WorldWideScience

Sample records for divided difference operators

  1. Some results on numerical divided difference formulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Xinghua; Wang; Heyu; Ming-Jun; Lai

    2005-01-01

    The remainder estimates of numerical divided difference formula are given for the functions of lower and higher smoothness, respectively. Then several divided difference formulas with super-convergence are derived with their remainder expressions.

  2. Numerical Investigation on Effect of Vapor Split Ratio to Performance and Operability for Dividing Wall Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laleh Torab Maralani; YUAN Xigang; LUO Yiqing; GONG Chao; YU Guocong

    2013-01-01

    Operability problem of dividing wall column (DWC) raised by vapor split was investigated by numerically analyzing four cases defined by different compositions of a three-component mixture.DWCs were firstly designed for each case by optimizing the vapor split to the two sides of the dividing wall,and then their feasibilities and total annual costs in operation were evaluated against different vapor split ratios.The analysis on the operability of the DWC for four cases was made based on two scenarios: (1) vapor split is shifted by the vapor resistance difference between the column sections in the two sides of the dividing wall and (2) the feed composition is changed.It was demonstrated that the positioning of the dividing wall and the decision on the vapor split may affect signifi-cantly the operability of a DWC.

  3. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2012-03-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling\\'s interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling\\'s interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling\\'s interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Divide and be different: Priestly identity in the Persian period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esias E. Meyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focused on the Hebrew root לדב [divide] [bdl] in Priestly and post-Priestly material of the Pentateuch. In Genesis 1 God is the subject of the verb and often enough in the Holiness Code, but in many instances in Leviticus (e.g. 10:10 and 11:47 it is expected of priests to perform the same act. It was argued that in this regard priests were to imitate God. The article further argued that these texts helped us to describe Jewish identity in the Persian period as an identity of non-conformity, and they also helped us to describe the priests’ own understanding of their role in maintaining this identity.

  5. Signs of divided differences yield least squares data fitting with constrained monotonicity or convexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, I. C.

    2002-09-01

    Methods are presented for least squares data smoothing by using the signs of divided differences of the smoothed values. Professor M.J.D. Powell initiated the subject in the early 1980s and since then, theory, algorithms and FORTRAN software make it applicable to several disciplines in various ways. Let us consider n data measurements of a univariate function which have been altered by random errors. Then it is usual for the divided differences of the measurements to show sign alterations, which are probably due to data errors. We make the least sum of squares change to the measurements, by requiring the sequence of divided differences of order m to have at most q sign changes for some prescribed integer q. The positions of the sign changes are integer variables of the optimization calculation, which implies a combinatorial problem whose solution can require about O(nq) quadratic programming calculations in n variables and n-m constraints. Suitable methods have been developed for the following cases. It has been found that a dynamic programming procedure can calculate the global minimum for the important cases of piecewise monotonicity m=1,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and piecewise convexity/concavity m=2,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 of the smoothed values. The complexity of the procedure in the case of m=1 is O(n2+qn log2 n) computer operations, while it is reduced to only O(n) when q=0 (monotonicity) and q=1 (increasing/decreasing monotonicity). The case m=2,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 requires O(qn2) computer operations and n2 quadratic programming calculations, which is reduced to one and n-2 quadratic programming calculations when m=2,q=0, i.e. convexity, and m=2,q=1, i.e. convexity/concavity, respectively. Unfortunately, the technique that receives this efficiency cannot generalize for the highly nonlinear case m[greater-or-equal, slanted]3,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]2. However, the case m[greater-or-equal, slanted]3,q=0 is solved by a special strictly

  6. Maximum likelihood-based iterated divided difference filter for nonlinear systems from discrete noisy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyuan; Zhang, Jing; Mu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    A new filter named the maximum likelihood-based iterated divided difference filter (MLIDDF) is developed to improve the low state estimation accuracy of nonlinear state estimation due to large initial estimation errors and nonlinearity of measurement equations. The MLIDDF algorithm is derivative-free and implemented only by calculating the functional evaluations. The MLIDDF algorithm involves the use of the iteration measurement update and the current measurement, and the iteration termination criterion based on maximum likelihood is introduced in the measurement update step, so the MLIDDF is guaranteed to produce a sequence estimate that moves up the maximum likelihood surface. In a simulation, its performance is compared against that of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), divided difference filter (DDF), iterated unscented Kalman filter (IUKF) and iterated divided difference filter (IDDF) both using a traditional iteration strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accumulated mean-square root error for the MLIDDF algorithm in position is reduced by 63% compared to that of UKF and DDF algorithms, and by 7% compared to that of IUKF and IDDF algorithms. The new algorithm thus has better state estimation accuracy and a fast convergence rate.

  7. Maximum Likelihood-Based Iterated Divided Difference Filter for Nonlinear Systems from Discrete Noisy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new filter named the maximum likelihood-based iterated divided difference filter (MLIDDF is developed to improve the low state estimation accuracy of nonlinear state estimation due to large initial estimation errors and nonlinearity of measurement equations. The MLIDDF algorithm is derivative-free and implemented only by calculating the functional evaluations. The MLIDDF algorithm involves the use of the iteration measurement update and the current measurement, and the iteration termination criterion based on maximum likelihood is introduced in the measurement update step, so the MLIDDF is guaranteed to produce a sequence estimate that moves up the maximum likelihood surface. In a simulation, its performance is compared against that of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF, divided difference filter (DDF, iterated unscented Kalman filter (IUKF and iterated divided difference filter (IDDF both using a traditional iteration strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accumulated mean-square root error for the MLIDDF algorithm in position is reduced by 63% compared to that of UKF and DDF algorithms, and by 7% compared to that of IUKF and IDDF algorithms. The new algorithm thus has better state estimation accuracy and a fast convergence rate.

  8. Methods for Least Squares Data Smoothing by Adjustment of Divided Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, I. C.

    2008-09-01

    A brief survey is presented for the main methods that are used in least squares data smoothing by adjusting the signs of divided differences of the smoothed values. The most distinctive feature of the smoothing approach is that it provides automatically a piecewise monotonic or a piecewise convex/concave fit to the data. The data are measured values of a function of one variable that contain random errors. As a consequence of the errors, the number of sign alterations in the sequence of mth divided differences is usually unacceptably large, where m is a prescribed positive integer. Therefore, we make the least sum of squares change to the measurements by requiring the sequence of the divided differences of order m to have at most k-1 sign changes, for some positive integer k. Although, it is a combinatorial problem, whose solution can require about O(nk) quadratic programming calculations in n variables and n-m constraints, where n is the number of data, very efficient algorithms have been developed for the cases when m = 1 or m = 2 and k is arbitrary, as well as when m>2 for small values of k. Attention is paid to the purpose of each method instead of to its details. Some software packages make the methods publicly accessible through library systems.

  9. Hierarchical robot control structure and Newton's divided difference approach to robot path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A hierarchical robot control is proposed for robot soccer system. The Newton' s divided difference is utilized in robot path planning. This paper describes the problems encoutered, software design considerations, vision algorithm and controls of individual robots. The solutions.to the problems implemented are simple and di rect. It is observed that many of the ideas and solutions can be evolved based on simple theories and concepts. This paper focuses on software structure of multi-agent controls, vision algorithm and simple path planning method.

  10. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...

  11. Divide & Concur and Difference-Map BP Decoders for LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Yedidia, Jonathan S; Draper, Stark C

    2010-01-01

    The "Divide and Concur'' (DC) algorithm, recently introduced by Gravel and Elser, can be considered a competitor to the belief propagation (BP) algorithm, in that both algorithms can be applied to a wide variety of constraint satisfaction, optimization, and probabilistic inference problems. We show that DC can be interpreted as a message-passing algorithm on a constraint graph, which helps make the comparison with BP more clear. The "difference-map'' dynamics of the DC algorithm enables it to avoid "traps'' which may be related to the "trapping sets'' or "pseudo-codewords'' that plague BP decoders of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes in the error-floor regime. We investigate two decoders for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on these ideas. The first decoder is based directly on DC, while the second decoder borrows the important "difference-map'' concept from the DC algorithm and translates it into a BP-like decoder. We show that this "difference-map belief propagation'' (DMBP) decoder has drama...

  12. Support Vector Regression-Based Adaptive Divided Difference Filter for Nonlinear State Estimation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a support vector regression-based adaptive divided difference filter (SVRADDF algorithm for improving the low state estimation accuracy of nonlinear systems, which are typically affected by large initial estimation errors and imprecise prior knowledge of process and measurement noises. The derivative-free SVRADDF algorithm is significantly simpler to compute than other methods and is implemented using only functional evaluations. The SVRADDF algorithm involves the use of the theoretical and actual covariance of the innovation sequence. Support vector regression (SVR is employed to generate the adaptive factor to tune the noise covariance at each sampling instant when the measurement update step executes, which improves the algorithm’s robustness. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by estimating states for (i an underwater nonmaneuvering target bearing-only tracking system and (ii maneuvering target bearing-only tracking in an air-traffic control system. The simulation results show that the proposed SVRADDF algorithm exhibits better performance when compared with a traditional DDF algorithm.

  13. The divide within: Older active ICT users position themselves against different 'Others'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Lundholm, Magdalena; Torres, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Although research into older people's internet usage patterns is rapidly growing, their understandings of digital technologies, particularly in relation to how these are informed by their understandings of aging and old age, remain unexplored. This is the case because research on older active ICT users tends to regard old age as an empirically interesting part of the life-course as opposed to a theoretically profuse source of information about why and how older people engage with digital technologies. This article explores - through focus group interviews with 30 older adults (aged 66-89) - the ways in which the social position of old age is used by older active ICT users in order to make sense of how and why they engage with these technologies. In this article, positioning theory is used to shed light on how the older people interviewed positioned themselves as 'active older users' in the interviews. The analysis brings to the fore the divide that older people themselves create as they discursively position themselves against different types of ICT users and non-users (young and old) when describing how and why they engage with digital technologies.

  14. On a fractional difference operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baliarsingh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, a set of new difference sequence spaces of fractional order has been introduced and subsequently, an application of these spaces, the notion of the derivatives and the integrals of a function to the case of non-integer order have been generalized. Certain results involving the unusual and non-uniform behavior of the corresponding difference operator have been investigated and also been verified by using some counter examples. We also verify these unusual and non-uniform behaviors by studying the geometry of fractional calculus.

  15. Robust Huber-Based Iterated Divided Difference Filtering with Application to Cooperative Localization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Liu, Yalong; Xu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A new algorithm called Huber-based iterated divided difference filtering (HIDDF) is derived and applied to cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) supported by a single surface leader. The position states are estimated using acoustic range measurements relative to the leader, in which some disadvantages such as weak observability, large initial error and contaminated measurements with outliers are inherent. By integrating both merits of iterated divided difference filtering (IDDF) and Huber's M-estimation methodology, the new filtering method could not only achieve more accurate estimation and faster convergence contrast to standard divided difference filtering (DDF) in conditions of weak observability and large initial error, but also exhibit robustness with respect to outlier measurements, for which the standard IDDF would exhibit severe degradation in estimation accuracy. The correctness as well as validity of the algorithm is demonstrated through experiment results. PMID:25536004

  16. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand...

  17. Effects of divided attention and operating room noise on perception of pulse oximeter pitch changes: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Fellow, Postdoctoral; Schlesinger, Joseph J.; Physician, Resident; Wallace, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anesthesiology requires performing visually-oriented procedures while monitoring auditory information about a patient’s vital signs. A concern in operating rooms environments is the amount of competing information and the effects that divided attention have on patient monitoring, such as detecting auditory changes in arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry. Methods We measured the impact of visual attentional load and auditory background noise on the ability of anesthesia residents to monitor the pulse oximeter auditory display in a laboratory setting. Accuracies and response times were recorded reflecting anesthesiologists’ abilities to detect changes in oxygen saturation across three levels of visual attention in quiet and with noise. Results Results show that visual attentional load substantially impacts the ability to detect changes in oxygen saturation levels conveyed by auditory cues signaling 99 and 98% saturation. These effects are compounded by auditory noise, with up to a 17% decline in performance. These deficits are seen in the ability to accurately detect a change in oxygen saturation and in speed of response. Conclusions Most anesthesia accidents are initiated by small errors that cascade into serious events. Lack of monitor vigilance and inattention are two of the more commonly cited factors. Reducing such errors is thus a priority for improving patient safety. Specifically, efforts to reduce distractors and lower background noise should be considered during induction and emergence, periods of especially high risk, when anesthesiologists must attend to many tasks and are thus susceptible to error. PMID:23263015

  18. Formal theory for differential-difference operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, B.F.; Put, M. van der

    2001-01-01

    Differential-difference operators are linear operators involving both d/dz and the shift z ↦ z + 1 (or z(d/dz) and z ↦ qz). The aim is to give a formal classification and to provide solutions for these equations. Differential-difference operators can be considered as formal differential operators of

  19. Continents divided: Understanding differences between Europe and North America in acceptance of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, David; Kaplan, Scott; Kim, Eunice; Hochman, Gal; Graff, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The differences between GM policies in the US and Europe have several causes. GM technology holds a home court advantage in the US and European chemical companies did not support its introduction. The technology did not seem to provide benefits to consumers, and the crops it applied to were not so significant in Europe. The technology was introduced during a time when the political influence of green parties in Europe was especially significant, and European trust of government capacity to enter food security issues was at its lowest.

  20. Differences in sensitivity to deviance partly explain ideological divides in social policy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimoto, Tyler G; Gromet, Dena M

    2016-07-01

    We propose that political differences in social policy support may be partly driven by the tendency for conservatives to show greater sensitivity to deviance than liberals, even among targets lacking social or functional relevance. In 3 studies, participants were shown geometric figures and were asked to identify the extent to which they were "triangles" (or circles, squares, etc.). More conservative participants reported greater differentiation between perfect and imperfect shapes than more liberal participants, indicating greater sensitivity to deviance. Moreover, shape differentiation partly accounted for the relationship between political ideology and social policy, partially mediating the link between conservatism and harsher punishment of wrongdoers (Studies 1 and 4), less support for public aid for disadvantaged groups (Study 2), and less financial backing for policies that benefit marginalized groups in society (Study 3). This effect was specific to policies that targeted deviant groups (Study 3) and who were not too highly deviant (Study 4). Results suggest that, in addition to commonly cited affective and motivational reactions to deviant actors, political differences in social policy may also be driven by conservatives' greater cognitive propensity to distinguish deviance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Compact differences of composition operators

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Katherine; Weir, Rachel J

    2010-01-01

    When $\\varphi$ and $\\psi$ are linear-fractional self-maps of the unit ball $B_N$ in ${\\mathbb C}^N$, $N\\geq 1$, we show that the difference $C_{\\varphi}-C_{\\psi}$ cannot be non-trivially compact on either the Hardy space $H^2(B_N)$ or any weighted Bergman space $A^2_{\\alpha}(B_N)$. Our arguments emphasize geometrical properties of the inducing maps $\\varphi$ and $\\psi$.

  2. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...

  3. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    International Relations (IR) has cultivated an image as a discipline with strong divisions along paradigmatic, methodological, metatheoretical, geographical, and other lines. This article questions that image analyzing the latent structures of communication in IR. It uses citation data from more...... the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...

  4. Dunkl–Darboux differential-difference operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khekalo, S. P.

    2017-02-01

    Using a natural generalization, we construct and study analogues of Dunkl differential-difference operators on the line. These analogues turn out to be closely connected with the so-called Burchnall– Chaundy–Adler–Moser polynomials and, therefore, with Darboux transforms. We find the eigenfunctions of these operators.

  5. Chipping operations and efficiency in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Prinz, R.; Emer, B.; Sikanen, L., e-mail: dominik.roser@metla.fi

    2012-11-01

    This research analyses the productivity of energy wood chipping operations at several sites in Austria and Finland. The aim of the work is to examine the differences in productivity and the effects of the operational environment for the chipping of bioenergy at the roadside. Furthermore, the study quantifies the effects of different variables such as forest energy assortments, tree species, sieve size and machines on the overall productivity of chipping. The results revealed that there are significant differences in the chipping productivity in Austria and Finland which are largely based on the use of different sieve sizes. Furthermore, the different operational environments in both countries, as well as the characteristics of the raw material also seem to have an effect on productivity. In order to improve the chipping productivity, particularly in Central European conditions, all relevant stakeholders need to work jointly to find solutions that will allow a greater variation of chip size. Furthermore, in the future more consideration has to be given to the close interlinkage between the chipper, crane and grapple. As a result, investments costs can be optimized and operational costs and stress on the machines reduced. (orig.)

  6. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  7. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...... designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design...

  8. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...... designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design...

  9. Differences in the rDNA-bearing chromosome divide the Asian-Pacific and Atlantic species of Crassostrea (Bivalvia, Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongping; Xu, Zhe; Guo, Ximing

    2004-02-01

    Karyotype and chromosomal location of the major ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in five species of CRASSOSTREA: three Asian-Pacific species (C. gigas, C. plicatula, and C. ariakensis) and two Atlantic species (C. virginica and C. rhizophorae). FISH probes were made by PCR amplification of the intergenic transcribed spacer between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes, and labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP. All five species had a haploid number of 10 chromosomes. The Atlantic species had 1-2 submetacentric chromosomes, while the three Pacific species had none. FISH with metaphase chromosomes detected a single telomeric locus for rDNA in all five species without any variation. In all three Pacific species, rDNA was located on the long arm of Chromosome 10 (10q)--the smallest chromosome. In the two Atlantic species, rDNA was located on the short arm of Chromosome 2 (2p)--the second longest chromosome. A review of other studies reveals the same distribution of NOR sites (putative rDNA loci) in three other species: on 10q in C. sikamea and C. angulata from the Pacific Ocean and on 2p in C. gasar from the western Atlantic. All data support the conclusion that differences in size and shape of the rDNA-bearing chromosome represent a major divide between Asian-Pacific and Atlantic species of CRASSOSTREA: This finding suggests that chromosomal divergence can occur under seemingly conserved karyotypes and may play a role in reproductive isolation and speciation.

  10. The Open Access Divide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-01-01

      This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do...

  11. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  12. Differences in Preschoolers' and Adults' Use of Generics about Novel Animals and Artifacts: A Window onto a Conceptual Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults commonly produce more generic noun phrases (e.g., birds fly) about animals than artifacts. This may reflect differences in participants' generic knowledge about specific animals/artifacts (e.g., dogs/chairs), or it may reflect a more general distinction. To test this, the current experiments asked adults and preschoolers to…

  13. "I Want More": Does a Divide between Charter and Public School Teachers Cause Different Desires for Certification Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Patricia; McKenzie-Thompson, Kenann

    2013-01-01

    The number of teachers entering the profession through alternative certification and the number of charter schools in the United States have increased over the past twenty years. While there is a great deal of research on the efficacy of different paths to certification on teachers in public schools, there is little research exploring the needs of…

  14. Simulation and analysis of operation flexibility of divided wall column for ternary distillation%三组分精馏隔板塔的操作柔性模拟与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟祖霖; 盖晓龙; 袁希钢; 罗祎青; 余国琮

    2016-01-01

    The operation and control of a dividing-wall column, a fully thermally coupled distillation column configuration, is more complex than the traditional column because of its coupling nature. However it exhibits more flexibility due to the more degree of freedom. In the present paper the operation flexibilities of dividing-wall columns for separating the mixture of n-pentane, n-hexane and n-heptane with different compositions are investigated by using rigorous simulation. And the effect of the feed composition on the operation flexibilities are also investigated.%隔板精馏塔作为完全热耦合精馏塔由于具有较强的耦合性,其操作与控制相比传统精馏塔更为复杂,同时由于具有更多的自由度表现出更多的操作柔性。选用正戊烷、正己烷、正庚烷混合物的分离为例,采用严格模拟方法,通过对7种进料条件设计的隔板塔进行模拟,考察了不同进料条件下的操作柔性,同时考察进料组成对隔板精馏塔操作柔性的影响。

  15. 安全操作系统中系统分权的实现%Impose Privilege-Divided Policy on Security-Enhanced Operation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雷; 林志强; 茅兵; 谢立

    2003-01-01

    In Linux management is still based on some privilege system call,and this is a great underlying threat to system. Privilege-Divided Model (PDM)comes out to solve the problem. In the model, privilege is divided into some parts ,each part or several parts can only do some special task which need privilege. So the potential threat is cut down by this mechanism. This paper gives an analysis on the idea of privilege-divided,and illuminates how to design and get privilege-divided system into reality.

  16. Eigenvalues of singular differential operators by finite difference methods. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    Note is made of an earlier paper which defined finite difference operators for the Hilbert space L2(m), and gave the eigenvalues for these operators. The present work examines eigenvalues for higher order singular differential operators by using finite difference methods. The two self-adjoint operators investigated are defined by a particular value in the same Hilbert space, L2(m), and are strictly positive with compact inverses. A class of finite difference operators is considered, with the idea of application to the theory of Toeplitz matrices. The approximating operators consist of a good approximation plus a perturbing operator.

  17. Eigenvalues of singular differential operators by finite difference methods. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    Approximation of the eigenvalues of certain self-adjoint operators defined by a formal differential operator in a Hilbert space. In general, two problems are studied. The first is the problem of defining a suitable Hilbert space operator that has eigenvalues. The second problem concerns the finite difference operators to be used.

  18. Are the differences in adulthood ill-health across the north-south divide and between Scotland and England also evident in early childhood health indicators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruise, Sharon Mary; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2015-04-01

    Regional differences in adult morbidity and mortality within England (i.e., north-south divide or gradient) and between England and Scotland (i.e., Scottish effect) are only partly explained by adult levels of socioeconomic status or risk factors. This suggests variation in early life, and is supported by the foetal origins and life-course literature which posits that birth outcomes and subsequent, cumulative exposures influence adult health. However, no studies have examined the north-south gradient or Scottish effect in health in the earliest years of life. The aims of the study were: i) to examine health indicators in English and Scottish children at birth and age three to establish whether regional differences exist; and ii) to establish whether observed changes in child health at age three were attributable to birth and/or early life environmental exposures. Respondents included 10,639 biological Caucasian mothers of singleton children recruited to the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in the year 2000. Outcome variables were: gestational age and birth weight, and height, body mass index (BMI), and externalising behavioural problems at age three. Region/country was categorised as: South (reference), Midlands, North (England), and Scotland. Respondents provided information on child, maternal, household, and socioeconomic characteristics. Results indicated no significant regional variations for gestational age or birth weight. At age three there was a north-south gradient for externalising behaviour and a north-south divide in BMI which attenuated on adjustment. However, a north-south divide in height was not fully explained by adjustment. There was also evidence of a 'Midlands effect', with increased likelihood of shorter stature and behaviour problems. Results showed a Scottish effect for height and BMI in the unadjusted models, and height in the adjusted model, but a decreased likelihood of behaviour problems. Findings indicated no regional differences in health

  19. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in different metal cutting operations is presented, based on experimental investigations in which type of operation, performance criteria, work material, and fluid type are considered. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming...

  20. Dividing Sinking Area of Bulianta Coal Mine into Different Types of Forest%补连塔煤矿沉陷区立地类型划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨廷华

    2013-01-01

    Taking the sinking area of Bulianta Coal Mine as research objective ,this article studies how to di-vide this area into different land types of forest for forestation .Through taking the outside investigative and analyzing some samples ,and regarding ground form as first class index and having the ridge covering sand or not as second class index ,the article divides the sinking area into four grades soil according to the slope and combining with the clustering analysis of soil moisture and organic matter content .However ,the soil grade of some small lands in the w hole studying area cannot be determined ,therefore ,the w hole studying area is final-ly divided into eight types of forest lands .%  以补连塔煤矿沉陷区造林地为研究区域,以立地类型划分为目标,通过野外调查和取样分析,以地貌为一级指标,有无覆沙为二级指标,依据坡度大小,结合土壤含水量和有机质含量的聚类分析结果将各个立地小区划分为了4个土壤等级,由于研究区部分土壤等级的缺省,最终将整个研究区划分为了8个林地斑块。

  1. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  2. Efficient and Accurate Calculation of Burnup Problems with Short-Lived Nuclides by a Krylov Subspace Method with the Newton Divided Difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays lattice physics codes tend to utilize a detailed burnup chain including short-lived nuclides in order to perform more accurate burnup calculations. But, since production codes, for example, ORIGEN2, take account of nuclides which have relatively long half-life, it is inappropriate for such detailed burnup chain calculation. To enhance that drawback, many matrix exponential calculation methods have been developed. Recently, a Krylov subspace method with the PADE approximation was used. In this paper, a Krylov subspace method based on spectral decomposition property of the matrix function theory with the Newton divided difference (NDD) is introduced. It is tested with a sample problem and compared with simple Taylor expansion method

  3. Parametric frequency dividers in satellite communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmopoulos, S. A.; Lo Forti, R.; Saggese, E.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of two different parametric frequency dividers, using GaAs varactor diodes in a balanced circuit configuration implemented by planar (microstrip) or quasi-planar (finline, coupled finline ) elements respectively, is presented. The almost phase noise free operation of these devices allows the construction of efficient miniature synthesizers or carrier recovering schemes, incorporated on the space segment of Ku- or Ka-band satellite communications systems.

  4. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  5. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  6. Vibration analysis of a hydro generator for different operating regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haţiegan, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Hamat, C. O.; Chioncel, C. P.; Trocaru, S.; Vasile, O.; Bădescu, O.; Micliuc, D.; (Filip Nedeloni, L.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    Based on experimental measurements, this paper presents the vibration analysis of a hydro generator that equips a Kaplan hydraulic turbine of a Hydropower plant in Romania. This analysis means vibrations measurement to different operating regimes of the hydro generator respectively before installing it and into operation, namely putting off load mode (unexcited and excited) respectively putting on load mode. By comparing, through the experimental results obtained before and after the operation of hydro aggregates are observed vibrations improvements.

  7. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod......-gated. In the case of austenitic stainless steel as the workpiece material, results using the different operations under different cutting conditions show that the performance of vegetable oil based prod-ucts is superior or equal to that of mineral oil based products. The hypothesis was investigated that one...

  8. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod...

  9. Assessing Different Crossover Operators for Travelling Salesman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many crossover operators have been proposed in literature on evolutionary algorithms, however, it is still unclear which crossover operator works best for a given optimization problem. In this study, eight different crossover operators specially designed for travelling salesman problem, namely, Two-Point Crossover, Partially Mapped Crossover, Cycle Crossover, Shuffle Crossover, Edge Recombination Crossover, Uniform Order-based Crossover, Sub-tour Exchange Crossover, and Sequential Constructive Crossover are evaluated empirically. The select crossover operators were implemented to build an experimental setup upon which simulations were run. Four benchmark instances of travelling salesman problem, two symmetric (ST70 and TSP225 and two asymmetric (FTV100 and FTV170, were used to thoroughly assess the select crossover operators. The performance of these operators was analyzed in terms of solution quality and computational cost. It was found that Sequential Constructive Crossover outperformed other operators in attaining 'good' quality solution, whereas Two-Point Crossover outperformed other operators in terms of computational cost. It was also observed that the performance of different crossover operators is much better for relatively small number of cities, both in terms of solution quality and computational cost, however, for relatively large number of cities their performance greatly degrades

  10. Analyzing Differences in Operational Disease Definitions Using Ontological Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Peelen, Linda; Klein, Michel; Schlobach, Stefan; Keizer, de, Rob J.W.; Peek, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In medicine, there are many diseases which cannot be precisely characterized but are considered as natural kinds. In the communication between health care professionals, this is generally not problematic. In biomedical research, however, crisp definitions are required to unambiguously distinguish patients with and without the disease. In practice, this results in different operational definitions being in use for a single disease. This paper presents an approach to compare different operation...

  11. Analyzing Differences in Operational Disease Definitions Using Ontological Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Peelen, Linda; Klein, Michel; Schlobach, Stefan; Keizer, de, M.; Peek,Niels

    2007-01-01

    In medicine, there are many diseases which cannot be precisely characterized but are considered as natural kinds. In the communication between health care professionals, this is generally not problematic. In biomedical research, however, crisp definitions are required to unambiguously distinguish patients with and without the disease. In practice, this results in different operational definitions being in use for a single disease. This paper presents an approach to compare different operation...

  12. Bridging the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    The article concerns the digital divide, meaning the social inequity in the access and the opportunities for gaining competencies with ICT (information and communication technologies). Problematic issues are highlighted in relation to experiences during visits to several Computer Clubhouses...

  13. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...

  14. A Review of Different Comparative Studies on Mobile Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to discuss the different comparative studies on mobile operating system. From the last few years with the use of mobile, the mobile technology is also increasing at a fast speed. Now a day's different mobile phone companies are competing in the market each having its own hardware and software. Each company mobile phone has its own interface and they are looking to provide new features to their customers. Each company use different operating system like Apple using iOS, Samsung using Android and Nokia using Symbian. In this study we will give, you review of different comparative studies on mobile operating systems done by different authors.

  15. The WAIS-Divide deep ice core WD2014 chronology – Part 2: Methane synchronization (68–31 ka BP and the gas age-ice age difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buizert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS-Divide ice core (WAIS-D is a newly drilled, high-accumulation deep ice core that provides Antarctic climate records of the past ∼68 ka at unprecedented temporal resolution. The upper 2850 m (back to 31.2 ka BP have been dated using annual-layer counting. Here we present a chronology for the deep part of the core (67.8–31.2 ka BP, which is based on stratigraphic matching to annual-layer-counted Greenland ice cores using globally well-mixed atmospheric methane. We calculate the WAIS-D gas age-ice age difference (Δage using a combination of firn densification modeling, ice flow modeling, and a dataset of δ15N-N2, a proxy for past firn column thickness. The largest Δage at WAIS-D occurs during the last glacial maximum, and is 525 ± 100 years. Internally consistent solutions can only be found when assuming little-to-no influence of impurity content on densification rates, contrary to a recently proposed hypothesis. We synchronize the WAIS-D chronology to a linearly scaled version of the layer-counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology (GICC05, which brings the age of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO events into agreement with the U/Th absolutely dated Hulu speleothem record. The small Δage at WAIS-D provides valuable opportunities to investigate the timing of atmospheric greenhouse gas variations relative to Antarctic climate, as well as the interhemispheric phasing of the bipolar "seesaw".

  16. Operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.

    2012-06-15

    Ambitious international efforts to combat climate change have lead to a large interest about the use of forest biomass for energy in many countries. In order to meet the expected growing demand in the future, it will be necessary to improve operational efficiency of existing forest energy supply chains and support the establishment of efficient supply chains in new operational environments. The thesis applied a three-dimensional approach which examines forest energy supply chains from a technical, social and economic viewpoint. Four case studies in different operational environments have been carried out to investigate the applicability of the three dimensional approach to improve operational efficiency. The technical dimension was investigated in Paper 1 and 2. In Paper 1, the effects of climatic conditions, covering of piles, and partial debarking on drying of roundwood were studied in four experimental trials located in Scotland, Finland and Italy. In Paper 2, the chipping of forest biomass was studied in two different operational environments. The investigation of the social dimension in Paper 3 provides insights into the setup of two different supply chains through business process mapping and simulation. Finally, in paper 4, which investigated the economic dimension, an analysis of the effect of the operational environment on technology selection and design of supply chains, is presented. The thesis demonstrates that the chosen approach was practical to investigate the complex relationships between the chosen technologies and different supply chain actors and stakeholders thereby contributing to maintain or improve operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains. Due to its applicability in different operational environments, the approach is also suitable in a more global context. Furthermore, it captures the effect of different aspects and characteristics of the various operational environments on the setup and organization of supply chains. This will

  17. Why do bacteria divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vic eNorris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium and non-equilibrium cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias `hyperstructures'. The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of equilibrium material and the intensity of use of non-equilibrium material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics

  18. Why do bacteria divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic

    2015-01-01

    The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life - Life as independent of its constituents - is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass - its cellular connectivity - would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity - Life on the Scales of Equilibria - is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium (E) and non-equilibrium (NE) cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias 'hyperstructures.' The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of E material and the intensity of use of NE material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence - Competitive Coherence - is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell's contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics to the cell cycle itself.

  19. Comparing the role of selective and divided attention in the composite face effect: Insights from Attention Operating Characteristic (AOC) plots and cross-contingency correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Composite faces combine the top half of one face with the bottom half of another to create a compelling illusion of a new face. Evidence for holistic processing with composite faces comes primarily from a matching procedure in a selective attention task. In the present study, a dual-task approach has been employed to study whether composite faces reflect genuine holistic (i.e., fusion of parts) or non-holistic processing strategies (i.e., switching, resource sharing). This has been accomplished by applying the Attention Operation Characteristic methodology (AOC, Sperling & Melchner, 1978a, 1978b) and cross-contingency correlations (Bonnel & Prinzmetal, 1998) to composite faces. Overall, the results converged on the following conclusions: (a) observers can voluntarily allocate differential amounts of attention to the top and bottom parts in both spatially aligned and misaligned composite faces, (b) the interaction between composite face halves is due to attentional limitations, not due to switching or fusion strategies, and (c) the processing of aligned and misaligned composite faces is quantitatively and qualitatively similar. Taken together, these results challenge the holistic interpretation of the composite face illusion.

  20. Difference equations of quantum current operators and quantum parafermion construction

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J; Ding, Jintai; Feigin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    For the current realization of the affine quantum groups, a simple comultiplication for the quantum current operators was given by Drinfeld. With this comultiplication, we prove that, for the integrable modules of $U_q(\\hat x^\\pm(zq^{\\pm 2k})$ are vertex operators satisfying certain q-difference equations, and we derive the quantum parafermions of $U_q(\\hat {\\frak sl}(2))$.

  1. CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENERAL TAKAFUL AND CONVENTIONAL INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mher Mushtaq Hussain

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Insurance in Islam is essentially a concept of mutual help. Insurance business under conventional system is based on uncertainty, which is prohibited in Islamic society under Islamic principles. So there is need to clear the difference between the conventional insurance and the Islamic insurance. A rich literature also describes such differences but the present article addresses the differences based on conceptual and operational framework.

  2. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  3. A dividing issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . While there was broad agreement across all three groups that recreational hunting of naturally occurring “surplus” wildlife is acceptable, the release of farm-reared game birds for shooting was a dividing issue, both within the groups and between them. The majority of participants (51%) in the survey...

  4. Correlation of cutting fluid performance in different machining operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2001-01-01

    investigated. Results show that correlation of cutting fluid performance in different operations exists, within the same group of cutting fluids, in the case of stainless steel as workpiece material. Under the tested conditions, the average correlation coefficients between efficiency parameters with different...... operations on austenitic stainless steel lied in the range 0.87-0.97 for waterbased fluids and 0.79-0.89 for straight oils. A similar correlation could not be found for the other workpiece materials investigated in this work. A rationalisation of cutting fluid performance tests is suggested....

  5. Spectral analysis of difference and differential operators in weighted spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichegkuev, M S [North-Ossetia State University, Vladikavkaz (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-30

    This paper is concerned with describing the spectrum of the difference operator K:l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X)→l{sub α}{sup p}(Z......athscrKx)(n)=Bx(n−1),  n∈Z,  x∈l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X), with a constant operator coefficient B, which is a bounded linear operator in a Banach space X. It is assumed that K acts in the weighted space l{sub α}{sup p}(Z,X), 1≤p≤∞, of two-sided sequences of vectors from X. The main results are obtained in terms of the spectrum σ(B) of the operator coefficient B and properties of the weight function. Applications to the study of the spectrum of a differential operator with an unbounded operator coefficient (the generator of a strongly continuous semigroup of operators) in weighted function spaces are given. Bibliography: 23 titles.

  6. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J

    2009-05-25

    Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.

  7. Divide and Pacify

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    by pointing to deeper political motives and wider sociological consequences. Divide and Pacify was nominated for the American Sociological Association's Award for Distinguished Contribution to Scholarship 2006, Section on Political Sociology. Praise and reviews: "Pieter Vanhuysse…is a political scientist...... across many settings in which democratic governments face the task of implementing costly reforms in complex and uncertain policy environments." –János Kornai, Harvard University "Divide and Pacify contains a provocative thesis about the manner in which political strategy was used to consolidate...... policy." - Kenneth Shepsle, Professor, Harvard University and Fellow, American Academy of Sciences "In post-communist Europe, international advice—for example from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank—to reforming governments focused heavily on economic policy. The political imperative...

  8. An implicit finite-difference operator for the Helmholtz equation

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    We have developed an implicit finite-difference operator for the Laplacian and applied it to solving the Helmholtz equation for computing the seismic responses in the frequency domain. This implicit operator can greatly improve the accuracy of the simulation results without adding significant extra computational cost, compared with the corresponding conventional explicit finite-difference scheme. We achieved this by taking advantage of the inherently implicit nature of the Helmholtz equation and merging together the two linear systems: one from the implicit finite-difference discretization of the Laplacian and the other from the discretization of the Helmholtz equation itself. The end result of this simple yet important merging manipulation is a single linear system, similar to the one resulting from the conventional explicit finite-difference discretizations, without involving any differentiation matrix inversions. We analyzed grid dispersions of the discrete Helmholtz equation to show the accuracy of this implicit finite-difference operator and used two numerical examples to demonstrate its efficiency. Our method can be extended to solve other frequency domain wave simulation problems straightforwardly. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  9. Start time delays in operating room: Different perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.

  10. Differences and similarities between rural and urban operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galandiuk, Susan; Mahid, Suhal S; Polk, Hiram C; Turina, Matthias; Rao, Mohan; Lewis, John N

    2006-10-01

    The importance of rural operations is magnified by super-specialization, uneven geographic distribution, and special educational needs. Definition of practice patterns and quality measures are needed. A statewide network of 60 operative specialists studied costs, quality, and outcomes in 17,319 patients undergoing 46 different specialty operations between 1998 and 2003, comparing 9,544 rural to 7,775 urban patients. These data are augmented by additional data from 5,339 operative patients in 2004. Both high volume rural and urban surgeons achieved fewer deaths than less frequent practitioners of colon or rectal resections (2/309 vs 5/167). Urban surgeons had sicker patients undergoing more extensive procedures, and used fewer consultations, but had more complications and reoperations. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy had similar outcomes with 5 deaths among 1,788 patients. Urban surgeons converted to an open procedure more frequently, whereas rural surgeons used hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scans as indication for cholecystectomy more often (P < .01). Indications for upper and lower endoscopy varied, but abnormalities were noted in 64%; only 11 of 6,938 patients undergoing endoscopy were admitted for complications, 5 required operations, 3 due to totally obstructing cancers. Hysterectomy, urologic procedures, and tympanostomy had admission/readmission rates as low as 1/400. Documented patient preoperative education occurred in 94% of both groups. Overall, performance measures were addressed more consistently by rural surgeons (P < .001). Operative practice reaches high standards in both settings; indications for operations vary, and rural practice is broader than urban practice. Rural surgeons exceed their urban colleagues on some quality process measures.

  11. Bridging the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    The article concerns the digital divide, meaning the social inequity in the access and the opportunities for gaining competencies with ICT (information and communication technologies). Problematic issues are highlighted in relation to experiences during visits to several Computer Clubhouses......, a network of multimedia workshops for youth in the USA. There are references to the learning philosophy Constructionism, which originates from MIT Media Lab and is the basis for the Computer Clubhouse project. Abstract : The consortium for Math and Science at Learning Lab Denmark and the Ministry...... of significant European initiatives promoting the recruitment and quality of the science and technology educations....

  12. CROSSING THE GREAT DIVIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The safety and quality standards divide is the most severe challenge facing China’s toy industry China was blamed a spate of toy recalls this year.Overseas customers and press pointed the finger at China’s toy makers who had manu- factured toys according to their con- tracts.It was later found that most of the toy problems came from design faults of brand holders,not from Chinese manufacturers. To Wei Chuangzhong,Vice Minister of the General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ),the cavalcade of negative press coverage overseas has been unfair and bad for China’s manufacturers.

