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Sample records for dna cloning vectors

  1. The Cloning of the Human Tumor Supressor Gene INGI: DNA Cloning into Plasmid Vector and DNA Analysis by Restriction Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA cloning is one of the most important techniques In the field of molecular biology, with a critical role in analyzing the structure and function of genes and their adjacent regulatory regions. DNA cloning is helpful in learning fundamental molecular biological techniques, since DNA cloning involves a series of them, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, DNA ligation, bacterial transformation, bacterial culture, plasmid DNA extraction, DNA digestion with restriction enzymes and agarose gel electrophoresis. In this paper the cloning of the human tumor suppressor gene INGI has been used to illustrate the methodology. The gene was amplified by PCR, cloned into a TA-cloning vectore, and restriction enzyme mapping was used to distinguish the sense INGI construct from the antisense INGI construct.

  2. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  3. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  4. Automated seamless DNA co-transformation cloning with direct expression vectors applying positive or negative insert selection

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    Frey Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular DNA cloning is crucial to many experiments and with the trend to higher throughput of modern approaches automated techniques are urgently required. We have established an automated, fast and flexible low-cost expression cloning approach requiring only vector and insert amplification by PCR and co-transformation of the products. Results Our vectors apply positive selection for the insert or negative selection against empty vector molecules and drive strong expression of target proteins in E.coli cells. Variable tags are available both in N-terminal or C-terminal position. A newly developed β-lactamase (ΔW290 selection cassette contains a segment inside the β-lactamase open reading frame encoding a stretch of hydrophilic amino acids that result in a T7 promoter when back-translated. This position of the promoter permits positive selection and attenuated expression of fusion proteins with C-terminal tags. We have tested eight vectors by inserting six target sequences of variable length, provenience and function. The target proteins were cloned, expressed and detected using an automated Tecan Freedom Evo II liquid handling work station. Only two colonies had to be picked to score with 85% correct inserts while 80% of those were positive in expression tests. Conclusions Our results establish co-transformation and positive/negative selection cloning in conjunction with the provided vectors and selection cassettes as an automatable alternative to commercialized high-throughput cloning systems like Gateway® or ligase-independent cloning (LIC .

  5. Construction of a genomic DNA library with a TA vector and its application in cloning of the phytoene synthase gene from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis M-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Hiroyuki, Kojima

    1998-03-01

    An efficient and simple method for constructing a genomic DNA library using a TA cloning vector is presented. It is based on the sonicative cleavage of genomic DNA and modification of fragment ends with Taq DNA polymerase, followed by ligation using a TA vector. This method was applied for cloning of the phytoene synthase gene crt B from Spirulina platensis. This method is useful when genomic DNA cannot be efficiently digested with restriction enzymes, a problem often encountered during the construction of a genomic DNA library of cyanobacteria.

  6. Phage lambda cDNA cloning vectors for subtractive hybridization, fusion-protein synthesis and Cre-loxP automatic plasmid subcloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzolo, M J; Hamilton, B A; Ding, D L; Martin, C H; Mead, D A; Mierendorf, R C; Raghavan, K V; Meyerowitz, E M; Lipshitz, H D

    1990-03-30

    We describe the construction and use of two classes of cDNA cloning vectors. The first class comprises the lambda EXLX(+) and lambda EXLX(-) vectors that can be used for the expression in Escherichia coli of proteins encoded by cDNA inserts. This is achieved by the fusion of cDNA open reading frames to the T7 gene 10 promoter and protein-coding sequences. The second class, the lambda SHLX vectors, allows the generation of large amounts of single-stranded DNA or synthetic cRNA that can be used in subtractive hybridization procedures. Both classes of vectors are designed to allow directional cDNA cloning with non-enzymatic protection of internal restriction sites. In addition, they are designed to facilitate conversion from phage lambda to plasmid clones using a genetic method based on the bacteriophage P1 site-specific recombination system; we refer to this as automatic Cre-loxP plasmid subcloning. The phage lambda arms, lambda LOX, used in the construction of these vectors have unique restriction sites positioned between the two loxP sites. Insertion of a specialized plasmid between these sites will convert it into a phage lambda cDNA cloning vector with automatic plasmid subcloning capability.

  7. "Direct cloning in Lactobacillus plantarum: electroporation with non-methylated plasmid DNA enhances transformation efficiency and makes shuttle vectors obsolete".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spath, Katharina; Heinl, Stefan; Grabherr, Reingard

    2012-10-25

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in agricultural as well as industrial biotechnology. Development of improved LAB strains using e.g. library approaches is often limited by low transformation efficiencies wherefore one reason could be differences in the DNA methylation patterns between the Escherichia coli intermediate host for plasmid amplification and the final LAB host. In the present study, we examined the influence of DNA methylation on transformation efficiency in LAB and developed a direct cloning approach for Lactobacillus plantarum CD033. Therefore, we propagated plasmid pCD256 in E. coli strains with different dam/dcm-methylation properties. The obtained plasmid DNA was purified and transformed into three different L. plantarum strains and a selection of other LAB species. Best transformation efficiencies were obtained using the strain L. plantarum CD033 and non-methylated plasmid DNA. Thereby we achieved transformation efficiencies of ~ 10(9) colony forming units/μg DNA in L. plantarum CD033 which is in the range of transformation efficiencies reached with E. coli. Based on these results, we directly transformed recombinant expression vectors received from PCR/ligation reactions into L. plantarum CD033, omitting plasmid amplification in E. coli. Also this approach was successful and yielded a sufficient number of recombinant clones. Transformation efficiency of L. plantarum CD033 was drastically increased when non-methylated plasmid DNA was used, providing the possibility to generate expression libraries in this organism. A direct cloning approach, whereby ligated PCR-products where successfully transformed directly into L. plantarum CD033, obviates the construction of shuttle vectors containing E. coli-specific sequences, as e.g. a ColEI origin of replication, and makes amplification of these vectors in E. coli obsolete. Thus, plasmid constructs become much smaller and occasional structural instability or mutagenesis during E. coli

  8. Rapid Construction of Complex Plant RNA Virus Infectious cDNA Clones for Agroinfection Using a Yeast-E. coli-Agrobacterium Shuttle Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Danyang; Liu, Yong; Huang, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhenghe

    2017-11-07

    The availability of infectious full-length clone is indispensable for reverse genetics studies of virus biology, pathology and construction of viral vectors. However, for RNA viruses with large genome sizes or those exhibiting inherent cloning difficulties, procedure to generate biologically active circular DNA (cDNA) clones can be time-consuming or technically challenging. Here we have constructed a yeast- Escherichia coli - Agrobacterium shuttle vector that enables highly efficient homologous recombination in yeast for assembly of Agrobacterium compatible plant virus clones. Using this vector, we show that infectious cDNA clones of a plant negative-stranded RNA virus, sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus, can be rapidly assembled. In addition, one-step assembly of infectious clones of potato virus Y in yeast, either with or without intron, was readily achieved from as many as eight overlapping DNA fragments. More importantly, the recovered yeast plasmids can be transformed directly into Agrobacterium for inoculation, thereby obviating the E. coli cloning steps and associated toxicity issues. This method is rapid, highly efficient and cost-effective and should be readily applicable to a broad range of plant viruses.

  9. Ultra-low background DNA cloning system.

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    Kenta Goto

    Full Text Available Yeast-based in vivo cloning is useful for cloning DNA fragments into plasmid vectors and is based on the ability of yeast to recombine the DNA fragments by homologous recombination. Although this method is efficient, it produces some by-products. We have developed an "ultra-low background DNA cloning system" on the basis of yeast-based in vivo cloning, by almost completely eliminating the generation of by-products and applying the method to commonly used Escherichia coli vectors, particularly those lacking yeast replication origins and carrying an ampicillin resistance gene (Amp(r. First, we constructed a conversion cassette containing the DNA sequences in the following order: an Amp(r 5' UTR (untranslated region and coding region, an autonomous replication sequence and a centromere sequence from yeast, a TRP1 yeast selectable marker, and an Amp(r 3' UTR. This cassette allowed conversion of the Amp(r-containing vector into the yeast/E. coli shuttle vector through use of the Amp(r sequence by homologous recombination. Furthermore, simultaneous transformation of the desired DNA fragment into yeast allowed cloning of this DNA fragment into the same vector. We rescued the plasmid vectors from all yeast transformants, and by-products containing the E. coli replication origin disappeared. Next, the rescued vectors were transformed into E. coli and the by-products containing the yeast replication origin disappeared. Thus, our method used yeast- and E. coli-specific "origins of replication" to eliminate the generation of by-products. Finally, we successfully cloned the DNA fragment into the vector with almost 100% efficiency.

  10. Efficient cDNA cloning by direct phenotypic correction of a mutant human cell line (HPRT-) using an Epstein-Barr virus derived cDNA expression vector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B.G.M. Belt; W. Jongmans; J. de Wit (Jan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); P. van de Putte (Pieter)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractHuman cells are, in general, poor recipients of foreign DNA, which has severely hampered the cloning of genes by direct phenotypic correction of deficient human cell lines after DNA mediated gene transfer. In this communication a methodology is presented which largely circumvents this

  11. “Direct cloning in Lactobacillus plantarum: Electroporation with non-methylated plasmid DNA enhances transformation efficiency and makes shuttle vectors obsolete”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spath Katharina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB play an important role in agricultural as well as industrial biotechnology. Development of improved LAB strains using e.g. library approaches is often limited by low transformation efficiencies wherefore one reason could be differences in the DNA methylation patterns between the Escherichia coli intermediate host for plasmid amplification and the final LAB host. In the present study, we examined the influence of DNA methylation on transformation efficiency in LAB and developed a direct cloning approach for Lactobacillus plantarum CD033. Therefore, we propagated plasmid pCD256 in E. coli strains with different dam/dcm-methylation properties. The obtained plasmid DNA was purified and transformed into three different L. plantarum strains and a selection of other LAB species. Results Best transformation efficiencies were obtained using the strain L. plantarum CD033 and non-methylated plasmid DNA. Thereby we achieved transformation efficiencies of ~ 109 colony forming units/μg DNA in L. plantarum CD033 which is in the range of transformation efficiencies reached with E. coli. Based on these results, we directly transformed recombinant expression vectors received from PCR/ligation reactions into L. plantarum CD033, omitting plasmid amplification in E. coli. Also this approach was successful and yielded a sufficient number of recombinant clones. Conclusions Transformation efficiency of L. plantarum CD033 was drastically increased when non-methylated plasmid DNA was used, providing the possibility to generate expression libraries in this organism. A direct cloning approach, whereby ligated PCR-products where successfully transformed directly into L. plantarum CD033, obviates the construction of shuttle vectors containing E. coli-specific sequences, as e.g. a ColEI origin of replication, and makes amplification of these vectors in E. coli obsolete. Thus, plasmid constructs become much smaller and occasional

  12. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  13. Altering the selection capabilities of common cloning vectors via restriction enzyme mediated gene disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The cloning of gene sequences forms the basis for many molecular biological studies. One important step in the cloning process is the isolation of bacterial transformants carrying vector DNA. This involves a vector-encoded selectable marker gene, which in most cases, confers resistance to an antibiotic. However, there are a number of circumstances in which a different selectable marker is required or may be preferable. Such situations can include restrictions to host strain choice, two phase cloning experiments and mutagenesis experiments, issues that result in additional unnecessary cloning steps, in which the DNA needs to be subcloned into a vector with a suitable selectable marker. Results We have used restriction enzyme mediated gene disruption to modify the selectable marker gene of a given vector by cloning a different selectable marker gene into the original marker present in that vector. Cloning a new selectable marker into a pre-existing marker was found to change the selection phenotype conferred by that vector, which we were able to demonstrate using multiple commonly used vectors and multiple resistance markers. This methodology was also successfully applied not only to cloning vectors, but also to expression vectors while keeping the expression characteristics of the vector unaltered. Conclusions Changing the selectable marker of a given vector has a number of advantages and applications. This rapid and efficient method could be used for co-expression of recombinant proteins, optimisation of two phase cloning procedures, as well as multiple genetic manipulations within the same host strain without the need to remove a pre-existing selectable marker in a previously genetically modified strain. PMID:23497512

  14. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  15. Cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, M.V.; Burelle, M.; Cantin, C.; Kabrie, C.; Labrie, F.; Lachance, Y.; Leblanc, G.; Lefebvre, C.; Patel, P.; Simard, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss how in order to define the functional domains of the human androgen receptor, complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the human androgen receptor (hAR) have been isolated from a human testis λgtll cDNA library using synthetic oligonnucleotide probes, homologous to segments of the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors. The cDNA clones corresponding to the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors were eliminated after cross-hybridization with their respective cDNA probes and/or after restriction mapping of the cDNA clones. The remaining cDNA clones were classified into different groups after analysis by restriction digestion and cross-hybridization. Two of the largest cDNA clones from each group were inserted into an expression vector in both orientations. The linearized plasmids were used as templates in in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. Subsequent in vitro translation of the purified transcripts in rabbit reticulocyte lysate followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) permitted the characterization of the encoded polyeptides. The expressed proteins larger than 30,000 Da were analyzed for their ability to bind tritium-labelled dihydrotestosterone ([ 3 H] DHT) with high affinity and specificity

  16. Design and Construction of a Cloning Vector Containing the hspX Gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Yaghoubi, Atieh; Aryan, Ehsan; Zare, Hosna; Alami, Shadi; Teimourpour, Roghayeh; Meshkat, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death worldwide. Finding an effective vaccine against TB is the best way to control it. Several vaccines against this disease have been developed but none are completely protective. The aim of this study was to design and construct a cloning vector containing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) heat shock protein X (hspX) . First, an hspX fragment was amplified by PCR and cloned into plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) and recombinant vector was confirmed. A 435 bp hspX fragment was isolated. The fragment was 100% homologous with hspX of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv in GenBank. In this study, the cloning vector pcDNA3.1(+), containing a 435-bp hspX fragment of M. tuberculosis , was constructed. This could be used as a DNA vaccine to induce immune responses in animal models in future studies.

  17. MOLECULAR CLONING OF OVINE cDNA LEPTIN GENE

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    CLAUDIA TEREZIA SOCOL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient bacterial transformation system suitable for cloning the coding sequence of the ovine leptin gene in E. coli DH5α host cells using the pGEMT easy vector it is described in this paper. The necessity of producing leptin is based on the fact that the role of this molecule in the animal and human organism is still unknown, leptin not existing as commercial product on the Romanian market. The results obtained in the bacterial transformation, cloning, recombinant clones selection, control of the insertion experiments and DNA computational analysis represent the first steps in further genetic engineering experiments such as production of DNA libraries, DNA sequencing, protein expression, etc., for a further contribution in elucidating the role of leptin in the animal and human organism.

  18. Construction of adenovirus vectors encoding the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Fang; Qi, Bing; Tu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Lian; Yu, Guo-Cheng; Zhong, Jing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    To construct adenovirus vectors of lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology to further understand the role of lumican gene in myopia. Gateway recombinant cloning technology was used to construct adenovirus vectors. The wild-type (wt) and mutant (mut) forms of the lumican gene were synthesized and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lumican cDNA fragments were purified and ligated into the adenovirus shuttle vector pDown-multiple cloning site (MCS)-/internal ribozyme entry site (IRES)/enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Then the desired DNA fragments were integrated into the destination vector pAV.Des1d yielding the final expression constructs pAV.Ex1d-cytomegalovirus (CMV)>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES /EGFP, respectively. The adenovirus plasmids pAV.Ex1d-CMV>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES/EGFP were successfully constructed by gateway recombinant cloning technology. Positive clones identified by PCR and sequencing were selected and packaged into recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells. We construct adenovirus vectors containing the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology, which provides a basis for investigating the role of lumican gene in the pathogenesis of high myopia.

  19. Simple cloning and DNA assembly in Escherichia coli by prolonged overlap extension PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chun; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2014-01-01

    We developed a simple method (Simple Cloning) for subcloning one, two, or three DNA fragments into any location of a targeted vector without the need for restriction enzyme, ligase, exonuclease, or recombinase. This cloning technology can be applied to a few common Escherichia coli hosts (e.g., BL21(DE3), DH5α, JM109, TOP10). The protocol includes three steps: (a) linear DNA fragments (i.e., the insert DNA and the vector backbone) with two overlap ends were generated by regular high-fidelity PCR, (b) the DNA multimers were generated based on these equimolar DNA templates by using prolonged overlap extension PCR (POE-PCR) without primers added, and (c) the POE-PCR product was transformed to E. coli strains directly. Because positive colony efficiencies are very high, it is not necessary to identify desired clones by using colony PCR. Simple Cloning provides a new cloning and DNA assembly method with great simplicity and flexibility.

  20. Positive-selection and ligation-independent cloning vectors for large scale in planta expression for plant functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Yeom, Seon-In; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil

    2010-12-01

    Transient expression is an easy, rapid and powerful technique for producing proteins of interest in plants. Recombinational cloning is highly efficient but has disadvantages, including complicated, time consuming cloning procedures and expensive enzymes for large-scale gene cloning. To overcome these limitations, we developed new ligation-independent cloning (LIC) vectors derived from binary vectors including tobacco mosaic virus (pJL-TRBO), potato virus X (pGR106) and the pBI121 vector-based pMBP1. LIC vectors were modified to enable directional cloning of PCR products without restriction enzyme digestion or ligation reactions. In addition, the ccdB gene, which encodes a potent cell-killing protein, was introduced between the two LIC adapter sites in the pJL-LIC, pGR-LIC, and pMBP-LIC vectors for the efficient selection of recombinant clones. This new vector does not require restriction enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, or DNA ligase for cloning. To clone, the three LIC vectors are digested with SnaBI and treated with T4 DNA polymerase, which includes 3' to 5' exonuclease activity in the presence of only one dNTP (dGTP for the inserts and dCTP for the vector). To make recombinants, the vector plasmid and the insert PCR fragment were annealed at room temperature for 20 min prior to transformation into the host. Bacterial transformation was accomplished with 100% efficiency. To validate the new LIC vector systems, we were used to coexpressed the Phytophthora AVR and potato resistance (R) genes in N. benthamiana by infiltration of Agrobacterium. Coexpressed AVR and R genes in N. benthamiana induced the typical hypersensitive cell death resulting from in vivo interaction of the two proteins. These LIC vectors could be efficiently used for high-throughput cloning and laboratory-scale in planta expression. These vectors could provide a powerful tool for high-throughput transient expression assays for functional genomic studies in plants.

  1. A versatile prokaryotic cloning vector with six dual restriction enzyme sites in the polylinker facilitates efficient subcloning into vectors with unique cloning sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, D R; Chillemi, A C; Fingeroth, J D

    1998-09-01

    In large and complex vectors a single restriction enzyme recognition site may be available for introduction of additional DNA requiring the development of linker fragments to create compatible insertion sites. This technology can be time consuming and costly. We describe the construction of a simple phagemid, pSFI, with a polylinker that contains six pairs of dual, rare-cutting, restriction enzyme recognition sites (NotI, SpeI, EcoRV, PstI, SacII, EagI) with multiple unique sites between each pair. This has permitted rapid subcloning of DNA with creation of single flanking restriction enzyme sites. pSFI was used to expedite transfer of viral genes to a LacZ-inducible expression vector and to an adenovirus expression cassette for production of replication-defective virus. The use of this phagemid has facilitated complex vector manipulations and is a valuable adjunct to the family of multifunctional cloning vectors.

  2. Homologous recombination-mediated cloning and manipulation of genomic DNA regions using Gateway and recombineering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozwadowski, Kevin; Yang, Wen; Kagale, Sateesh

    2008-11-17

    Employing genomic DNA clones to characterise gene attributes has several advantages over the use of cDNA clones, including the presence of native transcription and translation regulatory sequences as well as a representation of the complete repertoire of potential splice variants encoded by the gene. However, working with genomic DNA clones has traditionally been tedious due to their large size relative to cDNA clones and the presence, absence or position of particular restriction enzyme sites that may complicate conventional in vitro cloning procedures. To enable efficient cloning and manipulation of genomic DNA fragments for the purposes of gene expression and reporter-gene studies we have combined aspects of the Gateway system and a bacteriophage-based homologous recombination (i.e. recombineering) system. To apply the method for characterising plant genes we developed novel Gateway and plant transformation vectors that are of small size and incorporate selectable markers which enable efficient identification of recombinant clones. We demonstrate that the genomic coding region of a gene can be directly cloned into a Gateway Entry vector by recombineering enabling its subsequent transfer to Gateway Expression vectors. We also demonstrate how the coding and regulatory regions of a gene can be directly cloned into a plant transformation vector by recombineering. This construct was then rapidly converted into a novel Gateway Expression vector incorporating cognate 5' and 3' regulatory regions by using recombineering to replace the intervening coding region with the Gateway Destination cassette. Such expression vectors can be applied to characterise gene regulatory regions through development of reporter-gene fusions, using the Gateway Entry clones of GUS and GFP described here, or for ectopic expression of a coding region cloned into a Gateway Entry vector. We exemplify the utility of this approach with the Arabidopsis PAP85 gene and demonstrate that the expression

  3. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hwan; Ju, Hye-Kyoung; Han, Jae-Yeong; Park, Jong-Seo; Kim, Ik-Hyun; Seo, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Kyu; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2017-04-01

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon and melon fields and generated full-length infectious cDNA clones. The full-length cDNAs were cloned into newly constructed binary vector pJY, which includes both the 35S and T7 promoters for versatile usage (agroinfiltration and in vitro RNA transcription) and a modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequence to precisely cleave RNA transcripts at the 3' end of the tobamovirus genome. Three CGMMV isolates (OMpj, Wpj, and Mpj) were separately evaluated for infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrated by either Agroinfiltration or inoculation with in vitro RNA transcripts. CGMMV nucleotide identities to other tobamoviruses were calculated from pairwise alignments using DNAMAN. CGMMV identities were 49.89% to tobacco mosaic virus; 49.85% to pepper mild mottle virus; 50.47% to tomato mosaic virus; 60.9% to zucchini green mottle mosaic virus; and 60.96% to kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, confirming that CGMMV is a distinct species most similar to other cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. We further performed phylogenetic analysis to determine relationships of our new Korean CGMMV isolates to previously characterized isolates from Canada, China, India, Israel, Japan, Korea, Russia, Spain, and Taiwan available from NCBI. Analysis of CGMMV amino acid sequences showed three major clades, broadly typified as 'Russian,' 'Israeli,' and 'Asian' groups. All of our new Korean isolates fell within the 'Asian' clade. Neither the 128 nor 186 kDa RdRps of the three new isolates showed any detectable gene silencing suppressor function.

  4. Generation Of Multicopy Pichia Clones From Gap Vector | Ekwenye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was used as a host to generate multicopy clones using in-vitro multimerization and GAP vector approaches. The latter approach relied on the selection of spontaneously occurring multiple integrants based on zeocin resistance. Higher levels of heterologous protein could result using ...

  5. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A stable, full-length cDNA clone of FMDV type O1BFS 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pGEMR-7Zf(–). An ∼8.2 kb PCR product was amplified from the cDNA clone and a full-length RNA was generated from it by in vitro transcription. Transfection of BHK-21 ...

  6. Design and Construction of a Cloning Vector Containing the hspX Gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Atieh Yaghoubi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of death worldwide. Finding an effective vaccine against TB is the best way to control it. Several vaccines against this disease have been developed but none are completely protective. The aim of this study was to design and construct a cloning vector containing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis heat shock protein X (hspX. Methods: First, an hspX fragment was amplified by PCR and cloned into plasmid pcDNA3.1(+ and recombinant vector was confirmed. Results: A 435 bp hspX fragment was isolated. The fragment was 100% homologous with hspX of M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv in GenBank. Conclusions: In this study, the cloning vector pcDNA3.1(+, containing a 435-bp hspX fragment of M. tuberculosis, was constructed. This could be used as a DNA vaccine to induce immune responses in animal models in future studies.

  7. Cloning of Dense Granular (GRA 7 Gene of Toxoplasma gondii into pTZ57RT Vectors for Sub-Cloning in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Plasmids

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    Zahra Arab-Mazar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serological assay based on dense granular (GRA proteins of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is actually the most popular laboratory diagnostic tool to detection of toxoplasmosis. We aimed to construct a recombinant GRA7-pTZ57RT plasmid vectors that it is suitable for sub-cloning and GRA7 protein production.Materials and Methods: Souris mice were used for maintaining of T. gondii tachyzoites by serial intraperitoneal passage. The tachyzoites’ DNA was extracted, and the GRA7 gene was amplified by PCR. The purified DNA was inserted into pTZ57RT cloning vectors, and then transformed into TOP10 competent cells. Finally, cloning and transformation were confirmed by restriction enzymatic digestion and gene sequencing.Results: Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis on PCR products of genomic DNA, revealed 726 bp bands that were equal to the GRA7 gene. Both white (recombinant and blue (non-recombinant colonies appeared on ampicillin-LB agar. Results of enzymatic digestion and gene sequencing confirmed successful cloning and transformation procedures.Conclusion: The GRA7 gene of T. gondii was cloned into pTZ57RT plasmid, which is suggested to be further used as DNA vaccine or sub-cloned for production of recombinant GRA7 protein.

  8. Simplified methods for the construction of RNA and DNA virus infectious clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Tatsuya; Inoue-Nagata, Alice Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    Infectious virus clones are one of the most powerful tools in plant pathology, molecular biology, and biotechnology. The construction of infectious clones of RNA and DNA viruses, however, usually requires laborious cloning and subcloning steps. In addition, instability of the RNA virus genome is frequently reported after its introduction into the vector and transference to Escherichia coli. These difficulties hamper the cloning procedures, making it tedious and cumbersome. This chapter describes two protocols for a simple construction of infectious viruses, an RNA virus, the tobamovirus Pepper mild mottle virus, and a DNA virus, a bipartite begomovirus. For this purpose, the strategy of overlap-extension PCR was used for the construction of infectious tobamovirus clone and of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the construction of a dimeric form of the begomovirus clone.

  9. [DNA methylation and development abnormalities in cloned animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong-Rong; Li, Xiang-Yun

    2007-09-01

    Most cloned animals by nuclear transfer were dead before their births, and only a few can develop to their late gestation or adulthood. Although some cloned offsprings can survive, they often have some development disfigurements and abnormal phenotypes in various degrees. DNA methylation is an important modifiable manner of epigenetic dominating the correct expression of gene. It is a main instrument of regulating genome function and plays a prominent part in the embryonic normal development. Through researching the pattern of DNA methylation, we found that there were many abnormal DNA methylation patterns in cloned animals, which might be the primary reasons for inducing premature death of cloned embryos and development abnormalities of cloned animals. This article discusses the function of DNA methylation, the aberrant DNA methylation patterns in cloned animals, and the reasons of inducing abnormal DNA methylation in cloned animals.

  10. New Approaches to Attenuated Hepatitis a Vaccine Development: Cloning and Sequencing of Cell-Culture Adapted Viral cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-13

    Insert frag- ments from p16 cDNA clones were subcloned into the phage vector Ml3mp8 or Ml3mpl9 qnd subjected to rapid sequencing using the...2), and selected cDNA insert fragments were subcloned into M13 vectors for sequencing. The sequence of the complete genome was determined, with over

  11. Infectious Maize rayado fino virus from Cloned cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C; Weiland, John J; Todd, Jane; Stewart, Lucy R

    2015-06-01

    A full-length cDNA clone was produced from a U.S. isolate of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type member of the genus Marafivirus within the family Tymoviridae. Infectivity of transcripts derived from cDNA clones was demonstrated by infection of maize plants and protoplasts, as well as by transmission via the known leafhopper vectors Dalbulus maidis and Graminella nigrifrons that transmit the virus in a persistent-propagative manner. Infection of maize plants through vascular puncture inoculation of seed with transcript RNA resulted in the induction of fine stipple stripe symptoms typical of those produced by wild-type MRFV and a frequency of infection comparable with that of the wild type. Northern and Western blotting confirmed the production of MRFV-specific RNAs and proteins in infected plants and protoplasts. An unanticipated increase in subgenomic RNA synthesis over levels in infected plants was observed in protoplasts infected with either wild-type or cloned virus. A conserved cleavage site motif previously demonstrated to function in both Oat blue dwarf virus capsid protein and tymoviral nonstructural protein processing was identified near the amino terminus of the MRFV replicase polyprotein, suggesting that cleavage at this site also may occur.

  12. Amplification of the Matrix Gene of RBOK Vaccine Strain of Rinderpest Virus (RPV) by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Cloning into TOPOR XL Cloning Vector

    OpenAIRE

    AZKUR, Ahmet Kürşat; BOLAT, Yusuf

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the matrix (M) gene of the RBOK vaccine strain of rinderpest (RPV) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into TOPOR XL cloning vector. For this purpose, Vero cells were infected with the RBOK vaccine strain of RPV and total RNA was obtained from the infected cells. cDNA of the matrix gene was obtained by reverse transcription from the total RNA. Amplification of the cDNA with PCR was achieved by using the M gene specific primer and PCR products of the M ge...

  13. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. The full-length ...

  14. Creation and validation of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC retroviral vector for stable gene transduction in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Asmita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning vectors capable of retroviral transduction have enabled stable gene overexpression in numerous mitotic cell lines. However, the relatively small number of feasible restriction enzyme sequences in their cloning sites can hinder successful generation of overexpression constructs if these sequences are also present in the target cDNA insert. Results Utilizing ligation-independent cloning (LIC technology, we have modified the highly efficient retroviral transduction vector, pBABE, to eliminate reliance on restriction enzymes for cloning. Instead, the modified plasmid, pBLIC, utilizes random 12/13-base overhangs generated by T4 DNA polymerase 3' exonuclease activity. PCR-based introduction of the complementary sequence into any cDNA of interest enables universal cloning into pBLIC. Here we describe creation of the pBLIC plasmid, and demonstrate successful cloning and protein overexpression from three different cDNAs, Bax, catalase, and p53 through transduction into the human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP or the human lung cancer line, H358. Conclusions Our results show that pBLIC vector retains the high transduction efficiency of the original pBABE while eliminating the requirement for checking individual cDNA inserts for internal restriction sites. Thus it comprises an effective retroviral cloning system for laboratory-scale stable gene overexpression or for high-throughput applications such as creation of retroviral cDNA libraries. To our knowledge, pBLIC is the first LIC vector for retroviral transduction-mediated stable gene expression in mammalian cells.

  15. Generating in vivo cloning vectors for parallel cloning of large gene clusters by homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongmin Lee

    Full Text Available A robust method for the in vivo cloning of large gene clusters was developed based on homologous recombination (HR, requiring only the transformation of PCR products into Escherichia coli cells harboring a receiver plasmid. Positive clones were selected by an acquired antibiotic resistance, which was activated by the recruitment of a short ribosome-binding site plus start codon sequence from the PCR products to the upstream position of a silent antibiotic resistance gene in receiver plasmids. This selection was highly stringent and thus the cloning efficiency of the GFPuv gene (size: 0.7 kb was comparable to that of the conventional restriction-ligation method, reaching up to 4.3 × 10(4 positive clones per μg of DNA. When we attempted parallel cloning of GFPuv fusion genes (size: 2.0 kb and carotenoid biosynthesis pathway clusters (sizes: 4 kb, 6 kb, and 10 kb, the cloning efficiency was similarly high regardless of the DNA size, demonstrating that this would be useful for the cloning of large DNA sequences carrying multiple open reading frames. However, restriction analyses of the obtained plasmids showed that the selected cells may contain significant amounts of receiver plasmids without the inserts. To minimize the amount of empty plasmid in the positive selections, the sacB gene encoding a levansucrase was introduced as a counter selection marker in receiver plasmid as it converts sucrose to a toxic levan in the E. coli cells. Consequently, this method yielded completely homogeneous plasmids containing the inserts via the direct transformation of PCR products into E. coli cells.

  16. Cloning of Salmonella typhimurium DNA encoding mutagenic DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.M.; Sedgwick, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli is encoded by the umuDC operon. Salmonella typhimurium DNA which has homology with E. coli umuC and is able to complement E. coli umuC122::Tn5 and umuC36 mutations has been cloned. Complementation of umuD44 mutants and hybridization with E. coli umuD also occurred, but these activities were much weaker than with umuC. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the composition of the cloned fragment is different from the E. coli umuDC operon. Therefore, a umu-like function of S. typhimurium has been found; the phenotype of this function is weaker than that of its E. coli counterpart, which is consistent with the weak mutagenic response of S. typhimurium to UV compared with the response in E. coli

  17. The Flp double cross system a simple efficient procedure for cloning DNA fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Paul D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While conventional cloning methods using restriction enzymes and polynucleotide ligase are adequate for most DNAs, fragments made by the polymerase chain reaction are difficult to clone because the amplifying DNA polymerase tends to add untemplated nucleotides to the 3'-termini of the amplified strands. Conservative site-specific recombinases offer an efficient alternative to conventional cloning methods. Results In this paper I describe the use of the Flp site-specific recombinase for cloning PCR-amplified fragments. A DNA fragment is amplified with primers that contain at their ends inverted target sequences for Flp. Flp readily recombines these fragments in vitro into a vector that also contains two inverted Flp target sequences surrounding the α-complementing region of the lacZ gene of E. coli. The recombinants are conveniently detected as white colonies by the familiar blue/white screening test for lacZ activity. A useful feature of the system is that both orientations of the inserted DNA are usually obtained. If the recipient vector is cut between the two inverted Flp targets, Flp "heals" the double-strand break by inserting a linear fragment flanked by Flp targets. Conclusion This system ("The Flp Double Cross System" should be useful for cloning multiple PCR fragments into many sites in several vectors. It has certain advantages over other available recombinase-based cloning procedures.

  18. Cloning of cellulase genes using pUC18 and lambda 2001 vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Ashfaq, S.R.; Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.; Batt, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA from cellulomonas biazotea NIAB 442 was used for isolation and cloning of cellulase genes. For this purpose plasmid pUC18 was used for cloning fragments in the range of 109 Kb and phase vector lambda 2001 for cloning fragments in the range of 15-20 Kb respectively. Three restriction enzymes BamHI, Sau3AI and SaII were used for partial restriction of chromosomal DNA to obtain fragment size in the range of 0.5 - 20 Kb. BamHI and SaII were used to linearize pUC18 to obtain compatible ends against the three enzymes used in chromosomal DNA restriction. Linearized pUC18 was then ligated to respective compatible chromosomal DNA fragments and transformed to JM109 competent cells. A total of 6781 recombinants were tested for the production of B-glucosidase and carboxy methyl cellulase (CMC-ase) production. Only one of the recombinants was found to be positive for B-glucosidase production in solid culture. One of the recombinants was found positive for CMC-ase production in solid culture and is being verified and characterized. Larger DNA fragments in the range of 15-20 Kilobase were obtained by partial restriction of chromosomal DNA with BamHI, SaII and Xhol. Lambda 2001 was double digested with BamHI/EcoRI and Xhol/EcoRI for removal of stuffer fragment. Ligation of respective compatible ends was performed between Lambda DNA and chromosomal DNA. Ligation mixture was used for packaging and infection of P2 lysogen. No plaques could be obtained on P2 lysogen due to inefficient packaging. (author)

  19. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    317. 2.4 cDNA sequencing and analysis. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned H. fossilis GH. cDNA was determined by Sanger's dideoxy chain termi- nation method, using Perkin Elmer bigdye terminator kit in an ABI Prism 377 automated DNA sequencer. All other computational analysis of the GH cDNA was done using.

  20. Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of a Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Korean Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Cho, In-Sook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a noncoding infectious RNA molecule, causes seriously economic losses of chrysanthemum for 3 or 4 years after its first infection. Monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd isolate SK1 (CSVd-SK1) were constructed in the plasmids pGEM-T easy vector and pUC19 vector. Linear positive-sense transcripts synthesized in vitro from the full-length monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd-SK1 could infect systemically tomato seedlings and chrysanthemum plants, suggesting that the linear CSVd RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones could be replicated as efficiently as circular CSVd in host species. However, direct inoculation of plasmid cDNA clones containing full-length monomeric cDNA of CSVd-SK1 failed to infect tomato and chrysanthemum and linear negative-sense transcripts from the plasmid DNAs were not infectious in the two plant species. The cDNA sequences of progeny viroid in systemically infected tomato and chrysanthemum showed a few substitutions at a specific nucleotide position, but there were no deletions and insertions in the sequences of the CSVd progeny from tomato and chrysanthemum plants. PMID:25288987

  1. [Cloning associated genes using microdissection-cDNA PCR-SSH in gastric dysplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dong-mei; Sun, Xiu-ju; Zheng, Zhi-hong; He, Guang; Ma, Ming-chao; Xu, Hui-mian; Wang, Mei-xian; Sun, Kai-lai

    2003-10-01

    To construct cDNA subtracted libraries from gastric dysplasia and further screen differentially expressed genes. Relatively pure dysplasia and normal tissue were procured by manual microdissection, and amplified by cDNA-PCR, which was used to carry on for suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Subtracted cDNA fragments were linked with vector, cloned, screened, sequenced, and made homologous search. Differentially expressed fragments were verified by dot hybridization. Two subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed. Among 26 sequenced clones, 15 fragments corresponded to known genes, 3 fragments were known EST and 8 fragments were unknown EST (GenBank BQ164614-BQ164616, BQ291516-BQ291520). Fifteen fragments were verified to be differentially expressed in gastric dysplasia. Subtracted cDNA libraries from gastric dysplasia are constructed using combination of microdissection-cDNA PCR and SSH setup in our laboratory. Some fragments have been screened and verified to help to search for novel associated genes with gastric carcinogenesis.

  2. Horse cDNA clones encoding two MHC class I genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbis, D.P.; Maher, J.K.; Stanek, J.; Klaunberg, B.A.; Antczak, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    Two full-length clones encoding MHC class I genes were isolated by screening a horse cDNA library, using a probe encoding in human HLA-A2.2Y allele. The library was made in the pcDNA1 vector (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA), using mRNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from a Thoroughbred stallion (No. 0834) homozygous for a common horse MHC haplotype (ELA-A2, -B2, -D2; Antczak et al. 1984; Donaldson et al. 1988). The clones were sequenced, using SP6 and T7 universal primers and horse-specific oligonucleotides designed to extend previously determined sequences.

  3. Construction of recombinant DNA clone for bovine viral diarrhea virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, S.G.; Cho, H.J.; Masri, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Molecular cloning was carried out on the Danish strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to construct strategy for the diagnostic tools and effective vaccine of BVD afterwards. A recombinant DNA clone (No. 29) was established successfully from cDNA for viral RNA tailed with adenine homopolymer at 3 -end. 32 P-labeled DNA probes of 300~1, 800bp fragments, originating from the clone 29, directed specific DNA-RNA hybridization results with BVDV RNA. Recombinant DNA of the clone 29 was about 5,200bp representing 41.6% of the full length of Danish strain's RNA, and restriction sites were recognized for EooR I, Sst I, Hind III and Pst I restriction enzymes in the DNA fragment

  4. Efficient four fragment cloning for the construction of vectors for targeted gene replacement in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Andersson, Jens A.; Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    2008-01-01

    technique that allows single step cloning of the two required homologous recombination sequences into different sites of a recipient vector. The advantages are: A simple experimental design, free choice of target sequence, few procedures and user convenience. The vectors are intented for Agrobacterium...... with an average efficiency of 84% for gene replacement and 80% for targeted overexpression. Conclusion: The new vectors designed for USER Friendly cloning provided a fast reliable method to construct vectors for targeted gene manipulations in fungi....

  5. TGATG vector: a new expression system for cloned foreign genes in Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashko, S V; Veiko, V P; Lapidus, A L; Lebedeva, M I; Mochulsky, A V; Shechter, I I; Trukhan, M E; Ratmanova, K I; Rebentish, B A; Kaluzhsky, V E

    1990-03-30

    A TGATG vector system was developed that allows for the construction of hybrid operons with partially overlapping genes, employing the effects of translational coupling to optimize expression of cloned cistrons in Escherichia coli. In this vector system (plasmid pPR-TGATG-1), the coding region of a foreign gene is attached to the ATG codon situated on the vector, to form the hybrid operon transcribed from the phage lambda PR promoter. The cloned gene is the distal cistron of this hybrid operon ('overlappon'). The efficiently translated cro'-cat'-'trpE hybrid cistron is proximal to the promoter. The coding region of this artificial fused cistron [the length of the corresponding open reading frame is about 120 amino acids (aa)] includes the following: the N-terminal portions of phage lambda Cro protein (20 aa), the CAT protein of E. coli (72 aa) and 3' C-terminal codons of the E. coli trpE gene product. At the 3'-end of the cro'-cat'-'trpE fused cistron there is a region for efficient translation reinitiation: a Shine-Dalgarno sequence of the E. coli trpD gene and the overlapping stop and start codons (TGATG). In this sequence, the last G is the first nucleotide of the unique SacI-recognition site (GAGCT decreases C) and so integration of the structural part of the foreign gene into the vector plasmid may be performed using blunt-end DNA linking after the treatment of pPR-TGATG-1 with SacI and E. coli DNA polymerase I or its Klenow fragment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Conversion of BAC clones into binary BAC (BIBAC) vectors and their delivery into basidiomycete fungal cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shawkat; Bakkeren, Guus

    2015-01-01

    The genetic transformation of certain organisms, required for gene function analysis or complementation, is often not very efficient, especially when dealing with large gene constructs or genomic fragments. We have adapted the natural DNA transfer mechanism from the soil pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, to deliver intact large DNA constructs to basidiomycete fungi of the genus Ustilago where they stably integrated into their genome. To this end, Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones containing large fungal genomic DNA fragments were converted via a Lambda phage-based recombineering step to Agrobacterium transfer-competent binary vectors (BIBACs) with a Ustilago-specific selection marker. The fungal genomic DNA fragment was subsequently successfully delivered as T-DNA through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into Ustilago species where an intact copy stably integrated into the genome. By modifying the recombineering vector, this method can theoretically be adapted for many different fungi.

  7. Conversion of BAC Clones into Binary BAC (BIBAC) Vectors and Their Delivery into Basidiomycete Fungal Cells Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2014-09-19

    The genetic transformation of certain organisms, required for gene function analysis or complementation, is often not very efficient, especially when dealing with large gene constructs or genomic fragments. We have adapted the natural DNA transfer mechanism from the soil pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, to deliver intact large DNA constructs to basidiomycete fungi of the genus Ustilago where they stably integrated into their genome. To this end, Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones containing large fungal genomic DNA fragments were converted via a Lambda phage-based recombineering step to Agrobacterium transfer-competent binary vectors (BIBACs) with a Ustilago-specific selection marker. The fungal genomic DNA fragment was subsequently successfully delivered as T-DNA through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into Ustilago species where an intact copy stably integrated into the genome. By modifying the recombineering vector, this method can theoretically be adapted for many different fungi.

  8. cDNA cloning, structural analysis, SNP detection and tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 2. cDNA cloning, structural analysis, SNP detection and tissue ... Abstract. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) plays an important role in growth, reproduction, foetal development and cell proliferation. The present study was conducted to clone and sequence the ...

  9. (PCR) for direct cloning of blunt-end DNA fragments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... interest by PCR using proof reading DNA polymerase, such as Pfu, KOD and Primerstar, is preferred since the. PCR products with a higher degree of fidelity are required in many investigations. However, traditional blunt-end cloning method for direct cloning of blunt-end PCR products is not efficient since ...

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Nanjing) co., Ltd. The nucleotide sequences of these primers are as follows: ..... Ebizuka Y (2000). Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA for Glycyrrhiza glabra cycloartenol synthase. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 23(2):231-234.

  11. Development of an HIV-based cDNA expression cloning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Marc; Tidwell, Jennie K; Donehower, Lawrence A; Sutton, Richard E

    2003-07-01

    Expression cloning of cDNAs is a powerful tool with which to identify genes based on their specific functional properties. Here we describe the development of a cDNA library transfer system based on the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV). This system represents an improvement over current oncoretroviral cDNA expression systems in terms of target cell range and the inclusion of a selectable marker. By use of a simple packaging system, we were able to produce high-titer vector stocks from HIV vector-based cDNA libraries and demonstrate highly efficient cDNA expression cloning in three model experiments. First, HOS TK(-) cells, which are null for thymidine kinase (TK) expression, were transduced with an HIV-based cDNA library derived from primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and functionally selected for TK expression. In a second experiment, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-1-deficient (HPRT(-)) fibroblasts were transduced with a T cell (PM1) line-derived cDNA library and selected for HPRT expression. Both TK (frequency 1 in 5.0 x 10(4)) and HPRT (frequency 1 in 2.0 x 10(4)) cDNAs were readily isolated from these HIV-based cDNA libraries. As a third example, we demonstrated the ability of this vector system to allow functional cDNA library screens to be performed in primary, mitotically inactive cell types. Using senescent HFFs as a target cell population, we were able to isolate SV40 large T antigen cDNA-containing clones (frequency 1 in 2.5 x 10(4)) based on their ability to overcome the senescence-induced block to cell proliferation. Thus, this system can be used to clone relatively low-abundance cDNAs based upon their expression. Because of the ability of HIV-based vectors to transduce primary and nondividing cells efficiently, this vector system will further broaden the range of cell types in which expression cloning studies can be performed.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M J; Gurer, C; Loike, J D; Wilmut, I; Schnieke, A E; Schon, E A

    1999-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells contain two distinct genomes. One is located in the nucleus (nDNA) and is transmitted in a mendelian fashion, whereas the other is located in mitochondria (mtDNA) and is transmitted by maternal inheritance. Cloning of mammals typically has been achieved via nuclear transfer, in which a donor somatic cell is fused by electoporation with a recipient enucleated oocyte. During this whole-cell electrofusion, nDNA as well as mtDNA ought to be transferred to the oocyte. Thus, the cloned progeny should harbour mtDNAs from both the donor and recipient cytoplasms, resulting in heteroplasmy. Although the confirmation of nuclear transfer has been established using somatic cell-specific nDNA markers, no similar analysis of the mtDNA genotype has been reported. We report here the origin of the mtDNA in Dolly, the first animal cloned from an established adult somatic cell line, and in nine other nuclear transfer-derived sheep generated from fetal cells. The mtDNA of each of the ten nuclear-transfer sheep was derived exclusively from recipient enucleated oocytes, with no detectable contribution from the respective somatic donor cells. Thus, although these ten sheep are authentic nuclear clones, they are in fact genetic chimaeras, containing somatic cell-derived nuclear DNA but oocyte-derived mtDNA.

  13. Cloning of the cDNA for human 12-lipoxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, T.; Hoshiko, S.; Radmark, O.; Samuelsson, B.

    1990-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding 12-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human platelet cDNA library by using a cDNA for human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase as probe for the initial screening. The cDNA had an open reading frame encoding 662 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 75,590. Three independent clones revealed minor heterogeneities in their DNA sequences. Thus, in three positions of the deduced amino acid sequence, there is a choice between two different amino acids. The deduced sequence from the clone plT3 showed 65% identity with human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase and 42% identity with human leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase. The 12-lipoxygenase cDNA recognized a 3.0-kilobase mRNA species in platelets and human erythroleukemia cells (HEL cells). Phorbol 12-tetradecanoyl 13-acetate induced megakaryocytic differentiation of HEL cells and 12-lipoxygenase activity and increased mRNA for 12-lipoxygenase. The identity of the cloned 12-lipoxygenase was assured by expression in a mammalian cell line (COS cells). Human platelet 12-lipoxygenase has been difficult to purify to homogeneity. The cloning of this cDNA will increase the possibilities to elucidate the structure and function of this enzyme

  14. Cloning of cDNA encoding steroid 11β-hydroxylase (P450c11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.C.; Szabo, P.; Vitek, A.; Grzeschik, K.H.; John, M.; White, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated bovine and human adrenal cDNA clones encoding the adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for 11β-hydroxylation (P450c11). A bovine adrenal cDNA library constructed in the bacteriophage λ vector gt10 was probed with a previously isolated cDNA clone corresponding to part of the 3' untranslated region of the 4.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA encoding P450c11. Several clones with 3.2-kb cDNA inserts were isolated. Sequence analysis showed that they overlapped the original probe by 300 base pairs (bp). Combined cDNA and RNA sequence data demonstrated a continuous open reading frame of 1509 bases. P450c11 is predicted to contain 479 amino acid residues in the mature protein in addition to a 24-residue amino-terminal mitochondrial signal sequence. A bovine clone was used to isolate a homologous clone with a 3.5-kb insert from a human adrenal cDNA library. A region of 1100 bp was 81% homologous to 769 bp of the coding sequence of the bovine cDNA except for a 400-bp segment presumed to be an unprocessed intron. Hybridization of the human cDNA to DNA from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines and in situ hybridization to metaphase spreads of human chromosomes localized the gene to the middle of the long arm of chromosome 8. These data should be useful in developing reagents for heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, the second most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  15. DNA microarrays : a molecular cloning manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sambrook, Joseph; Bowtell, David

    2002-01-01

    .... This manual, designed to extend and to complement the information in the best-selling Molecular Cloning, is a synthesis of the expertise and experience of more than 30 contributors all innovators in a fast moving field...

  16. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of foot-and-mouth disease ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O is the most predominant among the endemic serotypes in India. A stable, full-length cDNA clone of FMDV type O1BFS 1860 preceded by a bacteriophage T7 polymerase promoter was assembled in a plasmid vector pGEMR-7Zf(–). An ~8.2 kb PCR product was amplified ...

  17. Main features of DNA-based immunization vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Azevedo

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA-based immunization has initiated a new era of vaccine research. One of the main goals of gene vaccine development is the control of the levels of expression in vivo for efficient immunization. Modifying the vector to modulate expression or immunogenicity is of critical importance for the improvement of DNA vaccines. The most frequently used vectors for genetic immunization are plasmids. In this article, we review some of the main elements relevant to their design such as strong promoter/enhancer region, introns, genes encoding antigens of interest from the pathogen (how to choose and modify them, polyadenylation termination sequence, origin of replication for plasmid production in Escherichia coli, antibiotic resistance gene as selectable marker, convenient cloning sites, and the presence of immunostimulatory sequences (ISS that can be added to the plasmid to enhance adjuvanticity and to activate the immune system. In this review, the specific modifications that can increase overall expression as well as the potential of DNA-based vaccination are also discussed.

  18. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  19. Efficient preparation of shuffled DNA libraries through recombination (Gateway) cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Soili I; Taskinen, Barbara; Ojala, Elina; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Rahikainen, Rolle; Riihimäki, Tiina A; Laitinen, Olli H; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and robust subcloning is essential for the construction of high-diversity DNA libraries in the field of directed evolution. We have developed a more efficient method for the subcloning of DNA-shuffled libraries by employing recombination cloning (Gateway). The Gateway cloning procedure was performed directly after the gene reassembly reaction, without additional purification and amplification steps, thus simplifying the conventional DNA shuffling protocols. Recombination-based cloning, directly from the heterologous reassembly reaction, conserved the high quality of the library and reduced the time required for the library construction. The described method is generally compatible for the construction of DNA-shuffled gene libraries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A successful use of a new shuttle cloning vector pA13 for the cloning of the bacteriocins BacSJ and acidocin 8912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Milan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to research the molecular cloning of genes encoding the novel bacteriocin BacSJ from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 by using a newly constructed shuttle cloning vector pA13. A new shuttle-cloning vector, pA13, was constructed and successfully introduced into Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus strains, showing a high segregational and structural stability in all three hosts. The natural plasmid pSJ2-8 from L. paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 was cloned in the pA13 using BamHI, obtaining the construct pB5. Sequencing and in silico analysis of the pB5 revealed 15 open reading frames (ORF. Plasmid pSJ2-8 harbors the genes encoding the production of two bacteriocins, BacSJ and acidocin 8912. The combined N-terminal amino acid sequencing of BacSJ in combination with DNA sequencing of the bacSJ2-8 gene enabled the determination of the primary structure of a bacteriocin BacSJ. The production and functional expression of BacSJ in homologous and heterologous hosts suggest that bacSJ2-8 and bacSJ2-8i together with the genes encoding the ABC transporter and accessory protein are the minimal requirement for the production of BacSJ. Biochemical and genetic analyses showed that BacSJ belongs to the class II bacteriocins. The shuttle cloning vector pA13 could be used as a tool for genetic manipulations in lactobacilli and lactococci.

  1. A common multiple cloning site in a set of vectors for expression of eukaryotic genes in mammalian, insect and bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, N; Pedersen, FS; Birkelund, Svend

    1994-01-01

    a start Met codon was included in the same reading frame as in lambda gt11Sfi-Not to support expression of partial cDNA clones. Thus a cDNA insert of lambda gt11Sfi-Not could be shuttled among the new vectors for expression. The other set of vectors without a start codon were suitable for expression of c......DNA carrying their own start Met codon. By Western blot analysis and by transactivation of a reporter plasmid in co-transfections we show that cDNA is very efficiently expressed in NIH 3T3 cells under control of the elongation factor 1 alpha promoter....

  2. Development of new USER-based cloning vectors for multiple genes expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Maury, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    of shuttle vectors for convenience of use for high-throughput cloning and selectable marker recycling. The new USER-based cloning vectors consist of a unique USER site and a CRE-loxP-mediated marker recycling system. The USER site allows insertion of genes of interest along with a bidirectional promoter...... of choice into the vector backbone with time- and cost-effective. The selectable marker cassette is flanked by loxP recognition sites for the CreA recombinase to allow reutilization of the same selectable marker. Furthermore, our USER vector set provides a choice of different selectable markers both...

  3. A novel Gateway®-compatible binary vector allows direct selection of recombinant clones in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traore Sy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning genes into plasmid vectors is one of the key steps for studying gene function. Recently, Invitrogen™ developed a convenient Gateway® cloning system based on the site-specific DNA recombination properties of bacteriophage lambda and the cytotoxic protein ccdB, which is lethal to most E. coli strains. The ccdB protein, however, is not toxic to Agrobacterium tumefaciens, an important player often used for studying gene function in planta. This limits the direct application of the Gateway® cloning system in plant transformation-mediated research. Results In this study, we constructed a novel Gateway®-compatible destination vector, pEG101-SacB/R, by replacing the ccdB gene with a SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selectable marker. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the new pEG101-SacB/R destination vector can be used for Gateway® cloning in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. pEG101-SacB/R will be a valuable tool for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta.

  4. A novel Gateway®-compatible binary vector allows direct selection of recombinant clones in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Sy Mamadou; Zhao, Bingyu

    2011-12-07

    Cloning genes into plasmid vectors is one of the key steps for studying gene function. Recently, Invitrogen™ developed a convenient Gateway® cloning system based on the site-specific DNA recombination properties of bacteriophage lambda and the cytotoxic protein ccdB, which is lethal to most E. coli strains. The ccdB protein, however, is not toxic to Agrobacterium tumefaciens, an important player often used for studying gene function in planta. This limits the direct application of the Gateway® cloning system in plant transformation-mediated research. In this study, we constructed a novel Gateway®-compatible destination vector, pEG101-SacB/R, by replacing the ccdB gene with a SacB-SacR gene cassette as the negative selectable marker. Our results demonstrate that the new pEG101-SacB/R destination vector can be used for Gateway® cloning in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. pEG101-SacB/R will be a valuable tool for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta.

  5. A one-step cloning method for the construction of somatic cell gene targeting vectors: application to production of human knockout cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene targeting is a powerful method that can be used for examining the functions of genes. Traditionally, the construction of knockout (KO vectors requires an amplification step to obtain two homologous, large fragments of genomic DNA. Restriction enzymes that cut at unique recognitions sites and numerous cloning steps are then carried out; this is often a time-consuming and frustrating process. Results We have developed a one-step cloning method for the insertion of two arms into a KO vector using exonuclease III. We modified an adeno-associated virus KO shuttle vector (pTK-LoxP-NEO-AAV to yield pAAV-LIC, which contained two cassettes at the two multiple-cloning sites. The vector was digested with EcoRV to give two fragments. The two homologous arms, which had an overlap of 16 bases with the ends of the vector fragments, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. After purification, the four fragments were mixed and treated with exonuclease III, then transformed into Escherichia coli to obtain the desired clones. Using this method, we constructed SirT1 and HDAC2 KO vectors, which were used to establish SirT1 KO cells from the colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116 and HDAC2 KO cells from the colorectal cancer cell line (DLD1. Conclusions Our method is a fast, simple, and efficient technique for cloning, and has great potential for high-throughput construction of KO vectors.

  6. The genus Amycolatopsis: Indigenous plasmids, cloning vectors and gene transfer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S; Lal, R

    2007-03-01

    The genus Amycolatopsis is a member of the phylogenetic group nocardioform actinomycetes. Most of the members of the genus Amycolatopsis are known to produce antibiotics. Additionally, members of this genus have been reported to metabolize aromatic compounds as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Development of genetic manipulation in Amycolatopsis has progressed slowly due to paucity of genetic tools and methods. The occurrence of indigenous plasmids in different species of Amycolatopsis is not very common. Till date, only three indigenous plasmids viz., pMEA100, pMEA300 and pA387 have been reported in Amycolatopsis species. Various vectors based on the indigenous plasmids, pMEA100, pMEA300 and pA387, have been constructed. These vectors have proved useful for molecular genetics studies of actinomycetes. Molecular genetic work with Amycolatopsis strains is not easy, since transformation methods have to be developed, or at least optimized, for each particular strain. Nonetheless, methods for efficient transformation (polyethyleneglycol (PEG) induced protoplast transformation, transformation by electroporation and direct transformation) have been developed and used successfully for the introduction of DNA into several Amycolatopsis species. The construction of plasmid cloning vectors and the development of gene transfer systems has opened up possibilities for studying the molecular genetics of these bacteria.

