-assembly by DNA-Surface Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Yulin; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Jianwei; Mao, Chengde

    2017-12-14

    DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and involves only DNA-DNA interactions. When confined to surfaces, DNA-surface interactions become an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, the way in which DNA-surface interactions influence DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we showed that weak DNA-DNA interactions could be stabilized by DNA-surface interactions to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as little as 5 seconds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. DNA Bending elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David Alexander

    DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections

  19. DNA-PK assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl W.; Connelly, Margery A.

    2004-10-12

    The present invention provides a method for detecting DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity in a biological sample. The method includes contacting a biological sample with a detectably-labeled phosphate donor and a synthetic peptide substrate defined by the following features to provide specific recognition and phosphorylation by DNA-PK: (1) a phosphate-accepting amino acid pair which may include serine-glutamine (Ser-Gln) (SQ), threonine-glutamine (Thr-Gln) (TQ), glutamine-serine (Gln-Ser) (QS), or glutamine-threonine (Gln-Thr) (QT); (2) enhancer amino acids which may include glutamic acid or glutamine immediately adjacent at the amino- or carboxyl- side of the amino acid pair and forming an amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (3) a first spacer sequence at the amino terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (4) a second spacer sequence at the carboxyl terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit, which spacer sequences may include any combination of amino acids that does not provide a phosphorylation site consensus sequence motif; and, (5) a tag moiety, which may be an amino acid sequence or another chemical entity that permits separating the synthetic peptide from the phosphate donor. A compostion and a kit for the detection of DNA-PK activity are also provided. Methods for detecting DNA, protein phosphatases and substances that alter the activity of DNA-PK are also provided. The present invention also provides a method of monitoring protein kinase and DNA-PK activity in living cells. -A composition and a kit for monitoring protein kinase activity in vitro and a composition and a kit for monitoring DNA-PK activities in living cells are also provided. A method for identifying agents that alter protein kinase activity in vitro and a method for identifying agents that alter DNA-PK activity in living cells are also provided.

  20. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  1. Structure of the hexameric HerA ATPase reveals a mechanism of translocation-coupled DNA-end processing in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzechorzek, Neil J; Blackwood, John K; Bray, Sian M; Maman, Joseph D; Pellegrini, Luca; Robinson, Nicholas P

    2014-11-25

    The HerA ATPase cooperates with the NurA nuclease and the Mre11-Rad50 complex for the repair of double-strand DNA breaks in thermophilic archaea. Here we extend our structural knowledge of this minimal end-resection apparatus by presenting the first crystal structure of hexameric HerA. The full-length structure visualizes at atomic resolution the N-terminal HerA-ATP synthase domain and a conserved C-terminal extension, which acts as a physical brace between adjacent protomers. The brace also interacts in trans with nucleotide-binding residues of the neighbouring subunit. Our observations support a model in which the coaxial interaction of the HerA ring with the toroidal NurA dimer generates a continuous channel traversing the complex. HerA-driven translocation would propel the DNA towards the narrow annulus of NurA, leading to duplex melting and nucleolytic digestion. This system differs substantially from the bacterial end-resection paradigms. Our findings suggest a novel mode of DNA-end processing by this integrated archaeal helicase-nuclease machine.

  2. Structural and Functional Insights into the DNA Replication Factor Cdc45 Reveal an Evolutionary Relationship to the DHH Family of Phosphoesterases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krastanova, Ivet; Sannino, Vincenzo; Amenitsch, Heinz; Gileadi, Opher; Pisani, Francesca M.; Onesti, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Cdc45 is an essential protein conserved in all eukaryotes and is involved both in the initiation of DNA replication and the progression of the replication fork. With GINS, Cdc45 is an essential cofactor of the Mcm2–7 replicative helicase complex. Despite its importance, no detailed information is available on either the structure or the biochemistry of the protein. Intriguingly, whereas homologues of both GINS and Mcm proteins have been described in Archaea, no counterpart for Cdc45 is known. Herein we report a bioinformatic analysis that shows a weak but significant relationship among eukaryotic Cdc45 proteins and a large family of phosphoesterases that has been described as the DHH family, including inorganic pyrophosphatases and RecJ ssDNA exonucleases. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds via a mechanism involving two Mn2+ ions. Only a subset of the amino acids that coordinates Mn2+ is conserved in Cdc45. We report biochemical and structural data on the recombinant human Cdc45 protein, consistent with the proposed DHH family affiliation. Like the RecJ exonucleases, the human Cdc45 protein is able to bind single-stranded, but not double-stranded DNA. Small angle x-ray scattering data are consistent with a model compatible with the crystallographic structure of the RecJ/DHH family members. PMID:22147708