  13. Monitoring the Digital Divide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-05-28

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent ''Recommendations of Trieste'' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work.

  14. VERIFICATION OF GEAR DYNAMIC MODEL IN DIFFERENT OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz PERUŃ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of verification of the drive system dynamic model with gear. Tests were carried out on the real object in different operating conditions. For the same assumed conditions were also carried out simulation studies. Comparison of the results obtained from those two series of tests helped determine the suitability of the model and verify the possibility of replacing experimental research by simulations with use of dynamic model.

  15. Does post-operative knee awareness differ between knees in bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine Abildgaard; Thomsen, Morten Grove; Latifi Yaghin, Roshan;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the difference in post-operative knee awareness between knees in patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to assess factors predicting high or low knee awareness. METHODS: This study was conducted on 99 bilateral simultaneous TKAs performed...... at our institution from 2008 to 2012. All patients received one set of questionnaires [Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS)] for each knee. Based on the FJS, the patients' knees were divided into two groups: "best" and "worst" knees. The median of the absolute difference in FJS and OKS...... within each patient was calculated. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify factors affecting FJS. RESULTS: The difference between knees was 1 point (CI 0-5) for the FJS and 1 point (CI 0-2) for the OKS. The FJS for females increased (decreasing awareness) with increasing age. Males had...

  16. Performance of different categories of operators in simulated diagnostic colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Renato; Pertile, Riccardo; Seligman, Sonia; de Pretis, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The possible involvement, although limited to the diagnostic phase of the procedure, of nonmedical staff (particularly endoscopy nurses) in lower digestive endoscopy has recently been suggested. Computer-based simulators have demonstrated objective evaluation of technical skills in digestive endoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate basic colonoscopy skills of endoscopy nurses (naive operators), as compared with junior physician staff and senior endoscopists, through a virtual reality colonoscopy simulator. In this single-center, prospective, nonrandomized study, 3 groups of digestive endoscopy operators (endoscopy nurses, junior doctors [500 previous colonoscopies and >200/year]) completed six diagnostic cases generated by an endoscopic simulator (AccuTouch, Immersion Medical, Gaithersburg, MD). The performance parameters, collected by the simulator, were compared between groups. Five parameters have been considered for statistical analysis: time spent to reach the cecum; pain of any degree; severe/extreme pain; amount of insufflated air; percentage of visualized mucosa. Statistical analysis to compare the three groups has been performed by means of Wilcoxon test for two independent samples and by means of Kruskal-Wallis test for three independent samples (p < .05). Sixteen operators have been studied (six endoscopy nurses, five junior doctors, and five senior doctors); 96 colonoscopic procedures have been evaluated. Statistically significant differences between experts and naive operators were observed regarding time to reach the cecum and induction of severe/extreme pain, with both Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon test (p < .05); all other comparisons did not reach statistical significance. Although, as expected, expert doctors exceeded both junior doctors and naive operators in some relevant quality parameters of simulated diagnostic colonoscopies, the results obtained by less expert performers--and particularly by nursing staff--appear satisfactory as in

  17. Predicting Smartphone Operating System from Personality and Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Heather; Ellis, David A; Kendrick, Libby-Rae; Ziegler, Fenja; Wiseman, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Android and iPhone devices account for over 90 percent of all smartphones sold worldwide. Despite being very similar in functionality, current discourse and marketing campaigns suggest that key individual differences exist between users of these two devices; however, this has never been investigated empirically. This is surprising, as smartphones continue to gain momentum across a variety of research disciplines. In this article, we consider if individual differences exist between these two distinct groups. In comparison to Android users, we found that iPhone owners are more likely to be female, younger, and increasingly concerned about their smartphone being viewed as a status object. Key differences in personality were also observed with iPhone users displaying lower levels of Honesty-Humility and higher levels of emotionality. Following this analysis, we were also able to build and test a model that predicted smartphone ownership at above chance level based on these individual differences. In line with extended self-theory, the type of smartphone owned provides some valuable information about its owner. These findings have implications for the increasing use of smartphones within research particularly for those working within Computational Social Science and PsychoInformatics, where data are typically collected from devices and applications running a single smartphone operating system.

  18. Inductive voltage divider modeling in Matlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, S. A.; Kim, V. L.

    2017-01-01

    Inductive voltage dividers have the most appropriate metrological characteristics on alternative current and are widely used for converting physical signals. The model of a double-decade inductive voltage divider was designed with the help of Matlab/Simulink. The first decade is an inductive voltage divider with balanced winding, the second decade is a single-stage inductive voltage divider. In the paper, a new transfer function algorithm was given. The study shows errors and differences that appeared between the third degree reduced model and a twenty degree unreduced model. The obtained results of amplitude error differ no more than by 7 % between the reduced and unreduced model.

  19. Large eddy simulation of cooling flows in underground subway station according to different PSD operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yong Jun; Kim, Jin Ho; Park, Sung Huk; Koo, Dong Hoe [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Large eddy simulation (LES) method is applied to systematically investigate the cooling fluid flow and the temperature distribution under the operating of air conditioning in the deeply underground subway station. The Shin-Gum-Ho subway station in Seoul which is the 8{sup th} floor and 43.6 m deep is selected for this analysis. The entire station is covered for simulation. The ventilation mode for air conditioning is kept as ordinary state. Different operating conditions for Platform screen door (PSD) are applied. First one is PSD is completely close and second one is PSD is regularly open and close which imitate the actual circumstances in the platform. The ventilation diffusers are modeled as 95 square shapes in the lobby and 222 squares in the platform. The temperature variations and flow behaviors are numerically simulated after operating of air conditioning for the whole station and the calculated results are compared with experimental data. LES method solves the momentum and thermal equations. Werner-Wengle wall law is applied to viscous sub layers for near wall resolution. The total grid numbers are 7.5 million and the whole domain is divided to 22 blocks. Multi blocks are computed in parallel using MPI. The results show the temperature difference in the platform between PSD-close and PSD-regularly open and close cases is 3-4 .deg. C.

  20. Fuel consumption of a sugarcane harvester in different operational settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. G. Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interventions performed during the mechanized harvesting are essential to improve the operational performance of sugarcane harvesters and reduce operational costs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fuel consumption of a sugarcane harvester in different forward speeds and engine rotations. Harvesting was conducted in a green cane plot, with the variety RB 855156. Flow meters were installed in the harvester's fuel supply system and an electronic device was used for data acquisition. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme (3 x 2, using three engine rotations and two forward speeds, with six replicates. Harvesting capacity and fuel consumption per hour, per area and per ton of harvested sugarcane were analyzed. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test. The variations in engine rotation did not affect the performance for harvesting capacity, but influenced fuel consumption. Forward speed influenced both harvesting capacity and fuel consumption.

  1. The cultural divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn

    2014-01-01

    that they are dramatically different. Results: Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved...

  2. Neurons derived from patients with bipolar disorder divide into intrinsically different sub-populations of neurons, predicting the patients' responsiveness to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S; Santos, R; Marchetto, M C; Mendes, A P D; Rouleau, G A; Biesmans, S; Wang, Q-W; Yao, J; Charnay, P; Bang, A G; Alda, M; Gage, F H

    2017-02-28

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a progressive psychiatric disorder with more than 3% prevalence worldwide. Affected individuals experience recurrent episodes of depression and mania, disrupting normal life and increasing the risk of suicide greatly. The complexity and genetic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders have challenged the development of animal and cellular models. We recently reported that hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts of BD patients are electrophysiologically hyperexcitable. Here we used iPSCs derived from Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B-lymphocytes to verify that the hyperexcitability of DG-like neurons is reproduced in this different cohort of patients and cells. Lymphocytes are readily available for research with a large number of banked lines with associated patient clinical description. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of over 460 neurons to characterize neurons derived from control individuals and BD patients. Extensive functional analysis showed that intrinsic cell parameters are very different between the two groups of BD neurons, those derived from lithium (Li)-responsive (LR) patients and those derived from Li-non-responsive (NR) patients, which led us to partition our BD neurons into two sub-populations of cells and suggested two different subdisorders. Training a Naïve Bayes classifier with the electrophysiological features of patients whose responses to Li are known allows for accurate classification with more than 92% success rate for a new patient whose response to Li is unknown. Despite their very different functional profiles, both populations of neurons share a large, fast after-hyperpolarization (AHP). We therefore suggest that the large, fast AHP is a key feature of BD and a main contributor to the fast, sustained spiking abilities of BD neurons. Confirming our previous report with fibroblast-derived DG neurons, chronic Li treatment reduced

  3. Special Operations can make a difference in integrated conflict prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

    on tangible operationalization of this vision and provides knowledge on how special operations can be an attractive instrument in comprehensive conflict prevention, including how the special characteristics of special operations make them suitable for supporting the non-military instruments....

  4. The cultural divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dram......Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found...... that they are dramatically different. Results: Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved...... amounts compared to other subunits of the same complex. Summary: We have previously demonstrated that cells at dynamic equilibrium can match the physiological performance of cells in tissues in vivo. Here we describe the multitude of protein changes necessary to achieve this performance....

  5. Comparative bactericidal activities of lasers operating at seven different wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian A.; Ward, Glenn D.; Wang, RuiKang K.; Sharp, James H.; Budgett, David M.; Stewart-Tull, Duncan E.; Wardlaw, Alastair C.; Chatwin, Christopher R.

    1996-10-01

    Seven laser instruments, delivering radiation at a selection of wavelengths in the range of 0.355 to 118 micrometers , we investigated for their ability to kill Escherichia coli as a lawn of the bacteria on nutrient agar culture plates. Easily the most effective was a 600-W CO2 laser operating at 10.6 micrometers , which produced 1.2-cm2 circular zones of sterilization at energy densities of around 8 J cm-2 in a 30-msec exposure. Circular zones with an area of 0.7 cm2 were achieved with 200 W from a Nd:YAG laser delivering 8-ms, 10-J pulses of 1.06 micrometers radiation at 20 Hz. The exposure time, however, was 16 s and the energy density was more than 240 times higher than with the CO2 laser. This difference is believed to be partly due to the much higher absorption of radiation at 10.6 micrometers , by water in the bacterial cells and the surrounding medium. Sterilization was observed after exposure to frequency- tripled Nd:YAG laser radiation at 355 nm. Lasers that were totally ineffective in killing Escherichia coli were the far infrared laser, the laser diode array, and the argon ion laser. The speed at which laser sterilization can be achieved is particularly attractive to the medical and food industries.

  6. Relativistic differential-difference momentum operators and noncommutative differential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Kasimov, R. M.

    2013-09-01

    The relativistic kinetic momentum operators are introduced in the framework of the Quantum Mechanics (QM) in the Relativistic Configuration Space (RCS). These operators correspond to the half of the non-Euclidean distance in the Lobachevsky momentum space. In terms of kinetic momentum operators the relativistic kinetic energy is separated as the independent term of the total Hamiltonian. This relativistic kinetic energy term is not distinguishing in form from its nonrelativistic counterpart. The role of the plane wave (wave function of the motion with definite value of momentum and energy) plays the generating function for the matrix elements of the unitary irreps of Lorentz group (generalized Jacobi polynomials). The kinetic momentum operators are the interior derivatives in the framework of the noncommutative differential calculus over the commutative algebra generated by the coordinate functions over the RCS.

  7. THE UPWIND OPERATOR SPLITTING FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD FOR COMPRESSIBLE TWO-PHASE DISPLACEMENT PROBLEM AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁益让

    2002-01-01

    For compressible two-phase displacement problem, a kind of upwind operator splitting finite difference schemes is put forward and make use of operator splitting, of calculus of variations, multiplicative commutation rule of difference operators, decomposition of high order difference operators and prior estimates are adopted. Optimal order estinates in L2 norm are derived to determine the error in the approximate solution.

  8. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-08-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  9. The use of different doses of metamizol for post-operative analgesia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagawa, Vivianne H; Fantoni, Denise T; Tatarunas, Angélica C; Mastrocinque, Sandra; Almeida, Tatiana F; Ferreira, Fernando; Posso, Irimar P

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the post-operative analgesic effect of metamizol (dipyrone) administered intravenously at three different doses (15 mg kg(-1), 25 mg kg(-1) and 35 mg kg(-1)) compared to placebo in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Prospective, comparative, randomized, blinded trial. Forty healthy bitches, aged 1-6 years, weighing 10-35 kg The animals were randomly divided into four groups and received their respective treatments immediately after surgery: placebo group (0.9% saline solution), D15 group (metamizol 15 mg kg(-1) IV), D25 group (metamizol 25 mg kg(-1) IV), D35 group (metamizol 35 mg kg(-1) IV). The following variables were measured: sedation, pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (f(R)), arterial blood pressure (ABP), plasma catecholamines, serum cortisol, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine metabolites, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hemogram, platelet counts and level of analgesia which was assessed by visual analog (VAS), descriptive and behavioral scales. Patients were monitored for 48 hours after the administration of the analgesic agent. Rescue analgesia (tramadol, 2 mg kg(-1), intramuscularly) was provided for animals with pain scores ≥4, as determined by the VAS or descriptive scale. The D25 and D35 groups showed equivalent post-operative analgesia, as shown by decreased pain scores, according to the three different pain scales, and fewer animals that required rescue analgesia. Significantly lower serum cortisol concentrations were observed in the D25 and D35 groups when compared to the placebo and D15 groups. No hematologic, renal, hepatic or clinical adverse effects were observed during the treatment. Metamizol administered intravenously at 25 or 35 mg kg(-1) can provide adequate post-operative analgesia in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary

  10. Residual Phase Noise and Time Jitters of Single-Chip Digital Frequency Dividers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Lu Yan; Sen Meng; Wen-Yu Zhao; Wen-Ge Guo; Hai-Feng Jiang; Shou-Gang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper, we demonstrate the residual phase noise of a few microwave frequency dividers which usually limit the performance of frequency synthesizers. In order to compare these dividers under different operation frequencies, we calculate additional time jitters of these dividers by using the measured phase noise. The time jitters are various from ~0.1fs to 43fs in a bandwidth from 1Hz to 100Hz in dependent of models and operation frequencies. The HMC series frequency dividers exhibit outstanding performance for high operation frequencies, and the time jitters can be sub-fs. The time jitters of SP8401, MC10EP139, and MC100LVEL34 are comparable or even below that of HMC series for low operation frequencies.

  11. Essays on the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Belal M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The digital divide is a phenomenon that is globally persistent, despite rapidly decreasing costs in technology. While much of the variance in the adoption and use of information communication technology (ICT) that defines the digital divide can be explained by socioeconomic and demographic variables, there is still significant unaccounted variance…

  12. Majorizational Choosing of SeveralDifferent Fuzzy Counter Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were made by choosing different fuzzy operater. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller ,and gave several different fuzzy controllers ,and compared and analyzed different fuzzy counters in theory and computer simulating control and realized majorizational choosing of several fuzzy counters.

  13. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT OPERATION METHODS ON METHANE HYDRATE FORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Wenfeng; FAN Shuanshi; WANG Jinqu

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments of static state storage method, low-temperature and constant-pressure storage method and low-temperature and constant-pressure storage method were carried out to investigate which method was best in gas hydrate. The relationships of hydrate rate, capacity and liquid temperature versus time were derived and three results were contrasted. The experimental results show lowtemperature and constant-pressure method is better than the other two methods because it's operation period is shorter and storage capacity is larger than the other two. Low-temperature and constant-pressure method is the best method. So new method will be new research objective.

  14. Flux behaviour under different operational conditions in osmosis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Zarebska, Agata; Buksek, Hermina;

    the active membrane layer is facing draw solution. Osmosis process can be affected by several factors, such as operating conditions (temperature and cross flow velocity), feed and draw solution properties, and membrane characteristics. These factors can significantly contribute to the efficiency...... of the process itself. In order to implement the osmosis process on an industrial scale, process economy need to be taken into consideration, as well as the desired final product quality. Membrane performance can be evaluated based on the water permeability and the selectivity of the membrane. The permeability...

  15. Optimal Protection Coordination for Microgrid under Different Operating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant consequences result when a microgrid is connected to a distribution system. This study discusses the impacts of bolted three-phase faults and bolted single line-to-ground faults on the protection coordination of a distribution system connected by a microgrid which operates in utility-only mode or in grid-connected mode. The power system simulation software is used to build the test system. The linear programming method is applied to optimize the coordination of relays, and the relays coordination simulation software is used to verify if the coordination time intervals (CTIs of the primary/backup relay pairs are adequate. In addition, this study also proposes a relays protection coordination strategy when the microgrid operates in islanding mode during a utility power outage. Because conventional CO/LCO relays are not capable of detecting high impedance fault, intelligent electrical device (IED combined with wavelet transformer and neural network is proposed to accurately detect high impedance fault and identify the fault phase.

  16. CMOS Direct-Injection Divide-by-3 Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia-Wei; Chang; Jhin-Fang; Huang; Sheng-Lyang; Jang; Ying-Hsiang; Liao; Miin-Horng; Juang

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper proposes CMOS LC-tank divide-by-3 injection locked frequency dividers(ILFDs)fabricated in 0.18μn and 90nm CMOS process and describes the circuit design,operation principle and measurement results of the ILFDs.The ILFDs use two injection series-MOSFETs across the LC resonator and a differential injection signal is applied to the gates of injection MOSFETs.The direct-injection divide-by-3 ILFDs are potential for radio-frequency application and can have wide locking range.

  17. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana is putting in place initiatives towards establishing itself as a knowledgebased economy. Transformation from a resource-based to a knowledge-based economy is partly hinged on innovation, research and development capability, knowledge channels, and the funding of research and development activities.Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives.Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country.Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society.Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  18. Difference in Outcomes between First-Operated vs. Fellow-Operated Eyes in Patients Undergoing Bilateral Trabeculectomies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younhea Jung

    Full Text Available To compare the course and outcome of first- and fellow-operated eyes in patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies and to investigate the factors associated with the difference.Preoperative characteristics, including the interval between surgeries, were compared between the first- and fellow-operated eyes in 42 patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies. Postoperative intraocular pressure and bleb vascularity, using postoperative anterior segment photos, were compared at various time points between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Surgical success was evaluated at 1 year after surgery and at the final follow-up. Factors affecting the difference between the first and fellow eyes were analyzed.There was no significant difference in success or failure rates at 1 year postoperatively and at the final follow-up between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Early postoperative IOP and the degree of bleb vascularity were higher in the fellow-operated eyes (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively at week 1 postoperative. The difference in IOP between the first- and fellow-operated eyes was greater in patients whose interval between surgeries was shorter than 3 weeks (P = 0.026.In patients undergoing bilateral trabeculectomies, early postoperative IOP was higher in the fellow-operated eyes than the first-operated eyes; the difference was greater when the interval between surgeries was shorter. The first-operated eye may influence the early postoperative inflammatory response in the fellow-operated eye. Our findings have clinical implications for planning treatment of patients who may need bilateral surgery.

  19. Synchronizing femtosecond laser with x-ray synchrotron operating at arbitrarily different frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wonhyuk [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sooheyong, E-mail: sooheyong@gmail.com [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Intae, E-mail: neplus@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Landahl, Eric C. [Department of Physics, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois 60614 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ability to synchronize a femtosecond laser to x-ray pulses is crucial for performing ultrafast time-resolved x-ray scattering experiments at synchrotrons. Conventionally, the task has been achieved by locking a harmonic frequency of the laser oscillator to the storage ring master radio-frequency (RF). However, when the frequency mismatch between the two sources cannot be compensated by small adjustments to the laser cavity length, synchronization to a harmonic frequency requires modifying the optical components of the laser system. We demonstrate a novel synchronization scheme, which is a flexible alternative for synchronizing these two sources operating at arbitrarily different frequencies. First, we find the greatest common divisor (GCD) of the two frequencies that is still within the limited tuning range of the laser cavity length. The GCD is generated by dividing down from the storage ring RF, and is separately multiplied up to provide a feedback signal for synchronizing the laser cavity. Unique to our scheme, the GCD also serves as a harmonic RF source for the laser amplifier such that only laser oscillator pulses at fixed integer multiples of the storage ring RF are selected for amplification and delivery to experiments. Our method is implemented at the Photon Test Facility beamline of Pohang Light Source where timing-jitter less than 4 ps (r.m.s.) is measured using a new shot-to-shot method.

  20. Health Services in Denmark: Co-operation between different sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    focuses on different categories of societal exclusion: ageism, sexism as well as racism experienced by migrants, involving the minorities both in planning and evaluation.   These practices justify my placing of Denmark in the middle position on a continuum on one end with “Top down” approach in Holland...

  1. INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAILWAYS OPERATORS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaeva V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of some individual psychological characteristics of the drivers of rail transport in the age groups 25–34 and 35–45 years. We have identified a number of differences between the two age groups associated with both features individually-psychological sphere, and in the psycho-physiological features. Features of age-related psychological differences can be explained by the age characteristics of the representatives of each group; psycho-physiological features of age differences may reflect developed in the course of a long professional activity features. We have also developed adaptive strategies, consciously or unconsciously selected during the long-running monotonous activities and in small social groups (teams of drivers allow, on the one hand, higher quality performance of their professional duties, on the other — to avoid the harmful effects of stressful situations at work. It can be assumed that the composition of drivers age group 35– 45 years is the result of natural selection, when those who did not cope with this type of activity is simply dismissed or transferred to other kinds of professions

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings: Comparing different operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analyzed, such as remediation time, voltage drop, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields. The results show that electric...... current could remove copper from watery tailings slowly. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was improved due to a pH decrease from 6.7 to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Moreover, with citric acid addition the process was further improved due to a formation...... of copper citrate complexes. Using pulsed electric fields the remediation process with sulphuric acid addition was also improved by a decrease in the polarization cell. Main results: considering remediation with watery tailing as the base line, for three weeks experiments no copper removal was observed...

  3. Health Services in Denmark: Co-operation between different sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    minorities, constituting about 9 % of the total population of 5.5 millions.    The Danish Welfare State can be characterised as ‘universal’, providing high quality social care and benefits to all members of the society. Overall, the Danish healthcare system is based on a free access system with equity...... interventions and individual activities by the few health workers with a special interest in the migrant health. TTT is an illustration of providing psychosocial services to ethnic minority youth and their families based on combination of citizen volunteer work with partly state funding. This mental health NGO...... focuses on different categories of societal exclusion: ageism, sexism as well as racism experienced by migrants, involving the minorities both in planning and evaluation.   These practices justify my placing of Denmark in the middle position on a continuum on one end with “Top down” approach in Holland...

  4. A Difference Hamiltonian Operator and a Hierarchy of Generalized Toda Lattice Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xi-Xiang; YANG Hong-Xiang; DING Hai-Yong

    2005-01-01

    A difference Ha-miltonian operator with three arbitrary constants is presented. When the arbitrary constants -in the Hamiltonian operator are suitably chosen, a pair of Hamiltonian operators are given. The resulting Hamiltonian pair yields a difference hereditary operator. Using Magri scheme of bi-Hamiltonian formulation, a hierarchy of the generalized Toda lattice equations is constructed. Finally, the discrete zero curvature representation is given for the resulting hierarchy.

  5. A Difference Hamiltonian Operator and a Hierarchy of Generalized Toda Lattice Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXi-Xiang; YANGHong-Xiang; DINGHai-Yong

    2005-01-01

    A difference Hamiltonian operator with three arbitrary constants is presented. When the arbitrary constants in the Hamiltonian operator are suitably chosen, a pair of Hamiltonian operators are given. The resulting Hamiltonian pair yields a difference hereditary operator. Using Magri scheme of bi-Hamiltonian formulations a hierarchy of the generalized Toda lattice equations is constructed. Finally, the discrete zero curvature representation is given for the resulting hierarchy.

  6. Getting Past the "Digital Divide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, "digital divide" has become a catchphrase for the stubborn disparity in IT resources between communities, especially in regard to education. Low-income, rural and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots." This article presents success stories of educators who can work around obstacles…

  7. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  8. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  9. Information Societies and Digital Divides

    CERN Document Server

    Sorj, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    The book argues ICT are part of the set of goods and services that determine quality of life, social inequality and the chances for economic development. Therefore understanding the digital divide demands a broader discussion of the place of ICT within each society and in the international system. The author argues against the perspectives that either isolates ICT from other basic social goods (in particular education and employment) as well as those that argue that new technologies are luxury of a consumer society. Though the author accepts that new technologies are not a panacea for the problems of inequality, access to them become a condition of full integration of social life. Using examples mainly from Latin America, the work presents some general policy proposals on the fight against the digital divide which take in consideration other dimensions of social inequality and access to public goods. Bernardo Sorj was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. He is a naturalized Brazilian, living in Brazil since 1976. He ...

  10. Orbital angular momentum divider of light

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hailong Zhou Jianji; Cai, Xinlun; Yu, SiYuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light is essential in OAM-based optical systems. Especially, OAM divider, which can convert the incoming OAM mode into one or several new smaller modes in proportion at different spatial paths, is very useful in OAM-based optical networks. However, this useful tool was never reported yet. For the first time, we put forward a passive OAM divider based on coordinate transformation. The device consists of a Cartesian to log-polar coordinate converter and an inverse converter. The first converter converts the OAM light into a rectangular-shaped plane light with a transverse phase gradient. And the second converter converts the plane light into multiple diffracted light. The OAM of zeroth-order diffracted light is the product of the input OAM and the scaling parameter. The residual light is output from other diffracted orders. Furthermore, we extend the scheme to realize equal N-dividing of OAM and arbitrary dividing of OAM. The ability of dividing OAM shows huge p...

  11. Performance of diagonal control structures at different operating conditions for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Husar, Attila; Feroldi, Diego; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-25

    This work is focused on the selection of operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. It analyses efficiency and controllability aspects, which change from one operating point to another. Specifically, several operating points that deliver the same amount of net power are compared, and the comparison is done at different net power levels. The study is based on a complex non-linear model, which has been linearised at the selected operating points. Different linear analysis tools are applied to the linear models and results show important controllability differences between operating points. The performance of diagonal control structures with PI controllers at different operating points is also studied. A method for the tuning of the controllers is proposed and applied. The behaviour of the controlled system is simulated with the non-linear model. Conclusions indicate a possible trade-off between controllability and optimisation of hydrogen consumption. (author)

  12. Nonlinear non-Gaussian system filtering based on Gaussian sum and divided difference filter%基于均差滤波与高斯和的非线性非高斯系统滤波算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振华; 宁磊; 徐胜男

    2012-01-01

    Based on analyzing divided difference filter(DDF) and Gaussian sum filter(GSF), a GSF-based DDF algorithm is developed for nonlinear dynamic state space(DSS) models with non-Gaussian noise, which is suitable for the filtering problem of nonlinear/non-Gaussian systems. When the likelihood function appeares at the tall of the transfer probability density, the proposed algorithm can improve the precision of nonlinear/non-Gaussian filtering compared with the traditional particle filter(PF). Experiments show that the proposed method works well in the filtering for DSS models with non-Gaussian noise.%针对一类非线性非高斯系统的滤波问题,在分析均差滤波算法和高斯和滤波算法的基础上,提出一种基于均差滤波的高斯和滤波算法,适于处理非线性非高斯系统的滤波问题.对于似然密度位于条件转移概率密度拖尾处的情况,与传统的粒子滤波算法相比,所提算法能提高滤波的精度和实时性.仿真实验验证了新算法的有效性.

  13. Weighted Composition Operators between Different Bergman Spaces of Bounded Symmetric Domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaofen Lv; Xiaomin Tang

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the boundedness and compactness of the weighted composition operators between different Bergman spaces of bounded symmetric domains in terms of the Carleson measure. As an application, we study the multipliers between different Bergman spaces.

  14. Reactivation characteristics of stored aerobic granular sludge using different operational strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangjuan; Gao, Dawen; Liang, Hong

    2012-06-01

    Aerobic granules after 6 months storage were employed in identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) using synthetic wastewater to investigate the impacts of different operational strategies on granules' reactivation process. The SBRs were operated under three operational strategies for reactivation of (a) different organic loading rate (OLR); (b) different ammonia concentration; and (c) different shear force (a superficial upflow air velocity). The results indicated that granules after long-term storage could be successfully recovered after 7 days of operation, and the excellent granule reactivation performance was closely related to the operational strategies, since inappropriate operational strategies could cause the outgrowth of filamentous bacteria and granule disintegration. Based on comprehensive comparison of reactivation performance under different operational strategies, the optimal operation strategy for granule reactivation was suggested at OLR of 0.8 kg COD/m(3)/day, ammonia concentration of 15-20 mg/L, and a superficial upflow air velocity of 2.6 cm/s. After 7 days operation under the optimal strategy, the dark brown granules (12 months storage) restored their bioactivities to previous state, in terms of COD removal efficiency (97.44%) and specific oxygen uptake rate (40.63 mg O(2)/g SS h(-1)). The results shed light on the future practical application of stored aerobic granules as bioseed for reactor fast start-up.

  15. The Harmonious Dissipative Operators and the Completely Square Conservative Difference Scheme in an Explicit Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 季仲贞

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a new definition on harmonious dissipative operators is given and some important properties of theirs are shown. Especially, the relationship between a harmonious dissipative operator and the completely square conservative difference scheme in an explicit way is revealed. Kinds of 2-order, 3-order and 4-order harmonious dissipative operators are constructed by using the traditional Runge-Kutta method and a species of general m-order harmonious dissipative operators is established in the linear case. In addition, an efficiency parameter to appraise the time benefits of a harmonious dissipative operator is defined in this paper. It is testified in numerical tests that the harmonious dissipative operators are indeed able to improve the time-efficiency and computational effect of the completely square conservative difference scheme in an explicit way.

  16. Influence of different operation methods for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe and compare the influence state of different operation methods for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods:A total of 56 patients with esophageal cancer treated with surgery in our hospital from January 2013 to August 2015 were selected as the research object. According to the differences of operation methods, 56 cases were divided into Group A (thoracotomy group) 28 cases and Group B (thoracic surgery group) 28 cases, then the serum levels of pain stress and gastrointestinal hormones, stomach digestive function indexes of two groups at the 1st day before the surgery and at the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after the surgery were compared. Results:The serum levels of pain stress and gastrointestinal hormones, stomach digestive function indexes of two groups at the 1st day before the surgery were compared. Those statistical indexes of Group B at the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after the surgery were all obviously better than those of Group A, and there are significant differences. Conclusion:The influence of thoracoscopic surgery for the pain stress and digestive function of patients with esophageal cancer are obviously better than those of thoracic surgery, and it has better control effect for the postoperative discomfort and digestive function of patients.

  17. Analysis of Variable Speed Optimization Operation Effect of Different-type Pumps in Jiangdu Pumping Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxian, Qiu; Jilin, Cheng; Jinyao, Luo; Rentian, Zhang; Lihua, Zhang; Yi, Gong

    2010-06-01

    The following paper puts forward 45 combination schemes of different-type pumps in different daily-average heads and operation loads in Jiangdu Pumping Station. Based on every scheme, the minimum electricity consumption cost selected as the objective function, this paper gives the results of variable speed optimal operations with dynamic planning methods in both considering time-sharing electricity prices and not, simultaneously, it gives the results of fixed speed conventional operation considering time-sharing electricity prices. Then according to the unit energy consumption cost, the paper gives comparison analysis of the effect of different-type pumps in variable speed optimization operation, the conclusions can offer decision-making bases for optimization research of pumping stations considering time-sharing electricity prices and tide levels of Yangtze River, and offer references for transformation and economical operation of large and medium-size pumping stations.

  18. On the representation of functions and finite difference operators on adaptive sparse grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, P.W.; Sprengel, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe methods to approximate functions and differential operators on adaptive sparse grids. We distinguish between several representations of a function on the sparse grid, and we describe how finite difference (FD) operators can be applied to these representations. For general v

  19. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions......, upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  20. A comprehensive study of different gases in inductively coupled plasma torch operating at one atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, Sangeeta B. [Electrical Engineering Department, V. J.T.I, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz(E) 400098 (India); Joshi, N. K. [Faculty of Engineering and technology, MITS, lakshmangarh, (Sikar), Rajasthan 332311 (India); Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Lande, B. K. [Electrical Engineering Department, V. J.T.I, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Das, A. K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kothari, D. C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz(E) 400098 (India)

    2012-01-15

    A numerical study is done to understand the possible operating regimes of RF-ICP torch (3 MHz, 50 kW) using different gases for plasma formation at atmospheric pressure. A two dimensional numerical simulation of RF-ICP torch using argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and air as plasma gas has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software fluent{sup (c)}. The operating parameters varied here are central gas flow, sheath gas flow, RF-power dissipated in plasma, and plasma gas. The temperature contours, flow field, axial, and radial velocity profiles were investigated under different operating conditions. The plasma resistance, inductance of the torch, and the heat distribution for various plasma gases have also been investigated. The plasma impedance of ICP torch varies with different operating parameters and plays an important role for RF oscillator design and power coupling. These studies will be useful to decide the design criteria for ICP torches required for different material processing applications.

  1. New spectral estimations for a class of integral-difference operators and generalisation to higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Yuri B.

    2016-09-01

    Quadratic form approach allows for new results in the analysis of a class of integral-difference operators in finite domains: non-negativity, spectral estimations, a new property of Legendre polynomials, and establishing links with weighted mean-square deviation functionals and with infinite Jacobi matrices with not-bounded coefficients. Generalisation of integral-difference operators to higher dimensions is provided and application to matter relaxation in a field is considered. A new class of special functions naturally appears.

  2. COMPACT DIFFERENCES OF COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON HOLOMORPHIC FUNCTION SPACES IN THE UNIT BALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Liangying; Ouyang Caiheng

    2011-01-01

    We find a lower bound for the essential norm of the difference of two composition operators acting on H2(BN) or A28(BN) (s > -1).This result plays an important role in proving a necessary and sufficient condition for the difference of linear fractional composition operators to be compact,which answers a question posed by MacCluer and Weir in 2005.

  3. Crossroads - Bridging the Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cobb

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s so good to be in Cambridge, it feels almost like home. Let me start by stating that in the past year ITMB, a successful map publisher in British Columbia, Canada published more paper map titles than at any time in their history. Similarly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS recently announced that they have ceased producing paper from their aerial photography archive and will only produce digital copies. I believe that both of these facts speak to the future of maps and digital data. It means there will be paper maps well into the future and there will be an increasing array of digital data - some of it reformatted, as in the USGS case, and most of it will be born digital. When asked to speak about GIS and its role in libraries I often find myself in a conundrum - am I here to slay the dragon, or to pet the dragon. The role of technology in libraries is not one that has been embraced by everyone, and often the technology itself seems to have been force-fed upon us. The library profession is not one that has historically been a proponent of change and the very nature of GIS is change. In one sense, we have been given the choice of becoming paper museums or, at the very least, making GIS technology available in our collections. Today, I would like to review the many ways that GIS is, or will, affect our collections. I will divide the presentation into a general overview of GIS in libraries, how it affects our acquisitions or collection development policies, its effect on cataloging, on reference services, staffing, and our web services. Then I will shift the focus a little and discuss the current situation at the Harvard Map Collection, the future role of legacy collections, and a look to the future.

  4. Evaluation of Divided Doses of Scored Tablets and Non-scored Tablets Produced by Different Manufacturers%不同厂家刻痕片及非刻痕片分剂量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元江; 缪经纬; 杨亚勇; 詹金陶; 刘其东

    2012-01-01

    significantly when splitted by scissors (P<0.05); compared with scissors splitting, d value of manufacturer D decreased significantly when splitted by tablet cutters (P<0.01). There was statistical significance in the difference of loss of mass among 3 methods (P<0.01), among which loss of mass of scissors method was the highest, followed by tablet cutters (except manufacturer B) and manual splitting. The friability of equal divided tablet showed that tablet cutters method of manufacturer A and 3 methods of manufacturer B were all not up to standard, while other manufacturers or methods passed the test CONCLUSION: Scored tablet is quite fit to be subdivided, compared with non-scored tablet. The selection of subdivision method should be in line with the physical parameters.

  5. America's digital divide: 2000-2003 trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Kermit C

    2004-04-01

    Computer ownership and literacy, along with Internet access and its many applications, has become, for many, a trademark for the Americans' lifestyle. Research shows that computer ownership and literacy, along with Internet access and expertise, is rapidly changing how Americans go about their business. The technological industry is providing many opportunities for Americans to operate in markets, global and local, not previously available. These changes are apparent across all U.S. sociocultural and geographic boundaries. Yet, upon close analysis, there are individuals and communities less connected with many completely excluded from participation. Those individuals exist below a line called the Digital Divide. Growth in computer ownership and Internet use, while offering optimism that the Digital Divide is narrowing, also illustrates that, without focused intervention will for certain populations, continue. Public and private programs, focus groups, and pocks of community activism, each hope to correct the disparities among on- and-off line Americans. On many fronts, there is evidence that progress is being made by many. Income, race, age, and geographic location are often the determining factors.

  6. Thermal-hydraulics of LLCB TBM under different ITER operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh, E-mail: paritc@gmail.com; Ranjithkumar, S.; Sharma, Deepak; Danani, Chandan; Kumar, E. Rajendra

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis of LLCB TBM has been performed for different ITER operations during normal and power excursion scenarios. • It is observed that in all ITER operations, the temperatures in all components of LLCB TBM are well within the limits. • The maximum temperature of CB-1 in steady state is 920 °C, which is 72% of the maximum temperature obtained in ITER pulse. - Abstract: Lead–lithium cooled ceramic breeder (LLCB) TBM is the Indian DEMO relevant blanket module, which will be tested in one-half of a designated ITER port from day 1 operation of ITER. LLCB TBM will be tested in various ITER operational phases. Different TBM may be tested corresponding to the four different phases of plasma operation. The paper present a review of thermal analyses based on the various heat loads on the LLCB TBM obtained from neutronics calculations to confirm heat removal and structural integrity under different ITER operational conditions. This includes the normal plasma operation, fusion power excursions, surface heat flux due to MARFES, disruption heat loads during thermal and current quench etc., in inductive and non-inductive plasma operations. Transient events, like plasma disruption, vertical displacement events (VDEs) and edge localized modes (ELMs) deliver considerable heat flux (high power densities) for short durations onto the first wall of TBM. Detailed thermal-hydraulic simulation studies have been performed using ANSYS. These analyses, therefore, will provide important information about the temperature distribution in different materials used in TBM and their temperature-time histories.

  7. Classification of emotions by multivariate analysis and individual differences of nuclear power plant operators` emotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Naoko; Yoshimura, Seiichi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study is the development of a simulation model which expresses operators` emotion under plant emergency. This report shows the classification of emotions by multivariate analysis and investigation results conducted to clarify individual differences of activated emotion influenced by personal traits. Although a former investigation was conducted to classify emotions into five basic emotions proposed by Johnson-Laird, the basic emotions was not based on real data. For the development of more realistic and accurate simulation model, it is necessary to recognize basic emotion and to classify emotions into them. As a result of analysis by qualification method 3 and cluster analysis, four basic clusters were clarified, i.e., Emotion expressed towards objects, Emotion affected by objects, Pleasant emotion, and Surprise. Moreover, 51 emotions were ranked in the order according to their similarities in each cluster. An investigation was conducted to clarify individual differences in emotion process using 87 plant operators. The results showed the differences of emotion depending on the existence of operators` foresight, cognitive style, experience in operation, and consciousness of attribution to an operating team. For example, operators with low self-efficacy, short experience or low consciousness of attribution to a team, feel more intensive emotion under plant emergency and more affected by severe plant conditions. The model which can express individual differences will be developed utilizing and converting these data hereafter. (author)

  8. Uniqueness Theorems on Entire Functions and Their Difference Operators or Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoqin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the uniqueness problems on entire functions and their difference operators or shifts. Our main result is a difference analogue of a result of Jank-Mues-Volkmann, which is concerned with the uniqueness of the entire function sharing one finite value with its derivatives. Two relative results are proved, and examples are provided for our results.