  7. Cloning of the DNA repair gene, uvsF, by transformation of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, K; Käfer, E

    1990-06-01

    As a first step in the cloning of the DNA repair gene uvsF of Aspergillus nidulans, uvsF pyrG double mutant strains were transformed with a genomic library which carried the complementing Neurospora pyr-4 gene in the vector. Rare pyr+ uvs+ cotransformants were obtained on media lacking pyrimidines, overlayed with MMS (methyl-methane sulfonate) to which uvsF is hypersensitive. Among MMS-resistant transformants, Southerns revealed two types which showed single bands of different sizes when BglII-digested genomic DNA was probed with the vector. Both types produced uvsF- recombinants without vector sequences in homozygous crosses, but only those with the larger band also produced haploid uvs+ progeny. Using BglII-digested genomic DNA to transform Escherichia coli, plasmids of the corresponding two sizes could be rescued. Their inserts had a short internal region in common, giving evidence of rearrangement(s). In secondary transformation of uvsF mutants, only the plasmids with the larger insert showed complementation and these were used to screen Aspergillus libraries. Three types of genomic and two overlapping cDNA clones were identified. The cDNAs hybridized not only to each other, but also to the common region of the rescued plasmids. Therefore, cDNA subclones were used to map the putative uvsF sequences to a short segment in one genomic clone. In Northerns, the complementing large plasmid hybridized to three mRNAs, while the cDNA subclone identified one of these as the probable uvsF message.

  8. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... specific for nodules were selected by differential colony hybridization using 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized either from nodule poly(A)+ RNA or from poly(A)+ RNA of uninfected root as probes. Among the recombinant plasmids, the cDNA gene for leghemoglobin was identified. The protein structure derived from...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  9. Construction of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated tomato black ring virus infectious cDNA clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzyńska-Nowak, Aleksandra; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Falk, Bryce W; Borodynko-Filas, Natasza; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata

    2017-02-15

    Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, genus Nepovirus) infects a wide range of economically important plants such as tomato, potato, tobacco and cucumber. Here, a successful construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of the TBRV genomic RNAs (RNA1 and RNA2) is reported for the first time. The engineered constructs consisting of PCR-amplified DNAs were cloned into binary vector pJL89 immediately downstream of a double cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, and upstream of the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and nopaline synthase terminator (NOS). The symptoms induced on plants agroinoculated with both constructs were indistinguishable from those caused by the wild-type virus. The infectivity of obtained clones was verified by reinoculation to Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi, Chenopodium quinoa and Cucumis sativus. The presence of viral particles and RNA was confirmed by electron microscopy and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Constructed full-length infectious cDNA clones will serve as an excellent tool to study virus-host-vector interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA microarrays : a molecular cloning manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sambrook, Joseph; Bowtell, David

    2002-01-01

    .... DNA Microarrays provides authoritative, detailed instruction on the design, construction, and applications of microarrays, as well as comprehensive descriptions of the software tools and strategies...

  11. Solid-phase cloning for high-throughput assembly of single and multiple DNA parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Magnus; Edfors, Fredrik; Sivertsson, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    present a robust automated protocol for restriction enzyme based SPC and its performance for the cloning of >60 000 unique human gene fragments into expression vectors. In addition, we report on SPC-based single-strand assembly for applications where exact control of the sequence between fragments...... is needed or where multiple inserts are to be assembled. In this approach, the solid support allows for head-to-tail assembly of DNA fragments based on hybridization and polymerase fill-in. The usefulness of head-to-tail SPC was demonstrated by assembly of >150 constructs with up to four DNA parts...

  12. Efficient four fragment cloning for the construction of vectors for targeted gene replacement in filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Matilde B

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid increase in whole genome fungal sequence information allows large scale functional analyses of target genes. Efficient transformation methods to obtain site-directed gene replacement, targeted over-expression by promoter replacement, in-frame epitope tagging or fusion of coding sequences with fluorescent markers such as GFP are essential for this process. Construction of vectors for these experiments depends on the directional cloning of two homologous recombination sequences on each side of a selection marker gene. Results Here, we present a USER Friendly cloning based technique that allows single step cloning of the two required homologous recombination sequences into different sites of a recipient vector. The advantages are: A simple experimental design, free choice of target sequence, few procedures and user convenience. The vectors are intented for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and protoplast based transformation technologies. The system has been tested by the construction of vectors for targeted replacement of 17 genes and overexpression of 12 genes in Fusarium graminearum. The results show that four fragment vectors can be constructed in a single cloning step with an average efficiency of 84% for gene replacement and 80% for targeted overexpression. Conclusion The new vectors designed for USER Friendly cloning provided a fast reliable method to construct vectors for targeted gene manipulations in fungi.

  13. Bacillus subtilis genome vector-based complete manipulation and reconstruction of genomic DNA for mouse transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tetsuo; Kaneko, Shinya; Shiwa, Yuh; Enomoto, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Hirota, Junji

    2013-05-03

    The Bacillus subtilis genome (BGM) vector is a novel cloning system for large DNA fragments, in which the entire 4.2 Mb genome of B. subtilis functions as a vector. The BGM vector system has several attractive properties, such as a large cloning capacity of over 3 Mb, stable propagation of cloned DNA and various modification strategies using RecA-mediated homologous recombination. However, genetic modifications using the BGM vector system have not been fully established, and this system has not been applied to transgenesis. In this study, we developed important additions to the genetic modification methods of the BGM vector system. To explore the potential of the BGM vector, we focused on the fish-like odorant receptor (class I OR) gene family, which consists of 158 genes and forms a single gene cluster. Although a cis-acting locus control region is expected to regulate transcription, this has not yet been determined experimentally. Using two contiguous bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing several class I OR genes, we constructed two transgenes in the BGM vector by inserting a reporter gene cassette into one class I OR gene. Because they were oriented in opposite directions, we performed an inversion modification to align their orientation and then fused them to enlarge the genomic structure. DNA sequencing revealed that no mutations occurred during gene manipulations with the BGM vector. We further demonstrated that the modified, reconstructed genomic DNA fragments could be used to generate transgenic mice. Transgenic mice carrying the enlarged transgene recapitulated the expression and axonal projection patterns of the target class I OR gene in the main olfactory system. We offer a complete genetic modification method for the BGM vector system, including insertion, deletion, inversion and fusion, to engineer genomic DNA fragments without any trace of modifications. In addition, we demonstrate that this system can be used for mouse transgenesis. Thus

  14. A host-vector system for gene cloning in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlemeier, C. J.; Thomas, A. A.; van der Ende, A.; van Leen, R. W.; Borrias, W. E.; van den Hondel, C. A.; van Arkel, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    We describe the construction of a series of vectors suitable for gene cloning in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2. From the indigenous plasmid pUH24, derivatives were constructed with streptomycin as the selective marker; one of these plasmids was used to construct pUC303, a shuttle vector

  15. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  16. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding human DNA topoisomerase II and localization of the gene to chromosome region 17q21-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai-Pflugfelder, M.; Liu, L.F.; Liu, A.A.; Tewey, K.M.; Whang-Peng, J.; Knutsen, T.; Huebner, K.; Croce, C.M.; Wang, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Two overlapping cDNA clones encoding human DNA topoisomerase II were identified by two independent methods. In one, a human cDNA library in phage λ was screened by hybridization with a mixed oligonucleotide probe encoding a stretch of seven amino acids found in yeast and Drosophila DNA topoisomerase II; in the other, a different human cDNA library in a λgt11 expression vector was screened for the expression of antigenic determinants that are recognized by rabbit antibodies specific to human DNA topoisomerase II. The entire coding sequences of the human DNA topoisomerase II gene were determined from these and several additional clones, identified through the use of the cloned human TOP2 gene sequences as probes. Hybridization between the cloned sequences and mRNA and genomic DNA indicates that the human enzyme is encoded by a single-copy gene. The location of the gene was mapped to chromosome 17q21-22 by in situ hybridization of a cloned fragment to metaphase chromosomes and by hybridization analysis with a panel of mouse-human hybrid cell lines, each retaining a subset of human chromosomes

  17. Rapid Construction of Stable Infectious Full-Length cDNA Clone of Papaya Leaf Distortion Mosaic Virus Using In-Fusion Cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tuo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV is becoming a threat to papaya and transgenic papaya resistant to the related pathogen, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV. The generation of infectious viral clones is an essential step for reverse-genetics studies of viral gene function and cross-protection. In this study, a sequence- and ligation-independent cloning system, the In-Fusion® Cloning Kit (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA, was used to construct intron-less or intron-containing full-length cDNA clones of the isolate PLDMV-DF, with the simultaneous scarless assembly of multiple viral and intron fragments into a plasmid vector in a single reaction. The intron-containing full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV-DF was stably propagated in Escherichia coli. In vitro intron-containing transcripts were processed and spliced into biologically active intron-less transcripts following mechanical inoculation and then initiated systemic infections in Carica papaya L. seedlings, which developed similar symptoms to those caused by the wild-type virus. However, no infectivity was detected when the plants were inoculated with RNA transcripts from the intron-less construct because the instability of the viral cDNA clone in bacterial cells caused a non-sense or deletion mutation of the genomic sequence of PLDMV-DF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV and the splicing of intron-containing transcripts following mechanical inoculation. In-Fusion cloning shortens the construction time from months to days. Therefore, it is a faster, more flexible, and more efficient method than the traditional multistep restriction enzyme-mediated subcloning procedure.

  18. Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding xyloglucan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... construction and restructuring of xyloglucan cross-links, thereby controlling the mechanical properties of cell wall. We cloned complete cDNA of an ..... are marked by horizontal lines. The conserved cysteine residues (amino acids 220, 229, 274 and 288 in P. glaucum) are marked by vertical blue arrows.

  19. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPS16 of eukaryote is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS16 gene and is also a homolog of prokaryotic RPS9. The cDNA and genomic sequence of RPS16 was cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...

  20. cDNA cloning, structural analysis, SNP detection and tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOMAS NAICY

    [Naicy T., Venkatachalapathy T., Aravindakshan T., Raghavan K. C., Mini M. and Shyama K. 2017 cDNA cloning, structural analysis, SNP detection and tissue expression profile of the IGF1 gene in Malabari and Attappady Black goats of India. J. Genet. 96, xx–xx]. Introduction. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), an important ...

  1. Hot Fusion: An Efficient Method to Clone Multiple DNA Fragments as Well as Inverted Repeats without Ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changlin; Donovan, William P.; Shikapwashya-Hasser, Olga; Ye, Xudong; Cole, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular cloning is utilized in nearly every facet of biological and medical research. We have developed a method, termed Hot Fusion, to efficiently clone one or multiple DNA fragments into plasmid vectors without the use of ligase. The method is directional, produces seamless junctions and is not dependent on the availability of restriction sites for inserts. Fragments are assembled based on shared homology regions of 17–30 bp at the junctions, which greatly simplifies the construct design. Hot Fusion is carried out in a one-step, single tube reaction at 50°C for one hour followed by cooling to room temperature. In addition to its utility for multi-fragment assembly Hot Fusion provides a highly efficient method for cloning DNA fragments containing inverted repeats for applications such as RNAi. The overall cloning efficiency is in the order of 90–95%. PMID:25551825

  2. [Cloning, sequencing and subcloning of cDNA coding for group I allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-gui; Li, Chao-pin

    2004-06-01

    To clone, sequence and subclone the cDNA coding for group 1 allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1). The cDNA of Der f 1 was amplified by RT-PCR and PCR. After purified, the gene fragment was cloned into a vector pMD-18T. The recombinant plasmid pMD-18T-Der f 1 was transformed into E. coli JM109. Positive clones were screened and identified by PCR and digestion with restriction enzyme. The sequence of inserted Der f 1 gene fragment was also detected. Der f 1 was then subcloned into the vector of pET-32a(+). The Der f 1 gene fragment of Dermatophagoides farinae was specifically amplified from RNA by RT-PCR and PCR. The recombinant plasmid pMD-18T-Der f 1 and pET-32a(+)-Der f 1 was constructed and digested by Bam H I and Sac I, the size of gene fragment was 646 bp and in accordance with the expected one. The pET-32a(+)-Der f 1 subcloning has been constructed successfully.

  3. Cloning of the DNA Repair Gene, Uvsf, by Transformation of Aspergillus Nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Oza, K.; Kafer, E.

    1990-01-01

    As a first step in the cloning of the DNA repair gene uvsF of Aspergillus nidulans, uvsF pyrG double mutant strains were transformed with a genomic library which carried the complementing Neurospora pyr-4 gene in the vector. Rare pyr(+) uvs(+) cotransformants were obtained on media lacking pyrimidines, overlayed with MMS (methyl-methane sulfonate) to which uvsF is hypersensitive. Among MMS-resistant transformants, Southerns revealed two types which showed single bands of different sizes when ...

  4. cDNA cloning, structural analysis, SNP detection and tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOMAS NAICY

    E-mail: naicy@kvasu.ac.in. and conception rate ... transformed into DH5α strain of Escherichia coli and the clones harbouring ... Primer pairs for caprine IGF1 and GAPDH were designed using Primer3 software (table 1). RTq-PCR was conducted in a 25 μL reaction volume containing 50 ng of cDNA and 2× Max- ima SYBR ...

  5. [Cloning of the gene for thermostable Thermus aquaticus YT1 DNA polymerase and its expression in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrushev, L I; Valiaev, A G; Golovchenko, P A; Vinogradov, S V; Chikindas, M L; Kiselev, V I

    1993-01-01

    Using the phasmid vector pSL5, the genomic DNA fragment of T. aquaticus YT1 which contained the thermostable DNA polymerase (Taq-polymerase) gene was cloned. The BglII fragment of this genome locus was subcloned in the BamHI site of the pUC19 plasmid. To optimize the Taq-polymerase gene expression in E. coli cells, the gene was cloned in the correct reading frame regarding the initiation ATG codon of the pPR-TGATG-1 expression vector. The gene expression in this vector was controlled by the phage lambda PR promoter and the temperature-sensitive phage lambda repressor. We used PCR to amplify the short 5'-end fragment of the Taq-polymerase gene coding for the part into which an artificial SacI site was introduced. This site has been used for cloning the PCR product into the pPR-TGATG-1 vector, and the missing gene part was cloned into the KpnI site of the PCR product from the natural cloned gene. The cells of the E. coli PVG-A1 strain, which was obtained in the end, expressed efficiently the Taq-polymerase gene at the nonpermissive temperature. The content of the recombinant Taq-polymerase in the cells was about 1-2% of total proteins. The purified nearly homogeneous Taq-polymerase amplified efficiently in the PCR DNA fragments up to 5.5 kb long and was useful in DNA sequencing the by Sanger method. The half-life of the purified Taq polymerase was about 60 min at 95 degrees C, it was active for at least 65 standard PCR circles. The specific activity of recombinant enzyme preparations was about 180-200,000 units per mg of protein. The E. coli PVG-A1 strain enables one to isolate up to 500,000 units of purified enzyme from 2 l of bacterial culture.

  6. Development of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli for molecular cloning of highly methylated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishr, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A mutant strain of Escherichia coli designated as GR219 that allows efficient molecular cloning of highly methylated bean DNA has been developed by UV light mutation of the parent LE392 str r strain. This mutant strain, like the parent, is streptomycin resistant and is biologically contained, because it requires thymidine for growth. Both the wild type and the mutant strain have lambda phage receptors so both can be utilized for construction of genomic libraries using the phase as a vector. The efficiency of transformation of the parent and the mutant strain with a recombinant plasmid containing bean DNA was compared to the efficiency of transformation of the PLK-F' strain, which has a deletion of mcrA and mcrB genes and, therefore, allows transformation with methylated bean DNA. It has been found that the GR219 strain has the highest efficiency of transformation, while the PLK-F' strain shows less, and the parent LE392 str r strain the least efficiency of transformation. These results indicate that strains of E. coli with mcrA and mcrB genes can recognize and degrade highly methylated DNA. However, other undefined factors affected by the altered gene(s) in the GR219 strain are also involved in the recognition and degradation of any cloned foreign DNA

  7. YAC cloning and identification of rice (Oriza sativa L.) genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Wang, J; Liu, W; Huang, W; Liu, L

    1996-01-01

    Construction of the genomic library by using yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC) has been an approach to a map-based gene cloning strategy. We have obtained more than 2000 YAC clones for the construction of a rice (Oriza sativa L.) genomic library through a procedure that could be summarized as follows: a fractionate by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the rice nucleic high molecular weight (HMW) DNA which is partially digested with EcoRI, and recovered fragments larger than 200 kb; ligate the fragments to the EcoRI digested YAC vector pairs pJS97 and pJS98; transform competent spheroplasts prepared from yeast strain YPH252; and select transformants directly on Ura-Trp-double selective media. Southern hybridization results indicated that the sizes of inserts were in the range of 200-820 kb.

  8. Rapid cloning and purification of proteins: gateway vectors for protein purification by self-cleaving tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Alison R; Hsii, Judy F; Oak, Seachol; Wood, David W

    2008-10-01

    We have combined Invitrogen's Gateway cloning technology with self-cleaving purification tags to generate a new system for rapid production of recombinant protein products. To accomplish this, we engineered our previously reported DeltaI-CM cleaving intein to include a Gateway cloning recognition sequence, and demonstrated that the resulting Gateway-competent intein is unaffected. This intein can therefore be used in several previously reported purification methods, while at the same time being compatible with Gateway cloning. We have incorporated this intein into a set of Gateway vectors, which include self-cleaving elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), chitin binding domain (CBD), phasin (polyhydroxybutyrate-binding), or maltose binding domain (MBD) tags. These vectors were verified by Gateway cloning of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and Escherichia coli catalase genes, and the expressed target proteins were purified using the four methods encoded on the vectors. The purification methods were unaffected by replacing the DeltaI-CM intein with the Gateway intein. It was observed that some purification methods were more appropriate for each target than others, suggesting utility of this technology for rapid process identification and optimization. The modular design of the Gateway system and intein purification method suggests that any tag and promoter can be trivially added to this system for the development of additional expression vectors. This technology could greatly facilitate process optimization, allowing several targets and methods to be tested in a high-throughput manner.

  9. Molecular characterization of a Leishmania donovani cDNA clone with similarity to human 20S proteasome a-type subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Jørgensen, L; Jensen, A T

    2000-01-01

    Using plasma from patients infected or previously infected with Leishmania donovanii, we isolated a L. donovanii cDNA clone with similarity to the proteasome a-type subunit from humans and other eukaryotes. The cDNA clone, designated LePa, was DNA sequenced and Northern blot analysis of L...... out of 25 patients with visceral leishmaniasis and four out of 18 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis contained IgG antibodies which reacted with the purified LePa fusion protein as evaluated in an ELISA. The LePa DNA sequence was inserted into an eukaryotic expression vector and Balb/c mice were...

  10. Ancient DNA: extraction, characterization, molecular cloning, and enzymatic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pääbo, S

    1989-03-01

    Several chemical and enzymatic properties were examined in the DNA extracted from dry remains of soft tissues that vary in age from 4 to 13,000 years and represent four species, including two extinct animals (the marsupial wolf and giant ground sloth). The DNA obtained was invariably of a low average molecular size and damaged by oxidative processes, which primarily manifest themselves as modifications of pyrimidines and sugar residues as well as baseless sites and intermolecular cross-links. This renders molecular cloning difficult. However, the polymerase chain reaction can be used to amplify and study short mitochondrial DNA sequences that are of anthropological and evolutionary significance. This opens up the prospect of performing diachronical studies of molecular evolutionary genetics.

  11. SLiCE: a novel bacterial cell extract-based DNA cloning method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel cloning method termed SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (≥15 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional s...

  12. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP cloning--seamless DNA insertion into any target plasmid without sequence constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulrich

    Full Text Available We present a fast, reliable and inexpensive restriction-free cloning method for seamless DNA insertion into any plasmid without sequence limitation. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP cloning requires two consecutive PCR steps and can be carried out in one day. We show that EMP cloning has a higher efficiency than restriction-free (RF cloning, especially for long inserts above 2.5 kb. EMP further enables simultaneous cloning of multiple inserts.

  13. DyNAvectors: dynamic constitutional vectors for adaptive DNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clima, Lilia; Peptanariu, Dragos; Pinteala, Mariana; Salic, Adrian; Barboiu, Mihail

    2015-12-25

    Dynamic constitutional frameworks, based on squalene, PEG and PEI components, reversibly connected to core centers, allow the efficient identification of adaptive vectors for good DNA transfection efficiency and are well tolerated by mammalian cells.

  14. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy has been developed for cloning highly conserved cDNA sequences. Using this modified method, the growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA sequences of Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla have been cloned, characterized and overexpressed in ...

  15. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy has been developed for cloning highly conserved cDNA sequences. Using this modified method, the growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA sequences of Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla have been cloned, characterized and overexpressed in ...

  16. cDNA cloning of human DNA topoisomerase I. Catalytic activity of a 67.7-kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arpa, P.; Machlin, P.S.; Ratrie, H. III; Rothfield, N.F.; Cleveland, D.W.; Earnshaw, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding human topoisomerase I were isolated from an expression vector library (λgt11) screened with autoimmune anti-topoisomerase I serum. One of these clones has been expressed as a fusion protein comprised of a 32-kDa fragment of the bacterial TrpE protein linked to 67.7 kDa of protein encoded by the cDNA. Three lines of evidence indicate that the cloned cDNA encodes topoisomerase I. (i) Proteolysis maps of the fusion protein and human nuclear topoisomerase I are essentially identical. (ii) The fusion protein relaxes supercoiled DNA, an activity that can be immunoprecipitated by anti-topoisomerase I serum. (iii) Sequence analysis has revealed that the longest cDNA clone (3645 base pairs) encodes a protein of 765 amino acids that shares 42% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase I. The sequence data also show that the catalytically active 67.7-kDa fragment is comprised of the carboxyl terminus

  17. Cloning of monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA integrated within cell DNA from a cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukura, T.; Kanda, T.; Furuno, A.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kawana, T.; Yoshiike, K.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have molecularly cloned and characterized monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA with flanking cell DNA sequences from a cervical carcinoma. Determination of nucleotide sequence around the junctions of human papillomavirus and cell DNAs revealed that at the site of integration within cell DNA the cloned viral DNA had a deletion between nucleotides 1284 and 4471 (numbering system from K. Seedorf, G. Kraemmer, M. Duerst, S. Suhai, and W.G. Roewkamp), which includes the greater part of E1 gene and the entire E2 gene. In the remaining part of the E1 gene, three guanines were found at the location where two guanines at nucleotides 1137 and 1138 have been recorded. This additional guanine shifted the reading frame and erased an interruption in the E1 gene. The data strongly suggest that, like other papillomaviruses, human papillomavirus type 16 has an uninterrupted E1 gene.

  18. Cloning of low dose radiation induced gene RIG1 by RACE based on non-cloned cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Ying; Sui Jianli; Tie Yi; Zhang Yuanping; Zhou Pingkun; Sun Zhixian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To obtain full-length cDNA of radiation induced new gene RIG1 based on its EST fragment. Methods: Based on non-cloned cDNA library, enhanced nested RACE PCR and biotin-avidin labelled probe for magnetic bead purification was used to obtain full-length cDNA of RIG1. Results: About 1 kb of 3' end of RIG1 gene was successfully cloned by this set of methods and cloning of RIG1 5' end is proceeding well. Conclusion: The result is consistent with the design of experiment. This set of protocol is useful for cloning of full-length gene based on EST fragment

  19. A modular cloning toolbox for the generation of chloroplast transformation vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavar Vafaee

    Full Text Available Plastid transformation is a powerful tool for basic research, but also for the generation of stable genetically engineered plants producing recombinant proteins at high levels or for metabolic engineering purposes. However, due to the genetic makeup of plastids and the distinct features of the transformation process, vector design, and the use of specific genetic elements, a large set of basic transformation vectors is required, making cloning a tedious and time-consuming effort. Here, we describe the adoption of standardized modular cloning (GoldenBraid to the design and assembly of the full spectrum of plastid transformation vectors. The modular design of genetic elements allows straightforward and time-efficient build-up of transcriptional units as well as construction of vectors targeting any homologous recombination site of choice. In a three-level assembly process, we established a vector fostering gene expression and formation of griffithsin, a potential viral entry inhibitor and HIV prophylactic, in the plastids of tobacco. Successful transformation as well as transcript and protein production could be shown. In concert with the aforesaid endeavor, a set of modules facilitating plastid transformation was generated, thus augmenting the GoldenBraid toolbox. In short, the work presented in this study enables efficient application of synthetic biology methods to plastid transformation in plants.

  20. Cloning of Soluble Human Stem Cell Factor in pET-26b(+ Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Asghari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Stem cell factor (SCF plays an important role in the survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells. Potential therapeutic applications of SCF include hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, exvivo stem/progenitor cell expansion, gene therapy, and immunotherapy. Considering the cost and problem in accessibility of this product in Iran, clears the importance of indigenizing production of rhSCF. In the present work, we describe the construction of the soluble rhSCF expression vector in pET-26b (+ with periplasmic localization potential. Methods: Following PCR amplification of human SCF ORF, it is cloned in pET-26b (+ vector in NcoI and XhoI sites. The recombinant construct was transformed into BL21 (DE3 Ecoli strains. Results: The construction of recombinant vector was verified by colony PCR and sequence analysis of pET26b-hSCF vector. Sequence analyses proved that human SCF ORF has been inserted into NcoI and XhoI site with correct orientation downstream of strong T7 promotor and showed no nucleotide errors. Conclusion: The SCF ORF was successfully cloned in pET-26b (+ expression vector and is ready for future production of SCF protein.

  1. Cloning of Soluble Human Stem Cell Factor in pET-26b(+) Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Salman; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud; Darabi, Masood; Mansoori Derakhshan, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) plays an important role in the survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells. Potential therapeutic applications of SCF include hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, exvivo stem/progenitor cell expansion, gene therapy, and immunotherapy. Considering the cost and problem in accessibility of this product in Iran, clears the importance of indigenizing production of rhSCF. In the present work, we describe the construction of the soluble rhSCF expression vector in pET-26b (+) with periplasmic localization potential. Following PCR amplification of human SCF ORF, it is cloned in pET-26b (+) vector in NcoI and XhoI sites. The recombinant construct was transformed into BL21 (DE3) Ecoli strains. The construction of recombinant vector was verified by colony PCR and sequence analysis of pET26b-hSCF vector. Sequence analyses proved that human SCF ORF has been inserted into NcoI and XhoI site with correct orientation downstream of strong T7 promotor and showed no nucleotide errors. The SCF ORF was successfully cloned in pET-26b (+) expression vector and is ready for future production of SCF protein.

  2. Glycoprotein is enough for sindbis virus-derived DNA vector to express heterogenous genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Juanjuan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the necessity and potential application of structural genes for expressing heterogenous genes from Sindbis virus-derived vector, the DNA-based expression vector pVaXJ was constructed by placing the recombinant genome of sindbis-like virus XJ-160 under the control of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter of the plasmid pVAX1, in which viral structural genes were replaced by a polylinker cassette to allow for insertion of heterologous genes. The defect helper plasmids pVaE or pVaC were developed by cloning the gene of glycoprotein E3E26KE1 or capsid protein of XJ-160 virus into pVAX1, respectively. The report gene cassette pVaXJ-EGFP or pV-Gluc expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP or Gaussia luciferase (G.luc were constructed by cloning EGFP or G.luc gene into pVaXJ. EGFP or G.luc was expressed in the BHK-21 cells co-transfected with report gene cassettes and pVaE at levels that were comparable to those produced by report gene cassettes, pVaC and pVaE and were much higher than the levels produced by report gene cassette and pVaC, suggesting that glycoprotein is enough for Sindbis virus-derived DNA vector to express heterogenous genes in host cells. The method of gene expression from Sindbis virus-based DNA vector only co-transfected with envelop E gene increase the conveniency and the utility of alphavirus-based vector systems in general.

  3. Cloning, DNA sequence, and expression of Aeromonas caviae WS7b chitinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amarila; Wenuganen, S; Suwanto, Antonius; Tjahjono, Budi

    2003-01-01

    A chitinase-producing bacterium, designated WS7b, was isolated from a soil sample obtained from a black-pepper plantation on Bangka Island, Indonesia. Fatty-acid methyl-ester analysis indicated that the isolate was Aeromonas caviae. A chitinase gene from WS7b was cloned in a pUC19-based plasmid vector, but without its natural promoter. The complete nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined, and the structural gene consisted of a 2748-bp region encoding 864 amino acids. DNA sequence analysis indicated that the gene had been cloned without its promoter, and this was confirmed by chitinase-plate assay of the truncated version of the gene in Escherichia coli. The chitinase gene product showed amino-acid sequence similarity to chiA from A. caviae. Chitinase enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically, using colloidal chitin azure as substrate for extracellular and intracellular fractions. The ability of the chitinase cloned in E. coli to hydrolyze chitin was less than that of the enzyme in its indigenous host.

  4. [Construction of RNAi vectors for SmNAC1 transcription factors of Salvia miltiorrhiza using Gateway cloning technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong; Rong, Qi-Xian; Liu, Yu-Zhong; Shen, Ye; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-05-01

    NAC transcription factors involved in plant growth and development, as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stress. RNAi Vectors for SmNAC transcription factors of Salvia miltiorrhiza was constructed by using Gateway cloning technology, in order to further study the function of SmNAC1 transcription factor. According to Gateway cloning technology, the specific fragments of SmNAC1 containing attB adapter was amplified by PCR using ultra-fideling phusion polymerase of NEB. By the BP recombination reaction, the PCR product containing attB was transferred to an donor vector (pENTR/SD/D-TOPO). Finally, SmNACi specific gene was cloned into pK7GWIWG2D plant expression vectors by LR recombination reaction. Experimental results showed that Gateway cloning technology provide a rapid and highly efficient way to clone the interested gene.

  5. DNA damage in Populus tremuloides clones exposed to elevated O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Helen H.; Percy, Kevin E.; Karnosky, David F.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of elevated concentrations of atmospheric tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) on DNA damage in five trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones growing in a free-air enrichment experiment in the presence and absence of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) were examined. Growing season mean hourly O 3 concentrations were 36.3 and 47.3 ppb for ambient and elevated O 3 plots, respectively. The 4th highest daily maximum 8-h ambient and elevated O 3 concentrations were 79 and 89 ppb, respectively. Elevated CO 2 averaged 524 ppm (+150 ppm) over the growing season. Exposure to O 3 and CO 2 in combination with O 3 increased DNA damage levels above background as measured by the comet assay. Ozone-tolerant clones 271 and 8L showed the highest levels of DNA damage under elevated O 3 compared with ambient air; whereas less tolerant clone 216 and sensitive clones 42E and 259 had comparably lower levels of DNA damage with no significant differences between elevated O 3 and ambient air. Clone 8L was demonstrated to have the highest level of excision DNA repair. In addition, clone 271 had the highest level of oxidative damage as measured by lipid peroxidation. The results suggest that variation in cellular responses to DNA damage between aspen clones may contribute to O 3 tolerance or sensitivity. - Ozone tolerant clones and sensitive Populus tremuloides clones show differences in DNA damage and repair.

  6. Determination of radioinduced delay in DNA synthesis in two-garlic-clones cells (Allium Sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Lezcano, A.; Perez Talavera, S.

    1989-01-01

    To contribute to tech improvement of the use of ionizing radiations as an auxiliary tool in the fitoimprovement, dose-effect curves for the 'Martinez' and 'Sancti Spiritus-3' clones were stablished by using as effect the delay induced by radiations in DNA synthesis determined by the 'Martinez' clone which induces a delay of 50% in reference to the control is approximately 11 Gy, while the dose value for the 'Sancti Spiritus-3' clone is 18 Gy, thus the 'Martinez' clones has a higher sensitivity to radiations than the other clone, therefore it coincides with what we found for these clones other indexes are used as radiosensitivity criteria

  7. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  8. Recombinant expressed vector pET32a (+) S constructed by ligation independent cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Guo-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Xi; Liang, Long; Zhang, Bin

    2014-10-10

    The aim of this work was to develop a new method for constructing vectors, named ligation-independent cloning (LIC) method. We constructed the S label expression vector and recombinant pET32a (+) S-phoN2 by LIC. The recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli at a high level, and then the specificity of the recombinant proteins was identified by western blot. The target band was detected by S monoclonal antibody and Apyrase polyclonal antibodies but not Trx monoclonal antibody and HIS monoclonal antibody. Finally, we obtained protein Apyrase in E. coli (BL21), with a protein-only expression S tag. Collectively, our results demonstrated that LIC is effective for the construction of new vectors and recombinant plasmids. Free from the limitations of restriction enzyme sites and with a higher positive rate, LIC processes should find broad applications in molecular biology research.

  9. Recombinant Expressed Vector pET32a (+ S Constructed by Ligation Independent Cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a new method for constructing vectors, named ligation-independent cloning (LIC method. We constructed the S label expression vector and recombinant pET32a (+ S-phoN2 by LIC. The recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli at a high level, and then the specificity of the recombinant proteins was identified by western blot. The target band was detected by S monoclonal antibody and Apyrase polyclonal antibodies but not Trx monoclonal antibody and HIS monoclonal antibody. Finally, we obtained protein Apyrase in E. coli (BL21, with a protein-only expression S tag. Collectively, our results demonstrated that LIC is effective for the construction of new vectors and recombinant plasmids. Free from the limitations of restriction enzyme sites and with a higher positive rate, LIC processes should find broad applications in molecular biology research.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of Treponema pallidum DNA in Escherichia coli K12.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.A. van Embden; H.J.M. van de Donk; R.V.W. van Eijk (Ron); H.G. v.d. Heide; J.A. de Jong (Jan); M.F. van Olderen; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); L.M. Schouls

    1983-01-01

    textabstractA gene bank of Treponema pallidum DNA in Escherichia coli K-12 was constructed by cloning SauI-cleaved T. pallidum DNA into the cosmid pHC79. Sixteen of 800 clones investigated produced one or more antigens that reacted with antibodies from syphilitic patients. According to the

  11. cDNA clone for the alpha-chain of human beta-hexosaminidase: deficiency of alpha-chain mRNA in Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Myerowitz, R; Proia, R L

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone containing sequences complementary to mRNA encoding the alpha-chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. RNA from a human lung fibroblast strain, IMR90, was enriched for beta-hexosaminidase messenger by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase A. This preparation was used to construct cDNA recombinant plasmids by the Okayama-Berg vector primer procedure. After transformation of Escherichia coli, 385 ampicillin-resistant colonies...

  12. Infectious mutants of cassava latent virus generated in vivo from intact recombinant DNA clones containing single copies of the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J; Townsend, R

    1986-08-11

    Intact recombinant DNAs containing single copies of either component of the cassava latent virus genome can elicit infection when mechanically inoculated to host plants in the presence of the appropriate second component. Characterisation of infectious mutant progeny viruses, by analysis of virus-specific supercoiled DNA intermediates, indicates that most if not all of the cloning vector has been deleted, achieved at least in some cases by intermolecular recombination in vivo between DNAs 1 and 2. Significant rearrangements within the intergenic region of DNA 2, predominantly external to the common region, can be tolerated without loss of infectivity suggesting a somewhat passive role in virus multiplication for the sequences in question. Although packaging constraints might impose limits on the amount of DNA within geminate particles, isolation of an infectious coat protein mutant defective in virion production suggests that packaging is not essential for systemic spread of the viral DNA.

  13. 4-Fragment Gateway cloning format for MosSCI-compatible vectors integrating Promoterome and 3'UTRome libraries of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogame, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The technique of Mos1-mediated Single Copy Insertion (MosSCI) now has become the essential technique which facilitates transgenic experiments for Caenohabditis elegans (C. elegans). Gateway system which is adopted to MosSCI-compatible vectors offers an advantage of simultaneous cloning with entry vectors cloned in the Gateway system format. On the other hand, the format for MosSCI-compatible vectors restricts flexibility in designing the vectors to only 3-fragment integration. Thus, construct of complex transgene such as the expression vector for translational gene fusion is tedious work even with Gateway system. We have developed the new recombination format called LeGaSCI (Library-enhanced Gateway for MosSCI) to expand the conventional 3-fragment to 4-fragment format which still retains the capacity to accept Promoterome and 3'UTRome libraries of C. elegans. In the new recombination format, 2 different Gateway format were combined. Cloning reaction for the tissue-specific expression vector of GFP-tagged protein with 3'UTR successfully occurred without any expected insertion, deletion or frame-shift mutation. Moreover, The MosSCI transgenic line was successfully generated with the construct. Collectively, we established the new Gateway system format which allows us to assemble 4-fragment insertion with the widest variety of entry clone vectors from C. elegans libraries.

  14. Predictive mutagenesis of ligation-independent cloning (LIC) vectors for protein expression and site-specific chemical conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernet, Erik; Sauer, Jørgen; Andersen, Peter Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) allows for cloning of DNA constructs independent of insert restriction sites and ligases. However, any required mutations are typically introduced by additional, time-consuming steps. We present a rapid, inexpensive method for mutagenesis in the 5' LIC site of e...

  15. Cloning and characterization of human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Brookman, K.W.; Weber, C.A.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Carrano, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The isolation of two addition human genes that give efficient restoration of the repair defects in other CHO mutant lines is reported. The gene designated ERCC2 (Excision Repair Complementing Chinese hamster) corrects mutant UV5 from complementation group 1. They recently cloned this gene by first constructing a secondary transformant in which the human gene was shown to have become physically linked to the bacterial gpt dominant-marker gene by cotransfer in calcium phosphate precipitates in the primary transfection. Transformants expressing both genes were recovered by selecting for resistance to both UV radiation and mycophenolic acid. Using similar methods, the human gene that corrects CHO mutant EM9 was isolated in cosmids and named XRCC1 (X-ray Repair Complementing Chinese hamster). In this case, transformants were recovered by selecting for resistance to CldUrd, which kills EM9 very efficiently. In both genomic and cosmid transformants, the XRCC1 gene restored resistance to the normal range. DNA repair was studied using the kinetics of strand-break rejoining, which was measured after exposure to 137 Cs γ-rays

  16. Cloning of cDNA of major antigen of foot and mouth disease virus and expression in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hans; Keller, Walter; Kurz, Christina; Forss, Sonja; Schaller, Heinz

    1981-02-01

    Double-stranded DNA copies of the single-stranded genomic RNA of foot and mouth disease virus have been cloned into the Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. A restriction map of the viral genome was established and aligned with the biochemical map of foot and mouth disease virus. The coding sequence for structural protein VP1, the major antigen of the virus, was identified and inserted into a plasmid vector where the expression of this sequence is under control of the phage λ PL promoter. In an appropriate host the synthesis of antigenic polypeptide can be demonstrated by radioimmunoassay.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in ovine fetuses and sheep cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, Jörg P; Schinogl, Pamela; Dinnyes, Andras; Müller, Mathias; Steinborn, Ralf

    2007-12-21

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the cloned sheep "Dolly" and nine other ovine clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was reported to consist only of recipient oocyte mtDNA without any detectable mtDNA contribution from the nucleus donor cell. In cattle, mouse and pig several or most of the clones showed transmission of nuclear donor mtDNA resulting in mitochondrial heteroplasmy. To clarify the discrepant transmission pattern of donor mtDNA in sheep clones we analysed the mtDNA composition of seven fetuses and five lambs cloned from fetal fibroblasts. The three fetal fibroblast donor cells used for SCNT harboured low mtDNA copy numbers per cell (A: 753 +/- 54, B: 292 +/- 33 and C: 561 +/- 88). The ratio of donor to recipient oocyte mtDNAs was determined using a quantitative amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR (i.e. ARMS-qPCR). For quantification of SNP variants with frequencies below 0.1% we developed a restriction endonuclease-mediated selective quantitative PCR (REMS-qPCR). We report the first cases (n = 4 fetuses, n = 3 lambs) of recipient oocyte/nuclear donor mtDNA heteroplasmy in SCNT-derived ovine clones demonstrating that there is no species-effect hindering ovine nucleus-donor mtDNA from being transmitted to the somatic clonal offspring. Most of the heteroplasmic clones exhibited low-level heteroplasmy (0.1% to 0.9%, n = 6) indicating neutral transmission of parental mtDNAs. High-level heteroplasmy (6.8% to 46.5%) was observed in one case. This clone possessed a divergent recipient oocyte-derived mtDNA genotype with three rare amino acid changes compared to the donor including one substitution at an evolutionary conserved site. Our study using state-of-the-art techniques for mtDNA quantification, like ARMS-qPCR and the novel REMS-qPCR, documents for the first time the transmission of donor mtDNA into somatic sheep clones. MtDNA heteroplasmy was detected in seven of 12 clones tested, whereby all but one case revealed less

  18. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in ovine fetuses and sheep cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Mathias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the cloned sheep "Dolly" and nine other ovine clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT was reported to consist only of recipient oocyte mtDNA without any detectable mtDNA contribution from the nucleus donor cell. In cattle, mouse and pig several or most of the clones showed transmission of nuclear donor mtDNA resulting in mitochondrial heteroplasmy. To clarify the discrepant transmission pattern of donor mtDNA in sheep clones we analysed the mtDNA composition of seven fetuses and five lambs cloned from fetal fibroblasts. Results The three fetal fibroblast donor cells used for SCNT harboured low mtDNA copy numbers per cell (A: 753 ± 54, B: 292 ± 33 and C: 561 ± 88. The ratio of donor to recipient oocyte mtDNAs was determined using a quantitative amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR (i.e. ARMS-qPCR. For quantification of SNP variants with frequencies below 0.1% we developed a restriction endonuclease-mediated selective quantitative PCR (REMS-qPCR. We report the first cases (n = 4 fetuses, n = 3 lambs of recipient oocyte/nuclear donor mtDNA heteroplasmy in SCNT-derived ovine clones demonstrating that there is no species-effect hindering ovine nucleus-donor mtDNA from being transmitted to the somatic clonal offspring. Most of the heteroplasmic clones exhibited low-level heteroplasmy (0.1% to 0.9%, n = 6 indicating neutral transmission of parental mtDNAs. High-level heteroplasmy (6.8% to 46.5% was observed in one case. This clone possessed a divergent recipient oocyte-derived mtDNA genotype with three rare amino acid changes compared to the donor including one substitution at an evolutionary conserved site. Conclusion Our study using state-of-the-art techniques for mtDNA quantification, like ARMS-qPCR and the novel REMS-qPCR, documents for the first time the transmission of donor mtDNA into somatic sheep clones. MtDNA heteroplasmy was detected in seven of 12 clones

  19. DNA Methylation in Peripheral Blood Cells of Pigs Cloned by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Fei; Li, Shengting; Lin, Lin

    2011-01-01

    To date, the genome-wide DNA methylation status of cloned pigs has not been investigated. Due to the relatively low success rate of pig cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, a better understanding of the epigenetic reprogramming and the global methylation patterns associated with development...... in cloned pigs is required. In this study we applied methylation-specific digital karyotyping tag sequencing by Solexa technology and investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood cells in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes in comparison with their naturally bred controls....... In the result, we found that globally there was no significant difference of DNA methylation patterns between the two groups. Locus-specifically, some genes involved in embryonic development presented a generally increased level of methylation. Our findings suggest that in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes...

  20. cDNA cloning and characterization of a mannose-binding lectin from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using RNA extracted from Zingiber officinale rhizomes and primers designed according to the conservative regions of monocot mannose-binding lectins, the full-length cDNA of Z. officinale agglutinin (ZOA) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of zoa was 746 bp and contained a ...

  1. cDNA cloning and characterization of a mannose-binding lectin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using RNA extracted from Zingiber officinale rhizomes and primers designed according to the conservative regions of monocot mannose-binding lectins, the full-length cDNA of Z. officinale agglutinin (ZOA) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of zoa was 746 bp and contained a ...

  2. Synthesis and cell-free cloning of DNA libraries using programmable microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yehezkel, Tuval; Rival, Arnaud; Raz, Ofir; Cohen, Rafael; Marx, Zipora; Camara, Miguel; Dubern, Jean-Frédéric; Koch, Birgit; Heeb, Stephan; Krasnogor, Natalio; Delattre, Cyril; Shapiro, Ehud

    2016-02-29

    Microfluidics may revolutionize our ability to write synthetic DNA by addressing several fundamental limitations associated with generating novel genetic constructs. Here we report the first de novo synthesis and cell-free cloning of custom DNA libraries in sub-microliter reaction droplets using programmable digital microfluidics. Specifically, we developed Programmable Order Polymerization (POP), Microfluidic Combinatorial Assembly of DNA (M-CAD) and Microfluidic In-vitro Cloning (MIC) and applied them to de novo synthesis, combinatorial assembly and cell-free cloning of genes, respectively. Proof-of-concept for these methods was demonstrated by programming an autonomous microfluidic system to construct and clone libraries of yeast ribosome binding sites and bacterial Azurine, which were then retrieved in individual droplets and validated. The ability to rapidly and robustly generate designer DNA molecules in an autonomous manner should have wide application in biological research and development. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, /sup 32/P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV.

  4. Cloning and characterization of DNA complementary to the canine distemper virus mRNA encoding matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenblatt, S.; Eizenberg, O.; Englund, G.; Bellini, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA synthesized from total polyadenylate-containing mRNA, extracted from monkey kidney cells infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), has been cloned into the PstI site of Escherichia coli plasmid pBR322. Clones containing canine distemper virus DNA were identified by hybridization to a canine distemper virus-specific, 32 P-labeled cDNA. Four specific clones containing different classes of sequences have been identified. The cloned plasmids contain inserts of 800 (clone 44-80), 960 (clone 74-16), 1700 (clone 364), and 950 (clone 40-9) base pairs. The sizes of the mRNA species complementary to these inserts are 1500, 1850, 1850 and 2500 nucleotides, respectively, as determined by the Northern technique. Three of the cloned DNA fragments were further identified as the reverse transcripts of the mRNA coding for the matrix, phosphoprotein, and nucleocapsid protein of CDV

  5. A plasmid toolkit for cloning chimeric cDNAs encoding customized fusion proteins into any Gateway destination expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Raquel; Iglesias, Noa; Planas, Anna M; Santalucía, Tomàs

    2013-08-20

    Valuable clone collections encoding the complete ORFeomes for some model organisms have been constructed following the completion of their genome sequencing projects. These libraries are based on Gateway cloning technology, which facilitates the study of protein function by simplifying the subcloning of open reading frames (ORF) into any suitable destination vector. The expression of proteins of interest as fusions with functional modules is a frequent approach in their initial functional characterization. A limited number of Gateway destination expression vectors allow the construction of fusion proteins from ORFeome-derived sequences, but they are restricted to the possibilities offered by their inbuilt functional modules and their pre-defined model organism-specificity. Thus, the availability of cloning systems that overcome these limitations would be highly advantageous. We present a versatile cloning toolkit for constructing fully-customizable three-part fusion proteins based on the MultiSite Gateway cloning system. The fusion protein components are encoded in the three plasmids integral to the kit. These can recombine with any purposely-engineered destination vector that uses a heterologous promoter external to the Gateway cassette, leading to the in-frame cloning of an ORF of interest flanked by two functional modules. In contrast to previous systems, a third part becomes available for peptide-encoding as it no longer needs to contain a promoter, resulting in an increased number of possible fusion combinations. We have constructed the kit's component plasmids and demonstrate its functionality by providing proof-of-principle data on the expression of prototype fluorescent fusions in transiently-transfected cells. We have developed a toolkit for creating fusion proteins with customized N- and C-term modules from Gateway entry clones encoding ORFs of interest. Importantly, our method allows entry clones obtained from ORFeome collections to be used without prior

  6. Adeno-associated virus Rep-mediated targeting of integrase-defective retroviral vector DNA circles into human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shuohao [Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kamihira, Masamichi, E-mail: kamihira@chem-eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is capable of targeted integration in human cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrase-defective retroviral vector (IDRV) enables a circular DNA delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A targeted integration system of IDRV DNA using the AAV integration mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeted IDRV integration ameliorates the safety concerns for retroviral vectors. -- Abstract: Retroviral vectors have been employed in clinical trials for gene therapy owing to their relative large packaging capacity, alterable cell tropism, and chromosomal integration for stable transgene expression. However, uncontrollable integrations of transgenes are likely to cause safety issues, such as insertional mutagenesis. A targeted transgene integration system for retroviral vectors, therefore, is a straightforward way to address the insertional mutagenesis issue. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the only known virus capable of targeted integration in human cells. In the presence of AAV Rep proteins, plasmids possessing the p5 integration efficiency element (p5IEE) can be integrated into the AAV integration site (AAVS1) in the human genome. In this report, we describe a system that can target the circular DNA derived from non-integrating retroviral vectors to the AAVS1 site by utilizing the Rep/p5IEE integration mechanism. Our results showed that after G418 selection 30% of collected clones had retroviral DNA targeted at the AAVS1 site.

  7. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permutt, M.A.; Koranyi, L.; Keller, K.; Lacy, P.E.; Scharp, D.W.; Mueckler, M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-K m , low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

  8. Genomic libraries: II. Subcloning, sequencing, and assembling large-insert genomic DNA clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Mike A; Matthews, Lucy; Sims, Sarah; Lloyd, Christine; Beasley, Helen; Baxter, Simon W

    2011-01-01

    Sequencing large insert clones to completion is useful for characterizing specific genomic regions, identifying haplotypes, and closing gaps in whole genome sequencing projects. Despite being a standard technique in molecular laboratories, DNA sequencing using the Sanger method can be highly problematic when complex secondary structures or sequence repeats are encountered in genomic clones. Here, we describe methods to isolate DNA from a large insert clone (fosmid or BAC), subclone the sample, and sequence the region to the highest industry standard. Troubleshooting solutions for sequencing difficult templates are discussed.

  9. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of full-length cDNA for sweet potato catalase mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakajo, S; Nakamura, K; Asahi, T

    1987-06-01

    A nearly full-length cDNA clone for catalase (pCAS01) was obtained through immunological screening of cDNA expression library constructed from size-fractionated poly(A)-rich RNA of wounded sweet potato tuberous roots by Escherichia coli expression vector-primed cDNA synthesis. Two additional catalase cDNA clones (pCAS10 and pCAS13), which contained cDNA inserts slightly longer than that of pCAS01 at their 5'-termini, were identified by colony hybridization of another cDNA library. Those three catalase cDNAs contained primary structures not identical, but closely related, to one another based on their restriction enzyme and RNase cleavage mapping analyses, suggesting that microheterogeneity exists in catalase mRNAs. The cDNA insert of pCAS13 carried the entire catalase coding capacity, since the RNA transcribed in vitro from the cDNA under the SP6 phage promoter directed the synthesis of a catalase polypeptide in the wheat germ in vitro translation assay. The nucleotide sequencing of these catalase cDNAs indicated that 1900-base catalase mRNA contained a coding region of 1476 bases. The amino acid sequence of sweet potato catalase deduced from the nucleotide sequence was 35 amino acids shorter than rat liver catalase [Furuta, S., Hayashi, H., Hijikata, M., Miyazawa, S., Osumi, T. & Hashimoto, T. (1986) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 83, 313-317]. Although these two sequences showed only 38% homology, the sequences around the amino acid residues implicated in catalytic function, heme ligand or heme contact had been well conserved during evolution.

  10. Molecular genetics: DNA analysis of a putative dog clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G; Kruglyak, Leonid; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2006-03-09

    In August 2005, Lee et al. reported the first cloning of a domestic dog from adult somatic cells. This putative dog clone was the result of somatic-cell nuclear transfer from a fibroblast cell of a three-year-old male Afghan hound into a donor oocyte provided by a dog of mixed breed. In light of recent concerns regarding the creation of cloned human cell lines from the same institution, we have undertaken an independent test to determine the validity of the claims made by Lee et al..

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of human papilloma virus DNA derived from a laryngeal papilloma.

    OpenAIRE

    Gissmann, L; Diehl, V; Schultz-Coulon, H J; zur Hausen, H

    1982-01-01

    Papilloma virus DNA from a laryngeal papilloma was cloned in phage lambda L 47 and characterized after cleavage with different restriction enzymes. Hybridization with the DNAs of human papilloma virus types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 showed no homology under stringent hybridization conditions. Human papilloma virus type 6 DNA, however, was partially identical to laryngeal papilloma virus DNA; different restriction enzyme fragments hybridizing with the other DNA were identified on each genome. The d...

  12. Cloning of the mouse cDNA encoding DNA topoisomerase I and chromosomal location of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiwai, O; Yasui, Y; Sakai, Y; Watanabe, T; Ishii, K; Yanagihara, S; Andoh, T

    1993-03-30

    The mouse cDNA encoding DNA topoisomerase I (TopoI) was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of 3512 bp was determined. The cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 767 amino acids (aa), which is 2 aa longer than its human counterpart. Overall aa sequence homology between the mouse and human, and between the mouse and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) sequences was 96% and 42%, respectively. The mouse TopI gene was mapped at position 54.5 on chromosome 2 from linkage analyses of a three-point cross test with Geg, Ada, and a as marker genes.

  13. Software-Supported USER Cloning Strategies for Site-Directed Mutagenesis and DNA Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper; Bonde, Mads Tvillinggaard; Bagger, Frederik Otzen

    2015-01-01

    USER cloning is a fast and versatile method for engineering of plasmid DNA. We have developed a user friendly Web server tool that automates the design of optimal PCR primers for several distinct USER cloning-based applications. Our Web server, named AMUSER (Automated DNA Modifications with USER...... cloning), facilitates DNA assembly and introduction of virtually any type of site-directed mutagenesis by designing optimal PCR primers for the desired genetic changes. To demonstrate the utility, we designed primers for a simultaneous two-position site-directed mutagenesis of green fluorescent protein...... (GFP) to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), which in a single step reaction resulted in a 94% cloning efficiency. AMUSER also supports degenerate nucleotide primers, single insert combinatorial assembly, and flexible parameters for PCR amplification. AMUSER is freely available online at ....

  14. Nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA disorders: revisiting the debate on reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenoord, A L; Dondorp, W; Pennings, G; De Wert, G

    2011-02-01

    Preclinical experiments are currently performed to examine the feasibility of several types of nuclear transfer to prevent mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders. Whereas the two most promising types of nuclear transfer to prevent mtDNA disorders, spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer, do not amount to reproductive cloning, one theoretical variant, blastomere transfer does. This seems the most challenging both technically and ethically. It is prohibited by many jurisdictions and also the scientific community seems to avoid it. Nevertheless, this paper examines the moral acceptability of blastomere transfer as a method to prevent mtDNA disorders. The reason for doing so is that most objections against reproductive cloning refer to reproductive adult cloning, while blastomere transfer would amount to reproductive embryo cloning. After clarifying this conceptual difference, this paper examines whether the main non-safety objections brought forward against reproductive cloning also apply in the context of blastomere transfer. The conclusion is that if this variant were to become safe and effective, dismissing it because it would involve reproductive cloning is unjustified. Nevertheless, as it may lead to more complex ethical appraisals than the other variants, researchers should initially focus on the development of the other types of nuclear transfer to prevent mtDNA disorders. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression cloning screening of a unique and full-length set of cDNA clones is an efficient method for identifying genes involved in Xenopus neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Jana; Chen, Jun-An; Gilchrist, Mike; Amaya, Enrique; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2005-03-01

    Functional screens, where a large numbers of cDNA clones are assayed for certain biological activity, are a useful tool in elucidating gene function. In Xenopus, gain of function screens are performed by pool screening, whereby RNA transcribed in vitro from groups of cDNA clones, ranging from thousands to a hundred, are injected into early embryos. Once an activity is detected in a pool, the active clone is identified by sib-selection. Such screens are intrinsically biased towards potent genes, whose RNA is active at low quantities. To improve the sensitivity and efficiency of a gain of function screen we have bioinformatically processed an arrayed and EST sequenced set of 100,000 gastrula and neurula cDNA clones, to create a unique and full-length set of approximately 2500 clones. Reducing the redundancy and excluding truncated clones from the starting clone set reduced the total number of clones to be screened, in turn allowing us to reduce the pool size to just eight clones per pool. We report that the efficiency of screening this clone set is five-fold higher compared to a redundant set derived from the same libraries. We have screened 960 cDNA clones from this set, for genes that are involved in neurogenesis. We describe the overexpression phenotypes of 18 single clones, the majority of which show a previously uncharacterised phenotype and some of which are completely novel. In situ hybridisation analysis shows that a large number of these genes are specifically expressed in neural tissue. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a unique full-length set of cDNA clones for uncovering players in a developmental pathway.

  16. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarlenga, D.; Gamble, H.R.

    1987-05-01

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with TSP labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis.

  17. Accurate DNA assembly and genome engineering with optimized uracil excision cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleiro, Mafalda; Kim, Se Hyeuk; Seppala, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple and reliable DNA editing by uracil excision (a.k.a. USER cloning) has been described by several research groups, but the optimal design of cohesive DNA ends for multigene assembly remains elusive. Here, we use two model constructs based on expression of gfp and a four-gene pathway that pro...

  18. DNA transformations of Candida tropicalis with replicating and integrative vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanglard, D; Fiechter, A

    1992-12-01

    The alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis was used as a host for DNA transformations. A stable ade2 mutant (Ha900) obtained by UV-mutagenesis was used as a recipient for different vectors carrying selectable markers. A first vector, pMK16, that was developed for the transformation of C. albicans and carries an ADE2 gene marker and a Candida autonomously replicating sequence (CARS) element promoting autonomous replication, was compatible for transforming Ha900. Two transformant types were observed: (i) pink transformants which easily lose pMK16 under non-selective growth conditions; (ii) white transformants, in which the same plasmid exhibited a higher mitotic stability. In both cases pMK16 could be rescued from these cells in Escherichia coli. A second vector, pADE2, containing the isolated C. tropicalis ADE2, gene, was used to transform Ha900. This vector integrated in the yeast genome at homologous sites of the ade2 locus. Different integration types were observed at one or both ade2 alleles in single or in tandem repeats.