  3. DNA Mismatch Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARINUS, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair functions to correct replication errors in newly synthesized DNA and to prevent recombination between related, but not identical (homeologous), DNA sequences. The mechanism of mismatch repair is best understood in Escherichia coli and is the main focus of this review. The early genetic studies of mismatch repair are described as a basis for the subsequent biochemical characterization of the system. The effects of mismatch repair on homologous and homeologous recombination are described. The relationship of mismatch repair to cell toxicity induced by various drugs is included. The VSP (Very Short Patch) repair system is described in detail. PMID:26442827

  4. "Artifactual" arsenate DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    The recent claim by Wolfe-Simon et al. that the Halomonas bacterial strain GFAJ-1 when grown in arsenate-containing medium with limiting phosphate is able to substitute phosphate with arsenate in biomolecules including nucleic acids and in particular DNA(1) arose much skepticism, primarily due...... to the very limited chemical stability of arsenate esters (see ref. 2 and references therein). A major part of the criticisms was concerned with the insufficient (bio)chemical evidence in the Wolfe-Simon study for the actual chemical incorporation of arsenate in DNA (and/or RNA). Redfield et al. now present...... evidence that the identification of arsenate DNA was artifactual....

  5. Apoptosis and DNA Methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Huan X.; Hackett, James A.; Nestor, Colm; Dunican, Donncha S.; Madej, Monika; Reddington, James P.; Pennings, Sari; Harrison, David J.; Meehan, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms assist in maintaining gene expression patterns and cellular properties in developing and adult tissues. The molecular pathology of disease states frequently includes perturbation of DNA and histone methylation patterns, which can activate apoptotic pathways associated with maintenance of genome integrity. This perspective focuses on the pathways linking DNA methyltransferases and methyl-CpG binding proteins to apoptosis, and includes new bioinformatic analyses to characterize the evolutionary origin of two G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylases, MBD4 and TDG

  6. The RecJ2 protein in the thermophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum is a 3'-5' exonuclease that associates with a DNA replication complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hiromi; Ishino, Sonoko; Kohda, Daisuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2017-05-12

    RecJ/cell division cycle 45 (Cdc45) proteins are widely conserved in the three domains of life, i.e. in bacteria, Eukarya, and Archaea. Bacterial RecJ is a 5'-3' exonuclease and functions in DNA repair pathways by using its 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Eukaryotic Cdc45 has no identified enzymatic activity but participates in the CMG complex, so named because it is composed of Cdc45, minichromosome maintenance protein complex (MCM) proteins 2-7, and GINS complex proteins (Sld5, Psf11-3). Eukaryotic Cdc45 and bacterial/archaeal RecJ share similar amino acid sequences and are considered functional counterparts. In Archaea, a RecJ homolog in Thermococcus kodakarensis was shown to associate with GINS and accelerate its nuclease activity and was, therefore, designated GAN ( G INS- a ssociated n uclease); however, to date, no archaeal RecJ·MCM·GINS complex has been isolated. The thermophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum has two RecJ-like proteins, designated TaRecJ1 and TaRecJ2. TaRecJ1 exhibited DNA-specific 5'-3' exonuclease activity, whereas TaRecJ2 had 3'-5' exonuclease activity and preferred RNA over DNA. TaRecJ2, but not TaRecJ1, formed a stable complex with TaGINS in a 2:1 molar ratio. Furthermore, the TaRecJ2·TaGINS complex stimulated activity of TaMCM ( T. acidophilum MCM) helicase in vitro , and the TaRecJ2·TaMCM·TaGINS complex was also observed in vivo However, TaRecJ2 did not interact with TaMCM directly and was not required for the helicase activation in vitro These findings suggest that the function of archaeal RecJ in DNA replication evolved divergently from Cdc45 despite conservation of the CMG-like complex formation between Archaea and Eukarya. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. A human homolog of the yeast nucleotide excision repair gene MMS19 interacts with transcription repair factor TFIIH through the XPB and XPD helicases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Seroz; G.S. Winkler (Sebastiaan); J. Auriol; R.A. Verhage; W. Vermeulen (Wim); B. Smit (Bep); J. Brouwer (Jaap); A.P.M. Eker (André); G. Weeda (Geert); J-M. Egly (Jean-Marc); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide excision repair (NER) removes UV-induced photoproducts and numerous other DNA lesions in a highly conserved 'cut-and-paste' reaction that involves approximately 25 core components. In addition, several other proteins have been identified which are dispensable for NER in vitro