  9. Divided by a Common Language?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Lawton, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine what is important to strategic management researchers in different countries and investigate whether or not there is a demarcation between North American-based scholars and those established elsewhere in the native English-speaking world. We advance data in support...

  10. A survey of applied approaches for software encryption of data in different operating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Damjanović, Boris; Simić, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Along with the increased amount of digital information that are stored in computer systems increases the importance of protecting this information. Today's operating systems offer a number of different mechanisms to encrypt data that often provide unequal levels of protection. In this paper we provide an overview of basic block based and file based cryptographic solutions that are used in operating systems along with the presentation of efforts to unify cryptographic APIs in Linux and Windows...

  11. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Product and Producton Development (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of different air change rates in an operating room environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Thomas; Markel, Troy A; Jones, Howard; Greeley, Damon; Ostojic, John; Clarke, James H; Abkowitz, Mark; Wagner, Jennifer

    2017-09-08

    Hospitals face growing pressure to meet the dual but often competing goals of providing a safe environment while controlling operating costs. Evidence-based data are needed to provide insight for facility management practices to support these goals. The quality of the air in 3 operating rooms was measured at different ventilation rates. The energy cost to provide the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to the rooms was estimated to provide a cost-benefit comparison of the effectiveness of different ventilation rates currently used in the health care industry. Simply increasing air change rates in the operating rooms tested did not necessarily provide an overall cleaner environment, but did substantially increase energy consumption and costs. Additionally, and unexpectedly, significant differences in microbial load and air velocity were detected between the sterile fields and back instrument tables. Increasing the ventilation rates in operating rooms in an effort to improve clinical outcomes and potentially reduce surgical site infections does not necessarily provide cleaner air, but does typically increase operating costs. Efficient distribution or management of the air can improve quality indicators and potentially reduce the number of air changes required. Measurable environmental quality indicators could be used in lieu of or in addition to air change rate requirements to optimize cost and quality for an operating room and other critical environments. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulse swallowing frequency divider with low power and compact structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Haijun; Sun Lingling; Cai Chaobo; Zhan Haiting

    2012-01-01

    A pulse swallowing frequency divider with low power and compact structure is presented.One of the DFFs in the divided by 2/3 prescaler is controlled by the modulus control signal,and automatically powered off when it has no contribution to the operation of the prescaler.The DFFs in the program counter and the swallow counter are shared to compose a compact structure,which reduces the power consumption further.The proposed multi-modulus frequency divider was implemented in a standard 65 nm CMOS process with an area of 28 ×22 μm2.The power consumption of the divider is 0.6 mW under 1.2 V supply voltage when operating at 988 MHz.

  14. Crank-Nicholson difference scheme for a stochastic parabolic equation with a dependent operator coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Okur, Ulker

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, the Crank-Nicolson difference scheme for the numerical solution of the stochastic parabolic equation with the dependent operator coefficient is considered. Theorem on convergence estimates for the solution of this difference scheme is established. In applications, convergence estimates for the solution of difference schemes for the numerical solution of three mixed problems for parabolic equations are obtained. The numerical results are given.

  15. Effect of different adhesive strategies on the post-operative sensitivity of class I composite restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; Yildiz, Esra; Bayrak, Isil; Ozel, Sevda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the post-operative sensitivity of occlusal restorations using different dentin adhesives performed by an undergraduate and a post-doctorate dentist. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-eight molar occlusal restorations were placed in 39 patients (ages between 18 and 30) using 3 different kind of adhesive systems; Optibond FL (OBF), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), and iBond (IB) by a post-doctorate dentist or a fifth-year dental student according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Post-operative sensitivity to cold and air was evaluated using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) after 24 hours, 30, 90, and 180 days. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and Friedman tests (P 0.05). Conclusion: Operator skill and experience appears to play a role in determining the outcome of post-operative sensitivity of multi-step adhesive systems although the post-operative sensitivity was low. It is suggested that the less experienced clinicians (rather than experienced clinicians) should better use the self-etching dentin bonding systems with reduced application steps to minimize the potential risk of post-operative sensitivity of dental adhesives. PMID:24966741

  16. Metrological Aspects of Surface Topographies Produced by Different Machining Operations Regarding Their Potential Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.

  17. The effect of different operations modes on science capabilities during the 2010 Desert RATS test: Insights from the geologist crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey E.; Rice, James W.; Garry, W. Brent

    2013-10-01

    The 2010 Desert RATS field test utilized two Space Exploration Vehicles (prototype planetary rovers) and four crewmembers (2 per rover) to conduct a geologic traverse across northern Arizona while testing continuous and twice-per-day communications paired with operation modes of separating and exploring individually (Divide & Conquer) and exploring together (Lead & Follow), respectively. This report provides qualitative conclusions from the geologist crewmembers involved in this test as to how these modes of communications and operations affected our ability to conduct field geology. Each mode of communication and operation provided beneficial capabilities that might be further explored for future Human Spaceflight Missions to other solar system objects. We find that more frequent interactions between crews and an Apollo-style Science Team on the Earth best enables scientific progress during human exploration. However, during multiple vehicle missions, this communication with an Earth-based team of scientists, who represent "more minds on the problem", should not come at the exclusion of (or significantly decrease) communication between the crewmembers in different vehicles who have the "eyes on the ground". Inter-crew communications improved when discussions with a backroom were infrequent. Both aspects are critical and cannot be mutually exclusive. Increased vehicle separation distances best enable encounters with multiple geologic units. However, seemingly redundant visits by multiple vehicles to the same feature can be utilized to provide improved process-related observations about the development and modification of the local terrain. We consider the value of data management, transfer, and accessibility to be the most important lesson learned. Crews and backrooms should have access to all data and related interpretations within the mission in as close to real-time conditions as possible. This ensures that while on another planetary surface, crewmembers are as

  18. Tech, Teachers & Teens: Bridging the Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuht, Amy Colcord; Colcord, Cean

    2011-01-01

    In past decades, the "digital divide" referred to the gap between those who could afford access to technology and those who could not. The divide has shifted in recent years to reflect the growing technological chasm between teachers and their students: today's schools and teenagers' worlds. The digital divide is widening and deepening…

  19. The Myth about the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian L.; Oblinge, Diana G.

    2006-01-01

    Although computer ownership is not 100 percent, progress has been made on closing the digital divide. However, defining the digital divide according to the haves and have-nots of computer ownership is only a starting point. Beyond computer ownership, colleges and universities should explore the "second-level digital divide," which can be…

  20. Diversity, Disability, and Geographic Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumari, Melati; Carr, Erika; Ndebe-Ngovo, Manjerngie

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon called digital divide was the focus of this paper. Diversity, disability, and geographical digital divide were relevant to this collaborative project. An extensive review of the literature was conducted for the completion of this project. The evidence for the digital divide in terms of race, level of education, and gender in the…

  1. Classifier-ensemble incremental-learning procedure for nuclear transient identification at different operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraldi, Piero, E-mail: piero.baraldi@polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Razavi-Far, Roozbeh [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ecole Centrale Paris-Supelec, Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    An important requirement for the practical implementation of empirical diagnostic systems is the capability of classifying transients in all plant operational conditions. The present paper proposes an approach based on an ensemble of classifiers for incrementally learning transients under different operational conditions. New classifiers are added to the ensemble where transients occurring in new operational conditions are not satisfactorily classified. The construction of the ensemble is made by bagging; the base classifier is a supervised Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classifier whose outcomes are combined by majority voting. The incremental learning procedure is applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) under different reactor power levels.

  2. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Jason; Lombardi, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-. biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25......, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MET wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions...... change continuously and vary significantly depending on the climate, the landfill operative management strategies in place (e.g. leachate recirculation, waste disposal methods), the hydraulic characteristics of disposed waste, the presence and type of temporary and final cover systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier...

  3. Differences between Flemish and Chinese Primary Students' Mastery of Basic Arithmetic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ningning; Valcke, Martin; Desoete, Annemie; Burny, Elise; Imbo, Ineke

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates differences in the process of mastering the four basic arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) between Flemish and Chinese children from Grade 3 till Grade 6 (i.e. from 8 to 11 years old). The results showed, firstly, that Chinese students outperformed Flemish students in each grade…

  4. Users of the main smartphone operating systems (iOS, Android) differ only little in personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Friedrich M; Stieger, Stefan; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    The increasingly widespread use of mobile phone applications (apps) as research tools and cost-effective means of vast data collection raises new methodological challenges. In recent years, it has become a common practice for scientists to design apps that run only on a single operating system, thereby excluding large numbers of users who use a different operating system. However, empirical evidence investigating any selection biases that might result thereof is scarce. Henceforth, we conducted two studies drawing from a large multi-national (Study 1; N = 1,081) and a German-speaking sample (Study 2; N = 2,438). As such Study 1 compared iOS and Android users across an array of key personality traits (i.e., well-being, self-esteem, willingness to take risks, optimism, pessimism, Dark Triad, and the Big Five). Focusing on Big Five personality traits in a broader scope, in addition to smartphone users, Study 2 also examined users of the main computer operating systems (i.e., Mac OS, Windows). In both studies, very few significant differences were found, all of which were of small or even tiny effect size mostly disappearing after sociodemographics had been controlled for. Taken together, minor differences in personality seem to exist, but they are of small to negligible effect size (ranging from OR = 0.919 to 1.344 (Study 1), ηp2 = .005 to .036 (Study 2), respectively) and may reflect differences in sociodemographic composition, rather than operating system of smartphone users.

  5. Measurement of electron particle transport coefficients in different operational modes of DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. R.; Wade, M. R.; Jackson, G. L.; Maingi, R.; Stockdale, R. E.; de Grassie, J. S.; Groebner, R. J.; Forest, C. B.; Porter, G. D.; DIII-D Team

    1998-04-01

    Electron transport coefficients have been obtained for different operational modes on the DIII-D tokamak. The operational modes are: double null diverted (DND) low confinement (L mode), DND high confinement (H mode) without edge localized modes (ELM-free), single null diverted (SND) ELM-free H mode and pumped SND ELMing H mode. Various values of plasma current and safety factor (q) profiles were investigated. For the L mode and ELMing H mode, the coefficients were obtained by a modulated puff of deuterium gas at the edge. For the ELM-free modes, the coefficients were obtained by analysing the temporal evolution of the electron density profile immediately after the L-H transition. The results show clearly that the radial profile of the electron diffusion coefficient depends on the operational mode of DIII-D. The difference in the radial dependences of the transport coefficients between the different tokamak operational modes is significant. In the L mode and the ELMing H mode, the diffusion coefficient increases with radius. In ELMing H mode, the diffusion coefficient increases with the edge value of q. The value at the edge for L mode is about twice that for ELMing H mode. In ELM-free H mode, the diffusion coefficient decreases rapidly outside a normalized radius of about 0.8. Within the (relatively large) error bars for ELM-free H mode, there is no measurable difference in diffusion coefficient between the DND and SND plasmas.

  6. Associativity and Understanding of the Operation of Addition in Children with Learning Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobecker, Betsey; Lawrence, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven children (ages 7-10) with learning disabilities and 42 controls were tested on three different mathematics tasks. Significantly more controls abstracted composite unit structures suggestive of operational logic on modified nonverbal and associativity of length tasks. On a flash card task, children with learning disabilities achieved…

  7. Numerical investigation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in an office under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    is a numerical study of the performance of a six person office equipped with diffuse ventilation ceiling. In total six extreme, yet realistic, operation scenarios were simulated to study the performance including different occupancy, ventilation rates and supply air temperatures. The performance was studied...

  8. Minimum Uncertainty States for Number-Difference-Phase Uncertainty Relationin NFM Operational Phase Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; SUN Zhi-Hu

    2000-01-01

    For the Noh, Fougères and Mandel (NFM) operational quantum phase description, which is based on an eightport homodyne-detection, we derive the minimum uncertainty states for the number-difference-phase uncertainty relation. The derivation makes full use of the newly constructed |q, τ) representation which is the common eigenvector of the two-mode photon number-difference a+a -b+b and (a + b+)(a+ + b)

  9. Effect of different adhesive strategies on the post-operative sensitivity of class I composite restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Sancakli, Hande Sar; YILDIZ, Esra; Bayrak, Isil; Ozel,Sevda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the post-operative sensitivity of occlusal restorations using different dentin adhesives performed by an undergraduate and a post-doctorate dentist. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-eight molar occlusal restorations were placed in 39 patients (ages between 18 and 30) using 3 different kind of adhesive systems; Optibond FL (OBF), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), and iBond (IB) by a post-doctorate dentist or a fifth-year dental student according to the manufactur...

  10. Experience in using three different minimally invasive approaches in cardiac operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Lin; Cai, Kai Can; Zeng, Wei Sheng; Jiang, Ren Chao

    2003-03-01

    In order to reach a clear understanding of minimally invasive approaches in cardiac operations, the authors review clinical experience in using three such approaches: inferior partial median sternotomy, right anterolateral minor thoracotomy, and the right parasternal approach. Sternotomy and the three different minimally invasive approaches were applied in and 2431 and 323 patients respectively. The approaches were selected according to the circumstances of the individual case. Both external and internal cardiac structures were observed during the operations. The length of the incision, the postoperative drainage, operative time, and cardiopulmonary bypass time were investigated. The postoperative complications occurring after minimally invasive approaches were observed. In inferior partial median sternotomy, all structures except for the ascending aorta could be exposed well. In right anterolateral minor thoracotomy, only the structures on the right side of the heart could be exposed, but the mitral valve could also be exposed well. The exposure of the right parasternal approach was similar to that of right anterolateral minor thoracotomy. There were statistically significant differences between sternotomy and the minimally invasive approaches in terms of incision length and postoperative drainage, but no difference in operative time and cardiopulmonary bypass time. The postoperative complications of MIAs included air embolism (n = 3), chest pain (n = 9), chest wall malacia (n = 1), rib fracture (n = 2), and sternum fracture (n = 2). The total incidence of complications in minimally invasive approaches was 5.3%. The minimally invasive approaches can have satisfactory clinical results if the approaches are correctly chosen and performed.

  11. A low-power digital frequency divider for system-on-a-chip applications

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an idea for a new frequency divider architecture is proposed. The divider is based on a coarse-fine architecture. The coarse block operates at a low frequency to save power consumption and it selectively enables the fine block which operates at the high input frequency. The proposed divider has the advantages of synchronous divider, but with lower power consumption and higher operation speed. The design can achieve a wide division range with a minor effect on power consumption and speed. The architecture was implemented on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to verify its operation. Experimental measurements validate system operation with power reduction greater than 40%. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Sea Keeping Analysis of Air Cushion Vehicle with Different Wave Angles under the Operation Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jia; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun

    2009-01-01

    The air cushion vehicle (ACV) sea keeping characteristic under different wave directions with the operation resistance is discussed with the couples of the heave, pitch roll motion and the pressure of the cushion.In previous researches, only wave and cross wave direction were discussed. Then a Matlab program is made to calculate the united frequency responses of heave, pitch and roll amplitude of the craft, under different wave frequencies and different wave directions. The results of the research depict some dangerous situations under which the sympathetic vibration happens in heave, pitch and roll motion and the amplitudes are extremely higher than those under the ordinary conditions. These results will be helpful in ACV design and operation.

  13. Settlement determination of operating moisture of autoclaved aerated concrete in different climatic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastushkov Pavel Pavlovich

    Full Text Available In the process of operation of buildings the moisture state of enveloping structures materials is changing depending on their construction features, properties of the material, temperature and moisture conditions in the premises, climatic conditions of the construction area. Moisture mode determines the operational properties of the enveloping structures of a building. It directly influences the thermal characteristics of enveloping structure and energy efficiency of the applied materials. The analysis of the methods for calculation of moisture behavior of enclosing structures is carried out. The research relevance of operational moisture of AAC is substantiated. Experimental studies and results of the sorption moisturizing and water vapor permeability of leading marks of aerated concrete are carried out. The authors offer the results of numerical calculations of the moisture behavior of aerated concrete in the walls with mark D400 with facade thermal insulation composite systems - with external plaster layers for different climatic zones of construction.

  14. On conditions for invertibility of difference and differential operators in weight spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichegkuev, Mairbek S [North-Ossetia State University, Vladikavkaz (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-31

    We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the invertibility of the difference operator D{sub E}:D(D{sub E}) subset of l{sup p}{sub {alpha}}{yields}l{sup p}{sub {alpha}}, (D{sub E} x)(n)=x(n+1)-Bx(n), n element of Z{sub +}, whose domain D(D{sub E}) is given by the condition x(0) element of E, where l{sup p}{sub {alpha}}=l{sup p}{sub {alpha}}(Z{sub +},X), p element of [1,{infinity}], is the Banach space of sequences (of vectors in a Banach space X) summable with weight {alpha}:Z{sub +}{yields}(0,{infinity}) for p element of [1,{infinity}) and bounded with respect to {alpha} for p={infinity}, B:X{yields}X is a bounded linear operator, and E is a closed B-invariant subspace of X. We give applications to the invertibility of differential operators with an unbounded operator coefficient (the generator of a strongly continuous operator semigroup) in weight spaces of functions.

  15. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun

    2016-11-10

    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  16. Simulation and comparison of different operational strategies for storage utilization in concentrated solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Erdocia, Ioseba

    2016-05-01

    The increase of electric power demand and the wish to protect the environment are leading to a change in the energy sources. Conventional energy plants are losing strength against the renewable energy plants and, in particular, solar energy plants have a huge potential to provide clean energy supply for the increasing world's energy demand. Among the existing solar technologies, Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is one of the most promising technologies. One of the major advantages of CSP plants is the technically feasible and cost-effective integration of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems. To increase the plant dispatchability, it is possible to create different operational strategies defining how such TES system is used. In this work, different strategies with different overall goals have been simulated over a complete year and the results are presented and compared here to demonstrate the capabilities of the operational strategies towards an increased dispatchability and plant economic effectiveness. The analysis shows that different strategies may lead to significant differences in the plant annual production, expected economic incomes, number of power block stops, mean efficiency, etc. Specifically, it has been found that the economic incomes of a plant can be increased (+1.3%) even with a decreased total energy production (-1.5%) if the production is scheduled to follow a demand/price curve. Also, dramatic reduction in the number of turbine stops (-67%) can be achieved if the plant is operated towards this objective. The strategies presented in this study have not been optimized towards any specific objective, but only created to show the potential of well designed operational strategies in CSP plants. Therefore, many other strategies as well as optimized versions of the strategies explained below are possible and will be analyzed in future works.

  17. The positivity of the difference operator with periodic conditions and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Tetikoglu, Fatih Sabahattin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the second order of approximation of the difference operator Ahx with domain which approximates the second order differential dependent operator Ax defined by the formula Axu =-a (x )ux x(x )+δ u (x ),δ ≥0 ,a (x )=a (x +2 π ),x ∈ℝ1 with domain D (Ax)={ u (x ):u (x ),u'(x ),u″(x )∈C (ℝ1 ) ,u (x )=u (x +2 π ),x ∈ℝ1, ∫0 2 π u (x )d x =0 } is presented. The positivity of operator Ahx with domain in the Banach space C (ℝ1 h) is established. It is proved that for any α ∈(0 ,1/2 ) the norms in spaces Ea=Ea(C (ℝ1 h),Ahx) and C2 a(ℝ1 h) are equivalent uniformly with respect to h. The positivity of the operator Ahx with domain in Hölder spaces of C∘ 2 a(ℝ1 h) , α ∈(0 , 1/2) is proved. In application, theorems on well-posedness for difference schemes of the approximate solution of the boundary value problem for elliptic differential equations are presented.

  18. Effect of different bariatric operations on food tolerance and quality of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Chaya; Weiss, Ram; Keidar, Andrei

    2010-10-01

    Many bariatric operations are associated with reduced food tolerance and frequent vomiting, which may cause nutritional deficiencies and influence quality of life. However, the impact of different bariatric procedures on quality of eating and food tolerance has not yet been studied enough. Two hundred and eighteen participants filled a quality of eating questionnaire, at three different time periods after bariatric operation: short-term (3-6 months, n = 63), medium-term (6-12 months, n = 69) and long-term follow-up (over 12 months, n = 86). The participants underwent the following procedures: 99 patients have had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), 49 laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB), 56 sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and 14 biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS). At short-term period score achieved for all section of the questionnaire was similar for all operations. The total score of the questionnaire at the medium-term group was 20.27 ± 3.57, 14.47 ± 5.92, 22.27 ± 4.66, and 20.91 ± 3.26 (p food intolerance is common following many types of bariatric procedures. However, the difficulties diminish as time passes after operation and can be affected by the type of procedure. Patients undergoing LAGB have significantly greater limitations and difficulties to ingest variety of foods.

  19. Difference of operation mechanisms in SWNTs network FETs studied via scanning gate microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Yahagi, Tatsurou; Maeda, Kenji; Ochiai, Yuichi; Aoki, Nobuyuki [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Bird, Jonathan P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, the State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-1920 (United States); Ishibashi, Koji [Advanced Device Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    Field effect transistors (FETs) whose channel is composed of a network of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been studied to investigate the mechanism of the device operation via scanning gate microscopy (SGM) at room temperature. We observed different SGM response in networks of SWNTs either synthesized by CoMoCAT process or semiconducting enriched by density gradient ultracentrifuge process. In the former case, SGM response was observed at specific inter-tube junctions suggesting a Schottky junction formed with semiconducting and metallic SWNTs in the network. In contrast, multiple concentric rings in the SGM response are observed within the tubes in a network of the latter SWNTs suggesting a possibility of quantum mechanical transport at room-temperature. Different type of SGM responses are confirmed in the two kinds of SWNTs networks, nevertheless such active positions would likely have an important role in the FET operation mechanism in each network.

  20. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    As the penetration of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is booming, specific grid demands are imposed on such interconnected PV systems. Therefore, achieving high reliable PV systems with high power quality is of intense interest. However, the injected current from single-phase grid-connected......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....... PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...

  1. Users of the main smartphone operating systems (iOS, Android) differ only little in personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    The increasingly widespread use of mobile phone applications (apps) as research tools and cost-effective means of vast data collection raises new methodological challenges. In recent years, it has become a common practice for scientists to design apps that run only on a single operating system, thereby excluding large numbers of users who use a different operating system. However, empirical evidence investigating any selection biases that might result thereof is scarce. Henceforth, we conducted two studies drawing from a large multi-national (Study 1; N = 1,081) and a German-speaking sample (Study 2; N = 2,438). As such Study 1 compared iOS and Android users across an array of key personality traits (i.e., well-being, self-esteem, willingness to take risks, optimism, pessimism, Dark Triad, and the Big Five). Focusing on Big Five personality traits in a broader scope, in addition to smartphone users, Study 2 also examined users of the main computer operating systems (i.e., Mac OS, Windows). In both studies, very few significant differences were found, all of which were of small or even tiny effect size mostly disappearing after sociodemographics had been controlled for. Taken together, minor differences in personality seem to exist, but they are of small to negligible effect size (ranging from OR = 0.919 to 1.344 (Study 1), ηp2 = .005 to .036 (Study 2), respectively) and may reflect differences in sociodemographic composition, rather than operating system of smartphone users. PMID:28467473

  2. Influence of different operation methods on vertebral body parameters and GH-IGF axis of patients with thoracolumbar bursts fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Bo Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To observe the influence situation of different operation methods on the vertebral body parameters and GH-IGF axis of patients with thoracolumbar bursts fractures.Methods:A total of 50 surgical patients with thoracolumbar bursts fractures from February 2014 to January 2016 were selected as the research object, and 50 patients with fractures were divided into two groups by the principle of random allocation, then the group A were treated with surgical treatment by anterior approach, the group B were treated with surgical treatment by posterior approach, then the vertebral body parameters and the serum expression levels of GH-IGF axis indexes of two groups before the surgery and at different time after the surgery were compared.Results: The vertebral body parameters and the serum expression levels of GH-IGF axis indexes of two groups before the surgery were compared (allP>0.05), while the vertebral body parameters and the serum expression levels of GH-IGF axis indexes of two groups at different time after the surgery were all significantly better than those before the surgery, and the results of group B were all better than those of group A (allP<0.05).Conclusions:The influence of surgical treatment by posterior approach for the vertebral body parameters and GH-IGF axis of patients with thoracolumbar bursts fractures are obviously better than those of surgical treatment by anterior approach, so the application value of surgical treatment by posterior approach in the patients with fractures is higher.

  3. Ulnar impaction syndrome with different operative methods: a comparative biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ya-Dong; Wu, Tao; Tian, Fang-Tao; Shang, Yun-Tao; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Bai, Yan-Bin; Han, Chang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar impaction syndrome seriously impairs wrist and hand function. Three main treatment procedures are available; however, little systematic research on the post-operation changes in wrist biomechanics currently exists. This study aimed to determine the long-term effects of these procedures and the optimal treatment methods for ulnar impaction syndrome. Twenty-four cases of fresh upper limb specimens were randomized into four groups: (1) the control group, (2) the ulnar-shortening operation group, (3) the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group (distal radioulnar arthrodesis and intentional distal ulnar pseudoarthrosis), and (4) the Darrach procedure group (distal ulna resection). After keeping the wrist in a neutral position, a pressure sensitive film was applied. Starting at 0 N, the load was increased gradually at a speed of 0.1 N/s until reaching 200 N and then maintained for 60 s by the CSS-44020 series biomechanical machine. Then, the pressure sensitive films from each group were measured, and the results were analyzed with SPSS software. The mean pressure and force on the ulna in the groups followed a decreasing trend from the control group, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group and ulnar-shortening operation group. The mean pressure of the scaphoid fossa and the force on distal aspect of the radius in the groups followed an increasing trend from the control group, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group, ulnar-shortening operation group and Darrach procedure group. This study found no significant differences in the mean pressure of the scaphoid fossa and the force on distal aspect of the radius between the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group and the ulnar-shortening operation group. The Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group showed the greatest mean pressure on lunate fossa. In this comprehensive analysis of wrist biomechanics, the ulnar-shortening operation was superior to the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure and Darrach procedure, which adequately maintained the anatomical relationships of the

  4. Forest operations in coppice: Environmental assessment of two different logging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Andrea; Marchi, Enrico; González-García, Sara

    2016-08-15

    Wood is a renewable resource and it actively contributes to enhance energy production under a sustainable perspective. However, harvesting, transport and use of wood imply several consequences and impacts on environment. There are different ways for managing forests dedicated to wood production and a sustainable approach is fundamental to preserve the resource. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for estimating the environmental impacts related to renewable resources. Traditional coppice is a common approach for forest management in several areas, including southern Europe and, specifically, Italy, Spain and the Balkans. Due to different terrain conditions, different types of forest operations are considered for wood extraction from coppices, where the main product is firewood used in domestic heating. The aim of this work was to compare the main common systems for firewood production in two different terrain conditions ('flat/low steep' and 'steep/very steep' terrains), in a representative environment for Mediterranean area, located in central Italy, by means of LCA. Seven different impact categories were evaluated in a cradle-to-gate perspective taking into account all the operations carried out from the trees felling to the firewood storage at factory. Results showed that the extraction phase was the most important in terms of environmental burdens in firewood production and the use of heavy and high-power machines negatively influenced the emissions compared with manual operations. Finally, considering the general low-inputs involved in wood production in coppice, the transport of workers by car to the work site resulted on consistent contributions into environmental burdens. An additional analysis about the modifications of CH4 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere, due to soil compaction in the extraction phase, was made and based on bibliographic information. Results showed a sensible difference between disturbed and

  5. Operational modal analysis approach based on multivariable transmissibility with different transferring outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Araújo, Iván; Laier, Jose Elias

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, transmissibility functions have been used as alternatives to identify the modal parameters of structures under operating conditions. The scalar power spectrum density transmissibility (PSDT), which relates only two responses, was proposed to extract modal parameters by combining different PSDTs with different transferring outputs. In this sense, this paper proposes extending the scalar PSDT concept to multivariable PSDT by relating multiple responses instead of only two. This extension implies the definition of a transmissibility matrix, relating the cross-spectral density matrix among the responses at coordinates Z and U with the cross-spectral density matrix among the responses at coordinates Z and K. The coordinates in Z are known as the transferring outputs. By defining the same coordinates K and U, but with different transferring outputs Z, we prove that the multivariable PSDT converges to the same matrix when it approaches the system poles. This property is used to define only one matrix with different multivariable PSDTs with same coordinates K and U, but with different transferring outputs. The resulting matrix is singular at the system poles, meaning that by applying the inverse of the matrix, the modal parameters can be identified. Here, a numeric example of a beam model subjected to excitations and data from an operational vibration bridge test shows that the proposed method is capable of identifying modal parameters. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the possibility of estimating the same modal parameters by changing only the coordinates K and U, providing greater reliability during modal parameter identification.

  6. Bridge the Digital Divide for Educational Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Christine Y.; Dodds, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Students' technological savvy has challenged schools to make greater use of computers and the Internet in their curricula, but unfortunately, not every student has the same access to it, and the inability to keep pace has created a digital divide that continues to widen. The digital divide particularly affects students who are black, Hispanic,…

  7. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  8. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.J.A.M.; Dijk, van J.A.G.M.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and inf

  9. q-Difference Kac-Schwarz Operators in Topological String Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Nakatsu, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    The perspective of Kac-Schwarz operators is introduced to the authors' previous work on the quantum mirror curves of topological string theory in strip geometry and closed topological vertex. Open string amplitudes on each leg of the web diagram of such geometry can be packed into a multi-variate generating function. This generating function turns out to be a tau function of the KP hierarchy. The tau function has a fermionic expression, from which one finds a vector |W\\rangle in the fermionic Fock space that represents a point W of the Sato Grassmannian. |W\\rangle is generated from the vacuum vector |0\\rangle by an operator g on the Fock space. g determines an operator G on the space V = C((x)) of Laurent series in which W is realized as a linear subspace. G generates an admissible basis {Φ_j(x)}_{j=0}^∞ of W. q-difference analogues A, B of Kac-Schwarz operators are defined with the aid of G. Φ_j(x)'s satisfy the linear equations AΦ_j(x) = q^jΦ_j(x), BΦ_j(x) = Φ_{j+1}(x). The lowest equation AΦ_0(x) = Φ_0(x) reproduces the quantum mirror curve in the authors' previous work.

  10. Developing management systems with cross-cultural fit: assessing international differences in operational systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nancy; Roelofs, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Experiences in the Yunnan Maternal and Child Health Project, a 6-year CAN 6 million dollars bilateral initiative implemented in 10 counties (population 2.4 million) in Yunnan, China, are used to illustrate management approaches that successfully bridge cross-cultural differences in operational systems between donor and recipient countries. Donor institutions, local implementing agencies, and partner executing organizations each operate within specific assumptions about how governance structures, financial and administrative systems, human resource infrastructure, communications systems, and monitoring and reporting mechanisms function. These 'system domains' vary across cultures and countries, and become more evident as projects deal with capacity constraints, concerns about accountability, and rapid socioeconomic and political change during implementation. Management teams must be able to identify areas of poor fit among operational systems and respond appropriately. An assessment tool is offered, which management partners can use, as a basis for joint reflections on potential risks, identification of mitigation strategies, and establishing operational systems that are a fit for the funder as well as for partner agencies responsible for executing the project.

  11. $q$-difference Kac-Schwarz operators in topological string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of Kac-Schwarz operators is introduced to the authors' previous work on the quantum mirror curves of topological string theory in strip geometry and closed topological vertex. Open string amplitudes on each leg of the web diagram of such geometry can be packed into a multi-variate generating function. This generating function turns out to be a tau function of the KP hierarchy. The tau function has a fermionic expression, from which one finds a vector $|W\\rangle$ in the fermionic Fock space that represents a point $W$ of the Sato Grassmanian. $|W\\rangle$ is generated from the vacuum vector $|0\\rangle$ by an operator $g$ on the Fock space. $g$ determines an operator $G$ on the space $V = \\mathbb{C}((x))$ of Laurent series in which $W$ is realized as a linear subspace. $G$ generates an admissible basis $\\{\\Phi_j(x)\\}_{j=0}^\\infty$ of $W$. $q$-difference analogues $A,B$ of Kac-Schwarz operators are defined with the aid of $G$. $\\Phi_j(x)$'s satisfy the linear equations $A\\Phi_j(x) = q^j\\Phi_j(x)$,...

  12. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  13. Experimental fuel cell performance analysis under different operating conditions and bipolar plate designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranzo, Alfredo; Pino, Javier; Rosa, Felipe [Energy Engineering Department, School of Engineering, University of Seville, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Munoz, Miguel; Lopez, Eduardo [INTA - National Institute for Aerospace Technology, Ctra. San Juan del Puerto-Matalascanas km 33, 21130 Mazagon (Huelva) (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This work presents experimental performance results for a 50 cm{sup 2} Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell, including polarization curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis of the Fuel Cell. EIS results were used for the determination of the cell ohmic resistance as well as charge transfer resistances under different operating conditions. Different combinations of operating conditions and bipolar plate designs were analysed. In particular, the effect of the cathode oxygen concentration, reactant gases humidification, and bipolar plate (BP) design were assessed. Butler-Volmer (BV) kinetic parameters such as the charge transfer coefficient were also determined from Tafel plots. The electronic contact resistances were measured for both Bipolar Plate designs, and the membrane protonic resistances were calculated. Its dependence on the BP flow field design and operating conditions is addressed. The results obtained in this work are aimed both at gaining insight into the fundamental processes determining the fuel cell performance, and at determining parameters needed for Computational Fuel Cell Dynamics (CFCD) numerical simulations. (author)

  14. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The differing behavior of electrosurgical devices made of various electrode materials operating under plasma conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, K. R.; Ryan, T. P.; Gaspredes, J.; Woloszko, J.

    2015-03-01

    Coblation® is an electrosurgical technology which employs electrically-excited electrodes in the presence of saline solution to produce a localized and ionized plasma that can cut, ablate, and otherwise treat tissues for many different surgical needs. To improve our understanding of how Coblation plasmas develop from devices made from different electrode materials we describe several experiments designed to elucidate material effects. Initial experiments studied simple, noncommercial cylindrical electrode test devices operating in buffered isotonic saline without applied suction. The applied RF voltage, approximately 300 V RMS, was sufficient to form glow discharges around the active electrodes. The devices exhibited significantly different operating characteristics, which we ascribe to the differing oxidation tendencies and other physical properties of the electrode materials. Parameters measured include RMS voltage and current, instantaneous voltage and current, temporally-resolved light emission and optical emission spectra, and electrode mass-loss measurements. We correlate these measured properties with some of the bulk characteristics of the electrode materials such as work functions, standard reduction potentials and sputter yields.

  16. Do different populations of Aphanius dispar in Southern Iran form Operational Taxonomic Units (OUTs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Teimori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the exact fundamental relations of morphological differentiation among isolated populations of animal species is generally difficult. Usually changes in morphology are resulted from adaptation to different environmental conditions (ecoplasticity or represent an expression of genetic differences and/or gene pool pauperization, and in most instances, however, changes in morphology are the result of the interplay between environmental factors and genetic plasticity. In this study, the morphology and molecular phylogenies of common tooth-carp populations (Aphanius dispar were studied in three basins in Southern part of Iran to discuss an important aspect relate to the question whether morphologically differentiated populations of a single species function as Operational Taxonomic Units. All morphological analyses were revealed significant and strong morphological differentiation between the populations that corresponds well with their zoogeography and their molecular phylogeny in geographically isolated basins. Therefore, it can be concluded that when the interaction between gene flow among populations and natural selection is resulted owing to a long evolutionary history, then the observed morphological differences can be functioned as different Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs in subspecies or even species levels. In addition, biological characteristics of the A. dispar, its high tolerance, geological and ecological conditions in Southern Iran are the main factors that increase chance of reproductive isolation and genetic diversity in this region.

  17. Investigations into the efficacy of different procedures for surgical hand disinfection between consecutive operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehork, B; Rüden, H

    1991-10-01

    In order to examine whether thorough surgical hand disinfection (handwashing plus hand disinfection) between consecutive operations is necessary, tests were carried out simulating normal clinical conditions. The tests were performed according to the guidelines for the evaluation of disinfection procedures of the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology. Surgical hand disinfection was as follows: handwashing with soap without antimicrobial additives and subsequent 5-min disinfection with 60% n-propanol. This was followed by simulated operations of 30 or 120 min duration with a 30-min break between operations, during which half of the test group kept on the surgical gloves, while the other half removed them. The second surgical hand disinfection was done without prior handwashing by 50% of the test group. The disinfection time was reduced from 5 to 1 min by 50% of the test group. The results were evaluated by means of explorative data analysis and inductive statistical methods. Removing the surgical gloves during the interoperative break did not result in significantly higher numbers of colony forming units (cfu) compared with retaining the gloves. This was also the case after a subsequent handwashing. At the second surgical hand disinfection, after a simulated operation of 60 min duration (including break), there was no significant difference in the numbers of cfus between the test group who had washed their hands and those who had not. Reducing the disinfection time from 5 min to 1 min was not associated with a significant increase in the number of cfus. However, after a simulated operating time of 150 min (including the break), the second surgical hand disinfection with handwashing resulted in a significantly lower number of microorganisms than disinfection alone. In half the tests, the numbers of cfu were significantly lower when the test group disinfected their hands for 5 min rather than 1 min.

  18. Enhanced Model of Nonlinear Spiral High Voltage Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Panko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the enhanced accurate DC and RF model of nonlinear spiral polysilicon voltage divider. The high resistance polysilicon divider is a sensing part of the high voltage start-up MOSFET transistor that can operate up to 700 V. This paper presents the structure of a proposed model, implemented voltage, frequency and temperature dependency, and scalability. A special attention is paid to the ability of the created model to cover the mismatch and influence of a variation of process parameters on the device characteristics. Finally, the comparison of measured data vs. simulation is presented in order to confirm the model validity and a typical application is demonstrated.

  19. A Methodology to Measure the Environmental Impact of ICT Operating Systems across Different Device Platforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel R. Williams; Yinshan Tang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract-A new methodology was created to measure the energy consumption and related green house gas (GHG) emissions of a computer operating system (OS) across different device platforms. The methodology involved the direct power measurement of devices under different activity states. In order to include all aspects of an OS, the methodology included measurements in various OS modes, whilst uniquely, also incorporating measurements when running an array of defined software activities, so as to include OS application management features. The methodology was demonstrated on a laptop and phone that could each run multiple OSs, results confirmed that OS can significantly impact the energy consumption of devices. In particular, the new versions of the Microsoft Windows OS were tested and highlighted significant differences between the OS versions on the same hardware. The developed methodology could enable a greater awareness of energy consumption, during both the software development and software marketing processes.

  20. Threshold Voltage of MOSFET Devices Extracted by Normalized Mutual Integral Difference Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJin; ZHENGTaolei; ZHANGXing; WANGYangyuan

    2003-01-01

    The threshold voltage of MOSFETs to be extracted by a novel experimental method named the nor-realized mutual integral difference operator has been inves-tigated in this paper. The basic principle of this method is to use the extreme spectral characteristics of the nor-realized mutual integral difference result of the MOSFET transfer characteristics to find the threshold voltage. Ap-plication of this method has also been demonstrated nu-merically in extracting the threshold voltage of MOS de-vices with the different effective channel length and par-asitic series resistance. The results show this method is sensitive to the channel length variation while insensitive to the parasitic resistance component. The extracted re-sults on the threshold voltage of MOSFET devices have been compared with those obtained by the second deriva-tive method and the agreements have been found, showing the advantage of the method presented here.

  1. Centrosome positioning in non-dividing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Amy R; McIntosh, Kate V; Dawe, Helen R

    2016-07-01

    Centrioles and centrosomes are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, where they are important for organising the microtubule cytoskeleton in both dividing and non-dividing cells. The spatial location of centrioles and centrosomes is tightly controlled and, in non-dividing cells, plays an important part in cell migration, ciliogenesis and immune cell functions. Here, we examine some of the ways that centrosomes are connected to other organelles and how this impacts on cilium formation, cell migration and immune cell function in metazoan cells.