  19. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been cloned from somatic cells include: cat, deer, dog, horse, mule, ox, rabbit and rat. In addition, ... to make copies of animals with the potential benefits for the fields of medicine and agriculture. For ...

  20. AFEAP cloning: a precise and efficient method for large DNA sequence assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanli; Zang, Jinping; Zhang, Suhua; Hao, Zhimin; Dong, Jingao; Lin, Yibin

    2017-11-14

    Recent development of DNA assembly technologies has spurred myriad advances in synthetic biology, but new tools are always required for complicated scenarios. Here, we have developed an alternative DNA assembly method named AFEAP cloning (Assembly of Fragment Ends After PCR), which allows scarless, modular, and reliable construction of biological pathways and circuits from basic genetic parts. The AFEAP method requires two-round of PCRs followed by ligation of the sticky ends of DNA fragments. The first PCR yields linear DNA fragments and is followed by a second asymmetric (one primer) PCR and subsequent annealing that inserts overlapping overhangs at both sides of each DNA fragment. The overlapping overhangs of the neighboring DNA fragments annealed and the nick was sealed by T4 DNA ligase, followed by bacterial transformation to yield the desired plasmids. We characterized the capability and limitations of new developed AFEAP cloning and demonstrated its application to assemble DNA with varying scenarios. Under the optimized conditions, AFEAP cloning allows assembly of an 8 kb plasmid from 1-13 fragments with high accuracy (between 80 and 100%), and 8.0, 11.6, 19.6, 28, and 35.6 kb plasmids from five fragments at 91.67, 91.67, 88.33, 86.33, and 81.67% fidelity, respectively. AFEAP cloning also is capable to construct bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC, 200 kb) with a fidelity of 46.7%. AFEAP cloning provides a powerful, efficient, seamless, and sequence-independent DNA assembly tool for multiple fragments up to 13 and large DNA up to 200 kb that expands synthetic biologist's toolbox.

  1. Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA Coding For Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule -1 (PECAM-1, CD31 in NIH-3T3 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Salehi-Lalemarzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: PECAM-1 (CD31 is a glycoprotein expressed on endothelial and bone marrow precursor cells. It plays important roles in angiogenesis, maintenance and integration of the cytoskeleton and direction of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. We aimed to clone the cDNA coding for human CD31 from KG1a for further subcloning and expression in NIH- 3T3 mouse cell line. Methods: CD31 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 μg of recombinant construct and 6 μl of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 2235 bp specific band was aligned completely to human CD31 reference sequence in NCBI database. Transient and stable expression of human CD31 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (23% and 96%, respectively as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD31-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD31, with no need for purification of recombinant proteins.

  2. cDNA cloning and polymorphic domains of the major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic gene and plays an important role in immune system for vertebrate. To understand the polymorphism character of domestic, we cloned 32 cDNAs of MHC class I α genes of two local chicken breeds in different areas of China. There were 112 variable amino ...

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fritillaria thunbergii Miq., known as the bulbous plants of the genus fritillaria, produces a large amount of sterols. Homology based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) with degenerate primers designed from the conserved sequences among the known cycloartenol synthase (CAS) resulted in cloning of a CAS from the ...

  4. cDNA cloning, structural analysis, SNP detection and tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study was conducted to clone and sequence the full-length coding sequence of the caprine IGF1 gene from Attappady Black and Malabari breeds, two indigenous goat breeds of south India, to analyse its structure, and to ascertainthe relative abundance of IGF1 mRNA in different tissues. The caprine IGF1 ...

  5. cDNA cloning, structural analysis, SNP detection and tissue ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOMAS NAICY

    Abstract. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) plays an important role in growth, reproduction, foetal development and cell proliferation. The present study was conducted to clone and sequence the full-length coding sequence of the caprine IGF1 gene from. Attappady Black and Malabari breeds, two indigenous goat breeds of ...

  6. cDNA cloning and polymorphic domains of the major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic gene and plays an important role in immune system for vertebrate. To understand the polymorphism character of domestic, we cloned 32. cDNAs of MHC class I α genes of two local chicken breeds in different areas of China. There were 112.

  7. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human β-glucuronidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, A.; Kyle, J.W.; Miller, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report here the cDNA sequence for human placental β-glucuronidase (β-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.31) and demonstrate expression of the human enzyme in transfected COS cells. They also sequenced a partial cDNA clone from human fibroblasts that contained a 153-base-pair deletion within the coding sequence and found a second type of cDNA clone from placenta that contained the same deletion. Nuclease S1 mapping studies demonstrated two types of mRNAs in human placenta that corresponded to the two types of cDNA clones isolated. The NH 2 -terminal amino acid sequence determined for human spleen β-glucuronidase agreed with that inferred from the DNA sequence of the two placental clones, beginning at amino acid 23, suggesting a cleaved signal sequence of 22 amino acids. When transfected into COS cells, plasmids containing either placental clone expressed an immunoprecipitable protein that contained N-linked oligosaccharides as evidenced by sensitivity to endoglycosidase F. However, only transfection with the clone containing the 153-base-pair segment led to expression of human β-glucuronidase activity. These studies provide the sequence for the full-length cDNA for human β-glucuronidase, demonstrate the existence of two populations of mRNA for β-glucuronidase in human placenta, only one of which specifies a catalytically active enzyme, and illustrate the importance of expression studies in verifying that a cDNA is functionally full-length

  8. Design and cloning strategies for constructing shRNA expression vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre Glen J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short hairpin RNA (shRNA encoded within an expression vector has proven an effective means of harnessing the RNA interference (RNAi pathway in mammalian cells. A survey of the literature revealed that shRNA vector construction can be hindered by high mutation rates and the ensuing sequencing is often problematic. Current options for constructing shRNA vectors include the use of annealed complementary oligonucleotides (74 % of surveyed studies, a PCR approach using hairpin containing primers (22 % and primer extension of hairpin templates (4 %. Results We considered primer extension the most attractive method in terms of cost. However, in initial experiments we encountered a mutation frequency of 50 % compared to a reported 20 – 40 % for other strategies. By modifying the technique to be an isothermal reaction using the DNA polymerase Phi29, we reduced the error rate to 10 %, making primer extension the most efficient and cost-effective approach tested. We also found that inclusion of a restriction site in the loop could be exploited for confirming construct integrity by automated sequencing, while maintaining intended gene suppression. Conclusion In this study we detail simple improvements for constructing and sequencing shRNA that overcome current limitations. We also compare the advantages of our solutions against proposed alternatives. Our technical modifications will be of tangible benefit to researchers looking for a more efficient and reliable shRNA construction process.

  9. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  10. A plasmid toolkit for cloning chimeric cDNAs encoding customized fusion proteins into any Gateway destination expression vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Valuable clone collections encoding the complete ORFeomes for some model organisms have been constructed following the completion of their genome sequencing projects. These libraries are based on Gateway cloning technology, which facilitates the study of protein function by simplifying the subcloning of open reading frames (ORF) into any suitable destination vector. The expression of proteins of interest as fusions with functional modules is a frequent approach in their initial functional characterization. A limited number of Gateway destination expression vectors allow the construction of fusion proteins from ORFeome-derived sequences, but they are restricted to the possibilities offered by their inbuilt functional modules and their pre-defined model organism-specificity. Thus, the availability of cloning systems that overcome these limitations would be highly advantageous. Results We present a versatile cloning toolkit for constructing fully-customizable three-part fusion proteins based on the MultiSite Gateway cloning system. The fusion protein components are encoded in the three plasmids integral to the kit. These can recombine with any purposely-engineered destination vector that uses a heterologous promoter external to the Gateway cassette, leading to the in-frame cloning of an ORF of interest flanked by two functional modules. In contrast to previous systems, a third part becomes available for peptide-encoding as it no longer needs to contain a promoter, resulting in an increased number of possible fusion combinations. We have constructed the kit’s component plasmids and demonstrate its functionality by providing proof-of-principle data on the expression of prototype fluorescent fusions in transiently-transfected cells. Conclusions We have developed a toolkit for creating fusion proteins with customized N- and C-term modules from Gateway entry clones encoding ORFs of interest. Importantly, our method allows entry clones obtained from ORFeome

  11. Endophytic population of Pantoea agglomerans in citrus plants and development of a cloning vector for endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Fernando D; Rossetto, Priscilla B; Souza, Leonardo C A; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Azevedo, João L; Araújo, Welington L

    2008-10-01

    Harmless bacteria inhabiting inner plant tissues are termed endophytes. Population fluctuations in the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans associated with two species of field cultured citrus plants were monitored over a two-year period. The results demonstrated that populations of P. agglomerans fluctuated in Citrus reticulata but not C. sinensis. A cryptic plasmid pPA3.0 (2.9 kb) was identified in 35 out of 44 endophytic isolates of P. agglomerans and was subsequently sequenced. The origins of replication were identified and nine out of 18 open reading frames (ORFs) revealed homology with described proteins. Notably, two ORFs were related to cellular transport systems and plasmid maintenance. Plasmid pPA3.0 was cloned and the gfp gene inserted to generate the pPAGFP vector. The vector was introduced into P. agglomerans isolates and revealed stability was dependent on the isolate genotype, ninety-percent stability values were reached after 60 hours of bacterial cultivation in most evaluated isolates. In order to definitively establish P. agglomerans as an endophyte, the non-transformed bacterium was reintroduced into in vitro cultivated seedlings and the density of inner tissue colonization in inoculated plants was estimated by bacterium re-isolation, while the tissue niches preferred by the bacterium were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Cells from P. agglomerans (strain ARB18) at similar densities were re-isolated from roots, stems and leaves and colonization of parenchyma and xylem tissues were observed. Data suggested that P. agglomerans is a ubiquitous citrus endophyte harboring cryptic plasmids. These characteristics suggest the potential to use the bacterium as a vehicle to introduce new genes in host plants via endophytic bacterial transformation. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Purification and cloning of DNA fragments fractionated on agarose gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, H G; Gasson, M J

    1995-04-01

    Purification of DNA fragments from acrylamide or agarose gels is a commonly used technique in the molecular biology laboratory. This article describes a rapid, efficient, and inexpensive method of purifying DNA fractions from an agarose gel. The purified DNA is suitable for use in a wide range of applications including ligation using DNA ligase. The procedure uses standard high-melting-temperature agarose and normal TBE electrophoresis buffer. In addition, the protocol does not involve the use of highly toxic organic solvents such as phenol.

  13. An "in Silico" DNA Cloning Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced…

  14. Ability of herpes simplex virus vectors to boost immune responses to DNA vectors and to protect against challenge by simian immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amitinder; Sanford, Hannah B.; Garry, Deirdre; Lang, Sabine; Klumpp, Sherry A.; Watanabe, Daisuke; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Rosati, Margherita; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.; Knipe, David M.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    The immunogenicity and protective capacity of replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector-based vaccines were examined in rhesus macaques. Three macaques were inoculated with recombinant HSV vectors expressing Gag, Env, and a Tat-Rev-Nef fusion protein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Three other macaques were primed with recombinant DNA vectors expressing Gag, Env, and a Pol-Tat-Nef-Vif fusion protein prior to boosting with the HSV vectors. Robust anti-Gag and anti-Env cellular responses were detected in all six macaques. Following intravenous challenge with wild-type, cloned SIV239, peak and 12-week plasma viremia levels were significantly lower in vaccinated compared to control macaques. Plasma SIV RNA in vaccinated macaques was inversely correlated with anti-Rev ELISPOT responses on the day of challenge (P value < 0.05), anti-Tat ELISPOT responses at 2 weeks post challenge (P value < 0.05) and peak neutralizing antibody titers pre-challenge (P value 0.06). These findings support continued study of recombinant herpesviruses as a vaccine approach for AIDS

  15. Cloning of human purine-nucleoside phosphorylase cDNA sequences by complementation in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, J M; Caput, D; Williams, S R; Martin, D W

    1983-01-01

    We have obtained cDNA clones that contain the entire coding region of the human purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP; EC 2.4.2.1) mRNA. The cDNA sequences were generated by reverse transcription of PNP-enriched mRNA obtained by immunoadsorption of HeLa cell polyribosomes with monospecific antibody to human PNP. cDNA molecules that were close in length to PNP mRNA were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and inserted into the Pst I site of the plasmid pBR322. Plasmid DNA from the pooled c...

  16. SLiCE: a novel bacterial cell extract-based DNA cloning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel cloning method termed SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (≥15 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from Bacteria Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost effective as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. In addition, the cloning efficiencies and capabilities of these strains can be greatly improved by simple genetic modifications. As an example, we modified the DH10B Escherichia coli strain to express an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system. This strain, termed PPY, facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies and demonstrates the versatility of the method. PMID:22241772

  17. SLiCE: a novel bacterial cell extract-based DNA cloning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2012-04-01

    We describe a novel cloning method termed SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (≥15 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from Bacteria Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost effective as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. In addition, the cloning efficiencies and capabilities of these strains can be greatly improved by simple genetic modifications. As an example, we modified the DH10B Escherichia coli strain to express an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system. This strain, termed PPY, facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies and demonstrates the versatility of the method.

  18. Ancient DNA: extraction, characterization, molecular cloning, and enzymatic amplification.

    OpenAIRE

    Pääbo, S

    1989-01-01

    Several chemical and enzymatic properties were examined in the DNA extracted from dry remains of soft tissues that vary in age from 4 to 13,000 years and represent four species, including two extinct animals (the marsupial wolf and giant ground sloth). The DNA obtained was invariably of a low average molecular size and damaged by oxidative processes, which primarily manifest themselves as modifications of pyrimidines and sugar residues as well as baseless sites and intermolecular cross-links....

  19. Genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae by DNA cloned into the single-stranded bacteriophage f1.

    OpenAIRE

    Barany, F; Boeke, J D

    1983-01-01

    A Staphylococcus aureus plasmid derivative, pFB9, coding for erythromycin and chloramphenicol resistance was cloned into the filamentous Escherichia coli phage f1. Recombinant phage-plasmid hybrids, designated plasmids, were isolated from E. coli and purified by transformation into Streptococcus pneumoniae. Single-stranded DNA was prepared from E. coli cells infected with two different plasmids, fBB101 and fBB103. Introduction of fully or partially single-stranded DNA into Streptococcus pneum...

  20. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the full-length heat shock protein 70 of Tegillarca granosa was cloned from cDNA library by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The open reading frame (ORF) of heat shock protein 70 was 1968 bp, and it encoded a protein of 655 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 71.48 kDa and an ...

  1. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  2. cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ribosomal protein S4X (RPS4X) is one of the 40S ribosomal proteins encoded by the RPS4X gene. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and touchdown-PCR technology ...

  3. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and analysis of the ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ribosomal protein L37A (RPL37A) is a component of 60S large ribosomal subunit encoded by the RPL37A gene, which belongs to the family of ribosomal L37AE proteins, located in the cytoplasm. The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and the genomic sequence of RPL37A were cloned successfully from giant ...

  4. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  5. Cloning of oleosin, a putative new hazelnut allergen, using a hazelnut cDNA library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Schocker, Frauke; Vieths, Stefan; Versteeg, Serge; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Hefle, Sue L.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Richter, Klaus; Ferreira, Fatima; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The clinical presentation of non-pollen related allergy to hazelnut can be severe and systemic. So far, only a limited number of non-pollen related hazelnut allergens have been identified and characterized. The aim of this study was to identify and clone new hazelnut allergens. A lambda ZAP cDNA

  6. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-06

    Aug 6, 2010 ... cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in. Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes). XIAOHUA XIA, JIE ZHAO, QIYAN DU and ZHONGJIE CHANG. ∗. Molecular and Genetic Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, 46 East of Construction Road,. Xinxiang ...

  7. Cloning, sequencing and expression of a novel xylanase cDNA from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain SH 2016, capable of producing xylanase, was isolated and identified as Aspergillus awamori, based on its physiological and biochemical characteristics as well as its ITS rDNA gene sequence analysis. A xylanase gene of 591 bp was cloned from this newly isolated A. awamori and the ORF sequence predicted a ...

  8. cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... Ribosomal protein S4X (RPS4X) is one of the 40S ribosomal proteins encoded by the RPS4X gene. The. cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and touchdown- ...

  9. cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in Chinese Pengze crucian carp. X Liu, W Yu, J Li, F Chen, S Liu, C Wu, J Xu. Abstract. Invariant chain (Ii) plays an important role in MHC class II molecules assembly and exogenous peptide presentation in vertebrates. Although mammalian Ii has been ...

  10. High-throughput cloning and expression in recalcitrant bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric R.; Poolman, Bert

    We developed a generic method for high-throughput cloning in bacteria that are less amenable to conventional DNA manipulations. The method involves ligation-independent cloning in an intermediary Escherichia coli vector, which is rapidly converted via vector-backbone exchange (VBEx) into an

  11. Cloning of fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus into a baculovirus derived bacmid shuttle vector, in order to express it in insect cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemzadeh MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Newcastle disease virus (NDV is one of the major pathogens in poultry and vaccination is intended to control the disease, as an effective solution, yet. Fusion protein (F on surface of NDV, has a fundamental role in virus pathogenicity and can induce protective immunity, alone. With this background, here our aim was to construct a baculovirus derived recombinant bacmid shuttle vector (encoding F-protein in order to express it in insect cell line. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, at first complete F gene from avirulent strain La Sota of NDV was amplified by RT-PCR to produce F cDNA. The amplicon was cloned into T/A cloning vector and afterwards into pFastBac Dual donor plasmid. After the verification of cloning process by two methods, PCR and enzymatic digestion analysis, the accuracy of F gene sequence was confirmed by sequencing. Finally, F-containing recombinant bacmid was subsequently generated in DH10Bac cell and the construct production was confirmed by a special PCR panel, using F specific primers and M13 universal primers. Results: Analysis of confirmatory tests showed that the recombinant bacmid, expressing of F-protein gene in correct sequence and framework, has been constructed successfully. Conclusion: The product of this F-containing recombinant bacmid, in addition to its independent application in the induction of protective immunity, can be used with the other individual recombinant baculoviruses, expressing HN and NP genes to produce NDV-VLPs in insect cell line.

  12. Quick and clean cloning: a ligation-independent cloning strategy for selective cloning of specific PCR products from non-specific mixes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Thieme

    Full Text Available We have developed an efficient strategy for cloning of PCR products that contain an unknown region flanked by a known sequence. As with ligation-independent cloning, the strategy is based on homology between sequences present in both the vector and the insert. However, in contrast to ligation-independent cloning, the cloning vector has homology with only one of the two primers used for amplification of the insert. The other side of the linearized cloning vector has homology with a sequence present in the insert, but nested and non-overlapping with the gene-specific primer used for amplification. Since only specific products contain this sequence, but none of the non-specific products, only specific products can be cloned. Cloning is performed using a one-step reaction that only requires incubation for 10 minutes at room temperature in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. The reaction mix is then directly transformed into E. coli where the annealed vector-insert complex is repaired and ligated. We have tested this method, which we call quick and clean cloning (QC cloning, for cloning of the variable regions of immunoglobulins expressed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma tumor samples. This method can also be applied to identify the flanking sequence of DNA elements such as T-DNA or transposon insertions, or be used for cloning of any PCR product with high specificity.

  13. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    cell embryo and the expression was monitored continuously. The expression shown here is in developing embryo and freshly hatched fish. The intensity of green colour indicate the strong expression of EGFP in all the tissues of the embryo/fry. The expression of EGPF indicates the co-expression of catfish GH cDNA and the ...

  14. Cloning of gag gene of HIV-1 subtype c (Indian strain into a mammalian expression vector and in vitro expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugh P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by HIV-1 is one of the biggest health problems we are facing today. It is required to concentrate efforts towards designing a safe, effective and affordable vaccine candidate in the context of the growing epidemic worldwide. Recently the approach of DNA based immunogen has evoked a lot of enthusiasm in the preclinical models. METHODS: This study was designed towards a subtype C based gag DNA construct in the expression vector pJW4304. The gag and protease genes of HIV-1 subtype C were cloned into a mammalian expression vector pJW4304. The cloning strategy was designed so as to express a naturally processed form of the protein. Expression of gag protein by the construct pJWgagprotease49587 was evaluated by western blotting, p24 antigen capture ELISA and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Gag p24 was detected both in the supernatant and in the transfected cells. Extra cellular p24 protein was estimated by p24 antigen capture ELISA. Immunoblotting using HIV positive polyclonal sera further confirmed the expression and processing of gag gene. The 24kDa band has been observed in cell lysates, which indicates that the proper processing is taking place in the presence of protease. Virus like particles were seen budding from the cell membrane 24 and 48 hours post transfection by transmission electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The recombinant construct pJWgagprotease49587 has shown good expression in vitro and therefore is a good candidate to study immunogenicity of the construct. Immunogenicity testing in mice is being carried out currently with this construct.

  15. Cloning and biochemical characterization of Staphylococcus aureus type IA DNA topoisomerase comprised of distinct five domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ik; Park, Jong Woo; Park, Jong Kun; Lee, Jung Sup

    2011-04-01

    DNA topoisomerases play critical roles in regulating DNA topology and are essential enzymes for cell survival. In this study, a gene encoding type IA DNA topoisomerase was cloned from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) sp. strain C-66, and the biochemical properties of recombinant enzyme was characterized. The nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the cloned gene contained an open reading frame (2070 bp) that could encode a polypeptide of 689 amino acids. The cloned gene actually produced 79.1 kDa functional enzyme (named Sau-TopoI) in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sau-TopoI enzyme purified from E. coli showed ATP-independent and Mg(2+)-dependent manners for relaxing negatively supercoiled DNA. The relaxation activity of Sau-TopoI was inhibited by camptothecin, but not by nalidixic acid and etoposide. Cleavage site mapping showed that the enzyme could preferentially bind to and cleave the sequence GGNN↓CAT (N and ↓ represent any nucleotide and cleavage site, respectively). All these results suggest that the purified enzyme is type IA DNA topoisomerase. In addition, domain mapping analysis showed that the enzyme was composed of conserved four domains (I through IV), together with a variable C-terminal region containing a unique domain V. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloning and expression of full-length cDNA encoding human vitamin D receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A.R.; McDonnell, D.P.; Hughes, M.; Crisp, T.M.; Mangelsdorf, D.J.; Haussler, M.R.; Pike, J.W.; Shine, J.; O' Malley, B.W. (California Biotechnology Inc., Mountain View (USA))

    1988-05-01

    Complementary DNA clones encoding the human vitamin D receptor have been isolated from human intestine and T47D cell cDNA libraries. The nucleotide sequence of the 4605-base pair (bp) cDNA includes a noncoding leader sequence of 115 bp, a 1281-bp open reading frame, and 3209 bp of 3{prime} noncoding sequence. Two polyadenylylation signals, AATAAA, are present 25 and 70 bp upstream of the poly(A) tail, respectively. RNA blot hybridization indicates a single mRNA species of {approx} 4600 bp. Transfection of the cloned sequences into COS-1 cells results in the production of a single receptor species indistinguishable from the native receptor. Sequence comparisons demonstrate that the vitamin D receptor belongs to the steroid-receptor gene family and is closest in size and sequence to another member of this family, the thyroid hormone receptor.

  17. Cloning and sequencing of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus, Coryphaenidae) growth hormone-encoding cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduel, A D; Elizur, A; Knibb, W

    1994-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the preprotein growth hormone from the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) has been cloned and sequenced. The cDNA was derived by reverse transcription of RNA from the pituitary of a young fish using the method known as Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). An oligonucleotide primer corresponding to the 5' region of Pagrus major and the universal RACE primer enabled amplification using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The dolphinfish and yellow-tail, Seriola quineqeradiata, are both members of the sub-order Percoidei (Perciforme) and their GH sequences show a high level of homology.

  18. Construction and characterization of three yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors designed for rapid subcloning of yeast genes on small DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J; Groppe, J C; Reed, S I

    1981-12-01

    We have constructed three new subcloning plasmid vectors, pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3, derived from pKC7, which allow the rapid, single-step subcloning of yeast genes. Subcloning with these vectors utilizes a partial digestion with Sau3A to generate a quasi-random set of DNA fragments from the original plasmid. All three vectors contain a kanamycin resistance gene. Therefore, if the original cloned yeast DNA fragment is present in a vector that does not specify kanamycin resistance, the subclone pool can be propagated in Escherichia coli in the presence of kanamycin to select against parent plasmids that escaped restriction by Sau3A. Selection by complementation in yeast yields a collection of plasmids with smaller yeast DNA inserts containing the gene of interest. In the vectors pRC2 and pRC3, constructed from pRC1, the unique BamHI site is located within an intact tetracycline resistance gene, thus making it possible to screen bacterial transformants for those containing recombinant plasmid molecules. Vectors pRC2 and pRC3 also contain the yeast 2 micrometers DNA replication origin, and thus are more stable than plasmids carrying only the TRP1-associated replicator (ars1).

  19. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Carmen; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Forment, Javier; Arribas, Raquel; Alamar, Santiago; Conejero, Vicente; Perez-Amador, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new EST collection denotes an

  20. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamar Santiago

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new

  1. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Carmen; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Forment, Javier; Arribas, Raquel; Alamar, Santiago; Conejero, Vicente; Perez-Amador, Miguel A

    2009-09-11

    Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. The new EST collection denotes an important step towards the

  2. cDNA Cloning, expression and characterization of an allergenic 60s ribosomal protein of almond (prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhassani, Mohsen; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-06-01

    Tree nuts, including almond (prunus dulcis) are a source of food allergens often associated with life-threatening allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Although the proteins in almonds have been biochemically characterized, relatively little has been reported regarding the identity of the allergens involved in almond sensitivity. The present study was undertaken to identify the allergens of the almond by cDNA library approach. cDNA library of almond seeds was constructed in Uni-Zap XR lamda vector and expressed in E. coli XL-1 blue. Plaques were immunoscreened with pooled sera of allergic patients. The cDNA clone reacting significantly with specific IgE antibodies was selected and subcloned and subsequently expressed in E. coli. The amino acids deducted from PCR product of clone showed homology to 60s acidic ribosomal protein of almond. The expressed protein was 11,450 Dalton without leader sequence. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant 60s ribosomal protein (r60sRP) was evaluated with dot blot analysis using pooled and individual sera of allergic patients. The data showed that r60sRP and almond extract (as positive control) possess the ability to bind the IgE antibodies. The results showed that expressed protein is an almond allergen.Whether this r60sRP represents a major allergen of almond needs to be further studied which requires a large number of sera from the almond atopic patients and also need to determine the IgE-reactive frequencies of each individual allergen.

  3. [A novel vector for construction of a cDNA library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedchenko, V I; Kaloshin, A A; Medvedev, A E

    2010-01-01

    A new original vector pEM-(dT)40(f+) has been prepared. It can be used for cDNA library construction from polyadenylated mRNA, isolated from various sources. The pGEM-(dT)40f(+) is initially transformed into single stranded and then into a linear form and its (dT)40 tail at 3'-end is used as the vector-primer for synthesis of the first strand cDNA. The use of a synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the vector and recombinant DNA results in vector cyclization and synthesis of the second strand cDNA. This approach significantly simplifies cDNA library construction, it does not require PCR reaction (which can induce artifact mutations in cDNA sequences) and restrictase treatment.

  4. Functional cloning using pFB retroviral cDNA expression libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Katherine A; Chen, Keith; Zaharee, Kim; Sundar, Latha; Limjoco, Jamie; Miller, Anna; Vaillancourt, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Retroviral cDNA expression libraries allow the efficient introduction of complex cDNA libraries into virtually any mitotic cell type for screening based on gene function. The cDNA copy number per cell can be easily controlled by adjusting the multiplicity of infection, thus cell populations may be generated in which >90% of infected cells contain one to three cDNAs. We describe the isolation of two known oncogenes and one cell-surface receptor from a human Burkitt's lymphoma (Daudi) cDNA library inserted into the high-titer retroviral vector pFB.

  5. Enhanced specificity in immunoscreening of expression cDNA clones using radiolabeled antigen overlay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, S.; Chao, L.; Chao, J.

    1989-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific method has been developed for immunoscreening clones from an expression cDNA library. The procedures utilize a radiolabeled antigen detection method described originally for the immunoblotting of plasma proteins. Screening of rat alpha 1-antitrypsin clones was used. Comparison between Western blots of alpha 1-antitrypsin using both labeled antigen and protein A detection methods showed that the former yielded lower background and greater sensitivity than the latter. Further, this technique was shown to have a lower detection limit of less than 20 ng through Western blot analysis of varying concentrations of alpha 1-antitrypsin. The procedures are based on the expression of the protein by cDNA clones containing the DNA inserts in the correct reading frame. Following the transfer of phage proteins to nitrocellulose membranes, the bivalent antibodies bind monovalently to both nitrocellulose-bound-antigen in the phage lysates and radiolabeled antigen. The radiolabeled antigen overlay method is superior to the protein A detection method in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. This improved method can be applied in general for screening expression cDNA libraries, provided that the specific antiserum and radiolabeled antigen are available

  6. An optimized lentiviral vector system for conditional RNAi and efficient cloning of microRNA embedded short hairpin RNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Felix F; Heckl, Dirk; Hoffmann, Thomas; Talbot, Steven R; Kloos, Arnold; Thol, Felicitas; Heuser, Michael; Zuber, Johannes; Schambach, Axel; Schwarzer, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR-Cas9-based screening systems have emerged as powerful and complementary tools to unravel genetic dependencies through systematic gain- and loss-of-function studies. In recent years, a series of technical advances helped to enhance the performance of virally delivered RNAi. For instance, the incorporation of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) into endogenous microRNA contexts (shRNAmiRs) allows the use of Tet-regulated promoters for synchronous onset of gene knockdown and precise interrogation of gene dosage effects. However, remaining challenges include lack of efficient cloning strategies, inconsistent knockdown potencies and leaky expression. Here, we present a simple, one-step cloning approach for rapid and efficient cloning of miR-30 shRNAmiR libraries. We combined a human miR-30 backbone retaining native flanking sequences with an optimized all-in-one lentiviral vector system for conditional RNAi to generate a versatile toolbox characterized by higher doxycycline sensitivity, reduced leakiness and enhanced titer. Furthermore, refinement of existing shRNA design rules resulted in substantially improved prediction of powerful shRNAs. Our approach was validated by accurate quantification of the knockdown potency of over 250 single shRNAmiRs. To facilitate access and use by the scientific community, an online tool was developed for the automated design of refined shRNA-coding oligonucleotides ready for cloning into our system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Fingerprints identification of Gynostemma pentaphyllum by RAPD and cloning and analysis of its specific DNA fragment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun-fu; Li, Xiong-ying; Wu, Yao-sheng; Luo, Yu; Zhao, Rui-qiang; Lan, Xiu-wan

    2009-02-01

    To identify the resources of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and its spurious breed plant Cayratia japonica at level of DNA. Two random primers ( WGS001, WGS004) screened were applied to do random amplification with genomic DNA extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Cayratia japonica which were collected from different habitats. After amplificated with WGS004, one characteristic fragment about 500 bp which was common to all Gynostemma pentaphyllum samples studied but not to Cayratia japonica was cloned and sequenced. Then these sequences obtained were analyzed for identity and compared by Blastn program in GenBank. There were obvious different bands amplified by above two primers in their fingerprints of genomic DNA. On the basis of these different bands of DNA fingerprints, they could distinguish Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Cayratia japonica obviously. Sequence alignment of seven cloned bands showed that their identities ranged from 45.7% - 94.5%. There was no similar genome sequences searched in GenBank. This indicated that these seven DNA fragments had not been reported before and they should be new sequences. RAPD technique can be used for the accurate identification of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and its counterfeit goods Cayratia japonica. Besides, these specific DNA sequences for Gynostemmna pentaphyllum in this study are useful for the further research on identification of species and assisted selection breeding in Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

  8. The nickel resistance determinant cloned from the enterobacterium Klebsiella oxytoca: conjugational transfer, expression, regulation and DNA homologies to various nickel-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, R D; Meyer, M; Schlegel, H G

    1995-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca strain CCUG 15788, isolated from a mineral oil emulsion tank in Göteborg, Sweden, was found to be nickel-resistant (tolerating 10 mM NiCl2 in non-complexing mineral-gluconate media; inducible resistance). The nickel resistance determinants were transferred by helper-assisted conjugation to various strains of Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii and expressed to between 5 and 10 mM NiCl2. A 4.3 kb HindIII fragment was cloned from the genomic DNA of K. oxytoca. Ligated into the vector pSUP202, the fragment caused constitutive nickel resistance (of up to 3 or 10 mM Ni2+) in various E. coli strains. After cloning into the broad host range vector pVDZ'2 the fragment even expressed low nickel resistance in the transconjugant of Alcaligenes eutrophus AE104. With the 4.3 kb HindIII fragment as a biotinylated DNA probe it was shown by DNA-DNA hybridization that the nickel resistance determinant resides on the chromosome of K. oxytoca and not on its circular plasmid pKO1 (160 kb) or linear plasmid pKO2 (50 kb). Nickel resistance strongly correlated with the presence of the 4.3 kb HindIII fragment in the transconjugants. No homologies were detected when the nickel resistance determinants of other well-known nickel-resistant bacteria, such as A. eutrophus CH34 or A. denitrificans 4a-2, were used as target DNA. Among the 60 strains examined, positive signals only appeared with the 3.1 kb DNA fragment from A. xylosoxydans 31A and the genomic DNA of two enterobacterial strains (5-1 and 5-5) isolated from nickel-rich soil in New Caledonia.

  9. Osteoponin Promoter Controlled by DNA Methylation: Aberrant Methylation in Cloned Porcine Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jie Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloned animals usually exhibited many defects in physical characteristics or aberrant epigenetic reprogramming, especially in some important organ development. Osteoponin (OPN is an extracellular-matrix protein involved in heart and bone development and diseases. In this study, we investigated the correlation between OPN mRNA and its promoter methylation changes by the 5-aza-dc treatment in fibroblast cell and promoter assay. Aberrant methylation of porcine OPN was frequently found in different tissues of somatic nuclear transferred cloning pigs, and bisulfite sequence data suggested that the OPN promoter region −2615 to −2239 nucleotides (nt may be a crucial regulation DNA element. In pig ear fibroblast cell culture study, the demethylation of OPN promoter was found in dose-dependent response of 5-aza-dc treatment and followed the OPN mRNA reexpression. In cloned pig study, discrepant expression pattern was identified in several cloned pig tissues, especially in brain, heart, and ear. Promoter assay data revealed that four methylated CpG sites presenting in the −2615 to −2239 nt region cause significant downregulation of OPN promoter activity. These data suggested that methylation in the OPN promoter plays a crucial role in the regulation of OPN expression that we found in cloned pigs genome.

  10. Cloning of synthetic gene including antigens against Urinary Tract Infections in pET28a+ vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Haghri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many different bacterial infections in the world that patients are suffering from and research teams are trying to find suitable ways to prevent and treat them. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are most important infections in the world , and they are more common among women because vaginal cavity is near to urethral opening. The aim of this study is cloning of synthetic gene include antigens against UTIs in pET28a+ vector. Antibiotic resistant has been increasing because of antibiotic overuse recently, so It shows the necessity of developing a vaccine against these infections. There for, it will be imperative to develop a vaccine instead of antibiotics. This infection causes by many organisms, most important of which are Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae Uropathogenic Escherichia .coli is the most important microorganism that causes these infections more than other bacteria, so in developing a vaccine it is the most important one, that have to be considered. The synthetic Gene which was designed against these three bacteria including antigens which are important and common to cause these infections. This gene has involved 1293bp. It was ordered to Gene Ray Biotechnology. Primers were designed by Gene Runner. Gene and pET28a+ vector was checked by SnappGene. Synthetic gene was multiplied by PCR and cloned in pET28a+ vector. Construct was transformed into E. coli TOP10.The clone was confirmed by PCR, Digestion. This data indicates that this gene can be expressed and it might be a vaccine candidate to protect people from these infections in the future.

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Cloning Vectors for Antiretroviral Resistance Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Sutton, Lorraine; De Pasquale, Maria Pia; Savara, Anu V.; D’Aquila, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Better detection of minority human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) populations containing gene mutations may improve the usefulness of antiretroviral resistance testing for clinical management. Molecular cloning of HIV-1 PCR products which might improve minority detection can be slow and difficult, and commercially available recombinant virus assays test drug susceptibility of virus pools. We describe novel plasmids and simple methods for rapid cloning of HIV-1 PCR products from patient...

  12. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of a mannose-binding lectin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pinellia pedatisecta agglutinin (PPA) is a very basic protein that accumulates in the tuber of P. pedatisecta. PPA is a hetero-tetramer protein of 40 kDa, composed of two polypeptide chains A (about 12 kDa) and two polypeptides chains B (about 12 kDa). The full-length cDNA of PPA was cloned from P. pedatisecta using ...

  13. Development of an R4 dual-site (R4DS gateway cloning system enabling the efficient simultaneous cloning of two desired sets of promoters and open reading frames in a binary vector for plant research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Aboulela

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of proteins work cooperatively to exert their functions in various cells. In order to understand the functions and molecular mechanisms of these proteins in plants, analyses of transgenic plants that concomitantly express two protein-coding genes are often required. We developed a novel Gateway cloning technology-compatible binary vector system, the R4 dual-site (R4DS Gateway cloning system, which enables the easy and efficient cloning of two desired sets of promoters and open reading frames (ORFs into a binary vector using promoter and ORF entry clones. In this system, C-terminal fusions with 17 kinds of tags including visible reporters and epitope tags are available for each ORF, and selection by four kinds of resistance markers is possible. We verified that the R4DS Gateway cloning system functioned well in Arabidopsis thaliana by observing the expression and localization patterns of fluorescent proteins fused with organelle-targeting signals and driven by stomatal-lineage specific promoters. We also confirmed that the two cloning sites in the R4DS Gateway cloning system were equivalent and independently regulated. The results obtained indicate that the R4DS Gateway cloning system facilitates detailed comparisons of the expression patterns of two promoters as well as co-localization and interaction analyses of two proteins in specific cells in plants.

  14. Cloning of the PYR3 gene of Ustilago maydis and its use in DNA transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, G.R.; Taylor, S.Y. (National Institute for Medical Research, London (England))

    1988-12-01

    The Ustilago maydis PYR3 gene encoding dihydroorotase activity was cloned by direct complementation of Escherichia coli pyrC mutations. PYR3 transformants of E. coli pyrC mutants expressed homologous transcripts of a variety of sizes and regained dihydroorotase activity. PYR3 also complemented Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura4 mutations, and again multiple transcripts were expressed in transformants, and enzyme activity was regained. A 1.25-kilobase poly(rA)+ PYR3 transcript was detected in U. maydis itself. Linear DNA carrying the PYR3 gene transformed a U. maydis pyr3-1 pyrimidine auxotroph to prototrophy. Hybridization analysis revealed that three different types of transformants could be generated, depending on the structure of the transforming DNA used. The first type involved exchange of chromosomal mutant gene sequences with the cloned wild-type plasmid sequences. A second type had integrated linear transforming DNA at the chromosomal PYR3 locus, probably via a single crossover event. The third type had integrated transforming DNA sequences at multiple sites in the U. maydis genome. In the last two types, tandemly reiterated copies of the transforming DNA were found to have been integrated. All three types had lost the sensitivity of the parental pyr3-1 mutant to UV irradiation. They had also regained dihydroorotase activity, although its level did not correlate with the PYR3 gene copy number.

  15. Molecular cloning of goat 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Walimuni Samantha Nilanthi; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Ishida, Maho; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2004-06-01

    20Alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD), which catalyzes the conversion of progesterone to its inactive form 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, is expressed in murine placenta and has been suggested to play roles in maintaining pregnancy. To understand the role of 20alpha-HSD during pregnancy in the goat, as a first step, cloning and sequencing of 20alpha-HSD cDNA were performed. The full nucleotide sequence of 20alpha-HSD cDNA was determined on samples obtained from the corpus luteum at the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and the placenta in late pregnancy by RT-PCR and 3' and 5' RACE systems. Cloned 20alpha-HSD cDNA consisted of 1124 bp and belonged to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. From the start codon to stop codon there were 323 amino acids, the same as in other species. To verify whether the protein derived from goat 20alpha-HSD cDNA had 20alpha-HSD activity, the cDNA was expressed by bacteria. Bacterially expressed goat 20alpha-HSD protein showed 20alpha-HSD enzyme activity. A tissue distribution study demonstrated that 20alpha-HSD was expressed in the placenta, but not in the adrenal gland, liver and spleen during pregnancy. The present study suggests that goat 20alpha-HSD is another member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily and that it plays a role in the placenta during pregnancy.

  16. Human placental Na+, K+-ATPase α subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-01-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na + , K + -ATPase α subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the α subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na + , K + -ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (≅ 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) λgt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the α subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1

  17. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of cDNA coding for the major house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to clone, express and characterize adult Dermatophagoides farinae group 1 (Der f 1 allergens to further produce recombinant allergens for future clinical applications in order to eliminate side reactions from crude extracts of mites. Based on GenBank data, we designed primers and amplified the cDNA fragment coding for Der f 1 by nested-PCR. After purification and recovery, the cDNA fragment was cloned into the pMD19-T vector. The fragment was then sequenced, subcloned into the plasmid pET28a(+, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and identified by Western blotting. The cDNA coding for Der f 1 was cloned, sequenced and expressed successfully. Sequence analysis showed the presence of an open reading frame containing 966 bp that encodes a protein of 321 amino acids. Interestingly, homology analysis showed that the Der p 1 shared more than 87% identity in amino acid sequence with Eur m 1 but only 80% with Der f 1. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses suggested that D. pteronyssinus was evolutionarily closer to Euroglyphus maynei than to D. farinae, even though D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae belong to the same Dermatophagoides genus. A total of three cysteine peptidase active sites were found in the predicted amino acid sequence, including 127-138 (QGGCGSCWAFSG, 267-277 (NYHAVNIVGYG and 284-303 (YWIVRNSWDTTWGDSGYGYF. Moreover, secondary structure analysis revealed that Der f 1 contained an a helix (33.96%, an extended strand (17.13%, a ß turn (5.61%, and a random coil (43.30%. A simple three-dimensional model of this protein was constructed using a Swiss-model server. The cDNA coding for Der f 1 was cloned, sequenced and expressed successfully. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggests that D. pteronyssinus is evolutionarily more similar to E. maynei than to D. farinae.

  18. Development of infectious cDNA clones of Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsen Marius

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonid alphavirus (SAV is a widespread pathogen in European aquaculture of salmonid fish. Distinct viral subtypes have been suggested based on sequence comparisons and some of these have different geographical distributions. In Norway, only SAV subtype 3 have so far been identified. Little is known about viral mechanisms important for pathogenesis and transmission. Tools for detailed exploration of SAV genomes are therefore needed. Results Infectious cDNA clones in which a genome of subtype 3 SAV is under the control of a CMV promoter were constructed. The clones were designed to express proteins that are putatively identical to those previously reported for the SAVH20/03 strain. A polyclonal antiserum was raised against a part of the E2 glycoprotein in order to detect expression of the subgenomic open reading frame (ORF encoding structural viral proteins. Transfection of the cDNA clone revealed the expression of the E2 protein by IFAT, and in serial passages of the supernatant the presence of infectious recombinant virus was confirmed through RT-PCR, IFAT and the development of a cytopathic effect similar to that seen during infection with wild type SAV. Confirmation that the recovered virus originated from the infectious plasmid was done by sequence identification of an introduced genetic tag. The recombinant virus was infectious also when an additional ORF encoding an EGFP reporter gene under the control of a second subgenomic alphavirus promoter was added. Finally, we used the system to study the effect of selected point mutations on infectivity in Chinook salmon embryo cells. While introduced mutations in nsP2197, nsP3263 and nsP3323 severely reduced infectivity, a serine to proline mutation in E2206 appeared to enhance the virus titer production. Conclusion We have constructed infectious clones for SAV based on a subtype 3 genome. The clones may serve as a platform for further functional studies.

  19. Isolation of full-length putative rat lysophospholipase cDNA using improved methods for mRNA isolation and cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.H.; Stratowa, C.; Rutter, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have cloned a full-length putative rat pancreatic lysophospholipase cDNA by an improved mRNA isolation method and cDNA cloning strategy using [ 32 P]-labelled nucleotides. These new methods allow the construction of a cDNA library from the adult rat pancreas in which the majority of recombinant clones contained complete sequences for the corresponding mRNAs. A previously recognized but unidentified long and relatively rare cDNA clone containing the entire sequence from the cap site at the 5' end to the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the mRNA was isolated by single-step screening of the library. The size, amino acid composition, and the activity of the protein expressed in heterologous cells strongly suggest this mRNA codes for lysophospholipase

  20. Nonviral DNA vectors for immunization and therapy: design and methods for their obtention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ernesto G

    2004-08-01

    The use of plasmid DNA for vaccination and therapy is a relatively novel technology, with advantages and limitations as with other gene transfer techniques. The technology is based on DNA vectors designed for administering genes coding for relevant proteins into a given organism, fulfilling requirements of the regulatory agencies that once properly formulated and delivered the desired vaccine/therapeutic effect can be achieved. Starting from conventional plasmid DNA vectors currently tested in clinical trials, improvement resulted in bacterial element-less vectors, increasing the complexity of the developmental process. The present review focuses on systems described for generating these nonviral DNA vectors for immunization and therapy from bacterial hosts (conventional and conditionally replicating plasmids, nonreplicating minicircles, and linear dumbbell-shaped expression cassettes) in vivo or in vitro. Additionally, nontherapeutic genetic sequences with a negative or positive effect according to the specific application are described, bringing a better comprehension of the technology's state of the art.

  1. Development of the gateway recycling cloning system for multiple linking of expression cassettes in a defined order, and direction on gateway compatible binary vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Nakao, Akihide; Murata, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Shibahara, Kenta; Kawazu, Tetsu; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We developed the Gateway recycling cloning system, which allows multiple linking of expression cassettes by multiple rounds of the Gateway LR reaction. Employing this system, the recycling donor vector pRED419 was subjected to the first LR reaction with an attR1-attR2 type destination vector. Then conversion vector pCON was subjected to an LR reaction to restore the attR1-attR2 site on the destination vector for the next cloning cycle. By repetition of these two simple steps, we linked four expression cassettes of a reporter gene in Gateway binary vector pGWB1, introduced the constructs into tobacco BY-2 cells, and observed the expression of transgenes.

  2. Site-specific integration of CAR gene into Jurkat T cells with a linear close-ended AAV-based DNA vector for CAR-T engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Jinju; Zhang, Chun

    2016-09-01

    To develop a site-specific integration strategy for CAR-T engineering by using a non-viral vector dependent on adeno-associated viral (AAV) genome, which tends to be integrated into AAVS1 site with the help of its Rep proteins. AAV-dependent vectors were produced in Sf9 cells. Structural analyses revealed the vector as covalently close-ended, linear duplex molecules, which was termed "CELiD" DNA. A plasmid CMV-Rep was constructed to express the integrases Rep78 and Rep68. Jurkat cells were co-electroporated with "CELiD" DNA and plasmid CMV-Rep in order to specifically integrate CAR gene into AAVS1 site. We examined 71 stably transfected Jurkat clones by nested PCR, sequencing and southern blotting, of which 30 clones bore CAR gene within AAVS1 site. The site-specific integration efficiency was nearly 42.2 %. The AAV-dependent vector preferentially integrated CAR into AAVS1 site, which could be further used in human T cell modification and enhance the security of CAR-T therapy.

  3. Quantification of residual host cell DNA in adenoviral vectors produced on PER.C6 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, Linda; Koel, Björn; Weggeman, Miranda; Goudsmit, Jaap; Havenga, Menzo; Marzio, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors for gene therapy and vaccination are routinely prepared on cultures of immortalized cells, allowing the production of vector batches of high titer and consistent quality. Quantification of residual DNA from the producing cell line is part of the purity tests for

  4. Development of pGEMINI, a Plant Gateway Destination Vector Allowing the Simultaneous Integration of Two cDNA via a Single LR-Clonase Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito-Rodriguez, Marino; Laissue, Philippe P; López-Calcagno, Patricia E; Mullineaux, Philip M; Raines, Christine A; Simkin, Andrew J

    2017-11-12

    Gateway technology has been used to facilitate the generation of a large number of constructs for the modification of plants for research purposes. However, many of the currently available vectors only allow the integration of a single cDNA of interest into an expression clone. The ability to over-express multiple genes in combination is essential for the study of plant development where several transcripts have a role to play in one or more metabolic processes. The tools to carry out such studies are limited, and in many cases rely on the incorporation of cDNA into expression systems via conventional cloning, which can be both time consuming and laborious. To our knowledge, this study reports on the first development of a vector allowing the simultaneous integration of two independent cDNAs via a single LR-clonase reaction. This vector " pGEMINI " represents a powerful molecular tool offering the ability to study the role of multi-cDNA constructs on plant development, and opens up the process of gene stacking and the study of gene combinations through transient or stable transformation procedures.

  5. Construction and biological activities of the first infectious cDNA clones of the genus Foveavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Baozhong, E-mail: bmeng@uoguelph.ca [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Venkataraman, Srividhya; Li, Caihong; Wang, Weizhou [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G2W1 (Canada); Dayan-Glick, Cathy; Mawassi, Munir [The Plant Pathology Department-The Virology Unit, Plant Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50250 (Israel)

    2013-01-20

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV, genus Foveavirus, family Betaflexiviridae) is one of the most prevalent viruses in grapevines and is associated with three distinct diseases: rupestris stem pitting, vein necrosis and Syrah decline. Little is known about the biology and pathological properties of GRSPaV. In this work, we engineered a full-length infectious cDNA clone for GRSPaV and a GFP-tagged variant, both under the transcriptional control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S promoter. We demonstrated that these cDNA clones were infectious in grapevines and Nicotiana benthamiana through fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR, Western blotting and immuno electron microscopy. Interestingly, GRSPaV does not cause systemic infection in four of the most commonly used herbaceous plants, even in the presence of the movement proteins of two other viruses which are known to complement numerous movement-defective viruses. These infectious clones are the first of members of Foveavirus which would allow further investigations into mechanisms governing different aspects of replication for GRSPaV and perhaps related viruses.

  6. New vectors in fission yeast: application for cloning the his2 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weilguny, D; Praetorius, M; Carr, Alan

    1991-01-01

    of transforming Sc. pombe ura4 strains, as well as ura 3 strains of the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used pON163 for the construction of two fission yeast genomic libraries. From these gene banks clones were isolated that were able to complement fission yeast his2 mutants...

  7. Generation of a lentiviral vector producer cell clone for human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Wielgosz

    Full Text Available We have developed a producer cell line that generates lentiviral vector particles of high titer. The vector encodes the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS protein. An insulator element has been added to the long terminal repeats of the integrated vector to limit proto-oncogene activation. The vector provides high-level, stable expression of WAS protein in transduced murine and human hematopoietic cells. We have also developed a monoclonal antibody specific for intracellular WAS protein. This antibody has been used to monitor expression in blood and bone marrow cells after transfer into lineage negative bone marrow cells from WAS mice and in a WAS negative human B-cell line. Persistent expression of the transgene has been observed in transduced murine cells 12–20 weeks following transplantation. The producer cell line and the specific monoclonal antibody will facilitate the development of a clinical protocol for gene transfer into WAS protein deficient stem cells.

  8. Cloning and characterization of the dnaKJ operon in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Kainuma, Akiko; Yan, Wang; Fukaya, Masahiro; Tukamoto, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Morio; Koizumi, Yukimichi

    2004-01-01

    The dnaKJ operon of Acetobacter aceti was cloned and sequenced. The profile of the gene configuration was similar to that of other alpha-proteobacteria. In the DnaK and DnaJ proteins of A. aceti, the characteristic domains/motifs reported in other organisms were well conserved. This operon was transcribed in response to a temperature shift and exposure to ethanol/acetic acid. The overexpression of this operon in A. aceti resulted in improved growth compared to the control strain at high temperature or in the presence of ethanol, suggesting a correlation to resistance against stressors present during fermentation, although the overexpression did not increase the resistance to acetic acid.

  9. Cloning and bioinformatics analyses of the coding DNA sequence (CDS of Delta 6 Desaturase gene from Mortierella alpina (CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Ashaar ghadim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Membrane-bound desaturases and related enzymes play a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Delta6 desaturase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the unsaturated fatty acids. Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus with active Delta 6 desaturase which hasbeengreatly considered recently. Materials and methods: In order to isolate and clone Δ6D gene from Mortierella alpina, after extraction of total RNA and synthesis cDNA, PCR amplification has been done using gene specific primers. The amplified fragment was cloned into the pBlueScriptSK+ containing seed specific promoter napin. Then the recombinant plasmid was transformed into E.coli DH5a by freezing and thawing method. The confirmed gene construct was cloned into the binary vector pBI121 and transformed into Agrobacterium LBA4404 in order to transform canola plants. Bioinformatics characterization of target gene was investigated by servers TMHMM, ProtParam and Psipred. Results: Correctness of cloning was confirmed by PCR with specific primers, enzymatic digestion and sequencing. The proliferation of a fragment with 830 bp using internal primer of napin promoter and Delta6 desaturase primer confirmed insertion of the gene along with napin promoter. Nucleotide sequencing results showed that cloned CDS includes 1374 nucleotides that will translate to a protein with 448 amino acids. Using bioinformatics analysis, presence of cytochrome b5 domain, three His-box, secondary and spatial structures, transmembrane and conserved domains were confirmed. Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results of BLAST analysis using nucleotide and protein sequences, and also presence of functional domains in the protein, it can be predicted that cloned CDS will show proper enzyme activity after transformation into plants. Confirming these results requires expression analysis of the gene in appropriate plant system and studying its function in the enzyme level.

  10. The identification of specific cDNA clones from tall and dwarf rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssefian, S.; Kamada, I.; Sano, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The use of dwarfing genes in rice breeding has proceeded for several years without a clear understanding of the genetic, hormonal and physiological mechanisms involved. This issue was addressed by focussing on the isolation of specific clones from tall- and dwarf-derived cDNA libraries. The materials used include near-isogenic lines of the tall rice cultivar 'Shiokari', differing at the DGWG or 'Tanginbozu' dwarfing gene loci. Also used were tall and dwarf 'Ginbozu' rice, the latter having been induced by treatment with 5-azacytidine, a potent demethylating agent. Subtractive and differential hybridisation have, to date, identified several candidate tall- and dwarf-specific clones. Their further characterisation is currently underway. (author)

  11. Construction of a new shuttle vector for DNA delivery into mammalian cells using non-invasive Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagnik, Bhrugu; Padh, Harish; Desai, Priti

    2016-04-01

    Use of food grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) is fast emerging as a safe alternative for delivery of DNA vaccine. To attain efficient DNA delivery, L. lactis, a non-invasive bacterium is converted to invasive strain either by expressing proteins like Internalin A (InlA) or Fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA) or through chemical treatments. However the safety status of invasive L. lactis is questionable. In the present report, we have shown that non-invasive L. lactis efficiently delivered the newly constructed reporter plasmid pPERDBY to mammalian cells without any chemical enhancers. The salient features of the vector are; I) Ability to replicate in two different hosts; Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), II) One of the smallest reporter plasmid for DNA vaccine, III) Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) linked to Multiple Cloning Site (MCS), IV) Immunostimulatory CpG motifs functioning as an adjuvant. Expression of EGFP in pPERDBY transfected CHO-K1 and Caco-2 cells demonstrates its functionality. Non-invasive r-L. lactis was found efficient in delivering pPERDBY to Caco-2 cells. The in vitro data presented in this article supports the hypothesis that in the absence of invasive proteins or relevant chemical treatment, L. lactis was found efficient in delivering DNA to mammalian cells. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Authentication of commercial candy ingredients using DNA PCR-cloning methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Commercial candies are consumed by all population age sectors worldwide. Methods for quality control and composition authentication are therefore needed for best compliance with consumers' preferences. In this study applications of DNA-based methodology for candy quality control have been tested. Eighteen samples of commercial candies (marshmallows, gumdrops, jelly, sherbet, gelatin-based desserts) produced by five countries were analyzed to identify the component species by polymerase chain reaction, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA and ribulose -1,5-diphosphate carboxylase oxygenase genes, and the species determined from BLAST comparison with universal databases and phylogenetic analysis. Positive DNA extraction and amplification of the target genes were obtained for 94% of candies assayed, even those containing as little as candy labels only in a few products. DNA traces of undeclared species, including fish, were found in most samples, and two products were labeled as vegetarian but contained porcine DNA. Based on the inaccuracy found on the labels of sweets we recommend the use of DNA tests for quality control of these popular sweets. DNA tests have been useful in this field but next-generation sequencing methods could be more effective. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. A method for construction, cloning and expression of intron-less gene from unannotated genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vineet; Gupta, Bharti; Banerjee, Uttam Chand; Roy, Nilanjan

    2008-11-01

    The present century has witnessed an unprecedented rise in genome sequences owing to various genome-sequencing programs. However, the same has not been replicated with cDNA or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Hence, prediction of protein coding sequence of genes from this enormous collection of genomic sequences presents a significant challenge. While robust high throughput methods of cloning and expression could be used to meet protein requirements, lack of intron information creates a bottleneck. Computational programs designed for recognizing intron-exon boundaries for a particular organism or group of organisms have their own limitations. Keeping this in view, we describe here a method for construction of intron-less gene from genomic DNA in the absence of cDNA/EST information and organism-specific gene prediction program. The method outlined is a sequential application of bioinformatics to predict correct intron-exon boundaries and splicing by overlap extension PCR for spliced gene synthesis. The gene construct so obtained can then be cloned for protein expression. The method is simple and can be used for any eukaryotic gene expression.