  8. Pyrimidine Pool Disequilibrium Induced by a Cytidine Deaminase Deficiency Inhibits PARP-1 Activity, Leading to the Under Replication of DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gemble

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome stability is jeopardized by imbalances of the dNTP pool; such imbalances affect the rate of fork progression. For example, cytidine deaminase (CDA deficiency leads to an excess of dCTP, slowing the replication fork. We describe here a novel mechanism by which pyrimidine pool disequilibrium compromises the completion of replication and chromosome segregation: the intracellular accumulation of dCTP inhibits PARP-1 activity. CDA deficiency results in incomplete DNA replication when cells enter mitosis, leading to the formation of ultrafine anaphase bridges between sister-chromatids at "difficult-to-replicate" sites such as centromeres and fragile sites. Using molecular combing, electron microscopy and a sensitive assay involving cell imaging to quantify steady-state PAR levels, we found that DNA replication was unsuccessful due to the partial inhibition of basal PARP-1 activity, rather than slower fork speed. The stimulation of PARP-1 activity in CDA-deficient cells restores replication and, thus, chromosome segregation. Moreover, increasing intracellular dCTP levels generates under-replication-induced sister-chromatid bridges as efficiently as PARP-1 knockdown. These results have direct implications for Bloom syndrome (BS, a rare genetic disease combining susceptibility to cancer and genomic instability. BS results from mutation of the BLM gene, encoding BLM, a RecQ 3'-5' DNA helicase, a deficiency of which leads to CDA downregulation. BS cells thus have a CDA defect, resulting in a high frequency of ultrafine anaphase bridges due entirely to dCTP-dependent PARP-1 inhibition and independent of BLM status. Our study describes previously unknown pathological consequences of the distortion of dNTP pools and reveals an unexpected role for PARP-1 in preventing DNA under-replication and chromosome segregation defects.

  9. Apo B100 similarities to viral proteins suggest basis for LDL-DNA binding and transfection capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Juan; Prashad, Nagindra; Ermolinsky, Boris; Gaubatz, John W; Kang, Dongcheul; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Loose, David S; Guevara, Natalia Valentinova

    2010-07-01

    LDL mediates transfection with plasmid DNA in a variety of cell types in vitro and in several tissues in vivo in the rat. The transfection capacity of LDL is based on apo B100, as arginine/lysine clusters, suggestive of nucleic acid-binding domains and nuclear localization signal sequences, are present throughout the molecule. Apo E may also contribute to this capacity because of its similarity to the Dengue virus capsid proteins and its ability to bind DNA. Synthetic peptides representing two apo B100 regions with prominent Arg/Lys clusters were shown to bind DNA. Region 1 (0014Lys-Ser0160) shares sequence motifs present in DNA binding domains of Interferon Regulatory Factors and Flaviviridae capsid/core proteins. It also contains a close analog of the B/E receptor ligand of apo E. Region 1 peptides, B1-1 (0014Lys-Glu0054) and B1-2 (0055Leu-Ala0096), mediate transfection of HeLa cells but are cytotoxic. Region 2 (3313Asp-Thr3431), containing the known B/E receptor ligand, shares analog motifs with the human herpesvirus 5 immediate-early transcriptional regulator (UL122) and Flaviviridae NS3 helicases. Region 2 peptides, B2-1 (3313Asp-Glu3355), and B2-2 (3356Gly-Thr3431) are ineffective in cell transfection and are noncytotoxic. These results confirm the role of LDL as a natural transfection vector in vivo, a capacity imparted by the apo B100, and suggest a basis for Flaviviridae cell entry.