  2. Nonlinear Structure-Aware Image Sharpening with Difference of Smoothing Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin eKheradmand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an effective data-adaptive filtering mechanism for sharpening of noisy and moderately blurred images. We establish the connection of our proposed data-adaptive filtering procedure with the classic Difference of Gaussians (DoG operator widely used in image processing and computer graphics. Our proposed filter renders a data-adaptive and noise robust version of the classical DoG filter. We also discuss interesting special cases of our general sharpening method. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique for sharpening real images.

  3. No differences in post-operative rehabilitation across municipalities in patients with lumbar disc herniation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rune Tendal; Bergholdt, Erik; Carreon, Leah;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Following the municipal reform in Denmark in January 2007, the municipalities gained responsibility for post-operative rehabilitation. In the Region of Southern Denmark, this task was decentralised to 22 municipalities, which implied a possible risk for considerable variation...... decompressive surgery for lumbar disc herniation were identified. Changes in Oswestry disability index (ODI), EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and duration of sick leave were compared among the municipalities. RESULTS: Patient-reported outcome measures showed no statistical difference in ODI, EQ-5D or sick leave at the one...

  4. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantini, Sara, E-mail: pantini@ing.uniroma2.it [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d{sup −1} at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d{sup −1} at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d{sup −1} at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution

  5. Operational Meanings of Orders of Observables Defined through Quantum Set Theories with Different Conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Ozawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In quantum logic there is well-known arbitrariness in choosing a binary operation for conditional. Currently, we have at least three candidates, called the Sasaki conditional, the contrapositive Sasaki conditional, and the relevance conditional. A fundamental problem is to show how the form of the conditional follows from an analysis of operational concepts in quantum theory. Here, we attempt such an analysis through quantum set theory (QST. In this paper, we develop quantum set theory based on quantum logics with those three conditionals, each of which defines different quantum logical truth value assignment. We show that those three models satisfy the transfer principle of the same form to determine the quantum logical truth values of theorems of the ZFC set theory. We also show that the reals in the model and the truth values of their equality are the same for those models. Interestingly, however, the order relation between quantum reals significantly depends on the underlying conditionals. We characterize the operational meanings of those order relations in terms of joint probability obtained by the successive projective measurements of arbitrary two observables. Those characterizations clearly show their individual features and will play a fundamental role in future applications to quantum physics.

  6. Switchable different operation states in an erbium-doped fiber laser cavity with normal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiqing; Liao, Meisong; Kawashima, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate different operation states which can be switched by the polarization control in an erbium-doped fiber laser cavity with normal dispersion, including passive single-pulse and multiple-pulse mode-locking, coherent pulse pattern, and passive Q-switching. The mode-locked single pulse has a smooth and broad rectangular-shaped spectrum. With increasing pump power, multiple pulses appear and finally six pulses are observed, where the pulses have no interaction with each other. Keeping the pump power at 407 mW and adjusting the polarization state, we observe the coherent pulse pattern with the pulse numbers from 2 to 5. It is the first time five coherent pulses in the 1.55 μm normal dispersion cavity have been observed, to our knowledge. The mode-locked spectra are highly modulated and the largest pulse separation of 31.9 ps is observed for the two-pulse case. When the pump power exceeds 180 mW, the mode-locked operation can be switched to the passively Q-switched operation by controlling the polarization state. The repetition rate and pulse width can be changed by pump power variation, and the spectrum is tunable in the range of 8.45 nm.

  7. Ulnar impaction syndrome with different operative methods: a comparative biomechanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ya-Dong; Wu, Tao; Tian, Fang-Tao; Shang, Yun-Tao; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Bai, Yan-Bin; Han, Chang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ulnar impaction syndrome seriously impairs wrist and hand function. Three main treatment procedures are available; however, little systematic research on the post-operation changes in wrist biomechanics currently exists. This study aimed to determine the long-term effects of these procedures and the optimal treatment methods for ulnar impaction syndrome. Methods: Twenty-four cases of fresh upper limb specimens were randomized into four groups: (1) the control group, (2) the ulnar-shortening operation group, (3) the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group (distal radioulnar arthrodesis and intentional distal ulnar pseudoarthrosis), and (4) the Darrach procedure group (distal ulna resection). After keeping the wrist in a neutral position, a pressure sensitive film was applied. Starting at 0 N, the load was increased gradually at a speed of 0.1 N/s until reaching 200 N and then maintained for 60 s by the CSS-44020 series biomechanical machine. Then, the pressure sensitive films from each group were measured, and the results were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The mean pressure and force on the ulna in the groups followed a decreasing trend from the control group, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group and ulnar-shortening operation group. The mean pressure of the scaphoid fossa and the force on distal aspect of the radius in the groups followed an increasing trend from the control group, Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group, ulnar-shortening operation group and Darrach procedure group. This study found no significant differences in the mean pressure of the scaphoid fossa and the force on distal aspect of the radius between the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group and the ulnar-shortening operation group. The Sauvé-Kapandji procedure group showed the greatest mean pressure on lunate fossa. Conclusions: In this comprehensive analysis of wrist biomechanics, the ulnar-shortening operation was superior to the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure and Darrach procedure, which adequately

  8. Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162314.html Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll Their opinions aren't driven by politics ... News) -- Americans are split on the value of organic foods and concerns about genetically modified (GM) foods, a ...

  9. Environmental Aesthetics. Crossing Divides and Breaking Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, M.; Keulartz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental aesthetics crosses several commonly recognized divides: between analytic and continental philosophy, Eastern and Western traditions, universalizing and historicizing approaches, and theoretical and practical concerns. This volume sets out to show how these,perspectives can be brought i

  10. Energy conserving effects of dividing wall column☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Fang; Hanmei Zhao; Jianchao Qi; Chunli Li; Junjie Qi; Jiajia Guo

    2015-01-01

    The energy-conserving performance of dividing wal column (DWC) is discussed in this paper. The heat transfer through the dividing wall is considered and the results are compared with that of common heat insulation dividing wall column (HIDWC). Based on the thermodynamic analysis of heat transfer dividing wall column (HTDWC) and HIDWC, both computer simulation and experiments are employed to analyze the energy-conserving situation. Mixtures of n-hexane, n-heptane and n-octane are chosen as the example for separation. The results show that the energy consumption of HTDWC is 50.3%less than that of conventional distillation column, while it is 46.4% less than that of HIDWC. It indicates that DWC is efficient on separating three-component mixtures and HTDWC can save more energy than HIDWC. Thus it is necessary to consider the heat transfer while applying DWC to industry.

  11. Fault Analysis of DC Voltage Dividers in Xiangjiaba--Shanghai ±800 kV UHVDC Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fengqi; SHE Zhengqiu; LOU Dianqiang; Rajendra Iyer; Urban Astrom

    2012-01-01

    Transient DC voltage measurement error has been observed several times ever since Xiangjiaba--Shanghai ±800 kV UHVDC project started its commercial operation. The measurement error causes considerable disturbances to the AC networks. By analyzing the time frequency record, simulating faults at different positions of the divider, and testing the gas in voltage dividers, the fault is located and then is proved to be some partial discharges inside DC voltage dividers. The reason of the internal flashes and the solution to the problem is also discussed in this paper. The conclusion is that instead of N2 , SF6 should be used for the internal insulation of high voltage DC voltage dividers.

  12. Three loop massive operator matrix elements and asymptotic Wilson coefficients with two different masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; De Freitas, A.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C.; Wißbrock, F.

    2017-08-01

    Starting at 3-loop order, the massive Wilson coefficients for deep-inelastic scattering and the massive operator matrix elements describing the variable flavor number scheme receive contributions of Feynman diagrams carrying quark lines with two different masses. In the case of the charm and bottom quarks, the usual decoupling of one heavy mass at a time no longer holds, since the ratio of the respective masses, η = mc2 / mb2 ∼ 1 / 10, is not small enough. Therefore, the usual variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) has to be generalized. The renormalization procedure in the two-mass case is different from the single mass case derived in [1]. We present the moments N = 2 , 4 and 6 for all contributing operator matrix elements, expanding in the ratio η. We calculate the analytic results for general values of the Mellin variable N in the flavor non-singlet case, as well as for transversity and the matrix element Agq(3). We also calculate the two-mass scalar integrals of all topologies contributing to the gluonic operator matrix element Agg. As it turns out, the expansion in η is usually inapplicable for general values of N. We therefore derive the result for general values of the mass ratio. From the single pole terms we derive, now in a two-mass calculation, the corresponding contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. We introduce a new general class of iterated integrals and study their relations and present special values. The corresponding functions are implemented in computer-algebraic form.

  13. Three loop massive operator matrix elements and asymptotic Wilson coefficients with two different masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Wissbrock, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); IHES, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-05-15

    Starting at 3-loop order, the massive Wilson coefficients for deep-inelastic scattering and the massive operator matrix elements describing the variable flavor number scheme receive contributions of Feynman diagrams carrying quark lines with two different masses. In the case of the charm and bottom quarks, the usual decoupling of one heavy mass at a time no longer holds, since the ratio of the respective masses, η=m{sup 2}{sub c}/m{sup 2}{sub b}∝1/10, is not small enough. Therefore, the usual variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) has to be generalized. The renormalization procedure in the two-mass case is different from the single mass case derived earlier (I. Bierenbaum, J: Bluemlein, S. Klein, 2009). We present the moments N=2,4 and 6 for all contributing operator matrix elements, expanding in the ratio η. We calculate the analytic results for general values of the Mellin variable N in the flavor non-singlet case, as well as for transversity and the matrix element A{sup (3)}{sub gq}. We also calculate the two-mass scalar integrals of all topologies contributing to the gluonic operator matrix element A{sub gg}. As it turns out, the expansion in η is usually inapplicable for general values of N. We therefore derive the result for general values of the mass ratio. From the single pole terms we derive, now in a two-mass calculation, the corresponding contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. We introduce a new general class of iterated integrals and study their relations and present special values. The corresponding functions are implemented in computer-algebraic form.

  14. Numerical Simulation for Thermal Shock Resistance of Thermal Protection Materials Considering Different Operating Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the sensitivities of material properties to temperature and the complexity of service environment of thermal protection system on the spacecraft, ultrahigh-temperature ceramics (UHTCs, which are used as thermal protection materials, cannot simply consider thermal shock resistance (TSR of the material its own but need to take the external constraint conditions and the thermal environment into full account. With the thermal shock numerical simulation on hafnium diboride (HfB2, a detailed study of the effects of the different external constraints and thermal environments on the TSR of UHTCs had been made. The influences of different initial temperatures, constraint strengths, and temperature change rates on the TSR of UHTCs are discussed. This study can provide a more intuitively visual understanding of the evolution of the TSR of UHTCs during actual operation conditions.

  15. ON THE mth ORDER DIFFERENCE SEQUENCE SPACE OF GENERALIZED WEIGHTED MEAN AND COMPACT OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin BA(S)ARIR; Emrah Evren KARA

    2013-01-01

    In this article,using generalized weighted mean and difference matrix of order m,we introduce the paranormed sequence space l(u,v,p; △(m)),which consist of the sequences whose generalized weighted △(m)-difference means are in the linear space l(p) defined by I.J.Maddox.Also,we determine the basis of this space and compute its α-,β-and γ-duals.Further,we give the characterization of the classes of matrix mappings from l(u,v,p,△(m))to l∞,c,and c0.Finally,we apply the Hausdorff measure of noncompacness to characterize some classes of compact operators given by matrices on the space lp(u,v,△(m)) (1 ≤ p < ∞).

  16. Co-operation and conflict in a hospital: interprofessional differences in perception and management of conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjørshammer, M

    2001-02-01

    This article presents a case study of a Norwegian hospital, analysing how health professionals manage conflicts related to work co-operation. Altogether, 29 health professionals working in the hospital were interviewed, and data was analysed according to a grounded theory approach. When in conflict, health professionals seem to use three major approaches to handling the situation: avoidance, forcing and negotiation, and usually in that order. Avoidance behaviour or suppression is the most common reaction to an emerging conflict. If the use of power does not re-establish a balance between the participants, one negotiates. These conflict styles seem to be determined by two major factors: the perceived interdependence between parties and the perceived urgency of doing something about the situation. Nurses and physicians in particular seem to differ considerably in their perception of what is a conflict and when to do something about it. Such differences in perceptions and the extensive use of avoidance represent important challenges to managers and clinical leaders when it comes to advancing interprofessional co-operation.

  17. Are positive and negative reinforcement "different"? Insights from a free-operant differential outcomes effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, Michael A; Critchfield, Thomas S; Merrill, Dustin; Newland, M Christopher; Schneider, W Joel

    2017-01-01

    Although theoretical discussions typically assume that positive and negative reinforcement differ, the literature contains little unambiguous evidence that they produce differential behavioral effects. To test whether the two types of consequences control behavior differently, we pitted money-gain positive reinforcement and money-loss-avoidance negative reinforcement, scheduled through identically programmed variable-cycle schedules, against each other in concurrent schedules. Contingencies of response-produced feedback, normally different in positive and negative reinforcement, were made symmetrical. Steeper matching slopes were produced compared to a baseline consisting of all positive reinforcement. This free-operant differential outcomes effect supports the notion that that stimulus-presentation positive reinforcement and stimulus-elimination negative reinforcement are functionally "different." However, a control experiment showed that the feedback asymmetry of more traditional positive and negative reinforcement schedules also is sufficient to create a "difference" when the type of consequence is held constant. We offer these findings as a small step in meeting the very large challenge of moving negative reinforcement theory beyond decades of relative quiescence.

  18. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  19. Operation of molten carbonate fuel cells with different biogas sources: A challenging approach for field trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trogisch, S. [Profactor Produktionsforschungs GmbH, Im Stadtgut A2, A-4407 Steyr/Gleink (Austria); Hoffmann, J. [MTU CFC Solutions GmbH (Germany); Daza Bertrand, L. [CIEMAT (Spain)

    2005-08-18

    In the past years research in the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) area has been focusing its efforts on the utilisation of natural gas as fuel (S. Geitmann, Wasserstoff- & Brennstoffzellen-Projekte, 2002, ISBN 3-8311-3280-1). In order to increase the advantages of this technology, an international consortium has worked on the utilisation of biogas as fuel in MCFC. During the 4 years lasting RTD project EFFECTIVE two different gas upgrading systems have been developed and constructed together with two mobile MCFC test beds which were operated at different locations for approximately 2.000-5.000h in each run with biogas from different origins and quality. The large variety of test locations has enabled to gather a large database for assessing the effect of the different biogas qualities on the complete system consisting of the upgrading and the fuel cell systems. The findings are challenging. This article also aims at giving an overview of the advantages of using biogas as fuel for fuel cells. (author)

  20. Application System Architecture for Cellular Phones by Dividing Interaction Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Misayo; Todoroki, Nobutoshi; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Kojima, Taizo

    This paper describes application system architecture using cellular phones as user interface devices, which enables users to interact with the system by graphic symbols on a client screen. Our approach has the following features: (i) divided interaction logics running on a server and a Java phone client; both interaction logics cooperate to accomplish a user's operation using a simplified script, (ii) local interaction which enables users to handle figures on a client screen without connecting to a server, and (iii) device-independent script which hides the differences of API sets among various cellular phones. By using this architecture, complicated figures including lots of graphic symbols can be displayed in spite of program-size limitation on a client device, and application programs including same interaction logics are just described once for various cellular phones. Our experiments show the advantage of the local interaction. A client program can respond immediately when handling complicated figures. The ratio of requests to the server is reduced to 23%. It takes less than 9 seconds to display typical contents, which is good enough for practical use. This method also reduces development costs at the second development or later.

  1. Experiences of ocean literacy with different users of operational oceanography services and with high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Paola; Coppini, Giovanni; Martinelli, Sara; Bonarelli, Roberto; Lecci, Rita; Pinardi, Nadia; Cretì, Sergio; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Federico, Ivan; Mannarini, Gianandrea; Verri, Giorgia; Jansen, Eric; Lusito, Letizia; Macchia, Francesca; Montagna, Fabio; Buonocore, Mauro; Marra, Palmalisa; Tedesco, Luca; Cavallo, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    According to a common definition, ocean literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on people and people influence on the ocean. An ocean-literate person is able to make informed and responsible decisions regarding the ocean and its resources. To this aim, this paper presents operational oceanographic tools developed to meet the needs of different users, and activities performed in collaboration with high school students to support new developments of the same tools. Operational oceanography allows to deal with societal challenges such as maritime safety, coastal and marine environment management, climate change assessment and marine resources management. Oceanographic products from the European Copernicus Marine Monitoring Service - CMEMS are transformed and communicated to public and stakeholders through adding-value chains (downstreaming), which consider advanced visualization, usage of multi-channels technological platforms and specific models and algorithms. Sea Situational Awareness is strategically important for management and safety purposes of any marine domain and, in particular, the Mediterranean Sea and its coastal areas. Examples of applications for sea situational awareness and maritime safety are here presented, through user-friendly products available both by web and mobile channels (that already reach more than 100.000 users in the Mediterranean area). Further examples of ocean literacy are web bulletins used to communicate the technical contents and information related to oceanographic forecasts to a wide public. They are the result of a collaboration with high school students, with whom also other activities on improving products visualization and online communication have been performed.

  2. OPERATION STUDY OF DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL OPTIONS OF FLEXIBLE FLOWS FOR CAR REPAIR USING SIMULATION MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to improve the methods of car repair organization using the search of rational structures of flexible flows. Methodology. For operation analyses of the car repair flows the simulation modeling was used. The initial data for random value generation of cars repair duration are the statistical data. They were collected at the existing car repair enterprises. Findings. Obtained results show that at the same amount of modules the flexible repair flow is more efficient. Flexible flow increases the working capacity, improves the removal of cars from one module and reduces car detention time in repair. Originality. There were identified the mechanisms, which allow establishing links between the different structural variants of flexible flow and their operational performance. Concrete data that give a fresh look to the organization of car repair production were obtained. Practical value. These results can be used in designing the new perspective enterprises for car repair and also under reconstruction or expansion of existing enterprises in order to transfer them to the flexible flow. It is recommended to incorporate the obtained results and try to put them into production during designing and construction of new car enterprises.

  3. Impact of MSWI Bottom Ash Codisposed with MSW on Landfill Stabilization with Different Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bing Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI bottom ash (BA codisposed with municipal solid waste (MSW on landfill stabilization according to the leachate quality in terms of organic matter and nitrogen contents. Six simulated landfills, that is, three conventional and three recirculated, were employed with different ratios of MSWI BA to MSW. The results depicted that, after 275-day operation, the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 10 (V : V in the landfill was still not enough to provide sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity for a high organic matter composition of MSW over 45.5% (w/w, while the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V could act on it. Among the six experimental landfills, leachate quality only was improved in the landfill operated with the BA addition (the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V and leachate recirculation.

  4. Impact of MSWI bottom ash codisposed with MSW on landfill stabilization with different operational modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Bing; Yao, Jun; Malik, Zaffar; Zhou, Gen-Di; Dong, Ming; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) codisposed with municipal solid waste (MSW) on landfill stabilization according to the leachate quality in terms of organic matter and nitrogen contents. Six simulated landfills, that is, three conventional and three recirculated, were employed with different ratios of MSWI BA to MSW. The results depicted that, after 275-day operation, the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 10 (V : V) in the landfill was still not enough to provide sufficient acid-neutralizing capacity for a high organic matter composition of MSW over 45.5% (w/w), while the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V) could act on it. Among the six experimental landfills, leachate quality only was improved in the landfill operated with the BA addition (the ratio of MSWI BA to fresh refuse of 1 : 5 (V : V)) and leachate recirculation.

  5. Wideband unbalanced waveguide power dividers and combiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Matthew; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2016-05-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to waveguide dividers and waveguide combiners for application in radar systems, wireless communications, etc. Waveguide dividers-combiners can be manufactured in accordance with custom dimensions, as well as in accordance with waveguide standards such that the input and output ports are of a defined dimension and have a common impedance. Various embodiments are presented which can incorporate one or more septum(s), one or more pairs of septums, an iris, an input matching region, a notch located on the input waveguide arm, waveguide arms having stepped transformer regions, etc. The various divider configurations presented herein can be utilized in high fractional bandwidth applications, e.g., a fractional bandwidth of about 30%, and RF applications in the Ka frequency band (e.g., 26.5-40 GHz).

  6. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  7. Fully Electrical Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators with Contact Thermal Resistance Under Different Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siouane, Saima; Jovanović, Slaviša; Poure, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply electronic circuits by converting the waste thermal into electrical energy. This generated electrical power is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the TEG module's hot and cold sides. Depending on the applications, TEGs can be used either under constant temperature gradient between heat reservoirs or constant heat flow conditions. Moreover, the generated electrical power of a TEG depends not only on these operating conditions, but also on the contact thermal resistance. The influence of the contact thermal resistance on the generated electrical power have already been extensively reported in the literature. However, as reported in Park et al. (Energy Convers Manag 86:233, 2014) and Montecucco and Knox (IEEE Trans Power Electron 30:828, 2015), while designing TEG-powered circuit and systems, a TEG module is mostly modeled with a Thévenin equivalent circuit whose resistance is constant and voltage proportional to the temperature gradient applied to the TEG's terminals. This widely used simplified electrical TEG model is inaccurate and not suitable under constant heat flow conditions or when the contact thermal resistance is considered. Moreover, it does not provide realistic behaviour corresponding to the physical phenomena taking place in a TEG. Therefore, from the circuit designer's point of view, faithful and fully electrical TEG models under different operating conditions are needed. Such models are mainly necessary to design and evaluate the power conditioning electronic stages and the maximum power point tracking algorithms of a TEG power supply. In this study, these fully electrical models with the contact thermal resistance taken into account are presented and the analytical expressions of the Thévenin equivalent circuit parameters are provided.

  8. Fully Electrical Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators with Contact Thermal Resistance Under Different Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siouane, Saima; Jovanović, Slaviša; Poure, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply electronic circuits by converting the waste thermal into electrical energy. This generated electrical power is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the TEG module's hot and cold sides. Depending on the applications, TEGs can be used either under constant temperature gradient between heat reservoirs or constant heat flow conditions. Moreover, the generated electrical power of a TEG depends not only on these operating conditions, but also on the contact thermal resistance. The influence of the contact thermal resistance on the generated electrical power have already been extensively reported in the literature. However, as reported in Park et al. (Energy Convers Manag 86:233, 2014) and Montecucco and Knox (IEEE Trans Power Electron 30:828, 2015), while designing TEG-powered circuit and systems, a TEG module is mostly modeled with a Thévenin equivalent circuit whose resistance is constant and voltage proportional to the temperature gradient applied to the TEG's terminals. This widely used simplified electrical TEG model is inaccurate and not suitable under constant heat flow conditions or when the contact thermal resistance is considered. Moreover, it does not provide realistic behaviour corresponding to the physical phenomena taking place in a TEG. Therefore, from the circuit designer's point of view, faithful and fully electrical TEG models under different operating conditions are needed. Such models are mainly necessary to design and evaluate the power conditioning electronic stages and the maximum power point tracking algorithms of a TEG power supply. In this study, these fully electrical models with the contact thermal resistance taken into account are presented and the analytical expressions of the Thévenin equivalent circuit parameters are provided.

  9. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  10. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-01-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  11. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-05-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  12. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Jan A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of digita

  13. The electronic health record: a digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2007-10-01

    The gap between EHR adoption among larger providers versus adoption by smaller or rural providers has caused a "digital divide" that could threaten smaller providers' survival in the years ahead. Closing this gap will require the collective action of providers, payers, and government.

  14. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of

  15. Young People's Internet Use: Divided or Diversified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonaert, Tom; Vettenburg, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This article critically analyses research on young people's internet use. Based on a literature analysis, it examines which young people do what on the internet. These results invite a reflection on the dominant discourse on the digital divide. Within this discourse, there is a strong focus on the use of the internet for information purposes only,…

  16. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  17. In vivo accuracy of two electronic foramen locators based on different operation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de; Araújo, Rebeca Bastos Rocha; Silva, Francisco Cláudio Fernandes Alves e; Luna-Cruz, Suyane Maria; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Fernandes, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the accuracy of two electronic foramen locators (EFLs) based on different operation systems - Root ZX and Propex II. Ten healthy adult patients needing premolar extractions due to orthodontic reasons participated in the study, providing a sample of 17 noncarious, non-restored, vital teeth (n= 24 canals). After coronal access preparation and cervical preflaring and prior to tooth extraction, the root canal length was measured alternating the two EFLs. All measurements were performed with K-files well fitted to the canal diameter at the level that each EFL indicated the apical foramen in their display (APEX or 0.0). The last K-file were fixed in place with cyanoacrylate, the tooth was extracted, and the apical 4 mm of each root were resected to measure the distance between the file tip and the apical foramen. The mean errors based on the absolute values of discrepancies were 0.30 ± 0.29 mm (Root ZX) and 0.32 ± 0.27 mm (Propex II). Analysis by the Wilcoxon test for paired samples showed no statistically significant differences between the electronic canal measurements performed with the EFLs (p=0.587). The apical foramen was accurately located in 75% (Root ZX) and 66.7% (Propex II) of the cases, considering a ±0.5 mm error margin, with no statistically significant difference by the chi-square test. Despite having different measurement mechanisms, both EFLs were capable of locating the apical foramen with high accuracy in vivo. Under the tested clinical conditions, Root ZX and Propex II displayed similar results.

  18. ADMINISTRATION OF EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA IN OPERATIONS OF INGUINAL HERNIAS – COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT ANESTHETICS’ CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Todorović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In operations of inguinal hernias, different techniques of anesthesia administration are used, but in the last years, there has been a great interest in the local-regional anesthesia, primarily in epidural. The aim of the study was to ascertain the efficiency and safety of administration of minor anesthetics’ concentrations in epidural anesthesia in operations of inguinal hernias. The assessment of patient’s stability by monitoring of vital functions included: noninvasive measuring of blood pressure, pulse, ECG, respiratory frequency and diuresis. Also, in order to assess the effect of anesthetic action of lidocaine, we followed up the onset and ending of sensory blockade, motor blockade, pain intensity during surgical intervention with the use of VAS.There was no statistically significant difference regarding the onset and ending of sensory blockade between greater (20 ml 2% lidocaine and minor concentrations (20 ml 1,5% lidocaine administered epidurally. However, all the examinees to whom 2% lidocaine was administered, had the motor blockade which occurred after 14,37 ±1,04 min, and was in duration of 110,45±13,20 min. Only 20% of patients to whom 1,5% lidocaine was administered had the motor blockade, in whom it occurred after 11,16± 2,02 min, and was in duration of 100,30 ±8,40 min.Systolic pressure significantly decreased between the fifth and tenth minute after 20 ml of 2% lidocaine administration compared to the group to whom 20 ml of 1,5% lidocaine was administered, with statistical significance (p<0,01. Also, we registered decrease in pulse frequency in both groups, as well as the fact that the patients to whom 20 ml of 2% lidocaine was administered, had to stay in bed longer in the postoperative period. Comparing other hemodynamic parameters, there was no statistically significant difference. We can conclude that minor concentrations of anesthetics can be efficient and safe to administer in epidural anesthesia, because they

  19. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Jason; Lombardi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-. biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25...... degrees C up to 55 degrees C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite...... to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d(-1) at room temperature that increased to 0.03-0.05 d(-1) at 37 degrees C and to 0.04-0.11 d(-1) at 55 degrees C. Overall...

  20. Application of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC Curves for Explosives Detection Using Different Sampling and Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimy Young

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reported for the first time are receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves constructed to describe the performance of a sorbent-coated disk, planar solid phase microextraction (PSPME unit for non-contact sampling of a variety of volatiles. The PSPME is coupled to ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs for the detection of volatile chemical markers associated with the presence of smokeless powders, model systems of explosives containing diphenylamine (DPA, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and nitroglycerin (NG as the target analytes. The performance of the PSPME-IMS was compared with the widely accepted solid-phase microextraction (SPME, coupled to a GC-MS. A set of optimized sampling conditions for different volume containers (1–45 L with various sample amounts of explosives, were studied in replicates (n = 30 to determine the true positive rates (TPR and false positive detection rates (FPR for the different scenarios. These studies were obtained in order to construct the ROC curves for two IMS instruments (a bench-top and field-portable system and a bench top GC-MS system in low and high clutter environments. Both static and dynamic PSPME sampling were studied in which 10–500 mg quantities of smokeless powders were detected within 10 min of static sampling and 1 min of dynamic sampling.

  1. Striatal lesions produce distinctive impairments in reaction time performance in two different operant chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasted, P J; Döbrössy, M D; Robbins, T W; Dunnett, S B

    1998-08-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in mediating voluntary movement. Excitotoxic striatal lesions in rats have previously been shown to impair the initiation but not the execution of movement in a choice reaction time task in an automated lateralised nose-poke apparatus (the "nine-hole box"). Conversely, when a conceptually similar reaction time task has been applied in a conventional operant chamber (or "Skinner box"), striatal lesions have been seen to impair the execution rather than the initiation of the lateralised movement. The present study was undertaken to compare directly these two results by training the same group of rats to perform a choice reaction time task in the two chambers and then comparing the effects of a unilateral excitotoxic striatal lesion in both chambers in parallel. Particular attention was paid to adopting similar parameters and contingencies in the control of the task in the two test chambers. After striatal lesions, the rats showed predominantly contralateral impairments in both tasks. However, they showed a deficit in reaction time in the nine-hole box but an apparent deficit in response execution in the Skinner box. This finding confirms the previous studies and indicates that differences in outcome are not simply attributable to procedural differences in the lesions, training conditions or tasks parameters. Rather, the pattern of reaction time deficit after striatal lesions depends critically on the apparatus used and the precise response requirements for each task.

  2. Treatment of oily wastewater by ultrafiltration: The effect of different operating and solution conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesampour, M

    2009-07-01

    In many industries, such as petroleum production, and the petrochemical, metal, food and cosmetics industries, wastewaters containing an emulsion of oil in water are often produced. The emulsions consist of water (up to 90%), oils (mineral, animal, vegetable and synthetic), surfactants and other contaminates. In view of its toxic nature and its deleterious effects on the surrounding environment (soil, water) such wastewater needs to be treated before release into natural water ways. Membrane-based processes have successfully been applied in industrial applications and are considered as possible candidates for the treatment of oily wastewaters. Easy operation, lower cost, and in some cases, the ability to reduce contaminants below existing pollution limits are the main advantages of these systems. The main drawback of membranes is flux decline due to fouling and concentration polarisation. The complexity of oil-containing systems demands complementary studies on issues related to the mitigation of fouling and concentration polarisation in membranebased ultrafiltration. In this thesis the effect of different operating conditions (factors) on ultrafiltration of oily water is studied. Important factors are normally correlated and, therefore, their effect should be studied simultaneously. This work uses a novel approach to study different operating conditions, like pressure, flow velocity, and temperature, and solution properties, like oil concentration (cutting oil, diesel, kerosene), pH, and salt concentration (CaCl{sub 2} and NaCl)) in the ultrafiltration of oily water, simultaneously and in a systematic way using an experimental design approach. A hypothesis is developed to describe the interaction between the oil drops, salt and the membrane surface. The optimum conditions for ultrafiltration and the contribution of each factor in the ultrafiltration of oily water are evaluated. It is found that the effect on permeate flux of the various factors studied strongly

  3. Examination of Factors that Influence the Operation Income and Expenditure Balance Difference Rate of 20 Educational Foundation Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hisato; Yano, Kouya; Nagasawa, Kaoko; Katou, Satoka; Yokota, Kuninobu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the operation income and expenditure balance ratio of school corporations running university hospitals by multiple regression analysis. 1. We conducted cluster analysis of the financial ratio and classified the school corporations into those running colleges and universities.2. We conducted multiple regression analysis using the operation income and expenditure balance ratio of the colleges as the variables and the Diagnosis Procedure Combination data as the explaining variables.3. The predictive expression was used for multiple regression analysis. 1. The school corporations were divided into those running universities (7), colleges (20) and others. The medical income ratio and the debt ratio were high and the student payment ratio was low in the colleges.2. The numbers of emergency care hospitalizations, operations, radiation therapies, and ambulance conveyances, and the complexity index had a positive influence on the operation income and expenditure balance ratio. On the other hand, the number of general anesthesia procedures, the cover rate index, and the emergency care index had a negative influence.3. The predictive expression was as follows.Operation income and expenditure balance ratio = 0.027 × number of emergency care hospitalizations + 0.005 × number of operations + 0.019 × number of radiation therapies + 0.007 × number of ambulance conveyances - 0.003 × number of general anesthesia procedures + 648.344 × complexity index - 5877.210 × cover rate index - 2746.415 × emergency care index - 38.647Conclusion: In colleges, the number of emergency care hospitalizations, the number of operations, the number of radiation therapies, and the number of ambulance conveyances and the complexity index were factors for gaining ordinary profit.

  4. Reliability of overbite depth indicator (ODI and anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI in the assessment of different vertical and sagittal dental malocclusions: a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Fatima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Differential diagnosis of skeletal and dental relationships is crucial for planning orthodontic treatment. Overbite depth indicator (ODI and anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI had been introduced in the past for assessment of vertical and sagittal jaw relationships, respectively. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability of ODI and APDI in overbite and Angle malocclusions, as well as assess their diagnostic reliability among males and females of different age groups. Material and Methods: This study was conducted using pretreatment dental casts and lateral cephalograms of 90 subjects. For ODI, subjects were divided into three groups based on overbite (normal overbite, open bite and deep bite. Likewise, the same subjects were divided for APDI into three groups, based on Angle's malocclusion classification (dental Class I, II and III malocclusions. Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparison of study parameters regarding sex and different age groups. The mean values of ODI and APDI were compared among study groups by means of Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunnet T3 tests. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was applied to test diagnostic reliability. Results: Insignificant differences were found for ODI and APDI angles, particularly in regards to sex and age. Significant intergroup differences were found in different overbite groups and Angle's classification for ODI and APDI, respectively (p < 0.001. ROC showed 91% and 88% constancy with dental pattern in ODI and APDI, respectively. Conclusions: ODI can reliably differentiate deep bite versus normal overbite and deep bite versus open bite. APDI can reliably differentiate dental Class I, II and III malocclusions.

  5. Different strategies for transient-state operation of a biotrickling filter treating toluene vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinejad, Abbas; Zamir, Seyed Morteza; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Biotrickling filters (BTFs) are often subjected to transient-state operation due to different variations in the operation of industrial-scale sources of pollution. In this research, performance of a laboratory-scale BTF packed with pall ring and pumice (1:1 v/v) and inoculated with Ralstonia eutropha was evaluated for the treatment of toluene vapor under various transient conditions. The experiments were performed at empty bed residence times (EBRTs) of 45 and 90 s and toluene inlet concentration in the range of 0.5-4 g m(-3). The transient-state experiments consisted of a sudden increase in inlet gas concentration, sudden change of trickling liquid rate, intermittent loading for 10 h day(-1), aeration without toluene loading during shutdown periods, and long-term starvation. The maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) was 280 g m(-3) h(-1) under continuous loading. The removal efficiency (RE) reached 90 % in intermittent loading experiments at toluene inlet concentration of 3 g m(-3) in less than 1 h after loading initiation. RE dropped to 50 % due to 4.5-fold increase in the inlet loading rate (ILR) during shock load experiment. The system became completely active after 24 h, when the BTF was subjected to a long-term starvation period for 7 days. The results showed that aeration at non-toluene loading periods could improve the BTF performance under intermittent loading condition.

  6. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  7. Engineering the Divide-and-Conquer Closest Pair Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-hui Jiang; Joel gillespie

    2007-01-01

    We improve the famous divide-and-conquer algorithm by Bentley and Shamos for the planar closest-pair problem. For n points on the plane, our algorithm keeps the optimal O(n log n) time complexity and, using a circle-packing property, computes at most 7n/2 Euclidean distances, which improves Ge et al.'s bound of (3n log n)/2 Euclidean distances. We present experimental results of our comparative studies on four different versions of the divide-and-conquer closest pair algorithm and propose two effective heuristics.

  8. Transformer-based design techniques for oscillators and frequency dividers

    CERN Document Server

    Luong, Howard Cam

    2016-01-01

    This book provides in-depth coverage of transformer-based design techniques that enable CMOS oscillators and frequency dividers to achieve state-of-the-art performance.  Design, optimization, and measured performance of oscillators and frequency dividers for different applications are discussed in detail, focusing on not only ultra-low supply voltage but also ultra-wide frequency tuning range and locking range.  This book will be an invaluable reference for anyone working or interested in CMOS radio-frequency or mm-Wave integrated circuits and systems.

  9. Divided or kissing nevus of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Carolyn A; Tieu, Kathy D

    2013-10-16

    The divided or kissing nevus is an unusual congenital melanocytic nevus. By definition, these nevi appear on skin that separates during embryological development. These lesions have been reported on the eyelids, fingers, and rarely the penis. We describe an 18 year old uncircumcised male who presented with an asymptomatic darkly pigmented patch on the glans penis. He reported that the lesion had appeared recently and was enlarging. Physical examination revealed a second symmetric lesion on the adjacent foreskin. Punch biopsy of the lesion on the glans penis showed abundant intradermal melanocytes devoid of mitoses and atypia, consistent with an intradermal melanocytic nevus. Based on the benign histologic nature and clinical exam, the lesion was diagnosed as a divided or kissing nevus of the penis. Proposed treatments include excision and grafting as well as Nd:YAG laser therapy. However, these patients may be safely monitored with regular follow-up skin examinations because there is minimal risk of malignant transformation.

  10. Divided libraries remodeling management to unify institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, TD

    2012-01-01

    Given the highly trained library workforce now available and the vast and growing array of packaging information and knowledge, libraries have the capacity to become pre-eminent places of learning, research, and teaching. Yet, despite this potential, libraries remain divided from their constituencies and their governing bodies, be they students, faculties, university administrations, municipal governments, or ordinary citizens. Indeed, many modern university administrators, viewing librarians as ancillary citizens in academe, have allowed their libraries to wither under the burden of shrinking

  11. Nursing's divided loyalties: an historical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, E D

    1989-01-01

    Using the historical version of the case study method, this research explored an example of turn-of-the-century nurses' conflicted loyalties. One training school alumnae association was examined to demonstrate that nurses acted out simultaneous loyalty to competing entities: individual graduates attributes vs. associational eligibility requirements; member vs. institutions' needs; and local vs. national nursing concerns. As a result of these divided loyalties, the nurses did not meet the alumnae organizational goals they set for themselves.

  12. Trace Formulas and Borg-Type Theorems for Matrix-Valued Jacobi and Dirac Finite Difference Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Steve; Gesztesy, Fritz; Renger, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Borg-type uniqueness theorems for matrix-valued Jacobi operators H and supersymmetric Dirac difference operators D are proved. More precisely, assuming reflectionless matrix coefficients A, B in the self-adjoint Jacobi operator H=AS^+ + A^-S^- + B (with S^\\pm the right/left shift operators on the lattice Z) and the spectrum of H to be a compact interval [E_-,E_+], E_- < E_+, we prove that A and B are certain multiples of the identity matrix. An analogous result which, however, displays a cert...

  13. Self-organization of divided hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kitada, Keigo; Omizo, Kenta; Fujie, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    There are two types of extreme form of hierarchy, one is the plutonomy where small fraction of winners and losers and many people in the middle class appear and the other a divided hierarchy where half of population become winners and the remaining half become losers. We study the emergence of the divided hierarchy in a model society which consists of bellicose individuals who always try to fight and fight with the strongest neighbor and pacific individuals who always try not to fight and when necessary fight with the weakest neighbor. In our model society, (1) individuals make random walk on a square lattice, (2) when two individuals encounter they fight each other and (3) the winner deprives wealth from the loser. By a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that there are two transitions when the population density is increased; one is a transition from the egalitarian society to a hierarchical society I where winners, losers and middle classes coexist and the other is a transition from the hierarchical society I to a hierarchical society II where winners and losers exist but no middle classes exist, that is the divided hierarchy. We also show that clusters consisting mostly of bellicose individuals appear in the hierarchical society I.