  14. Cloning and characterization of human liver cDNA encoding a protein S precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.; Norman, D.K.; Beckmann, R.J.; Long, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Human liver cDNA encoding a protein S precursor was isolated from two cDNA libraries by two different techniques. Based upon the frequency of positive clones, the abundance of mRNA for protein S is ≅ 0.01%. Blot hybridization of electrophoretically fractionated poly(A) + RNA revealed a major mRNA ≅ 4 kilobases long and two minor forms of ≅ 3.1 and ≅ 2.6 kilobases. One of the cDNA clones contains a segment encoding a 676 amino acid protein S precursor, as well as 108 and 1132 nucleotides of 5' and 3' noncoding sequence, respectively, plus a poly(A) region at the 3' end. The cDNAs are adenosine plus thymidine-rich (60%) except for the 5' noncoding region, where 78% of the nucleotides are guanosine or cytosine. The protein precursor consists of a 41 amino acid leader peptide followed by 635 amino acids corresponding to mature protein S. Comparison of the mature protein region with homologous vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins shows that it is composed of the following domains: an amino-terminal γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich region of 37 amino acids; a 36 amino acid linker region rich in hydroxy amino acids; four epidermal growth factor-like segments, each ≅ 45 amino acids long; and a 387 amino acid carboxyl-terminal domain of unrecognized structure and unknown function

  15. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of cat and dog Cdkal1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ichiro Yamamoto, Shingo Ishikawa, Li Gebin, Hiroshi Takemitsu, Megumi Fujiwara, Nobuko Mori, Yutaka Hatano, Tomoko Suzuki, Akihiro Mori, Nobuhiro Nakao, Koh Kawasumi, Toshinori Sako, Toshiro AraiLaboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit–associated protein 1–like 1 (CDKAL1 gene encodes methylthiotransferase, and the gene contains risk variants for type 2 diabetes in humans. In this study, we performed complementary DNA cloning for Cdkal1 in the cat and dog and characterized the tissue expression profiles of its messenger RNA. Cat and dog Cdkal1 complementary DNA encoded 576 and 578 amino acids, showing very high sequence homology to mammalian CDKAL1 (>88.4%. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that Cdkal1 messenger RNA is highly expressed in smooth muscle and that tissue distribution of Cdkal1 is similar in cats and dogs. Genotyping analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism for cat Cdkal1 revealed that obese cats had different tendencies from normal cats. These findings suggest that the cat and dog Cdkal1 gene is highly conserved among mammals and that cat Cdkal1 may be a candidate marker for genetic diagnosis of obesity.Keywords: cat, dog, Cdkal1, obese, cDNA cloning, Q-PCR

  16. Isolation and sequence analysis of a cDNA clone encoding the fifth complement component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundwall, Åke B; Wetsel, Rick A; Kristensen, Torsten

    1985-01-01

    clone of 1.85 kilobase pairs was isolated. Hybridization of the mixed-sequence probe to the complementary strand of the plasmid insert and sequence analysis by the dideoxy method predicted the expected protein sequence of C5a (positions 1-12), amino-terminal to the anticipated priming site. The sequence......We have used available protein sequence data for the anaphylatoxin (C5a) portion of the fifth component of human complement (residues 19-25) to synthesize a mixed-sequence oligonucleotide probe. The labeled oligonucleotide was then used to screen a human liver cDNA library, and a single candidate cDNA...... obtained further predicted an arginine-rich sequence (RPRR) immediately upstream of the N-terminal threonine of C5a, indicating that the promolecule form of C5 is synthesized with a beta alpha-chain orientation as previously shown for pro-C3 and pro-C4. The C5 cDNA clone was sheared randomly by sonication...

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Streptococcus sanguis DNase necessary for repair of DNA damage induced by UV light and methyl methanesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindler, L.E.; Macrina, F.L.

    1987-07-01

    We developed a method for cloning cellular nucleases from streptococci. Recombinant lambda gt11 bacteriophage containing streptococcal nuclease determinants were identified by the production of pink plaques on toluidine blue O DNase plates. We used this technique to clone a 3.2-kilobase-pair EcoRI fragment with DNase activity from the chromosome of Streptococcus sanguis. The locus was designated don (DNase one) and could be subcloned and stably maintained on plasmid vectors in Escherichia coli. Minicell analyses of various subclones of the don locus allowed us to determine the coding region and size of the Don nuclease in E. coli. The don gene product had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kilodaltons and degraded native DNA most efficiently, with lesser activity against denatured DNA and no detectable activity against RNA. S. sanguis don deletion mutants were constructed by transformation of competent cells with in vitro-prepared plasmid constructs. S. sanguis don deletion mutants retained normal transformation frequencies for exogenously added donor DNA. However, when compared with Don+ wild-type cells, these mutants were hypersensitive to DNA damage induced by UV light and methyl methanesulfonate. An S. sanguis don-specific DNA probe detected homology to chromosomal DNA isolated from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans Bratthall serogroups d and g. Our results suggested that the don locus was the S. sanguis allele of the previously described S. pneumoniae major exonuclease and was involved in repair of DNA damage. Furthermore, hybridization studies suggested that the don locus was conserved among species of oral streptococci.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Streptococcus sanguis DNase necessary for repair of DNA damage induced by UV light and methyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindler, L.E.; Macrina, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    We developed a method for cloning cellular nucleases from streptococci. Recombinant lambda gt11 bacteriophage containing streptococcal nuclease determinants were identified by the production of pink plaques on toluidine blue O DNase plates. We used this technique to clone a 3.2-kilobase-pair EcoRI fragment with DNase activity from the chromosome of Streptococcus sanguis. The locus was designated don (DNase one) and could be subcloned and stably maintained on plasmid vectors in Escherichia coli. Minicell analyses of various subclones of the don locus allowed us to determine the coding region and size of the Don nuclease in E. coli. The don gene product had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kilodaltons and degraded native DNA most efficiently, with lesser activity against denatured DNA and no detectable activity against RNA. S. sanguis don deletion mutants were constructed by transformation of competent cells with in vitro-prepared plasmid constructs. S. sanguis don deletion mutants retained normal transformation frequencies for exogenously added donor DNA. However, when compared with Don+ wild-type cells, these mutants were hypersensitive to DNA damage induced by UV light and methyl methanesulfonate. An S. sanguis don-specific DNA probe detected homology to chromosomal DNA isolated from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans Bratthall serogroups d and g. Our results suggested that the don locus was the S. sanguis allele of the previously described S. pneumoniae major exonuclease and was involved in repair of DNA damage. Furthermore, hybridization studies suggested that the don locus was conserved among species of oral streptococci

  19. [Effects of UV-induced DNA damage on vector ligation and transformation into bacterial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-ling; Li, Chang-zheng; Chen, Zhen-rui; He, Wei; Zhou, Ye; Zhou, Zhi-gang; Liu, Shu-wen; Zhou, Chen

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of UV irradiation on DNA ligation and transformation efficiency of the expression vector into competent bacterial cells. The expression vector was digested with the restriction enzyme SfiI, and the purified target DNA fragments were exposed to UV light at different wavelengths. Ligation and transformation experiments with the exposed fragments were carried out and the colony number and transformation efficiency were assessed. The transformation efficiency of the DNA with a 5-min exposure to 302 nm UV was 60 colonies per nanogram of the DNA, as compared with 20400 for the DNA exposed to 365 nm UV. The time course experiment showed that prolonged DNA exposure to 365 nm UV light was associated with lowered transformation efficiency. DNA exposure for 30 min caused a reduction of the transformation efficiency to lower than 50% compared to that of DNA without UV exposure. But with a 15 min exposure, the DNA maintained a transformation efficiency more than 70%, which was sufficient for most molecular biology experiments. In construction of the expression vector, it is advisable to prevent the target DNA from UV exposure. When UV exposure is essential, we suggest that 365 nm UV be used and the exposure time controlled within 15 min.

  20. Moloney murine sarcoma virus MuSVts110 DNA: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, L; Chiocca, S M; Gilbreth, M A; Ainsworth, J R; Bishop, L A; Murphy, E C

    1992-09-01

    We have cloned Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MuSV) MuSVts110 DNA by assembly of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified segments of integrated viral DNA from infected NRK cells (6m2 cells) and determined its complete sequence. Previously, by direct sequencing of MuSVts110 RNA transcribed in 6m2 cells, we established that the thermosensitive RNA splicing phenotype uniquely characteristic of MuSVts110 results from a deletion of 1,487 nucleotides of progenitor MuSV-124 sequences. As anticipated, the sequence obtained in this study contained precisely this same deletion. In addition, several other unexpected sequence differences were found between MuSVts110 and MuSV-124. For example, in the noncoding region upstream of the gag gene, MuSVts110 DNA contained a 52-nucleotide tract typical of murine leukemia virus rather than MuSV-124, suggesting that MuSVts110 originated as a MuSV-helper murine leukemia virus recombinant during reverse transcription rather than from a straightforward deletion within MuSV-124. In addition, both MuSVts110 long terminal repeats contained head-to-tail duplications of eight nucleotides in the U3 region. Finally, seven single-nucleotide substitutions were found scattered throughout MuSVts110 DNA. Three of the nucleotide substitutions were in the gag gene, resulting in one coding change in p15 and one in p30. All of the remaining nucleotide changes were found in the noncoding region between the 5' long terminal repeat and the gag gene. In NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the cloned MuSVts110 DNA, the pattern of viral RNA expression conformed with that observed in cells infected with authentic MuSVts110 virus in that viral RNA splicing was 30 to 40% efficient at growth temperatures between 28 and 33 degrees C but reduced to trace levels above 37 degrees C.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a female genital complex cDNA from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, M; Bieber, D; Ringold, G; Mansour, T E

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA clone whose RNA is abundant in the female genital complex of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has been isolated from a cDNA library in lambda gt10 by differential screening. The pattern of expression in different fluke tissues and at different stages of miracidium formation suggests that this gene is expressed in the F. hepatica vitelleria. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cDNA was determined and the primary structure of the putative protein was deduced. The proposed protein is rich in glycine, lysine, and tyrosine and its overall amino acid composition agrees with that reported for the F. hepatica egg shell. The clone has homology with DNA from other trematodes; this homology is higher in organisms in which egg development is similar to that of F. hepatica and suggests that the protein is conserved in organisms in which miracidium formation occurs in fresh water. Images PMID:3470798

  2. Cloning of replication-incompetent herpes simplex viruses as bacterial artificial chromosomes to facilitate development of vectors for gene delivery into differentiated neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2006-01-01

    We have previously described the adaptation of a tetracycline-regulated system of gene expression for herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors and demonstrated that such a system was capable of inducible foreign gene expression in irreversibly differentiated neurons. These studies suggested that such gene delivery vectors would be especially useful for studying the neuron in vitro. Here, we describe the cloning of a replication-incompetent HSV vector as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to facilitate vector construction. Using prokaryotic genetic techniques for allele replacement, we demonstrate the ease of manipulation of the BAC-containing vector, including the construction of vector mutations for which there is no simple phenotypic selection. Such constructions include the insertion of a tetracycline-regulated gene cassette into the UL41 gene for regulated gene expression and the mutation of the UL48 gene to reduce vector toxicity. In addition, HSV vectors cloned as BACs can be sequentially modified to make multiple changes to the vector platform. Finally, using the BAC system, we constructed an HSV vector that expressed an inducible human superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene for delivery into differentiated human NT-neurons (cells of the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2, which differentiate irreversibly into postmitotic neuron-like cells after treatment with retinoic acid). The results indicated that there is appreciable expression of SOD1 from this HSV vector in the presence of doxycycline and that vector-expressed SOD1 interacts with endogenous SOD1. Thus, the BAC system provides a practicable platform for construction and manipulation of HSV vectors that are suitable for gene delivery into postmitotic neurons in vitro.

  3. Isolation and characterization of sequences homologous to the tobacco clone axi 1 (auxin independent) from a Vicia sativa nodule cDNA library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalçin-Mendi, Y.; Çetiner, S.; Bisseling, T.

    2001-01-01

    In this research, partial nucleotide sequences of the axi 1 gene, which is related to auxin perception and transduction, isolated from Vicia sativa using cDNA library screening were investigated. Four V. sativa cDNA clones representing homologous of the tobacco axi 1 (auxin independent) cDNA clone

  4. Molecular characterization of a Leishmania donovani cDNA clone with similarity to human 20S proteasome a-type subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Jørgensen, L; Jensen, A T

    2000-01-01

    Using plasma from patients infected or previously infected with Leishmania donovanii, we isolated a L. donovanii cDNA clone with similarity to the proteasome a-type subunit from humans and other eukaryotes. The cDNA clone, designated LePa, was DNA sequenced and Northern blot analysis of L...

  5. Algebraic correction methods for computational assessment of clone overlaps in DNA fingerprint mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendl Michael C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sulston score is a well-established, though approximate metric for probabilistically evaluating postulated clone overlaps in DNA fingerprint mapping. It is known to systematically over-predict match probabilities by various orders of magnitude, depending upon project-specific parameters. Although the exact probability distribution is also available for the comparison problem, it is rather difficult to compute and cannot be used directly in most cases. A methodology providing both improved accuracy and computational economy is required. Results We propose a straightforward algebraic correction procedure, which takes the Sulston score as a provisional value and applies a power-law equation to obtain an improved result. Numerical comparisons indicate dramatically increased accuracy over the range of parameters typical of traditional agarose fingerprint mapping. Issues with extrapolating the method into parameter ranges characteristic of newer capillary electrophoresis-based projects are also discussed. Conclusion Although only marginally more expensive to compute than the raw Sulston score, the correction provides a vastly improved probabilistic description of hypothesized clone overlaps. This will clearly be important in overlap assessment and perhaps for other tasks as well, for example in using the ranking of overlap probabilities to assist in clone ordering.

  6. Cloning and physical mapping of DNA complementary to potato leafroll virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.P.

    1987-01-01

    Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was aphid-transmitted from potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivar Russett Burbank) to ground cherry (Physalis floridana), where it was maintained by serial aphid transmission. Serological and plant differential tests indicated that the isolate was not contaminated with beet western yellows virus. Purified PLRV RNA was poly(A)-tailed in vitro and used as a template for reverse transcriptase, primed with oligo(dT). Alkaline gel electrophoresis of 32 P-labeled first-strand complementary DNA (cDNA) indicated a major size range of 0.1 to 3.5 kilobases (kb). A small percentage of transcripts corresponded to full length PLRV RNA. Following RNase H and DNA polymerase I-mediated second strand synthesis, double-stranded cDNA was cloned into the Pst I site of the plasmid pUC9 using oligo (dC)-oligo(dG) tailing methodology. Escherichia coli JM109 transformants were screened with first-strand 32 P-cDNA in colony hybridization experiments to confirm that recombinants contained PLRV-specific sequences

  7. A Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning toolkit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena K Petersen

    Full Text Available The generation of DNA constructs is often a rate-limiting step in conducting biological experiments. Recombination cloning of single DNA fragments using the Gateway system provided an advance over traditional restriction enzyme cloning due to increases in efficiency and reliability. Here we introduce a series of entry clones and a destination vector for use in two, three, and four fragment Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning whose advantages include increased flexibility and versatility. In contrast to Gateway single-fragment cloning approaches where variations are typically incorporated into model system-specific destination vectors, our Gateway MultiSite cloning strategy incorporates variations in easily generated entry clones that are model system-independent. In particular, we present entry clones containing insertions of GAL4, QF, UAS, QUAS, eGFP, and mCherry, among others, and demonstrate their in vivo functionality in Drosophila by using them to generate expression clones including GAL4 and QF drivers for various trp ion channel family members, UAS and QUAS excitatory and inhibitory light-gated ion channels, and QUAS red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle markers. We thus establish a starter toolkit of modular Gateway MultiSite entry clones potentially adaptable to any model system. An inventory of entry clones and destination vectors for Gateway MultiSite cloning has also been established (www.gatewaymultisite.org.

  8. A Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lena K; Stowers, R Steven

    2011-01-01

    The generation of DNA constructs is often a rate-limiting step in conducting biological experiments. Recombination cloning of single DNA fragments using the Gateway system provided an advance over traditional restriction enzyme cloning due to increases in efficiency and reliability. Here we introduce a series of entry clones and a destination vector for use in two, three, and four fragment Gateway MultiSite recombination cloning whose advantages include increased flexibility and versatility. In contrast to Gateway single-fragment cloning approaches where variations are typically incorporated into model system-specific destination vectors, our Gateway MultiSite cloning strategy incorporates variations in easily generated entry clones that are model system-independent. In particular, we present entry clones containing insertions of GAL4, QF, UAS, QUAS, eGFP, and mCherry, among others, and demonstrate their in vivo functionality in Drosophila by using them to generate expression clones including GAL4 and QF drivers for various trp ion channel family members, UAS and QUAS excitatory and inhibitory light-gated ion channels, and QUAS red and green fluorescent synaptic vesicle markers. We thus establish a starter toolkit of modular Gateway MultiSite entry clones potentially adaptable to any model system. An inventory of entry clones and destination vectors for Gateway MultiSite cloning has also been established (www.gatewaymultisite.org).

  9. Characterization of cDNA clones encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: The mature protein retains its signal sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, C.; Richter, R.J.; Humbert, R.; Omiecinski, C.J.; Furlong, C.E. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Chapline, C.; Crabb, J.W. (W.Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (United States))

    1991-10-22

    Serum paraoxonase hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. High serum paraoxonase levels appear to protect against the neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus substrates of this enzyme. The amino acid sequence accounting for 42% of rabbit paraoxonase was determined. From these data, two oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen a rabbit liver cDNA library. Human paraoxonase clones were isolated from a liver cDNA library by using the rabbit cDNA as a hybridization probe. Inserts from three of the longest clones were sequenced, and one full-length clone contained an open reading frame encoding 355 amino acids, four less than the rabbit paraoxonase protein. Amino-terminal sequences derived from purified rabbit and human paraoxonase proteins suggested that the signal sequence is retained, with the exception of the initiator methionine residue. Characterization of the rabbit and human paraoxonase cDNA clones confirms that the signal sequences are not processed, except for the N-terminal methionine residue. The rabbit and human cDNA clones demonstrate striking nucleotide and deduced amino acid similarities (greater than 85%), suggesting an important metabolic role and constraints on the evolution of this protein.

  10. Successful application of FTA Classic Card technology and use of bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase for large-scale field sampling and cloning of complete maize streak virus genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owor, Betty E; Shepherd, Dionne N; Taylor, Nigel J; Edema, Richard; Monjane, Adérito L; Thomson, Jennifer A; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2007-03-01

    Leaf samples from 155 maize streak virus (MSV)-infected maize plants were collected from 155 farmers' fields in 23 districts in Uganda in May/June 2005 by leaf-pressing infected samples onto FTA Classic Cards. Viral DNA was successfully extracted from cards stored at room temperature for 9 months. The diversity of 127 MSV isolates was analysed by PCR-generated RFLPs. Six representative isolates having different RFLP patterns and causing either severe, moderate or mild disease symptoms, were chosen for amplification from FTA cards by bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase using the TempliPhi system. Full-length genomes were inserted into a cloning vector using a unique restriction enzyme site, and sequenced. The 1.3-kb PCR product amplified directly from FTA-eluted DNA and used for RFLP analysis was also cloned and sequenced. Comparison of cloned whole genome sequences with those of the original PCR products indicated that the correct virus genome had been cloned and that no errors were introduced by the phi29 polymerase. This is the first successful large-scale application of FTA card technology to the field, and illustrates the ease with which large numbers of infected samples can be collected and stored for downstream molecular applications such as diversity analysis and cloning of potentially new virus genomes.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding fibrinolytic enzyme-3 from earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guo-Qing; Yuan, Xiao-Ling; Shan, Ya-Jun; Zhao, Zhen-Hu; Chen, Jia-Pei; Cong, Yu-Wen

    2004-04-01

    The earthworm fibrinolytic enzyme-3 (EFE-3, GenBank accession No: AY438622), from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, is a component of earthworm fibrinolytic enzymes. In this study, cDNA encoding the EFE-3 was cloned by RT-PCR. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 741 nucleotides, which encoded a deduced protein of 247 amino acid residues, including signal sequences. EFE-3 showed a high degree of homology to earthworm (Lumbricus rebullus) proteases F-III-1, F-III-2, and bovine trypsin. The recombinant EFE-3 was expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies, and the gene encoding the native form of EFE-3 was expressed in COS-7 cells in the medium. Both the refolding product of inclusion bodies and the secreted protease could dissolve the artificial fibrin plate.

  12. Cloning and comparative mapping of a human chromosome 4-specific alpha satellite DNA sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Aiuto, L.; Marzella, R.; Archidiacono, N.; Rocchi, M. (Universita di Bari (Italy)); Antonacci, R. (Instituto Anatomia Umana Normale, Modena (Italy))

    1993-11-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized two human alphoid DNA clones: p4n1/4 and pZ4.1. Clone p4n1/4 identifies specifically the centromeric region of chromosome 4; pZ4.1 recognizes a subset of alphoid DNA shared by chromosomes 4 and 9. The specificity was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments on metaphase spreads and Southern blotting analysis of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids. The genomic organization of both subsets was also investigated. Comparative mapping on chimpanzee and gorilla chromosomes was performed. p4n1/4 hybridizes to chimpanzee chromosomes 11 and 13, homologs of human chromosomes 9 and 2q, respectively. On gorilla metaphase spreads, p4n1/4 hybridizes exclusively to the centromeric region of chromosome 19, partially homologous to human chromosome 17. No hybridization signal was detected on chromosome 3 of both chimpanzee and gorilla, in both species homolog of human chromosome 4. Identical comparative mapping results were obtained using pZ4.1 probe, although the latter recognizes an alphoid subset distinct from the one recognized by p4n1/4. The implications of these results in the evolution of centromeric regions of primate chromosomes are discussed. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Mutation Processes in 293-Based Clones Overexpressing the DNA Cytosine Deaminase APOBEC3B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica K Akre

    Full Text Available Molecular, cellular, and clinical studies have combined to demonstrate a contribution from the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B to the overall mutation load in breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, ovarian, and other cancer types. However, the complete landscape of mutations attributable to this enzyme has yet to be determined in a controlled human cell system. We report a conditional and isogenic system for A3B induction, genomic DNA deamination, and mutagenesis. Human 293-derived cells were engineered to express doxycycline-inducible A3B-eGFP or eGFP constructs. Cells were subjected to 10 rounds of A3B-eGFP exposure that each caused 80-90% cell death. Control pools were subjected to parallel rounds of non-toxic eGFP exposure, and dilutions were done each round to mimic A3B-eGFP induced population fluctuations. Targeted sequencing of portions of TP53 and MYC demonstrated greater mutation accumulation in the A3B-eGFP exposed pools. Clones were generated and microarray analyses were used to identify those with the greatest number of SNP alterations for whole genome sequencing. A3B-eGFP exposed clones showed global increases in C-to-T transition mutations, enrichments for cytosine mutations within A3B-preferred trinucleotide motifs, and more copy number aberrations. Surprisingly, both control and A3B-eGFP clones also elicited strong mutator phenotypes characteristic of defective mismatch repair. Despite this additional mutational process, the 293-based system characterized here still yielded a genome-wide view of A3B-catalyzed mutagenesis in human cells and a system for additional studies on the compounded effects of simultaneous mutation mechanisms in cancer cells.

  14. SMART amplification combined with cDNA size fractionation in order to obtain large full-length clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poustka Annemarie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background cDNA libraries are widely used to identify genes and splice variants, and as a physical resource for full-length clones. Conventionally-generated cDNA libraries contain a high percentage of 5'-truncated clones. Current library construction methods that enrich for full-length mRNA are laborious, and involve several enzymatic steps performed on mRNA, which renders them sensitive to RNA degradation. The SMART technique for full-length enrichment is robust but results in limited cDNA insert size of the library. Results We describe a method to construct SMART full-length enriched cDNA libraries with large insert sizes. Sub-libraries were generated from size-fractionated cDNA with an average insert size of up to seven kb. The percentage of full-length clones was calculated for different size ranges from BLAST results of over 12,000 5'ESTs. Conclusions The presented technique is suitable to generate full-length enriched cDNA libraries with large average insert sizes in a straightforward and robust way. The representation of full-coding clones is high also for large cDNAs (70%, 4–10 kb, when high-quality starting mRNA is used.

  15. Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones coding for cholinesterase from fetal human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prody, C.A.; Zevin-Sonkin, D.; Gnatt, A.; Goldberg, O.; Soreq, H.

    1987-01-01

    To study the primary structure and regulation of human cholinesterases, oligodeoxynucleotide probes were prepared according to a consensus peptide sequence present in the active site of both human serum pseudocholinesterase and Torpedo electric organ true acetylcholinesterase. Using these probes, the authors isolated several cDNA clones from λgt10 libraries of fetal brain and liver origins. These include 2.4-kilobase cDNA clones that code for a polypeptide containing a putative signal peptide and the N-terminal, active site, and C-terminal peptides of human BtChoEase, suggesting that they code either for BtChoEase itself or for a very similar but distinct fetal form of cholinesterase. In RNA blots of poly(A) + RNA from the cholinesterase-producing fetal brain and liver, these cDNAs hybridized with a single 2.5-kilobase band. Blot hybridization to human genomic DNA revealed that these fetal BtChoEase cDNA clones hybridize with DNA fragments of the total length of 17.5 kilobases, and signal intensities indicated that these sequences are not present in many copies. Both the cDNA-encoded protein and its nucleotide sequence display striking homology to parallel sequences published for Torpedo AcChoEase. These finding demonstrate extensive homologies between the fetal BtChoEase encoded by these clones and other cholinesterases of various forms and species

  16. Heteroduplex DNA mismatch repair system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: cloning and expression of the hexA gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balganesh, T.S.; Lacks, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Mutations affecting heteroduplex DNA mismatch repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae were localized in two genes, hexA and hexB, by fractionation of restriction fragments carrying mutant alleles. A fragment containing the hexA4 allele was cloned in the S. pneumoniae cloning system, and the hexA + allele was introduced into the recombinant plasmid by chromosomal facilitation of plasmid transfer. Subcloning localized the functional hexA gene to a 3.5-kilobase segment of the cloned pneumococcal DNA. The product of this gene was shown in Bacillus subtilis minicells to be a polypeptide with an M/sub r/ of 86,000. Two mutant alleles of hexA showed partial expression of the repair system when present in multicopy plasmids. A model for mismatch repair, which depends on the interaction of two protein components to recognize the mismatched base pair and excise a segment of DNA between strand breaks surrounding the mismatch, is proposed

  17. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte β-spectrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prchal, J.T.; Morley, B.J.; Yoon, S.H.; Coetzer, T.L.; Palek, J.; Conboy, J.G.; Kan, Y.W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrin is an important structural component of the membrane skeleton that underlies and supports the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It is composed of nonidentical α (M/sub r/ 240,000) and β (M/sub r/ 220,000) subunits, each of which contains multiple homologous 106-amino acid segments. The authors report here the isolation and characterization of a human erythroid-specific β-spectrin cDNA clone that encodes parts of the β-9 through β-12 repeat segments. This cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to assign the β-spectrin gene to human chromosome 14 and to begin molecular analysis of the gene and its mRNA transcripts. RNA transfer blot analysis showed that the reticulocyte β-spectrin mRNA is 7.8 kilobases in length. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) within the β-spectrin gene locus. The isolation of human spectrin cDNA probes and the identification of closely linked RFLPs will facilitate analysis of mutant spectrin genes causing congenital hemolytic anemias associated with quantitative and qualitative spectrin abnormalities

  18. Nucleotide sequence and infectious cDNA clone of the L1 isolate of Pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, B S; Johansen, I E

    2001-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus isolate L1 has been determined from cloned virus cDNA. The PSbMV L1 genome is 9895 nucleotides in length excluding the poly(A) tail. Computer analysis of the sequence revealed a single long open reading frame (ORF) of 9594 nucleotides. The ORF potentially encodes a polyprotein of 3198 amino acids with a deduced Mr of 363537. Nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites were identified by analogy to consensus sequences and genome arrangement in other potyviruses. Two full-length cDNA clones, p35S-L1-4 and p35S-L1-5, were assembled under control of an enhanced 35S promoter and nopaline synthase terminator. Clone p35S-L1-4 was constructed with four introns and p35S-L1-5 with five introns inserted in the cDNA. Clone p35S-L1-4 was unstable in Escherichia coli often resulting in amplification of plasmids with deletions. Clone p35S-L1-5 was stable and apparently less toxic to Escherichia coli resulting in larger bacterial colonies and higher plasmid yield. Both clones were infectious upon mechanical inoculation of plasmid DNA on susceptible pea cultivars Fjord, Scout, and Brutus. Eight pea genotypes resistant to L1 virus were also resistant to the cDNA derived L1 virus. Both native PSbMV L1 and the cDNA derived virus infected Chenopodium quinoa systemically giving rise to characteristic necrotic lesions on uninoculated leaves.

  19. An efficient marker-free vector for clean gene transfer into plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A marker-free vector, pBINMF, for clean gene transfer was constructed based on the binary vector pBINPLUS. Vector pBINMF, carrying only a multiple cloning site (MCS) between the left and the right T-DNA border, was suitable to directly generate marker-free transgenic plants (MFTPs) without any vector sequences ...

  20. cDNA clone for the alpha-chain of human beta-hexosaminidase: deficiency of alpha-chain mRNA in Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerowitz, R; Proia, R L

    1984-09-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone containing sequences complementary to mRNA encoding the alpha-chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. RNA from a human lung fibroblast strain, IMR90, was enriched for beta-hexosaminidase messenger by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase A. This preparation was used to construct cDNA recombinant plasmids by the Okayama-Berg vector primer procedure. After transformation of Escherichia coli, 385 ampicillin-resistant colonies were obtained, 44 of which contained inserts in the plasmid DNA. Differential hybridization, with cDNA probes prepared from polysomal RNA enriched or depleted for beta-hexosaminidase messenger, was used to screen the recombinant plasmids for sequences encoding beta-hexosaminidase. One clone, p beta H alpha-1, containing a cDNA insert of approximately equal to 240 base pairs, was identified in this manner. The plasmid hybrid-selected a messenger from placental RNA that programed a translation system to synthesize the alpha-chain of beta-hexosaminidase. p beta H alpha-1 hybridized to an mRNA of approximately equal to 1.9 kilobases in preparations enriched separately in messenger for the alpha-chain or for both alpha- and beta-chains (by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against isolated alpha-chain or against beta-hexosaminidase A, respectively). It did not hybridize to an RNA preparation enriched for messenger of beta-chain by immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase B. The 1.9-kilobase mRNA was observed in poly(A)+ RNA preparations from control fibroblasts and from fibroblasts of a Tay-Sachs patient that synthesize an altered alpha-chain; however, it was not seen in similar preparations from fibroblasts of four Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs patients.

  1. DNA regulatory motif selection based on support vector machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conserved DNA sequences are essential to investigate the regulation and expression of nearby genes. The conserved regions can interact with certain proteins and can potentially determine the transcription speed and amount of the corresponding mRNA in gene replication process. In this paper, motifs of coexpressed ...

  2. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... on the most salient vectors, and this works well, but many images contain a plethora of vectors, which makes their structure quite different from the linguistic transitivity structures with which Kress and van Leeuwen have compared ‘narrative’ images. It can also be asked whether facial expression vectors...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  3. Divergence of host range and biological properties between natural isolate and full-length infectious cDNA clone of the Beet mild yellowing virus 2ITB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elodie; Brault, Véronique; Klein, Delphine; Weyens, Guy; Lefèbvre, Marc; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Gilmer, David

    2014-01-01

    Plant infection by poleroviruses is restricted to phloem tissues, preventing any classical leaf rub inoculation with viral RNA or virions. Efficient virus inoculation to plants is achieved by viruliferous aphids that acquire the virus by feeding on infected plants. The use of promoter-driven infectious cDNA is an alternative means to infect plants and allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. Using Beet mild yellowing virus isolate 2ITB (BMYV-2ITB), we produced a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the virus (named BMYV-EK) placed under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters. Infectivity of the engineered BMYV-EK virus was assayed in different plant species and compared with that of the original virus. We showed that in vitro- or in planta-derived transcripts were infectious in protoplasts and in whole plants. Importantly, the natural aphid vector Myzus persicae efficiently transmitted the viral progeny produced in infected plants. By comparing agroinoculation and aphid infection in a host range assay, we showed that the engineered BMYV-EK virus displayed a similar host range to BMYV-2ITB, except for Nicotiana benthamiana, which proved to be resistant to systemic infection with BMYV-EK. Finally, both the BMYV-EK P0 and the full-length clone were able to strongly interfere with post-transcriptional gene silencing. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Growth hormone and prolactin in Andrias davidianus: cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Meng, Zining; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaochun; Lu, Danqi; Huang, Junhai; Lin, Haoran

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is one of the largest and 'living fossil' species of amphibian. To obtain genetic information for this species, the cDNAs encoding growth hormone (adGH) and prolactin (adPRL) were cloned from a pituitary cDNA library. The isolated adGH cDNA consisted of 864 bp and encoded a propeptide of 215 amino acids, while the cDNA of adPRL was 1106 bp in length and encoded a putative peptide of 229 amino acids. Expression of the GH and PRL mRNA was only detected in the pituitary. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the isolated pituitary hormone sequences using maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining algorithms. The clustering results are similar to that based on the morphological characteristics or the rRNA genes, which indicate that the two orders (Anura and Caudata) of amphibian were monophyletic, and that A. davidianus was diverged early in the Caudate clade. These results indicated that both the GH and PRL sequence might be useful to study the phylogenies of relatively moderate evolved groups.

  5. Purification, characterisation and cDNA cloning of an antimicrobial peptide from Macadamia integrifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, J P; Goulter, K C; Green, J L; Harrison, S J; Manners, J M

    1997-03-15

    An antimicrobial peptide with no significant amino acid sequence similarity to previously described peptides has been isolated from the nut kernels of Macadcamia integrifolia. The peptide, termed MiAMP1, is highly basic with an estimated pI of 10.1, a mass of 8.1 kDa and contains 76 amino acids including 6 cysteine residues. A cDNA clone containing the entire coding region corresponding to the peptide was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA indicated a 26-amino-acid signal peptide at the N-terminus of the preprotein. Purified MiAMP1 inhibited the growth of a variety of fungal, oomycete and gram-positive bacterial phytopathogens in vitro. Some pathogens exhibited close to 100% inhibition in less than 1 microM peptide (5 microg/ml). Antimicrobial activity was diminished against most, but not all, microbes in the presence of calcium and potassium chloride salts (1 mM and 50 mM, respectively). MiAMP1 was active against bakers yeast, was inactive against Escherichia coli and was non-toxic to plant and mammalian cells. Analysis of genomic DNA indicated that MiAMP1 was encoded on a single copy gene containing no introns. The MiAMP1 gene may prove useful in genetic manipulations to increase disease resistance in transgenic plants.

  6. Chitosan-Graft-Polyethylenimine/DNA Nanoparticles as Novel Non-Viral Gene Delivery Vectors Targeting Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lulu; Zhao, Huiqing

    2014-01-01

    The development of safe and efficient gene carriers is the key to the clinical success of gene therapy. The present study was designed to develop and evaluate the chitosan-graft-polyethylenimine (CP)/DNA nanoparticles as novel non-viral gene vectors for gene therapy of osteoarthritis. The CP/DNA nanoparticles were produced through a complex coacervation of the cationic polymers with pEGFP after grafting chitosan (CS) with a low molecular weight (Mw) PEI (Mw = 1.8 kDa). Particle size and zeta potential were related to the weight ratio of CP:DNA, where decreases in nanoparticle size and increases in surface charge were observed as CP content increased. The buffering capacity of CP was significantly greater than that of CS. The transfection efficiency of CP/DNA nanoparticles was similar with that of the Lipofectamine™ 2000, and significantly higher than that of CS/DNA and PEI (25 kDa)/DNA nanoparticles. The transfection efficiency of the CP/DNA nanoparticles was dependent on the weight ratio of CP:DNA (w/w). The average cell viability after the treatment with CP/DNA nanoparticles was over 90% in both chondrocytes and synoviocytes, which was much higher than that of PEI (25 kDa)/DNA nanoparticles. The CP copolymers efficiently carried the pDNA inside chondrocytes and synoviocytes, and the pDNA was detected entering into nucleus. These results suggest that CP/DNA nanoparticles with improved transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity might be a safe and efficient non-viral vector for gene delivery to both chondrocytes and synoviocytes. PMID:24392152

  7. A set of dual promoter vectors for high throughput cloning, screening, and protein expression in eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems from a single plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinah, Namita; Williams, Charlotte A; Piper, Robert C; Shields, S Brookhart

    2012-08-23

    The ability to produce the same recombinant protein in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells offers many experimental opportunities. However, the cloning of the same gene into multiple plasmids is required, which is time consuming, laborious and still may not produce soluble, stable protein in sufficient quantities. We have developed a set of expression vectors that allows for ligation-independent cloning and rapid functional screening for protein expression in both E. coli and S. cerevisiae. A set of expression vectors was made that can express the same open reading frame in E. coli (via the T7 phage promoter) and in S. cerevisiae (via the CUP1 or MET25 promoter). These plasmids also contain the essential elements for replication and selection in both cell types and have several advantages: they allow for cloning of genes by homologous recombination in yeast, protein expression can be determined before plasmid isolation and sequencing, and a GST-fusion tag is added to aid in soluble expression and purification. We have also included a TEV recognition site that allows for the specific cleavage of the fusion proteins to yield native proteins. The dual promoter vectors can be used for rapid cloning, expression, and purification of target proteins from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems with the ability to study post-translation modifications.

  8. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of TGP1, a novel G-DNA binding protein from Tetrahymena thermophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Q; Schierer, T; Kang, S G; Henderson, E

    1998-01-01

    G-DNA, a polymorphic family of four-stranded DNA structures, has been proposed to play roles in a variety of biological processes including telomere function, meiotic recombination and gene regulation. Here we report the purification and cloning of TGP1, a G-DNA specific binding protein from Tetrahymena thermophila. TGP1 was purified by three-column chromatographies, including a G-DNA affinity column. Two major proteins (approximately 80 and approximately 40 kDa) were present in the most high...

  9. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  10. Assessing genetic structure and diversity of airborne bacterial communities by DNA fingerprinting and 16S rDNA clone library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Pierre-Alain; Lejon, David P. H.; Carvalho, Esmeralda; Bizet, Karine; Lemanceau, Philippe; Ranjard, Lionel; Mougel, Christophe

    The density, genetic structure and diversity of airborne bacterial communities were assessed in the outdoor atmosphere. Two air samples were collected on the same location (north of France) at two dates (March 2003 (sample1) and May 2003 (sample 2)). Molecular culture -independent methods were used to characterise airborne bacterial communities regardless of the cell culturability. The automated-ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (A-RISA) was performed to characterise the community structure in each sample. For both sampling dates, complex A-RISA patterns were observed suggesting a highly diverse community structure, comparable to those found in soil, water or sediment environments. Furthermore, differences in the genetic structure of airborne bacterial communities were observed between samples 1 and 2 suggesting an important variability in time. A clone library of 16S rDNA directly amplified from air DNA of sample 1 was constructed and sequenced to analyse the community composition and diversity. The Proteobacteria group had the greatest representation (60%), with bacteria belonging to the different subdivisions α- (19%), β-(21%), γ-(12%) and δ-(8%). Firmicute and Actinobacteria were also well represented with 14% and 12%, respectively. Most of the identified bacteria are known to be commonly associated with soil or plant environments suggesting that the atmosphere is mainly colonised transiently by microorganisms from local sources, depending on air fluxes.

  11. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for human sphingolipid activator protein 1 precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewji, N.N.; Wenger, D.A.; O'Brien, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding prepro-sphingolipid activator protein 1 (SAP-1) were isolated from a λ gt11 human hepatoma expression library using polyclonal antibodies. These had inserts of ≅ 2 kilobases (λ-S-1.2 and λ-S-1.3) and both were both homologous with a previously isolated clone (λ-S-1.1) for mature SAP-1. The authors report here the nucleotide sequence of the longer two EcoRI fragments of S-1.2 and S-1.3 that were not the same and the derived amino acid sequences of mature SAP-1 and its prepro form. The open reading frame encodes 19 amino acids, which are colinear with the amino-terminal sequence of mature SAP-1, and extends far beyond the predicted carboxyl terminus of mature SAP-1, indicating extensive carboxyl-terminal processing. The nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding prepro-SAP-1 includes 1449 bases from the assigned initiation codon ATG at base-pair 472 to the stop codon TGA at base-pair 1921. The first 23 amino acids coded after the initiation ATG are characteristic of a signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass for a polypeptide encoded by 1449 bases is ≅ 53 kDa, in keeping with the reported value for pro-SAP-1. The data indicate that after removal of the signal peptide mature SAP-1 is generated by removing an additional 7 amino acids from the amino terminus and ≅ 373 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus. One potential glycosylation site was previously found in mature SAP-1. Three additional potential glycosylation sites are present in the processed carboxyl-terminal polypeptide, which they designate as P-2

  12. Self-entanglement of long linear DNA vectors using transient non-B-DNA attachment points: a new concept for improvement of non-viral therapeutic gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2012-05-01

    The cell-specific and long-term expression of therapeutic transgenes often requires a full array of native gene control elements including distal enhancers, regulatory introns and chromatin organisation sequences. The delivery of such extended gene expression modules to human cells can be accomplished with non-viral high-molecular-weight DNA vectors, in particular with several classes of linear DNA vectors. All high-molecular-weight DNA vectors are susceptible to damage by shear stress, and while for some of the vectors the harmful impact of shear stress can be minimised through the transformation of the vectors to compact topological configurations by supercoiling and/or knotting, linear DNA vectors with terminal loops or covalently attached terminal proteins cannot be self-compacted in this way. In this case, the only available self-compacting option is self-entangling, which can be defined as the folding of single DNA molecules into a configuration with mutual restriction of molecular motion by the individual segments of bent DNA. A negatively charged phosphate backbone makes DNA self-repulsive, so it is reasonable to assume that a certain number of 'sticky points' dispersed within DNA could facilitate the entangling by bringing DNA segments into proximity and by interfering with the DNA slipping away from the entanglement. I propose that the spontaneous entanglement of vector DNA can be enhanced by the interlacing of the DNA with sites capable of mutual transient attachment through the formation of non-B-DNA forms, such as interacting cruciform structures, inter-segment triplexes, slipped-strand DNA, left-handed duplexes (Z-forms) or G-quadruplexes. It is expected that the non-B-DNA based entanglement of the linear DNA vectors would consist of the initial transient and co-operative non-B-DNA mediated binding events followed by tight self-ensnarement of the vector DNA. Once in the nucleoplasm of the target human cells, the DNA can be disentangled by type II

  13. Molecular and immunological characterization of a DNA-launched yellow fever virus 17D infectious clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaohong; Dalebout, Tim J; Lukashevich, Igor S; Bredenbeek, Peter J; Franco, David

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV)-17D is an empirically developed, highly effective live-attenuated vaccine that has been administered to human beings for almost a century. YFV-17D has stood as a paradigm for a successful viral vaccine, and has been exploited as a potential virus vector for the development of recombinant vaccines against other diseases. In this study, a DNA-launched YFV-17D construct (pBeloBAC-FLYF) was explored as a new modality to the standard vaccine to combine the commendable features of both DNA vaccine and live-attenuated viral vaccine. The DNA-launched YFV-17D construct was characterized extensively both in cell culture and in mice. High titres of YFV-17D were generated upon transfection of the DNA into cells, whereas a mutant with deletion in the capsid-coding region (pBeloBAC-YF/ΔC) was restricted to a single round of infection, with no release of progeny virus. Homologous prime-boost immunization of AAD mice with both pBeloBAC-FLYF and pBeloBAC-YF/ΔC elicited specific dose-dependent cellular immune response against YFV-17D. Vaccination of A129 mice with pBeloBAC-FLYF resulted in the induction of YFV-specific neutralizing antibodies in all vaccinated subjects. These promising results underlined the potential of the DNA-launched YFV both as an alternative to standard YFV-17D vaccination and as a vaccine platform for the development of DNA-based recombinant YFV vaccines. © 2015.

  14. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...... should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined...

  15. A cDNA Clone-Launched Platform for High-Yield Production of Inactivated Zika Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A purified inactivated vaccine (PIV using the Zika virus (ZIKV Puerto Rico strain PRVABC59 showed efficacy in monkeys, and is currently in a phase I clinical trial. High-yield manufacture of this PIV is essential for its development and vaccine access. Here we report an infectious cDNA clone-launched platform to maximize its yield. A single NS1 protein substitution (K265E was identified to increase ZIKV replication on Vero cells (a cell line approved for vaccine production for both Cambodian FSS13025 and Puerto Rico PRVABC59 strains. The NS1 mutation did not affect viral RNA synthesis, but significantly increased virion assembly through an increased interaction between NS1 and NS2A (a known regulator of flavivirus assembly. The NS1 mutant virus retained wild-type virulence in the A129 mouse model, but decreased its competence to infect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To further increase virus yield, we constructed an infectious cDNA clone of the clinical trial PIV strain PRVABC59 containing three viral replication-enhancing mutations (NS1 K265E, prM H83R, and NS3 S356F. The mutant cDNA clone produced >25-fold more ZIKV than the wild-type parent on Vero cells. This cDNA clone-launched manufacture platform has the advantages of higher virus yield, shortened manufacture time, and minimized chance of contamination.

  16. Cloning and functional characterization of a testicular TSH receptor cDNA from the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, H F; Bogerd, J.

    A cDNA encoding a putative thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (cfTSH-R) was cloned from the testis of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The cfTSH-R showed the highest amino acid sequence identity with the TSH-Rs of other fish species. In addition, an insertion of approximately 50 amino

  17. Cloning of the human carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier cDNA and identification of the molecular defect in a patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, M.; Iacobazzi, V.; IJlst, L.; Savelkoul, P.; Ruitenbeek, W.; van den Heuvel, L.; Indiveri, C.; Smeitink, J.; Trijbels, F.; Wanders, R.; Palmieri, F.

    1997-01-01

    The carnitine-acylcarnitine carrier (CAC) catalyzes the translocation of long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. We cloned and sequenced the human CAC cDNA, which has an open reading frame of 903 nucleotides. Northern blot studies revealed different expression levels of CAC

  18. cDNA cloning and transcriptional controlling of a novel low dose radiation-induced gene and its function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Pingkun; Sui Jianli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To clone a novel low dose radiation-induced gene (LRIGx) and study its function as well as its transcriptional changes after irradiation. Methods: Its cDNA was obtained by DDRT-PCR and RACE techniques. Northern blot hybridization was used to investigate the gene transcription. Bioinformatics was employed to analysis structure and function of this gene. Results: LRIGx cDNA was cloned. The sequence of LRIGx was identical to a DNA clone located in human chromosome 20 q 11.2-12 Bioinformatics analysis predicted an encoded protein with a conserved helicase domain. Northern analysis revealed a ∼8.5 kb transcript which was induced after 0.2 Gy as well as 0.02 Gy irradiation, and the transcript level was increased 5 times at 4 h after 0.2 Gy irradiation. The induced level of LRIGx transcript by 2.0 Gy high dose was lower than by 0.2 Gy. Conclusion: A novel low dose radiation-induced gene has been cloned. It encodes a protein with a conserved helicase domain that could involve in DNA metabolism in the cellular process of radiation response

  19. Production of glycosylated physiologically normal human α1-antitrypsin by mouse fibroblasts modified by insertion of a human α1-antitrypsin cDNA using a retroviral vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garver, R.I. Jr.; Chytil, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1987-01-01

    α 2 -Antitrypsin (α 1 AT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder characterized by reduced serum levels of α 1 AT, resulting in destruction of the lower respiratory tract by neutrophil elastase. As an approach to augment α 1 AT levels in this disorder with physiologically normal human α 1 AT, the authors have integrated a full-length normal human α 1 AT cDNA into the genome of mouse fibroblasts. To accomplish this, the retroviral vector N2 was modified by inserting the simian virus 40 early promoter followed by the α 1 AT cDNA. Southern analysis demonstrated that the intact cDNA was present in the genome of selected clones of the transfected murine fibroblasts psi2 and infected NIH 3T3. The clones produced three mRNA transcripts containing human α 1 AT sequences, secreted an α 1 AT molecule recognized by an anti-human α 1 AT antibody, with the same molecular mass as normal human α 1 AT and that complexed with and inhibited human neutrophil elastase. The psi2 produced α 1 AT was glycosylated, and when infused intravenously into mice, it had a serum half-life similar to normal α 1 AT purified from human plasma and markedly longer than that of nonglycosylated human α 1 AT cDNA-directed yeast-produced α 1 AT. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a retroviral vector to insert the normal human α 1 AT cDNA into non-α 1 AT-producing cells, resulting in the synthesis and secretion of physiologically normal α 1 AT

  20. Restriction-based Multiple-fragment Assembly Strategy to Avoid Random Mutation during Long cDNA Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shang; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Kai; Jiao, Peng; Mo, Lihua; Yang, Xiaoxu; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Wei, Chenxi; Xiang, Shuanglin

    2015-01-01

    Long fragment cloning is a challenge for its difficulty in accurate amplifying and tendency to get unwanted mutation. Here we discuss Restriction-based Multiple-fragment Assembly Strategy's advantages and limitations. In this strategy, rather than PCR amplifying the entire coding sequence (CDS) at one time, we amplified and sequenced smaller fragments which are shorter than 1.5kb spanning the CDS. After that, the sequence-proved fragments were assembled by digestion-ligation cloning to the target vector. We test its universality in our script programmed in Python. Our data shows that, among the entire human and mouse CDS, at least 70% of long CDS cloning will benefit from this strategy.

  1. The use of Listeria monocytogenes as a DNA delivery vector for cancer gene therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that lyses the phagosomal vacuole of infected cells, proliferates in the host cell cytoplasm and can actively enter adjacent cells. The pathogen is therefore well suited to exploitation as a vector for the delivery of DNA to target cells as the lifecycle favors cellular targeting with vector amplification and the potential for cell-to-cell spread. We have recently demonstrated DNA transfer by L. monocytogenes in growing tumors in murine models. Our approach exploited an ampicillin sensitive stain of L. monocytogenes which can be lysed through systemic administration of ampicillin to facilitate release of plasmid DNA for expression by infected mammalian cells. Here, we discuss the implications of this technology and the potential for future improvements of the system.

  2. A functional cloning strategy, based on a binary PVX-expression vector, to isolate HR-inducing cDNAs of plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, F.L.W.; Luderer, R.; Gabriëls, S.H.E.J.; Westerink, N.; Lu, R.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    We have devised a novel, high-throughput functional cloning method to isolate cDNAs from plant pathogens of which the products elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Copy DNA, made from RNA isolated from the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum grown under nutrient-limiting conditions in

  3. Phenoloxidase from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus: cDNA cloning, expression and substrate specificity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingwei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Sun, Hongjuan; Chen, Zhong; Yang, Aifu; Gao, Shan; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Bei; Guan, Xiaoyan

    2014-02-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a crucial component of the immune system of echinoderms. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of PO (AjPO) was cloned from coelomocytes of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, which is 2508 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2040 bp encoding 679 amino acids. AjPO contains a transmembrane domain, and three Cu-oxidase domains with copper binding centers formed by 10 histidines, one cysteine and one methionine respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AjPO was clustered with laccase-type POs of invertebrates. Using the isolated membrane proteins as crude AjPO, the enzyme could catalyze the substrates catechol, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine and hydroquinone, but failed to oxidize tyrosine. The results described above collectively proved that AjPO was a membrane-binding laccase-type PO. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that AjPO mRNA was expressed in muscle, body wall, coelomocytes, tube feet, respiratory tree and intestine with the highest expression level in coelomocytes. AjPO could be significantly induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), Zymosan A and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C), suggesting AjPO is closely involved in the defense against the infection of bacteria, fungi and double-stranded RNA viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of a titering assay for lentiviral vectors utilizing direct extraction of DNA from transduced cells in microtiter plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele E Murphy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using lentiviral vector products in clinical applications requires an accurate method for measuring transduction titer. For vectors lacking a marker gene, quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to evaluate the number of vector DNA copies in transduced target cells, from which a transduction titer is calculated. Immune Design previously described an integration-deficient lentiviral vector pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis virus envelope for use in cancer immunotherapy (VP02, of the ZVex platform. Standard protocols for titering integration-competent lentiviral vectors employ commercial spin columns to purify vector DNA from transduced cells, but such columns are not optimized for isolation of extrachromosomal (nonintegrated DNA. Here, we describe a 96-well transduction titer assay in which DNA extraction is performed in situ in the transduction plate, yielding quantitative recovery of extrachromosomal DNA. Vector titers measured by this method were higher than when commercial spin columns were used for DNA isolation. Evaluation of the method's specificity, linear range, and precision demonstrate that it is suitable for use as a lot release assay to support clinical trials with VP02. Finally, the method is compatible with titering both integrating and nonintegrating lentiviral vectors, suggesting that it may be used to evaluate the transduction titer for any lentiviral vector.

  5. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for isolating clones from a complimentary DNA library in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Thor Einar; Stephenson, Sally; Xiao, Yin; Whitehead, Jon; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2014-10-01

    The sheep (Ovis aries) is favored by many musculoskeletal tissue engineering groups as a large animal model because of its docile temperament and ease of husbandry. The size and weight of sheep are comparable to humans, which allows for the use of implants and fixation devices used in human clinical practice. The construction of a complimentary DNA (cDNA) library can capture the expression of genes in both a tissue- and time-specific manner. cDNA libraries have been a consistent source of gene discovery ever since the technology became commonplace more than three decades ago. Here, we describe the construction of a cDNA library using cells derived from sheep bones based on the pBluescript cDNA kit. Thirty clones were picked at random and sequenced. This led to the identification of a novel gene, C12orf29, which our initial experiments indicate is involved in skeletal biology. We also describe a polymerase chain reaction-based cDNA clone isolation method that allows the isolation of genes of interest from a cDNA library pool. The techniques outlined here can be applied in-house by smaller tissue engineering groups to generate tools for biomolecular research for large preclinical animal studies and highlights the power of standard cDNA library protocols to uncover novel genes.

  6. Demonstration of paternal inheritance of plastids in Picea (Pinaceae). [Hybridization of cloned, sup 32 -P labeled, petunia cpDNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stine, M.

    1988-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) was purified from Picea glauca, P. pungens, P. engelmannii, and P. omorika, and was digested with several restriction endonucleases. Interspecific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of cpDNA were identified. The RFLPs were identified as cpDNA by the hybridization of cloned, {sup 32}-P labeled, petunia cpDNA to the polymorphic bands, and by the lack of hybridization of a cloned and labeled mtDNA probe from maize. Chloroplast DNA RFLPs that showed no intraspecific variation when examined across the natural range for each species, were used as markers to follow the inheritance of plastids in interspecific hybrids. The inheritance of plastids was determined for F{sub 1}-hybrids from reciprocal crosses of P. glauca and P. pungens, P. glauca and P. omorika, and F{sub 1}-hybrids of P. engelmannii x pungens. All 31 F{sub 1}-hybrids examined showed the cpDNA genotypes of the pollen parent, or the paternal species.

  7. 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality... scores Data detail Data name 5'-end sequences of budding yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality...or-capping method, the sequence quality score generated by the Phred software, and links to SGD, dbEST and U...es. FASTA format. Quality Phred's quality score About This Database Database Desc...g yeast full-length cDNA clones and quality scores - Budding yeast cDNA sequencing project | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Purification, cDNA Cloning, and Developmental Expression of the Nodule-Specific Uricase from Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Federico; Campos, Francisco; Padilla, Jaime; Bonneville, Jean-Marc; Enríquez, Consuelo; Caput, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Nodule-specific uricase (uricase II) from Phaseolus vulgaris L. was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods. Purification data indicated that uricase II is approximately 2% of the total soluble protein from mature nodules. Specific antiserum was raised and used to determine the developmental expression and for immunoselection of polysomes. Uricase II was antigenically detected early in nodule development, 2 to 3 days before nitrogen fixation. Uricase-encoding cDNA clones were isolated by hybridizing a nodule-specific pUC9 cDNA library with labeled mRNA from immunoselected polysomes and a 35,000 molecular weight uricase II-encoding cDNA from soybean. An homologous clone (pNF-UR07) was used to assess the expression pattern of the specific transcript during development. Northern-blot analysis indicated that uricase II mRNA is exclusively expressed in nodule tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16665575

  9. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of growth hormone cDNA of Neotropical freshwater fish Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Silva Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RT-PCR was used for amplifying Piaractus mesopotamicus growth hormone (GH cDNA obtained from mRNA extracted from pituitary cells. The amplified fragment was cloned and the complete cDNA sequence was determined. The cloned cDNA encompassed a sequence of 543 nucleotides that encoded a polypeptide of 178 amino acids corresponding to mature P. mesopotamicus GH. Comparison with other GH sequences showed a gap of 10 amino acids localized in the N terminus of the putative polypeptide of P. mesopotamicus. This same gap was also observed in other members of the family. Neighbor-joining tree analysis with GH sequences from fishes belonging to different taxonomic groups placed the P. mesopotamicus GH within the Otophysi group. To our knowledge, this is the first GH sequence of a Neotropical characiform fish deposited in GenBank.