  10. Identification of Ku70 and Ku80 homologues in Arabidopsis thaliana: evidence for a role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Katsunori; Adachi, Yugo; Chiba, Keiko; Oguchi, Keiko; Takahashi, Hideo

    2002-03-01

    In higher organisms such as mammals and plants, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired preferentially by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) rather than by homologous recombination. The NHEJ pathway is mediated by Ku, a heterodimer of approximately 70 and 80 kDa subunits, which contributes to various aspects of the metabolism of DNA ends in eukaryotic cells. On the basis of their predicted sequence similarity to human Ku70 and Ku80, cDNAs encoding the first plant homologues of these proteins (AtKu70 and AtKu80, respectively) have now been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. AtKu70 and AtKu80 share 28.6 and 22.5% amino acid sequence identity with human Ku70 and Ku80, respectively. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that AtKu70 and AtKu80 form a heterodimer, and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays revealed that this heterodimer binds to double-stranded telomeric and non-telomeric DNA sequences, but not to single-stranded DNA. The AtKu heterodimer also possesses single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent DNA helicase activities. Reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction revealed that AtKu70 and AtKu80 genes are expressed widely but at low levels in plant tissues. The expression of these two genes in cultured cells was markedly increased in response to the generation of DSBs by bleomycin or methylmethane sulfonate. These results suggest that the evolutionarily conserved Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer functions in DSB repair by the NHEJ pathway in A. thaliana.

  11. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  12. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with these modifications, it is likely that the primary use of DNA vaccines may be as primers for viral-vectored vaccines, rather than as single agents. This review discusses the approaches used to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity, with a primary focus on fusion strategies that enhance antigen presentation....

  13. Close encounters with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeo, C.; Yoo, J.; Comer, J.; Wells, D. B.; Luan, B.; Aksimentiev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena and we review the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field. PMID:25238560

  14. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted

    2011-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  15. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  16. Gomphid DNA sequence data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — DNA sequence data for several genetic loci. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It's already publicly available on GenBank. It can be accessed through...

  17. DNA damage and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelow, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Although cancer may arise as a result of many different types of molecular changes, there is little reason to doubt that changes to DNA are one of the more important ones in cancer initiation. Although DNA repair mechanisms seem able to eliminate a very large fraction of deleterious changes to DNA, we not only have little insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in such repair, but have a negligible amount of information to permit us to estimate the shape of dose response relations at low doses. The case of skin cancer is a special one, in that the average population is exposed to sufficient solar uv so that the effects of small increments in uv dose may be estimated. An approximate 85% reduction in DNA repair increases skin cancer incidence 10 4 fold

  18. Experimental DNA computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, Christiaan

    2005-01-01

    Because of their information storing and processing capabilities, nucleic acids are interesting building blocks for molecular scale computers. Potential applications of such DNA computers range from massively parallel computation to computational gene therapy. In this thesis, several implementations

  19. DNA Vaccines Against Anthrax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galloway, Darrell R; Baillie, Les

    2004-01-01

    DNA vaccination is vaccination at its simplest. Due to renewed interest in vaccination against anthrax and other biothreat agents, a genetic immunisation approach offers attractive possibilities for rapid, responsive vaccine development...