  14. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  15. Splicing the Divide: A Review of Research on the Evolving Digital Divide among K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The digital divide has narrowed with regard to one definition of access to technology--the binary view of the "haves" and "have-nots." However, use of technology at home and in school is not equitable for all students. According to recent literature, a broader and more nuanced definition of the technological divide is necessary…

  16. Operant serial feature-positive conditional discrimination with composite features and different topography responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.O. Bueno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In a serial feature-positive conditional discrimination procedure the properties of a target stimulus A are defined by the presence or not of a feature stimulus X preceding it. In the present experiment, composite features preceded targets associated with two different topography operant responses (right and left bar pressing; matching and non-matching-to-sample arrangements were also used. Five water-deprived Wistar rats were trained in 6 different trials: X-R®Ar and X-L®Al, in which X and A were same modality visual stimuli and the reinforcement was contingent to pressing either the right (r or left (l bar that had the light on during the feature (matching-to-sample; Y-R®Bl and Y-L®Br, in which Y and B were same modality auditory stimuli and the reinforcement was contingent to pressing the bar that had the light off during the feature (non-matching-to-sample; A- and B- alone. After 100 training sessions, the animals were submitted to transfer tests with the targets used plus a new one (auditory click. Average percentages of stimuli with a response were measured. Acquisition occurred completely only for Y-L®Br+; however, complex associations were established along training. Transfer was not complete during the tests since concurrent effects of extinction and response generalization also occurred. Results suggest the use of both simple conditioning and configurational strategies, favoring the most recent theories of conditional discrimination learning. The implications of the use of complex arrangements for discussing these theories are considered.

  17. Performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Abdelhakeem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSSFCW for sewage effluent treatment was studied in an eight month experiment under different operational conditions including: vegetation (the presence or absence of common reeds “Phragmites australis”, media type (gravel or vermiculite, and mode of sewage feeding (continuous or batch. Plants had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the removal efficiency and mass removal rate of all pollutants, except phosphorous. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, ammonium (NH4 and total-P (TP were 75%, 84%, 75%, 32% and 22% for the planted beds compared to 29%, 37%, 42%, 26% and 17%, respectively, for the unplanted beds. The VSSFCW was ineffective in removing nitrate (NO3. The effect of either media type or feeding mode system on the removal efficiency of COD and BOD was insignificant. Vermiculite media significantly (P < 0.05 increased the efficiency of the wetland in removing NH4, TP and dissolved phosphorous (DP when compared with gravel particularly in the planted beds. The batch mode was more effective in removing TSS and NH4 compared to the continuous mode. Volumetric rate constant (kV was different for various pollutants and significantly increased due to the presence of plants. Media type had no significant effect on the values of kV for COD, BOD and TSS, while kV for NH4 and TP under vermiculite in the planted beds and kV for P in the unplanted beds were significantly higher than those under gravel.

  18. Measurement of peak impact loads differ between accelerometers - Effects of system operating range and sampling rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebart, Christina; Giangregorio, Lora M; Gibbs, Jenna C; Levine, Iris C; Tung, James; Laing, Andrew C

    2017-06-14

    A wide variety of accelerometer systems, with differing sensor characteristics, are used to detect impact loading during physical activities. The study examined the effects of system characteristics on measured peak impact loading during a variety of activities by comparing outputs from three separate accelerometer systems, and by assessing the influence of simulated reductions in operating range and sampling rate. Twelve healthy young adults performed seven tasks (vertical jump, box drop, heel drop, and bilateral single leg and lateral jumps) while simultaneously wearing three tri-axial accelerometers including a criterion standard laboratory-grade unit (Endevco 7267A) and two systems primarily used for activity-monitoring (ActiGraph GT3X+, GCDC X6-2mini). Peak acceleration (gmax) was compared across accelerometers, and errors resulting from down-sampling (from 640 to 100Hz) and range-limiting (to ±6g) the criterion standard output were characterized. The Actigraph activity-monitoring accelerometer underestimated gmax by an average of 30.2%; underestimation by the X6-2mini was not significant. Underestimation error was greater for tasks with greater impact magnitudes. gmax was underestimated when the criterion standard signal was down-sampled (by an average of 11%), range limited (by 11%), and by combined down-sampling and range-limiting (by 18%). These effects explained 89% of the variance in gmax error for the Actigraph system. This study illustrates that both the type and intensity of activity should be considered when selecting an accelerometer for characterizing impact events. In addition, caution may be warranted when comparing impact magnitudes from studies that use different accelerometers, and when comparing accelerometer outputs to osteogenic impact thresholds proposed in literature. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  20. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-Ion Battery Packs in Hybrid Refuse Truck Operating at Different Ambient Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures.......This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat dissipation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the peak temperature in Lithium-ion batteries during discharging operation of a hybrid truck under different ambient temperatures....

  1. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan

    2013-06-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Enabling analysis: Across the development divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rosenhead

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available It is argued in this paper that a least certain strands of operational research (OR carried out in less developed countries have intriguing similarities with community operational research. It follows that community OR, which is still short of accounts of actual practice, might learn from OR aimed at promoting the self-reliance of communities in developing countries. The paper starts with community operational research - its origin, nature, clientele, and methods. This is followed by a parallel discussion of the characteristics of operational research aligned with third-world community development. A final section explores the common themes between the two literatures and practices.

  3. Winding Capacitance Dividing Method for Powerformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Qing; LIN Xiang-ning; LI Jian-jian; TAO Yong-hong

    2008-01-01

    It presents a method which can equivalently arrange the capacitance distribution along with the winding ofthe generator on the terminal and neutral respectively in a reasonable partition, particularly for a type of high-voltagegraded insulated cable wound generator, Powerformer. The winding of the Powerformer adopts graded insulation,which leads to the various cable thicknesses in different portion of the winding, and thus, the uneven capacitancedistribution. The large capacitive currents and large transient outrush currents resulting from the cable consisting ofthe stator winding of Powerformer may cause problems to the generator differential protection. Most of literatures a-vailable in the field of compensated differential protection focus on the charging current compensation for long trans-mission line, instead of for generator. The authors give a method which can be used to compensate the capacitivecurrent wholly to improve the reliability of the differential protection of Powerformer. It is proved that the distribu-ted capacitance can be equivalent as the lump circuit with a capacitance partition coefficient p, and p is proved as aconstant no matter whether the generator experiences the normal operation, external phase(s) fault or internal phase(s) fault. The formula of the partition coefficient is provided and the corresponding equivalent circuit of the Power-former cable to calculate capacitance currents is given. An analysis programming resolving the minimum value of thecoefficient p is written in MATLAB 7. 0/m according to this formula, using the function fmincon() which can workin any type of constraint condition. The program always gets the same global minimum points under the different in-itial values condition which proves our point by mathematical test. With this new approach to winding capacitancedividing method, the protection scheme used for Powerformer can be validated and improved accordingly.

  4. Accuracy of five electronic foramen locators with different operating systems: an ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Carvalho de Vasconcelos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, the precision of five electronic root canal length measurement devices (ERCLMDs with different operating systems: the Root ZX, Mini Apex Locator, Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15, and the possible influence of the positioning of the instrument tips short of the apical foramen. Material and Methods: Forty-two mandibular bicuspids had their real canal lengths (RL previously determined. Electronic measurements were performed 1.0 mm short of the apical foramen (-1.0, followed by measurements at the apical foramen (0.0. The data resulting from the comparison of the ERCLMD measurements and the RL were evaluated by the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests at a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering the measurements performed at 0.0 and -1.0, the precision rates for the ERCLMDs were: 73.5% and 47.1% (Root ZX, 73.5% and 55.9% (Mini Apex Locator, 67.6% and 41.1% (Propex II, 61.7% and 44.1% (iPex, and 79.4% and 44.1% (RomiApex A-15, respectively, considering ±0.5 mm of tolerance. Regarding the mean discrepancies, no differences were observed at 0.0; however, in the measurements at -1.0, the iPex, a multi-frequency ERCLMD, had significantly more discrepant readings short of the apical foramen than the other devices, except for the Propex II, which had intermediate results. When the ERCLMDs measurements at -1.0 were compared with those at 0.0, the Propex II, iPex and RomiApex A-15 presented significantly higher discrepancies in their readings. Conclusions: Under the conditions of the present study, all the ERCLMDs provided acceptable measurements at the 0.0 position. However, at the -1.0 position, the ERCLMDs had a lower precision, with statistically significant differences for the Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15.

  5. Influence of different operating conditions on irrigation uniformity with microperforated tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Pizani, María Alejandra; Jesús Farías Ramírez, Asdrúbal

    2013-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture is a safe alternative to meet the growing demand for food. Numerous studies show that proper management of localized irrigation can increase crop yields and reduce soil salinization. Therefore, periodic field systems irrigation assessments are needed in order to optimize the use efficiency of irrigation water, as well as, to increase the agricultural area covered by the same amount of water and to reduce the environmental impact. It was assessed the behavior of micro perforated tapes under different operating conditions, crops and regions of Venezuela. Evaluations were made on irrigated areas using Santeno ® Type I tape with the following crops: Banana (Musa sp), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L) and forage sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). In the other hand, Santeno ® Type II tape was used with papaya (Carica papaya L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.) crops (the last crop using inverted irrigation tape). The procedures used for sampling and determining the uniformity indices of the system were performed using a series of adjustments to the methodology proposed by Keller and Karmeli (1975), Deniculi (1980) and De Santa and De Juan (1993), in order to increase the number of observations as a function of irrigation time. The calculated irrigation uniformity indices were as follow: Distribution Coefficient (UD), Uniformity Coefficient (CUC), Coefficient of Variation of Flows (CV) and Statistical Uniformity Coefficient (Us). The indices characterization was made according to Merrian and Keller (1978); Bralts (1986); Pizarro (1990) y ASAE (1996), respectively. The results showed that the irrigation uniformity for the evaluated systems varied from excellent to unacceptable, mainly due to the lack of maintenance and the absent of manometric connectors. Among the findings, it is possible to highlight the need for technical support to farmers, both in the installation, management and maintenance of irrigation systems. In this sense

  6. The private – public law divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve Jeppesen-de Boer, Christina; Kronborg, Annette; Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2013-01-01

    to a particular societal institution. Marriage as an institution has been individualized and the goodness of the family has to relate to the well-being of the individuals instead. This article shows that within this historical development the private-public law divide has not been seriously challenged......In a Scandinavian perspective, the family and the individual have changed places during the 20th Century. Today, the law takes its starting point in the individual - not in the family. A consequence of this development is that it is no longer legally possible to relate the good family...

  7. Eigenvalue-eigenfunction problem for Steklov's smoothing operator and differential-difference equations of mixed type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei I. Iakovlev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that any \\(\\mu \\in \\mathbb{C}\\ is an infinite multiplicity eigenvalue of the Steklov smoothing operator \\(S_h\\ acting on the space \\(L^1_{loc}(\\mathbb{R}\\. For \\(\\mu \

  8. Operation of static and flowing Cs DPAL with different buffer gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, R. J.; Zhdanov, B. V.; Rotondaro, M. T.; Shaffer, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    Cs DPAL operation using Ethane, Methane and mixtures of these hydrocarbons with noble gases He and Ar as a buffer gases for spin-orbit relaxation was studied in this work. The best Cs DPAL performance in continuous wave operation with flowing gain medium was achieved using pure Methane, pure Ethane or a mixture of Ethane (minimum of 200 Torr) and He with a total buffer gas pressure of 300 torr.

  9. Impact analysis of different operation strategies for battery energy storage systems (BESS) providing primary control reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Fleer, Johannes; Stenzel, Peter; Linssen, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a techno-economic analysis of stationary battery systems providing primary control for grid stabilisation is conducted. The effects of battery design and operation strategies adapted for primary control supply are investigated with regard to costs and parameters relevant for battery aging. Primary control is required to balance the feed-in and use of electricity to/from the grid, thereby ensuring safe and stable grid operation. In Germany, primary control is traded on a separate...

  10. Effects of ethanol on combustion and emissions of a gasoline engine operating with different combustion modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ojapah, MM; Zhao, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of fuel economy and CO2 emission legislations for passenger cars in many countries and regions has spurred the research and development of more efficient gasoline engines. The pumping loss at part-load operations is a major factor for the higher fuel consumption of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines than the diesel engines. Various approaches have been identified to reduce the pumping loss at part-load operations, leading to improved fuel economy, including Early Intake Val...

  11. Media Literacy in Times of Media Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Žuran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a post-modern society, an information society, a society based around knowledge and participation, and above all in a media society. In a media culture where media holds a dominant position, we cannot overlook the emerging idea of a ‘media divide’ within the frame of media education, media literate individuals and the expansion of the traditional concept of media literacy. Firstly, we are in an era of technological revolution, and it is time to consider the meaning and function of media and how we experience it in our everyday life. Secondly, as a society we are subject to intense media invasion and we all need to learn how to use it to our benefit and apply a critical and autonomous perspective towards selecting media content. Otherwise the media divide between the media literate and illiterate will widen; but is there even a chance to overcome the supposed divide between those who are formally media educated and those who are not?

  12. Traffic Prediction Based on SVM Training Sample Divided by Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the volume of traffic is rapidly increasing. When vehicles running through the tunnel are more intensive or move slowly, the tunnel environment occurs deteriorated sharply, which affects the normal operation of the vehicle in the tunnel. This paper uses the result of previous mining association rules to select feature items and to establish four training samples divided by time. Then the training samples are utilized to create the SVM classification model. Finally the trained SVM model is used to prediction the tunnel traffic situation. Through traffic situation prediction, effective decisions can be made before traffic jams, and ensure that the tunnel traffic is normal.  

  13. Methodical Approaches to Creation of Dividing Automation at Industrial Enterprises with Generating Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kalentionok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to creation of dividing automation at industrial enterprises which have their own generating plants. Algorithms for action of dividing automation that permit to ensure minimum possible power non-balance while using generating plants for autonomous operation and possible parameters for its response are proposed in the paper.

  14. STIM1 and STIM2 proteins differently regulate endogenous store-operated channels in HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalygin, Alexey; Skopin, Anton; Kalinina, Vera; Zimina, Olga; Glushankova, Lyuba; Mozhayeva, Galina N; Kaznacheyeva, Elena

    2015-02-20

    The endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensors stromal interaction molecules 1 and 2 (STIM1 and STIM2) are key modulators of store-operated calcium entry. Both these sensors play a major role in physiological functions in normal tissue and in pathology, but available data on native STIM2-regulated plasma membrane channels are scarce. Only a few studies have recorded STIM2-induced CRAC (calcium release-activated calcium) currents. On the other hand, many cell types display store-operated currents different from CRAC. The STIM1 protein regulates not only CRAC but also transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels, but it has remained unclear whether STIM2 is capable of regulating store-operated non-CRAC channels. Here we present for the first time experimental evidence for the existence of endogenous non-CRAC STIM2-regulated channels. As shown in single-channel patch clamp experiments on HEK293 cells, selective activation of native STIM2 proteins or STIM2 overexpression results in store-operated activation of Imin channels, whereas STIM1 activation blocks this process. Changes in the ratio between active STIM2 and STIM1 proteins can switch the regulation of Imin channels between store-operated and store-independent modes. We have previously characterized electrophysiological properties of different Ca(2+) influx channels coexisting in HEK293 cells. The results of this study show that STIM1 and STIM2 differ in the ability to activate these store-operated channels; Imin channels are regulated by STIM2, TRPC3-containing INS channels are induced by STIM1, and TRPC1-composed Imax channels are activated by both STIM1 and STIM2. These new data about cross-talk between STIM1 and STIM2 and their different roles in store-operated channel activation are indicative of an additional level in the regulation of store-operated calcium entry pathways.

  15. Effects of sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community diversity on H2S emission behavior in landfills with different operation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Du, Yao; Hu, Lifang; Xu, Jing; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the major contributors to offensive odors from landfills, and its concentration differs under different operation modes. This study examined the distribution of H2S emission from different landfill depths under different operation modes (anaerobic, semi-aerobic, semi-aerobic transformation, and the three operation modes with additional leachate recirculation). The microbial community (especially the sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community) was investigated using high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the semi-aerobic mode could substantially lower the risks of H2S pollution in landfills, which might be because of the difference in biological processes related to sulfur metabolism driven by functional microbes. A myriad of factors are responsible for mutually shaping the sulfur-metabolizing bacterial community composition in landfills that might subsequently affect the behavior of H2S emission in landfills. The differences in abundance of the genera Acinetobacter and Paracoccus (phylum Proteobacteria) caused by environmental factors might explain the differences in H2S emission. H2S odor control could be realized if the related functional microbe diversity can be influenced by adjustments to landfill operation.

  16. DIGITAL DIVIDE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu HERMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate that income, education and infrastructure play a critical role in shaping the divide. The global challenge for the new millennium is to build a society where everyone can access and shareinformation. A fully integrated digital world has become a reality, and all segments of society must embrace it in order to be contributing partners to future success in the EU. As they are fast becoming an essential tool for economic activity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT became a vital engine of economic performance. The problem, however, is that in many countries technological diffusion is obstructed by the limited capacity of networks to carry large amounts of knowledge swiftly and the limited access of individuals even to networks in which knowledge products are minimal.

  17. Library outreach: addressing Utah's "Digital Divide".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, K M

    2000-10-01

    A "Digital Divide" in information and technological literacy exists in Utah between small hospitals and clinics in rural areas and the larger health care institutions in the major urban area of the state. The goals of the outreach program of the Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library at the University of Utah address solutions to this disparity in partnership with the National Network of Libraries of Medicine-- Midcontinental Region, the Utah Department of Health, and the Utah Area Health Education Centers. In a circuit-rider approach, an outreach librarian offers classes and demonstrations throughout the state that teach information-access skills to health professionals. Provision of traditional library services to unaffiliated health professionals is integrated into the library's daily workload as a component of the outreach program. The paper describes the history, methodology, administration, funding, impact, and results of the program.

  18. Droplets spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers under different environmental and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson S. Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During pesticide spraying, the psychrometric conditions of the air may cause evaporation of the droplets along their trajectory from the nozzle to the target. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air psychrometric conditions and operating pressure on the droplet spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers. The test was performed using a prototype equipped with an axial fan, a flow homogenizer, temperature and relative air humidity sensors, a spray nozzle and a gas-heating system to warm up the airflow. With the assembled system and the aid of a particle analyser, the JSF 11002 spray nozzle was evaluated with respect to droplet spectrum in four air psychrometric conditions (7, 14, 21 and 28 hPa and at four operating pressures (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa. At the end, evaporation losses were observed during the sprayings. For a given operating pressure and for each increment of 1 hPa in vapor pressure deficit, there was a diameter reduction of approximately 0.0759, 0.518 and 1.514 μm for the parameters DV0.1, DV0.5 and DV0.9, respectively. The diameter of the droplets decreased as the operating pressure increased.

  19. Evaluation of different design space description methods for analysing combustion engine operation limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years large efforts have been made in developing and optimising modelling techniques for DoE usage in engine calibration. A prerequisite for optimally applying DoE test designs is the detailed knowledge of the engine’s operating boundaries enclosing the ‘design space’. Known boundar

  20. A Comparative Empirical Study for the Different Approaches of the Operational Leases Capitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henraat, D.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Kalantonis, P.; Rodosthenous, M.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the 1960's there has been debate about the impact of disclosure versus recognition of operating leases. The topic was interesting for preparers of financial statements, users of financial statements, as well as for regulators. Much research has been conducted to assess the impact of capit

  1. Differential reinforcement and resistance to change of divided-attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Thrailkill, Eric; Shahan, Timothy A

    2012-06-01

    Behavioral momentum theory provides a framework for understanding how conditions of reinforcement influence instrumental response strength under conditions of disruption (i.e., resistance to change). The present experiment examined resistance to change of divided-attention performance when different overall probabilities of reinforcement were arranged across two components of a multiple schedule. Pigeons responded in a delayed-matching-to-sample procedure with compound samples (color + line orientation) and element comparisons (two colors or two line orientations). Reinforcement ratios of 1:9, 1:1, and 9:1 for accurate matches on the two types of comparison trials were examined across conditions using reinforcement probabilities (color/lines) of .9/.1, .5/.5, and .1/.9 in the rich component and .18/.02, .1/.1, and .02/.18 in the lean component. Relative accuracy with color and line comparisons was an orderly function of relative reinforcement, but this relation did not depend on the overall rate of reinforcement between components. The resistance to change of divided-attention performance was greater for both trial types in the rich component with presession feeding and extinction, but not with decreases in sample duration. These findings suggest promise for the applicability of quantitative models of operant behavior to divided-attention performance, but they highlight the need to further explore conditions impacting the resistance to change of attending.

  2. A Comparison of Different Operating Systems for Femtosecond Lasers in Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of femtosecond lasers is potentially a major shift in the way we approach cataract surgery. The development of increasingly sophisticated intraocular lenses (IOLs, coupled with heightened patient expectation of high quality postsurgical visual outcomes, has generated the need for a more precise, highly reproducible and standardized method to carry out cataract operations. As femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS becomes more commonplace in surgical centers, further evaluation of the potential risks and benefits needs to be established, particularly in the medium/long term effects. Healthcare administrators will also have to weigh and balance out the financial costs of these lasers relative to the advantages they put forth. In this review, we provide an operational overview of three of five femtosecond laser platforms that are currently commercially available: the Catalys (USA, the Victus (USA, and the LDV Z8 (Switzerland.

  3. A Comparison of Different Operating Systems for Femtosecond Lasers in Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B M; Williams, G P; Tan, A; Mehta, J S

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of femtosecond lasers is potentially a major shift in the way we approach cataract surgery. The development of increasingly sophisticated intraocular lenses (IOLs), coupled with heightened patient expectation of high quality postsurgical visual outcomes, has generated the need for a more precise, highly reproducible and standardized method to carry out cataract operations. As femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) becomes more commonplace in surgical centers, further evaluation of the potential risks and benefits needs to be established, particularly in the medium/long term effects. Healthcare administrators will also have to weigh and balance out the financial costs of these lasers relative to the advantages they put forth. In this review, we provide an operational overview of three of five femtosecond laser platforms that are currently commercially available: the Catalys (USA), the Victus (USA), and the LDV Z8 (Switzerland).

  4. The Integrated National Police in Philippine Counterinsurgency Operations -- The Great Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Controlling Office) I5. SECURITY CLASS. (of title report) Unclassified/ ISa. OECL ASSI FICATION/ DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE - 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of...34 2. *The Integrated National Police In Retrospect, The C/INP Journal_1 July-August 1983. 4. Kit G. Machado , "Politics and Dispute-Processing In the...Association, 1972. 4. Hutchinson, S., "The Police Role In Counter-Insurgency Operations," RUSI Journal, 1969. S. Machado , Kit 0., "Politics and Dispute

  5. Ulnar impaction syndrome with different operative methods: a comparative biomechanical study

    OpenAIRE

    YU, YA-DONG; Wu, Tao; Tian, Fang-Tao; Shang, Yun-Tao; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Bai, Yan-Bin; Han, Chang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ulnar impaction syndrome seriously impairs wrist and hand function. Three main treatment procedures are available; however, little systematic research on the post-operation changes in wrist biomechanics currently exists. This study aimed to determine the long-term effects of these procedures and the optimal treatment methods for ulnar impaction syndrome. Methods: Twenty-four cases of fresh upper limb specimens were randomized into four groups: (1) the control group, (2) the ulnar-s...

  6. Electrosurgical Smoke: Ultrafine Particle Measurements and Work Environment Quality in Different Operating Theatres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Francesco; Gustén, Jan; De Antonellis, Stefano; Joppolo, Cesare M.

    2017-01-01

    Air cleanliness in operating theatres (OTs) is an important factor for preserving the health of both the patient and the medical staff. Particle contamination in OTs depends mainly on the surgery process, ventilation principle, personnel clothing systems and working routines. In many open surgical operations, electrosurgical tools (ESTs) are used for tissue cauterization. ESTs generate a significant airborne contamination, as surgical smoke. Surgical smoke is a work environment quality problem. Ordinary surgical masks and OT ventilation systems are inadequate to control this problem. This research work is based on numerous monitoring campaigns of ultrafine particle concentrations in OTs, equipped with upward displacement ventilation or with a downward unidirectional airflow system. Measurements performed during ten real surgeries highlight that the use of ESTs generates a quite sharp and relevant increase of particle concentration in the surgical area as well within the entire OT area. The measured contamination level in the OTs are linked to surgical operation, ventilation principle, and ESTs used. A better knowledge of airborne contamination is crucial for limiting the personnel’s exposure to surgical smoke. Research results highlight that downward unidirectional OTs can give better conditions for adequate ventilation and contaminant removal performances than OTs equipped with upward displacement ventilation systems. PMID:28146089

  7. Co-operative versus independent transport of different cargoes by Kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jennetta W; Griffin, Kelly; Jih, Gloria T; Stuckey, Jeanne; Verhey, Kristen J

    2008-05-01

    Kinesin motors drive the intracellular transport of multiple cargoes along microtubule tracks; yet, how kinesins discriminate among their many potential cargoes is unknown. We tested whether Kinesin-1 cargoes compete, co-operate or are transported independently of each other. We focused on Kinesin-1 cargoes that bind directly to the kinesin light chain (KLC) subunit, namely the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-interacting proteins (JIPs) 1 and 3, Kidins220/ARMS and PAT1. Overexpression of individual cargo proteins in differentiated CAD cells resulted in mislocalization of the endogenous protein but had no effect on localization of other cargo proteins to neurite tips. Thus, while transport of distinct cargoes is saturable, they do not compete with each other. Interestingly, we found that low expression of JIP1 or JIP3 enhanced the transport of the other JIP to neurite tips. Moreover, JIP1 and JIP3 require each other for transport. Co-operative transport is due to an interaction between JIP1 and JIP3 as well as distinct binding sites on the KLC tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) bundle: the TPR groove binds to C-terminal residues of JIP1, whereas the TPR surface binds to internal residues in JIP3. Formation of a JIP1/JIP3/KLC complex is necessary for efficient JIP1 or JIP3 transport in neuronal cells. Thus, JIP scaffolding proteins are transported in a co-operative manner, despite the independent transport of other Kinesin-1 cargoes.

  8. Electrosurgical Smoke: Ultrafine Particle Measurements and Work Environment Quality in Different Operating Theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Romano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air cleanliness in operating theatres (OTs is an important factor for preserving the health of both the patient and the medical staff. Particle contamination in OTs depends mainly on the surgery process, ventilation principle, personnel clothing systems and working routines. In many open surgical operations, electrosurgical tools (ESTs are used for tissue cauterization. ESTs generate a significant airborne contamination, as surgical smoke. Surgical smoke is a work environment quality problem. Ordinary surgical masks and OT ventilation systems are inadequate to control this problem. This research work is based on numerous monitoring campaigns of ultrafine particle concentrations in OTs, equipped with upward displacement ventilation or with a downward unidirectional airflow system. Measurements performed during ten real surgeries highlight that the use of ESTs generates a quite sharp and relevant increase of particle concentration in the surgical area as well within the entire OT area. The measured contamination level in the OTs are linked to surgical operation, ventilation principle, and ESTs used. A better knowledge of airborne contamination is crucial for limiting the personnel’s exposure to surgical smoke. Research results highlight that downward unidirectional OTs can give better conditions for adequate ventilation and contaminant removal performances than OTs equipped with upward displacement ventilation systems.

  9. Electrosurgical Smoke: Ultrafine Particle Measurements and Work Environment Quality in Different Operating Theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Francesco; Gustén, Jan; De Antonellis, Stefano; Joppolo, Cesare M

    2017-01-30

    Air cleanliness in operating theatres (OTs) is an important factor for preserving the health of both the patient and the medical staff. Particle contamination in OTs depends mainly on the surgery process, ventilation principle, personnel clothing systems and working routines. In many open surgical operations, electrosurgical tools (ESTs) are used for tissue cauterization. ESTs generate a significant airborne contamination, as surgical smoke. Surgical smoke is a work environment quality problem. Ordinary surgical masks and OT ventilation systems are inadequate to control this problem. This research work is based on numerous monitoring campaigns of ultrafine particle concentrations in OTs, equipped with upward displacement ventilation or with a downward unidirectional airflow system. Measurements performed during ten real surgeries highlight that the use of ESTs generates a quite sharp and relevant increase of particle concentration in the surgical area as well within the entire OT area. The measured contamination level in the OTs are linked to surgical operation, ventilation principle, and ESTs used. A better knowledge of airborne contamination is crucial for limiting the personnel's exposure to surgical smoke. Research results highlight that downward unidirectional OTs can give better conditions for adequate ventilation and contaminant removal performances than OTs equipped with upward displacement ventilation systems.

  10. A study on determining the location of groundwater divide using a mathematical morphology method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Yun; GONG; Huili; DUAN; Fuzhou; HU; Zhuowei

    2006-01-01

    Placement of a groundwater divide indicates sink areas and spatial distribution, knowledge of which helps in the mapping of regional aquifer properties and the management of groundwater resources. By applying mathematical morphology to a conceptual model of a watershed and characteristic erosion and dilation operations, this paper proposes a structuring element with which to extract the shape and location of groundwater divide. With due consideration to watershed linearity, a structuring element with three origins is designed to connect watershed points. After erosion, closing, and dilation operations, the groundwater divide is determined; the results indicate this method's feasibility and accuracy.

  11. The Effect of Different Operations Modes on Science Capabilities During the 2010 Desert-RATS Test: Insights from the Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey E.; Rice, James W., Jr.; Garry, W. Brent

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert RATS field test utilized two Space Exploration Vehicles (prototype planetary rovers) and four crewmembers (2 per rover) to conduct a geologic traverse across northern Arizona while testing continuous and twice-per-day communications paired with operation modes of separating and exploring individually (Divide & Conquer) and exploring together (Lead & Follow), respectively. This report provides qualitative conclusions from the geologist crewmembers involved in this test as to how these modes of communications and operations affected our ability to conduct field geology. Each mode of communication and operation provided beneficial capabilities that might be further explored for future Human Spaceflight Missions to other solar system objects. We find that more frequent interactions between crews and an Apollo-style Science Team on the Earth best enables scientific progress during human exploration. However, during multiple vehicle missions, this communication with an Earth-based team of scientists, who represent "more minds on the problem", should not come at the exclusion of (or significantly decrease) communication between the crewmembers in different vehicles who have the "eyes on the ground". Inter-crew communications improved when discussions with a backroom were infrequent. Both aspects are critical and cannot be mutually exclusive. Increased vehicle separation distances best enable encounters with multiple geologic units. However, seemingly redundant visits by multiple vehicles to the same feature can be utilized to provide improved process-related observations about the development and modification of the local terrain. We consider the value of data management, transfer, and accessibility to be the most important lesson learned. Crews and backrooms should have access to all data and related interpretations within the mission in as close to real-time conditions as possible. This ensures that while on another planetary surface, crewmembers are as

  12. An EEG Investigation of the Differences in the Hemispheric Specialization of Formal and Concrete Operational Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, Richard A.; And Others

    This study attempts to raise and answer the question as to whether lateral specialization of the brain could explain some of the differences in persons at different stages of intellectual development from birth to adulthood according to Piaget's theory of individual development via sequential, qualitatively different stages.…

  13. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-03-10

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  14. New Frontiers in the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Birgit

    In a new strategy for e-government, the Danish government set the goal that in 2015 all contacts between citizens and public authorities must be conducted electronically. In accordance with EU’s strategy for e-government every citizen ought to have equal access to public services, hence the quest......In a new strategy for e-government, the Danish government set the goal that in 2015 all contacts between citizens and public authorities must be conducted electronically. In accordance with EU’s strategy for e-government every citizen ought to have equal access to public services, hence...... for digital inclusion becomes a central theme for the implementation of the new e-government strategy. Until now it has been voluntary whether or not citizens want to use ICT and a lot of especially senior citizens have chosen not to use the technology. However, senior citizens are not the only group affected...... of the e-government strategy. New frontiers in the digital divide are opening and a new group of excluded become visible: the youngsters. In this way, one of the leading Danish newspapers reports that young people lines up in town halls to get help to fill out forms, which are already available...

  15. Bridging the digital divide: reaching vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Betty L; Bakken, Suzanne; Brown, S Scott; Houston, Thomas K; Kreps, Gary L; Kukafka, Rita; Safran, Charles; Stavri, P Zoe

    2004-01-01

    The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled "Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations" convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda in information and communication technology to enhance the health and health care of underserved populations. Discussions during four tracks addressed issues and trends in information and communication technologies for underserved populations, strategies learned from successful programs, evaluation methodologies for measuring the impact of informatics, and dissemination of information for replication of successful programs. Each track addressed current status, ideal state, barriers, strategies, and recommendations. Recommendations of the breakout sessions were summarized under the overarching themes of Policy, Funding, Research, and Education and Training. The general recommendations emphasized four key themes: revision in payment and reimbursement policies, integration of health care standards, partnerships as the key to success, and broad dissemination of findings including specific feedback to target populations and other key stakeholders.

  16. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  17. Quantitative Measurement of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Roger

    2007-04-01

    Bandwidth and the Internet infrastructure are the life-blood of the world's knowledge economy, but they are often scarcest where most needed. Measuring the numbers of users of the Internet infrastructure is not easy in developing countries because many people share accounts, use corporate and academic networks, or visit the rapidly growing number of cyber cafes, telecentres and business services. Also measuring the number of users does not take into account the level of use. One valuable indicator for measuring the Internet infrastructure is the international Internet performance of a country or region. One of the major aims of the PingER project is to provide an historical archive of extensive, publicly accessible, up-to-date, measurements, analyses and reports of multiple Internet performance indicators (such as delay, loss, throughput, reachability, and jitter) between sites, countries and regions of the world. This talk will briefly describe the PingER project and then compare and contrast the Internet performance and its trends within and between countries and regions of the world. By means of extensive case studies it will also identify which regions need the greatest attention, together with their major issues and possible approaches to reducing the divide.

  18. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  20. Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Soler, J J

    2011-08-01

    Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighbouring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by recolonization. Given that studies have shown significant genetic differentiation and reduced gene flow across migratory divides, we hypothesized that an absence of migratory divides would result in elevated rates of gene flow and hence a reduced level of local adaptation. In a comparative study, species with migratory divides had larger population sizes and population densities and longer dispersal distances than species without migratory divides. Species with migratory divides tended to be habitat generalists. Bird species with migratory divides had higher richness of blood parasites and higher growth rates of Staphylococcus on their eggs during the incubation period. There was weaker cell-mediated immunity in adults and stronger cell lysis in species with migratory divides. These findings may suggest that migratory divides constitute barriers to dispersal with consequences for ecology and evolution of distributions, population sizes, habitats and parasite-host interactions. They also suggest that migratory divides may play a role in local adaptation in host-parasite interactions.

  1. Launching applications on compute and service processors running under different operating systems in scalable network of processor boards with routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, James L.; Camp, William J.

    2009-03-17

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure also permits easy physical scalability of the computing apparatus. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  2. Boundedness of Composition of Operators Associated with Different Homogeneities on Weighted Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xinfeng Wu

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce weighted Besov spaces and weighted Triebel–Lizorkin spaces associated with different homogeneities and prove that the composition of two Calderón–Zygmund operators is bounded on these spaces. This extends a recent result in Han et al, Revista Mat. Iber.

  3. The transient divided bar method for laboratory measurements of thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bording, Thue S.; Nielsen, Søren B.; Balling, Niels

    2016-12-01

    Accurate information on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of materials is of central importance in relation to geoscience and engineering problems involving the transfer of heat. Several methods, including the classical divided bar technique, are available for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity, but much fewer for thermal diffusivity. We have generalized the divided bar technique to the transient case in which thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and thereby also thermal diffusivity are measured simultaneously. As the density of samples is easily determined independently, specific heat capacity can also be determined. The finite element formulation provides a flexible forward solution for heat transfer across the bar, and thermal properties are estimated by inverse Monte Carlo modelling. This methodology enables a proper quantification of experimental uncertainties on measured thermal properties and information on their origin. The developed methodology was applied to various materials, including a standard ceramic material and different rock samples, and measuring results were compared with results applying traditional steady-state divided bar and an independent line-source method. All measurements show highly consistent results and with excellent reproducibility and high accuracy. For conductivity the obtained uncertainty is typically 1-3 per cent, and for diffusivity uncertainty may be reduced to about 3-5 per cent. The main uncertainty originates from the presence of thermal contact resistance associated with the internal interfaces in the bar. These are not resolved during inversion and it is imperative that they are minimized. The proposed procedure is simple and may quite easily be implemented to the many steady-state divided bar systems in operation. A thermally controlled bath, as applied here, may not be needed. Simpler systems, such as applying temperature-controlled water directly from a tap, may also be applied.

  4. Metal Pollution Around an Iron Smelter Complex in Northern Norway at Different Modes of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Steinnes, E; Eidhammer-Sjobakk, T; Varskog, P

    2003-01-01

    The moss biomonitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in and around the town of Mo i Rana, northern Norway, before and after closing an iron smelter and establishing alternative ferrous metal industries. Samples of Hylocomium splendens were collected from the same sites in 1989 and 1993. A combination of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry was used to obtain data for 38 elements in these moss samples, and the analytical data were subjected to factor analysis. In general, the deposition was higher when the iron smelter was still in operation, in particular for Fe and for many elements normally associated with crustal matter. For Cr there was a substantially increased deposition due to the operation of a new ferrochrome smelter. Also for Ni and Au an increased deposition was observed, whereas for metals such as Mn, Co, Ag, Sb, and W there was no appreciable change. INAA proved to be a powerful tool for this kind of study. The regional di...

  5. Size distributions of aerosols in an indoor environment with engineered nanoparticle synthesis reactors operating under different scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim

    2010-03-01

    Size distributions of nanoparticles in the vicinity of synthesis reactors will provide guidelines for safe operation and protection of workers. Nanoparticle concentrations and size distributions were measured in a research academic laboratory environment with two different types of gas-phase synthesis reactors under a variety of operating conditions. The variation of total particle number concentration and size distribution at different distances from the reactor, off-design state of the fume hood, powder handling during recovery, and maintenance of reactors are established. Significant increases in number concentration were observed at all the locations during off-design conditions (i.e., failure of the exhaust system). Clearance of nanoparticles from the work environment was longer under off-design conditions (20 min) compared to that under normal hood operating conditions (4-6 min). While lower particle number concentrations are observed during operation of furnace aerosol reactors in comparison to flame aerosol reactors, the handling, processing, and maintenance operations result in elevated concentrations in the work area.

  6. Mathematical Modeling And Simulation of Photo-Voltaic Converter Operation when Varying Different Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miholca CONSTANTIN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of mathematical modelling of a solar converter using the results of full-scale testing. The advantages of analytical modelling method applied to photovoltaic systems are also presented; this is because the model parameters are directly measurable by data acquisition from the photovoltaic field consisting of photovoltaic cells type Z - (mono-crystalline photovoltaic. The model parameter also includes both the photovoltaic cell characteristics as a device (forming the photovoltaic field and the temperature influence on the photovoltaic field performance. The results of the photovoltaic model numerical simulation (PV to the major parameters conversion variation can also be used to design and assess the performance of low and medium - power photovoltaic systems operating in single regime (to supply the home appliances.

  7. Research of Consumption of Biodiesel in Different Working Operations in the System of Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to research the consumption of biodiesel in various working operations of the tractor John Deere 8230 with trailer and plow under field conditions. Biodiesel was made from agricultural crop of oilseed rape according to etherification. Experimental measurements were made on land of the Slovak University of Agriculture, in Kolíňany, Slovakia. The metering device was used EDMeco recorder and an electronic flow meter of the actual consumption of biodiesel. The measuring system was installed in the fuel system John Deere tractor, the 8230. On the base of the obtained results we can conclude that at the transportation of the tractor with trailer Mega 20 was the average hourly consumption of 15.43 liters of biodiesel. At the plowing with set of tractor and rotating 7-mouldboard plow Ostroj Opava, the average hourly consumption was of 33.93 liters of biodiesel.