  10. Characterization of cDNA clones for differentially expressed genes in embryos of dormant and nondormant Avena fatua L. caryopses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R R; Cranston, H J; Chaverra, M E; Dyer, W E

    1995-04-01

    The molecular regulation of seed dormancy was investigated using differential display to visualize and isolate cDNAs representing differentially expressed genes during early imbibition of dormant and nondormant Avena fatua L. embryos. Of about 3000 cDNA bands examined, 5 cDNAs hybridized with mRNAs exhibiting dormancy-associated expression patterns during the first 48 h of inhibition, while many more nondormancy-associated cDNAs were observed. Dormancy-associated clone AFD1 hybridized with a 1.5 kb mRNA barely detectable in dry dormant and nondormant embryos that became more abundant in dormant embryos after 24 h of imbibition. Clone AFD2 hybridized with two mRNAs, a 1.3 kb message constitutively expressed in dormant and nondormant embryos and a 0.9 kb message present at higher levels in dormant embryos after 3 h of imbibition. Nondormancy-associated clones AFN1, AFN2 and AFN3 hybridized with 1.5 kb, 1.7 kb and 1.1 kb mRNAs, respectively, that were more abundant in nondormant embryos during imbibition. Expression patterns of some mRNAs in dormant embryos induced to germinate by GA3 treatment were different than water controls, but were not identical to those observed in nondormant embryos. DNA sequence analysis revealed 76% sequence identity between clone AFN3 and a Citrus sinensis glutathione peroxidase-like cDNA, while significant sequence similarities with known genes were not found for other clones. Southern hybridization analyses showed that all clones represent low (1 to 4) copy number genes.

  11. Synthesis, cloning, and identification of DNA sequences complementary to mRNAs for alpha and beta subunits of thyrotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvakopoulos, N C; Monahan, J J; Kourides, I A

    1980-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA sequences were synthesized, by using as templates mRNA for alpha and beta subunits of thyrotropin purified from mouse thyrotrophic pituitary tumours and cloned in Escherichia coli RR1 by insertion in the Pst I site of the bacterial plasmid pBR322 by use of poly(dA) x poly(dT) homopolymeric extensions. Plasmids containing inserted cDNA sequences were selected by resistance to tetracycline and sensitivity to ampicillin; those containing thyrotropin cDNA sequences were ident...

  12. Alternative splicing of human elastin mRNA indicated by sequence analysis of cloned genomic and complementary DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indik, Z.; Yeh, H.; Ornstein-goldstein, N.; Sheppard, P.; Anderson, N.; Rosenbloom, J.C.; Peltonen, L.; Rosenbloom, J.

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A) + RNA, isolated from a single 7-mo fetal human aorta, was used to synthesize cDNA by the RNase H method, and the cDNA was inserted into λgt10. Recombinant phage containing elastin sequences were identified by hybridization with cloned, exon-containing fragments of the human elastin gene. Three clones containing inserts of 3.3, 2.7, and 2.3 kilobases were selected for further analysis. Three overlapping clones containing 17.8 kilobases of the human elastin gene were also isolated from genomic libraries. Complete sequence analysis of the six clones demonstrated that: (i) the cDNA encompassed the entire translated portion of the mRNA encoding 786 amino acids, including several unusual hydrophilic amino acid sequences not previously identified in porcine tropoelastin, (ii) exons encoding either hydrophobic or crosslinking domains in the protein alternated in the gene, and (iii) a great abundance of Alu repetitive sequences occurred throughout the introns. The data also indicated substantial alternative splicing of the mRNA. These results suggest the potential for significant variation in the precise molecular structure of the elastic fiber in the human population

  13. Characterization of a pollen-specific cDNA clone from Nicotiana tabacum expressed during microgametogenesis and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, K; Reijnen, W; van Aarssen, R; Kortstee, A; Spijkers, J; van Herpen, M; Schrauwen, J; Wullems, G

    1992-04-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone representing a gene specifically expressed in pollen. A cDNA library was constructed against mRNA from mature pollen of Nicotiana tabacum. It was screened differentially against cDNA from mRNA of leaf and of pollen. One clone, NTPc303, was further characterized. On northern blot this clone hybridizes to a transcript 2100 nucleotides in length. NTPc303 is abundant in pollen. Expression of the corresponding gene is restricted to pollen, because no other generative or vegetative tissue contains transcripts hybridizing to NTPc303. Expression of NTP303 is evolutionarily conserved: homologous transcripts are present in pollen from various plant species. The first NTP303 transcripts are detectable on northern blot at the early bi-nucleate stage and accumulate until the pollen has reached maturity. During germination and pollen tube growth in vitro new NTP303 transcripts appear. This transcription has been proved by northern blots as well as by pulse labelling experiments. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that NTPc303 has an open reading frame coding for a predicted protein of 62 kDa. This protein shares homology to ascorbate oxidase and other members of the blue copper oxidase family. A possible function for this clone during pollen germination is discussed.

  14. Cloning Should Be Simple: Escherichia coli DH5α-Mediated Assembly of Multiple DNA Fragments with Short End Homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ruth E.; Suzuki, Yo

    2015-01-01

    Numerous DNA assembly technologies exist for generating plasmids for biological studies. Many procedures require complex in vitro or in vivo assembly reactions followed by plasmid propagation in recombination-impaired Escherichia coli strains such as DH5α, which are optimal for stable amplification of the DNA materials. Here we show that despite its utility as a cloning strain, DH5α retains sufficient recombinase activity to assemble up to six double-stranded DNA fragments ranging in size from 150 bp to at least 7 kb into plasmids in vivo. This process also requires surprisingly small amounts of DNA, potentially obviating the need for upstream assembly processes associated with most common applications of DNA assembly. We demonstrate the application of this process in cloning of various DNA fragments including synthetic genes, preparation of knockout constructs, and incorporation of guide RNA sequences in constructs for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) genome editing. This consolidated process for assembly and amplification in a widely available strain of E. coli may enable productivity gain across disciplines involving recombinant DNA work. PMID:26348330

  15. Cloning and heterologous expression of the plasmid- encoded shsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMAJU

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... with 1.5% agar (Difco). Vector pGM-T (TIANGEN Biotechnology. Company Limited, Beijing, China) and pET-30a (Novagen,. Germany) were used for cloning and expressing the shsp gene, respectively. Pyrobest DNA Polymerase and common Taq DNA. Polymerase (TaKaRa, Dalian, China) were used for ...

  16. Generation of an Infectious Clone of a New Korean Isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Driven by Dual 35S and T7 Promoters in a Versatile Binary Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Hyun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The full-length sequence of a new isolate of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV from Korea was divergent, but most closely related to the Japanese isolate A4, at 84% nucleotide identity. The full-length cDNA of the Korean isolate of ACLSV was cloned into a binary vector downstream of the bacteriophage T7 RNA promoter and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Chenopodium quinoa was successfully infected using in vitro transcripts synthesized using the T7 promoter, detected at 20 days post inoculation (dpi, but did not produce obvious symptoms. Nicotiana occidentalis and C. quinoa were inoculated through agroinfiltration. At 32 dpi the infection rate was evaluated; no C. quinoa plants were infected by agroinfiltration, but infection of N. occidentalis was obtained.

  17. Cloning, sequencing, and in silico characterization of Omp 28 of Salmonella Typhi (strain MTCC 733) to develop r-DNA vaccine for typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anjani; Tamuly, Shantanu; Saxena, M K

    2012-07-01

    Typhoid is one of the most important diseases of human beings caused by Salmonella Typhi. There are many vaccine reported against Salmonella Typhi, but search for new candidate vaccine antigens is still going on because presently available vaccines have several limitations such as short-term immunity, high cost, and allergic reaction. Several approaches such as subunit vaccines, Vi polysaccharide, mutant vaccines, and r-DNA vaccines have been tested. r- DNA vaccines have shown some promising potential (targeted Omp). Omp 28 had shown very promising results and suggests that it should be used in further studies of animal protection against the disease. Cloning, Sequencing and In silico analysis of Omp 28 gene to develop r-DNA vaccine of S. Typhi. Omp 28 is made up of three identical subunits of 9.6 kDa showing PCR amplicon of 330 bp which has been cloned in the pJET vector. Recombinant clones has been sequenced, and data submitted to NCBI. Secondary structure was deduced by the Chou Fasman and Garnier method. The sequence of Omp 28 was studied for antigenic indexing, epitope mapping, and MHC mapping using various bioinformatics tool. The sequence of Omp 28 has been assigned accession no GQ 907044.1 by NCBI. Secondary structure has shown it has more alpha region. Hydrophobic plot and surface probability plot shows most amino acids are surface exposed which is a requirement to develop a r-DNA vaccine. Antigenic sites are located within surface exposed regions and eight antigenic determinants are present in Omp 28. On Prosite analysis of Protein shown two motifs i.e. anaphylatoxin domain signature motif at position 219-252 and other one was iron sulphur binding region signature motif at position 36-44. On epitope analysis total six major B cell epitopes were observed which can provoke humoral immunity. On T cell epitope mapping several major epitopes has been found in case of MHC class I and MHC class II. It indicates that Omp 28 can provoke cell mediated as well as

  18. Subcloning of DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhl, K

    2001-05-01

    The essence of recombinant DNA technology is the joining of two or more separate segments of DNA to generate a single DNA molecule that is capable of autonomous replication in a given host. The simplest constructions of hybrid DNA molecules involve the cloning of insert sequences into plasmid or bacteriophage cloning vectors. The insert sequences can derive from essentially any organism, and they may be isolated directly from the genome, from mRNA, or from previously cloned DNA segments (in which case, the procedure is termed subcloning). Alternatively, insert DNAs can be created directly by DNA synthesis. This unit provides protocols for the subcloning of DNA fragments and ligation of DNA fragments in gels.

  19. Cloning, DNA sequence, and expression of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c/sub 2/ gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, T.J.; McEwan, A.G.; Kaplan, S.

    1986-11-01

    The Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c/sub 2/ functions as a mobile electron carrier in both aerobic and photosynthetic electron transport chains. Synthetic deoxyoligonucleotide probes, based on the known amino acid sequence of this protein (M/sub r/ 14,000), were used to identify and clone the cytochrome c/sub 2/ structural gene (cycA). DNA sequence analysis of the cycA gene indicated the presence of a typical procaryotic 21-residue signal sequence, suggesting that this periplasmic protein is synthesized in vivo as a precursor. Synthesis of an immunoreactive cytochrome c/sub 2/ precursor protein (M/sub r/ 15,500) was observed in vitro when plasmids containing the cycA gene were used as templates in an R. sphaeroides coupled transcription-translation system. Approximately 500 base pairs of DNA upstream of the cycA gene was sufficient to allow expression of this gene product in vitro. Northern blot analysis with an internal cycA-specific probe identified at least two possibly monocistronic transcripts present in both different cellular levels and relative stoichiometries in steady-state cells grown under different physiological conditions. The ratio of the small (740-mucleotide) and large (920-nucleotide) cycA-specific mRNA species was dependent on cultural conditions but was not affected by light intensity under photosynthetic conditions. These results suggest that the increase in the cellular level of the cytochrome c/sub 2/ protein found in photosynthetic cells was due, in part, to increased transcription of the single-copy cyc operon.

  20. Size-selection of cDNA libraries for the cloning of cDNAs after suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, V; Fayad, T; Ndiaye, K; Nahé Diouf, M; Lussier, J G

    2003-07-01

    Here we describe the establishment of size-selected cDNA libraries for the cloning of full-length cDNAs that were initially identified by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology as being differentially expressed. First, the SSH-cDNA fragments were used as 32P-probes to verify their level and differential pattern of expression by virtual Northern and to establish their corresponding full-length cDNA size. Second, cDNAs were separated by size on agarose gels and used to construct size-selected cDNA plasmid libraries, which were then screened by colony hybridization with the SSH-cDNA fragments. We conclude that the described approach complements SSH technology by allowing efficient cloning and characterization of the corresponding full-length cDNA from any desired cell type or species. This approach will give researchers the ability to specifically target and study differentially expressed genes in an efficient manner for functional genomic studies.

  1. Efficient production of superior dumbbell-shaped DNA minimal vectors for small hairpin RNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Xiaoou; Tan, Kar Tong; Hang, Liting; Patzel, Volker

    2015-10-15

    Genetic therapy holds great promise for the treatment of inherited or acquired genetic diseases; however, its breakthrough is hampered by the lack of suitable gene delivery systems. Dumbbell-shaped DNA minimal vectors represent an attractive, safe alternative to the commonly used viral vectors which are fraught with risk, but dumbbell generation appears to be costly and time-consuming. We developed a new PCR-based method for dumbbell production which comprises only two steps. First, PCR amplification of the therapeutic expression cassette using chemically modified primers to form a ready-to-ligate DNA structure; and second, a highly efficient intramolecular ligation reaction. Compared with conventional strategies, the new method produces dumbbell vector/span>s more rapidly, with higher yields and purity, and at lower costs. In addition, such produced small hairpin RNA expressing dumbbells triggered superior target gene knockdown compared with conventionally produced dumbbells or plasmids. Our novel method is suitable for large-scale dumbbell production and can facilitate clinical applications of this vector system. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Efficient production of superior dumbbell-shaped DNA minimal vectors for small hairpin RNA expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Jiang, Xiaoou; Tan, Kar Tong; Hang, Liting; Patzel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Genetic therapy holds great promise for the treatment of inherited or acquired genetic diseases; however, its breakthrough is hampered by the lack of suitable gene delivery systems. Dumbbell-shaped DNA minimal vectors represent an attractive, safe alternative to the commonly used viral vectors which are fraught with risk, but dumbbell generation appears to be costly and time-consuming. We developed a new PCR-based method for dumbbell production which comprises only two steps. First, PCR amplification of the therapeutic expression cassette using chemically modified primers to form a ready-to-ligate DNA structure; and second, a highly efficient intramolecular ligation reaction. Compared with conventional strategies, the new method produces dumbbell vectors more rapidly, with higher yields and purity, and at lower costs. In addition, such produced small hairpin RNA expressing dumbbells triggered superior target gene knockdown compared with conventionally produced dumbbells or plasmids. Our novel method is suitable for large-scale dumbbell production and can facilitate clinical applications of this vector system. PMID:26068470

  3. Cloning, Characterization, and Functional Expression of Phospholipase Dα cDNA from Banana (Musa acuminate L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D (PLD plays a key role in adaptive responses of postharvest fruits. A cDNA clone of banana (Musa acuminate L. PLDα (MaPLDα was obtained by RT-PCR in this study. The MaPLDα gene contains a complete open reading frame (ORF encoding a 92-kDa protein composed of 832 amino acid residues and possesses a characteristic C2 domain and two catalytic H×K×××D (abbr. HKD motifs. The two HKD motifs are separated by 341 amino acid residues in the primary structure. Relatively higher PLD activity and expression of MaPLDα mRNA were detected in developing tissues compared to senescent or mature tissues in individual leaves, flower, stem, and fruit organs, respectively. The expression profile of PLDα mRNA in postharvest banana fruits at different temperatures was determined, and the MaPLDα mRNA reached the highest expression peak on day 5 at 25°C and on day 7 at 12°C. The results provide useful information for maintaining postharvest quality and extending the storage life of banana fruit.

  4. cDNA cloning of prophenoloxidase from the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and its activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspán, A; Huang, T S; Cerenius, L; Söderhäll, K

    1995-02-14

    Prophenoloxidase (proPO), an enzyme that is the terminal component of the so-called proPO activating system, a defense and recognition system in crustaceans and insects, has been purified and cloned from a crayfish blood cell cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence codes for a polypeptide with a mass of 80,732 Da, which is close to 76 kDa, the apparent mass of the purified enzyme. proPO contains two copper atoms, and two putative copper-binding sites were found in the deduced amino acid sequence. Sequence comparisons show that these putative copper-binding sites are similar to the corresponding sites in arthropod hemocyanins and also, although the sequence similarities are less extensive, similar to tyrosinases from vertebrates and microorganisms. The purified enzyme is a typical tyrosinase because it hydroxylates monophenols and oxidizes o-diphenols but does not oxidize p-diphenols. If a homogeneous preparation of crayfish proPO were incubated with a homogeneous sample of the proPO activating enzyme, a serine proteinase, the cleavage of proPO by this trypsin-like enzyme was found to occur between Arg-176 and Thr-177.

  5. Characterization of cucumber fermentation spoilage bacteria by enrichment culture and 16S rDNA cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidt, Fred; Medina, Eduardo; Wafa, Doria; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys; Franco, Wendy; Huang, Hsin-Yu; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Kim, Jae Ho

    2013-03-01

    Commercial cucumber fermentations are typically carried out in 40000 L fermentation tanks. A secondary fermentation can occur after sugars are consumed that results in the formation of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, concomitantly with the loss of lactic acid and an increase in pH. Spoilage fermentations can result in significant economic loss for industrial producers. The microbiota that result in spoilage remain incompletely defined. Previous studies have implicated yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridia as having a role in spoilage fermentations. We report that Propionibacterium and Pectinatus isolates from cucumber fermentation spoilage converted lactic acid to propionic acid, increasing pH. The analysis of 16S rDNA cloning libraries confirmed and expanded the knowledge gained from previous studies using classical microbiological methods. Our data show that Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria supersede Gram-positive Fermincutes species after the pH rises from around 3.2 to pH 5, and propionic and butyric acids are produced. Characterization of the spoilage microbiota is an important first step in efforts to prevent cucumber fermentation spoilage. An understanding of the microorganisms that cause commercial cucumber fermentation spoilage may aid in developing methods to prevent the spoilage from occurring. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. [Creation of DNA vaccine vector based on codon-optimized gene of rabies virus glycoprotein (G protein) with consensus amino acid sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubova, E S; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Preobrazhenskaya, O V; Karpov, V L

    2016-01-01

    An optimized design of the rabies virus glycoprotein (G protein) for use within DNA vaccines has been suggested. The design represents a territorially adapted antigen constructed taking into account glycoprotein amino acid sequences of the rabies viruses registered in the Russian Federation and the vaccine Vnukovo-32 strain. Based on the created consensus amino acid sequence, the nucleotide codon-optimized sequence of this modified glycoprotein was obtained and cloned into the pVAX1 plasmid (a vector of the last generation used in the creation of DNA vaccines). A twofold increase in this gene expression compared to the expression of the Vnukovo-32 strain viral glycoprotein gene in a similar vector was registered in the transfected cell culture. It has been demonstrated that the accumulation of modified G protein exceeds the number of the control protein synthesized using the plasmid with the Vnukovo-32 strain viral glycoprotein gene by 20 times. Thus, the obtained modified rabies virus glycoprotein can be considered to be a promising DNA vaccine antigen.

  7. Use of virion DNA as a cloning vector for the construction of mutant and recombinant herpesviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Duboise, S M; Guo, J; Desrosiers, R C; Jung, J U

    1996-01-01

    We have developed improved procedures for the isolation of deletion mutant, point mutant, and recombinant herpesvirus saimiri. These procedures take advantage of the absence of NotI and AscI restriction enzyme sites within the viral genome and use reporter genes for the identification of recombinant viruses. Genes for secreted engineered alkaline phosphatase and green fluorescent protein were placed under simian virus 40 early promoter control and flanked by NotI and AscI restriction sites. W...

  8. Cost-effective sequencing of full-length cDNA clones powered by a de novo-reference hybrid assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo M Kuroshu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sequencing full-length cDNA clones is important to determine gene structures including alternative splice forms, and provides valuable resources for experimental analyses to reveal the biological functions of coded proteins. However, previous approaches for sequencing cDNA clones were expensive or time-consuming, and therefore, a fast and efficient sequencing approach was demanded. METHODOLOGY: We developed a program, MuSICA 2, that assembles millions of short (36-nucleotide reads collected from a single flow cell lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer to shotgun-sequence approximately 800 human full-length cDNA clones. MuSICA 2 performs a hybrid assembly in which an external de novo assembler is run first and the result is then improved by reference alignment of shotgun reads. We compared the MuSICA 2 assembly with 200 pooled full-length cDNA clones finished independently by the conventional primer-walking using Sanger sequencers. The exon-intron structure of the coding sequence was correct for more than 95% of the clones with coding sequence annotation when we excluded cDNA clones insufficiently represented in the shotgun library due to PCR failure (42 out of 200 clones excluded, and the nucleotide-level accuracy of coding sequences of those correct clones was over 99.99%. We also applied MuSICA 2 to full-length cDNA clones from Toxoplasma gondii, to confirm that its ability was competent even for non-human species. CONCLUSIONS: The entire sequencing and shotgun assembly takes less than 1 week and the consumables cost only approximately US$3 per clone, demonstrating a significant advantage over previous approaches.

  9. Cost-effective sequencing of full-length cDNA clones powered by a de novo-reference hybrid assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroshu, Reginaldo M; Watanabe, Junichi; Sugano, Sumio; Morishita, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kasahara, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Sequencing full-length cDNA clones is important to determine gene structures including alternative splice forms, and provides valuable resources for experimental analyses to reveal the biological functions of coded proteins. However, previous approaches for sequencing cDNA clones were expensive or time-consuming, and therefore, a fast and efficient sequencing approach was demanded. We developed a program, MuSICA 2, that assembles millions of short (36-nucleotide) reads collected from a single flow cell lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer to shotgun-sequence approximately 800 human full-length cDNA clones. MuSICA 2 performs a hybrid assembly in which an external de novo assembler is run first and the result is then improved by reference alignment of shotgun reads. We compared the MuSICA 2 assembly with 200 pooled full-length cDNA clones finished independently by the conventional primer-walking using Sanger sequencers. The exon-intron structure of the coding sequence was correct for more than 95% of the clones with coding sequence annotation when we excluded cDNA clones insufficiently represented in the shotgun library due to PCR failure (42 out of 200 clones excluded), and the nucleotide-level accuracy of coding sequences of those correct clones was over 99.99%. We also applied MuSICA 2 to full-length cDNA clones from Toxoplasma gondii, to confirm that its ability was competent even for non-human species. The entire sequencing and shotgun assembly takes less than 1 week and the consumables cost only approximately US$3 per clone, demonstrating a significant advantage over previous approaches.

  10. Protamine/DNA/Niosome Ternary Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery to the Retina: The Role of Protamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puras, G; Martínez-Navarrete, G; Mashal, M; Zárate, J; Agirre, M; Ojeda, E; Grijalvo, S; Eritja, R; Diaz-Tahoces, A; Avilés-Trigueros, M; Fernández, E; Pedraz, J L

    2015-10-05

    The present study aimed to evaluate the incorporation of protamine into niosome/DNA vectors to analyze the potential application of this novel ternary formulation to deliver the pCMS-EGFP plasmid into the rat retina. Binary vectors based on niosome/DNA and ternary vectors based on protamine/DNA/niosomes were prepared and physicochemically characterized. In vitro experiments were performed in ARPE-19 cells. At 1:1:5 protamine/DNA/niosome mass ratio, the resulted ternary vectors had 150 nm size, positive charge, spherical morphology, and condensed, released, and protected the DNA against enzymatic digestion. The presence of protamine in the ternary vectors improved transfection efficiency, cell viability, and DNA condensation. After ocular administration, the EGFP expression was detected in different cell layers of the retina depending on the administration route without any sign of toxicity associated with the formulations. While subretinal administration transfected mainly photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells at the site of injection, intravitreal administration produced a more uniform distribution of the protein expression through the inner layers of the retina. The protein expression in the retina persisted for at least one month after both administrations. Our study highlights the flattering properties of protamine/DNA/niosome ternary vectors for efficient and safe gene delivery to the rat retina.

  11. Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus in Brazil and synthesis of its biologically active full-length cDNA clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Niu, Shengniao; Dai, Weifang; Kitajima, Elliot; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-10-01

    A Brazilian isolate of Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV-BR) was firstly found in a hibiscus plant in Limeira, SP, Brazil. RACE PCR was carried out to obtain the full-length sequences of HLFPV-BR which is 6453 nucleotides and has more than 99.15 % of complete genomic RNA nucleotide sequence identity with that of HLFPV Japanese isolate. The genomic structure of HLFPV-BR is similar to other tobamoviruses. It includes a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by open reading frames encoding for a 128-kDa protein and a 188-kDa readthrough protein, a 38-kDa movement protein, 18-kDa coat protein, and a 3' UTR. Interestingly, the unique feature of poly(A) tract is also found within its 3'-UTR. Furthermore, from the total RNA extracted from the local lesions of HLFPV-BR-infected Chenopodium quinoa leaves, a biologically active, full-length cDNA clone encompassing the genome of HLFPV-BR was amplified and placed adjacent to a T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The capped in vitro transcripts from the cloned cDNA were infectious when mechanically inoculated into C. quinoa and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. This is the first report of the presence of an isolate of HLFPV in Brazil and the successful synthesis of a biologically active HLFPV-BR full-length cDNA clone.

  12. Isolation of a human tissue-type plasminogen-activator genomic DNA clone and its expression in mouse L-cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Brown (Morris); A.W.R. Tyrrell; C.G. Chapman; J.E. Carey (Janet); D.M. Glover; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); I. Dodd; J.H. Robinson

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe have isolated a cDNA clone corresponding to a substantial portion of the human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) protein. It encodes almost all of the protein B chain and part of the 3' untranslated region. We have used this clone to screen bacteriophage lambda and cosmid

  13. HIV-1 Entry Cofactor: Functional cDNA Cloning of a Seven-Transmembrane, G Protein–Coupled Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yu; Broder, Christopher C.; Kennedy, Paul E.; Berger, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    A cofactor for HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-type 1) fusion and entry was identified with the use of a novel functional complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning strategy. This protein, designated “fusin,” is a putative G protein–coupled receptor with seven transmembrane segments. Recombinant fusin enabled CD4-expressing nonhuman cell types to support HIV-1 Env-mediated cell fusion and HIV-1 infection. Antibodies to fusin blocked cell fusion and infection with normal CD4-positive human target ce...

  14. Partial retrotransposon-like DNA sequence in the genomic clone of Aspergillus flavus, pAF28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, Patricia A; Tibbot, Brian K; Tarun, Alice S; McAlpin, Cesaria E; Hua, Sui-Sheng T

    2003-07-01

    A genomic clone of the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus, designated pAF28, has been used as a probe for Southern blot fingerprinting of fungal strains. A large number of A. flavus strains isolated from corn fields and tree-nut orchards can be distinguished because the DNA fingerprint patterns are highly polymorphic. We have completed the sequencing of a 6355 bp insert in pAF28. The sequence features motifs and open reading frames characteristic of transposable elements of the gypsy class. We have named this new element AfRTL-1, for A. flavus retrotransposon-like DNA.

  15. Construction of lentiviral shRNA expression vector targeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA oligo was cloned into lentiviral expression vector, and then polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analyses were conducted to verify the constructs. The verified vectors were co-transfected into 293FT cells that could produce lentiviral. shRNA lentiviruses from the selected constructs were propagated and ...

  16. [Gene cloning, selection of plasmids and application of Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Salih; Erensoy, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    Gene cloning refers to the process by which a fragment of DNA is transferred from one organism to a vector. A vector is an agent that can carry a DNA fragment into a host cell. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, lambda phage, cosmid and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). Plasmid vectors that have been extensively used in genetic engineering are derived from natural plasmids. These contain a genetic marker conferring a phenotype that can be selected for or against and a polylinker or multiple cloning site (MCS), which is a short region containing several commonly used restriction sites allowing the insertion of DNA fragments at this location easily. There are several plasmids and gene cloning kits available nowadays commercially. These kits contain an advanced positive selection system for the highest efficiency cloning of PCR products generated with any DNA polymerase. The kits offer cloning efficiencies of up to 100% positive clones, eliminating the need for tedious colony screening. We consider that researchers should choose the most suitable plasmids and cloning kits for gene cloning in view of factors such as time consumption, cost and individual laboratory options.

  17. Comparative evaluation of prokaryotic 16S rDNA clone libraries and SSCP in groundwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larentis, Michael; Alfreider, Albin

    2011-06-01

    A comparison of ribosomal RNA sequence analysis methods based on clone libraries and single-strand conformational polymorphism technique (SSCP) was performed with groundwater samples obtained between 523-555 meters below surface. The coverage of analyzed clones by phylotype-richness estimates was between 88-100%, confirming that the clone libraries were adequately examined. Analysis of individual bands retrieved from SSCP gels identified 1-6 different taxonomic units per band, suggesting that a single SSCP band does often represent more than one single prokaryotic species. The prokaryotic diversity obtained by both methods showed an overall difference of 42-80%. In comparison to SSCP, clone libraries underestimated the phylogenetic diversity and only 36-66% of the phylotypes observed with SSCP were also detected with the clone libraries. An exception was a sample where the SSCP analysis of Archaea identified only half of the phylotypes retrieved by the clone library. Overall, this study suggests that the clone library and the SSCP approach do not provide an identical picture of the prokaryotic diversity in groundwater samples. The results clearly show that the SSCP method, although this approach is prone to generate methodological artifacts, was able to detect significantly more phylotypes than microbial community analysis based on clone libraries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Genetic modification of dividing cells using episomally maintained S/MAR DNA vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suet-Ping Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of episomally maintained DNA vectors to genetically modify dividing cells efficiently and stably, without the risk of integration-mediated genotoxicity, should prove to be a valuable tool in genetic research. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Region (S/MAR DNA vectors to model the restoration of a functional wild-type copy of the gene folliculin (FLCN implicated in the renal cancer Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD. Inactivation of FLCN has been shown to be involved in the development of sporadic renal neoplasia in BHD. S/MAR-modified BHD tumor cells (named UOK257-FS show restored stable FLCN expression and have normalized downstream TGFβ signals. We demonstrate that UOK257-FS cells show a reduced growth rate in vitro and suppression of xenograft tumor development in vivo, compared with the original FLCN-null UOK257 cell line. In addition, we demonstrate that mTOR signaling in serum-starved FLCN-restored cells is differentially regulated compared with the FLCN-deficient cell. The novel UOK257-FS cell line will be useful for studying the signaling pathways affected in BHD pathogenesis. Significantly, this study demonstrates the suitability of S/MAR vectors to successfully model the functional expression of a therapeutic gene in a cancer cell line and will aid the identification of novel cancer markers for diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Genetic discrimination for three gynogenetic clones of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, based on restriction endonuclease analysis of Nd5-Nd6 region of mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Ye, Yuzhen; Wu, Qingjiang

    2005-03-01

    Three artificial gynogenetic clones of silver carp were produced for the analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 region from mtDNA of the clones. It is revealed that all intraclonal individuals shared completely the same digestion patterns but among interclonal individuals did not. The three clones were mixed and cultured in a pond together for two years, and restriction endonuclease digestion patterns of ND5 ND6 were used as genetic markers to assess the growth performance of each clone.

  20. Hybridization study of developmental plastid gene expression in mustard (Sinapsis alba L.) with cloned probes for most plastid DNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, G

    1984-07-01

    An approach to assess the extent of developmental gene expression of various regions of plastid (pt)DNA in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is described. It involves cloning of most ptDNA regions. The cloned regions then serve as hybridization probes to detect and assess the abundance of complementary RNA sequences represented in total plastid RNA. By comparison of the hybridization pattern observed with plastid RNA from either dark-grown or light-grown plants it was found that many ptDNA regions are constitutively expressed, while several 'inducible' regions account for much higher transcript levels in the chloroplast than in the etioplast stage. The reverse situation, i.e. 'repressed' regions which would account for higher transcript levels in the etioplast, was not observed. The hybridization results obtained with RNA from 'intermediatetype' plastids suggest that transient gene expression is a common feature during light-induced chloroplast development. The time-course of gene expression differs for various ptDNA regions.

  1. High-efficiency system for the construction of adenovirus vectors and its application to the generation of representative adenovirus-based cDNA expression libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillgenberg, Moritz; Hofmann, Christian; Stadler, Herbert; Löser, Peter

    2006-06-01

    We here describe a convenient system for the production of recombinant adenovirus vectors and its use for the construction of a representative adenovirus-based cDNA expression library. The system is based on direct site-specific insertion of transgene cassettes into a replicating donor virus. The transgene is inserted into a donor plasmid containing the viral 5' inverted terminal repeat, the complete viral packaging signal, and a single loxP site. The plasmid is then transfected into a Cre recombinase-expressing packaging cell line that has been infected with a donor virus containing a partially deleted packaging signal flanked by loxP sites. Cre recombinase, by two steps of action, sequentially catalyzes the generation of a nonpackageable donor virus acceptor substrate and the generation of the desired recombinant adenovirus vector. Due to its growth impairment, residual donor virus can efficiently be counterselected during amplification of the recombinant adenovirus vector. By using this adenovirus construction system, a plasmid-based human liver cDNA library was converted by a single step into an adenovirus-based cDNA expression library with about 10(6) independent adenovirus clones. The high-titer purified library was shown to contain about 44% of full-length cDNAs with an average insert size of 1.3 kb. cDNAs of a gene expressed at a high level (human alpha(1)-antitrypsin) and a gene expressed at a relatively low level (human coagulation factor IX) in human liver were isolated from the adenovirus-based library using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based screening procedure.

  2. [Cloning and sequence analysis of Eg95 cDNA from different stages of Echinococcus granulosus in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ren-yong; Ding, Jian-bing; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Wen-bao; Li, Jun; Lu, Xiao-mei

    2003-01-01

    To study expression and sequence differences of Echinococcus granulosus 95(Eg95) antigen cDNA from different stages of protoscolex, oncosphere and adult worm of E. granulosus from Xinjiang Uighur Aut. Reg. In accordance with the sequence of Eg95 antigen cDNA, the primers of Eg95 were designed. Eg95 antigen cDNAs were amplified by PCR from protoscolex, oncosphere and adult worm cDNA libraries of E. granulosus, respectively and were cloned into pUCm-T plasmid, and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed by DNAman and GenBank/BLAST biosoftware. PCR results showed that Eg95 antigen cDNA was amplified from three stages of E. granulosus cDNA libraries. Sequencing analysis indicated that the Eg95 cDNA length was 402 bp, same as the reported data in GenBank. The Eg95 antigen cDNA was expressed in the different life-cycle stages of E. granulosus in Xinjiang and there was no nucleic acid sequence difference of Eg95 antigen among the protoscolex, oncosphere and adult worm of E. granulosus.

  3. Return of Streptococcus faecalis DNA cloned in Escherichia coli to its original host via transformation of Streptococcus sanguis followed by conjugative mobilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M D; Clewell, D B

    1984-01-01

    Cloning vectors were introduced into Streptococcus faecalis by conjugation. A conjugative plasmid (pVA797) and cloning vector pVA838 recombined in Streptococcus sanguis at homologous sequences, forming a cointegrate. The pVA797::pVA838 cointegrate transferred to S. faecalis by conjugation. Recombination between homologous sequences resolved the cointegrate in the S. faecalis transconjugants, and pVA797 and pVA838 segregated because of incompatibility. S. faecalis strains that received pVA838 ...

  4. Human placental Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-11-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (approx. = 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) lambdagt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1.

  5. Exploring genetic variation in haplotypes of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) through DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Del Serrone, Paola; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of many pathogens and parasites of humans, as well as domestic and wild animals. In urban and semi-urban Asian countries, Cx. quinquefasciatus is a main vector of nematodes causing lymphatic filariasis. In the African region, it vectors the Rift Valley fever virus, while in the USA it transmits West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis and Western equine encephalitis virus. In this study, DNA barcoding was used to explore the genetic variation of Cx. quinquefasciatus populations from 88 geographical regions. We presented a comprehensive approach analyzing the effectiveness of two gene markers, i.e. CO1 and 16S rRNA. The high threshold genetic divergence of CO1 (0.47%) gene was reported as an ideal marker for molecular identification of this mosquito vector. Furthermore, null substitutions were lower in CO1 if compared to 16S rRNA, which influenced its differentiating potential among Indian haplotypes. NJ tree was well supported with high branch values for CO1 gene than 16S rRNA, indicating ideal genetic differentiation among haplotypes. TCS haplotype network revealed 14 distinct clusters. The intra- and inter-population polymorphism were calculated among the global and Indian Cx. quinquefasciatus lineages. The genetic diversity index Tajima' D showed negative values for all the 4 intra-population clusters (G2-4, G10). Fu's FS showed negative value for G10 cluster, which was significant and indicated recent population expansion. However, the G2-G4 (i.e. Indian lineages) had positive values, suggesting a bottleneck effect. Overall, our research firstly shed light on the genetic differences among the haplotypes of Cx. quinquefasciatus species complex, adding basic knowledge to the molecular ecology of this important mosquito vector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pathotypes in the Entomophaga grylli species complex of grasshopper pathogens differentiated with random amplification of polymorphic DNA and cloned-DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidochka, M J; Walsh, S R; Ramos, M E; Leger, R J; Silver, J C; Roberts, D W

    1995-01-01

    The zygomycetous fungus Entomophaga grylli is a pathogen that shows host-specific variance to grasshopper subfamilies. Three pathotypes of the E. grylli species complex were differentiated by three molecular techniques. In the first method, the three pathotypes showed different fragment patterns generated by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). There was little or no interisolate variability in RAPD fragment patterns within each pathotype. Passage of an isolate of pathotype 3, originally from an Australian grasshopper (Praxibulus sp.), through a North America grasshopper resulted in no differences in the resultant RAPD fragment patterns. In the second method, polymorphic RAPD fragments were used to probe the genomic DNA from the three pathotypes, and pathotype-specific fragments were found. In the third method, restriction fragments from genomic DNA of the three pathotypes were cloned and screened for pathotype specificity. A genomic probe specific for each pathotype was isolated. These probes did not hybridize to DNA from Entomophaga aulicae or from grasshoppers. To facilitate the use of RAPD analysis and other molecular tools to identify pathotypes, a method for extracting DNA from resting spores from infected grasshoppers was developed. The DNA from the fractured resting spores was of sufficient integrity to be blotted and probed with the pathotype-specific DNA probes, thus validating the use of these probes for pathotype identification in field-collected grasshoppers. PMID:7574596

  7. Low-Dose Gene Therapy for Murine PKU Using Episomal Naked DNA Vectors Expressing PAH from Its Endogenous Liver Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiu Man Grisch-Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited duration of transgene expression, insertional mutagenesis, and size limitations for transgene cassettes pose challenges and risk factors for many gene therapy vectors. Here, we report on physiological expression of liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH by delivery of naked DNA/minicircle (MC-based vectors for correction of homozygous enu2 mice, a model of human phenylketonuria (PKU. Because MC vectors lack a defined size limit, we constructed a MC vector expressing a codon-optimized murine Pah cDNA that includes a truncated intron and is under the transcriptional control of a 3.6-kb native Pah promoter/enhancer sequence. This vector, delivered via hydrodynamic injection, yielded therapeutic liver PAH activity and sustained correction of blood phenylalanine comparable to viral or synthetic liver promoters. Therapeutic efficacy was seen with vector copy numbers of 95% loss of vector genomes and PAH activity in liver, demonstrating that MC vectors had not integrated into the liver genome. In conclusion, MC vectors, which do not have a defined size-limitation, offer a favorable safety profile for hepatic gene therapy due to their non-integration in combination with native promoters.

  8. Low-Dose Gene Therapy for Murine PKU Using Episomal Naked DNA Vectors Expressing PAH from Its Endogenous Liver Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisch-Chan, Hiu Man; Schlegel, Andrea; Scherer, Tanja; Allegri, Gabriella; Heidelberger, Raphael; Tsikrika, Panagiota; Schmeer, Marco; Schleef, Martin; Harding, Cary O; Häberle, Johannes; Thöny, Beat

    2017-06-16

    Limited duration of transgene expression, insertional mutagenesis, and size limitations for transgene cassettes pose challenges and risk factors for many gene therapy vectors. Here, we report on physiological expression of liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) by delivery of naked DNA/minicircle (MC)-based vectors for correction of homozygous enu2 mice, a model of human phenylketonuria (PKU). Because MC vectors lack a defined size limit, we constructed a MC vector expressing a codon-optimized murine Pah cDNA that includes a truncated intron and is under the transcriptional control of a 3.6-kb native Pah promoter/enhancer sequence. This vector, delivered via hydrodynamic injection, yielded therapeutic liver PAH activity and sustained correction of blood phenylalanine comparable to viral or synthetic liver promoters. Therapeutic efficacy was seen with vector copy numbers of 95% loss of vector genomes and PAH activity in liver, demonstrating that MC vectors had not integrated into the liver genome. In conclusion, MC vectors, which do not have a defined size-limitation, offer a favorable safety profile for hepatic gene therapy due to their non-integration in combination with native promoters. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Potato virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus-based vectors compatible with the Gateway-TM cloning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacorte, C.C.; Ribeiro, S.G.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Virus-based expression vectors are important tools for high-level production of foreign proteins and for gene function analysis through virus induced gene silencing. To exploit further their advantages as fast, high yield replicons, a set of vectors was produced by converting and adapting Potato

  10. A DNA vector-based RNAi technology to suppress gene expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Guangchao; Soohoo, Christina; Affar, El Bachir; Gay, Frédérique; Shi, Yujiang; Forrester, William C; Shi, Yang

    2002-04-16

    Double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) has recently emerged as a powerful reverse genetic tool to silence gene expression in multiple organisms including plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila. The discovery that synthetic double-stranded, 21-nt small interfering RNA triggers gene-specific silencing in mammalian cells has further expanded the utility of RNAi into mammalian systems. Here we report a technology that allows synthesis of small interfering RNAs from DNA templates in vivo to efficiently inhibit endogenous gene expression. Significantly, we were able to use this approach to demonstrate, in multiple cell lines, robust inhibition of several endogenous genes of diverse functions. These findings highlight the general utility of this DNA vector-based RNAi technology in suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells.

  11. Human uroporphyrinogen III synthase: Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a full-length cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shihfeng; Bishop, D.F.; Desnick, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway, is responsible for conversion of the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane, to the cyclic tetrapyrrole, uroporphyrinogen III. The deficient activity of URO-synthase is the enzymatic defect in the autosomal recessive disorder congenital erythropoietic porphyria. To facilitate the isolation of a full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase, the human erythrocyte enzyme was purified to homogeneity and 81 nonoverlapping amino acids were determined by microsequencing the N terminus and four tryptic peptides. Two synthetic oligonucleotide mixtures were used to screen 1.2 x 10 6 recombinants from a human adult liver cDNA library. Eight clones were positive with both oligonucleotide mixtures. Of these, dideoxy sequencing of the 1.3 kilobase insert from clone pUROS-2 revealed 5' and 3' untranslated sequences of 196 and 284 base pairs, respectively, and an open reading frame of 798 base pairs encoding a protein of 265 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 28,607 Da. The isolation and expression of this full-length cDNA for human URO-synthase should facilitate studies of the structure, organization, and chromosomal localization of this heme biosynthetic gene as well as the characterization of the molecular lesions causing congenital erythropoietic porphyria

  12. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.

    2013-01-01

    A 5′ truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

  13. Smart DNA vectors based on cyclodextrin polymers: compaction and endosomal release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintgens, Véronique; Leborgne, Christian; Baconnais, Sonia; Burckbuchler, Virginie; Le Cam, Eric; Scherman, Daniel; Kichler, Antoine; Amiel, Catherine

    2012-02-01

    Neutral β-cyclodextrin polymers (polyβCD) associated with cationic adamantyl derivatives (Ada) can be used to deliver plasmid DNA into cells. In absence of an endosomolytic agent, transfection efficiency remains low because most complexes are trapped in the endosomal compartment. We asked whether addition of an imidazole-modified Ada can increase efficiency of polyβCD/cationic Ada-based delivery system. We synthesized two adamantyl derivatives: Ada5, which has a spacer arm between the Ada moiety and a bi-cationic polar head group, and Ada6, which presents an imidazole group. Strength of association between polyβCD and Ada derivatives was evaluated by fluorimetric titration. Gel mobility shift assay, zeta potential, and dark field transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated the system allowed for efficient DNA compaction. In vitro transfection experiments performed on HepG2 and HEK293 cells revealed the quaternary system polyβCD/Ada5/Ada6/DNA has efficiency comparable to cationic lipid DOTAP. We successfully designed fine-tuned DNA vectors based on cyclodextrin polymers combined with two new adamantyl derivatives, leading to significant transfection associated with low toxicity.

  14. An Improved Homologous Recombination Method for Rapid Cloning of the Antibody Heavy Chain Gene and Its Comparison with the Homologous Recombination and Traditional Cloning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hajirezaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The homologous recombination (HR is one of the conventional cloning methods for the production of recombinant DNA. It is a quick method for in vivo DNA cloning without using the high cost restriction enzymes. A few modifications in the cloning procedure can increase the efficiency of this method.Materials and Methods: In this study, effect of heating on the rate of the IgG1 heavy chain gene cloning was investigated in the HR method and then it was compared with HR method without heating and traditional cloning method. For doing this comparison, three cloning methods including HR, HR with the heat treatment, and traditional cloning were used to clone the human IgG1 heavy chain into the pcDNA3.1(+ plasmid.Results: The results showed that adding heat in the HR method converts insert and vector from the double strand DNA to the single strand DNA. This allows them to copulate with each other better and faster than the two other methods. The heat addition also helps the cell enzyme system for a faster and easier recombination and moreover it increases the cloning efficiency of the HR method in case of in vitro processing.Conclusion: The results showed that giving heat in the HR method increases cloning rate 7.5% and this increase reaches 10% in comparison with the traditional method. 

  15. Isolation and Cloning of cDNA Fragment of Gene Encoding for Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein from M. affine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utut Widyastuti Suharsono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and Cloning of cDNA Fragment of Gene Encoding for Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein from M. affine. M. affine can grow well in acid soil with high level of soluble aluminum. One of the important proteins in the detoxifying xenobiotic stress including acid and Al stresses is a multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP encoded by mrp gene. The objective of this research is to isolate and clone the cDNA fragment of MaMrp encoding MRP from M. affine. By reverse transcription, total cDNA had been synthesized from the total RNA as template. The fragment of cDNA MaMrp had been successfully isolated by PCR by using total cDNA as template and mrp primer designed from A. thaliana, yeast, and human. This fragment was successfully inserted into pGEM-T Easy and the recombinant plasmid was successfully introduced into E. coli DH5α. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the lenght of MaMrp fragment is 633 bp encoding 208 amino acids. Local alignment analysis based on nucleotide of mRNA showed that MaMrp fragment is 69% identical to AtMrp1 and 63% to AtMrp from A. thaliana. Based on deduced amino acid sequence, MaMRP is 84% identical to part of AtMRP13, 77% to AtMRP12, and 73% to AtMRP1 from A. thaliana respectively. Alignment analysis with AtMRP1 showed that MaMRP fragment is located in TM1 and NBF1 domains and has a specific amino acid sequence QCKAQLQNMEEE.

  16. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a novel human nuclear phosphoprotein belonging to the WD-40 family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Leffers, H; Madsen, Peder

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned and expressed in vaccinia virus a cDNA encoding an ubiquitous 501-amino-acid (aa) phosphoprotein that corresponds to protein IEF SSP 9502 (79,400 Da, pI 4.5) in the master 2-D-gel keratinocyte protein database [Celis et al., Electrophoresis 14 (1993) 1091-1198]. The deduced aa......-134]. The protein contains a nuclear targeting signal (KKKGK), and fractionation of transformed human amnion cells (AMA) in karyoplasts and cytoplasts confirmed that it is predominantly localized in the nucleus. Database searching indicated that IEF SSP 9502 is a putative human homologue of the Saccharomyces...

  17. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-01-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in λgt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein

  18. Use of homologous recombination in yeast to create chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus cDNA clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arenhart

    Full Text Available Abstract The open reading frame of a Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strain, IBSP4ncp, was recombined with the untranslated regions of the reference NADL strain by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in chimeric full-length cDNA clones of BVDV (chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#2 and chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#3. The recombinant clones were successfully recovered, resulting in viable viruses, having the kinetics of replication, focus size, and morphology similar to those of the parental virus, IBSP4ncp. In addition, the chimeric viruses remained stable for at least 10 passages in cell culture, maintaining their replication efficiency unaltered. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a few point mutations; nevertheless, the phenotype of the rescued viruses was nearly identical to that of the parental virus in all experiments. Thus, genetic stability of the chimeric clones and their phenotypic similarity to the parental virus confirm the ability of the yeast-based homologous recombination to maintain characteristics of the parental virus from which the recombinant viruses were derived. The data also support possible use of the yeast system for the manipulation of the BVDV genome.

  19. Cloning, expression, and mapping of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase cDNA from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Ping; Li, Han-Xia; Ouyang, Bo; Zhang, Jun-Hong; Ye, Zhi-Biao

    2006-08-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP, EC 2.7.7.22) catalyzes the synthesis of GDP-D-mannose and represents the first committed step in plant ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Using potato GMP cDNA sequence as a querying probe, 65 highly homologous tomato ESTs were obtained from dbEST of GenBank and the putative cDNA sequence of tomato GMP was assembled. The full-length GMP cDNA of tomato was cloned by RACE-PCR with primers designed according to the assembled cDNA sequence. The full-length cDNA sequence contained a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1,086 bp, which encoded 361 amino acid residues. This gene was designated as LeGMP (GenBank accession No. AY605668). Homology analysis of LeGMP showed a 96% identity with potato GMP and the deduced amino acid showed 99%, 97%, 91% and 89% homology with GMP from potato, tobacco, alfalfa and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that LeGMP was constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of tomato; but the expression levels varied. LeGMP was mapped to 3-D using 75 tomato introgression lines (ILs), each containing a single homozygous RFLP-defined chromosome segment from the green-fruited species Lycopersicon pennellii.

  20. Purification, characterization, cDNA cloning, and expression of a xyloglucan endoglucanase from Geotrichum sp. M128.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2004-02-27

    A novel xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (XEG), xyloglucanase, with a molecular mass of 80 kDa and a pI of 4.8, was isolated from the fungus Geotrichum sp. M128. It was found to be an endoglucanase active toward xyloglucan and not active toward carboxymethylcellulose, Avicel, or barley 1,3-1,4-beta-glucan. Analysis of the precise substrate specificity using various xyloglucan oligosaccharide structures revealed that XEG has at least four subsites (-2 to +2) and specifically recognizes xylose branching at the +1 and +2 sites. The full-length cDNA encoding XEG was cloned and sequenced. It consists of a 2436-bp open reading frame encoding a 776-amino acid protein. From its deduced amino acid sequence, XEG can be classified as a family 74 glycosyl hydrolase. The cDNA encoding XEG was then expressed in Escherichia coli, and enzymatically active recombinant XEG was obtained.

  1. VIP Barcoding: composition vector-based software for rapid species identification based on DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Long; Hui, Jerome H L; Yu, Zu Guo; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-07-01

    Species identification based on short sequences of DNA markers, that is, DNA barcoding, has emerged as an integral part of modern taxonomy. However, software for the analysis of large and multilocus barcoding data sets is scarce. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is currently the fastest tool capable of handling large databases (e.g. >5000 sequences), but its accuracy is a concern and has been criticized for its local optimization. However, current more accurate software requires sequence alignment or complex calculations, which are time-consuming when dealing with large data sets during data preprocessing or during the search stage. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a practical program for both accurate and scalable species identification for DNA barcoding. In this context, we present VIP Barcoding: a user-friendly software in graphical user interface for rapid DNA barcoding. It adopts a hybrid, two-stage algorithm. First, an alignment-free composition vector (CV) method is utilized to reduce searching space by screening a reference database. The alignment-based K2P distance nearest-neighbour method is then employed to analyse the smaller data set generated in the first stage. In comparison with other software, we demonstrate that VIP Barcoding has (i) higher accuracy than Blastn and several alignment-free methods and (ii) higher scalability than alignment-based distance methods and character-based methods. These results suggest that this platform is able to deal with both large-scale and multilocus barcoding data with accuracy and can contribute to DNA barcoding for modern taxonomy. VIP Barcoding is free and available at http://msl.sls.cuhk.edu.hk/vipbarcoding/. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cloning and expression of a cDNA covering the complete coding region of the P32 subunit of human pre-mRNA splicing factor SF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H

    1993-01-01

    We have cloned and expressed a cDNA encoding the 32-kDa subunit (P32) of the human pre-mRNA splicing factor, SF2. This cDNA extends beyond the 5'-end of a previously reported cDNA [Krainer et al., Cell 66 (1991) 383-394]. Importantly, our fragment includes an ATG start codon which was absent from...

  3. Genomic and cDNA cloning of a novel mouse lipoxygenase gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems van Dijk, K.; Steketee, K.; Havekes, L.; Frants, R.; Hofker, M.

    1995-01-01

    A novel 12- and 15-lipoxygenase related gene was isolated from a mouse strain 129 genomic phage library in a screen with a human 15-lipoxygenase cDNA probe. The complete genomic sequence revealed 14 exons and 13 introns covering 7.3 kb of DNA. The splice junctions were verified from the cDNA

  4. Blunt-end vectors generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blunt-end cloning is a convenient way to clone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated by proof-reading DNA polymerase. However, it is a time consuming procedure to prepare the linearized blunt-end vector, which usually involves plasmid extraction and restriction enzyme digestion. Moreover, 5' ...

  5. A secreted aspartic proteinase from Glomerella cingulata: purification of the enzyme and molecular cloning of the cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S J; Templeton, M D; Sullivan, P A

    1997-04-01

    A secreted aspartic proteinase from Glomerella cingulata (GcSAP) was purified to homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme has an M, of 36000 as estimated by SDS-PAGE, optimal activity from pH 3.5 to pH 4.0 and is inhibited by pepstatin. The N-terminal sequence, 23 residues long, was used to design a gene-specific primer. This was used in 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) PCR to amplify a 1.2 kb fragment of the gcsap cDNA. A second gene-specific primer was designed and used in 5' RACE PCR to clone the 5' region. This yielded a 600 bp DNA fragment and completed the open reading frame. The gcsap open reading frame encodes a protein with a 78 residue prepro-sequence typical of other fungal secreted aspartic proteinases. Based on the deduced sequence, the mature enzyme contains 329 amino acids and shows approximately 40% identity to other fungal aspartic proteinases. Subsequent cloning and sequencing of gcsap fragments obtained from PCR with genomic DNA revealed a 73 bp intron beginning at nt 728. Southern analyses at medium and high stringency indicated that G. cingulata possesses one gene for the secreted aspartic proteinase, and Northern blots indicated that gene expression was induced by exogenous protein and repressed by ammonium salts. GcSAP is a putative pathogenicity factor of G. cingulata, and it will now be possible to create SAP-mutants and assess the role GcSAP plays in pathogenicity.

  6. Purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of an endo-exonuclease from the basidiomycete fungus Armillaria mellea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, V; Doonan, S; McCarthy, T V

    1999-01-01

    We have purified an endo-exonuclease from the fruiting body of the basidiomycete fungus Armillaria mellea by using an ethanol fractionation step, followed by two rounds of column chromatography. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 17500 Da and was shown to exist as a monomer by gel-filtration analysis. The nuclease was active on both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA but not on RNA. It was optimally active at pH8.5 and also exhibited a significant degree of thermostability. Three bivalent metal ions, Mg2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, acted as cofactors in the catalysis. It was also inhibited by high salt concentrations: activity was completely abolished at 150 mM NaCl. The nuclease possessed both endonuclease activity on supercoiled DNA and a 3'-5' (but not a 5'-3') exonuclease activity. It generated 5'-phosphomonoesters on its products that, after a prolonged incubation, were hydrolysed to a mixture of free mononucleotides and small oligonucleotides ranging in size from two to eight bases. Elucidation of its N-terminal amino acid sequence permitted the cDNA cloning of the A. mellea nuclease via a PCR-based approach. Peptide mapping of the purified enzyme generated patterns consistent with the amino acid sequence coded for by the cloned cDNA. A BLAST search of the SwissProt database revealed that A. mellea nuclease shared significant amino acid similarity with two nucleases from Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that the three might constitute a distinct class of nucleolytic enzymes. PMID:10215611

  7. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of a mannose-binding lectin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... with high expression being found in spadix, spathe and tuber. Cloning of the ppa gene not only provides a basis for further investigation of its structure, expression and regulatory mechanism, but also enables us to test its potential role in controlling pests and fungal diseases by transferring the gene into plants in the future ...

  8. cDNA cloning, identification and characterization of a novel cystatin from the tentacle of Cyanea capillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanzhen; Cun, Shujian; Peng, Lisheng; Xie, Xiaojin; Wei, Jianwen; Yang, Wenli; Xu, Anlong

    2003-10-01

    Cystatin is of interest from biochemical and evolutionary prospective, and also has been applied in biotechnology. In this paper, a novel cystatin was found by EST sequence analysis of the cDNA library of Cyanea capillata tentacle. The sequence of a full-length cDNA clone contained an open reading frame encoding a putative 18-residue signal peptide and a mature protein of 113 amino acids, which showed only 26% identities to Family 2 cystatins and had its own characteristic enzyme-binding motifs, Ser(97)-Trp(98), which had not been found in any other known cystatins. Thus, the novel cystatin cloned from jellyfish was designated as cystatin J, which may belong to a new family of cystatin, called Family 4. The mature cystatin J was produced in Escherichia coli as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein using the pET expression system and purified by affinity and cation exchange chromatography. The recombinant cystatin J of approximately M(r) = 12,800 displayed an obvious inhibition of papain (K(i) value below 0.5 nM), in competition with substrate. Thus, the recombinant cystatin J was a functional cystatin in spite of relatively lower sequence similarity with other cystatins. Activity of the novel cystatin was stable at pH 4-11 at 4 degrees C, but unstable at neutral pH at >50 degrees C.