  20. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  1. Retroviral DNA Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into host chromatin is the defining step of retroviral replication. This enzymatic process is catalyzed by the virus-encoded integrase protein, which is conserved among retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons. Retroviral integration proceeds via two integrase activities: 3′-processing of the viral DNA ends, followed by the strand transfer of the processed ends into host cell chromosomal DNA. Herein we review the molecular mechanism of retroviral DNA integration, with an emphasis on reaction chemistries and architectures of the nucleoprotein complexes involved. We additionally discuss the latest advances on anti-integrase drug development for the treatment of AIDS and the utility of integrating retroviral vectors in gene therapy applications. PMID:27198982

  2. Radiation damage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, V.

    1978-01-01

    A number of experiments are described with the purpose to obtain a better insight in the chemical nature and the biological significance of radiation-induced damage in DNA, with some emphasis on the significance of alkali-labile sites. It is shown that not only reactions of OH radicals but also of H radicals introduce breaks and other inactivating damage in single-standed phiX174 DNA. It is found that phosphate buffer is very suitable for the study of the reactions of H radicals with DNA, as the H 2 PO 4 - ions convert the hydrated electrons into H radicals. The hydrated electron, which does react with DNA, does not cause a detectable inactivation. (Auth.)

  3. DNA-Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Niels Vinther; Tørring, Thomas; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2010-01-01

    DNA-nanostrukturer giver nye muligheder for studier af individuelle molekyler. Ved at udnytte DNAs unikke selvsamlende egenskaber kan man designe systemer, hvorpå der kan studeres kemiske reaktioner, fluoroforer og biiomolekyler på enkeltmolekyle-niveau....

  4. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  5. Celebrating DNA's Repair Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A

    2015-12-03

    This year, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Tomas Lindahl, Aziz Sancar, and Paul Modrich for their seminal studies of the mechanisms by which cells from bacteria to man repair DNA damage that is generated by normal cellular metabolism and stress from the environment. These studies beautifully illustrate the remarkable power of DNA repair to influence life from evolution through disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Das DNA-Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Stefan

    Im Jahre 1953 wurde von James Watson und Francis Crick erstmalig der strukturelle Aufbau der sogenannten DNA (Desoxyribonukleinsäure) beschrieben, welche das Erbgut jedes Lebewesens enthält. Der wesentliche Teil des Erbguts wird dabei durch eine sehr lange Folge der vier Basen Adenin (A), Cytosin (C), Guanin (G) und Thymin (T) codiert. Seit einigen Jahren ist es möglich, die Folge der vier Basen zu einer gegebenen DNA zu bestimmen. Biologen bezeichnen diesen Vorgang als Sequenzierung.

  7. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  8. Variations in brain DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus eAvila

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that DNA sequences are conserved in the diverse cell types present in a multicellular organism like the human being. Thus, in order to compare the sequences in the genome of DNA from different individuals, nucleic acid is commonly isolated from a single tissue. In this regard, blood cells are widely used for this purpose because of their availability. Thus blood DNA has been used to study genetic familiar diseases that affect other tissues and organs, such as the liver, heart, and brain. While this approach is valid for the identification of familial diseases in which mutations are present in parental germinal cells and, therefore, in all the cells of a given organism, it is not suitable to identify sporadic diseases in which mutations might occur in specific somatic cells. This review addresses somatic DNA variations in different tissues or cells (mainly in the brain of single individuals and discusses whether the dogma of DNA invariance between cell types is indeed correct. We will also discuss how single nucleotide somatic variations arise, focusing on the presence of specific DNA mutations in the brain.

  9. Introduction to DNA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this session is to discuss the various possibilities for detecting modifications in DNA after irradiation and whether these changes can be utilized as an indicator for the irradiation treatment of foods. The requirement to be fulfilled is that the method be able to distinguish irradiated food without the presence of a control sample, thus the measured response after irradiation must be large enough to supersede background levels from other treatments. Much work has been performed on the effects of radiation on DNA, particularly due to its importance in radiation biology. The main lesions of DNA as a result of irradiation are base damage, damage of the sugar moiety, single strand and double strand breaks. Crosslinking between bases also occurs, e.g. production of thymine dimers, or between DNA and protein. A valuable review on how to utilize these DNA changes for detection purposes has already appeared. Tables 1, 2 and 3 list the proposed methods of detecting changes in irradiated DNA, some identified products as examples for a possible irradiation indicator, in the case of immunoassay the substance used as antigen, and some selected literature references. In this short review, it is not intended to provide a complete literature survey