  8. Unitary and Non-Unitary Matrices as a Source of Different Bases of Operations Acting on Hilbert Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, S N

    2010-01-01

    The columns of $d^2 \\times N$ matrices are shown to create different kinds of sets of $N$ operators acting on $d$-dimensional Hilbert space. This construction corresponds to formalism of star-product of the operator symbols. The known bases are shown to be partial cases of generic formulas obtained by using $d^2 \\times d^2$ matrices as the source for constructing the arbitrary bases. The known examples of the SIC, MUB and phase-space descriptions of qubit states are considered from the viewpoint of a developed unified approach. Qubit examples are given in detail.

  9. Stability Transfer between Two Clock Lasers Operating at Different Wavelengths for Absolute Frequency Measurement of Clock Transition in 87Sr

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, A; Nagano, S; Li, Y; Ishijima, H; Hachisu, H; Kumagai, M; Ido, T; 10.1143/APEX.5.022701

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated transferring the stability of one highly stable clock laser operating at 729 nm to another less stable laser operating at 698 nm. The two different wavelengths were bridged using an optical frequency comb. The improved stability of the clock laser at 698 nm enabled us to evaluate the systematic frequency shifts of the Sr optical lattice clock with shorter averaging time. We determined the absolute frequency of the clock transition 1S0 - 3P0 in 87Sr to be 429 228 004 229 873.9 (1.4) Hz referenced to the SI second on the geoid via International Atomic Time (TAI).

  10. The analysis and countermeasures of intravenous infusion operation assessment results analysis in nursing students at different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-rong ZHAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the problems existed in nursing students at different levels in the process of intravenous infusion, to make judgmental guide towards common problems in clinical teaching, to standardize nursing students’ operations at intravenous infusion, and to avoid errors and disputes. Methods: The authors analyzed the problems in secondary, tertiary, undergraduate nursing students in three levels at a provincial hospital from 2010 to 2012 during intravenous infusion therapy; and the clinical teaching administration means were also discussed. Results: the difference of the problems existed in nursing students at different levels is not significant. P values were greater than 0.05. The top five projects that lost scores are consistent. Conclusion: The key problems that can easily cause errors and disputes are those that mostly occurred in nursing students at intravenous infusion operations. In clinical teaching, judgmental guide on common problems should be emphasized, nursing students’ operations at intravenous infusion should be standardized, the critical awareness towards clinical operations should be developed, errors and disputes should be avoided, and nursing students’ sense of professionalism should be enhanced.

  11. Comparative outcomes of the two types of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts using different operation methods: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Teo, Mario; Li, Zhen-Dong; Wu, Hai-Bo; Yen, Ru-Yu; Zheng, Mei; Chang, Qing; Yisha Liu, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study compares different clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with two types of sacral extradural spinal meningeal cysts (SESMC) undergoing different means of surgical excision. Using the relationship between the cysts and spinal nerve roots fibers (SNRF) as seen under microscope, SESMCs were divided into two types: cysts with SNRF known as Tarlov cysts and cysts without. The surgical methods were tailored to the different types of SESMCs. The improved Japanese Orthopedic Association (IJOA) scoring system was used to evaluate preoperative and postoperative neurological function of the patients. Preoperative IJOA scores were 18.5 ± 1.73, and postoperative IJOA scores were 19.6 ± 0.78. The difference between preoperative and postoperative IJOA scores was statistically significant (t = -4.52, p = 0.0001), with a significant improvement in neurological function after surgery. Among the improvements in neurological functions, the most significant was sensation (z=-2.74, p=0.006), followed by bowel/bladder function (z=-2.50, p=0.01). There was a statistically significant association between the types of SESMC and the number (F=12.57, p=0.001) and maximum diameter (F=8.08, p=0.006) of the cysts. SESMC with SNRF are often multiple and small, while cysts without SNRF tend to be solitary and large. We advocate early surgical intervention for symptomatic SESMCs in view of significant clinical improvement postoperatively.

  12. Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazuue; Ito, Akio; Hitaka, Masahiro; Dougakiuchi, Tatsuo; Edamura, Tadataka

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a room-temperature continuous-wave (CW) terahertz source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation in a mid-infrared (λ ∼ 6.8 µm) quantum cascade laser with a dual-upper-state active region is reported. The fabricated buried heterostructure device, with a two-section buried distributed feedback grating, operates at two mid-infrared wavelengths and demonstrates a terahertz output of 2.92 THz with a very low threshold current density of 0.89 kA/cm2 in pulsed operation. Consequently, despite an epitaxial-side-up mounting configuration, the device achieves CW operation at room temperature in which a low CW threshold current density of 1.3 kA/cm2 is obtained.

  13. The Role of IT Literacy in Defining Digital Divide Policy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Enrico; Helbig, Natalie C.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This article expands our current understanding of the digital divide by examining differences in individuals' IT skills acquisition. In the last two decades scholars have gradually refined the conceptualization of the digital divide, moving from a dichotomous model mainly based on access, to a multidimensional model accounting for differences in…

  14. No differences in post-operative rehabilitation across municipalities in patients with lumbar disc herniation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rune Tendal; Bergholdt, Erik; Carreon, Leah;

    2015-01-01

    decompressive surgery for lumbar disc herniation were identified. Changes in Oswestry disability index (ODI), EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and duration of sick leave were compared among the municipalities. RESULTS: Patient-reported outcome measures showed no statistical difference in ODI, EQ-5D or sick leave at the one...... for enhanced cooperation between hospitals and rehabilitation centres. CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation was broadly similar, and patient outcome after one year did not differ significantly across the 22 municipalities or between the five largest samples. In general, all municipalities request enhanced cooperation...

  15. The Role of the Operating Room in Medical Student Education: Differing Perspectives of Learners and Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rebecca; Shapiro, Michael; Merchant, Aziz

    2017-07-13

    The surgical clerkship is an integral part of third-year medical student education. The operating room (OR) is a heavily used setting, but it is unclear whether this setting is as effective as possible. To determine the role of the OR and potential improvements, it is necessary to analyze the perspectives of those involved, including surgeons, residents, and medical students. An electronic survey was distributed to the surgeons, surgical residents, and third-year medical students associated with Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. The questions were a combination of 5-point Likert scale questions and qualitative responses. The questions assessed the role of the OR, the information taught in the OR, the quality of the teaching and environment, and potential improvements. Attending surgeons and residents generally rated the OR more positively than medical students did. Medical students desired more hands-on participation and a greater focus on learning technical skills. In addition, most medical students rated the feedback and direct instruction in the OR as "poor." Furthermore, the attending surgeons and medical students disagreed about the main roles of the OR as well as the effectiveness of teaching in the OR. The medical students reported experiencing anxiety and intimidation in the OR and suggested several improvements, such as decreasing the length of the surgical clerkship. There is significant disagreement between the surgeons and residents and the medical students regarding the roles and effectiveness of learning in the OR. This may help explain the reported medical student dissatisfaction and frustrations with the surgical clerkship. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON POST - OPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN LOWER LIMB ARTHROPLASTIES WITH CONTINUOUS EPIDURAL INFUSION OF 0.125% BUPIVACAINE AND TWO DIFFERENT NARCOTIC ANALGESICS FENTANYL AND SUFENTANIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to compare and evaluate the effect of fentany and sufentanil in combination of bupivacaine on postoperative pain relief and possible side effects if any in patients operated for hip and knee arthroplasties. We randomly selected sixty patients of ASA grade I - III of age 18 to 75 years divided in to two groups. Group – I Received2.5 μg/ml fentanyl along with 0.125% bupivacaine as a continuous epidural infusion at the rate of 5 ml/hr up to 48 hr after the surgery. Group - II Received 0.25 μg/ml sufentanil along with 0.125% bupivacaine as a continuous epidural infusion at the rate of 5 ml/hr up to 48 hr after the surgery. Analgesia was assessed by Visual analogue scale and motor block if any by Bromage scale. Haemodynamics and respiratory parameters were recorded and side effects if any were noted. In group I mean VAS score during rest was 27.0 +/ - 4.8 and mean VAS score during movement was 33.5+/ - 4.9 in group II mean VAS score during rest was 20.8+/ - 4.9 and mean VAS score during movement was 27.7+/ - 5.2. T he dynamic pain VAS score showed a statistically significant difference between two groups . haemodynamics parameters were similar in both groups. Thus group II patients received sufentanil along with 0.125% bupivacaine had better post - operative analgesia d uring movement as well as at rest without respiratory depression or significant side effects.

  17. Ultrasensitive optical microfiber coupler based sensors operating near the turning point of effective group index difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiwei; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Guigen; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Mengying; Wei, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We propose and study an optical microfiber coupler (OMC) sensor working near the turning point of effective group index difference between the even supermode and odd supermode to achieve high refractive index (RI) sensitivity. Theoretical calculations reveal that infinite sensitivity can be obtained when the measured RI is close to the turning point value. This diameter-dependent turning point corresponds to the condition that the effective group index difference equals zero. To validate our proposed sensing mechanism, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrahigh sensitivity of 39541.7 nm/RIU at a low ambient RI of 1.3334 based on an OMC with the diameter of 1.4 μm. An even higher sensitivity can be achieved by carrying out the measurements at RI closer to the turning point. The resulting ultrasensitive RI sensing platform offers a substantial impact on a variety of applications from high performance trace analyte detection to small molecule sensing.

  18. Effect of different modifications of BEA-zeolites on operational characteristics of conductometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, Capital O Cyrillic О; Soy, E; Kirdeciler, K; Öztürk, S; Akata, B; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Soldatkin, A P; Dzyadevych, S V

    2012-08-01

    Effect of different modifications of zeolite Na(+)-BEA on working characteristics of urease-based conductometric biosensor was studied. As the biosensor sensitive elements were used bioselective membranes based on urease and various zeolites immobilised with bovine serum albumin on the surface of conductometric transducers. Influence of zeolites on sensitivity of urea biosensor was investigated as well as reproducibility of biosensor signal and reproducibility of activity of the bioselective element after different variants of urease immobilisation on the surface of conductometric transducer. The biosensors based on zeolites (NH4(+)-BEA 30 and H(+)-BEA 30) were shown to be the most sensitive. Concentration of these zeolites in the bioselective membrane was optimized. Use of zeolites modified with methyl viologen and silver was ascertained to be of no prospect for urea conductometric biosensors. It was demonstrated that characteristics of urea biosensors can be regulated, varying zeolites modifications and their concentrations in bioselective membranes.

  19. Evaluation of different operating strategies to integrate storage in a linear Fresnel ORC power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoschke, Theda; Seubert, Bernhard; Fluri, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    An existing linear Fresnel power plant with ORC process located in Ben Guerir, Morocco, is retrofitted with a thermal energy storage system and additional collector loops. Two different plant configurations are investigated in this paper. In the first configuration two separate solar fields are built and only the minor one can charge the storage. In the second configuration, there is only one large solar field which offers more flexibility. Two different control strategies are assessed by comparing simulation results. It shows that the simulations of the systems with two solar fields results in higher energy yields throughout the year, but the power production of the system with one solar field is much more flexible and demand oriented. Also it offers great potential for improvement when it comes to weather forecasting.

  20. Identity processes and statuses in post-Soviet Georgia: Exploration processes operate differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skhirtladze, Nino; Javakhishvili, Nino; Schwartz, Seth J; Beyers, Wim; Luyckx, Koen

    2016-02-01

    Identity formation is one of the main developmental tasks of emerging adulthood. Based on quantitative data on a five-dimensional model of identity formation, we concluded that the identity formation process has some different features in the Republic of Georgia than it does in many Western countries. Results obtained from young Georgian adults (N = 295, 82.6% female) yielded four exploration processes instead of three, which is in line with the recent Swiss findings. A key difference between Georgia and the Western contexts, however, is that exploration in breadth is highly correlated with ruminative exploration. Cluster analysis, which produced six identity clusters, also supported this pattern. Achievement, the most adjusted cluster in Western contexts, was relatively low on exploration in breadth. We discuss ways in which the Georgian transition from Soviet communism to a more globalized society may contribute to limited opportunities for identity exploration and may add some tension to the identity development process.

  1. Analysis and operation of three different forms probabilistic particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Xu, Minghai

    2017-06-01

    Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm algorithm(QPSO) is a kind of probabilistic PSO algorithm based on quantum theory, which has been successfully applied to solve many optimization problems. This paper analyzes the conditions of the probability density function should satisfy in QPSO, and constructs three functions that meet the requirements: exponential form, normal form and power form; thus obtains three position equation of particle by using the stochastic simulation method; then compares the convergence of the three forms PSO algorithm, and uses different types of standard test functions to evaluate them. The results show that exponential form and power form PSO has better convergence speed and calculation accuracy than standard PSO. In three different forms algorithm, power form PSO has better global search ability, and more suitable for solving high-dimensional and Multi-extremum optimization problem.

  2. Estimates of tropical analysis differences in daily values produced by two operational centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Akira; Mizzi, Arthur P.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the uncertainty of daily synoptic analyses for the atmospheric state, the intercomparison of three First GARP Global Experiment level IIIb datasets is performed. Daily values of divergence, vorticity, temperature, static stability, vertical motion, mixing ratio, and diagnosed diabatic heating rate are compared for the period of 26 January-11 February 1979. The spatial variance and mean, temporal mean and variance, 2D wavenumber power spectrum, anomaly correlation, and normalized square difference are employed for comparison.

  3. Positive solutions of functional difference equations with p-Laplacian operator

    OpenAIRE

    Song Chang-Xiu

    2006-01-01

    The author studies the boundary value problems with p-Laplacian functional difference equation Δφp(Δx(t)) + r(t)f(xt) = 0, t ∈ [0, N], x0 = ψ ∈ C+, x(0) - B0(Δx(0)) = 0, Δx(N+1) = 0. By using a fixed point theorem in cones, sufficient conditions are established for the existence of twin positive solutions.

  4. Observations favor the crossing of phantom divide lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using three different parameterized dark energy models, we reconstruct the properties of dark energy from the latest 397 Sne Ia, CMB and BAO with the present matter density, Ωm0, given prior. We find that, when Ωm0 is not small, for example, Ωm0 = 0.28 or 0.32, an evolving dark energy with a crossing of phantom divide line is favored and this conclusion seems to be model independent. We also find that the evolving properties of dark energy become more and more evident with the increase of Ωm0 given prior.

  5. Blurring of the public/private divide: the Canadian chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2010-06-01

    Blurring of public/private divide is occurring in different ways around the world, with differential effects in terms of access and equity. In Canada, one pathway towards privatization has received particular attention: duplicative private insurance, allowing those with the financial means to bypass queues in the public system. We assess recent legal and policy developments on this front, but also describe other trends towards the blurring of public and private in Canada: the reliance on mandated private insurance for pharmaceutical coverage; provincial governments' reliance on public-private partnerships to finance hospitals; and the incorporation of for-profit clinics within the public health care system.

  6. Detecting magnetic field direction by a micro beam operating in different vibration modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jie; Qin Ming; Huang Qing-An

    2011-01-01

    A new method to detect the magnetic field direction by using a silicon structure is presented in this paper. The structure includes a micro beam and an in-plane coil electrode. When the electrode under a magnetic field is applied with an alternating current,the micro beam is actuated under the effect of the Lorentz forces. Magnetic fields of different directions cause different vibration profiles. The direction of the magnetic field is obtained by measuring the vibration amplitudes of the micro beam,which is driven to work at first- and second-order resonant modes. A micro structure has been fabricated using the bulk micromachined silicon process. A laser Doppler vibrometer system is implemented to measure the vibration amplitudes. The experimental results show that the amplitude of the structure,which depends on the different modes,is a sine or cosine function of the angle of the magnetic field. It agrees well with the simulation result. Currently a resolution of 100 for the magnetic field direction measurement can be obtained using the detecting principle.

  7. Automated system for efficient microwave power coupling in an S-band ECR ion source driven under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, L., E-mail: lmuguira@essbilbao.org [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Portilla, J. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Gonzalez, P.J.; Garmendia, N.; Feuchtwanger, J. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Etxebarria, V. [University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Department of Electricity and Electronics, Science and Technology Faculty, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain); Eguiraun, M.; Arredondo, I.; Miracoli, R.; Belver, D. [ESS-Bilbao, Edificio Rectorado, Vivero de Empresas, 48940 Leioa (Bizkaia) (Spain)

    2014-03-21

    This article presents an automated system for optimizing the microwave power coupling to the plasma generated in a proton/deuteron Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source, based on a specific model of a rectangular waveguide triple-stub tuner and the integrated measurement and control electronics, helping to get stable plasma states. The control and improvement of the RF power absorption into the plasma is a complex process, essential for the ion source development and optimization under different operating conditions. A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed and, besides, different methods to accurately measure the power transfer in a waveguide RF system have been studied and deployed in the ESS-Bilbao ion source system. The different parts have been integrated through a controller, which allows to run an automatic plasma matching system in closed loop. The behavior of the system implemented for low and high power regimes has been tested under different conditions: with several load impedances, with plasma inside the chamber, in continuous wave and pulsed wave operation modes, demonstrating power absorption typically over 90% in all the ion source configurations. The developed system allows to achieve significant improvement in the ECR ion source power absorption efficiency, both in continuous and pulsed mode. The automatic tuning unit enhances the system operation finding an optimum solution much faster than manually, also behaving as an adaptive system able to respond in few pulses to ion source configuration changes to maintain the power coupling as high as possible. - Highlights: • An automated system optimizing plasma and microwave power interaction is presented. • A model and a matching algorithm for the triple-stub tuner have been developed. • Different methods to measure the power transfer have been studied and deployed. • The system works for low or high power regimes under different ion source conditions.

  8. Operational strategies, monitoring and control of heterologous protein production in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under different promoters: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero Francisco

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has been widely reported as a suitable expression system for heterologous protein production. The use of different phenotypes under PAOX promoter, other alternative promoters, culture medium, and operational strategies with the objective to maximize either yield or productivity of the heterologous protein, but also to obtain a repetitive product batch to batch to get a robust process for the final industrial application have been reported. Medium composition, kinetics growth, fermentation operational strategies from fed-batch to continuous cultures using different phenotypes with the most common PAOX promoter and other novel promoters (GAP, FLD, ICL, the use of mixed substrates, on-line monitoring of the key fermentation parameters (methanol and control algorithms applied to the bioprocess are reviewed and discussed in detail.

  9. The Fine Spectra of the Difference Operator Δ Over the Sequence Space bvp,(1≤p<∞)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali M. AKHMEDOV; Feyzi BA(S)AR

    2007-01-01

    The sequence space bvp consisting of all sequences (xk) such that (xk-xk-1) belongs to the space lp has recently been introduced by Basar and Altay [Ukrainian Math. J., 55(1), 136–147(2003)]; where 1 ≤ p≤∞. In the present paper, some results concerning with the continuous dual and f-dual, and the AD-property of the sequence space bvp have been given and the norm of the difference operator Δ acting on the sequence space bvp has been found. The fine spectrum with respect to the Goldberg’s classification of the difference operator Δ over the sequence space bvp has been determined, where 1 ≤p<∞.

  10. Cellular forces : adhering, shaping, sensing and dividing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Hedde van

    2014-01-01

    Life’s building block is a cell. Different cell types are differentiated by specific functional properties. A white blood cell, for instance, can get rid of bacteria and many muscle cells contract together for proper muscle function. Deformation and force exertion play important roles in these

  11. E-Learning Divides in North Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Tuncay, Nazime

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the differences in e-learning competences of teachers. The independent variables used were geographic location, teaching experience, Internet access, e-learning training needs, ICT teacher/non-ICT teachers, and status. A questionnaire was developed to examine the e-learning competencies of vocational…

  12. Access to Teacher Evaluations Divides Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    As the movement to overhaul teacher evaluation marches onward, an emerging question is splitting the swath of advocates who support the new tools used to gauge teacher performance: Who should get access to the resulting information? Supporters of typing teacher evaluations to student performance differ over whether individuals' results should be…

  13. Cellular forces : adhering, shaping, sensing and dividing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Hedde van

    2014-01-01

    Life’s building block is a cell. Different cell types are differentiated by specific functional properties. A white blood cell, for instance, can get rid of bacteria and many muscle cells contract together for proper muscle function. Deformation and force exertion play important roles in these proce

  14. Objective Outcome Measurement After Upper Blepharoplasty: An Analysis of Different Operative Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Soo; Park, David Dae-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Upper blepharoplasty is indicated in Asians for double-eyelid fold creation, periorbital rejuvenation, and functional visual field improvement. This article introduces a technical classification for blepharoplasty methods and investigates approaches to evaluate its outcomes. Of 535 patients undergoing aesthetic upper blepharoplasty in our institution in 1998-2011, 136 patients who were well followed up were retrospectively reviewed and categorized into four groups according to the techniques employed. Blepharoplasty with skin excision only was indicated for upper eyelid-skin redundancy patients with prominent double eyelids (n = 20). Blepharoplasty with skin excision and nonburied suture fixation was indicated for patients with upper lid-skin redundancy and weak double eyelids (n = 15). Blepharoplasty with skin excision and buried suture fixation was indicated for patients with upper lid-skin redundancy but no double-eyelid folds (n = 46). Finally, blepharoplasty with simultaneous ptosis correction was utilized for patients with senile or subclinical ptosis requesting upper blepharoplasty (n = 55). The mean age was 48.7 years at surgery; the mean follow-up period was 6 months. Digital photographs were used to compare changes in marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1), percentage of the area of corneal exposure (%ACE), and brow height. MRD1 increased from 1.92 to 2.84 mm in the whole patient group after upper blepharoplasty; it increased the most in blepharoplasty with simultaneous ptosis correction (1.22 mm). %ACE increased from 62.1 to 76.6% (14.5%), whereas brow height decreased from 29.4 to 26.7 mm (9.2%). Upper blepharoplasty improves palpebral fissure. Numerically measured palpebral fissure changes facilitate operation outcome measurement. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern

  15. Uniqueness of positive solutions for fractional q-difference boundary-value problems with p-Laplacian operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Miao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the fractional q-difference boundary-value problems with p-Laplacian operator $$displaylines{ D_{q}^{gamma}(phi_p(D_{q}^{alpha}u(t + f(t,u(t=0, quad 0 1. By using a fixed-point theorem in partially ordered sets, we obtain sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of positive and nondecreasing solutions.

  16. Pertinence and Information Needs of Different Subjects on Markets and Appropriate Operative (Tactical or Strategic) Stochastic Control Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the chapter where we present the conclusion of our research, we also introduce an adequate algorithm (in the form of a graphic and mathematical representation) for the appropriate perception of pertinence and information needs of different subjects on markets. We announce main trends and a great significance of appropriate operative (tactical or strategic) stochastic control (as specific quantitative and qualitative models) approaches in correlation to expected results. Finally, we promote...

  17. Operating principles of rotary molecular motors: differences between F1 and V1 motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Kakinuma, Yoshimi; Murata, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Among the many types of bioenergy-transducing machineries, F- and V-ATPases are unique bio- and nano-molecular rotary motors. The rotational catalysis of F1-ATPase has been investigated in detail, and molecular mechanisms have been proposed based on the crystal structures of the complex and on extensive single-molecule rotational observations. Recently, we obtained crystal structures of bacterial V1-ATPase (A3B3 and A3B3DF complexes) in the presence and absence of nucleotides. Based on these new structures, we present a novel model for the rotational catalysis mechanism of V1-ATPase, which is different from that of F1-ATPases.

  18. Model-based analysis of the effect of different operating conditions on fouling mechanisms in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Gianpaolo; Ferraris, Marco; Spagni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a model-based evaluation of the effect of different operating conditions with and without pre-denitrification treatment and applying three different solids retention times on the fouling mechanisms involved in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). A total of 11 fouling models obtained from literature were used to fit the transmembrane pressure variations measured in a pilot-scale MBR treating real wastewater for more than 1 year. The results showed that all the models represent reasonable descriptions of the fouling processes in the MBR tested. The model-based analysis confirmed that membrane fouling started by pore blocking (complete blocking model) and by a reduction of the pore diameter (standard blocking) while cake filtration became the dominant fouling mechanism over long-term operation. However, the different fouling mechanisms occurred almost simultaneously making it rather difficult to identify each one. The membrane "history" (i.e. age, lifespan, etc.) seems the most important factor affecting the fouling mechanism more than the applied operating conditions. Nonlinear regression of the most complex models (combined models) evaluated in this study sometimes demonstrated unreliable parameter estimates suggesting that the four basic fouling models (complete, standard, intermediate blocking and cake filtration) contain enough details to represent a reasonable description of the main fouling processes occurring in MBRs.

  19. Comment on the equivalence of Bakamjian-Thomas mass operators in different forms of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Polyzou, W N

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the scattering equivalence of the generalized Bakamjian-Thomas construction of dynamical representations of the Poincar\\'e group in all of Dirac's forms of dynamics. The equivalence was established by Sokolov in the context of proving that the equivalence holds for models that satisfy cluster separability. The generalized Bakamjian Thomas construction is used in most applications, even though it only satisfies cluster properties for systems of less than four particles. Different forms of dynamics are related by unitary transformations that remove interactions from some infinitesimal generators and introduce them to other generators. These unitary transformation must be interaction dependent, because they can be applied to a non-interacting generator and produce an interacting generator. This suggests that these transformations can generate complex many-body forces when used in many-body problems. It turns out that this is not the case. In all cases of interest the result of applying the unitary sca...

  20. Prediction of air temperature in the aircraft cabin under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišer J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prediction of the air temperature in the aircraft cabin by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The simulations are performed on the CFD model which is based on geometry and cabin interior arrangement of the Flight Test Facility (FTF located at Fraunhofer IBP, Germany. The experimental test flights under three different cabin temperatures were done in FTF and the various data were gathered during these flights. Air temperature in the cabin was measured on probes located near feet, torso and head of each passenger and also surface temperature and air temperature distributed from inlets were measured. The data were firstly analysed in order to obtain boundary conditions for cabin surfaces and inlets. Then the results of air temperature from the simulations were compared with measured data. The suitability and accuracy of the CFD approach for temperature prediction is discussed.

  1. Partial difference operators on weighted graphs for image processing on surfaces and point clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozes, Francois; Elmoataz, Abderrahim; Lezoray, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Partial difference equations (PDEs) and variational methods for image processing on Euclidean domains spaces are very well established because they permit to solve a large range of real computer vision problems. With the recent advent of many 3D sensors, there is a growing interest in transposing and solving PDEs on surfaces and point clouds. In this paper, we propose a simple method to solve such PDEs using the framework of PDEs on graphs. This latter approach enables us to transcribe, for surfaces and point clouds, many models and algorithms designed for image processing. To illustrate our proposal, three problems are considered: (1) p -Laplacian restoration and inpainting; (2) PDEs mathematical morphology; and (3) active contours segmentation.

  2. The dominant acetate degradation pathway/methanogenic composition in full-scale anaerobic digesters operating under different ammonia levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia is a major environmental factor influencing biomethanation in full-scale anaerobic digesters. In this study, the effect of different ammonia levels on methanogenic pathways and methanogenic community composition of full-scale biogas plants was investigated. Eight full-scale digesters...... operating under different ammonia levels were sampled, and the residual biogas production was followed in fed-batch reactors. Acetate, labelled in the methyl group, was used to determine the methanogenic pathway by following the 14CH4 and 14CO2 production. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used...

  3. Design and simulation of dividing wall column for ternary heterogeneous distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Quang Khoa

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is routinely used in chemical industry to separate close boiling point mixtures and azeotropes, which are not easily separated in a normal distillation process. Dividing wall column is one of the most promising technologies to minimize the energy consumption that leads to minimize the operating cost. Dividing wall column provide a large potential energy saving up to more than 30% compared to the conventional column sequences. The aim of this work is...

  4. Numerical Simulation of Seepage Field of Tailing Water Channel Under Different Conditions in Operation Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihan; Yan, Guoxin; Chen, Deling

    According to mathematical model of rock and soil, it calculated seepage field of tailing water channel under different conditions. The results showed that under condition of no.1, the seepage discharge from outside to inside of channel is 0.394 m3/h and the discharge under plastic concrete cut-off is 0.358m3/h, and that under condition of no.2, the seepage discharge from outside to inside of channel is 0.249 m3/h and the discharge under plastic concrete cut-off is 0.236m3/h. Under condition of no.1, the outflow of saturation line is at elevation of 411.0m which is under sand and gravel filling layer and near boundary of drift gravel sand layer. Under condition of no.2, the outflow of saturation line is at elevation of 403.0m which is under drift gravel sand layer and near rock foundation. The results showed that numerical simulation can be used to do with seepage problems of tailing water channel.

  5. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... is illuminated from different perspectives in the context of two countries which has contrasting socio-economic environment, ICT development and network connectivity. The paper´s brings insights on how different types of literacy skills influence students successful access to relevant online learning...

  6. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  7. Comparison of Eimeria species distribution and salinomycin resistance in commercial broiler operations utilizing different coccidiosis control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M; Klopp, S; Ritter, D; Miska, K; Fetterer, R

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the species composition and salinomycin sensitivity of Eimeria oocysts isolated from commercial broiler farms that differed by means of coccidiosis control (anticoccidial drugs [ACD] vs. live oocyst vaccines [VAC]). A comparison of Eimeria species composition and salinomycin sensitivity was also made before and after a producer switched from salinomycin to live oocyst vaccines. In general, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of Eimeria spp. oocysts in litter from VAC-utilizing farms compared to litter from ACD-utilizing farms. Application of PCR-based methods to detect coccidia found that Eimeria species distribution in litter from VAC operations more closely resembled the species composition in the live oocyst vaccines. Drug sensitivity testing found that Eimeria oocysts from VAC operations displayed greater salinomycin sensitivity as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared to oocysts from ACD farms. These findings provide additional evidence for the usefulness of live oocyst vaccines to restore ionophore sensitivity in poultry operations that contain an ionophore-resistant population of Eimeria spp. oocysts.

  8. A study of operators' computing efficiency with special focus on the readability under different viewing angles of a desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillck, Z.; Asjad, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to determine the reading performance of operators' under different viewing angles of a desktop computer. The effects of text/background color, viewing distance and character size on the speed of reading were investigated. The text and/or the background color combination were varied, with constant luminance contrast. Performance was recorded in terms of words per minutes. Standard workplace design recommendations to position center of visual display terminal 15° and 40°, below horizontal eye level, were taken up for a visually intensive readability task. An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise ratio and the analysis of variance were carried out to investigate the above mentioned operating parameters to determine optimum readability performance. The results suggested that performance was better at 15° viewing angle as compared to 40°.

  9. A Programmable Difference-of-Gaussian Analog Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Image Sensor Operating in the Subthreshold Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheye; Shibata, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    A difference-of-Gaussian (DoG) analog CMOS image sensor architecture in which the kernel size and shape are made arbitrarily programmable has been developed based on the MOS subthreshold characteristics. The variability of MOS transistor threshold voltage causes a serious problem in the circuits operating in the subthreshold regime because the current varies exponentially depending on the threshold voltage. The problem has been alleviated by introducing a cancellation scheme employing a switched floating-gate MOS (neuMOS) circuitry. A proof-of-concept chip was designed in a 0.18-µm CMOS technology. The operation of the designed circuits was investigated by SPICE (simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis) simulation and their basic functions were demonstrated. A part of the core function, i.e., the generation of the Gaussian function profile, was confirmed by the measurement of a fabricated test circuit.

  10. Diversity and dynamics of dominant and rare bacterial taxa in replicate sequencing batch reactors operated under different solids retention time

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2014-10-19

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was applied in order to provide a better insight on the diversity and dynamics of total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa in replicate lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at different solids retention time (SRT). Rank-abundance curves showed few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a long tail of rare OTUs in all reactors. Results revealed that there was no detectable effect of SRT (2 vs. 10 days) on Shannon diversity index and OTU richness of both dominant and rare taxa. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa were highly dynamic during the entire period of stable reactor performance. Also, the rare taxa were more dynamic than the dominant taxa despite expected low invasion rates because of the use of sterile synthetic media.

  11. Essays on the Digital Divide--Explorations through Global, National and Individual Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaletsky, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Divide has emerged as an important research and policy issue during the past thirty years. The divide exists at different levels, such as global, regional and individual levels. While extensive research already exists on this subject, the complexity of the issue presents opportunities for further research. In particular, there is ample…

  12. BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria ... south. This digital divide also exists within the countries of the south, between the ... enterprises (SMEs) (Ugboma, 2010) Bridging the digital divide will help to ... resources are being diverted towards meeting the challenges of the pandemic in.

  13. Physico-mathematical model of motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Petrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristics are important for ensuring of motor vehicle work process. In providing the traction characteristics the average velocity of mobile energetic transport grows, energy costs for work process execution are uprating and operation costs are reducing. The implementation of traction characteristics is performed by transmission of mobile energetic transport. Aim: The aim of the work is improvement of torque transfer technology from the engine to the wheel driving forces through the establishment of new construction of divided weight vehicle transmission. Materials and Methods: Consider a motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element which performs rotary motions relative to the vehicle frame. Results: It was shown that, the momentum which creates the rotational motion depends on the module and the direction of rotation speed of the unifying energetic element. For the first time, the technology and design of vehicle transmission which differs from previous designs by significant simplifying of the torque transmission from the engine to driving wheels at increased value of efficiency coefficient were proposed.

  14. Digital divide in education : a shift to ethical usage

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Under the trend of ICT implementation in education, students’ learning becomes highly reliant on ICT. A student will thus suffer in his / her learning process if he / she lacks the chance of using ICT at home. This is what a divide in student’s learning is. As the occurrence of this divide is due to digital ICT devices and its effect is focussed on students’ academic performance, such divide is termed as digital divide in education (DDE). To bridge this divide, most governments around the wor...

  15. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT ERBIUM DOPED FIBER BASED CODIRECTIONALLY PUMPED WDMSYSTEMS OPERATING IN OPTICAL WIDE-BAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICKY ANTHONY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simulation studies for different types of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA based codirectionally pumped systems, operating in C and L band have been analyzed for wave division multiplexing (WDM, which is in accordance with ITU standards. The natural gain and noise figure (NF for variable pump powers at 0.03W, 0.06W, 0.12W, 0.18W and 0.24W were obtained. A comparative study of these fiberamplifiers using a figure of merit (FOM, in terms of gain uniformity in the given optical band was discussed.

  16. Impacts of Gender Differences on Conducting Operational Activities (Impact des diffrenes homme/femme sur la conduite des activites oprationnelles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    MP-HFM-158 Impacts of Gender Differences on Conducting Operational Activities (Impact des différences homme/ femme sur la conduite des activités...harassment should also be dealt with on a multicultural basis. ES - 2 RTO-MP-HFM-158 Impact des différences homme/ femme sur la...conduite des activités opérationnelles (RTO-MP-HFM-158) Synthèse L’intégration des femmes dans les armées, se fait à un rythme variable dans les

  17. Continuous anaerobic co-digestion of Ulva biomass and cheese whey at varying substrate mixing ratios: Different responses in two reactors with different operating regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of co-digestion of Ulva with whey was investigated at varying substrate mixing ratios in two continuous reactors run with increasing and decreasing proportions of Ulva, respectively. Co-digestion with whey proved beneficial to the biomethanation of Ulva, with the methane yield being greater by up to 1.6-fold in co-digestion phases than in the Ulva mono-digestion phases. The experimental reactors responded differently, in terms of process performance and community structure, to the changes in the substrate mixing ratio. This can be attributed to the different operating regimes between two reactors, which may have caused the microbial communities to develop in different ways to acclimate. Methanosaeta-related populations were the predominant methanogens responsible for the production of methane regardless of different substrate mixing ratios in both reactors. Considering the methane recovery and the Ulva treatment capacity, the optimal fraction of Ulva in the substrate mixture is suggested to be 50-75%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-dimensional numerical investigation of the separation process in a vortex tube at different operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Seyed Ehsan; Sadeghiazad, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Air separators provide safe, clean, and appropriate air flow to engines and are widely used in vehicles with large engines such as ships and submarines. In this operational study, the separation process inside a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube cleaning (cooling) system is investigated to analyze the impact of the operating gas type on the vortex tube performance; the operating gases used are air, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. The computational fluid dynamic model used is equipped with a three-dimensional structure, and the steady-state condition is applied during computations. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model is employed to resolve nonlinear flow equations, and various key parameters, such as hot and cold exhaust thermal drops, and power separation rates, are described numerically. The results show that nitrogen dioxide creates the greatest separation power out of all gases tested, and the numerical results are validated by good agreement with available experimental data. In addition, a comparison is made between the use of two different boundary conditions, the pressure-far-field and the pressure-outlet, when analyzing complex turbulent flows inside the air separators. Results present a comprehensive and practical solution for use in future numerical studies.

  19. Politeness: Is There an East-West Divide?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoffrey Leech

    2005-01-01

    The theory of politeness of Brown and Levinson (1978, 1987) has remained the most seminal and influential starting point for cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contrastive pragmatics. Yet is has also provoked countervailing arguments from Ide (1989, 1993), Matsumoto (1989), Gu (1990), Mao (1994) and others, pointing out a Western bias in Brown and Levinson's theory, particularly in their individualistic and egalitarian motivations, as opposed to the more group-centred hierarchy-based ethos of Eastern societies. This leads to the question in thetitle of this article: Is there an East-West divide in politeness?The following argument will be presented. There is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness phenomena in communication: a common principle of politeness (Leech, 1983,2002) and a Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP), which is evident in common linguistic behaviour patterns in the performance of polite speech acts such as requests, offers, compliments, apologies,thanks, and responses to these. The GSP says simply: In order to be polite, a speaker communicates meanings which (a) place a high value on what relates to the other person (typically the addressee),(MAJOR CONSTRAINT) and (b) place a low value on what relates to the speaker. (MINOR CONSTRAINT). It is clear from many observations that constraint (a) is more powerful than constraint (b). The following hypothesis will be put forward, and supported by very limited evidence: that the GSP provides a very general explanation for communicative politeness phenomena in Eastern languages such as Chinese,Japanese and Korean, as well as in Western languages such as English. This is not to deny the importance of quantitative and qualitative differences in the settings of social parameters and linguistic parameters of politeness in such languages. A framework such as the GSP provides the parameters of variation within which such differences can be studied.Hence this article argues in favour of the

  20. In vitro propagation of plant virus using different forms of plant tissue culture and modes of culture operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sharon M-H; Doran, Pauline M

    2009-09-10

    Plant virus accumulation was investigated in vitro using three different forms of plant tissue culture. Suspended cells, hairy roots and shooty teratomas of Nicotiana benthamiana were infected with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using the same initial virus:biomass ratio. Viral infection did not affect tissue growth or morphology in any of the three culture systems. Average maximum virus concentrations in hairy roots and shooty teratomas were similar and about an order of magnitude higher than in suspended cells. Hairy roots were considered the preferred host because of their morphological stability in liquid medium and relative ease of culture. The average maximum virus concentration in the hairy roots was 0.82+/-0.14 mg g(-1) dry weight; viral coat protein represented a maximum of approximately 6% of total soluble protein in the biomass. Virus accumulation in hairy roots was investigated further using different modes of semi-continuous culture operation aimed at prolonging the root growth phase and providing nutrient supplementation; however, virus concentrations in the roots were not enhanced compared with simple batch culture. The relative infectivity of virus in the biomass declined by 80-90% during all the cultures tested, irrespective of the form of plant tissue used or mode of culture operation. Hairy root cultures inoculated with a transgenic TMV-based vector in batch culture accumulated green fluorescent protein (GFP); however, maximum GFP concentrations in the biomass were relatively low at 39 microg g(-1) dry weight, probably due to genetic instability of the vector. This work highlights the advantages of using hairy roots for in vitro propagation of TMV compared with shooty teratomas and suspended plant cells, and demonstrates that batch root culture is more effective than semi-continuous operations for accumulation of high virus concentrations in the biomass.