  9. Isolation and characterization of two novel, closely related ATF cDNA clones from HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, M; Chatton, B; Kedinger, C

    1990-01-01

    ATF or CRE binding proteins are cellular transcription factors involved in the regulation of adenovirus Ela-responsive and cellular cAMP-inducible promoters. We report the isolation from a HeLa cell cDNA library of two clones that encode proteins with specific ATF/CRE DNA binding activity. The two clones differ by a 63 bp element which is retained in one (ATF-a) and deleted from the other (ATF-a delta) and which may correspond to an alternative exon. The peptide sequences (483 and 462 amino acids, respectively) derived from each of these cDNAs are identical, except for the additional 21 amino acids in ATF-a, but clearly differ from the other ATF/CREB proteins reported. All of them, however, share a conserved leucine zipper domain also found in other transcription factors. ATF-a and ATF-a delta therefore represent two closely related members of a larger multigene family of proteins that interact with conserved promoter elements. Images PMID:1694576

  10. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and non-viruliferous cDNA libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czosnek Henryk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past three decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in interest in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, owing to its nature as a taxonomically cryptic species, the damage it causes to a large number of herbaceous plants because of its specialized feeding in the phloem, and to its ability to serve as a vector of plant viruses. Among the most important plant viruses to be transmitted by B. tabaci are those in the genus Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae. Surprisingly, little is known about the genome of this whitefly. The haploid genome size for male B. tabaci has been estimated to be approximately one billion bp by flow cytometry analysis, about five times the size of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The genes involved in whitefly development, in host range plasticity, and in begomovirus vector specificity and competency, are unknown. Results To address this general shortage of genomic sequence information, we have constructed three cDNA libraries from non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV. In total, the sequence of 18,976 clones was determined. After quality control, and removal of 5,542 clones of mitochondrial origin 9,110 sequences remained which included 3,843 singletons and 1,017 contigs. Comparisons with public databases indicated that the libraries contained genes involved in cellular and developmental processes. In addition, approximately 1,000 bases aligned with the genome of the B. tabaci endosymbiotic bacterium Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, originating primarily from the egg and instar libraries. Apart from the mitochondrial sequences, the longest and most abundant sequence encodes vitellogenin, which originated from whitefly adult libraries, indicating that much of the gene expression in this insect is directed toward the production

  11. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for the gamma subunit of Xenopus fibrinogen, the product of a coordinately regulated gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A; Shepard, A R; Moser, D R; Holland, L J

    1990-09-10

    Fibrinogen, the major structural protein involved in blood coagulation, is synthesized and secreted by the liver. In the frog Xenopus laevis, fibrinogen production is dramatically induced by glucocorticoids. The hormonal stimulation requires synthesis of three separate subunits, designated A alpha, B beta, and gamma. For investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying this coordinate induction, we have isolated cDNA clones for the subunits of Xenopus fibrinogen. In this communication we describe the identification of clones for the gamma chain. Initially, a Xenopus liver cDNA library in pBR322 was screened with a rat gamma chain cDNA and a clone representing half of the 1600-base frog gamma mRNA was identified. This clone was shown to be complementary to gamma mRNA by hybrid selection of mRNA that translated in vitro into the gamma polypeptide. A clone about 1460 base pairs in length was then isolated from a Xenopus liver lambda gt10 cDNA library and subcloned into Bluescript SK-. This clone, designated X1 gamma 3, contains the entire 3'-end and lacks 38 bases at the 5'-end of gamma mRNA. The deduced amino acid sequence at the N-terminal is compatible with a signal peptide of 20-23 amino acids, in agreement with the calculated size of the frog gamma chain signal peptide. Following the signal sequence is a region of highly conserved amino acids that participate in disulfide bond formation critical for the maintenance of tertiary structure in mammalian fibrinogen. The gamma cDNA clone was used to measure gamma mRNA in purified Xenopus liver cells treated with glucocorticoids in primary culture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Molecular Profiling of Microbial Communities from Contaminated Sources: Use of Subtractive Cloning Methods and rDNA Spacer Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Frank T.

    2001-04-10

    The major objective of this research was to provide appropriate sequences and assemble a DNA array of oligonucleotides to be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations from polluted areas and other areas of interest. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array were chosen from cloned genomic DNA taken from groundwater sites having well characterized pollutant histories at Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300. Glass-slide arrays were made and tested; and a new multiplexed, bead-based method was developed that uses nucleic acid hybridization on the surface of microscopic polystyrene spheres to identify specific sequences in heterogeneous mixtures of DNA sequences. The test data revealed considerable strain variation between sample sites showing a striking distribution of sequences. It also suggests that diversity varies greatly with bioremediation, and that there are many bacterial intergenic spacer region sequences that can indicate its effects. The bead method exhibited superior sequence discrimination and has features for easier and more accurate measurement.

  13. Heterologous prime-boost-boost immunisation of Chinese cynomolgus macaques using DNA and recombinant poxvirus vectors expressing HIV-1 virus-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anson Donald S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is renewed interest in the development of poxvirus vector-based HIV vaccines due to the protective effect observed with repeated recombinant canarypox priming with gp120 boosting in the recent Thai placebo-controlled trial. This study sought to investigate whether a heterologous prime-boost-boost vaccine regimen in Chinese cynomolgus macaques with a DNA vaccine and recombinant poxviral vectors expressing HIV virus-like particles bearing envelopes derived from the most prevalent clades circulating in sub-Saharan Africa, focused the antibody response to shared neutralising epitopes. Methods Three Chinese cynomolgus macaques were immunised via intramuscular injections using a regimen composed of a prime with two DNA vaccines expressing clade A Env/clade B Gag followed by boosting with recombinant fowlpox virus expressing HIV-1 clade D Gag, Env and cholera toxin B subunit followed by the final boost with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing HIV-1 clade C Env, Gag and human complement protein C3d. We measured the macaque serum antibody responses by ELISA, enumerated T cell responses by IFN-γ ELISpot and assessed seroneutralisation of HIV-1 using the TZM-bl β-galactosidase assay with primary isolates of HIV-1. Results This study shows that large and complex synthetic DNA sequences can be successfully cloned in a single step into two poxvirus vectors: MVA and FPV and the recombinant poxviruses could be grown to high titres. The vaccine candidates showed appropriate expression of recombinant proteins with the formation of authentic HIV virus-like particles seen on transmission electron microscopy. In addition the b12 epitope was shown to be held in common by the vaccine candidates using confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. The vaccine candidates were safely administered to Chinese cynomolgus macaques which elicited modest T cell responses at the end of the study but only one out of the three macaques

  14. cDNA Cloning, Overexpression, Purification and Pharmacologic Evaluation for Anticancer Activity of Ribosomal Protein L23A Gene (RPL23A from the Giant Panda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Nan Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RPL23A gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L23P family of ribosomal proteins, which is located in the cytoplasm. The purpose of this paper was to explore the structure and anti-cancer function of ribosomal protein L23A (RPL23A gene of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The cDNA of RPL23A was cloned successfully from the Giant Panda using RT-PCR technology. We constructed a recombinant expression vector containing RPL23A cDNA and over-expressed it in Escherichia coli using pET28a plasmids. The expression product obtained was purified by using Ni chelating affinity chromatography. Recombinant protein of RPL23A obtained from the experiment acted on Hep-2 cells and human HepG-2 cells, then the growth inhibitory effect of these cells was observed by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The result indicated that the length of the fragment cloned is 506 bp, and it contains an open-reading frame (ORF of 471 bp encoding 156 amino acids. Primary structure analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the putative RPL23A protein is 17.719 kDa with a theoretical pI 11.16. The molecular weight of the recombinant protein RPL23A is 21.265 kDa with a theoretical pI 10.57. The RPL23A gene can be really expressed in E. coli and the RPL23A protein, fusioned with the N-terminally His-tagged protein, gave rise to the accumulation of an expected 22 KDa polypeptide. The data showed that the recombinant protein RPL23A had a time- and dose-dependency on the cell growth inhibition rate. The data also indicated that the effect at low concentrations was better than at high concentrations on Hep-2 cells, and that the concentration of 0.185 μg/mL had the best rate of growth inhibition of 36.31%. All results of the experiment revealed that the recombinant protein RPL23A exhibited anti-cancer function on the Hep-2 cells. The study provides a scientific basis and aids

  15. Plasmid-Chromosome Recombination of Irradiated Shuttle Vector DNA in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, John Stuart

    1987-09-01

    An autonomously replicating shuttle vector was used to investigate the enhancement of plasmid-chromosome recombination in mammalian host cells by ultraviolet light and gamma radiation. Sequences homologous to the shuttle vector were stably inserted into the genome of African Green Monkey kidney cells to act as the target substrate for these recombination events. The SV40- and pBR322-derived plasmid DNA was irradiated with various doses of radiation before transfection into the transformed mammalian host cells. The successful homologous transfer of the bacterial ampicillin resistance (amp^{rm r}) gene from the inserted sequences to replace a mutant amp^->=ne on the shuttle vector was identified by plasmid extraction and transformation into E. coli host cells. Ultraviolet light (UV) was found not to induce homologous plasmid-chromosome recombination, while gamma radiation increased the frequency of recombinant plasmids detected. The introduction of specific double -strand breaks in the plasmid or prolonging the time of plasmid residence in the mammalian host cells also enhanced plasmid-chromosome recombination. In contrast, plasmid mutagenesis was found to be increased by plasmid UV irradiation, but not to change with time. Plasmid survival, recombination, and mutagenesis were not affected by treating the mammalian host cells with UV light prior to plasmid transfection. The amp^{rm r} recombinant plasmid molecules analyzed were found to be mostly the result of nonconservative exchanges which appeared to involve both homologous and possibly nonhomologous interactions with the host chromosome. The observation that these recombinant structures were obtained from all of the plasmid alterations investigated suggests a common mechanistic origin for plasmid -chromosome recombination in these mammalian cells.

  16. Molecular cloning and mammalian expression of human beta 2-glycoprotein I cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Schousboe, Inger; Boel, Espen

    1991-01-01

    Human β2-glycoprotein (β2gpI) cDNA was isolated from a liver cDNA library and sequenced. The cDNA encoded a 19-residue hydrophobic signal peptide followed by the mature β2gpI of 326 amino acid residues. In liver and in the hepatoma cell line HepG2 there are two mRNA species of about 1.4 and 4.3 kb...

  17. EasyCloneMulti: A Set of Vectors for Simultaneous and Multiple Genomic Integrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maury, Jerome; Germann, Susanne Manuela; Jacobsen, Simo Abdessamad

    2016-01-01

    and a range of expression levels were obtained, as assessed with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system. The EasyCloneMulti vector set was applied to balance the expression of the rate-controlling step in the β-alanine pathway for biosynthesis of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP). The best 3HP......Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in the biotechnology industry for production of ethanol, recombinant proteins, food ingredients and other chemicals. In order to generate highly producing and stable strains, genome integration of genes encoding metabolic pathway enzymes is the preferred...... option. However, integration of pathway genes in single or few copies, especially those encoding rate-controlling steps, is often not sufficient to sustain high metabolic fluxes. By exploiting the sequence diversity in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of Ty retrotransposons, we developed a new set...

  18. Cloning of canine myocilin cDNA and molecular analysis of the myocilin gene in Shiba Inu dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko; Sasaki, Nobuo; Matsunaga, Satoru; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ogawa, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    To identify canine myocilin cDNA and compare its sequence in glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous Shiba Inu dogs with closed and open iridocorneal angles (ICAs). Total RNA was extracted from the ciliary body of the eyes of a healthy Beagle, and the canine myocilin gene was cloned and sequenced. Of the Shiba Inu dogs tested, five were glaucomatous with closed ICA, three were nonglaucomatous with open ICA, and two were nonglaucomatous with closed ICA. The genomic DNA of these dogs was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The exons of the canine myocilin gene were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequenced. The frequency of mutation in canine myocilin DNA was verified in these dogs by using the myocilin cDNA of a Beagle. The canine myocilin cDNA was 1452 bp long and contained the entire open reading frame encoding 483 amino acids. A leucine zipper-like motif and olfactomedin-like domain were conserved in the amino acid residues. The presence of sequence variants in the genomic DNA of Shiba Inu dogs was independent of the occurrence of glaucoma and ICA grading. Myocilin RNA was detected in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork (TM) of a Beagle. The myocilin sequence of Shiba Inu dogs suggests that myocilin mutations are unlikely to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of primary closed-angle glaucoma in this breed. However, several mutations in the myocilin gene in exon 1 of Shiba Inu dogs may predispose them to an obstruction in the anterior aqueous outflow.

  19. Rapid restriction enzyme-free cloning of PCR products: a high-throughput method applicable for library construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K Chaudhary

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe a novel cloning strategy for PCR-amplified DNA which employs the type IIs restriction endonuclease BsaI to create a linearized vector with four base-long 5'-overhangs, and T4 DNA polymerase treatment of the insert in presence of a single dNTP to create vector-compatible four base-long overhangs. Notably, the insert preparation does not require any restriction enzyme treatment. The BsaI sites in the vector are oriented in such a manner that upon digestion with BsaI, a stuffer sequence along with both BsaI recognition sequences is removed. The sequence of the four base-long overhangs produced by BsaI cleavage were designed to be non-palindromic, non-compatible to each other. Therefore, only ligation of an insert carrying compatible ends allows directional cloning of the insert to the vector to generate a recombinant without recreating the BsaI sites. We also developed rapid protocols for insert preparation and cloning, by which the entire process from PCR to transformation can be completed in 6-8 h and DNA fragments ranging in size from 200 to 2200 bp can be cloned with equal efficiencies. One protocol uses a single tube for insert preparation if amplification is performed using polymerases with low 3'-exonuclease activity. The other protocol is compatible with any thermostable polymerase, including those with high 3'-exonuclease activity, and does not significantly increase the time required for cloning. The suitability of this method for high-throughput cloning was demonstrated by cloning batches of 24 PCR products with nearly 100% efficiency. The cloning strategy is also suitable for high efficiency cloning and was used to construct large libraries comprising more than 108 clones/µg vector. Additionally, based on this strategy, a variety of vectors were constructed for the expression of proteins in E. coli, enabling large number of different clones to be rapidly generated.

  20. Cloning and DNA sequence analysis of an aac(3)-Vb gene from Serratia marcescens.

    OpenAIRE

    Rather, P N; Mierzwa, R; Hare, R S; Miller, G H; Shaw, K J

    1992-01-01

    The AAC(3)-V resistance mechanism is characterized by high-level resistance to the aminoglycosides gentamicin, netilmicin, 2'-N-ethylnetilmicin, and 6'-N-ethylnetilmicin and moderate resistance levels to tobramycin. Serratia marcescens 82041944 contains an AA(3)-V resistance mechanism as determined from aminoglycoside resistance profiles. This strain, however, does not exhibit hybridization with a probe derived from the previously cloned aac(3)-Va gene, (R. Allmansberger, B. Bräu, and W. Piep...

  1. cDNA Clones with Rare and Recurrent Mutations Found in Cancers | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at UT- MD Anderson Cancer Center has developed High-Throughput Mutagenesis and Molecular Barcoding (HiTMMoB)1,2 pipeline to construct mutant alleles open reading frame expression clones that are either recurrent or rare in cancers. These barcoded genes can be used for context-specific functional validation, detection of novel biomarkers (pathway activation) and targets (drug sensitivity).

  2. Clones of human ribosomal DNA containing the complete 18 S-rRNA and 28 S-rRNA genes. Characterization, a detailed map of the human ribosomal transcription unit and diversity among clones.

    OpenAIRE

    Maden, B E; Dent, C L; Farrell, T E; Garde, J; McCallum, F S; Wakeman, J A

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated several new clones of human ribosomal DNA. Each clone contains part of the external transcribed spacer, a complete 18 S-rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacers, a complete 28 S-rRNA gene and a short downstream flanking region. We present a detailed map of the human ribosomal transcription unit with the locations of numerous useful restriction sites. In particular, a unique NheI site in the 5.8 S-rRNA gene enabled this gene to be mapped with respect to the 18 S-rRNA and 28...

  3. Cloning and sequence analysis of H. contortus HC58cDNA gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenetic analysis revealed close evolutionary proximity of the protein sequence to counterpart sequences in the cathepsin B like proteases, suggesting that HC58cDNA was a member of the papain family. Keywords:Haemonchus contortus, HC58cDNA, cathepsin B like protease, papain family. Kenya Veterinarian Vol.

  4. Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenfeld, H.K.; Hershberger, R.J.; Shows, T.B.; Weissman, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a human T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease was obtained by screening a phage λgt10 cDNA library from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the mouse Hanukah factor cDNA clone. In an RNA blot-hybridization analysis, this human Hanukah factor cDNA hybridized with a 1.3-kilobase band in allogeneic-stimulated cytotoxic T cells and the Jurkat cell line, but this transcript was not detectable in normal muscle, liver, tonsil, or thymus. By dot-blot hybridization, this cDNA hybridized with RNA from three cytolytic T-cell clones and three noncytolytic T-cell clones grown in vitro as well as with purified CD16 + natural killer cells and CD3 + , CD16 - T-cell large granular lymphocytes from peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD = cluster designation). The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone encodes a predicted serine protease of 262 amino acids. The active enzyme is 71% and 77% similar to the mouse sequence at the amino acid and DNA level, respectively. The human and mouse sequences conserve the active site residues of serine proteases--the trypsin-specific Asp-189 and all 10 cysteine residues. The gene for the human Hanukah factor serine protease is located on human chromosome 5. The authors propose that this trypsin-like serine protease may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells

  5. From extensive clone libraries to comprehensive DNA arrays for the efficient and simultaneous detection and identification of orchid mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Bart; van Kerckhove, Stefan; Justé, Annelies; Cammue, Bruno P A; Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2010-01-01

    A DNA array was developed from extensive clone library sequence data sets for the assessment of dominant members of mycorrhizal fungi that associate with terrestrial orchid species. As a-proof-of-concept, the array was developed for the basidiomycetous mycorrhizal partners from three closely related perennial Orchis species, including Orchis anthropophora, O. militaris and O. purpurea. Based on internal transcribed spacer regions, oligonucleotides were developed for seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs; defined as groups of sequences sharing at least 97% sequence similarity), corresponding to members of the Tulasnellaceae family. In order to cover a broader spectrum of tulasnelloid fungi, oligonucleotides were as well developed for two subsets of closely related OTUs. The array was evaluated using multiple primer pairs. In addition, hybridization results were validated by recovery and sequencing of the hybridized amplicons as well as by hybridizing reference DNA samples. Considering the unlimited expansion possibilities of DNA arrays to include specific detector oligonucleotides for other and more microorganisms, the method described here has the major advantage that it provides a powerful, rapid and cost-effective way for the simultaneous detection and identification of a wide range of orchid mycorrhizae. The design, development and advantages of the array are discussed in relation to its potential for future research in mycorrhizal ecology. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. B-G cDNA clones have multiple small repeats and hybridize to both chicken MHC regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K

    1989-01-01

    We used rabbit antisera to the chicken MHC erythrocyte molecule B-G and to the class I alpha chain (B-F) to screen lambda gt11 cDNA expression libraries made with RNA selected by oligo-dT from bone marrow cells of anemic B19 homozygous chickens. Eight clones were found to encode B-G molecules which...... hybridize with sequences in the chicken MHC as defined by congenic strains; the fusion proteins react with multiple immune but not preimmune sera, they select antibodies from the antisera to B-G, which then react with distinct erythrocyte B-G protein patterns, and they elicit antibodies from mice which...... in turn react with authentic B-G proteins. None of the clones represent a complete message, some--if not all--bear introns, and none of them match with any sequences presently stored in the data banks. The following new information did, however, emerge. At least two homologous transcripts are present...

  7. Construction of gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast two-hybrid system combined with the gateway technology will greatly facilitate the cloning of interested DNA fragment into yeast two-hybrid vectors and therefore increase the efficiency of yeast two-hybrid analysis. In this study, we constructed a pair of Gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors pBTM116GW and ...

  8. Cloning and sequencing of complete τ-crystallin cDNA from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    length τ-crystallin cDNA from crocodilian lens and α-enolase from other tissues. ... human (Acc. No. NM_001428). The sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree depicting gene lineage, using the clustering program DNAML.

  9. B-G cDNA clones have multiple small repeats and hybridize to both chicken MHC regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K

    1989-01-01

    in turn react with authentic B-G proteins. None of the clones represent a complete message, some--if not all--bear introns, and none of them match with any sequences presently stored in the data banks. The following new information did, however, emerge. At least two homologous transcripts are present...... hybridize with sequences in the chicken MHC as defined by congenic strains; the fusion proteins react with multiple immune but not preimmune sera, they select antibodies from the antisera to B-G, which then react with distinct erythrocyte B-G protein patterns, and they elicit antibodies from mice which...... could explain the bewildering variation in size of B-G proteins within and between haplotypes. Southern blots of genomic chicken DNA gave complex patterns for most probes, with many bands in common using different probes, but few bands in common between haplotypes. The sequences detected are all present...

  10. Cloning, localization and focus formation at DNA damage sites of canine XLF

    OpenAIRE

    KOIKE, Manabu; YUTOKU, Yasutomo; KOIKE, Aki

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair processes, especially nonhomologous DNA-end joining (NHEJ), is critical for developing next-generation radiotherapies and chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers. The localization, protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications of core NHEJ factors, such as human Ku70 and Ku80, might play critical roles in controlling NHEJ activity. XRCC4-like factor (XLF) is a core NHEJ factor and plays a...

  11. Cloning, localization and focus formation at DNA damage sites of canine XRCC4

    OpenAIRE

    KOIKE, Manabu; YUTOKU, Yasutomo; KOIKE, Aki

    2016-01-01

    Various chemotherapies and radiation therapies are useful for killing cancer cells mainly by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Uncovering the molecular mechanisms of DSB repair processes is crucial for developing next-generation radiotherapies and chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers. XRCC4 plays a critical role in Ku-dependent nonhomologous DNA-end joining (NHEJ) in human cells, and is one of the core NHEJ factors. The localization of core NHEJ factors, such as human Ku70 a...

  12. Isolation and characterization of a steroid sulfatase cDNA clone: genomic deletions in patients with X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballabio, A.; Parenti, G.; Carrozzo, R.; Sebastio, G.; Andria, G.; Buckle, V.; Fraser, N.; Craig, I.; Rocchi, M.; Romeo, G.; Jobsis, A.C.; Persico, M.G.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have isolated several cDNA clones from a lambdagt11 expression library by screening with antibodies prepared against the microsomal enzyme steroid sulfatase, which is deficient in classical X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis patients. One of these clones (p422) has been assigned by mapping with a somatic cell hybrid panel and by in situ hybridization to Xp22.3. Clone p422 therefore has a coincident localization with the previously identified locus for steroid sulfatase expression in the region of the X chromosome escaping from inactivation. Twelve steroid sulfatase-deficient patients, including eight cases of classical ichthyosis, were found to be deleted for genomic sequences detected by the clone.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a steroid sulfatase cDNA clone: genomic deletions in patients with X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballabio, A.; Parenti, G.; Carrozzo, R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated several cDNA clones from a λgt11 expression library by screening with antibodies prepared against the microsomal enzyme steroid sulfatase, which is deficient in classical X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis patients. One of these clones (p422) has been assigned by mapping with a somatic cell hybrid panel and by in situ hybridization to Xp22.3. Clone p422 therefore has a coincident localization with the previously identified locus for steroid sulfatase expression in the region of the X chromosome escaping from inactivation. Twelve steroid sulfatase-deficient patients, including eight cases of classical ichthyosis, were found to be deleted for genomic sequences detected by the clone

  14. Cloning and Characterization of a Complex DNA Fingerprinting Probe for Candida parapsilosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, Lee; Joly, Sophie; Pujol, Claude; Simonson, Patricia; Pfaller, Michael; Soll, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis accounts for a significant number of nosocomial fungemias, but in fact, no effective and verified genetic fingerprinting method has emerged for assessing the relatedness of independent isolates for epidemiological studies. A complex 15-kb DNA fingerprinting probe, Cp3-13, was therefore isolated from a library of C. parapsilosis genomic DNA fragments. The efficacy of Cp3-13 for DNA fingerprinting was verified by a comparison of its clustering capacity with those of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and internally transcribed spacer region sequencing, by testing species specificity, and by assessing its capacity to identify microevolutionary changes both in vitro and in vivo. Southern blot hybridization of EcoRI/SalI-digested DNA with Cp3-13 provides a fingerprinting system that (i) identifies the same strain in independent isolates, (ii) discriminates between unrelated isolates, (iii) separates independent isolates into valid groups in a dendrogram, (iv) identifies microevolution in infecting populations, and (v) is amenable to automatic computer-assisted DNA fingerprint analysis. This probe is now available for epidemiological studies. PMID:11158125

  15. Isolation and expression of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor cDNA clones: Homology to Epstein-Barr virus open reading frame BCRFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, P.; De Waal-Malefyt, R.; Dang, M.N.; Johnson, K.E.; Kastelein, R.; Fiorentino, D.F.; DeVries, J.E.; Roncarolo, M.G.; Mosmann, T.R.; Moore, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors demonstrated the existence of human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (DSIF) [interleukin 10 (IL-10)]. cDNA clones encoding human IL-10 (hIL-10) were isolated from a tetanus toxin-specific human T-cell clone. Like mouse IL-10, hIL-10 exhibits strong DNA and amino acid sequence homology to an open reading frame in the Epstein-Barr virus, BDRFL. hIL-10 and the BCRFI product inhibit cytokine synthesis by activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and by a mouse Th1 clone. Both hIL-10 and mouse IL-10 sustain the viability of a mouse mast cell line in culture, but BCRFI lacks comparable activity in this way, suggesting that BCRFI may have conserved only a subset of hIL-10 activities

  16. TA-GC cloning: A new simple and versatile technique for the directional cloning of PCR products for recombinant protein expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Niarchos

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, the recombinant protein expression finds more and more applications. The cloning of protein-coding genes into expression vectors is required to be directional for proper expression, and versatile in order to facilitate gene insertion in multiple different vectors for expression tests. In this study, the TA-GC cloning method is proposed, as a new, simple and efficient method for the directional cloning of protein-coding genes in expression vectors. The presented method features several advantages over existing methods, which tend to be relatively more labour intensive, inflexible or expensive. The proposed method relies on the complementarity between single A- and G-overhangs of the protein-coding gene, obtained after a short incubation with T4 DNA polymerase, and T and C overhangs of the novel vector pET-BccI, created after digestion with the restriction endonuclease BccI. The novel protein-expression vector pET-BccI also facilitates the screening of transformed colonies for recombinant transformants. Evaluation experiments of the proposed TA-GC cloning method showed that 81% of the transformed colonies contained recombinant pET-BccI plasmids, and 98% of the recombinant colonies expressed the desired protein. This demonstrates that TA-GC cloning could be a valuable method for cloning protein-coding genes in expression vectors.

  17. Optimal cloning of PCR fragments by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Ana Paula; Gross, Jeferson

    2015-01-01

    PCR fragments and linear vectors containing overlapping ends are easily assembled into a propagative plasmid by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Although this gap-repair cloning approach is straightforward, its existence is virtually unknown to most molecular biologists. To popularize this method, we tested critical parameters influencing the efficiency of PCR fragments cloning into PCR-amplified vectors by homologous recombination in the widely used E. coli strain DH5α. We found that the number of positive colonies after transformation increases with the length of overlap between the PCR fragment and linear vector. For most practical purposes, a 20 bp identity already ensures high-cloning yields. With an insert to vector ratio of 2:1, higher colony forming numbers are obtained when the amount of vector is in the range of 100 to 250 ng. An undesirable cloning background of empty vectors can be minimized during vector PCR amplification by applying a reduced amount of plasmid template or by using primers in which the 5' termini are separated by a large gap. DpnI digestion of the plasmid template after PCR is also effective to decrease the background of negative colonies. We tested these optimized cloning parameters during the assembly of five independent DNA constructs and obtained 94% positive clones out of 100 colonies probed. We further demonstrated the efficient and simultaneous cloning of two PCR fragments into a vector. These results support the idea that homologous recombination in E. coli might be one of the most effective methods for cloning one or two PCR fragments. For its simplicity and high efficiency, we believe that recombinational cloning in E. coli has a great potential to become a routine procedure in most molecular biology-oriented laboratories.

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of infectious molecular clones of feline immunodeficiency virus obtained directly from bone marrow DNA of a naturally infected cat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); I-H. Chu (I-Hai); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); K. Weijer (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.L. Bosch (Marnix)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractReplication-competent molecular clones of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were isolated directly from the DNA of bone marrow cells of a naturally FIV-infected cat. After transfection in a feline kidney cell line (CrFK) and subsequent cocultivation with peripheral blood mononuclear

  19. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  20. The proviral genome of radiation leukemia virus (RadLV): molecular cloning, restriction analysis and integration sites in tumor cell DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowski, M.; Merregaert, J.; Nuyten, J.M.; Maisin, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    An infectious clone of the linear, unintegrated RadLV provirus was obtained by insertion in the plasmid pBR322. Its restriction map was indistinguishable from that of the majority of the multiple proviral copies, which are found apparently at random sites in the DNA of RadLV-induced rat thymic lymphomas [fr

  1. Detecting deletions, insertions, and single nucleotide substitutions in cloned β-globin genes and new polymorphic nucleotide substitutions in β-globin genes in a Japanese population using ribonuclease cleavage at mismatches in RNA: DNA duplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Mieko; Satoh, Chiyoko.

    1990-08-01

    The applicability of ribonuclease (RNase) cleavage at mismatches in RNA:DNA duplexes (the RNase cleavage method) for determining nucleotide variant rates was examined in a Japanese population. DNA segments of various lengths obtained from four different regions of one normal and three thalassemic cloned human β-globin genes were inserted into transcription vectors. Sense and antisense RNA probes uniformly labeled with 32 P were prepared. When RNA probes of 771 nucleotides (nt) or less were hybridized with cloned DNAs and the resulting duplexes were treated with a mixture of RNases A and T1, the length of products agreed with theoretical values. Twelve possible mismatches were examined. Since both sense and antisense probes were used, uncleavable mismatches such as G:T and G:G which were made from one combination of RNA and DNA strands could be converted to the cleavable C:A and C:C mismatches, respectively, by using the opposite combination. Deletions and insertions of one (G), four(TTCT), five (ATTTT), and 10 (ATTTTATTTT) nt were easily detected. A polymorphic substitution of T to C at position 666 of the second intervening sequence (IVS2-666) of the β-globin gene was detected using genomic DNAs from cell lines established from the peripheral B lymphocytes of 59 unrelated Japanese from Hiroshima or those amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of the gene with C at the IVS2-666 (allele C) was 0.48 and that of the gene with T (allene T) was 0.52. Two new polymorphic substitutions of C to A and A to T were detected at nucleotide positions 1789 and 1945 from the capping site, respectively, using genomic DNAs amplified by PCR. We conclude that it would be feasible to use the RNase cleavage method combined with PCR for large-scale screening of variation in chromosomal DNA. (J.P.N.)

  2. The DNA-instability test as a specific marker of malignancy and its application to detect cancer clones in borderline malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fukuda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in cytogenetic and biochemical mutator assay technologies has enabled us to detect single gene alterations and gross chromosomal rearrangements, and it became clear that all cancer cells are genetically unstable. In order to detect the genome-wide instability of cancer cells, a new simple method, the DNA-instability test, was developed. The methods to detect genomic instability so far reported have only demonstrated the presence of qualitative and quantitative alterations in certain specific genomic loci. In contrast to these commonly used methods to reveal the genomic instability at certain specific DNA regions, the newly introduced DNA-instability test revealed the presence of physical DNA-instability in the entire DNA molecule of a cancer cell nucleus as revealed by increased liability to denature upon HCl hydrolysis or formamide exposure. When this test was applied to borderline malignancies, cancer clones were detected in all cases at an early-stage of cancer progression. We proposed a new concept of “procancer” clones to define those cancer clones with “functional atypia” showing positivities for various cancer markers, as well as DNA-instability testing, but showing no remarkable ordinary “morphological atypia” which is commonly used as the basis of histopathological diagnosis of malignancy.

  3. Modeling DNA affinity landscape through two-round support vector regression with weighted degree kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xiaolei

    2014-12-12

    Background: A quantitative understanding of interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their DNA binding sites is key to the rational design of gene regulatory networks. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled high-resolution measurements of protein-DNA binding affinity. Importantly, such experiments revealed the complex nature of TF-DNA interactions, whereby the effects of nucleotide changes on the binding affinity were observed to be context dependent. A systematic method to give high-quality estimates of such complex affinity landscapes is, thus, essential to the control of gene expression and the advance of synthetic biology. Results: Here, we propose a two-round prediction method that is based on support vector regression (SVR) with weighted degree (WD) kernels. In the first round, a WD kernel with shifts and mismatches is used with SVR to detect the importance of subsequences with different lengths at different positions. The subsequences identified as important in the first round are then fed into a second WD kernel to fit the experimentally measured affinities. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to increase the accuracy of the affinity prediction by applying two rounds of string kernels and by identifying a small number of crucial k-mers. The proposed method was tested by predicting the binding affinity landscape of Gcn4p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using datasets from HiTS-FLIP. Our method explicitly identified important subsequences and showed significant performance improvements when compared with other state-of-the-art methods. Based on the identified important subsequences, we discovered two surprisingly stable 10-mers and one sensitive 10-mer which were not reported before. Further test on four other TFs in S. cerevisiae demonstrated the generality of our method. Conclusion: We proposed in this paper a two-round method to quantitatively model the DNA binding affinity landscape. Since the ability to modify

  4. Molecular cloning and analysis of DNA repair gene from the radioresistant bacterium deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Wang Mingsuo

    1998-12-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans (Dr) possesses a prominent ability to repair DNA injury induced by various DNA-damaging agents including mitomycin C (MC), ultraviolet light (UV) and ionizing radiation. A DNA repair mutant Dr KH3111 is a streptomycin resistant (Sm R ) derivative of KH311 which is generated by treatment with nitrosoguanidine and is sensitive to MC, 8-trimethyl-psoralen, UV and γ-ray irradiation. Gene affected by a mutation in the mutant is identified and its nucleotide sequence is determined. A complete open reading frame (ORF) which encompassed the KH3111 mutation region is found and tentatively designated as orf144b. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence of orf144b consists of 284 aa and has no significant homology to other known proteins. The exact KH3111 mutation site is one nucleotide altered (G to A) in the sequence of orf144b in the mutant. The KH3111 mutation causes the substitution of Gly for Glu at aa position 149 of Orf144b. Survival measurements of a revertant KH3112 which was produced by transforming with DNA containing a part of the orf144b gene of KD8301 showed that the resistances to MC, UV and γ-ray in the revertant were fully restored at a level equal to the wild type. Thus, the orf144b gene required for the multiple-DNA-damaging agent resistance of Dr was designated with the name of pprA (Pleiotropic gene promoting DNA repair). This new gene can express in E. coli at very high level, and make the host E. coli resistant to MC, UV and γ-ray. The pprA gene does not express in normal Dr, but it can be induced to express by treatment with MC, UV and γ-ray. It was thought that the PprA polypeptide is a cytoplasmic protein because of the absence of characteristics found in the aa sequence of membrane proteins

  5. Isolation of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase cDNA clones from Angelonia x angustifolia and heterologous expression as GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gosch

    Full Text Available Blue Angelonia × angustifolia flowers can show spontaneous mutations resulting in white/blue and white flower colourations. In such a white line, a loss of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR activity was observed whereas chalcone synthase and flavanone 3-hydroxylase activity remained unchanged. Thus, cloning and characterization of a DFR of Angelonia flowers was carried out for the first time. Two full length DFR cDNA clones, Ang.DFR1 and Ang.DFR2, were obtained from a diploid chimeral white/blue Angelonia × angustifolia which demonstrated a 99% identity in their translated amino acid sequence. In comparison to Ang.DFR2, Ang.DFR1 was shown to contain an extra proline in a proline-rich region at the N-terminus along with two exchanges at the amino acids 12 and 26 in the translated amino acid sequence. The recombinant Ang.DFR2 obtained by heterologous expression in yeast was functionally active catalyzing the NADPH dependent reduction of dihydroquercetin (DHQ and dihydromyricetin (DHM to leucocyanidin and leucomyricetin, respectively. Dihydrokaempferol (DHK in contrast was not accepted as a substrate despite the presence of asparagine in a position assumed to determine DHK acceptance. We show that substrate acceptance testing of DFRs provides biased results for DHM conversion if products are extracted with ethyl acetate. Recombinant Ang.DFR1 was inactive and functional activity could only be restored via exchanges of the amino acids in position 12 and 26 as well as the deletion of the extra proline. E. coli transformation of the pGEX-6P-1 vector harbouring the Ang.DFR2 and heterologous expression in E. coli resulted in functionally active enzymes before and after GST tag removal. Both the GST fusion protein and purified DFR minus the GST tag could be stored at -80°C for several months without loss of enzyme activity and demonstrated identical substrate specificity as the recombinant enzyme obtained from heterologous expression in yeast.

  6. Nuclear DNA polymerase beta from Leishmania infantum. Cloning, molecular analysis and developmental regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taladriz, Soraya; Hanke, Tobias; Ramiro, María J.; García-Díaz, Miguel; Lacoba, Mario García de; Blanco, Luis; Larraga, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    We have identified a novel polymerase beta (Pol β)-like enzyme from Leishmania infantum, a parasite protozoon causing disease in humans. This protein, named Li Pol β, shows a nuclear localization that contrasts with the mitochondrial localization of Pol β from Crithidia fasciculata, a closely related parasite, the only polymerase β described so far in Trypanosomatidae. Li Pol β, that belongs to the DNA polymerase X family, displays an evolutionarily conserved Pol β-type DNA polymerase core, in which most of the key residues involved in DNA binding, nucleotide binding, dRPase and polymerization catalysis are conserved. In agreement with this, Li Pol β, overproduced in Escherichia coli, displayed intrinsic DNA polymerase activity. Cell synchronization experiments showed a correlation between both Li Pol β mRNA and protein levels along the parasite cell cycle. Analysis of these parameters at the different growth phases of the parasite, from the proliferative (non-infective) logarithmic phase to the non-dividing (highly infectious) stationary phase, showed high levels of Li Pol β at the infective phase of the parasite. The data suggest a role of Li Pol β in base excision repair in L.infantum, a parasite usually affected by oxygen stress environments into the macrophage host cells. PMID:11557814

  7. Cloning and sequencing of complete τ-crystallin cDNA from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    brain, heart and gonad, suggesting both to be the product of the same gene. The study thus provides the first report on cDNA sequence of τ-crystallin from a reptilian species and also re-confirms it to be an example of the phenomenon of gene sharing as was demonstrated earlier in the case of peking duck. Moreover, the ...

  8. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus ...

  9. Cloning a cDNA for the lysosomal alpha-glucosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KONINGS, A.; HUPKES, P.; Versteeg, R.; Grosveld, G.; Reuser, A.; Galjaard, H.

    1984-01-01

    Messenger RNA was isolated from monkey testes and size-fractionated on sucrose gradients. In vitro translation of these mRNA fractions resulted in nascent, labeled alpha-glucosidase that could be precipitated with anti human alpha-glucosidase antiserum. A cDNA library was constructed from the most

  10. Efficient recovery of environmental DNA for expression cloning by indirect extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabor, Esther; de Vries, Erik; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Using direct and cell extraction-based (indirect) isolation methods, DNA was obtained from environmental samples with largely differing characteristics (loam soil, sand soil, sediment, activated sludge, and compost) and evaluated with respect to the comprised bacterial diversity and its suitability

  11. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Evans and Long 1921) and the human growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA was per- haps the first to be isolated and characterized (Li and. Evans 1944). GH, chorionic somatomamotropin (placental lactogen) and prolactin (PRL) are all a family of ...

  12. Cloning and determination of biochemical properties of protective and broadly conserved vaccine antigens from the genome of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli into pET28a vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Kheirvari Khezerloo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are one of the most common infectious diseases that lead to significant health problems in the world. Urinary tract infections are referred to any infection in any part of the renal system. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella are main organisms that are involved in these infections. After identifying same protective and conserved virulence sequences in these microorganisms with similarity upper than 80%, sequences of synthetic gene was provided by bioinformatics techniques and ordered from Thermo Fisher Scientific Company. PCR amplification of this gene was performed by specific primers designed for this purpose. Construction of gene was performed by overlap PCR. The synthetic gene was cloned into pET28a vector. Our gene was amplified in E. coli Top10 tested. To confirm cloning, three methods including colony PCR, digestion and sequencing were used. First, two techniques were performed using horizontal electrophoresis, and also the synthetic gene showed significant homology with the sequence (99% Identified in sequencing. Sequencing of this gene showed that fusion was constructed correctly. Determination of biochemical properties such as 3D structure, Ramachandran and comparison of Non-redundant Set of PDB structure was done by bioinformatic software and had exact and expectable results. A large part of the health system in the world is occupied by a urinary tract infection and governments spend a huge amount of money for the treatment and recovery of patients with these infections. On the other hands, antibiotic resistance in the not-far future will be a disaster for medical societies. This is the most important reason for the emergence of vaccine production against urinary tract infections.

  13. Fast and Efficient Cloning of Cis-Regulatory Sequences for High-Throughput Yeast One-Hybrid Analyses of Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Zsolt; Przybyla-Toscano, Jonathan; Tissot, Nicolas; Lepiniec, Loïc; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay has been proven to be a powerful technique to characterize in vivo the interaction between a given transcription factor (TF), or its DNA-binding domain (DBD), and target DNA sequences. Comprehensive characterization of TF/DBD and DNA interactions should allow designing synthetic promoters that would undoubtedly be valuable for biotechnological approaches. Here, we use the ligation-independent cloning system (LIC) in order to enhance the cloning efficiency of DNA motifs into the pHISi Y1H vector. LIC overcomes important limitations of traditional cloning technologies, since any DNA fragment can be cloned into LIC compatible vectors without using restriction endonucleases, ligation, or in vitro recombination.

  14. Cloning a T-DNA-Linked Phosphate Gene that mediates Salt Tolerance on Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njoroge, N.C; Tremblay, L.; Lefebvre, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    T-DNA insertionally mutagenized seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were used to unravel genetic mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in plants. Over a period of two weeks, kanamycin homozygous (KK) seeds of the mutant NN143 attain germination levels of 65% and 77% on 175mM Nacl and 300mM mannitol respectively. Under these conditions of osmotic stress, the wild type seeds were incapable of germination. The mutant was also capable of germination on a medium containing 2μM abscisic acid (ABA). After two weeks on 2μM ABA, it attained 100% germination and the wild type did not germinate. The ABA level in the mutant was 40% higher than the wild type. Segregation analysis indicated that salt tolerance in the mutant is T-DNA linked. Genetic analysis of the F1 and F2 generations indicated that the salt tolerance trait in the mutant is dominant. The putative salt tolerance gene of mutant NN143 was cloned by plasmid rescue and sequence data indicated involvement of a protein phosphatase. The possible mechanism underlying salt tolerance in the mutant is discussed.(author)

  15. Cloning of partial cDNA encoding differentiation and tumor-associated mucin glycoproteins expressed by human mammary epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gender, S.J.; Burchell, J.M.; Duhig, T.; Lamport, D.; White, R.; Parker, M.; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J.

    1987-09-01

    Human mammary epithelial cells secrete and express on their cell surfaces complex mucin glycoproteins that are developmentally regulated, tumor-associated, and highly immunogenic. Studies using monoclonal antibodies directed to these glycoproteins suggest that their molecular structures can vary with differentiation stages in the normal gland and in malignancy. To analyze the molecular nature of these glycoproteins, milk mucin was affinity-purifed and deglycosylated with hydrogen fluoride, yielding bands at 68 and 72 kDa on silver-stained gels. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to the stripped core protein were developed and used to screen a lambdagt11 expression library of cDNA made from mRNA of the mammary tumor cell line MCF-7. Seven crossreacting clones were isolated, with inserts 0.1-1.8 kilobases long. RNA blot analysis, using as a probe the 1.8-kilobase insert subcloned in plasmid pUC8 (pMUC10), revealed transcripts of 4.7 and 6.4 kilobases in MCF-7 and T47D mammary tumor cells, whereas normal mammary epithelial cells from pooled milks have additional transcripts. The expression of mRNA correlates with antigen expression as determined by binding of two previously characterized anti-mucin monoclonal antibodies (HMFG-1 and HMFG-2) to seven cell lines. Restriction enzyme analysis detected a restriction fragment length polymorphism when human genomic DNA was digested with EcoRI or HinfI.

  16. Cloning of a cDNA encoding the human cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate-specific receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, R.; Nagel, G.; Schmidt, B.

    1987-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones for the human cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate-specific receptor have been isolated from a human placenta library in λgt11. The nucleotide sequence of the 2463-base-pair cDNA insert includes a 145-base-pair 5' untranslated region, an open reading frame of 831 base pairs corresponding to 277 amino acids, and a 1487-base-pair 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence is colinear with that determined by amino acid sequencing of the N-terminus peptide (41 residues) and nine tryptic peptides (93 additional residues). The receptor is synthesized as a precursor with a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The hydrophobicity profile of the receptor indicates a single membrane-spanning domain, which separates an N-terminal region containing five potential N-glycosylation sites from a C-terminal region lacking N-glycosylation sites. Thus the N-terminal (M/sub r/ = 18,299) and C-terminal (M/sub r/ ≤ 7648) segments of the mature receptor are assumed to be exposed to the extracytosolic and cytosolic sides of the membrane, respectively. Analysis of a panel of somatic cell (mouse-human) hybrids shows that the gene for the receptor is located on human chromosome 12

  17. Cloning and DNA sequence of the mercuric- and organomercurial-resistance determinants of plasmid pDU1358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, H.G.; Foster, T.J.; Silver, S.; Misra, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    The broad-spectrum mercurial-resistance plasmid pDU1358 was analyzed by cloning the resistance determinants and preparing a physical and genetic map of a 45-kilobase (kb) region of the plasmid that contains two separate mercurial-resistance operons that mapped about 20 kb apart. One encoded narrow-spectrum mercurial resistance to Hg 2+ and a few organomercurials; the other specified broad-spectrum resistance to phenylmercury and additional organomercurials. Each determinant governed mercurial transport functions. Southern DNA x DNA hybridization experiments using gene-specific probes from the plasmid R100 mer operon indicated close homology with the R100 deteminant. The 2153 base pairs of the promoter-distal part of the broad-spectrum Hg 2+ -resistance operon of pDU1358 were sequenced. This region included the 3'-terminal part of the merA gene, merD, unidentified reading frame URF1, and a part of URF2 homologous to previously sequenced determinants of plasmid R100. Between the merA and merD genes, an open reading frame encoding a 212 amino acid polypeptide was identified as the merB gene that determines the enzyme organomercurial lyase that cleaves the C-Hg bond of phenylmercury

  18. Purification, reactivity with IgE and cDNA cloning of parvalbumin as the major allergen of mackerels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Y; Tanaka, H; Ishizaki, S; Ishida, M; Nagashima, Y; Shiomi, K

    2003-08-01

    Three species of mackerels (Scomber japonicus, S. australasicus and S. scombrus) are widely consumed and considered to be most frequently involved in incidents of IgE-mediated fish allergy in Japan. In this study, parvalbumin, a possible candidate for the major allergen, was purified from the white muscle of three species of mackerels by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and reverse-phase HPLC on TSKgel ODS-120T. All the purified preparations from three species gave a single band of about 11 kDa and were clearly identified as parvalbumins by analyses of their partial amino acid sequences. In ELISA experiments, four of five sera from fish-allergic patients reacted to all the purified parvalbumins, demonstrating that parvalbumin is the major allergen in common with the mackerels. Antigenic cross-reactivity among the mackerel parvalbumins was also established by ELISA inhibition experiments. A cDNA library was constructed from the white muscle of S. japonicus and the cDNA encoding parvalbumin was cloned. The amino acid sequence translated from the nucleotide sequence revealed that the S. japonicus parvalbumin is composed of 108 residues, being a member of beta-type parvalbumins.

  19. Mouse microsomal triglyceride transfer protein large subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue-specific expression, and chromosomal localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamuta, Makoto; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Hoogeveen, R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) catalyzes the transfer of triglyceride, cholesteryl ester, and phospholipid between membranes. It is essential for the secretion of apolipoprotein B from the cell. Mutations in MTP are a major cause of abetalipoproteinemia. The mouse is a popular animal model for lipoprotein metabolism. We have cloned and sequenced mouse MTP cDNA. The DNA-deduced amino acid sequence indicates that mouse protein shows 93, 86, and 83% sequence indicates that mouse MTP contains 894 amino acids; the mouse protein shows 93, 86, and 83% sequence identity to the hamster, human, and bovine sequences, respectively. Northern blot analysis indicates that mouse MTP mRNA is expressed at high levels in the small intestine and at substantially lower levels in the liver and that it is not detectable in six other tissues examined. The mouse MTP gene has been localized to the distal region of chromosome 3 by Southern blots of interspecific backcross panels using progeny derived from matings of (C57BL/6J x SPRET/Ei)F1 x SPRET/Ei. Comparison of MTP sequences from human, bovine, hamster, and mouse indicates that the C-terminal region of MTP is better conserved than its N-terminal region. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  20. [Construction and transfection of eucaryotic expression recombinant vector containing truncated region of UL83 gene of human cytomegalovirus and it's sheltered effect as DNA vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rong-Bao; Li, Yan-Qiu; Wang, Ming-Li

    2006-06-01

    To construct eucaryotic expression recombinant vector containing vivo truncated region of UL83 gene of human cytomegalovirus, realize its steady expression in Hep-2 cell, and study sheltered effect of the eucaryotic expression recombinant vector as DNA vaccine. A vivo truncated UL83 gene fragment encoding for truncated HCMV pp65 was obtained by PCR from human cytomegalovirus AD169 stock genome. By gene recombinant ways, the truncated UL83 gene fragment was cloned into eucaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C1 with reported gene coding GFP to construct recombinant vector pEGFP-C1-UL83. The recombinant vector pEGFP-C1-UL83 was tested by different methods including PCR, restriction digestion and gene sequencing. Test results showed the recombinant vector was constructed successfully. After pEGFP-C1-UL83 was transfected into Hep-2 cell by lipofectin mediation, expression of GFP and truncated pp65 fusion protein in Hep-2 cell was observed at different time points by fluorescence microscope. Results showed that quantity of fusion protein expression was the highest at 36h point. Then, Hep-2 cell was cultured selectively by RPMI-1640 containing G418 (200 microg/mL) to obtain a new cell stock of expressing truncated UL83 Gene fragment steadily. RT-PCR and Western blot results showed the truncated fragment of UL83 gene could be expressed steadily in Hep-2 cell. The result showed a new cell stock of expressing Tpp65 was established. This cell stock could be useful in some HCMV research fields, for example, it could be a tool in study of pp65 and HCMV infection, and it could provide a platform for the research into the therapy of HCMV infection. Immune sheltered effect of pEGFP-C1-UL83 as DNA vaccine was studied in vivo of HCMV congenital infection mouse model. The mouse model was immunized solely by pEGFP-C1-UL83, and was immunized jointly by pEGFP-C1-UL83 and its expression product. When the mouse was pregnant and brought to bed, differential antibody of anti-HCMV pp65 was

  1. Lack of dependence on p53 for DNA double strand break repair of episomal vectors in human lymphoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, M.; Jorgensen, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene has been shown to be involved in a variety of repair processes, and recent findings have suggested that p53 may be involved in DNA double strand break repair in irradiated cells. The role of p53 in DNA double strand break repair, however, has not been fully investigated. In this study, we have constructed a novel Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based shuttle vector, designated as pZEBNA, to explore the influence of p53 on DNA strand break repair in human lymphoblasts, since EBV-based vectors do not inactivate the p53 pathway. We have compared plasmid survival of irradiated, restriction enzyme linearized, and calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIP)-treated pZEBNA with a Simian virus 40 (SV40)-based shuttle vector, pZ189, in TK6 (wild-type p53) and WTK1 (mutant p53) lymphoblasts and determined that p53 does not modulate DNA double strand break repair in these cell lines. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Characterization of Recombinant Thermococcus kodakaraensis (KOD) DNA Polymerases Produced Using Silkworm-Baculovirus Expression Vector System

    KAUST Repository

    Yamashita, Mami

    2017-05-08

    The KOD DNA polymerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tkod-Pol) has been preferred for PCR due to its rapid elongation rate, extreme thermostability and outstanding fidelity. Here in this study, we utilized silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS) to express the recombinant Tkod-Pol (rKOD) with N-terminal (rKOD-N) or C-terminal (rKOD-C) tandem fusion tags. By using BEVS, we produced functional rKODs with satisfactory yields, about 1.1 mg/larva for rKOD-N and 0.25 mg/larva for rKOD-C, respectively. Interestingly, we found that rKOD-C shows higher thermostability at 95 °C than that of rKOD-N, while that rKOD-N is significantly unstable after exposing to long period of heat-shock. We also assessed the polymerase activity as well as the fidelity of purified rKODs under various conditions. Compared with commercially available rKOD, which is expressed in E. coli expression system, rKOD-C exhibited almost the same PCR performance as the commercial rKOD did, while rKOD-N did lower performance. Taken together, our results suggested that silkworm-BEVS can be used to express and purify efficient rKOD in a commercial way.

  3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Clones Reprogrammed via Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Transduction Contain Integrated Vector Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Weltner, J.; Anisimov, A.; Alitalo, K.; Otonkoski, T.; Trokovic, R.

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) by ectopic expression of key transcription factors. Current methods for the generation of integration-free iPSC are limited by the low efficiency of iPSC generation and by challenges in reprogramming methodology. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a potent gene delivery vehicle capable of efficient transduction of transgenic DNA into cells. rAAV stays mainly as an episome in nondividing cells, and the extent ...

  4. Why Clone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ways in which cloning might be useful. Cloning in Medicine Cloning for medical purposes has the ... people. How might cloning be used in medicine? Cloning animal models of disease Much of what researchers ...

  5. Migratory White Stork (Ciconia ciconia): A Potential Vector of the OXA-48-Producing Escherichia coli ST38 Clone in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Amira; Loucif, Lotfi; Ayachi, Ammar; Guehaz, Karima; Bendjama, Esma; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-12

    The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in white stork (Ciconia ciconia) migratory bird stools, and to investigate their molecular support on β-lactamase production. In March 2015, 32 fecal samples of white stork were collected in the Commune of El Madher Wilaya de Batna, in eastern Algeria. Samples were subjected to selective isolation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Representative colonies were screened phenotypically for carbapenemase production. Carbapenemase-producing isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) coproduction. β-Lactamase determinants were searched for by PCR and sequencing. Three carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli were obtained. Only one strain was positive for ESBL production. The OXA-48-type carbapenemase-encoding gene was detected in all isolates. Screening for other β-lactamase-encoding genes showed that all isolates coexpress the bla TEM gene, whereas one of them additionally harbored the bla CTX-M-15 ESBL gene. Multilocus sequence typing results showed that two strains belonged to the sequence type 38. This work demonstrated for the first time that the migratory white stork can play an important role in the dissemination of OXA-48-producing E. coli as a potential reservoir and vector.

  6. Establishment of Sequence-Tagged Sites on 15q11-q13 by Alu-Vector PCR Cloning of Yac-Generated Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Kim

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is caused by the loss of function of undefined gene(s on human chromosome 15. The majority of subjects have deletions involving maternally-derived chromosome 15q II-q 13, and the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO has been localized to the region between D15S10 and D15S113. In this study, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs, 6G-D4, 9H-D2 and 37D-F9, mapping within the AS SRO, were isolated from the ICI Y AC library. Alu-vector PCR products were amplified from the YACs and from YACs A229A2 and A33FI 0 which had been obtained from the St. Louis Y AC library. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced, and three new sequence-tagged sites were generated within the AS SRO, facilitating the characterization of gene(s involved in the Angelman syndrome.

  7. Cloning and sequencing of Indian Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) interleukin-3 cDNA

    KAUST Repository

    Sugumar, Thennarasu

    2011-12-12

    Full-length cDNA (435 bp) of the interleukin-3(IL-3) gene of the Indian water buffalo was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. This sequence had 96% nucleotide identity and 92% amino acid identity with bovine IL-3. There are 10 amino acid substitutions in buffalo compared with that of bovine. The amino acid sequence of buffalo IL-3 also showed very high identity with that of other ruminants, indicating functional cross-reactivity. Structural homology modelling of buffalo IL-3 protein with human IL-3 showed the presence of five helical structures.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of a cDNA Encoding a Novel Extracellular Peroxidase from Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patrick J.; O’Brien, Margaret M.; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    1999-01-01

    The white rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor secretes a large number of peroxidases which are believed to be involved in the degradation of polymeric lignin. These peroxidases have been classified previously as lignin peroxidases or manganese peroxidases (MnP). We have isolated a novel extracellular peroxidase-encoding cDNA sequence from T. versicolor CU1, the transcript levels of which are repressed by low concentrations of Mn2+ and induced by nitrogen and carbon but not induced in response to a range of stresses which have been reported to induce MnP expression. PMID:10049906

  9. Bioinformatics and expressional analysis of cDNA clones from floral buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena Ewa; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Cebula, Justyna; Hincha, Dirck; ZiÄ bska, Karolina; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2017-08-01

    The application of genomic approaches may serve as an initial step in understanding the complexity of biochemical network and cellular processes responsible for regulation and execution of many developmental tasks. The molecular mechanism of sex expression in cucumber is still not elucidated. A study of differential expression was conducted to identify genes involved in sex determination and floral organ morphogenesis. Herein, we present generation of expression sequence tags (EST) obtained by differential hybridization (DH) and subtraction technique (cDNA-DSC) and their characteristic features such as molecular function, involvement in biology processes, expression and mapping position on the genome.