  10. Toward larger DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Alexandria N; Saaem, Ishtiaq; Vogen, Briana N; Brown, Stanley; LaBean, Thomas H

    2014-10-08

    Structural DNA nanotechnology, and specifically scaffolded DNA origami, is rapidly developing as a versatile method for bottom-up fabrication of novel nanometer-scale materials and devices. However, lengths of conventional single-stranded scaffolds, for example, 7,249-nucleotide circular genomic DNA from the M13mp18 phage, limit the scales of these uniquely addressable structures. Additionally, increasing DNA origami size generates the cost burden of increased staple-strand synthesis. We addressed this 2-fold problem by developing the following methods: (1) production of the largest to-date biologically derived single-stranded scaffold using a λ/M13 hybrid virus to produce a 51 466-nucleotide DNA in a circular, single-stranded form and (2) inexpensive DNA synthesis via an inkjet-printing process on a chip embossed with functionalized micropillars made from cyclic olefin copolymer. We have experimentally demonstrated very efficient assembly of a 51-kilobasepair origami from the λ/M13 hybrid scaffold folded by chip-derived staple strands. In addition, we have demonstrated two-dimensional, asymmetric origami sheets with controlled global curvature such that they land on a substrate in predictable orientations that have been verified by atomic force microscopy.

  11. DNA Polymerase Gamma in Mitochondrial DNA Replication and Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Copeland

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA are associated with aging, and they can cause tissue degeneration and neuromuscular pathologies known as mitochondrial diseases. Because DNA polymerase γ (pol γ is the enzyme responsible for replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA, the burden of faithful duplication of mitochondrial DNA, both in preventing spontaneous errors and in DNA repair synthesis, falls on pol γ. Investigating the biological functions of pol γ and its inhibitors aids our understanding of the sources of mtDNA mutations. In animal cells, pol γ is composed of two subunits, a larger catalytic subunit of 125–140 kDa and second subunit of 35–55 kDa. The catalytic subunit contains DNA polymerase activity, 3’-5’ exonuclease activity, and a 5’-dRP lyase activity. The accessory subunit is required for highly processive DNA synthesis and increases the affinity of pol gamma to the DNA.

  12. Ribonucleotide triggered DNA damage and RNA-DNA damage responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bret D; Williams, R Scott

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that the transient contamination of DNA with ribonucleotides exceeds all other known types of DNA damage combined. The consequences of ribose incorporation into DNA, and the identity of protein factors operating in this RNA-DNA realm to protect genomic integrity from RNA-triggered events are emerging. Left unrepaired, the presence of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA impacts cellular proliferation and is associated with chromosome instability, gross chromosomal rearrangements, mutagenesis, and production of previously unrecognized forms of ribonucleotide-triggered DNA damage. Here, we highlight recent findings on the nature and structure of DNA damage arising from ribonucleotides in DNA, and the identification of cellular factors acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR) to counter RNA-triggered DNA damage.

  13. Supramolecular Complexes of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, G.; Scherman, D.

    Deoxyribose nucleic acid or DNA is a linear polymer in the form of a double strand, synthesised by sequential polymerisation of a large number of units chosen from among the nucleic bases called purines (adenosine A and guanosine G) and pyrimidines (cytosine C and thymidine T). DNA contains all the genetic information required for life. It exists in the form of a limited number (a few dozen) of very big molecules, called chromosomes. This genetic information is first of all transcribed. In this process, a restricted fragment of the DNA called a gene is copied in the form of ribonucleic acid, or RNA. This RNA is itself a polymer, but with a single strand in which the sequence of nucleic acids is schematically analogous to the sequence on one of the two strands of the transcribed DNA. Finally, this RNA is translated into a protein, yet another linear polymer. The proteins make up the main part of the active constituents ensuring the survival of the cell. Any loss of information, either by mutation or by deletion of the DNA, will cause an imbalance in the cell's metabolism that may in turn lead to incurable pathologies. Several strategies have been developed to reduce the consequences of such genetic deficiencies or, more generally, to act, by amplifying or suppressing them, on the mechanisms leading from the reading of the genetic information to the production of proteins: Strategies aiming to introduce synthetic DNA or RNA, which selectively block the expression of certain genes, are now being studied by an increasing number of research scientists and pharmacologists. They use antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides or interfering oligoribonucleotides and they already have clinical applications. This kind of therapy is often called gene pharmacology. Other, more ambitious strategies aim to repair in situ mutated or incomplete DNA within the chromosomes themselves, by introducing short sequences of DNA or RNA which recognise and take the place of mutations. This is the