  1. Head losses prediction and analysis in a bulb turbine draft tube under different operating conditions using unsteady simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, S.; Balarac, G.; Métais, O.; Ségoufin, C.

    2016-11-01

    Flow prediction in a bulb turbine draft tube is conducted for two operating points using Unsteady RANS (URANS) simulations and Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The inlet boundary condition of the draft tube calculation is a rotating two dimensional velocity profile exported from a RANS guide vane- runner calculation. Numerical results are compared with experimental data in order to validate the flow field and head losses prediction. Velocity profiles prediction is improved with LES in the center of the draft tube compared to URANS results. Moreover, more complex flow structures are obtained with LES. A local analysis of the predicted flow field using the energy balance in the draft tube is then introduced in order to detect the hydrodynamic instabilities responsible for head losses in the draft tube. In particular, the production of turbulent kinetic energy next to the draft tube wall and in the central vortex structure is found to be responsible for a large part of the mean kinetic energy dissipation in the draft tube and thus for head losses. This analysis is used in order to understand the differences in head losses for different operating points. The numerical methodology could then be improved thanks to an in-depth understanding of the local flow topology.

  2. Microbial community structure of a starch-feeding fermentative hydrogen production reactor operated under different incubation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chin-Hung; Hung, Chun-Hsiung; Liau, Pei-Yu.; Liang, Chih-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 402 (China); Lee, Kuo-Shing [Department of Health and Safety and Environmental Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601 (China); Yang, Lee-Hao; Lin, Ping-Jei [Department Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish the particular biohydrogen-production related microbial community structure in a starch-feeding dark fermentation agitated granular sludge bed (AGSB) reactor which was operated under pH 6.0 and 5.5 as well as under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The bacterial community diversity and percent of their cell count of the bioreactor were ascertained using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) individually. Based on the comparison of bacterial structure and hydrogen production efficiency under different HRT, no conclusion could be made on whether the diversity of Clostridium community could directly affect the reactor performance in these two pH systems. However, bacterial cell counts showed that the viable number of dominated Clostridium sp. changed along with the hydrogen production rate (HPR). It was believed that it could directly affect the hydrogen production efficiency. The highest HPR and hydrogen yield (HY) occurred when the reactor was operated at HRT 0.5 h, while the ratio of Clostridium sp. cell count and Bifidobacterium sp. cell count over the total Eubacteria cell count were around 40% and 40-60%, respectively. Therefore, we suggested that bacterial species which could degrade starch, such as Bifidobacterium sp. in this study, broke down starch into small molecules first and then these less complex compounds were utilized by the Clostridium species for hydrogen production. (author)

  3. Fungal biofilters for toluene biofiltration: evaluation of the performance with four packing materials under different operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Gamisans, Xavier; Gabriel, David; Lafuente, Javier

    2007-03-01

    Packing materials play a key role in the performance of bioreactors for waste gas treatment and particularly in biofilter applications. In this work, the performance of four differently packed biofilters operated in parallel for the treatment of relatively high inlet concentration of toluene was studied. The reactors were compared for determining the suitability of coconut fiber, digested sludge compost from a waste water treatment plant, peat and pine leaves as packing materials for biofiltration of toluene. A deep characterisation of materials was carried out. Biological activity and packing capabilities related to toluene removal were determined throughout 240 days of operation under different conditions of nutrients addition and watering regime. Also, biofilters recovering after a short shutdown was investigated. Nutrient addition resulted in improved removal efficiencies (RE) and elimination capacities (EC) of biofilters reaching maximum ECs between 75 and 95 g m(-3)h(-1) of toluene. In the first 80 days, the pH decreased progressively within the reactors, causing a population change from bacteria to fungi, which were the predominant decontaminant microorganisms thereafter. All reactors were found to recover the RE rapidly after a 5 days shutdown and, in a maximum of 7 days, all reactors had been completely recuperated. These results point out that fungal biofilters are a suitable choice to treat high loads of toluene. In general, coconut fiber and compost biofilters exhibited a better performance in terms of elimination capacity and long-term stability.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Depending upon the load modes, the common modes of discharge (MOD of a battery identified so far are Constant Power Mode (CPM, Constant Current Mode (CCM and Constant Impedance Mode (CIM. This paper comparatively analyzes the discharging behavior of batteries at an individual cell level for different load modes. The difference in discharging behavior from mode to mode represents the study of the mode-dependent behavior of the battery before its deployment in some application. Based on simulation results, optimal capacity sizing and BMS operation of battery for an assumed situation in a remote microgrid has been proposed.

  5. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Restifo

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  6. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  7. Differential reinforcement and resistance to change of divided-attention performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Thrailkill, Eric; Shahan, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    ...., resistance to change). The present experiment examined resistance to change of divided-attention performance when different overall probabilities of reinforcement were arranged across two components of a multiple schedule...

  8. On the fine spectrum of the generalized difference operator B(r,s over the sequence spaces c0 and c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilâl Altay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We determine the fine spectrum of the generalized difference operator B(r,s defined by a band matrix over the sequence spaces c0 and c, and derive a Mercerian theorem. This generalizes our earlier work (2004 for the difference operator Δ, and includes as other special cases the right shift and the Zweier matrices.

  9. Distinction between Externally vs. Internally Guided Decision-Making: Operational Differences, Meta-Analytical Comparisons and Their Theoretical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Takashi; Ohira, Hideki; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Most experimental studies of decision-making have specifically examined situations in which a single less-predictable correct answer exists (externally guided decision-making under uncertainty). Along with such externally guided decision-making, there are instances of decision-making in which no correct answer based on external circumstances is available for the subject (internally guided decision-making). Such decisions are usually made in the context of moral decision-making as well as in preference judgment, where the answer depends on the subject's own, i.e., internal, preferences rather than on external, i.e., circumstantial, criteria. The neuronal and psychological mechanisms that allow guidance of decisions based on more internally oriented criteria in the absence of external ones remain unclear. This study was undertaken to compare decision-making of these two kinds empirically and theoretically. First, we reviewed studies of decision-making to clarify experimental-operational differences between externally guided and internally guided decision-making. Second, using multi-level kernel density analysis, a whole-brain-based quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies was performed. Our meta-analysis revealed that the neural network used predominantly for internally guided decision-making differs from that for externally guided decision-making under uncertainty. This result suggests that studying only externally guided decision-making under uncertainty is insufficient to account for decision-making processes in the brain. Finally, based on the review and results of the meta-analysis, we discuss the differences and relations between decision-making of these two types in terms of their operational, neuronal, and theoretical characteristics.

  10. Global performance parameters for different pneumatic bioreactors operating with water and glycerol solution: experimental data and CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G Y; Valverde-Ramírez, M; Mendes, C E; Béttega, R; Badino, A C

    2015-11-01

    Global variables play a key role in evaluation of the performance of pneumatic bioreactors and provide criteria to assist in system selection and design. The purpose of this work was to use experimental data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to determine the global performance parameters gas holdup ([Formula: see text]) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k L a), and conduct an analysis of liquid circulation velocity, for three different geometries of pneumatic bioreactors: bubble column, concentric-tube airlift, and split tube airlift. All the systems had 5 L working volumes and two Newtonian fluids of different viscosities were used in the experiments: distilled water and 10 cP glycerol solution. Considering the high oxygen demand in certain types of aerobic fermentations, the assays were carried out at high flow rates. In the present study, the performances of three pneumatic bioreactors with different geometries and operating with two different Newtonian fluids were compared. A new CFD modeling procedure was implemented, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The findings indicated that the concentric-tube airlift design was the best choice in terms of both gas holdup and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient. The CFD results for gas holdup were consistent with the experimental data, and indicated that k L a was strongly influenced by bubble diameter and shape.

  11. An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of International Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Liu

    International Digital Divide is an imbalance state of ICT penetration between countries. This paper analyzes the current status and trends of international digital divide, adopts Gompertz technology diffusion model to verify the determinants of ICT penetration level and diffusion rate separately. Finally, China should use "policy levers" to strengthen international trade cooperation, improve the capability of independent innovation, and achieve Chinese goal of bridging digital divide.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes for biogas production and its operational control performed by the modified ADM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haidong; Li, Han; Wang, Fengfei

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of different organic wastes for biogas production under variable operating conditions was simulated with a steady-state implementation of the modified IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), and an input-output feedback control system using the model as a test platform was developed. The main aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of organic wastes in the AD processes and manage to keep the processes stable based on the results of simulation. The two important operating factors, solid retention time (SRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) (or the ratio of input flows for co-digestion), were investigated. Anaerobic digestion of biowaste was characterized with lower biogas production and instability of the processes, especially at OLR 2.5 kgCOD/m(3)·d or more, although longer SRT could increase the biogas production. Moreover, the co-substrate composed of biowaste and corn silage would lead to instability of the processes and much lower biogas production. Biowaste was, however, preferable to be co-digested with manures of living stock or sewage sludge. Manure could contribute to the stability of the AD processes, and its co-substrates with organic wastes rich in carbohydrates such as biowaste and corn silage would improve the biogas production and the proportion of methane. Longer SRTs would improve the biogas production from manure as well as its co-substrates except the co-substrate with biowaste as the production was not distinctly raised. The test of the developed input-output feedback control system showed that the control system could reject a realistic set of random disturbances and keep the AD processes stable under the desired operational conditions with a minimal use of measurement facilities.

  13. An Optical Power Divider Based on Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesri, Nazanin; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an optical power divider with one input and four outputs has been proposed in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with triangular lattice and simulated using dielectric holes in an air substrate. The dividing properties of the power divider have been numerically simulated and analyzed using the plane wave expansion and finite difference time domain methods. The results show that the transmittance of this divider can be as high as 94.22 % for λ=1.55 µm; thus, the proposed structure is suitable for wavelength division multiplexing communication systems. Also, due to the small footprint of the proposed structure, this optical power divider is applicable for optical-integrated circuit design.

  14. Single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry unequal power divider based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons of bow-tie cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongle Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs transmission line (TL of periodical grooved bow-tie cells is proposed. The complex propagation constant and characteristic impedance of the SSPPs TLs and microstrip lines (MLs are extracted using the analytical method of generalized lossy TL theory. The properties of the SSPPs TLs with different substrates and the same geometrical configuration are experimented. Then, for comparison, two ML counterparts are also experimented, which shows that the SSPPs TL is less sensitive to the thickness, dielectric constant and loss tangent of the chosen substrate below the cutoff frequency, compared with the ML ones. The single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry unequal power divider based on this SSPPs TL is presented in microwave frequencies. For experimental validation, the 0-dB, 2-dB, and 5-dB power dividers are designed, fabricated, and measured. Both simulated and measured results verify that the unequal power divider is a flexible option, which offers massive advantages including single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry structures, wide-band operation, and convenient implementations of different power-dividing ratios. Hence, it can be expected that the proposed unequal power dividers will inspire further researches on SSPPs for future design of novel planar passive and active microwave components, circuits and systems.

  15. Single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry unequal power divider based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons of bow-tie cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongle; Li, Mingxing; Yan, Guangyou; Deng, Li; Liu, Yuanan; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) transmission line (TL) of periodical grooved bow-tie cells is proposed. The complex propagation constant and characteristic impedance of the SSPPs TLs and microstrip lines (MLs) are extracted using the analytical method of generalized lossy TL theory. The properties of the SSPPs TLs with different substrates and the same geometrical configuration are experimented. Then, for comparison, two ML counterparts are also experimented, which shows that the SSPPs TL is less sensitive to the thickness, dielectric constant and loss tangent of the chosen substrate below the cutoff frequency, compared with the ML ones. The single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry unequal power divider based on this SSPPs TL is presented in microwave frequencies. For experimental validation, the 0-dB, 2-dB, and 5-dB power dividers are designed, fabricated, and measured. Both simulated and measured results verify that the unequal power divider is a flexible option, which offers massive advantages including single-conductor co-planar quasi-symmetry structures, wide-band operation, and convenient implementations of different power-dividing ratios. Hence, it can be expected that the proposed unequal power dividers will inspire further researches on SSPPs for future design of novel planar passive and active microwave components, circuits and systems.

  16. Assessment of functional state and adaptation reserves of machine operators in agriculture with different work experience in the profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Raikin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of hemodynamic parameters’ evaluation (blood pressure, heart rate, minute volume of blood, total peripheral vascular resistance and adaptation (adaptive capacity of the circulatory system, the index of physical condition, body mass index to job strains in machine operators of agriculture with a different experience in the profession are presented. It was found that 27 % of the patients – machine operators were in a state of unsatisfactory adaptation and 18.8 % in the state of failure of adaptation options when functional body reserves were sharply reduced, indicating that the work in hazardous conditions resulted in a significant deterioration of the functional state of exhaustion and adaptation reserves. It was found that the professional experience of 10 years or more is a risk factor for the health of machine workers in agriculture, causing the violation of functional state and exhaustion of adaptive reserves of an organism, as evidenced by a statistically significant correlation between the indicators of functional status and work experience in the profession.

  17. Hot Corrosion Studies of HVOF-Sprayed Coating on T-91 Boiler Tube Steel at Different Operating Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Singh, Hazoor; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the usefulness of high velocity oxy fuel-sprayed 75% Cr3C2-25% (Ni-20Cr) coating to control hot corrosion of T-91 boiler tube steel at different operating temperatures viz 550, 700, and 850 °C. The deposited coatings on the substrates exhibit nearly uniform, adherent and dense microstructure with porosity less than 2%. Thermogravimetry technique is used to study the high temperature hot corrosion behavior of uncoated and coated samples. The corrosion products of the coating on the substrate are analyzed by using XRD, SEM, and FE-SEM/EDAX to reveal their microstructural and compositional features for the corrosion mechanisms. It is found that the coated specimens have shown minimum weight gain at all the operating temperatures when compared with uncoated T-91 samples. Hence, coating is effective in decreasing the corrosion rate in the given molten salt environment. Oxides and spinels of nickel-chromium may be the reason for successful resistance against hot corrosion.

  18. High Power Combiner/Divider Design for Dual Band RF Power Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Flattery, Kyle; Amin, Shoaib; Rönnow, Daniel; Mahamat, Yaya; Eroglu, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Design of low loss with an enhanced thermal profile power divider/combiner for high power dual-band Radio Frequency (RF) power amplifier applications is given. The practical implementation, low loss and substrate characteristics make this type of combiner ideal for high power microwave applications.  The combiner operational frequencies are chosen to operate at 900 MHz and 2.14 GHz, which are common frequencies for concurrent dual band RF power amplifiers. The analytical results are verified ...

  19. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators.

  20. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. To lag or not to lag? How to compare indices of stock markets that operate on different times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Leonidas

    2014-06-01

    Financial markets worldwide do not have the same working hours. As a consequence, the study of correlation or causality between financial market indices becomes dependent on whether we should use all indices on the same day or lagged indices in computations of correlation matrices. The answer this article proposes is that we should consider both, by representing original and lagged indices in the same network. We then obtain a better understanding of how indices that operate on different hours relate to each other. We use a diverse range of 79 stock market indices from around the world and study their correlation structure, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of their correlations under different time periods and volatility, as well as the differences between the working hours of the stock exchanges in order to analyze the possible time zone effects and suggest ways to remove them. We also analyze the enlarged correlation matrix obtained from original and lagged indices and examine a network structure derived from it, thus showing connections between lagged and original indices that could not be well represented before.

  2. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  3. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  4. The Digital Divide in Health Education: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don

    2008-01-01

    Although e-health interventions provide new opportunities for health education, there has been cause for concern regarding the purported information technology gap between those who have access to digital applications and those who do not--termed the "digital divide." The literature suggests, however, that this divide may now be illusory, driven…

  5. Distance Education and the Digital Divide: An Academic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Judy

    2010-01-01

    This paper will address how the digital divide affects distance education. Lack of access for some students does raise concerns. Access to technology is often defined by what students don't have: what is called a digital divide. Access also is defined by the speed of Internet connections. Access in the future will be even greater as more computers…

  6. Bridging the Digital Divide--An Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the lack of access to information and communication technology (ICT) or the "digital divide" severely limits education, employment and economic prospects. This paper reports on the evaluation of a project that aims to bridge the digital divide. In particular, the case study data has been used to bring to…

  7. Evaluation of Fatih Project in the Frame of Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research realized at the general survey model is to evaluate "FATIH Project" in the frame of digital divide by determining the effects of the distributed tablets to the students being educated at K-12 schools on digital divide. Sample is taking from the 9th grade students in Sakarya city in the 2013-2014 academic session.…

  8. Rethinking the Digital Divide: Impacts on Student-Tutor Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jean D. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article emerged from a series of debates and workshops on the impact of the Digital Divide on educational practice at the "Futures of Learning: New Learning Paradigms Conference" in Paris. The conceptualisation of the Digital Divide into the "haves" and the "have-nots", with a perception of the economically…

  9. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  10. Crossing the Phantom divide line in the Chaplygin gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, H Mohseni

    2009-01-01

    The role of the interaction in crossing the phantom divide line in the Chaplygin gas model is discussed. We obtain some general properties of the interactions that allow the model to arrive at the phantom divide line. We show that these properties put some conditions on the ratio of dark matter to dark energy density.

  11. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  12. Pricing derivatives under Lévy models modern finite-difference and pseudo-differential operators approach

    CERN Document Server

    Itkin, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents a novel numerical approach to solving partial integro-differential equations arising in asset pricing models with jumps, which greatly exceeds the efficiency of existing approaches. The method, based on pseudo-differential operators and several original contributions to the theory of finite-difference schemes, is new as applied to the Lévy processes in finance, and is herein presented for the first time in a single volume. The results within, developed in a series of research papers, are collected and arranged together with the necessary background material from Lévy processes, the modern theory of finite-difference schemes, the theory of M-matrices and EM-matrices, etc., thus forming a self-contained work that gives the reader a smooth introduction to the subject. For readers with no knowledge of finance, a short explanation of the main financial terms and notions used in the book is given in the glossary. The latter part of the book demonstrates the efficacy of the method by solvin...

  13. Dynamics of nitrogen transformation depending on different operational strategies in laboratory-scale tidal flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yongjiang; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Tao; Mazur, Robert; Pang, Changle; Dong, Renjie

    2014-07-15

    The influence of different flooded/drained (F/D) time ratios and different effluent flow rates on the dynamics of nitrogen transformations in three laboratory-scale tidal flow constructed wetland systems (TFCWs-A, B, and C) under varying NH4(+)-N and COD influent loadings was investigated in this study. Good organic matter removal performance up to 90% was achieved for all experimental TFCWs under inflow concentrations of 300 and 150 mg/L regardless of F/D and effluent flow rate. The ammonium removal efficiency of wetland with F/D=3h:3h (55%) was higher than that of the wetland with F/D=5h:1h (47%) under an ammonium inflow concentration of 60 mg/L, indicating the positive effect of longer drained and shorter flooded time on tidal-operated wetlands under nitrification. In addition, more uniform oxygen distribution and better nitrification capacity within the wetland might be achieved with a relatively slow effluent flow rate of 0.025 L/s. TFCWs were shown to be a robust and reliable option to achieve high TN removal of 70% due to its repeated cycle of "wet" and "dry" periods, particularly for the treatment of wastewater with high organic content. Moreover, F/D and effluent flow rates of tidal flow constructed wetlands exhibited no significant effect on phosphorus removal in this study. Other techniques, such as pretreatment or post treatment, require further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of operating conditions in production of diagnostic Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody in different bioreactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz-Tamis, Duygu; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Elibol, Murat; Deliloglu-Gurhan, Saime Ismet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, different cultivation systems such as roller bottles (RB), 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor (STR), and disposable bioreactors were used to cultivate hybridoma for lab-scale production of Salmonella Enteritidis O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb). Hybridoma cell line was cultivated in either serum-containing or serum-free medium (SFM) culture conditions. In STR, MAb production scaled up to 4 L, and production capabilities of the cells were also evaluated in different featured production systems. Moreover, the growth parameters of the cells in all production systems such as glucose consumption, lactate and ammonia production, and also MAb productivities were determined. Collected supernatants from the reactors were concentrated by a cross-flow filtration system. In conclusion, cells were not adapted to SFM in RB and STR. Therefore, less MAb titer in both STR and RB systems with SFM was observed compared to the cultures containing fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium. A higher MAb titer was gained in the membrane-aerated system compared to those in STR and RB. Although the highest MAb titer was obtained in the static membrane bioreactor system, the highest productivity was obtained in STR operated in semicontinuous mode with overlay aeration.

  15. Modelling of tubular-designed solid oxide fuel cell with indirect internal reforming operation fed by different primary fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmaingam, P.; Assabumrungrat, S.; Soottitantawat, A.; Laosiripojana, N.

    Mathematical models of an indirect internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (IIR-SOFC) fed by four different primary fuels, i.e., methane, biogas, methanol and ethanol, are developed based on steady-state, heterogeneous, two-dimensional and tubular-design SOFC models. The effect of fuel type on the thermal coupling between internal endothermic reforming with exothermic electrochemical reactions and system performance are determined. The simulation reveals that an IIR-SOFC fuelled by methanol provides the smoothest temperature gradient with high electrochemical efficiency. Furthermore, the content of CO 2 in biogas plays an important role on system performance since electrical efficiency is improved by the removal of some CO 2 from biogas but a larger temperature gradient is expected. Sensitivity analysis of three parameters, namely, a operating pressure, inlet steam to carbon (S:C) ratio and flow direction is then performed. By increasing the operating pressure up to 10 bar, the system efficiency increases and the temperature gradient can be minimized. The use of a high inlet S:C ratio reduces the cooling spot at the entrance of reformer channel but the electrical efficiency is considerably decreased. An IIR-SOFC with a counter-flow pattern (as based case) is compared with that with co-flow pattern (co-flow of air and fuel streams through fuel cell). The IIR-SOFC with co-flow pattern provides higher voltage and a smoother temperature gradient along the system due to superior matching between heat supplied from electrochemical reaction and heat required for steam reforming reaction; thus it is expected to be a better option for practical applications.

  16. Correlation between scatter radiation dose at the height of the operators eye and dose to patient for different angiographies projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, F.; Nogueira, M. S.; Da Silva, T. A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Post-graduation in Sciences and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos No. 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Gubolino, L.; Pivetta, M. R. [Hospital dos Fornecedores de Cana de Piracicaba, Av. Barao de Valenca 616, 13405-233 Piracicaba (Brazil); Ubeda, C., E-mail: leyton.fernando@gmail.com [Tarapaca University, Health Sciences Faculty, Radiological Sciences Center, Av. Gral. Velasquez 1775, 1000007 Arica, Arica and Parinacota (Chile)

    2015-10-15

    Cases of radiation induced cataract among cardiology professionals have been reported in studies. In view of evidence of radiation injuries, the ICRP recommends limiting the radiation dose to the lens to 20 mSv per year for occupational exposure. The aim of this works was to report scattered radiation doses at the height of the operators eye in an interventional cardiology facility from procedures performed without use of radiation protection devices, correlated with different angiographic projections and operational modes. Measurements were made in a cardiac laboratory with an angiography X-ray system GE equipped with flat-panel detector. PMMA plates of 30 x 30 x 5 cm were used to simulate a patient with a thickness of 20 cm. Two fluoroscopy modes (low and normal, 15 frame/s), cine mode 15 frame/s. Four angiographic projections anterior posterior (Ap), lateral (Lat), left anterior oblique caudal (spider) and left anterior oblique cranial (Lao-45/cra-30) and a cardiac protocol for patient between 70 to 90 kg was used. Measurements of phantom entrance doses rate and scatter doses rate were performed with two Unfors Xi plus. The detector measuring scatter radiation was positioned at the usual distance of the cardiologists eyes during working conditions (1 m from the isocenter and 1.7 m from the floor). There is a good linear correlation between the kerma-area product and scatter dose at the lens. An experimental correlation factor of 2.3; 12.0; 12.2 and 17.6 μSv/Gy cm{sup 2} were found for the Ap, Lao/cra, spider and Lat projections, respectively. The entrance dose of PMMA for fluoroscopy low, medium and cine was 13, 39 and 282 mGy/min, respectively to Ap. (Author)

  17. Expanding the Applicability of a Third Order Newton-Type Method Free of Bilinear Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Amat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the semilocal convergence, using centered hypotheses, of a third order Newton-type method in a Banach space setting. The method is free of bilinear operators and then interesting for the solution of systems of equations. Without imposing any type of Fréchet differentiability on the operator, a variant using divided differences is also analyzed. A variant of the method using only divided differences is also presented.

  18. Vertical flow-constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment under tropical conditions: effect of different design and operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the treatment of domestic wastewater to find the optimum vertical flow-constructed wetland (VFCW) configuration under tropical conditions. Eight pilot-scale configurations units were studied to compare between fine sand and medium gravel used as substrate, two feeding frequencies (20 pulses d(-1) and 10 pulses d(-1)), and the presence or absence of tropical plants (Heliconia psittacorum). The results showed that the sand beds were significantly more efficient in the removal of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, and total suspended solids than gravel beds, presenting average removal rates of 48 and 24 g m(-2) d(-1) of COD; 35 and 16 g m(-2) d(-1) of BOD5; 7 and 4 g m(-2) d(-1) of [Formula: see text]; 9 and 0 g m(-2) d(-1) for sand and gravel, respectively. The oxygen consumption rates were calculated and a value of 65 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained for sand beds while for the gravel beds the consumption rate was 30 g m(-2 )d(-1). The assessment of different kinds of nitrogen showed interesting dynamics in the nitrification processes. The presence of H. psittacorum showed positive effects in the total nitrogen (TN) removal. The different loading frequencies applied did not show significant statistical differences in the removal of the tested contaminants. Preliminary results were found in the pathogen removal, where the sand is favorable as the substrate. This work represents the first step in the research of optimum VFWC design and operation parameters for Colombia as well as the use of plants of the genus Heliconia.

  19. Divided They Stand: Managing Diversity in Belgium’s Divided Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    French occupation heightened some awareness of the differences between the Beiges Flamand and Beiges Wallon . Despite this, no one referred to a...thought regarding history and its impact on Fleming-Walloon relations. One of these, the "Belgicist" view, was espoused by the Belgian historian Henri

  20. The robotics divide a new frontier in the 21st century?

    CERN Document Server

    López Peláez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Analyzes how robotics will shape our societies in the twenty-first century; a time when industrial and service robotics, particularly for military and aerospace purposes, will become an essential technology Examines an emerging divide: the "robotics divide"; a phenomenon linked to the model to integrate advanced robotics in economic, social and military spheres Focuses on the main technological trends in the field of robotics, and the impact that robotics will have on different facets of social life

  1. The Influence of Selective and Divided Attention on Audiovisual Integration in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping; Ren, Yanna; Yang, Dan Ou; Yuan, Xue; Wu, Jinglong

    2016-01-24

    This article aims to investigate whether there is a difference in audiovisual integration in school-aged children (aged 6 to 13 years; mean age = 9.9 years) between the selective attention condition and divided attention condition. We designed a visual and/or auditory detection task that included three blocks (divided attention, visual-selective attention, and auditory-selective attention). The results showed that the response to bimodal audiovisual stimuli was faster than to unimodal auditory or visual stimuli under both divided attention and auditory-selective attention conditions. However, in the visual-selective attention condition, no significant difference was found between the unimodal visual and bimodal audiovisual stimuli in response speed. Moreover, audiovisual behavioral facilitation effects were compared between divided attention and selective attention (auditory or visual attention). In doing so, we found that audiovisual behavioral facilitation was significantly difference between divided attention and selective attention. The results indicated that audiovisual integration was stronger in the divided attention condition than that in the selective attention condition in children. Our findings objectively support the notion that attention can modulate audiovisual integration in school-aged children. Our study might offer a new perspective for identifying children with conditions that are associated with sustained attention deficit, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  2. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2017-06-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  4. Microbial community changes during different empty bed residence times and operational fluctuations in an air diffusion reactor for odor abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Elisa; García-Encina, Pedro A; Muñoz, Raúl; Lebrero, Raquel

    2017-03-08

    The succession of bacterial and fungal populations was assessed in an activated sludge (AS) diffusion bioreactor treating a synthetic malodorous emission containing H2S, toluene, butanone and alpha-pinene. Microbial community characteristics (bacterial and fungal diversity, richness, evenness and composition) and bioreactor function relationships were evaluated at different empty bed residence times (EBRTs) and after process fluctuations and operational failures (robustness test). For H2S, butanone and toluene, the bioreactor showed a stable and efficient abatement performance regardless of the EBRT and fluctuations applied, while low alpha-pinene removals were observed. While no clear positive or negative relationship between community characteristics and bioreactor functions was observed, ecological parameters such as evenness and community dynamics seemed to be of importance for maintaining reactor stability. The optimal degree of evenness of the inoculum likely contributed to the high robustness of the system towards the fluctuations imposed. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Fungi (Hypocreales, Chaeatothyriales) were the most abundant groups retrieved from the AS system with a putative key role in the degradation of butanone and toluene. Typical H2S and alpha-pinene degraders were not retrieved from the system. The inoculation of P. fluorescens, a known alpha-pinene degrader, to the system did not result in the enhancement of the degradation of this compound. This strain was likely outcompeted by the microorganisms already adapted to the AS environment.

  5. Direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC): Electrical performances and reaction products distribution under operating conditions with different platinum-based anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, S.; Coutanceau, C.; Lamy, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, -Equipe Electrocatalyse- UMR-CNRS 6503, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2006-07-14

    Ethanol electro-oxidation at different Pt-based electrodes was investigated in a single direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) in terms of reaction product distribution depending on the anode catalyst. In DEFC experiments, only three reaction products were detected using HPLC: acetaldehyde (AAL), acetic acid (AA) and CO{sub 2}. The addition of tin to platinum increases the activity of the catalyst by several order of magnitude and the electrical performance of the DEFC are greatly enhanced from a few mWcm{sup -2} to 30mWcm{sup -2} at 80{sup o}C, with Pt/C and Pt-Sn/C catalysts, respectively. Moreover, at Pt-Sn/C and Pt-Sn-Ru/C the formation of CO{sub 2} and AAL is lowered whereas the formation of AA is increased in comparison to what happens at a Pt/C catalyst. The addition of Ru to Pt-Sn only leads to enhance the electrical performance of the DEFC, i.e. the activity of the catalyst, but does not modify the product distribution. Very good stability in the open circuit voltage of the DEFC (close to 0.75V) was observed over a period of 2 weeks at 90{sup o}C, the cell undergoing start-run-stop cycles each day. Good stability under operating conditions at a given current density was also observed over 6h. (author)

  6. Continuous glucose monitoring system in the operating room and intensive care unit: any difference according to measurement sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Eun; Park, Yang-Hyo; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-02-01

    Given the benefit of glucose control in the perioperative period, we evaluated the accuracy and performance of the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) depending on different measurement sites in the operating room (OR) and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients over 18 years of age scheduled for elective surgery and ICU admission were enrolled prospectively. Two CGMS sensors were inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the proximal lateral thigh and the lateral abdomen. The rate of successful measurements from thigh and abdomen in the OR and in the ICU were calculated separately. Each CGMS values were compared with the time-matched arterial blood glucose measurements. CGMS values from both measurement sites were also compared. A total of 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgeries were studied. The rate of successful measurements was higher in the ICU (73.2 %) than in the OR (66.0 %) (P = 0.01); however, that from thigh (72.9 %) and from abdomen (58.7 %) showed statistically significant difference only in the OR (P = 0.04). The Pearson correlation coefficient of thigh and abdomen versus arterial values was 0.67 and 0.60, respectively (P < 0.001). In Clarke error grid analysis, 94.6 % (89.3 % in the OR and 96.1 % in the ICU) of values from thigh fell into clinically acceptable zones compared to 93.7 % (89.0 % in the OR and 95.4 % in the ICU) from abdomen. There were no statistically significant differences in the accuracy according to measurement sites. The CGMS showed high measurement failure rate, especially in the OR. In the OR, the rate of successful measurement was higher from thigh than from abdomen. The CGMS showed low accuracy compared to arterial reference values. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the accuracy of the CGMS between two measurement sites. Perioperative performance of the CGMS still needs to be improved considering relatively low successful measurement rates.

  7. Divided countries, divided mind 1: psycho-social issues in adaptation problems of north korean defectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung Kil

    2008-03-01

    A review of studies on the adaptation problems of North Korean defectors in South Korean society and studies of people's adaptation to political and cultural changes in other countries suggests that similar adaptation problems may occur in the process of and after unification. Defectors have various adaptation problems and some of them have psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The reasons for this were revealed to be the difference in the culture and personality between South and North Korea, which have developed for the last 60 years without any communication with each other, in spite of their common racial and cultural heritage. Economic factors including the lack of skills and knowledge for working at industrialized and competitive society like South Korean society, also aggravate the severity of such adaptation problems. Research on defectors' adaptation problems and on the differences in the culture and mentality between North and South Korea can provide useful information on what kinds of problems may arise during the process of and after unification and what should be done to achieve mutual adaptation and harmonious and peaceful unification.

  8. A Line Dividing "Trademark License" and "Trademark Infringement"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Shaojie

    2004-01-01

    @@ Opinions are not divided on in fringement by another person's use of a registered trademark without license from the trademark registrant,nor on the non-infringement by its/his licensed use of a registered trademark.

  9. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  10. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  11. An improved fractional divider for fractional-N frequency synthesizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yongqi

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an improved fractional divider used in 1.8~2GHz fractional-N frequency synthesizers. A new clock setting for delta-sigma modulator (DSM) is proposed to prevent the potential problems of traditional fractional dividers: the DSM output would be wrongly loaded and the action of DSM circuit may affect the phase-detection of phase-frequency-detector (PFD). Simulation result shows the effectiveness of this improvement.

  12. Agile Development & Software Architecture - Crossing the Great Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    2010 Carnegie Mellon University SEI Webinar Series: Agile Development & Software Architecture – Crossing the Great Divide Software Engineering...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Agile Development & Software Architecture - Crossing the Great Divide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Mellon University , Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  13. An InGaAs/InP 40 GHz CML static frequency divider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yongbo; Jin Zhi; Cheng Wei; Ge Ji; Wang Xiantai; Chen Gaopeng; Liu Xinyu; Xu Anhuai; Qi Ming

    2011-01-01

    Static frequency dividers are widely used as a circuit performance benchmark or figure-of-merit indicator to gauge a particular device technology's ability to implement high speed digital and integrated high performance mixed-signal circuits.We report a 2:1 static frequency divider in InGaAs/InP heterojunction bipolar transistor technology.This is the first InP based digital integrated circuit ever reported on the mainland of China.The divider is implemented in differential current mode logic (CML) with 30 transistors.The circuit operated at a peak clock frequency of 40 GHz and dissipated 650 mW from a single -5 V supply.

  14. Comparison of two different doses of dexmedetomidine infusion on post-operative pain and sedation in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Tiwari

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The perioperative infusion of Dex may be an attractive option during laparoscopic surgery as it, offered better control of intraoperative and post-operative hemodynamics, and decreased post-operative pain level and better sedation scores, as compared with control. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1052-1056

  15. Development of a new lower hybrid antenna module using a poloidal power divider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao; Seki, Masami; Suganuma, Kazuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The antenna using poloidal power divider is an effective method for simplification of Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) antenna system. This method should allow to reduce the power density in the antenna while maintaining a good flexibility of N{sub parallel} spectrum of waves. For this purpose, three types of poloidal power divider which split the power in three, and the 3 x 6 multi-junction module were developed. r.f. properties and outgassing of these components were evaluated using the CEA Cadarache RF Test Facility. A good power dividing ratio of 33 {+-} 4% was obtained for each of these poloidal dividers, and the reflection coefficient was lower value than 1.5%. For the 3 x 6 multi-junction, reflection coefficient was less than 1.3% and r.f. losses lower than 1.0% were measured. On the other hand, it was found in the scattering matrix analysis that reflection coefficient at plasma has to be less than a few % in order to operate these components under available conditions. In combination with two poloidal power dividers connected to the 3 x 6 multi-junction module, quasi stationary operation for r.f. injection time of 1000 sec at 300 kW was demonstrated under water cooling. In this case, it was found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 10{sup -7}Pam{sup 3}s{sup -1}m{sup -2} within the maximum module temperature of {approx}100degC. This report describes the experimental and analytical results of a new lower hybrid (LH) antenna module using the poloidal power divider. (author)

  16. INFLUENCE AT DIFFERENT OPERATION CONDITIONS ON THE ACEROLA JUICE CONCENTRATION BY REVERSE OSMOSIS, USING SPIRAL MEMBRANE OF COMPOSITE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R.S. GOMES

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The concentration of acerola juice, involves removal of water with the objective of reducing packing, storage and transport costs. The reverse osmosis (RO is a process of increasing interest in food industry and among the advantages they stand out: the low consumption of energy and the minimum thermal damages is caused to the products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different operation conditions in relation to the permeate flux, in the concentration process of the acerola juice by RO. All the RO experiments were carried out with retentate recycling. The concentration by RO, were carried on the transmembrane pressures of 20, 30 and 40 bar and at 23ºC and 40ºC, being used a membrane of composite film in spiral module (99% NaCl rejection. The acerola pulp was defrosted and treated with Citrozym Ultra L enzyme (100 ppm, 45ºC ,1 hour, then it was ultrafiltrated at 3 bar at the same temperature, in 0.1 µm ceramic membrane, and so it was concentrated by RO. It was verified that the pressure and the temperature influenced the concentration and the permeate flux obtained in the RO process. The flux decreased along the processing, once the feeding becomes more concentrate, increasing the viscosity, osmotic pressure and retained sugar. KEYWORDS: Acerola juice concentration; reverse osmosis; membrane of composite film.

  17. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  18. Generation of five phase-locked harmonics by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider

    CERN Document Server

    Suhaimi, Nurul Sheeda; Gavara, Trivikramarao; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Hong, Feng Lei; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We report the generation of five phase-locked harmonics, f_1: 2403 nm, f_2: 1201 nm, f_3: 801 nm, f_4: 600 nm, and f_5: 480 nm with an exact frequency ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 by implementing a divide-by-three optical-frequency divider in the high harmonic generation process. All five harmonics are generated coaxially with high phase coherence in time and space, which are applicable for various practical uses.

  19. ANALYSIS OF ENERGOTECHNOLOGICAL REGIMES OF THE BLAST STEEL-FUMACE OPERATING AT USING OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BURDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshpolskij

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that analysis of heat balances in most cases allows to determine efficiency of furnace working and to control the processes and operate the thermal regime in narrow limits of parameters changing as well.

  20. Consolidation of Science Education in Ethnically Divided Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šorgo, Andrej; Živkovic, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Because of war and civil war on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, education in ethnically divided country has become fragmented. Because of postwar divisions thirteen different ministries of education or similar bodies are responsible for education, resulting in inefficiency and low quality. To overcome differences, a committee of experts…

  1. [Promoting nursing competitiveness: introduction to the digital divide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly sophisticated information technology (IT) has widened the gap (the so-called "digital divide") between those with effective access to IT resources and those without. Problems related to the digital divide exist in every country. In addition to level of familiarity with technology, the divide can also be influenced by factors of race, gender, age, education, economic status and area of residence. The digital divide may be ameliorated through technology innovations in terms of access to information, information application and information literacy. As IT is an increasingly significant component of modern healthcare, it may be expected that the "width" of the potential gap widens as IT applications increase in sophistication. Nursing professionals must keep abreast of advancing technologies in order to narrow the digital divide. To cope with this challenge, nursing professionals should enhance their understanding of new technologies beyond what is taught in formal education curricula. This knowledge enhancement may be attained through self learning or on-the-job training in nursing informatics. Content could cover hospital information system (IS) usage, security, applications and web access. This will improve the ability of nursing staff to face the current IT challenge.

  2. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.