  10. Directed mutagenesis of YAC-cloned DNA using a rapid, PCR-based screening protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R M; Burke, D T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a system which facilitates the rapid modification of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) insert DNA. Specific modifications, such as deletions, insertions and point mutations, can be generated by a two-step allele replacement method using the yeast translational suppressor, SUP4-o, as both a positive and negative selection. The introduction of the SUP4-o gene was successful in 4 out of 24 selected transformant colonies, while the subsequent homologous elimination occurred in 2 out of 30 colonies. The use of a simple, short-range PCR assay rapidly identified the correct events among the genetically selected isolates and should be generally applicable to YAC modifications. PMID:8811104

  11. Isolation of cDNA clones coding for human tissue factor: primary structure of the protein and cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, E.K.; Horton, R.; Bloem, L.

    1987-01-01

    Tissue factor is a membrane-bound procoagulant protein that activates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation in the presence of factor VII and calcium. λ Phage containing the tissue factor gene were isolated from a human placental cDNA library. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs indicates that tissue factor is synthesized as a higher molecular weight precursor with a leader sequence of 32 amino acids, while the mature protein is a single polypeptide chain composed of 263 residues. The derived primary structure of tissue factor has been confirmed by comparison to protein and peptide sequence data. The sequence of the mature protein suggests that there are three distinct domains: extracellular, residues 1-219; hydrophobic, residues 220-242; and cytoplasmic, residues 243-263. Three potential N-linked carbohydrate attachment sites occur in the extracellular domain. The amino acid sequence of tissue factor shows no significant homology with the vitamin K-dependent serine proteases, coagulation cofactors, or any other protein in the National Biomedical Research Foundation sequence data bank (Washington, DC)

  12. Integrative annotation of 21,037 human genes validated by full-length cDNA clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Imanishi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The human genome sequence defines our inherent biological potential; the realization of the biology encoded therein requires knowledge of the function of each gene. Currently, our knowledge in this area is still limited. Several lines of investigation have been used to elucidate the structure and function of the genes in the human genome. Even so, gene prediction remains a difficult task, as the varieties of transcripts of a gene may vary to a great extent. We thus performed an exhaustive integrative characterization of 41,118 full-length cDNAs that capture the gene transcripts as complete functional cassettes, providing an unequivocal report of structural and functional diversity at the gene level. Our international collaboration has validated 21,037 human gene candidates by analysis of high-quality full-length cDNA clones through curation using unified criteria. This led to the identification of 5,155 new gene candidates. It also manifested the most reliable way to control the quality of the cDNA clones. We have developed a human gene database, called the H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB; http://www.h-invitational.jp/. It provides the following: integrative annotation of human genes, description of gene structures, details of novel alternative splicing isoforms, non-protein-coding RNAs, functional domains, subcellular localizations, metabolic pathways, predictions of protein three-dimensional structure, mapping of known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, identification of polymorphic microsatellite repeats within human genes, and comparative results with mouse full-length cDNAs. The H-InvDB analysis has shown that up to 4% of the human genome sequence (National Center for Biotechnology Information build 34 assembly may contain misassembled or missing regions. We found that 6.5% of the human gene candidates (1,377 loci did not have a good protein-coding open reading frame, of which 296 loci are strong candidates for non-protein-coding RNA

  13. Cloning, localization and focus formation at DNA damage sites of canine XRCC4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2017-01-10

    Various chemotherapies and radiation therapies are useful for killing cancer cells mainly by inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Uncovering the molecular mechanisms of DSB repair processes is crucial for developing next-generation radiotherapies and chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers. XRCC4 plays a critical role in Ku-dependent nonhomologous DNA-end joining (NHEJ) in human cells, and is one of the core NHEJ factors. The localization of core NHEJ factors, such as human Ku70 and Ku80, might play a crucial role in regulating NHEJ activity. Recently, companion animals, such as canines, have been proposed to be a good model in many aspects of cancer research. However, the localization and regulation mechanisms of core NHEJ factors in canine cells have not been elucidated. Here, we show that the expression and subcellular localization of canine XRCC4 changes dynamically during the cell cycle. Furthermore, EYFP-canine XRCC4 accumulates quickly at laser-microirradiated DSB sites. The structure of a putative human XRCC4 nuclear localization signal (NLS) is highly conserved in canine, chimpanzee and mouse XRCC4. However, the amino acid residue corresponding to the human XRCC4 K210, thought to be important for nuclear localization, is not conserved in canine XRCC4. Our findings might be useful for the study of the molecular mechanisms of Ku-dependent NHEJ in canine cells and the development of new radiosensitizers that target XRCC4.

  14. Gateway Recombinational Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2018-01-02

    The Gateway recombinatorial cloning system was developed for cloning multiple DNA fragments in parallel (e.g., in 96-well formats) in a standardized manner using the same enzymes. Gateway cloning is based on the highly specific integration and excision reactions of bacteriophage λ into and out of the Escherichia coli genome. Because the sites of recombination (" att " sites) are much longer (25-242 bp) than restriction sites, they are extremely unlikely to occur by chance in DNA fragments. Therefore, the same recombination enzyme can be used to robustly clone many different fragments of variable size in parallel reactions. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Target-selective homologous recombination cloning for high-throughput generation of monoclonal antibodies from single plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Isobe, Masaharu

    2011-04-13

    Molecular cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells is one of the most promising technologies for the rapid development of monoclonal antibody drugs. However, the proper insertion of PCR-amplified immunoglobulin genes into expression vectors remains an obstacle to the high-throughput production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. We developed a single-step cloning method, target-selective homologous recombination (TS-HR), in which PCR-amplified immunoglobulin variable genes were selectively inserted into vectors, even in the presence of nonspecifically amplified DNA. TS-HR utilizes Red/ET-mediated homologous recombination with a target-selective vector (TS-vector) with unique homology arms on its termini. Using TS-HR, immunoglobulin variable genes were cloned directly into expression vectors by co-transforming unpurified PCR products and the TS-vector into E. coli. Furthermore, the high cloning specificity of TS-HR allowed plasmids to be extracted from pools of transformed bacteria without screening single colonies for correct clones. We present a one-week protocol for the production of recombinant mouse monoclonal antibodies from large numbers of single plasma cells. The time requirements and limitations of traditional cloning procedures for the production of recombinant immunoglobulins have been significantly reduced with the development of the TS-HR cloning technique. © 2011 Kurosawa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  16. Target-selective homologous recombination cloning for high-throughput generation of monoclonal antibodies from single plasma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobe Masaharu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes from single plasma cells is one of the most promising technologies for the rapid development of monoclonal antibody drugs. However, the proper insertion of PCR-amplified immunoglobulin genes into expression vectors remains an obstacle to the high-throughput production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. Results We developed a single-step cloning method, target-selective homologous recombination (TS-HR, in which PCR-amplified immunoglobulin variable genes were selectively inserted into vectors, even in the presence of nonspecifically amplified DNA. TS-HR utilizes Red/ET-mediated homologous recombination with a target-selective vector (TS-vector with unique homology arms on its termini. Using TS-HR, immunoglobulin variable genes were cloned directly into expression vectors by co-transforming unpurified PCR products and the TS-vector into E. coli. Furthermore, the high cloning specificity of TS-HR allowed plasmids to be extracted from pools of transformed bacteria without screening single colonies for correct clones. We present a one-week protocol for the production of recombinant mouse monoclonal antibodies from large numbers of single plasma cells. Conclusion The time requirements and limitations of traditional cloning procedures for the production of recombinant immunoglobulins have been significantly reduced with the development of the TS-HR cloning technique.

  17. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, B S; Haq, A K; Pomerantz, S H; Halaban, R

    1987-01-01

    Screening of a lambda gt11 human melanocyte cDNA library with antibodies against hamster tyrosinase (monophenol, L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) resulted in the isolation of 16 clones. The cDNA inserts from 13 of the 16 clones cross-hybridized with each other, indicating that they were from related mRNA species. One of the cDNA clones, Pmel34, detected one mRNA species with an approximate length of 2.4 kilobases that was expressed preferentially in normal and malignant melanocytes but not in other cell types. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence showed that the putative human tyrosinase is composed of 548 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62,610. The deduced protein contains glycosylation sites and histidine-rich sites that could be used for copper binding. Southern blot analysis of DNA derived from newborn mice carrying lethal albino deletion mutations revealed that Pmel34 maps near or at the c-albino locus, the position of the structural gene for tyrosinase. Images PMID:2823263

  18. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) Cloning Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15–52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of D...

  19. Cloning, localization and focus formation at DNA damage sites of canine XLF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Manabu; Yutoku, Yasutomo; Koike, Aki

    2017-01-20

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair processes, especially nonhomologous DNA-end joining (NHEJ), is critical for developing next-generation radiotherapies and chemotherapeutics for human and animal cancers. The localization, protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications of core NHEJ factors, such as human Ku70 and Ku80, might play critical roles in controlling NHEJ activity. XRCC4-like factor (XLF) is a core NHEJ factor and plays a key role in the Ku-dependent NHEJ repair process in human cells. Recently, companion animals, such as canines, have been proposed to be a good model for many aspects of cancer research, including the development of chemotherapeutics. However, the localization and regulation of core NHEJ factors in canine cells have not been elucidated. Here, we show that the localization of canine XLF changes dynamically during the cell cycle. EYFP-canine XLF localizes in the nuclei of interphase cells and accumulates immediately at microirradiated DSB sites. The structure of a putative human XLF nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a putative 14-3-3 binding motif are evolutionarily conserved in canine, chimpanzee and mouse XLF. However, the putative β-TRCP-recognizable degron of human XLF is not conserved in canine and mouse. Additionally, some vital human XLF phosphorylation sites, including the ATM major phosphorylation site (S251), are not conserved in canine XLF. Our findings might be useful for the study of the molecular mechanisms of NHEJ in canine cells and for the development of new radiosensitizers that target XLF.

  20. Cloning and characterization of dispersed repetitive DNA derived from microdissected sex chromosomes of Rumex acetosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Beatrice; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Lozano, Rafael; Parker, John S; de la Herrán, Roberto; Rejón, Carmelo Ruiz; Rejón, Manuel Ruiz; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel; Jamilena, Manuel

    2006-02-01

    Rumex acetosa is characterized by a multiple chromosome system (2n = 12 + XX for females, and 2n = 12 + XY1Y2 for males), in which sex is determined by the ratio between the number of X chromosomes and autosome sets. For a better understanding of the molecular structure and evolution of plant sex chromosomes, we have generated a sex chromosome specific library of R. acetosa by microdissection. The screening of this library has allowed us to identify 5 repetitive DNA families that have been characterized in detail. One of these families, DOP-20, has shown no homology with other sequences in databases. Nevertheless, the putative proteins encoded by the other 4 families, DOP-8, DOP-47, DOP-60, and DOP-61, show homology with proteins from different plant retroelements, including poly proteins from Ty3-gypsy- and Ty1-copia-like long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements, and reverse transcriptase from non-LTR retro elements. Results indicate that sequences from these 5 families are dispersed throughout the genome of both males and females, but no appreciable accumulation or differentiation of these types of sequences have been found in the Y chromosomes. These repetitive DNA sequences are more conserved in the genome of other dioecious species such as Rumex papillaris, Rumex intermedius, Rumex thyrsoides, Rumex hastatulus, and Rumex suffruticosus, than in the polygamous, gynodioecious, or hermaphrodite species Rumex induratus, Rumex lunaria, Rumex con glom er atus, Rumex crispus, and Rumex bucephalo phorus, which supports a single origin of dioecious species in this genus. The implication of these transposable elements in the origin and evolution of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes of R. acetosa is discussed.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a V-ATPase subunit C from the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis modulated during development and blood ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Ramalho-Ortigão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a serious tropical disease that affects approximately 500 thousand people worldwide every year. In the Americas, VL is caused by the parasite Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi mainly transmitted by the bite of the sand fly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite recent advances in the study of interaction between Leishmania and sand flies, very little is known about sand fly protein expression profiles. Understanding how the expression of proteins may be affected by blood feeding and/or presence of parasite in the vector's midgut might allow us to devise new strategies for controlling the spread of leishmaniasis. In this work, we report the characterization of a vacuolar ATPase subunit C from L. longipalpis by screening of a midgut cDNA library with a 220 bp fragment identified by means of differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the gene varies along insect development and is upregulated in males and bloodfed L. longipalpis, compared to unfed flies.

  2. Cloning of cytochrome P450 3A137 complementary DNA in silver carp and expression induction by ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Junguo; Lei, Wenlong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yaning; Li, Yuanlong

    2013-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, especially CYP 3A, are responsible for metabolizing of various kinds of endogenous and exogenous compounds in animals. In the present study, a full-length sequence of CYP 3A137 cDNA in silver carp was cloned and sequenced, and then a phylogenetic tree of CYP 3A was structured. Additionally, the acute toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) on silver carp and transcription and microsome enzyme activity of CYP 3A137 in the liver of silver fish after rifampicin or [C8mim]Br exposure were also determined in this study. The results show that the full length of CYP 3A137 cDNA is 1810 base pair (bp) long and contains an open reading frame of 1539bp encoding a protein of 513 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that CYP 3A137 is highly conserved in fish. Moreover, the results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction reveal that CYP 3A137 in silver carp is constitutively expressed in all tissues examined and the sequence of expression rate is liver>intestine>kidney>spleen>brain>heart>muscle. Finally, the results of acute toxicity tests indicate that both rifampicin and [C8mim]Br significantly up-regulate the expression of CYP 3A137 at mRNA level and increase CYP 3A137 enzyme activity in fish liver, suggesting that CYP 3A137 be involved in metabolism of [C8mim]Br in silver carp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression

  4. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-09-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression.

  5. Cloning and characterisation of the sagA gene of Aspergillus nidulans: a gene which affects sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W; Hooley, P; Farrington, S M; Shawcross, S G; Iwanejko, L A; Strike, P

    1999-03-01

    Mutations within the sagA gene of Aspergillus nidulans cause sensitisation to DNA-damaging chemicals but have no effect upon spontaneous or damage-induced mutation frequency. The sagA gene was cloned on a 19-kb cosmid-derived fragment by functional complementation of a sagA1 sagC3 double mutant; subsequently, a fragment of the gene was also isolated on a 3.9-kb genomic subclone. Initial sequencing of a small section of the 19-kb fragment allowed the design of primers that were subsequently used in RTPCR experiments to show that this DNA is transcribed. A 277-bp fragment derived from the transcribed region was used to screen an A. nidulans cDNA library, resulting in the isolation of a 1.4-kb partial cDNA clone which had sequence overlap with the genomic sagA fragment. This partial cDNA was incomplete but appeared to contain the whole coding region of sagA. The sagA1 mutant was shown to possess two mutations; a G-T transversion and a+ 1 frameshift due to insertion of a T. causing disruption to the C-terminal region of the SagA protein. Translation of the sagA cDNA predicts a protein of 378 amino acids, which has homology to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae End3 protein and also to certain mammalian proteins capable of causing cell transformation.

  6. [Cloning and functional characterization of a cDNA encoding isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in taxol biosynthesis in Taxus media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tian; Qiu, Fei; Chen, Min; Lan, Xiao-zhong; Liao, Zhi-hua

    2015-05-01

    Taxol is one of the most potent anti-cancer agents, which is extracted from the plants of Taxus species. Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI) catalyzes the reversible transformation between IPP and DMAPP, both of which are the general 5-carbon precursors for taxol biosynthesis. In the present study, a new gene encoding IPI was cloned from Taxus media (namely TmIPI with the GenBank Accession Number KP970677) for the first time. The full-length cDNA of TmIPI was 1 232 bps encoding a polypeptide with 233 amino acids, in which the conserved domain Nudix was found. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the sequence of TmIPI was highly similar to those of other plant IPI proteins, and the phylogenetic analysis showed that there were two clades of plant IPI proteins, including IPIs of angiosperm plants and IPIs of gymnosperm plants. TmIPI belonged to the clade of gymnosperm plant IPIs, and this was consistent with the fact that Taxus media is a plant species of gymnosperm. Southern blotting analysis demonstrated that there was a gene family of IPI in Taxus media. Finally, functional verification was applied to identify the function of TmIPI. The results showed that biosynthesis of β-carotenoid was enhanced by overexpressing TmIPI in the engineered E. coli strain, and this suggested that TmIPI might be a key gene involved in isoprenoid/terpenoid biosynthesis.

  7. In vitro and in silico cloning of Xenopus laevis SOD2 cDNA and its phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrello, Michele; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Ragusa, Marco; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Di Pietro, Valentina; Emmanuele, Giovanni; Travali, Salvo; Scalia, Marina; Shasha, Dennis; Ferro, Alfredo

    2005-02-01

    By using the methodology of both wet and dry biology (i.e., RT-PCR and cycle sequencing, and biocomputational technology, respectively) and the data obtained through the Genome Projects, we have cloned Xenopus laevis SOD2 (MnSOD) cDNA and determined its nucleotide sequence. These data and the deduced protein primary structure were compared with all the other SOD2 nucleotide and amino acid sequences from eukaryotes and prokaryotes, published in public databases. The analysis was performed by using both Clustal W, a well known and widely used program for sequence analysis, and AntiClustAl, a new algorithm recently created and implemented by our group. Our results demonstrate a very high conservation of the enzyme amino acid sequence during evolution, which proves a close structure-function relationship. This is to be expected for very ancient molecules endowed with critical biological functions, performed through a specific structural organization. The nucleotide sequence conservation is less pronounced: this too was foreseeable, due to neutral mutations and to the species-specific codon usage. The data obtained by using AntiClustAl are comparable with those produced with Clustal W, which validates this algorithm as an important new tool for biocomputational analysis. Finally, it is noteworthy that evolutionary trees, drawn by using all the available data on SOD2 nucleotide sequences and amino acid and either Clustal W or AntiClustAl, are comparable to those obtained through phylogenetic analysis based on fossil records.

  8. A xylanase gene directly cloned from the genomic DNA of alkaline wastewater sludge showing application potential in the paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyu; Luo, Huiying; Meng, Kun; Shi, Pengjun; Wang, Guozeng; Yang, Peilong; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yao, Bin

    2011-09-01

    A xylanase gene, aws-2x, was directly cloned from the genomic DNA of the alkaline wastewater sludge using degenerated PCR and modified TAIL-PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence of AWS-2x shared the highest identity (60%) with the xylanase from Chryseobacterium gleum belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase GH family 10. Recombinant AWS-2x was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 55 °C, maintained more than 50% of maximal activity when assayed at pH 9.0, and was stable over a wide pH range from 4.0 to 11.0. The specific activity of AWS-2x towards hardwood xylan (beechwood and birchwood xylan) was significantly higher than that to cereal xylan (oat spelt xylan and wheat arabinoxylan). These properties make AWS-2x a potential candidate for application in the pulp and paper industry.

  9. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Xia; Yu, Wen-Chao; Cai, Zhong-Qiang; He, Cheng; Wei, Na; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Yue, Xi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The shell of the pearl oyster ( Pinctada fucata ) mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM) is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM) and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization.

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shell of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization.

  11. Cloning and characterization of the complementary DNA for the B chain of normal human serum C1q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, K B; Bentley, D R; Wood, K J

    1984-09-06

    Normal human C1q is a serum glycoprotein of 460 kDa containing 18 polypeptide chains (6A, 6B, 6C) each 226 amino acids long and each containing an N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal globular domain. Two unusual forms of C1q have been described: a genetically defective form, which has a molecular mass of approximately 160 kDa and is found in the sera of homozygotes for the defect who show a marked susceptibility to immune complex related disease; a fibroblast form, shown to be synthesized and secreted, in vitro, with a molecular mass of about 800 kDa and with chains approximately 16 kDa greater than those of normal C1q. A higher than normal molecular mass form of C1q has also been described in human colostrum and a form of C1q has been claimed to represent one of the types of Fc receptor on guinea-pig macrophages. To initiate studies, at the genomic level, on these various forms of C1q, and to investigate the possible relation between the C1q genes and the procollagen genes, the complementary DNA corresponding to the B chain of normal C1q has been cloned and characterized.

  12. Revisiting the identification and cDNA cloning of T cell-replacing factor/interleukin-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi eTakatsu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a perspective based on the paper Cloning of complementary DNA encoding T cell replacing factor and identity with B cell growth factor II, by Kinashi T, Harada N, Severinson E, Tanabe T, Sideras P, Konishi M, Azuma C, Tominaga A, Bergstedt-Lindqvist S, Takahashi M, Matsuda F, Yaoita Y, Takatsu K, and Honjo, T. Nature (1986 32(6092: 70-3. We have been interested in understanding the molecular basis of T-B cell cooperation for antibody formation. Although many investigators had described a number of different soluble factors that appeared to have biological relevance to T-B cell interactions, molecular basis of such active substances remained unknown for a long period of time. In this perspective, I will briefly summarize the history of the initial discovery of T cell-replacing factor/B cell growth factor II that appeared to be involved in B-cell growth and differentiation, and outline the discovery and characterization of interleukin-5. Studies of interleukin-5 have provided strong evidence that a single cytokine exerts a variety of activities on diverse target cells.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a lysozyme cDNA from the mole cricket Gryllotalpa orientalis (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyojung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Minsup; Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-09-01

    A full-length lysozyme cDNA from Gryllotalpa orientalis was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the lysozyme protein was 143 amino acids in length, with a calculated molecular mass of 15.84 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.74. Sequence motifs, together with alignment and phylogenetic results, confirmed that G. orientalis lysozyme belongs to the C (chicken)-type lysozyme family of proteins. The protein sequence of lysozyme from G. orientalis showed high identity to that of Drosophila melanogaster (51.7 %); however, in contrast to D. melanogaster lysozyme, G. orientalis lysozyme was immune inducible and expressed in a wide range of tissues. Expression of G. orientalis lysozyme mRNA was highest at 8 h post-infection and subsequently decreased with time after bacterial infection. We also expressed G. orientalis lysozyme protein in vitro using the pET expression system. Compared with the negative control, over-expressed G. orientalis lysozyme showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis by radial diffusion assay, with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 30.3 and 7.55 µM, respectively. These results indicate that G. orientalis lysozyme may have stronger antimicrobial activity than other lysozymes against a broad range of microorganisms.

  14. IS-98-ST1 West Nile virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone retains neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence properties of the original virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Bahuon

    Full Text Available Infectious clones of West Nile virus (WNV have previously been generated and used to decipher the role of viral proteins in WNV virulence. The majority of molecular clones obtained to date have been derived from North American, Australian, or African isolates. Here, we describe the construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a Mediterranean WNV strain, IS-98-ST1. We characterized the biological properties of the recovered recombinant virus in cell culture and in mice. The growth kinetics of recombinant and parental WNV were similar in Vero cells. Moreover, the phenotype of recombinant and parental WNV was indistinguishable as regards viremia, viral load in the brain, and mortality in susceptible and resistant mice. Finally, the pathobiology of the infectious clone was examined in embryonated chicken eggs. The capacity of different WNV strains to replicate in embryonated chicken eggs closely paralleled their ability to replicate in mice, suggesting that inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs could provide a practical in vivo model for the study of WNV pathogenesis. In conclusion, the IS-98-ST1 infectious clone will allow assessment of the impact of selected mutations and novel genomic changes appearing in emerging European strains pathogenicity and endemic or epidemic potential. This will be invaluable in the context of an increasing number of outbreaks and enhanced severity of infections in the Mediterranean basin and Eastern Europe.

  15. [Molecular cloning of threonine biosynthesis genes from Propionibacterium shermanii in Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, S V; Abilev, S K

    1993-03-01

    Cloning the genes for threonine biosynthesis from Propionibacterium shermanii was performed in Escherichia coli cells using the plasmid vector pVZ361. The cloned genes were identified via complementation of thrB, thrC, thrA1 and thrA2 mutations of E. coli. The gene complementing thrB of E. coli was located within a 5.1 kb fragment of P. shermanii chromosomal DNA. The cloned DNA fragment hybridized with a chromosomal fragment of P. shermanii of the same size. The plasmid pSPt4 (with the thrB gene) was digested with Sau3A and ligated with the BamHI-restricted pUC19 vector. The 1.8 kb DNA fragment of P. shermanii was shown to complement the thrB gene function in E. coli cells.

  16. Cloning and Sequencing of Protein Kinase cDNA from Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases (PKs play critical roles in signal transduction and activation of lymphocytes. The identification of PK genes provides a tool for understanding mechanisms of immunotoxic xenobiotics. As part of a larger study investigating persistent organic pollutants in the harbor seal and their possible immunomodulatory actions, we sequenced harbor seal cDNA fragments encoding PKs. The procedure, using degenerate primers based on conserved motifs of human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs, successfully amplified nine phocid PK gene fragments with high homology to human and rodent orthologs. We identified eight PTKs and one dual (serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase. Among these were several PKs important in early signaling events through the B- and T-cell receptors (FYN, LYN, ITK and SYK and a MAP kinase involved in downstream signal transduction. V-FGR, RET and DDR2 were also expressed. Sequential activation of protein kinases ultimately induces gene transcription leading to the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes critical to adaptive immunity. PKs are potential targets of bioactive xenobiotics, including persistent organic pollutants of the marine environment; characterization of these molecules in the harbor seal provides a foundation for further research illuminating mechanisms of action of contaminants speculated to contribute to large-scale die-offs of marine mammals via immunosuppression.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of the sheep malic enzyme cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefos, Georgios C; Argyrokastritis, Alexandros; Bizelis, Iosif; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2008-10-15

    Malic enzyme catalyzes decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate and CO(2), providing de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids with NADPH. Since lipogenesis in ruminants, contrarily to some monogastric species like human and rodents, occurs predominantly in adipose tissue, the activity of many lipogenic enzymes is higher in adipose tissue compared to liver. Expression of malic enzyme is regulated by nutrition; refeeding after a period of starvation results to an induction of the enzyme. Here we present the nucleotide sequence of two transcripts of the ovine cytosolic malic enzyme gene that differ at the length of the 3' UTR. These are the first published cDNA sequences for ruminant species and share high similarity with the corresponding sequences of other species. Malic enzyme mRNA was present in every ovine tissue that was examined. In agreement with the fact that adipose tissue is the major lipogenic site for ruminants, mRNA levels in adipose tissue were higher than in liver. Refeeding after two weeks of caloric restriction resulted in a two-fold increase of the mRNA level of malic enzyme in adipose tissue.

  18. Immunogenicity of bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine using human endogenous retrovirus envelope-coated baculoviral vectors in mice and pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus is known to be the major pathogen of cervical cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of a bivalent human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 DNA vaccine system following repeated dosing in mice and pigs using a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein (AcHERV as a vector. The intramuscular administration of AcHERV-based HPV16L1 and HPV18L1 DNA vaccines induced antigen-specific serum IgG, vaginal IgA, and neutralizing antibodies to levels comparable to those achieved using the commercially marketed vaccine Cervarix. Similar to Cervarix, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations completely blocked subsequent vaginal challenge with HPV type-specific pseudovirions. However, AcHERV-based bivalent vaccinations induced significantly higher cell-mediated immune responses than Cervarix, promoting 4.5- (HPV16L1 and 3.9-(HPV18L1 fold higher interferon-γ production in splenocytes upon stimulation with antigen type-specific pseudovirions. Repeated dosing did not affect the immunogenicity of AcHERV DNA vaccines. Three sequential immunizations with AcHERV-HP18L1 DNA vaccine followed by three repeated dosing with AcHERV-HP16L1 over 11 weeks induced an initial production of anti-HPV18L1 antibody followed by subsequent induction of anti-HPV16L1 antibody. Finally, AcHERV-based bivalent DNA vaccination induced antigen-specific serum IgG immune responses in pigs. These results support the further development of AcHERV as a bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine system for use in preventing the viral infection as well as treating the infected women by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Moreover, the possibility of repeated dosing indicates the utility of AcHERV system for reusable vectors of other viral pathogen vaccines.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression of a hexamerin cDNA from the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Adriana D; Nascimento, Adriana M; Guidugli, Karina R; Simões, Zilá L P; Bitondi, Márcia M G

    2005-10-01

    A cDNA encoding a hexamerin subunit of the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera) was isolated and completely sequenced. In the deduced translation product we identified the N-terminal sequence typical of the honey bee HEX 70b hexamerin. The genomic sequence consists of seven exons flanked by GT/AT exon/intron splicing sites, which encode a 683 amino acid polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 79.5 kDa, and pI value of 6.72. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed high levels of Hex 70b message in larval stages, followed by an abrupt decrease during prepupal-pupal transition. This coincides with decaying titers of juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids that is the signal for the metamorphic molt. To verify whether the high Hex 70b expression is dependent on high hormone levels, we treated 5th instar larvae with JH or 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In treated larvae, Hex 70b expression was maintained at high levels for a prolonged period of time than in the respective controls, thus indicating a positive hormone regulation at the transcriptional level. Experiments designed to verify the influence of the diet on Hex 70b expression showed similar transcript amounts in adult workers fed on a protein-enriched diet or fed exclusively on sugar. However, sugar-fed workers responded to the lack of dietary proteins by diminishing significantly the amount of HEX 70b subunits in hemolymph. Apparently, they use HEX 70b to compensate the lack of dietary proteins.

  20. Cloning, expression and purification of DNA-binding protein Mvo10b from Methanococcus voltae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jinsong; Yao, Hongwei; Feng, Yingang; Wang, Jinfeng

    2009-04-01

    Mvo10b from the mesophilic archaeon Methanococcus voltae is a member of the Sac10b family which may play an important role in the organization and accessibility of genetic information in Archaea. Since Mvo10b is a DNA-binding protein as the other member in the Sac10b family, to obtain a recombinant Mvo10b requires an efficient and inexpensive expression and purification system for producing the protein free of nucleic acid contamination. Previously, the hyperthermophilic archaeal Ssh10b of the Sac10b family was successfully purified. However, the protocol adopted to purify Ssh10b is not appropriate for purifying the mesophilic Mvo10b. This study describes the successful expression and purification of the recombinant Mvo10b. The expression of recombinant Mvo10b was carried out in Escherichia coli, and the target protein was expressed in the soluble form. The protein was purified by polyethyleneimine (PEI) precipitation followed by nickel ion metal affinity chromatography. The purity of Mvo10b was checked to insure being free of nucleic acid contamination. The final protein yield is about 30mg/l of LB culture. The ensemble of NMR and far-UV CD data shows that the purified Mvo10b has abundant regular secondary structures and is correctly folded, which may have similar 3D structure as its hyperthermophilic counterpart [P62A]Ssh10b. The developed protocol has potential application in the production of the other thermophilic and mesophilic proteins in the Sac10b family.

  1. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Octβ2-Receptor and Tyr1-Receptor in the Chagas Disease Vector, Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Octopamine and tyramine, both biogenic amines, are bioactive chemicals important in diverse physiological processes in invertebrates. In insects, octopamine and tyramine operate analogously to epinephrine and norepinephrine in the vertebrates. Octopamine and tyramine bind to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs leading to changes in second messenger levels and thereby modifying the function in target tissues and insect behavior. In this paper, we report the cDNA sequences of two GPCRs, RhoprOctβ2-R, and RhoprTyr1-R, have been cloned and functionally characterized from Rhodnius prolixus. Octopamine and tyramine each activate RhoprOctβ2-R and RhoprTyr1-R in a dose-dependent manner. Octopamine is one order of magnitude more potent than tyramine in activating RhoprOctβ2-R. Tyramine is two orders of magnitude more potent than octopamine in activating RhoprTyr1-R. Phentolamine and gramine significantly antagonize RhoprOctβ2-R, whereas yohimbine and phenoxybenzamine are effective blockers of RhoprTyr1-R. The transcripts of both receptors are enriched in the central nervous system (CNS and are expressed throughout the adult female reproductive system. It has been shown in other insects that Octβ2-R is essential for processes such as ovulation and fertilization. We previously reported that octopamine and tyramine modulate oviducts and bursa contractions in R. prolixus. Our data confirm the importance of octopamine and tyramine signaling in the reproductive system of R. prolixus.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the full-length cDNA encoding the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) CD28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Yan; Wang, Sha; Wang, Qinying; Shi, Jian; Shao, Zhanshe; Dai, Jiejie

    2017-11-01

    CD28 is one of the most important co-stimulatory molecules expressed by naive and primed T cells. The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), as an ideal animal model for analyzing mechanism of human diseases receiving extensive attentions, demands essential research tools, in particular in the study of cellular markers and monoclonal antibodies for immunological studies. However, little is known about tree shrew CD28 (tsCD28) until now. In this study, a 663 bp of the full-length CD28 cDNA, encoding a polypeptide of 220 amino acids was cloned from tree shrew spleen lymphocytes. The nucleotide sequence of the tsCD28 showed 85%, 76%, and 75% similarities with human, rat, and mouse, respectively, which showed the affinity relationship between tree shrew and human is much closer than between human and rodents. The open reading frame (ORF) sequence of tsCD28 gene was predicted to be in correspondence with the signal sequence, immunoglobulin variable-like (IgV) domain, transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail, respectively.We also analyzed its molecular characteristics with other mammals by using biology software such as Clustal W 2.0 and so forth. Our results showed that tsCD28 contained many features conserved in CD28 genes from other mammals, including conserved signal peptide and glycosylation sites, and several residues responsible for binding to the CD28R, and the tsCD28 amino acid sequence were found a close genetic relationship with human and monkey. The crystal structure and surface charge revealed most regions of tree shrew CD28 molecule surface charges are similar as human. However, compared with human CD28 (hCD28) regions, in some areas, the surface positive charge of tsCD28 was less than hCD28, which may affect antibody binding. The present study is the first report of cloning and characterization of CD28 in tree shrew. This study provides a theoretical basis for the further study the structure and function of tree shrew CD28 and utilize tree shrew as an effective

  3. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    obtained cDNA clones encoding the entire bamacan core protein of Mr = 138 kD, which reveal a five domain, head-rod-tail configuration. The head and tail are potentially globular, while the central large rod probably forms coiled-coil structures, with one large central and several very short interruptions....../translation product from a full-length bamacan cDNA. The unusual structure of this proteoglycan is indicative of specific functional roles in basement membrane physiology, commensurate with its distinct expression in development and changes in disease models....

  4. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, L P; Keshav, S; Gordon, S

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has an 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike t...

  5. Cloning of the cDNA for a human homologue of the Drosophila white gene and mapping to chromosome 21q22.3.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Rossier, C.; Lalioti, M. D.; Lynn, A.; Chakravarti, A.; Perrin, G.; Antonarakis, S. E.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to contribute to the transcript map of human chromosome 21 and the understanding of the pathophysiology of trisomy 21, we have used exon trapping to identify fragments of chromosome 21 genes. Two trapped exons, from pools of chromosome 21-specific cosmids, showed homology to the Drosophila white (w) gene. We subsequently cloned the corresponding cDNA for a human homologue of the Drosophila w gene (hW) from human retina and fetal brain cDNA libraries. The gene belongs to the ATP-b...

  6. The isolation and amplification of full length cDNA of oleosins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... Subcloning of DNA by inserting into pCR® 4-TOPO vector was performed using TOPO TA Cloning® Kit for Sequencing. (Invitrogen, USA). The sequencing of plasmid clones was performed using ABI PRISMTM Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready. Reaction Kit (Applied Biosystems Inc., USA) and an ...

  7. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurimoto, T.; Fujiyama, A.; Matsubara, K.

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes

  8. Stable expression and replication of hepatitis B virus genome in an integrated state in a human hepatoma cell line transfected with the cloned viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurimoto, T; Fujiyama, A; Matsubara, K

    1987-01-01

    A human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh6-c15) was transfected with a recombinant DNA molecule that consists of tandemly arranged hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome and a neomycin-resistant gene. One clone resistant to G-418 produces and releases surface antigen and e antigen into medium at a high level and accumulates core particles intracellularly. This clone has a chromosomally integrated set of the original recombinant DNA and produces a 3.5-kilobase transcript corresponding to the pregenome RNA as well as HBV DNAs in an extrachromosomal form. Most of these DNAs were in single-stranded or partially double-stranded form and were packaged in the intracellular core particles. In the medium, particles were detected that contained HBV DNA and were morphologically indistinguishable from Dane particles. These results demonstrate that the HBV genome in an integrated state acted as a template for viral gene expression and replication. The cells were maintained for more than 6 months without losing the ability to produce the extrachromosomal HBV DNA and Dane-like particles. Thus, the cells can be used as a model system for analyses of gene expression and DNA replication of HBV in human hepatocytes.

  9. The roles of adenoviral vectors and donor DNA structures on genome editing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holkers, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and efficient genome editing is primarily dependent on the generation of a sequence-specific, genomic double-stranded DNA break (DSB) combined with the introduction of an exogenous DNA template into target cells. The exogenous template, called donor DNA, normally contains the foreign

  10. Frameshift mutations in infectious cDNA clones of Citrus tristeza virus: a strategy to minimize the toxicity of viral sequences to Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Gowda, Siddarame; Ayllon, Maria A.; Dawson, William O.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of reverse genetics revolutionized the study of positive-stranded RNA viruses that were amenable for cloning as cDNAs into high-copy-number plasmids of Escherichia coli. However, some viruses are inherently refractory to cloning in high-copy-number plasmids due to toxicity of viral sequences to E. coli. We report a strategy that is a compromise between infectivity of the RNA transcripts and toxicity to E. coli effected by introducing frameshift mutations into 'slippery sequences' near the viral 'toxicity sequences' in the viral cDNA. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has cDNA sequences that are toxic to E. coli. The original full-length infectious cDNA of CTV and a derivative replicon, CTV-ΔCla, cloned into pUC119, resulted in unusually limited E. coli growth. However, upon sequencing of these cDNAs, an additional uridinylate (U) was found in a stretch of U's between nts 3726 and 3731 that resulted in a change to a reading frame with a stop codon at nt 3734. Yet, in vitro produced RNA transcripts from these clones infected protoplasts, and the resulting progeny virus was repaired. Correction of the frameshift mutation in the CTV cDNA constructs resulted in increased infectivity of in vitro produced RNA transcripts, but also caused a substantial increase of toxicity to E. coli, now requiring 3 days to develop visible colonies. Frameshift mutations created in sequences not suspected to facilitate reading frame shifting and silent mutations introduced into oligo(U) regions resulted in complete loss of infectivity, suggesting that the oligo(U) region facilitated the repair of the frameshift mutation. Additional frameshift mutations introduced into other oligo(U) regions also resulted in transcripts with reduced infectivity similarly to the original clones with the +1 insertion. However, only the frameshift mutations introduced into oligo(U) regions that were near and before the toxicity region improved growth and stability in E. coli. These data demonstrate that

  11. Construction of a high-efficiency cloning system using the Golden Gate method and I-SceI endonuclease for targeted gene replacement in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Dongshu; Lyu, Yufei; Feng, Erling; Zhu, Li; Liu, Chunjie; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Xiankai; Wang, Hengliang

    2018-02-10

    To investigate gene function in Bacillus anthracis, a high-efficiency cloning system is required with an increased rate of allelic exchange. Golden Gate cloning is a molecular cloning strategy allowing researchers to simultaneously and directionally assemble multiple DNA fragments to construct target plasmids using type IIs restriction enzymes and T4 DNA ligase in the same reaction system. Here, a B. anthracis S-layer protein EA1 allelic exchange vector was successfully constructed using the Golden Gate method. No new restriction sites were introduced into this knockout vector, and seamless assembly of the DNA fragments was achieved. To elevate the efficiency of homologous recombination between the allelic exchange vector and chromosomal DNA, we introduced an I-SceI site into the allelic exchange vector. The eag gene was successfully knocked out in B. anthracis using this vector. Simultaneously, the allelic exchange vector construction method was developed into a system for generating B. anthracis allelic exchange vectors. To verify the effectiveness of this system, some other allelic exchange vectors were constructed and gene replacements were performed in B. anthracis. It is speculated that this gene knockout vector construction system and high-efficiency targeted gene replacement using I-SceI endonuclease can be applied to other Bacillus spp. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Constructing of DNA vectors with controlled nanosize and single dispersion by block copolymer coating gold nanoparticles as template assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junbo, E-mail: Lijunbo@haust.edu.cn [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China); Wu, Wenlan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Medicine (China); Gao, Jiayu; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Huiyun; Liang, Lijuan [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics (China)

    2017-03-15

    Synthesized vectors with nanoscale size and stable colloid dispersion are highly desirable for improving gene delivery efficiency. Here, a core-shell template particle was constructed with polyethylene glycol-b-poly1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-(2-methacryloyloxy propylimidazolium bromine) (PEG-b-PAMPImB) coating gold nanoparticles (PEG-b-PAMPImB-@-Au NPs) for loading DNA and delivering in vitro. Data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest that these nanoplexes, by forming an electrostatic complex with DNA at the inner PAMPImB shell, offer steric protection for the outer PEG corona leading to single dispersion and small size. Notably, higher colloid stability and lower cytotoxicity were achieved with these nanoplexes when compared with PAMPImB monolayer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and intracellular trafficking TEM further indicate that the nanoplexes can translocate across the cell membrane and partly enter the nucleus for high efficient expression. Thus, template assembly represents a promising approach to control the size and colloid stability of gene vectors and ensure safety and efficiency of DNA delivery.

  13. Covalently bound DNA on naked iron oxide nanoparticles: Intelligent colloidal nano-vector for cell transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Martinello, Tiziana; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Gomiero, Chiara; Baratella, Davide; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Cozza, Giorgio; Patruno, Marco; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    Conversely to common coated iron oxide nanoparticles, novel naked surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) can covalently bind DNA. Plasmid (pDNA) harboring the coding gene for GFP was directly chemisorbed onto SAMNs, leading to a novel DNA nanovector (SAMN@pDNA). The spontaneous internalization of SAMN@pDNA into cells was compared with an extensively studied fluorescent SAMN derivative (SAMN@RITC). Moreover, the transfection efficiency of SAMN@pDNA was evaluated and explained by computational model. SAMN@pDNA was prepared and characterized by spectroscopic and computational methods, and molecular dynamic simulation. The size and hydrodynamic properties of SAMN@pDNA and SAMN@RITC were studied by electron transmission microscopy, light scattering and zeta-potential. The two nanomaterials were tested by confocal scanning microscopy on equine peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ePB-MSCs) and GFP expression by SAMN@pDNA was determined. Nanomaterials characterized by similar hydrodynamic properties were successfully internalized and stored into mesenchymal stem cells. Transfection by SAMN@pDNA occurred and GFP expression was higher than lipofectamine procedure, even in the absence of an external magnetic field. A computational model clarified that transfection efficiency can be ascribed to DNA availability inside cells. Direct covalent binding of DNA on naked magnetic nanoparticles led to an extremely robust gene delivery tool. Hydrodynamic and chemical-physical properties of SAMN@pDNA were responsible of the successful uptake by cells and of the efficiency of GFP gene transfection. SAMNs are characterized by colloidal stability, excellent cell uptake, persistence in the host cells, low toxicity and are proposed as novel intelligent DNA nanovectors for efficient cell transfection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccine candidates derived from a novel infectious cDNA clone of an American genotype dengue virus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Brian R

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2 Tonga/74 isolated from a 1974 epidemic was characterized by mild illness and belongs to the American genotype of DEN-2 viruses. To prepare a vaccine candidate, a previously described 30 nucleotide deletion (Δ30 in the 3' untranslated region of DEN-4 has been engineered into the DEN-2 isolate. Methods A full-length cDNA clone was generated from the DEN-2 virus and used to produce recombinant DEN-2 (rDEN-2 and rDEN2Δ30. Viruses were evaluated for replication in SCID mice transplanted with human hepatoma cells (SCID-HuH-7 mice, in mosquitoes, and in rhesus monkeys. Neutralizing antibody induction and protective efficacy were also assessed in rhesus monkeys. Results The rDEN2Δ30 virus was ten-fold reduced in replication in SCID-HuH-7 mice when compared to the parent virus. The rDEN-2 viruses were not infectious for Aedes mosquitoes, but both readily infected Toxorynchites mosquitoes. In rhesus monkeys, rDEN2Δ30 appeared to be slightly attenuated when compared to the parent virus as measured by duration and peak of viremia and neutralizing antibody induction. A derivative of rDEN2Δ30, designated rDEN2Δ30-4995, was generated by incorporation of a point mutation previously identified in the NS3 gene of DEN-4 and was found to be more attenuated than rDEN2Δ30 in SCID-HuH-7 mice. Conclusions The rDEN2Δ30 and rDEN2Δ30-4995 viruses can be considered for evaluation in humans and for inclusion in a tetravalent dengue vaccine.

  15. Clones of human ribosomal DNA containing the complete 18 S-rRNA and 28 S-rRNA genes. Characterization, a detailed map of the human ribosomal transcription unit and diversity among clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, B E; Dent, C L; Farrell, T E; Garde, J; McCallum, F S; Wakeman, J A

    1987-09-01

    We have isolated several new clones of human ribosomal DNA. Each clone contains part of the external transcribed spacer, a complete 18 S-rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacers, a complete 28 S-rRNA gene and a short downstream flanking region. We present a detailed map of the human ribosomal transcription unit with the locations of numerous useful restriction sites. In particular, a unique NheI site in the 5.8 S-rRNA gene enabled this gene to be mapped with respect to the 18 S-rRNA and 28 S-rRNA genes. The human 45 S-rRNA coding region is approx. 13,000 nucleotide residues long, of which the external transcribed spacer comprises approx. 3700 nucleotide residues and the first and second internal transcribed spacers comprise approx. 1070 and 1200 nucleotide residues respectively. A partial survey for sites of variation between clones has revealed a single point of variation among 18 S-rRNA gene sequences (a T/C variation at position 140), several sites of length variation in the regions of the transcribed spacers closely flanking the 18 S-rRNA genes, and some sites of length variation among 28 S-rRNA genes. Most of these sites of variation are associated with simple sequence tracts and are in regions that are known to undergo relatively rapid evolutionary divergence. In particular, the sites of variation among 28 S-rRNA genes occur in G + C-rich tracts whose lengths vary among vertebrates and that can be correlated with extensive hairpin structures previously observed by electron microscopy. Each of the clones so far surveyed in detail differs from the others in one or more respects.

  16. Molecular cloning of a cDNA and chromosomal localization of a human theta-class glutathione S-transferase gene (GSTT2) to chromosome 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K.L.; Baker, R.T.; Board, P.G. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    Until recently the Theta-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were largely overlooked due to their low activity with the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and their failure to bind to immobilized glutathione affinity matrices. Little is known about the number of genes in this class. Recently, Pemble et al. reported the cDNA cloning of a human Theta-class GST, termed GSTT1. In this study, we describe the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a second human Theta-class GST (GSTT2) from a {lambda}gt11 human liver 5{prime}-stretch cDNA library. The encoded protein contains 244 amino acids and has 78.3% sequence identity with the rat subunit 12 and only 55.0% identity with human GSTT1. GSTT2 has been mapped to chromosome 22 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. The precise position of the gene was localized to subband 22q11.2 by in situ hybridization. The absence of other regions of hybridization suggests that there are no closely related sequences (e.g., reverse transcribed pseudogenes) scattered throughout the genome and that if there are closely related genes, they must be clustered near GSTT2. Southern blot analysis of human DNA digested with BamHI shows that the size of the GSTT2 gene is relatively small, as the coding sequence falls within a 3.6-kb BamHI fragment. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  17. cDNA CLONING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF THE CECROPIN AND ATTACIN FROM THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yin-Yin; Zuo, Yu-Han; Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Mei-Er

    2015-06-01

    We described the cDNA cloning of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin (BdCec), and attacin C (BdAttC), from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious insect pest of fruit trees. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, fragments encompassing the entire open reading frames of BdCec and BdAttC were cloned and sequenced. The complete 425 bp cDNA of BdCec encodes a protein of 64 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 6.84 kDa. The 931 bp cDNA of BdAttC encodes a protein of 239 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 24.97 kDa. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the developmental transcription profiles of BdCec and BdAttC were similar in each larvae, pupae, and adults. The constitutive expression levels of both AMPs were high in the first-instar and late third-instar larvae, suggesting that their antimicrobial activity is active in the newly hatched larvae and just before pupation. The basal expression levels were not significant different in adult fat bodies. The expression of BdCec and BdAttC was upregulated after bacterial challenge in adult fat bodies. The ratio of inducible expression to constitutive expression was lower in males compared to females. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Isolation and bacterial expression of a sesquiterpene synthase cDNA clone from peppermint (Mentha x piperita, L.) that produces the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-.beta.-farnesene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Crock, John E.

    2005-01-25

    A cDNA encoding (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase from peppermint (Mentha piperita) has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) is provided which codes for the expression of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase (SEQ ID NO:2), from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant (E)-.beta.-famesene synthase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (E)-.beta.-famesene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of (E)-.beta.-farnesene, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (E)-.beta.-farnesene synthase, or the production of its product.

  19. Development of a gene silencing DNA vector derived from a broad host range geminivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Leandria C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing is proving to be a powerful tool for genetic, developmental, and physiological analyses. The use of viral induced gene silencing (VIGS offers advantages to transgenic approaches as it can be potentially applied to non-model systems for which transgenic techniques are not readily available. However, many VIGS vectors are derived from Gemini viruses that have limited host ranges. We present a new, unipartite vector that is derived from a curtovirus that has a broad host range and will be amenable to use in many non-model systems. Results The construction of a gene silencing vector derived from the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV, named pWSRi, is reported. Two versions of the vector have been developed to allow application by biolistic techniques or by agro-infiltration. We demonstrate its ability to silence nuclear genes including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS, transketolase, the sulfur allele of magnesium chelatase (ChlI, and two homeotic transcription factors in spinach or tomato by generating gene-specific knock-down phenotypes. Onset of phenotypes occurred 3 to 12 weeks post-inoculation, depending on the target gene, in organs that developed after the application. The vector lacks movement genes and we found no evidence for significant spread from the site of inoculation. However, viral amplification in inoculated tissue was detected and is necessary for systemic silencing, suggesting that signals generated from active viral replicons are efficiently transported within the plant. Conclusion The unique properties of the pWSRi vector, the ability to silence genes in meristem tissue, the separation of virus and silencing phenotypes, and the broad natural host range of BCTV, suggest that it will have wide utility.

  20. [Cloning of human CD45 gene and its expression in Hela cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xu, Tianyu; Wu, Lulin; Zhang, Liyun; Lu, Xiao; Zuo, Daming; Chen, Zhengliang

    2015-11-01

    To clone human CD45 gene PTPRC and establish Hela cells overexpressing recombinant human CD45 protein. The intact cDNA encoding human CD45 amplified using RT-PCR from the total RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a healthy donor was cloned into pMD-18T vector. The CD45 cDNA fragment amplified from the pMD-18T-CD45 by PCR was inserted to the coding region of the PcDNA3.1-3xflag vector, and the resultant recombinant expression vector PcDNA3.1-3xflag-CD45 was transfected into Hela cells. The expression of CD45 in Hela cells was detected by flow cytometry and Western blotting, and the phosphastase activity of CD45 was quantified using an alkaline phosphatase assay kit. The cDNA fragment of about 3 900 bp was amplified from human PBMCs and cloned into pMD-18T vector. The recombinant expression vector PcDNA3.1-3xflag-CD45 was constructed, whose restriction maps and sequence were consistent with those expected. The expression of CD45 in transfected Hela cells was detected by flow cytometry and Western blotting, and the expressed recombinant CD45 protein in Hela cells showed a phosphastase activity. The cDNA of human CD45 was successfully cloned and effectively expressed in Hela cells, which provides a basis for further exploration of the functions of CD45.

  1. Expression plasmid vectors with convenient subcloning sites in lambda gt11 that efficiently produce detectable tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Y; Sato, M; Furuta, M; Hashimoto, Y

    1997-07-01

    We have generated cDNA expression vectors that efficiently produce tagged proteins. The newly introduced cloning site of this plasmid facilitates subcloning of cDNA in the lambda gt11 phage into the plasmid vector. Because the cDNA is inserted next to the motifs of the tagged DNA sequence, the protein produced by the tag sequence-coupled cDNA is easily detected by Western blot analysis or immunoprecipitation using commercially available antibodies. The double-tagged protein significantly enhances the efficiency of Western blot and immunoprecipitation detection as compared with the single-tagged protein.

  2. New tools to convert bacterial artificial chromosomes to a self-excising design and their application to a herpes simplex virus type 1 infectious clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Alexsia L; Sollars, Patricia J; Smith, Gregory A

    2016-08-31

    Infectious clones are fundamental tools for the study of many viruses, allowing for efficient mutagenesis and reproducible production of genetically-defined strains. For the large dsDNA genomes of the herpesviridae, bacterial artificial chromosomes have become the cloning vector of choice due to their capacity to house full-length herpesvirus genomes as single contiguous inserts. Furthermore, while maintained as plasmids in Escherichia coli, the clones can be mutated using robust prokaryotic recombination systems. An important consideration in the design of these clones is the means by which the vector backbone is removed from the virus genome upon delivery into mammalian cells. A common approach to vector excision is to encode loxP sites flanking the vector sequences and rely on Cre recombinase expression from a transformed cell line. Here we examine the efficiency of vector removal using this method, and describe a "self-excising" infectious clone of HSV-1 strain F that offers enhancements in virus production and utility. Insertion of a fluorescent protein expression cassette into the vector backbone of the HSV-1 strain F clone, pYEbac102, demonstrated that 2 serial passages on cells expressing Cre recombinase was required to achieve > 95 % vector removal from the virus population, with 3 serial passages resulting in undetectable vector retention. This requirement was eliminated by replacing the reporter coding sequence with the CREin gene, which consists of a Cre coding sequence disrupted by a synthetic intron. This self-excising variant of the infectious clone produced virus that propagated with wild-type kinetics in culture and lacked vector attenuation in a mouse neurovirulence model. Conversion of a herpesvirus infectious clone into a self-excising variant enables rapid production of viruses lacking bacterial vector sequences, and removes the requirement to initially propagate viruses in cells that express Cre recombinase. The self-excising bacterial

  3. Cloning and study of the pectate lyase gene of Erwinia carotovora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukanov, N.O.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Evtushenkov, A.N.; Syarinskii, M.A.; Strel'chenko, P.P.; Yankovski, N.K.; Alikhanyan, S.I.; Fomichev, Yu.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    The cloning of the gene of a secretable protein of Erwinia carotovora, pectate lyase, in Escherichia coli was described. Primary cloning was conducted using the phage vector λ 47.1. In the gene library of E. carotovora obtained, eight phages carrying the gene sought were identified according to the appearance of enzymatic activity of the gene product, pectate lyase, in situ. The BamHI fragment of DNA, common to all these phages, was recloned on the plasmid pUC19. It was shown that the cloned pectate lyase gene is represented on the E. carotovora chromosome in one copy. Methods of production of representative gene libraries on phage vectors from no less than 1 μg of cloned DNA even for the genomes of eukaryotes have now been developed. Vectors have been created, for example, λ 47.1, permitting the selection only of hybrid molecules. A number of methods have been developed for the search for a required gene in the library, depending on whether the cloned gene can be expressed or not, and if it can, what properties it will impart to the hybrid clone containing it

  4. Molecular cloning of cDNA for lysenin, a novel protein in the earthworm Eisenia foetida that causes contraction of rat vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Y; Kubo, T; Kobayashi, H; Nakajima, T; Natori, S

    1997-05-20

    Lysenin, which causes contraction of rat vascular smooth muscle, is a protein that was isolated from the earthworm Eisenia foetida. A cDNA encoding lysenin was isolated by use of a partial cDNA probe that had been generated by the PCR with a primer designed by reference to an internal peptide sequence of lysenin. This clone had an ORF encoding 297 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA revealed the absence of any significant homology to those of previously characterized vasoactive substances. The recombinant lysenin was produced in Escherichia coli. This protein and native lysenin isolated from the earthworm had similar contractive activities when tested on rat aorta. Northern blot analysis of the RNA from various tissues of the earthworm indicated that lysenin is produced by the coelomocytes.

  5. Cloning of anti-lPS factor cDNA from Tachypleus tridentatus, expression in Bombyx mori larvae and its biological activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Ning; Liu, Jie-Wu; Yang, Guan-Zhen; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Wu, Xiang-Fu

    2002-05-01

    In this article we report the cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding Tachypleus anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) factor, which is of interest for use as a potential inhibitor of the common core subunit of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. First, two degenerate primers were designed based on the sequence homology of anti-LPS factors purified from different species of horseshoe crab. The total RNA was extracted from amebocytes of Tachypleus tridentatus. The cDNA was then obtained by using the RT-PCR methods. Second, the cDNA of Tachypleus anti-LPS factor (TALF) was expressed in Bombyx mori larvae using baculovirus expression system, which showed a yield of up to 600 mg/L. Last, we determined the biological activity of the recombinant proteins by LPS neutralization assay and bacteriostatic assay in vitro.

  6. Creation of Functional Viruses from Non-Functional cDNA Clones Obtained from an RNA Virus Population by the Use of Ancestral Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Ulrik; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Dräger, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    necessarily be the descendant of a functional ancestor, we hypothesized that it should be possible to produce functional clones by reconstructing ancestral sequences. To test this we used phylogenetic methods to infer two ancestral sequences, which were then reconstructed as cDNA clones. Viruses rescued from...... the reconstructed cDNAs were tested in cell culture and pigs. Both reconstructed ancestral genomes proved functional, and displayed distinct phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. We suggest that reconstruction of ancestral viruses is a useful tool for experimental and computational investigations of virulence and viral...... evolution. Importantly, ancestral reconstruction can be done even on the basis of a set of sequences that all correspond to non-functional variants....