  14. Metric representation of DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B

    2000-07-01

    A metric representation of DNA sequences is borrowed from symbolic dynamics. In view of this method, the pattern seen in the chaos game representation of DNA sequences is explained as the suppression of certain nucleotide strings in the DNA sequences. Frequencies of short nucleotide strings and suppression of the shortest ones in the DNA sequences can be determined by using the metric representation.

  15. Structural investigations of K3-x[InX6-x(H2O)x,nH2O]. I. Crystallographic characterization (X=Br); comparison of indium-ligand distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorriaux-Rubbens, A.; Wallart, F.; Wignacourt, J.P.; Drache, M.

    1991-01-01

    We present different compounds existing in the potassium bromoindates family, where the CN of the central atom vary from six to four. The crystal structures have been refined from their isomorphous chlorinated homologues. We propose a comparison of In-Br bond lengths as a function of the central atom CN and of the substitutional degree of halide ligands by water molecule [fr

  16. Blood extracellular DNA after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.G.; Tishchenko, L.I.; Surkova, E.A.; Vasil'eva, I.N.

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that blood extracellular DNA of irradiated rats largely consists of the low-molecular DNA and its oligomers. Molecular masses of oligomers are multiple to molecular mass of monomer fragment with nucleosome size. The low-molecular DNA has linear form. The average content of GC-pairs in low-molecular DNA is higher than in total rat's DNA (48.5% against 41.5%). The low-molecular DNA is a part of complex containing RNA, acidic proteins and lipids. It is assumed that the formation of low-molecular DNA is a result of Ca/Mg - dependent nuclear endonuclease action

  17. DNA triplex structures in neurodegenerative disorder, Friedreich's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    canonical B-DNA structure or 'unusual' DNA structure. The unusual DNA structures like DNA-hairpin, cruciform, Z-DNA, triplex and tetraplex are represented as hotspots of chromosomal breaks, homologous recombination and gross ...

  18. Simian virus Large T antigen interacts with the N-terminal domain of the 70 kD subunit of Replication Protein A in the same mode as multiple DNA damage response factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boting Ning

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 serves as an important model organism for studying eukaryotic DNA replication. Its helicase, Large T-antigen (Tag, is a multi-functional protein that interacts with multiple host proteins, including the ubiquitous ssDNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA. Tag recruits RPA, actively loads it onto the unwound DNA, and together they promote priming of the template. Although interactions of Tag with RPA have been mapped, no interaction between Tag and the N-terminal protein interaction domain of the RPA 70kDa subunit (RPA70N has been reported. Here we provide evidence of direct physical interaction of Tag with RPA70N and map the binding sites using a series of pull-down and mutational experiments. In addition, a monoclonal anti-Tag antibody, the epitope of which overlaps with the binding site, blocks the binding of Tag to RPA70N. We use NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis to show that Tag uses the same basic cleft in RPA70N as multiple of DNA damage response proteins. Mutations in the binding sites of both RPA70N and Tag demonstrate that specific charge reversal substitutions in either binding partner strongly diminish the interaction. These results expand the known repertoire of contacts between Tag and RPA, which mediate the many critical roles of Tag in viral replication.

  19. Eukaryotic DNA Replicases

    KAUST Repository

    Zaher, Manal S.

    2014-11-21

    The current model of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork includes three replicative DNA polymerases, polymerase α/primase complex (Pol α), polymerase δ (Pol δ), and polymerase ε (Pol ε). The primase synthesi