  7. Molecular and Biological Characterization of an Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from Glycine soja by Generating its Infectious Full-genome cDNA Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sa Vo Phan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and biological characteristics of an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV from Glycine soja (wild soybean, named as CMV-209, was examined in this study. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analyses of CMV-209 with the other CMV strains revealed that CMV-209 belonged to CMV subgroup I. However, CMV-209 showed some genetic distance from the CMV strains assigned to subgroup IA or subgroup IB. Infectious full-genome cDNA clones of CMV-209 were generated under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Infectivity of the CMV-209 clones was evaluated in Nicotiana benthamiana and various legume species. Our assays revealed that CMV-209 could systemically infect Glycine soja (wild soybean and Pisum sativum (pea as well as N. benthamiana, but not the other legume species.

  8. Molecular cloning and expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for amino acid synthesis in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, O.Yu.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Kolibaba, L.G.; Yankovskii, N.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular cloning of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for threonine and lysine synthesis has been done in Escherichia coli cells. The clonal library of EcoRI fragments of chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum was constructed on the plasmid vector λpSL5. The genes for threonine and lysine synthesis were identified by complementation of E. coli mutations in thrB and lysA genes, respectively. Recombinant plasmids, isolated from independent ThrB + clone have a common 4.1-kb long EcoRI DNA fragment. Hybrid plasmids isolated from LysA + transductants of E. coli have common 2.2 and 3.3 kb long EcoRI fragments of C. glutamicum DNA. The hybrid plasmids consistently transduced the markers thrB + and lysA + . The Southern hybridization analysis showed that the cloned DNA fragments hybridized with the fragments of identical length in C. glutamicum chromosomes

  9. Restriction-based Multiple-fragment Assembly Strategy to Avoid Random Mutation during Long cDNA Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shang; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Kai; Jiao, Peng; Mo, Lihua; Yang, Xiaoxu; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Wei, Chenxi; Xiang, Shuanglin

    2015-01-01

    Long fragment cloning is a challenge for its difficulty in accurate amplifying and tendency to get unwanted mutation. Here we discuss Restriction-based Multiple-fragment Assembly Strategy's advantages and limitations. In this strategy, rather than PCR amplifying the entire coding sequence (CDS) at one time, we amplified and sequenced smaller fragments which are shorter than 1.5kb spanning the CDS. After that, the sequence-proved fragments were assembled by digestion-ligation cloning to the ta...

  10. Dendritic cell-targeted lentiviral vector immunization uses pseudotransduction and DNA-mediated STING and cGAS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jocelyn T; Liu, Yarong; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Lee, Kevin K; Dai, Bingbing; Lovely, Geoffrey; Ouyang, Yong; Wang, Pin; Yang, Lili; Baltimore, David

    2017-07-21

    Dendritic cell (DC) activation and antigen presentation are critical for efficient priming of T cell responses. Here, we study how lentiviral vectors (LVs) deliver antigen and activate DCs to generate T cell immunization in vivo. We report that antigenic proteins delivered in vector particles via pseudotransduction were sufficient to stimulate an antigen-specific immune response. The delivery of the viral genome encoding the antigen increased the magnitude of this response in vivo but was irrelevant in vitro. Activation of DCs by LVs was independent of MyD88, TRIF, and MAVS, ruling out an involvement of Toll-like receptor or RIG-I-like receptor signaling. Cellular DNA packaged in LV preparations induced DC activation by the host STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase) pathway. Envelope-mediated viral fusion also activated DCs in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent but STING-independent process. Pseudotransduction, transduction, viral fusion, and delivery of cellular DNA collaborate to make the DC-targeted LV preparation an effective immunogen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Plasmid Containing P36/LACK Gene of Leishmania infantum Iranian Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloomeh Shirali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods, such as vaccination, to control visceral leishmaniasis. Although there is no efficient vaccine, it seem DNA vaccination with stimulates both cellular and humoral immunity apparently is the best way. The aim of this study was cloning and expression of LACK gene, a 36kD protein, as a candidate protein for vaccination against Iranian L. infantum.Iranian strain of L. infantum [MCAN/IR/07/Moheb-gh] was used as a template for PCR to amplify LACK gene. The LACK gene was cloned in pTZ57R/T vector and after confirmation it was digested by restriction enzymes (BamH1 and cloned in pcDNA3.1 expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was extracted and analyzed by sequencing, restriction digestion analysis and PCR reaction. The pc- LACK recombinant plasmid was purified from transformed E.coli (DH5α and its expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot.The results of sequencing, restriction digestion analysis and PCR reaction revealed that LACK gene was cloned correctly in pcDNA3.1 vector and the results of SDS PAGE and Western blot emphasized that LACK protein of Iranian L. infantum is a well-expressed protein.We amplified, cloned and expressed Iranian L. infantum LACK gene successfully.

  12. Cloning and Expression of Recombinant Plasmid Containing P36/LACK Gene of Leishmania infantum Iranian Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, Saloomeh; Haddadzadeh, Hamidreza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kazemi, Bahram; Amini, Narges

    2015-01-01

    There are several methods, such as vaccination, to control visceral leishmaniasis. Although there is no efficient vaccine, it seem DNA vaccination with stimulates both cellular and humoral immunity apparently is the best way. The aim of this study was cloning and expression of LACK gene, a 36kD protein, as a candidate protein for vaccination against Iranian L. infantum. Iranian strain of L. infantum [MCAN/IR/07/Moheb-gh] was used as a template for PCR to amplify LACK gene. The LACK gene was cloned in pTZ57R/T vector and after confirmation it was digested by restriction enzymes (BamH1) and cloned in pcDNA3.1 expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was extracted and analyzed by sequencing, restriction digestion analysis and PCR reaction. The pc- LACK recombinant plasmid was purified from transformed E.coli (DH5α) and its expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The results of sequencing, restriction digestion analysis and PCR reaction revealed that LACK gene was cloned correctly in pcDNA3.1 vector and the results of SDS PAGE and Western blot emphasized that LACK protein of Iranian L. infantum is a well-expressed protein. We amplified, cloned and expressed Iranian L. infantum LACK gene successfully.

  13. In vitro cloning of complex mixtures of DNA on microbeads: Physical separation of differentially expressed cDNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Sydney; Williams, Steven R.; Vermaas, Eric H.; Storck, Thorsten; Moon, Keith; McCollum, Christie; Mao, Jen-I; Luo, Shujun; Kirchner, James J.; Eletr, Sam; DuBridge, Robert B.; Burcham, Timothy; Albrecht, Glenn

    2000-01-01

    We describe a method for cloning nucleic acid molecules onto the surfaces of 5-μm microbeads rather than in biological hosts. A unique tag sequence is attached to each molecule, and the tagged library is amplified. Unique tagging of the molecules is achieved by sampling a small fraction (1%) of a very large repertoire of tag sequences. The resulting library is hybridized to microbeads that each carry ≈106 strands complementary to one of the tags. About 105 copies of each molecule are collected on each microbead. Because such clones are segregated on microbeads, they can be operated on simultaneously and then assayed separately. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we show how to label and extract microbeads bearing clones differentially expressed between two libraries by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Because no prior information about the cloned molecules is required, this process is obviously useful where sequence databases are incomplete or nonexistent. More importantly, the process also permits the isolation of clones that are expressed only in given tissues or that are differentially expressed between normal and diseased states. Such clones then may be spotted on much more cost-effective, tissue- or disease-directed, low-density planar microarrays. PMID:10677516

  14. DNA barcoding reveals both known and novel taxa in the Albitarsis Group (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus) of Neotropical malaria vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; Conn, Jan E; McKeon, Sascha N; Levin, David M; Quiñones, Martha L; Póvoa, Marinete M; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2012-02-21

    Mosquitoes belonging to the Albitarsis Group (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus) are of importance as malaria vectors across the Neotropics. The Group currently comprises six known species, and recent studies have indicated further hidden biodiversity within the Group. DNA barcoding has been proposed as a highly useful tool for species recognition, although its discriminatory utility has not been verified in closely related taxa across a wide geographic distribution. DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mtDNA Cytochrome c Oxidase--COI) were generated for 565 An. albitarsis s.l. collected in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Trinidad and Venezuela over the past twenty years, including specimens from type series and type localities. Here we test the utility of currently advocated barcoding methodologies, including the Kimura-two-parameter distance model (K2P) and Neighbor-joining analysis (NJ), for determining species delineation within mosquitoes of the Neotropical Albitarsis Group of malaria vectors (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus), and compare results with Bayesian analysis. Species delineation through barcoding analysis and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, fully concur. Analysis of 565 sequences (302 unique haplotypes) resolved nine NJ tree clusters, with less than 2% intra-node variation. Mean intra-specific variation (K2P) was 0.009 (range 0.002-0.014), whereas mean inter-specific divergence were several-fold higher at 0.041 (0.020-0.056), supporting the reported "barcoding gap". These results show full support for separate species status of the six known species in the Albitarsis Group (An. albitarsis s.s., An. albitarsis F, An. deaneorum, An. janconnae, An. marajoara and An. oryzalimnetes), and also support species level status for two previously detected lineages--An. albitarsis G &An. albitarsis I (designated herein). In addition, we highlight the presence of a unique mitochondrial lineage close to An. deaneorum and An. marajoara (An. albitarsis H) from Rondônia and Mato

  15. DNA barcoding reveals both known and novel taxa in the Albitarsis Group (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus of Neotropical malaria vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Lopez Freddy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes belonging to the Albitarsis Group (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus are of importance as malaria vectors across the Neotropics. The Group currently comprises six known species, and recent studies have indicated further hidden biodiversity within the Group. DNA barcoding has been proposed as a highly useful tool for species recognition, although its discriminatory utility has not been verified in closely related taxa across a wide geographic distribution. Methods DNA barcodes (658 bp of the mtDNA Cytochrome c Oxidase - COI were generated for 565 An. albitarsis s.l. collected in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, Trinidad and Venezuela over the past twenty years, including specimens from type series and type localities. Here we test the utility of currently advocated barcoding methodologies, including the Kimura-two-parameter distance model (K2P and Neighbor-joining analysis (NJ, for determining species delineation within mosquitoes of the Neotropical Albitarsis Group of malaria vectors (Anopheles: Nyssorhynchus, and compare results with Bayesian analysis. Results Species delineation through barcoding analysis and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, fully concur. Analysis of 565 sequences (302 unique haplotypes resolved nine NJ tree clusters, with less than 2% intra-node variation. Mean intra-specific variation (K2P was 0.009 (range 0.002 - 0.014, whereas mean inter-specific divergence were several-fold higher at 0.041 (0.020 - 0.056, supporting the reported "barcoding gap". These results show full support for separate species status of the six known species in the Albitarsis Group (An. albitarsis s.s., An. albitarsis F, An. deaneorum, An. janconnae, An. marajoara and An. oryzalimnetes, and also support species level status for two previously detected lineages - An. albitarsis G &An. albitarsis I (designated herein. In addition, we highlight the presence of a unique mitochondrial lineage close to An. deaneorum and An

  16. Structure and characterization of a cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from cut-injured roots of sweet potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yamanoto, Naoki; Ohashi, Yuko; Kano-Murakami, Yuriko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro (National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan) Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-08-01

    A cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) induced in wounded sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) root was obtained by immunoscreening a cDNA library. The protein produced in Escherichia coli cells containing the plasmid pPAL02 was indistinguishable from sweet potato PAL as judged by Ouchterlony double diffusion assays. The M{sub r} of its subunit was 77,000. The cells converted ({sup 14}C)-L-phenylalanine into ({sup 14}C)-t-cinnamic acid and PAL activity was detected in the homogenate of the cells. The activity was dependent on the presence of the pPAL02 plasmid DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contained a 2,121-base pair (bp) open-reading frame capable of coding for a polypeptide with 707 amino acids (M{sub r} 77,137), a 22-bp 5{prime}-noncoding region and a 207-bp 3{prime}-noncoding region. The results suggest that the insert DNA fully encoded the amino acid sequence for sweet potato PAL that is induced by wounding. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of a PAL cDNA fragment from Phaseolus vulgaris revealed 78.9% homology. The sequence from amino acid residues 258 to 494 was highly conserved, showing 90.7% homology.

  17. Structure and characterization of a cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from cut-injured roots of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yamanoto, Naoki; Ohashi, Yuko; Kano-Murakami, Yuriko; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) induced in wounded sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) root was obtained by immunoscreening a cDNA library. The protein produced in Escherichia coli cells containing the plasmid pPAL02 was indistinguishable from sweet potato PAL as judged by Ouchterlony double diffusion assays. The M r of its subunit was 77,000. The cells converted [ 14 C]-L-phenylalanine into [ 14 C]-t-cinnamic acid and PAL activity was detected in the homogenate of the cells. The activity was dependent on the presence of the pPAL02 plasmid DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA contained a 2,121-base pair (bp) open-reading frame capable of coding for a polypeptide with 707 amino acids (M r 77,137), a 22-bp 5'-noncoding region and a 207-bp 3'-noncoding region. The results suggest that the insert DNA fully encoded the amino acid sequence for sweet potato PAL that is induced by wounding. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of a PAL cDNA fragment from Phaseolus vulgaris revealed 78.9% homology. The sequence from amino acid residues 258 to 494 was highly conserved, showing 90.7% homology

  18. A Viral Satellite DNA Vector (TYLCCNV) for Functional Analysis of miRNAs and siRNAs in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zheng; Cao, Dongyan; Gao, Chao; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhai, Baiqiang; Li, Shan; Zhu, Hongliang; Fu, Daqi; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2017-04-01

    With experimental and bioinformatical methods, numerous small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), have been found in plants, and they play vital roles in various biological regulation processes. However, most of these small RNAs remain to be functionally characterized. Until now, only several viral vectors were developed to overexpress miRNAs with limited application in plants. In this study, we report a new small RNA overexpression system via viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) vector, which could highly overexpress not only artificial and endogenous miRNAs but also endogenous siRNAs in Nicotiana benthamiana First, we constructed basic TYLCCNV-amiRPDS(319L) vector with widely used AtMIR319a backbone, but the expected photobleaching phenotype was very weak. Second, through comparing the effect of backbones ( AtMIR319a , AtMIR390a , and SlMIR159 ) on specificity and significance of generating small RNAs, the AtMIR390a backbone was optimally selected to construct the small RNA overexpression system. Third, through sRNA-Seq and Degradome-Seq, the small RNAs from AtMIR390a backbone in TYLCCNV-amiRPDS(390) vector were confirmed to highly overexpress amiRPDS and specifically silence targeted PDS gene. Using this system, rapid functional analysis of endogenous miRNAs and siRNAs was carried out, including miR156 and athTAS3a 5'D8(+). Meanwhile, through designing corresponding artificial miRNAs, this system could also significantly silence targeted endogenous genes and show specific phenotypes, including PDS , Su , and PCNA These results demonstrated that this small RNA overexpression system could contribute to investigating not only the function of endogenous small RNAs, but also the functional genes in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding aspartate aminotransferase from bean root nodules and determination of its role in nodule nitrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvente, Sonia; Camas, Alberto; Lara, Miguel

    2003-06-01

    A cDNA clone encoding aspartate aminotransferase (PVAAT-2) (EC 2.6.1.1) was isolated from the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris nodule cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the full-length cDNA allowed its identification by comparison with sequence databases. The amino acid sequence of the bean PvAAT-2 showed high similarity with the AAT-2 isoforms described in other leguminous plants. The amino-terminal region of the PvAAT-2 contains a sequence, which shares common features of plastid transit peptides. Southern blot analysis showed that the PvAAT-2 clone is encoded by a single gene in the P. vulgaris genome. Analysis of the PvAAT-2 mRNA levels suggests that the expression of this gene is nodule enhanced. The PvAAT-2 transcript is more abundant in nodules with increased synthesis of amides and is down-regulated in conditions where ureides accumulate. When plants were supplemented with ureides or with amides, PvAAT-2 expression was reduced, while it was not affected when plants were treated with allopurinol, an inhibitor of ureide synthesis. On the other hand, the expression of asparagine synthetase (another enzyme involved in the synthesis of amides) is not affected either by ureides or amides. These data suggest a role for AAT-2 in the mechanism involved in the synthesis of nitrogen compounds in bean nodules.

  20. Isolation of cosmid and cDNA clones in the region surrounding the BTK gene at Xq21.3-q22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorechovsky, I.; Zhou, J.N.; Hammarstroem, L. [Karolinska Institute, Huddinge (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    A regional physical and transcription map involving yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), cosmids, and cDNAs has been constructed for Xq21.3-q22 around the gene BTK (formerly atk or BPK) defective in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). With a positional cloning strategy employing direct cDNA selection, novel cDNAs were found to cluster in the region of approximately 100 kb flanking the XLA and {alpha}-galactosidase A loci. While these widely expressed transcripts are in the area known to contain CpG islands, a less evolutionarily conserved gene, located more than 130 kb distal of DXS178, maps to cosmid clones that could not be digested with rare-cutting restriction enzymes. The presence of transcribed sequences flanking the BTK allowed investigation of their involvement in complex XLA phenotypes. Southern blot analysis using cDNA clones isolated from this region permitted exclusion of a contiguous deletion syndrome as an underlying defect in three patients with XLA and associated growth hormone deficiency. A single XLA patient with torsion dystonia and cosegregating X-linked deafness has been found with a deletion in the 3{prime} part of BTK extending centromerically into the flanking expressed sequence DXS1274E. This suggests a possible involvement of the DXS1274E in this phenotype. The GenBank accession numbers for novel cDNA sequences are as follows: DXS1269E (L20773), DXS1271E (UO1923), DXS1273E (UO1925), and DXS1274E (UO1922). 51 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The analysis of chromatin remodeling and the staining for DNA methylation and histone acetylation do not provide definitive indicators of the developmental ability of inter-species cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eugine; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Seon Mi; Jeong, Yeon Ik; Lee, Jong Yun; Park, Sun Woo; Choi, Jiho; Kim, Huen Suk; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Sue; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2008-05-01

    The restricted supply of oocytes in the domestic dog limits the development of reproductive biotechnologies in this species. Inter-species somatic cell nuclear transfer could be an alternative for cloning animals whose oocytes are difficult to obtain. In this study, the possibility of cloning dog embryos using pig oocytes was investigated by evaluating nuclear remodeling. Chromatin remodeling, assessed by premature chromosome condensation, pseudo-pronuclei formation, DNA methylation and histone acetylation, along with the developmental ability was compared between intra- and inter-species cloned embryos. The incidence of premature chromosome condensation was significantly higher in intra-species cloned embryos relative to inter-species cloned embryos (87.2% vs. 61.7%; Pcloned embryos developed beyond the 8-cell stage while 18.3% of intra-species cloned embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. The relative level of both DNA methylation and histone acetylation was similar between intra- and inter-species cloned embryos at all times examined. These results suggest that although partial chromatin remodeling occurs, further investigation is needed to be able to use pig oocytes as recipient oocytes in dog cloning.

  2. Cell-free cloning using multiply-primed rolling circle amplification with modified RNA primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Ohtani, Toshio; Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    The predominant method for DNA cloning is by propagation in biological hosts, but this method has limitations because certain sequences are difficult to clone using any combination of available hosts or vectors. Recently, multiply-primed rolling circle amplification (MPRCA) has been applied to overcome the problems of the DNA cloning via host cells. However, when MPRCA is used to amplify from minute quantities of DNA template, the products are mostly by-product DNA molecules generated by false priming and primer dimer formation. This study demonstrates that MPRCA using random RNA primers[#x02014]instead of DNA primers[#x02014]blocked the synthesis of by-products and succeeded in amplifying one copy of a circular DNA molecule more than 1012-fold to give microgram quantities of amplification product without using submicroliter reaction volumes. Furthermore, a ligation strategy was elaborated to circularize only the desired DNA sequence and eliminate undesired ligation-products. A combination of these methods was able to amplify and ligate a large construct without undesired DNA sequences and at microgram quantities within one day. Therefore, these methods have the possibility to improve DNA cloning techniques that have been restricted by the limitations of PCR methods or by the host cell.

  3. Succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid transferase (SCOT): Human cDNA and genomic cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Mitchell, G.A. [Hopital Ste-Justine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Duncan, A. [Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    SCOT (EC 2.8.3.5) mediates the activation and utilization of ketone bodies in extrahepatic tissues, especially brain, heart and kidney. Children with hereditary SCOT deficiency have episodes of severe ketoacidosis. Using a partial human heart SCOT cDNA, hSCOT-G, we detected a single {approximately}3 Kb mRNA in human heart and leukocytes, but not in liver. The length of the mouse SCOT mRNA detected with hSCOT-G in muscle, heart, kidney and brain is {approximately}3 Kb. We mapped the human SCOT gene to chromosome 5p13 by in situ hybridization. To date we have isolated human heart cDNAs spanning 2.9 Kb and including a 1248 bp open reading frame. The 3{prime} nontranslated region of the human SCOT mRNA extends at least 1712 bp, in contrast to the 209 bp sequence reported for pig SCOT cDNA. In one heart cDNA clone we detected a 58 bp insertion 258 bp downstream from the stop codon. We performed RT-PCR using a 5{prime} degenerate-sequence primer designed from the pig SCOT leader peptide sequence and 3{prime} human-specific primers. We obtained a fragment of the expected 320 bp length which strongly hybridizes to an internal oligonucleotide and which we are now characterizing. Human genomic Southern blot analysis with a partial human cDNA as probe suggests that the length of the human SCOT gene is about 40 K. Using hSCOT-G as a probe, we screened a human leukocyte genomic library in EMBL-3 phage and isolated two genomic clones. One of them contains a processed pseudogene. The other contains at least two exons of the human SCOT gene spanning cDNA residues 431 to 734. These findings will be useful for mutation analysis in SCOT-deficient patients.

  4. cDNA cloning and bacterial expression of an endo-β-1,4-mannanase, AkMan, from Aplysia kurodai

    OpenAIRE

    Zahura, Umme Afsari; Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Inoue, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ojima, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Previously we isolated an endo-β-1,4-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78), AkMan, from the digestive fluid of a common sea hare Aplysia kurodai and demonstrated that this enzyme had a broad pH optimum spanning 4.0 to 7.5 and an appreciably high heat stability in this pH range (Zahura et al., Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B157, 137-148 (2010)). In the present study, we cloned the cDNA encoding AkMan and constructed a bacterial expression system for this enzyme to enrich information about the primary structure a...

  5. Purification of MUC1 from bovine milk-fat globules and characterization of a corresponding full-length cDNA clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Andersen, Mikkel Holmen; Nielsen, Rune L.

    2001-01-01

    The highly glycosylated protein MUC1 was purified from bovine milk-fat globule membranes by a procedure involving detergent extraction, ion-exchange chromatography and reverse-phase chromatography. The identity of the purified mucin protein was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and partial amino...... acid sequences obtained by peptide mapping. The complete amino acid sequence of MUC1 was determined by cloning and sequencing the corresponding bovine mammary gland cDNA, which was shown to encode a protein of 580 amino acid residues comprising a cleavable signal peptide of 22 residues. The deduced...

  6. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    obtained cDNA clones encoding the entire bamacan core protein of Mr = 138 kD, which reveal a five domain, head-rod-tail configuration. The head and tail are potentially globular, while the central large rod probably forms coiled-coil structures, with one large central and several very short interruptions....... The protein sequence has low overall homology, apart from very small NH2- and COOH-terminal motifs. At the junctions between the distal globular domains and the coiled-coil regions lie glycosylation sites, with up to three N-linked oligosaccharides and probably three chondroitin chains. Three other Ser...

  7. [CDNA cloning of human leptin and its expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhen-Yu; Fu, Xiao-Min; Jin, Ai-Hua; Cao, Jiang

    2003-07-01

    To clone cDNA of human leptin gene and obtain leptin protein for future study on leptin binding proteins. The cDNA of human leptin with 6 x his-tag was cloned by over-hang extension PCR protocol using human genomic DNA as template, and subcloned into in vitro expression vector pIVEX2.3MCS, and the fusion protein was expressed in vitro by Rapid Translation System (RTS) (RTS500 cycle primer Kit and RTS500 ProteoMaster of Roche company). The apparent molecular weight(19.46 kD) and the immuno-specificity of the fusion protein were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and the expressed fusion protein stayed mainly in the supernatant of the reaction mixture in soluble form. This work provides us solid basis for further study on new leptin-associated proteins.

  8. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  9. A MultiSite Gateway Toolkit for Rapid Cloning of Vertebrate Expression Constructs with Diverse Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Daniel K; Stewart, Scott; Seredick, Steve; Eisen, Judith S; Stankunas, Kryn; Washbourne, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Recombination-based cloning is a quick and efficient way to generate expression vectors. Recent advancements have provided powerful recombinant DNA methods for molecular manipulations. Here, we describe a novel collection of three-fragment MultiSite Gateway cloning system-compatible vectors providing expanded molecular tools for vertebrate research. The components of this toolkit encompass a broad range of uses such as fluorescent imaging, dual gene expression, RNA interference, tandem affinity purification, chemically-inducible dimerization and lentiviral production. We demonstrate examples highlighting the utility of this toolkit for producing multi-component vertebrate expression vectors with diverse primary research applications. The vectors presented here are compatible with other Gateway toolkits and collections, facilitating the rapid generation of a broad range of innovative DNA constructs for biological research.

  10. A MultiSite Gateway Toolkit for Rapid Cloning of Vertebrate Expression Constructs with Diverse Research Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Fowler

    Full Text Available Recombination-based cloning is a quick and efficient way to generate expression vectors. Recent advancements have provided powerful recombinant DNA methods for molecular manipulations. Here, we describe a novel collection of three-fragment MultiSite Gateway cloning system-compatible vectors providing expanded molecular tools for vertebrate research. The components of this toolkit encompass a broad range of uses such as fluorescent imaging, dual gene expression, RNA interference, tandem affinity purification, chemically-inducible dimerization and lentiviral production. We demonstrate examples highlighting the utility of this toolkit for producing multi-component vertebrate expression vectors with diverse primary research applications. The vectors presented here are compatible with other Gateway toolkits and collections, facilitating the rapid generation of a broad range of innovative DNA constructs for biological research.

  11. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA for the delta-subunit of photosynthetic ATP-synthase (EC 3.6.1.34) from pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesche, J A; Berzborn, R J

    1992-12-29

    lambda gt10 cDNA clones for the nuclear encoded subunit delta of chloroplast ATP-synthase from Pisum sativum have been isolated. The 5' end was completed by PCR. The sequenced cDNA codes for the import precursor. N-Terminal sequencing of the mature protein isolated from chloroplasts revealed that the processing sites of the transit peptide from Pisum sativum and Spinacea oleracea are similar. The overall homology of the deduced amino acid sequences of the mature delta proteins from higher plants is about 40%. The conservation among hydrophilic residues is higher than for hydrophobic ones, indicating that the surface of delta is important for its function within the ATP-synthase.

  12. Purification, characterization and partial cDNA cloning of high-temperature stress-induced protein from French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Babu, R.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the components of high temperature response in French bean, three heat shock proteins induced under high temperature were purified to homogeneity by Carboxy methyl cellulose and sephadex G-100 chromatography followed by preparative SDS-PAGE. Two of these, Hsp1 and Hsp3 were further characterized by immuno-detection with polyclonal antibodies. Hsp3 exhibited ATPase and chaperone activity with malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. Partial cDNA for Hsp3 synthesized using the primer derived from amino-terminal sequence was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein possesses ATPase activity, and showed thermal protection at 50°C in Escherichia coli. The translated partial cDNA showed homology with stress induced proteins including ATPases from higher plants. These results supported the fact that French bean response to high temperature stress involves Hsps as one of the principal components.

  13. Gene Cloning of Iranian Leishmania major Mannose-1-Phosphate Guanyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Leishmania is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite, which infects human be­ings when infected sand fly vector takes a blood meal.  Most efforts are towards designing an effective vaccine to prevent leishmaniasis. In this way, development of candidate antigen for vaccine has spe­cial im­portant. In this study, we cloned mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase gene of Iranian L .major in pET32a expression vector. "nMethods: Primers based on L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase sequence gene was de­signed and synthesized. DNA of Leishmania promastigotes was extracted and PCR reaction was done. PCR product was cloned into pTZ57R and sub cloned into pET32a expression vector. "nResults: Recombinant plasmid containing 1140 bp as L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltrans­ferase gene was extracted and confirmed by restriction analysis. PCR product was sequenced and de­posited to GenBank. There were some differences in amino acid sequences between Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase and others previously accepted in GenBank "nConclusion: We amplified and cloned Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase successfully.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of recA-like gene from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Kang, J.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Park, Y.; Yang, Y.K.; Kim, S.W.; Park, J.K.; Park, J.G.; Hong, S.H.; Park, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously purified and characterized a RecA-like protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe). In the present study, we have cloned a gene encoding the RecA-like protein. The S. pombe recA-like gene was isolated by immunological screening of the expression library of S. pombe using anti-Escherichia coli (E. coli) RecA antibody as a probe. From 10(6) plaques screened, 6 putative clones were finally isolated. Five of the clones screened contained the same kinds of DNA inserts, as determined by crosshybridization analysis. Among the clones, TC-2 was selected for further studies. The pGEM3Zf(-)Delta 17 vector harboring the 4.3 kb DNA insert of TC-2 clone was capable of producing abeta-gal/RecA-like fusion protein, suggesting that the cloned gene encodes the RecA-like protein of S. pombe. It was also revealed by Southern hybridization analysis that the same DNA sequence as the cloned recA-like gene is located within the S. pombe chromosomal DNA. In addition, the cloned recA-like gene was transcribed into a 3.0 kb RNA transcript, as judged by Northern blot analysis. The level of the RNA transcript of recA-like gene was increased approximately 1.6 to 2.4-fold upon treatment with DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet (UV)-light, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and mitomycin-C (MMC). This data suggests that the cloned S. pombe recA-like gene is slightly inducible to DNAdamage as in E. coli recA gene. These results suggest that an inducible repair mechanism analogous to that of E. coli may exist in fission yeast S. pombe

  15. Debating Whether Dinosaurs Should Be "Cloned" from Ancient DNA To Promote Cooperative Learning in an Introductory Evolution Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Constance M.; Huerta, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Describes an interactive internet exercise that enables students to engage in cooperative library and web research on a controversial topic in science, specifically the cloning of extinct lifeforms. Creates a dynamic learning environment in a large introductory geology course and demonstrates the importance of scientific literacy. (Author/SAH)

  16. Exploring the Diversity of Plant DNA Viruses and Their Satellites Using Vector-Enabled Metagenomics on Whiteflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Duffy, Siobain; Polston, Jane E.; Bixby, Elise; Vallad, Gary E.; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Current knowledge of plant virus diversity is biased towards agents of visible and economically important diseases. Less is known about viruses that have not caused major diseases in crops, or viruses from native vegetation, which are a reservoir of biodiversity that can contribute to viral emergence. Discovery of these plant viruses is hindered by the traditional approach of sampling individual symptomatic plants. Since many damaging plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, we have developed “vector-enabled metagenomics” (VEM) to investigate the diversity of plant viruses. VEM involves sampling of insect vectors (in this case, whiteflies) from plants, followed by purification of viral particles and metagenomic sequencing. The VEM approach exploits the natural ability of highly mobile adult whiteflies to integrate viruses from many plants over time and space, and leverages the capability of metagenomics for discovering novel viruses. This study utilized VEM to describe the DNA viral community from whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) collected from two important agricultural regions in Florida, USA. VEM successfully characterized the active and abundant viruses that produce disease symptoms in crops, as well as the less abundant viruses infecting adjacent native vegetation. PCR assays designed from the metagenomic sequences enabled the complete sequencing of four novel begomovirus genome components, as well as the first discovery of plant virus satellites in North America. One of the novel begomoviruses was subsequently identified in symptomatic Chenopodium ambrosiodes from the same field site, validating VEM as an effective method for proactive monitoring of plant viruses without a priori knowledge of the pathogens. This study demonstrates the power of VEM for describing the circulating viral community in a given region, which will enhance our understanding of plant viral diversity, and facilitate emerging plant virus surveillance and management of viral

  17. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. METHODS The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. FINDINGS A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region. PMID:28327794

  18. Seasonality of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania DNA detection in vector species in an area with endemic visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves de; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Rugani, Jerônimo Marteleto Nunes; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Andrade, José Dilermando

    2017-04-01

    Leishmaniases are a serious health problem in southeast Brazil, including the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), Minas Gerais state (MG), where there are high rates of incidence and mortality due to visceral leishmaniases. BH is divided into nine sanitary districts (SD) of which one, the Venda Nova SD, was selected for this study because it has high rates of positivity for canine leishmaniasis and high incidence of human leishmaniasis. This study aimed to survey the sand fly fauna in Venda Nova SD from August 2011 to July 2013 and perform a descriptive analysis of the vector population. The sampling was carried out using automatic HP light traps at all covered areas of the Venda Nova SD, in a total of eighteen light traps. Sampled specimens were identified following Galati (2003), and females were submitted to molecular techniques for the detection and identification of Leishmania DNA. A simple environmental description was done for it area and Kernel estimation was used to infer vector density for each study site. A total of 2,427 sand fly specimens belonging to eight species and five genera were collected of which 95.3% were Lutzomyia longipalpis. The seasonal variation curve was delineated by this species. Lu. longipalpis was the most abundant at all collection points and in all months of the study, and exhibited a natural infection rate of 1.01% for Leishmania infantum and 1.77% for Leishmania braziliensis. The results show the presence and adaptation of Lu. longipalpis to the anthropic environment of BH and reinforces its role as the main vector of L. infantum in the region.

  19. Detection of antibody against antigen expressed by molecularly cloned hepatitis C virus cDNA: Application to diagnosis and blood screening for posttransfusion hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamura, Tatsuo; Saito, Izumu (National Institute of Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Katayama, Tohru (Tokyo National Chest Hospital (Japan)); Kikuchi, Shu; Tateda, Akira (Sendai National Hospital (Japan)); Houghton, M.; Choo, Quilim; Kuo, G. (Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    A cDNA clone has been derived from the plasma of a chimpanzee with chronic non-A, non-B viral hepatits (NANBH). The authors have assayed for antibodies reacting with the encoded antigen in sera from posttransfusion hepatitis patients (643 samples from 23 patients) and their corresponding donors collected during the past 10 years in Japan. The antibody was detected in 15 out of 17 (88.2%) posttransfusion NANBH (PT-NANBH) patients whose sera over time displayed multiple alanine aminotransferase (ALT) peaks. In general, the antibody was detected after several peaks of serum ALT elevations and, once detected, it persisted for years. Of the 15 well-defined cases of PT-NANBH that showed multiple ALT peaks and hepatitis C virus seroconversions, 11 (73.3%) were shown to be transfused with at least one unit of blood positive for the antibody. The retrospective analysis showed that all tested donor blood found to be positive for the antibody had been transfused to recipients who afterwards developed NANBH. These data strongly suggest that the cloned cDNA originated from an etiological agent of NANBH termed the hepatitis C virus. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that had the screening been done with the anti-hepatitis C virus assay, 11 out of 17 (64.7%) cases of chronic PT-NANBH and 1 out of 6 (16.6%) acute PT-NANBH would have been prevented.

  20. Molecular cloning of the feline thymus and activation-regulated chemokine cDNA and its expression in lesional skin of cats with eosinophilic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Sadatoshi; Okayama, Taro; Ohmori, Keitaro; Masuda, Kenichi; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2003-02-01

    Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) is a member of CC chemokine and plays an essential role in recruitment of CC chemokine receptor 4 positive Th2 cells to allergic lesion. To investigate the association of TARC in allergic inflammation of cats, a TARC cDNA was cloned from feline thymus by RT-PCR with 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The feline TARC clone contained a full length open reading frame encoding 99 amino acids which shared 80.8%, 72.5%, 65.6% and 67.8% homology with dog, human, mouse and rat homologues, respectively. Expression of TARC mRNA was detected not only in thymus but also in spleen, lung, lymph node, kidney, small intestine, colon and skin of the normal cat tissues examined. Furthermore, it was found that TARC mRNA was strongly expressed in lesional skin of cats with eosinophilic plaque. The present results demonstrated that TARC might be involved in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic plaque in cats.

  1. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparian, Shahram; Abdulahnejad, Ahad; Rashidi, Farzad; Toghyani, Majid; Gheisari, Abbasali; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2016-06-17

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernatant was incubated with pBL2 for 1 h. A robust nuclease cocktail was detected in the rooster semen. To overcome these nucleases, plasmid-TransIT combinations were incubated with semen for 1 h. Incubation of exogenous DNA in the lipoplex structure could considerably bypass the semen nuclease effect. Then, intravaginal insemination of 1 × 10(9) sperm mixed with lipoplexes (40 µg pBL2:40 µl TransIT) was carried out in 15 virgin hens. Neither the epithelial tissue from the inseminated female reproductive tracts nor the produced embryos following artificial insemination showed the transgene. To remove any bias in the transgene transmission possibility, the plasmid-TransIT admixture was directly injected in close vicinity of the embryos in newly laid eggs. Nonetheless, none of the produced fetuses or chicks carried the transgene. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a nuclease admixture in rooster seminal plasma, and passive/active transmission of the non-viral vector into close vicinity of the chicken embryo was inefficient for producing transgenic chicks.

  2. Is passive transmission of non-viral vectors through artificial insemination of sperm-DNA mixtures sufficient for chicken transgenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAPARIAN, Shahram; ABDULAHNEJAD, Ahad; RASHIDI, Farzad; TOGHYANI, Majid; GHEISARI, Abbasali; EGHBALSAIED, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    DNA uptake in the post-acrosomal region of the spermatozoa takes place exclusively in immotile spermatozoa that are naturally unable to fertilize eggs. The present study aimed to assess whether passive transmission of non-viral vectors to the surrounding areas of chicken embryos could be an alternate mechanism in chicken sperm-mediated gene transfer. First, the presence of nucleases in rooster seminal plasma was evaluated. Semen ejaculates from five roosters were centrifuged and the supernatant was incubated with pBL2 for 1 h. A robust nuclease cocktail was detected in the rooster semen. To overcome these nucleases, plasmid-TransIT combinations were incubated with semen for 1 h. Incubation of exogenous DNA in the lipoplex structure could considerably bypass the semen nuclease effect. Then, intravaginal insemination of 1 × 109 sperm mixed with lipoplexes (40 µg pBL2:40 µl TransIT) was carried out in 15 virgin hens. Neither the epithelial tissue from the inseminated female reproductive tracts nor the produced embryos following artificial insemination showed the transgene. To remove any bias in the transgene transmission possibility, the plasmid-TransIT admixture was directly injected in close vicinity of the embryos in newly laid eggs. Nonetheless, none of the produced fetuses or chicks carried the transgene. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a nuclease admixture in rooster seminal plasma, and passive/active transmission of the non-viral vector into close vicinity of the chicken embryo was inefficient for producing transgenic chicks. PMID:26935324

  3. Cloning the enterotoxin gene from Clostridium perfringens type A

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanejko, Lesley Ann.

    1991-01-01

    A C. perfringens type A genomic library was constructed in E. coli by banking overlapping 6-10 kbp Hind III fragments of chromosomal DNA from the enterotoxin (CPE) positive strain NCTC 8239 into the pUC derived vector pHG165. The library was screened by colony hybridization with a degenerate 26 bp oligonucleotide probe, derived from the amino acid sequence CPE9_17A. complex mixture of plasmid DNA was isolated from the only hybridization positive clone. A second round of screening picked out a...

  4. Cloning and Expression Study of the hcpD Gene of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: hcpD gene in Helicobacter pylori is a member of cysteine-rich proteins family which triggers the host's immune system and antibody production. H. pylori is found in human's stomach and causes digestive diseases such as duodenal ulcer, chronic gastritis and stomach cancer. The objectives of this study were to isolate, amplify and clone H. pylori's hcpD gene in pcDNA3.1 (- vector and to study its expression in eukaryotic system. Methods: H. pylori genomic DNA was isolated by extraction kit. The hcpD gene was amplified using PCR reaction and then purified from gel, followed by pTZ cloning. Subcloning of hcpD was performed in pcDNA3.1 (- eukaryotic expression vector. The accuracy of cloning steps was investigated through PCR, enzymatic digestion by BamHI and EcoRV enzymes, and sequencing, respectively. Transfer of expression construct into CHO cells was done by electroporation. The gene expression in these cells was analyzed using RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. Results: PCR results showed amplification of a 933bp segment related to hcpD gene. Successful cloning of the gene in pTZ vector and construction of pTZ-hcpD recombinant vector were achieved. Enzymatic digestion and sequencing confirmed the correctness of subcloning and creation of pcDNA3.1 (--hcpD construct. hcpD was expressed in eukaryotic system, and its protein product was observed on SDS-PAGE gel. Conclusion: pTZ-hcpD construct can be used as a source of H. pylori's hcpD gene for future research, like production of recombinant protein and vaccine in different systems. Furthermore, successful expression of the gene using pcDNA3.1 (--hcpD in CHO animal cells shows the potential of vector as a gene vaccine against H. pylori.

  5. What is Cloning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate Home Cloning What is Cloning What is Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. ... clones made through modern cloning technologies. How Is Cloning Done? Many people first heard of cloning when ...

  6. [Molecular cloning of the DNA sequence of activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides from panda and related species and its application in the research of phylogeny and taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Ya-Jun; Wang, Xi-Zhong; He, Guang-Xin; Chen, Hong-Wei; Fei, Li-Song

    2002-09-01

    Activin, which is included in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) superfamily of proteins and receptors, is known to have broad-ranging effects in the creatures. The mature peptide of beta A subunit of this gene, one of the most highly conserved sequence, can elevate the basal secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary and FSH is pivotal to organism's reproduction. Reproduction block is one of the main reasons which cause giant panda to extinct. The sequence of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides has been successfully amplified from giant panda, red panda and malayan sun bear's genomic DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The PCR products were cloned into the vector pBlueScript+ of Esherichia coli. Sequence analysis of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides shows that the length of this gene segment is the same (359 bp) and there is no intron in all three species. The sequence encodes a peptide of 119 amino acid residues. The homology comparison demonstrates 93.9% DNA homology and 99% homology in amino acid among these three species. Both GenBank blast search result and restriction enzyme map reveal that the sequences of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during the evolution process. Phylogeny analysis is performed with PHYLIP software package. A consistent phylogeny tree has been drawn with three different methods. The software analysis outcome accords with the academic view that giant panda has a closer relationship to the malayan sun bear than the red panda. Giant panda should be grouped into the bear family (Uersidae) with the malayan sun bear. As to the red panda, it would be better that this animal be grouped into the unique family (red panda family) because of great difference between the red panda and the bears (Uersidae).

  7. Molecular profiling of microbial communities from contaminated sources: Use of subtractive cloning methods and rDNA spacer sequences. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, F.T.

    1998-06-01

    'The major objective of the research is to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a high-density DNA array of oligonucleotides that can be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations from polluted areas. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array are chosen from from cloned genomic DNA sequences (the ribosomal operon, described below) from groundwater at DOE sites containing organic solvents. The sites, Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300, have well characterized pollutant histories, which have been provided by the collaborators. At this mid-point of the project, over 60 unique sequence classes of intergenic spacer region have been idedntified from the first sample site. The use of these sequences as hybridization probes, and their frequency of occurrence, allow a clear distinction between bacterial communities before and after remediation by acetate/nitrate pumping. The authors have developed the hybridization conditions for identifying PCR products in a 96 well format, a versatile alignment and visualization program (acronym: MALIGN) developed by Dr. Dennis Maeder, has been used to align the ISRs, which are variable in length and sometimes in position of the tRNAs. Finally, in collaboration with Dr. W. Chen and Dr. J. Zhou at ORNL, they have significant evidence that mass spectrometer analysis can be used to determine the lengths of PCR amplified intergenic spacer DNA.'

  8. Molecular profiling of microbial communities from contaminated sources: Use of subtractive cloning methods and rDNA spacer sequences. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, F.T.

    1998-01-01

    'The major objective of the research is to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a high-density DNA array of oligonucleotides that can be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations from polluted areas. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array are chosen from from cloned genomic DNA sequences (the ribosomal operon, described below) from groundwater at DOE sites containing organic solvents. The sites, Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300, have well characterized pollutant histories, which have been provided by the collaborators. At this mid-point of the project, over 60 unique sequence classes of intergenic spacer region have been identified from the first sample site. The use of these sequences as hybridization probes, and their frequency of occurrence, allow a clear distinction between bacterial communities before and after remediation by acetate/nitrate pumping. The authors have developed the hybridization conditions for identifying PCR products in a 96 well format, a versatile alignment and visualization program (acronym: MALIGN) developed by Dr. Dennis Maeder, has been used to align the ISRs, which are variable in length and sometimes in position of the tRNAs. Finally, in collaboration with Dr. W. Chen and Dr. J. Zhou at ORNL, they have significant evidence that mass spectrometer analysis can be used to determine the lengths of PCR amplified intergenic spacer DNA.'

  9. Isolation of a full-length mitotic cyclin cDNA clone CycIIIMs from Medicago sativa: chromosomal mapping and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savouré, A; Fehér, A; Kaló, P; Petrovics, G; Csanádi, G; Szécsi, J; Kiss, G; Brown, S; Kondorosi, A; Kondorosi, E

    1995-03-01

    Cyclins in association with the protein kinase p34cdc2 and related cyclin-dependent protein kinases (cdks) are key regulatory elements in controlling the cell division cycle. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a full-length cDNA clone of alfalfa mitotic cyclin, termed CycIIIMs. Computer analysis of known plant cyclin gene sequences revealed that this cyclin belongs to the same structural group as the other known partial alfalfa cyclin sequences. Genetic segregation analysis based on DNA-DNA hybridization data showed that the CycIIIMs gene(s) locates in a single chromosomal region on linkage group 5 of the alfalfa genetic map between RFLP markers UO89A and CG13. The assignment of this cyclin to the mitotic cyclin class was based on its cDNA-derived sequence and its differential expression during G2/M cell cycle phase transition of a partially synchronized alfalfa cell culture. Sequence analysis indicated common motifs with both the A- and B-types of mitotic cyclins similarly to the newly described B3-type of animal cyclins.

  10. [Construction of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library of copepod Pseudodiaptomous annandalei and its ferritin cDNA cloning and differential expression under nickel stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie-Lan; Wang, Gui-Zhong; Wu, Li-Sheng; Li, Shao-Jing

    2012-07-01

    To study the molecular response mechanisms of copepod to nickel stress, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of Pseudodiaptomous annandalei under nickel stress was constructed by using SSH technique, and a total of 140 clones were randomly picked from the growing colonies and identified by PCR. The recombinant rate of the library was 98.6%, and the volume of the library was 1.12 x 10(6) cfu. After the recombinant plasmids were sequenced, a partial cDNA fragment of ferritin was recognized based on BLAST searches in NCBI, with a size of 859 bp and continuously encoding 170 amino acid residues. The semi-quantitative PCR results showed that the ferritin cDNA under 24 h nickel stress was distinctly up-regulated. The successful construction of the SSH library and the obtaining of ferritin cDNA fragment would supply basis for the further study of the molecular response mechanisms of copepod to nickel stress.

  11. Begomovirus-Associated Satellite DNA Diversity Captured Through Vector-Enabled Metagenomic (VEM) Surveys Using Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Marr, Christian; Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Moriones, Enrique; Polston, Jane E; Breitbart, Mya

    2016-02-02

    Monopartite begomoviruses (Geminiviridae), which are whitefly-transmitted single-stranded DNA viruses known for causing devastating crop diseases, are often associated with satellite DNAs. Since begomovirus acquisition or exchange of satellite DNAs may lead to adaptation to new plant hosts and emergence of new disease complexes, it is important to investigate the diversity and distribution of these molecules. This study reports begomovirus-associated satellite DNAs identified during a vector-enabled metagenomic (VEM) survey of begomoviruses using whiteflies collected in various locations (California (USA), Guatemala, Israel, Puerto Rico, and Spain). Protein-encoding satellite DNAs, including alphasatellites and betasatellites, were identified in Israel, Puerto Rico, and Guatemala. Novel alphasatellites were detected in samples from Guatemala and Puerto Rico, resulting in the description of a phylogenetic clade (DNA-3-type alphasatellites) dominated by New World sequences. In addition, a diversity of small (~640-750 nucleotides) satellite DNAs similar to satellites associated with begomoviruses infecting Ipomoea spp. were detected in Puerto Rico and Spain. A third class of satellite molecules, named gammasatellites, is proposed to encompass the increasing number of reported small (satellite DNAs. This VEM-based survey indicates that, although recently recovered begomovirus genomes are variations of known genetic themes, satellite DNAs hold unexplored genetic diversity.

  12. pUCS75, a stable high-copy-number Streptomyces--Escherichia coli shuttle vector which facilitates subcloning from pUC plasmid and M13 phage vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, P J; Evans, M

    1996-05-24

    A new Streptomyces-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, pUCS75, has been constructed to permit facile subcloning of DNA from the multiple cloning sites of the pUC plasmid and M13 phage vectors. In contrast to other commonly used shuttle vectors, pUCS75 retains the primary site for second-strand synthesis (ssi) of the parental streptomycete replicon, pIJ101. This sequence can not only enhance structural stability of the plasmid, but also confers on it an elevated copy number when replicated in Streptomyces. Consequently, the vector is useful for cloning sequences containing repeat structures and for allowing the high-level expression of cloned genes.

  13. Combination of MIDGE-Th1 DNA vaccines with the cationic lipid SAINT-18 : Studies on formulation, biodistribution and vector clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endmann, Anne; Oswald, Detlef; Riede, Oliver; Talman, Eduard G.; Vos, Roelien E.; Schroff, Matthias; Kleuss, Christiane; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Juhls, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the combination of MIDGE-Th1 DNA vectors with the cationic lipid SAINT-18 increases the immune response to the encoded antigen in mice. Here, we report on experiments to further optimize and characterize this approach. We evaluated different formulations of MIDGE-Th1

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of satellite DNA sequences from constitutive heterochromatin of the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Viperidae) and the Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Seki, Risako; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2015-12-01

    Highly repetitive DNA sequences of the centromeric heterochromatin provide valuable molecular cytogenetic markers for the investigation of genomic compartmentalization in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of sauropsids. Here, the relationship between centromeric heterochromatin and karyotype evolution was examined using cloned repetitive DNA sequences from two snake species, the habu snake (Protobothrops flavoviridis, Crotalinae, Viperidae) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus, Pythonidae). Three satellite DNA (stDNA) families were isolated from the heterochromatin of these snakes: 168-bp PFL-MspI from P. flavoviridis and 196-bp PBI-DdeI and 174-bp PBI-MspI from P. bivittatus. The PFL-MspI and PBI-DdeI sequences were localized to the centromeric regions of most chromosomes in the respective species, suggesting that the two sequences were the major components of the centromeric heterochromatin in these organisms. The PBI-MspI sequence was localized to the pericentromeric region of four chromosome pairs. The PFL-MspI and the PBI-DdeI sequences were conserved only in the genome of closely related species, Gloydius blomhoffii (Crotalinae) and Python molurus, respectively, although their locations on the chromosomes were slightly different. In contrast, the PBI-MspI sequence was also in the genomes of P. molurus and Boa constrictor (Boidae), and additionally localized to the centromeric regions of eight chromosome pairs in B. constrictor, suggesting that this sequence originated in the genome of a common ancestor of Pythonidae and Boidae, approximately 86 million years ago. The three stDNA sequences showed no genomic compartmentalization between the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes, suggesting that homogenization of the centromeric and/or pericentromeric stDNA sequences occurred in the macrochromosomes and microchromosomes of these snakes.

  15. Frame-Insensitive Expression Cloning of Fluorescent Protein from Scolionema suvaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Horiuchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Expression cloning from cDNA is an important technique for acquiring genes encoding novel fluorescent proteins. However, the probability of in-frame cDNA insertion following the first start codon of the vector is normally only 1/3, which is a cause of low cloning efficiency. To overcome this issue, we developed a new expression plasmid vector, pRSET-TriEX, in which transcriptional slippage was induced by introducing a DNA sequence of (dT14 next to the first start codon of pRSET. The effectiveness of frame-insensitive cloning was validated by inserting the gene encoding eGFP with all three possible frames to the vector. After transformation with one of these plasmids, E. coli cells expressed eGFP with no significant difference in the expression level. The pRSET-TriEX vector was then used for expression cloning of a novel fluorescent protein from Scolionema suvaense. We screened 3658 E. coli colonies transformed with pRSET-TriEX containing Scolionema suvaense cDNA, and found one colony expressing a novel green fluorescent protein, ScSuFP. The highest score in protein sequence similarity was 42% with the chain c of multi-domain green fluorescent protein like protein “ember” from Anthoathecata sp. Variations in the N- and/or C-terminal sequence of ScSuFP compared to other fluorescent proteins indicate that the expression cloning, rather than the sequence similarity-based methods, was crucial for acquiring the gene encoding ScSuFP. The absorption maximum was at 498 nm, with an extinction efficiency of 1.17 × 105 M−1·cm−1. The emission maximum was at 511 nm and the fluorescence quantum yield was determined to be 0.6. Pseudo-native gel electrophoresis showed that the protein forms obligatory homodimers.

  16. Transfection of Infectious RNA and DNA/RNA Layered Vectors of Semliki Forest Virus by the Cell-Penetrating Peptide Based Reagent PepFect6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärn, Kalle; Viru, Liane; Lehto, Taavi; Oskolkov, Nikita; Langel, Ülo; Merits, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Viral vectors have a wide variety of applications ranging from fundamental studies of viruses to therapeutics. Recombinant viral vectors are usually constructed using methods of reverse genetics to obtain the genetic material of the viral vector. The physicochemical properties of DNA and RNA make them unable to access cells by themselves, and they require assistance to achieve intracellular delivery. Non-viral delivery vectors can be used for this purpose if they enable efficient intracellular delivery without interfering with the viral life cycle. In this report, we utilize Semliki Forest virus (genus alphavirus) based RNA and DNA vectors to study the transfection efficiency of the non-viral cell-penetrating peptide-based delivery vector PepFect6 in comparison with that of the cationic liposome-based Lipofectamine 2000, and assess their impact on viral replication. The optimal conditions for transfection were determined for both reagents. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of PepFect6 to transport large (13-19 kbp) constructs across the cell membrane. Curiously, DNA molecules delivered using the PepFect6 reagent were found to be transported to the cell nucleus approximately 1.5 hours later than DNA molecules delivered using the Lipofectamine 2000 reagent. Finally, although both PepFect6 and Lipofectamine 2000 reagents can be used for alphavirus research, PepFect6 is preferred because it does not induce changes in the normal cellular phenotype and it does not affect the normal replication-infection cycle of viruses in previously transfected cells. PMID:23861978

  17. cDNA cloning, mRNA distribution and heterogeneity, chromosomal location, and RFLP analysis of human osteopontin (OPN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, M F; Kerr, J M; Termine, J D

    1990-01-01

    on a region of 4q that is near the centromere. A high-frequency restriction fragment length polymorphism was evident in the DNA from 29 unrelated individuals using the enzyme BglII. Analysis of total genomic DNA by digestion with several restriction enzymes, Southern blotting, and hybridization with the human...

  18. Restriction enzyme body doubles and PCR cloning: on the general use of type IIs restriction enzymes for cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease--a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme--is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program (http://group.szbk.u-szeged.hu/welkergr/body_double/index.html) for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers.

  19. Restriction Enzyme Body Doubles and PCR Cloning: On the General Use of Type IIS Restriction Enzymes for Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease - a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme - is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program (http://group.szbk.u-szeged.hu/welkergr/body_double/index.html) for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers. PMID:24618593

  20. Development of Transgenic Cloned Pig Models of Skin Inflammation by DNA Transposon-Directed Ectopic Expression of Human β1 and α2 Integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Madsen, Johannes; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Li, Juan; Liu, Ying; Kragh, Peter M.; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette; Purup, Stig; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Svensson, Lars; Petersen, Thomas K.; Callesen, Henrik; Bolund, Lars; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2012-01-01

    Integrins constitute a superfamily of transmembrane signaling receptors that play pivotal roles in cutaneous homeostasis by modulating cell growth and differentiation as well as inflammatory responses in the skin. Subrabasal expression of integrins α2 and/or β1 entails hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes and leads to dermal and epidermal influx of activated T-cells. The anatomical and physiological similarities between porcine and human skin make the pig a suitable model for human skin diseases. In efforts to generate a porcine model of cutaneous inflammation, we employed the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon system for production of transgenic cloned Göttingen minipigs expressing human β1 or α2 integrin under the control of a promoter specific for subrabasal keratinocytes. Using pools of transgenic donor fibroblasts, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer was utilized to produce reconstructed embryos that were subsequently transferred to surrogate sows. The resulting pigs were all transgenic and harbored from one to six transgene integrants. Molecular analyses on skin biopsies and cultured keratinocytes showed ectopic expression of the human integrins and localization within the keratinocyte plasma membrane. Markers of perturbed skin homeostasis, including activation of the MAPK pathway, increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α, and enhanced expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, were identified in keratinocytes from β1 and α2 integrin-transgenic minipigs, suggesting the induction of a chronic inflammatory phenotype in the skin. Notably, cellular dysregulation obtained by overexpression of either β1 or α2 integrin occurred through different cellular signaling pathways. Our findings mark the creation of the first cloned pig models with molecular markers of skin inflammation. Despite the absence of an overt psoriatic phenotype, these animals may possess increased susceptibility to severe skin damage