  3. Two-phase refrigerant distribution in a combining/dividing header of a brazed aluminum evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nae Hyun; Byun, Ho Won; Go, Min Geon [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    For a brazed aluminum evaporator, it is very important to distribute the refrigerant (especially the liquid) evenly into each channel. If not, the liquid-deficient channel will be soon dry, and reduce the thermal performance of the evaporator. In this study, tests were conducted for a two pass evaporator having 10 combing channels and 14 dividing channels. Both lower and upper header configurations were considered. Effects of mass flux or vapor quality on flow distribution in the combining/dividing header were investigated. Data are also compared with those obtained from the header having 12 dividing channels. In the lower combining/dividing header, the effect of dividing header length on liquid distribution is different based on vapor quality. The centrifugal force, whose strength depends on header length and vapor quality, appears to play a significant role on flow distribution. In the upper combining/dividing header, the flow distribution is better for the header having shorter header length. The reason was attributed to more uniform height of the liquid pool, which is formed by the drained liquid film from top of the header. The effects of mass flux or vapor quality on flow distribution are also discussed.

  4. An Overview of Android Operating System and Its Security Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Android operating system is one of the most widely used operating system these days. Android Operating System is mainly divided into four main layers: the kernel, libraries, application framework and applications. Its kernel is based on Linux. Linux kernel is used to manage core system services such as virtual memory, networking, drivers, and power management. In these paper different features of architecture of Android OS as well security features of Android OS are discussed.

  5. Transition State Theory for dissipative systems without a dividing surface

    CERN Document Server

    Revuelta, F; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2015-01-01

    Transition State Theory is a central cornerstone in reaction dynamics. Its key step is the identification of a dividing surface that is crossed only once by all reactive trajectories. This assumption is often badly violated, especially when the reactive system is coupled to an environment. The calculations made in this way then overestimate the reaction rate and the results depend critically on the choice of the dividing surface. In this Letter, we study the phase space of a stochastically driven system close to an energetic barrier in order to identify the geometric structure unambiguously determining the reactive trajectories, which is then incorporated in a simple rate formula for reactions in condensed phase that is both independent of the dividing surface and exact.

  6. Bridging the Digital Divide for urban seniors: community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults resources for improving health. For many older adults, the "Digital Divide" (the social, economic, and demographic factors that exist between individuals who use computers and those who do not) is a barrier to taking advantage of these resources. Bridging the Digital Divide by making computers and the Internet more accessible and making online health information more usable for older adults has the potential to improve health of older adults. This article describes a strategy for closing the Digital Divide for urban seniors through the formation of a community- university partnership with the goal of improving health and well-being through the use of online health information.

  7. Ouroboros: A Tool for Building Generic, Hybrid, Divide& Conquer Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J R; Foster, I

    2003-05-01

    A hybrid divide and conquer algorithm is one that switches from a divide and conquer to an iterative strategy at a specified problem size. Such algorithms can provide significant performance improvements relative to alternatives that use a single strategy. However, the identification of the optimal problem size at which to switch for a particular algorithm and platform can be challenging. We describe an automated approach to this problem that first conducts experiments to explore the performance space on a particular platform and then uses the resulting performance data to construct an optimal hybrid algorithm on that platform. We implement this technique in a tool, ''Ouroboros'', that automatically constructs a high-performance hybrid algorithm from a set of registered algorithms. We present results obtained with this tool for several classical divide and conquer algorithms, including matrix multiply and sorting, and report speedups of up to six times achieved over non-hybrid algorithms.

  8. Bridging the Operational Divide: An Information-Processing Model of Internal Supply Chain Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado Feger, Ana L.

    2009-01-01

    Supply Chain Management, the coordination of upstream and downstream flows of product, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer, has risen in prominence over the past fifteen years. The delivery of a product to the consumer is a complex process requiring action from several independent entities. An individual firm consists…

  9. Bridging the Operational Divide: An Information-Processing Model of Internal Supply Chain Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado Feger, Ana L.

    2009-01-01

    Supply Chain Management, the coordination of upstream and downstream flows of product, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer, has risen in prominence over the past fifteen years. The delivery of a product to the consumer is a complex process requiring action from several independent entities. An individual firm consists…

  10. 爱护佳手消毒液不同消毒方法在术前应用的比较分析%Comparative research about application effects of different hand prepping by avagard before the operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳玲; 杨绮莉; 王耀兰; 黎穗

    2010-01-01

    Objective To know the application effects of two different hand prepping by avagard before the operation.Methods Divided operation-actors into the experimental group (121 cases) and the control group (116 cases)randomly.Kneading hand prepping by 9200 and 9230 avagard was used in the experimental group, while the brushing by 9241- D and 9250 was used in the control group.Compared the effects between the two groups.Results There was no significant difference about disinfection effects between the two groups, while the compliance of kneading hand prepping was more better than the other hand prepping method.Condusions Kneading hand prepping by avagard 9200 should be used before surgical operation.%目的 比较3M公司生产的2种爱护佳手消毒液在外科手消毒中的应用效果.方法 将参加手术的医护人员随机分为实验组121例和对照组116例.实验组的手消毒采用揉搓法,手消毒液为9200+9230.对照组的手消毒采用刷手法,消毒液为9241-D+9250.比较2组手消毒效果.结果 2组手消毒效果比较无显著差异,但揉搓法更加人性化,操作者的依从性更高.结论 在外科手消毒时建议使用9200+9230手消毒液揉搓消毒的方法.

  11. Evolution operator equation: Integration with algebraic and finite difference methods. Applications to physical problems in classical and quantum mechanics and quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Torre, Amalia [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Ottaviani, Pier Luigi [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy); Vasquez, Luis [Madris, Univ. Complutense (Spain). Dept. de Matemateca Aplicado

    1997-10-01

    The finite-difference based integration method for evolution-line equations is discussed in detail and framed within the general context of the evolution operator picture. Exact analytical methods are described to solve evolution-like equations in a quite general physical context. The numerical technique based on the factorization formulae of exponential operator is then illustrated and applied to the evolution-operator in both classical and quantum framework. Finally, the general view to the finite differencing schemes is provided, displaying the wide range of applications from the classical Newton equation of motion to the quantum field theory.

  12. Influence of two different surgical techniques on the difficulty of impacted lower third molar extraction and their post-operative complications

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Ohanyan, Ani; Kechagias, Nikos; Antonis TSEKOS; Konstantinos VAHTSEVANOS

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-operative complications of various degrees of severity are commonly observed in third molar impaction surgery. For this reason, a surgical procedure that decreases the trauma of bone and soft tissues should be a priority for surgeons. In the present study, we compare the efficacy and the post-operative complications of patients to whom two different surgical techniques were applied for impacted lower third molar extraction. Material and Methods Patients of the first group unde...

  13. [Neurophysiological manifestations of the monotony state in the human-operators with different alpha-activity hemispheric asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, N N; Karimova, E D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the monotony state investigation of the human-operator while simulator driving by using a combination of psychophysiological testing, registration of an electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram (EEG). The appearance of specific EEG-pattern (power ascension of the theta-, alpha- and beta-rhythms) during operator activity due to the monotony state progression was revealed. We found out the reduction in health, decrease activity, the increase of the situational anxiety, and the reaction time after 90 minutes of the monotonous activity. The signs of drowsiness were detected at the rest with closed eyes after operator activity. Moreover, these negative manifestations of the monotony state were observed mainly in subjects with domination of the alpha-activity in the left hemisphere.

  14. A School Divided: One Elementary School's Response to Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, Melody

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how one elementary school was divided into two schools--a primary and an intermediate school--because of how policies were interpreted and enacted with regard to high-stakes testing. The grades in which students took high-stakes tests were privileged in terms of receiving monetary resources and support from staff. An emphasis…

  15. Nigeria united in grief; divided in response: Religious terrorism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria united in grief; divided in response: Religious terrorism, Boko Haram, and the dynamics of state response. ... Boko Haram's avowed aim is to wrest control from the Nigerian government and to impose a strict form of Sharia law across a ...

  16. The Digital Divide and Rural Community Colleges: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Moeck, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the seriousness of the digital divide-the discrepancy between technology-literate and -illiterate people-in rural areas in the United States. Reports that rural young, minority, and single-parent households lag behind the national average in both personal computer ownership and Internet access. Offers suggestions for ways rural community…

  17. Fiber-optic Michelson interferometer using an optical power divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M; Ohashi, T; Ohtsuka, Y

    1980-10-01

    A fiber-optic interferometer consisting of a multimode fiber-optical power divider was constructed in the Michelson arrangement and applied to measure a micrometer-order displacement of the vibrating object based on an optical homodyne technique. Improvement in the sensitivity of the apparatus is discussed from the viewpoint of increasing the minimum detectable beat signal.

  18. Response Styles and the Rural-Urban Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Troy D.; Abts, Koen; Vander Weyden, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of the rural-urban divide on mean response styles (RSs) and their relationships with the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. It uses the Representative Indicator Response Style Means and Covariance Structure (RIRSMACS) method and data from Guyana--a developing country in the Caribbean. The…

  19. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  20. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  1. From Fundamentalists to Structuralists: Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide information about several ICT initiatives undertaken in education on a global basis in order to overcome the digital divide and summarise the findings of these initiatives. Due to the limited scope of the study, the bulk of the review mainly concerns initiatives undertaken in secondary schools,…

  2. The Digital Divide and Its Impact on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Metros, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore issues of the digital divide and its impact on academic performance. Research shows that proper use of technology by students increases their academic performance outcomes. In the literature review section, the authors review articles and theories based on Bennett's (2001) societal equity framework. The…

  3. Journalism Students, Web 2.0 and the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mary Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if students were utilizing Web 2.0 applications. Since the applications in question are often employed by the media industry, the study aspired to find out if students majoring in mass communication and journalism utilized the applications more often than other students. The "digital divide" is a term used…

  4. The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence for the digital divide based on gender. An overview of research published in the last 20 years draws to the conclusion that females are at a disadvantage relative to men when learning about computers or learning other material with the aid of computer-assisted software. The evidence shows that the digital divide…

  5. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature…

  6. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources.

  7. A School Divided: One Elementary School's Response to Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, Melody

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how one elementary school was divided into two schools--a primary and an intermediate school--because of how policies were interpreted and enacted with regard to high-stakes testing. The grades in which students took high-stakes tests were privileged in terms of receiving monetary resources and support from staff. An emphasis…

  8. Resistor dividers and ac grids; Spannungsteiler und Gleichstromnetzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biechl, H. [Hochschule Kempten (Germany). Werner-von-Siemens-Labor fuer Elektrische Antriebe und Mechatronik

    2010-01-15

    The contribution discusses the subject of resistor dividers and shows how to calculate the mathematical voltage division rules. It also explains how a d.c. grid can be calculated with the aid of Ohm's law and the two laws of Kirchhoff. (orig.)

  9. Theories of Learning in Educational Development: Relocating the Paradigmatic Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    Offers a critique of a previous discussion on instructional industrialism in distance education based on instructional design. Topics include the psychological foundations of instructional design, competing paradigms in educational development, behaviorism and cognitivism, theories of learning and the paradigmatic divide, and implications for…

  10. Journalism Students, Web 2.0 and the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mary Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if students were utilizing Web 2.0 applications. Since the applications in question are often employed by the media industry, the study aspired to find out if students majoring in mass communication and journalism utilized the applications more often than other students. The "digital divide" is a term used…

  11. Tamil Nadu and the Diagonal Divide in Sex Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); S. Srinivasan (Sharada)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBetween 1961 and 2001, India’s 0-6 sex ratio has steadily declined. Despite evidence to the contrary, this ratio is often characterised in terms of a diagonal divide with low 0-6 sex ratios in northern and western India and normal 0-6 sex ratios in eastern and southern India. While unexp

  12. Theories of Learning in Educational Development: Relocating the Paradigmatic Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    Offers a critique of a previous discussion on instructional industrialism in distance education based on instructional design. Topics include the psychological foundations of instructional design, competing paradigms in educational development, behaviorism and cognitivism, theories of learning and the paradigmatic divide, and implications for…

  13. Using Bloom To Bridge the WAC/WID Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Geoffrey; Wills, Katherine

    A longitudinal study combined Stephen Tsuchdi's Workaday activities with Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives to bridge the WAC/WID (writing across the curriculum/writing in the disciplines) divide. The researchers hoped that by combining concrete activities that can be applied across disciplines with a Bloomian conceptual framework of…

  14. Comparative analysis of fourth-harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers operating at different frequency multiplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Kao, W. J.; Li, L. J.; Guo, Y. W.

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. This study presents a comparative analysis of fourth-harmonic multiplying gyro-TWAs with three schemes of operation. An improved mode-selective circuit using circular waveguides with various radii provides the rejection points within the range of operating frequencies to suppress the competing modes of gyro-TWAs. The simulated results reveal that gyro-TWAs are the most susceptible to the fundamental-harmonic TE11 competing mode, regardless of the operating scheme, and that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 20 dB to suppress the competing modes. The amplification of the waves in a gyro-TWA depends on the lengths of the sections, and the simulated results show that the gain increases for all schemes, as the length of the lossy section or the length of the copper section increases. All schemes exhibit nearly the same saturated output powers and bandwidths; however, the saturated gain of the scheme at a high frequency multiplication ratio is less than that of the scheme at a low frequency multiplication ratio. Extensive numerical calculations of power and gain scaling are conducted for all schemes.

  15. The effects of the smart environment on the information divide experienced by people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su-Jung; Park, Eun-Young

    2017-04-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is connected with every aspect of social, cultural, economic, educational, and commercial activity. Smart devices in particular have changed society and are necessary goods for modern people. Smart device usage is rapidly growing in everyday life, so the ability to use a smart device is increasingly important, yet there is little data supporting increased digital inclusion of people with disabilities in mobile device use. This study investigates the effects of the smart environment on the information divide experienced by people with disabilities. Data from the 2013 Information Divide Index Data of the National Information Society Agency was analyzed regarding three aspects: access, skill, and competence. The accessibility difference was investigated by comparing access to a PC or smart device in two groups. The effects of a smart environment on the information divide were analyzed using General Linear Modeling (GLM). The access rate was higher for the general group than for that of those with disabilities, and this difference appeared to be greater in the smart environment. The results of the GLM showed that disability and device access had statistically significant effects on skill and all aspects of competence. These results provide evidence that the smart environment further creates the information divide for people with disabilities. Strategies should be formed to reduce this divide, particularly within smart environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bridging the divide between genomic science and indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bette; Roffenbender, Jason; Collmann, Jeff; Cherry, Kate; Bitsói, LeManuel Lee; Bassett, Kim; Evans, Charles H

    2010-01-01

    definition of "rigorous scientific research," one that includes both community development and scientific progress as legitimate objectives of genomic research. Innovative translational research is needed to develop practical, mutually acceptable methods for crossing the divide between genomic researchers and indigenous communities. This may mean the difference between success and failure in genomic science, and in improving health for all peoples. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. The transatlantic divide over brain death determination and the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2012-04-01

    In 1976, the Royal College of Physicians published neurological criteria of death. The memorandum stated that-after preconditions and exclusion criteria were met-the absence of brainstem function, including apnoea testing, would suffice. In the USA, many experts felt that brain death could be only determined by demonstrating death of the entire brain. In the history of further refinement of UK and USA brain death criteria, one particular period stands out that would bring about an apparent transatlantic divide. On 13 October 1980, the British Broadcasting Corporation aired a programme entitled 'Transplants: Are the Donors Really Dead?' Several United States experts not only disagreed with the United Kingdom criteria, but claimed that patients diagnosed with brain death using United Kingdom criteria could recover. The fallout of this television programme was substantial, as indicated by a media frenzy and a 6-month period of heated correspondence within The Lancet and The British Medical Journal. Members of the Parliament questioned the potential long-term effect on the public's trust in organ transplantation. Given the concerns raised, the British Broadcasting Corporation commissioned a second programme, which was broadcast on 19 February 1981 entitled 'A Question of Life or Death: The Brain Death Debate.' Two panels debated the issues on the accuracy of the electroencephalogram and its place, the absolute need for assessing preconditions before an examination, the problems with recognition of toxins and the feasibility of doing a new prospective study in the United Kingdom, which would follow patients' examination assessed with United Kingdom criteria until cardiac standstill. The positions of the United States and United Kingdom remained diametrically opposed to each other. This article revisits this landmark moment and places it in a wider historical context. In the USA, the focus was not on the brainstem, and the definition of brain death became rapidly infused

  18. Inverse scattering on the line for Schr\\"odinger operators with Miura potentials, II. Different Riccati representatives

    CERN Document Server

    Hryniv, R O; Perry, P A

    2009-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers on scattering theory for one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger operators with Miura potentials admitting a Riccati representation of the form $q=u'+u^2$ for some $u\\in L^2(R)$. We consider potentials for which there exist `left' and `right' Riccati representatives with prescribed integrability on half-lines. This class includes all Faddeev--Marchenko potentials in $L^1(R,(1+|x|)dx)$ generating positive Schr\\"odinger operators as well as many distributional potentials with Dirac delta-functions and Coulomb-like singularities. We completely describe the corresponding set of reflection coefficients $r$ and justify the algorithm reconstructing $q$ from $r$.

  19. An improved fully integrated, high-speed, dual-modulus divider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sun; Yong, Xu; Guangyan, Ma; Hui, Shi; Fei, Zhao; Ying, Lin

    2014-11-01

    A fully integrated 2n/2n+1 dual-modulus divider in GHz frequency range is presented. The improved structure can make all separated logic gates embed into correlative D flip—flops completely. In this way, the complex logic functions can be performed with a minimum number of devices and with maximum speed, so that lower power consumption and faster speed are obtained. In addition, the low-voltage bandgap reference needed by the frequency divider is specifically designed to provide a 1.0 V output. According to the design demand, the circuit is fabricated in 0.18 μm standard CMOS process, and the measured results show that its operating frequency range is 1.1-2.5 GHz. The dual-modulus divider dissipates 1.1 mA from a 1.8 V power supply. The temperature coefficient of the reference voltage circuit is 8.3 ppm/°C when the temperature varies from -40 to +125 °C. By comparison, the dual-modulus divide designed in this paper can possess better performance and flexibility.

  20. An improved fully integrated, high-speed, dual-modulus divider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zheng; Xu Yong; Ma Guangyan; Shi Hui; Zhao Fei; Lin Ying

    2014-01-01

    A fully integrated 2n/2n+l dual-modulus divider in GHz frequency range is presented.The improved structure can make all separated logic gates embed into correlative D flip-flops completely.In this way,the complex logic functions can be performed with a minimum number of devices and with maximum speed,so that lower power consumption and faster speed are obtained.In addition,the low-voltage bandgap reference needed by the frequency divider is specifically designed to provide a 1.0 V output.According to the design demand,the circuit is fabricated in 0.18μm standard CMOS process,and the measured results show that its operating frequency range is 1.1-2.5 GHz.The dual-modulus divider dissipates 1.1 mA from a 1.8 V power supply.The temperature coefficient of the reference voltage circuit is 8.3 ppm/℃ when the temperature varies from-40 to + 125 ℃.By comparison,the dual-modulus divide designed in this paper can possess better performance and flexibility.

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Noise Levels on Stress Response in Two Different Operation Groups in an Orthopedic Surgery Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Baytan Yildiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will

  2. Single Temperature Liquefaction process at different operating pHs to improve ethanol production from Indian rice and corn feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, V; Ranganathan, K; Duan, G

    2016-10-13

    Conventional grain ethanol manufacturing is a high-temperature energy-intensive process comprising of multiple-unit operations when combined with lower ethanol recovery results in higher production cost. In liquefaction, jet cooking accounts for significant energy cost, while strong acid or base used for pH adjustment presents a safety hazard. A need is felt for sustainable ethanol manufacturing process that is less hazardous, consumes lower energy, and operates in a low pH range of 4.50-5.50. A single temperature liquefaction (STL) process that could efficiently operate at lower liquefaction temperature over a pH range of 4.50-5.50 was developed using rice and corn feedstock. Ethanol recovery witnessed at pH 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 are 481.2 ± 1.5, 492.4 ± 1.5, and 493.6 ± 1.5 L MT(-1) rice, respectively. Similarly, ethanol recovery witnessed at pH 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 are 404.6 ± 1.3, 413.9 ± 0.8, and 412.4 ± 1.8 L MT(-1) corn, respectively. The improvement in ethanol recovery is attributed to higher starch conversion by alpha-amylase even at pH as low as 4.50. Thus, the STL process operated at pH lower than 5.20 is poised to enhance sustainability by offering dual advantage of energy as well as chemical saving.

  3. Multi-cycle operation of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) with different carbon sources under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Yan

    2017-05-01

    Many studies reported that it is challenging to apply enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process at high temperature. Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) could easily gain their dominance over poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) when the operating temperature was in the range of 25 °C-30 °C. However, a few successful EBPR processes operated at high temperature have been reported recently. This study aimed to have an in-depth understanding on the impact of feeding strategy and carbon source types on EBPR performance in tropical climate. P-removal performance of two EBPR systems was monitored through tracking effluent quality and cyclic studies. The results confirmed that EBPR was successfully obtained and maintained at high temperature with a multi-cycle strategy. More stable performance was observed with acetate as the sole carbon source compared to propionate. Stoichiometric ratios of phosphorus and carbon transformation during both anaerobic and aerobic phases were higher at high temperature than low temperature (20±1 °C) except anaerobic PHA/C ratios within most of the sub-cycles. Furthermore, the fractions of PHA and glycogen in biomass were lower compared with one-cycle pulse feed operation. The microbial community structure was more stable in acetate-fed sequencing batch reactor (C2-SBR) than that in propionate-fed reactor (C3-SBR). Accumulibacter Clade IIC was found to be highly abundant in both reactors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under different operation conditions and corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Masanobu [Taiyo Stainless Spring Co., Ltd., 2-8-6 Shakujiicho, Nerimaku, Tokyo 177-0041 (Japan); Myung, Seung-Taek; Ichikawa, Takuma; Yashiro, Hitoshi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

    2010-09-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed for in situ diagnosis for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during operation. First, EIS was measured as a function of operation parameters such as applied current density, gas flow rates and gas humidification temperature. The resistance that correlated with conductivity of the membrane and the contact resistance between bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer (GDL) was set as R{sub m} in the assumed equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistances were considered for cathode (R{sub ct}(C)). The value of R{sub ct}(C) was sensitive to the parameters that affected cell voltage. Additionally, the diffusion resistance (R{sub d}) was ascribed to the effect of oxygen supply and drainage of generated water. Second, the influence of corrosion of type 430 stainless steel bipolar plates was evaluated by EIS method during operation. Corrosion of the stainless steel bipolar plates resulted in an increase in the value of R{sub d}. (author)

  5. The Digital Divide across All Citizens of the World: A New Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the requirements for and implications of, moving from the confines of the conventional concept of the digital divide to one that reflects a world distribution of Internet users with different income levels, with particular reference to those users living in poverty. The first part of the note provides a simple,…

  6. How To Manage the Emerging Generational Divide in the Contemporary Knowledge-Rich Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novicevic, Milorad M.; Buckley, M. Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the manager's dilemmas and options in resolving emerging latent intergenerational conflict in the contemporary knowledge-rich workplace. Topics include a theoretical framework for generational divide management; the polarization in task requirements; social and environmental factors; differences in employee needs and expectations; and…

  7. 中俄油气管道运行标准差异分析%Analysis on difference between Chinese and Russian oil and gas pipeline operation standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟平; 张晓明; 刘士超; 潘腾; 吴凯旋; 曹燕; 张妮

    2013-01-01

    To ensure safe operation of the Russia-China Oil Pipeline, Russian oil and gas pipeline operation standards are sorted comprehensively. The difference between Chinese and Russian pipeline operation standards is studied deeply from four aspects such as pipe pressure testing, crude oil, product oil and natural gas pipeline operation technology. In addition, advancements in Russian standards are systematically described, including pressure re-testing in the case of pipeline operation delay, mandatory pressure testing and periodic pressure testing of operating pipeline, pigging operation, emergency shutdown principle of pumping station, contamination cutting and blending, operating procedures of compressors under abnormal conditions and auxiliary equipment inspections. Finally, it is recommended to revise Chinese oil and gas pipeline operation standards in accordance with Russian standards.%为保障中俄原油管道安全运行,全面梳理了俄罗斯油气管道运行标准.从管道试压及原油、成品油、天然气管道运行技术4个方面,深入研究了中国和俄罗斯管道运行标准的差异.系统阐述了俄罗斯标准的先进性,包括管道投产延迟条件下重新试压、运行管道强制性试压和周期性试压、清管作业、输油站紧急停输准则、混油控制切割和掺混、压缩机异常条件操作程序和辅助设备检验等.建议借鉴俄罗斯标准对我国油气管道运行标准进行修订.

  8. Crossing of the phantom divide in modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2009-01-01

    We reconstruct an explicit model of modified gravity in which a crossing of the phantom divide can be realized. It is shown that the Big Rip singularity appears in the model of modified gravity, whereas that the (finite-time) Big Rip singularity in modified gravity is transformed to the infinite-time singularity in the corresponding scalar field theory obtained through the conformal transformation. Furthermore, we investigate the relations between the scalar field theories realizing a crossing of the phantom divide and the corresponding modified gravitational theories by using the inverse conformal transformation. It is demonstrated that the scalar field theories describing the non-phantom phase (phantom one with the Big Rip) can be represented as the theories of real (complex) $F(R)$ gravity through the inverse (complex) conformal transformation. We also study a viable model of modified gravity in which the transition from the de Sitter universe to the phantom phase can occur.

  9. Fast image retargeting based on strip dividing and resizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shungang Hua; Honglei Wei; Tieming Su

    2014-01-01

    Based on image strip dividing, an effective and fast image retargeting algorithm is proposed for resizing images. First, we construct the image energy map using gradient magnitude of the pixels and calculate the accumulated energy of each column, dividing the image into several strips by integrating similar energy columns. The reduced amount of dimension is decided in inverse proportion to the average energy for each strip. Then we retar-get the image combining scaling with cropping in terms of each strip’s reduced ratio. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of implementing fast image retargeting and preserving both the local structures and the global visual effect of the image.

  10. Clobazam single or divided dose against diazepam in anxiety neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channabasavanna, S M; Pinto Pereira, L M

    1986-01-01

    One-hundred-and-fifteen patients diagnosed as anxiety neurotics randomly received in a double blind study 20 mg clobazam (Frisium) as a single nightly dose (37 patients) or 10 mg b.d. (38 patients) or diazepam 5 mg b.d. (40 patients) for six weeks, followed by two weeks on placebo. Both the single and divided doses of clobazam were therapeutically equivalent to diazepam. After drug withdrawal, all three treatment groups continued to improve. Patients on clobazam showed better motor performance than the diazepam series. Patients on clobazam divided dose performed significantly better than those on diazepam. Minor side-effects occurred in all patients. From the results clobazam as a single dose of 20 mg has good anxiolysis without any hungover effect.

  11. Divided-aperture differential confocal fast-imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Xiangye; Zhao, Weiqian

    2017-03-01

    A new method, laser divided-aperture differential confocal microscopy (DDCM), is proposed to achieve high-resolution 3D imaging of microstructures of large-scale sample surfaces. This method uses a divided-aperture confocal structure to significantly improve the axial resolution of confocal microscopy and keep a long working distance simultaneously; uses two radically offset point detectors to achieve differential detection to further improve the axial response sensitivity and realize fast imaging of a large-scale sample surface with a big axial scan-step interval. Theoretical analyses and experimental results show that the DDCM can reach an axial resolution of 5 nm with a 3.1 mm working distance with a 3 times imaging speed of a confocal system with the same resolution.

  12. Multiple-resolution clustering for recursive divide and conquer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Steven E.; Szu, Harold H.

    1997-04-01

    In recent work, a recursive divide-and-conquer approach was developed for path-minimization problems such as the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The approach is based on multiple-resolution clustering to decompose a problem into minimally-dependent parts. It is particularly effective for large-scale, fractal data sets, which exhibit clustering on all scales, and hence at all resolutions. This leads to the application of wavelets for performing the necessary multiple-resolution clustering. While the general topic of multiple-resolution clustering via wavelets is relatively immature, it has been explored for certain specific applications. However, nothing in the literature addresses the specific type of multiple-resolution clustering needed for the divide-and-conquer approach. That is the primary goal of this paper.

  13. A Divide-and-Conquer Strategy for Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Shiuan, P L; Shiuan, Peh Li; Ann, Christopher Ting Hian

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel strategy which is designed to enhance the accuracy of the parser by simplifying complex sentences before parsing. This approach involves the separate parsing of the constituent sub-sentences within a complex sentence. To achieve that, the divide-and-conquer strategy first disambiguates the roles of the link words in the sentence and segments the sentence based on these roles. The separate parse trees of the segmented sub-sentences and the noun phrases within them are then synthesized to form the final parse. To evaluate the effects of this strategy on parsing, we compare the original performance of a dependency parser with the performance when it is enhanced with the divide-and-conquer strategy. When tested on 600 sentences of the IPSM'95 data sets, the enhanced parser saw a considerable error reduction of 21.2% in its accuracy.

  14. A Novel Nanometric Reversible Signed Divider with Overflow Checking Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Dastan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the best approaches for designing future computers is that we use reversible logic. Reversible logic circuits have lower power consumption than the common circuits, used in computers nowadays. In this study we propose a new reversible division circuit. This reversible division circuit is signed divider and has an overflow checking capability. Among the designed and proposed reversible division circuits, our proposed division circuit is the first reversible signed divider with overflow checking capability which has been designed. In this circuit we use some reversible components like reversible parallel adder, reversible left-shift register, reversible multiplexer, reversible n-bit register and reversible n-bit register with parallel load line. In this paper all the scales are in the nanometric area.

  15. The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.

  16. A Social Milieu Approach to the Online Participation Divides in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on digital divides has been helpful in advancing our understanding of the social structuration of Internet access, motivations to go online, digital skills, and Internet (non-use, including participatory uses. However, digital divide research has been criticized for oversimplifying the relationship between demographic characteristics and Internet use and for its under-theorization. A social milieu approach, inspired by Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological theory, presents an excellent set of concepts to address these criticisms and thus advance digital divide research. This article uses the social milieu approach for an empirical investigation of the participation divides in Germany. Focus groups and online communities with 96 participants from seven distinct Internet milieus serve to differentiate online participation along social lines. The results show that German citizens are strongly segregated into distinct Internet milieus that differ in their intensity, variety, understanding, and attitudes toward online participation. Each milieu displays specific participatory patterns and some of the findings challenge existing research on digital and participation divides. Implications are derived and limitations of the approach carved out.

  17. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

  18. A comparison of pop and chop to divide and conquer in resident cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Fredric J; Garcia-Zalisnak, Debra E; Bovee, Courtney E; Strawn, Joy D

    2016-01-01

    In this randomized prospective study, the cumulative dissipated energy and case time of pop and chop and of traditional four-quadrant divide and conquer in the first 60 cases (in total 120 eyes) of cataract surgery performed by two residents at the Veterans Administration Hospital in Hampton, Virginia, were compared. Overall and individually, the residents had significantly shorter case times and used significantly less cumulative dissipated energy for performing pop and chop than that for divide and conquer technique. There was no difference in complication rates or visual outcomes between these two techniques. The results of this study suggest that pop and chop is a more time- and energy-efficient method of nucleofractis than divide and conquer for novice resident surgeons.

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Results of Substrate Effects on Microstrip Power Divider Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhair Mansoor Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of substrate materials on the design of microstrip power divider are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Three dielectric substrate materials, Duroid 3003, G10/FR4 epoxy Glass, and Duroid 3010, are chosen to be studied. A three-way two-stage power divider is designed at S-band frequency of 2.25 GHz and etched on each studied substrate separately. The substrate effects on the characteristics and performance of the microsrip circuits are studied taking into consideration the large difference in dielectric constant and the dissipation factor. The circuit designs presented here are analyzed using the Genesys CAD program and implemented and tested experimentally. The simulated and measured results are compared and discussed, and they indicate that significant changes in the characteristics of the microstrip power divider are observed.

  20. Crossing of Phantom Divide in $F(R)$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2010-01-01

    An explicit model of $F(R)$ gravity with realizing a crossing of the phantom divide is reconstructed. In particular, it is shown that the Big Rip singularity may appear in the reconstructed model of $F(R)$ gravity. Such a Big Rip singularity could be avoided by adding $R^2$ term or non-singular viable $F(R)$ theory to the model because phantom behavior becomes transient.

  1. Nonequilibrium stage modelling of dividing wall columns and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Christoph; Buck, Christina; Ehlers, Christoph; Fieg, Georg

    2010-11-01

    Dealing with complex process units like dividing wall columns pushes the focus on the determination of suitable modelling approaches. For this purpose a nonequilibrium stage model is developed. The successful validation is achieved by an experimental investigation of fatty alcohol mixtures under vacuum condition at pilot scale. Aim is the recovery of high purity products. The proposed model predicts the product qualities and temperature profiles very well.

  2. Binary Versus Decade Inductive Voltage Divider Comparison and Error Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    1995 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: US Naval Academy. Downloaded on January 30, 2009 at 11:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply...Downloaded on January 30, 2009 at 11:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 906 s, A U U U U U l f U U J s, sa I IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON...30, 2009 at 11:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. AVRAMOV-ZAMUROVIC et al.: BINARY VERSUS DECADE INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE DIVIDER COMPARISON AND ERROR

  3. Histological findings of divided muscle after peroral endoscopic myotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Shiwaku, Hironari; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nimura, Satoshi; Yamashita, Kanefumi; Ohmiya, Toshihiro; Takeno, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a revolutionary therapy for achalasia and related disorders. POEM utilizes almost the same myotomy procedure as the Heller myotomy; thus, it would be expected to have the same or greater duration of therapeutic effect. However, to date, there have been no reports to prove the basis for this procedure in achalasia. In this case, we were able to histologically show the divided muscle after POEM since the patient had an esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Hi...

  4. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  5. FLOOD ROUTING MODELS IN CONFLUENT AND DIVIDING CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范平; 李家春; 刘青泉

    2004-01-01

    By introducing a water depth connecting formula, the hydraulic equations in the dividing channel system were coupled and the relation of discharge distribution between the branches of the dividing channels can be yielded. In this manner, a numerical model for the confluent channels was established to study the variation of backwater effects with the parameters in the channel junction. The meeting of flood peaks in the mainstream and tributary can be analyzed with this model. The flood peak meeting is found to be a major factor for the extremely high water level in the mainstream during the 1998 Yangtze River flood. Subsequently the variations of discharge distribution and water level with channel parameters between each branch in this system were studied as well. As a result, flood evolution caused by Jingjiang River shortcut and sediment deposition in the entrance of dividing channels of the Yangtze River may be qualitatively elucidated. It is suggested to be an effective measure for flood mitigation to enhance regulation capability of reservoirs available upstream of the tributaries and harness branch entrance channels.

  6. Comparative analysis of the bacterial diversity in a lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) applied to treat urban wastewater under different operational conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Kadiya; Martín-Pascual, Jaime; Poyatos, José Manuel; Rodelas, Belén; González-Martínez, Alejandro; González-López, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    Different types of carriers were tested as support material in a lab-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) used to treat urban wastewater under three different conditions of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and carrier filling ratios (FR). The bacterial diversity developed on the biofilms responsible of the treatment was studied using a cultivation-independent approach based on the polymerase chain reaction-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis technique (PCR-TGGE). Cluster analysis of TGGE fingerprints showed significant differences of community structure dependent upon the different operational conditions applied. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to determine the relationship between the operational conditions (type of carrier, HRT, FR) and bacterial biofilm diversity, demonstrating a significant effect of FR=50%. Phylogenetic analysis of PCR-reamplified and sequenced TGGE bands revealed that the prevalent Bacteria populations in the biofilm were related to Betaproteobacteria (46%), Firmicutes (34%),Alphaproteobacteria (14%) and Gammaproteobacteria (9%).

  7. Patient-specific positioning guides for total knee arthroplasty: no significant difference between final component alignment and pre-operative digital plan except for tibial rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G.M.; Kerens, Bart; Hulsmans, Frans-Jan; Tuinebreijer, Wim; Kort, Nanne P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether there is a significant difference between the alignment of the individual femoral and tibial components (in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes) as calculated pre-operatively (digital plan) and the actually achieved alignment in vivo obtained with the use of patient-specific positioning guides (PSPGs) for TKA. It was hypothesised that there would be no difference between post-op implant position and pre-op digital plan. Methods Twenty-six patients were includ...

  8. Global identification of stochastic dynamical systems under different pseudo-static operating conditions: The functionally pooled ARMAX case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    The identification of a single global model for a stochastic dynamical system operating under various conditions is considered. Each operating condition is assumed to have a pseudo-static effect on the dynamics and be characterized by a single measurable scheduling variable. Identification is accomplished within a recently introduced Functionally Pooled (FP) framework, which offers a number of advantages over Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) identification techniques. The focus of the work is on the extension of the framework to include the important FP-ARMAX model case. Compared to their simpler FP-ARX counterparts, FP-ARMAX models are much more general and offer improved flexibility in describing various types of stochastic noise, but at the same time lead to a more complicated, non-quadratic, estimation problem. Prediction Error (PE), Maximum Likelihood (ML), and multi-stage estimation methods are postulated, and the PE estimator optimality, in terms of consistency and asymptotic efficiency, is analytically established. The postulated estimators are numerically assessed via Monte Carlo experiments, while the effectiveness of the approach and its superiority over its FP-ARX counterpart are demonstrated via an application case study pertaining to simulated railway vehicle suspension dynamics under various mass loading conditions.

  9. Intensification of extraction of curcumin from Curcuma amada using ultrasound assisted approach: Effect of different operating parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsath, S R; Sable, S S; Gaikwad, S G; Sonawane, S H; Saini, D R; Gogate, P R

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, a dietary phytochemical, has been extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma amada using ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and the results compared with the conventional extraction approach to establish the process intensification benefits. The effect of operating parameters such as type of solvent, extraction time, extraction temperature, solid to solvent ratio, particle size and ultrasonic power on the extraction yield have been investigated in details for the approach UAE. The maximum extraction yield as 72% was obtained in 1h under optimized conditions of 35°C temperature, solid to solvent ratio of 1:25, particle size of 0.09mm, ultrasonic power of 250W and ultrasound frequency of 22kHz with ethanol as the solvent. The obtained yield was significantly higher as compared to the batch extraction where only about 62% yield was achieved in 8h of treatment. Peleg's model was used to describe the kinetics of UAE and the model showed a good agreement with the experimental results. Overall, ultrasound has been established to be a green process for extraction of curcumin with benefits of reduction in time as compared to batch extraction and the operating temperature as compared to Soxhlet extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Hypospadias: the release of chordee without dividing the urethral plate and onlay island flap (92 cases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, P; Castagnola, C

    1994-10-01

    Standard teaching states that the correction of fibrous chordee requires division of the urethral plate. Subsequently, it is necessary to reconstruct the urethra using tubular urethroplasty, which carries a significant incidence of complications, for example stenosis. In fact, we have demonstrated that it is possible to release severe chordee associated with hypospadias simply by dissecting the urethral plate of the corpora rather than dividing it. Between 1989 and 1993 we operated on 101 patients with hypospadias with fibrous chordee. The release of chordee was achieved without dividing the plate in 92 patients (91%), including all 71 cases of penile hypospadias, 11 perineal hypospadias and 10 reoperations. A total of 92 urethroplasties was performed with an onlay flap and 19 complications occurred in 15 patients.

  11. Three Microwave Frequency Dividers Using Current Source/Sink and Modified Current Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham S. Harinarayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a preceding paper Carlos E. Saavedra, 2005, established that frequency division can be achieved with the use of inverter rings and transmission gates. In this paper, we suggest three modified circuits which obtain the similar function, namely, using Current Sink Inverter, Current Source Inverter, and Modified Current Source Inverter. The performances of the proposed circuits are examined using Cadence and the model parameters of a 45 nm CMOS process. The simulation results of the three circuits are presented and are compared. We also present the results of a simple but effective novel technique to reduce clock skew between real and complementary clock signals and the corresponding improvement achieved in maximum frequency of operation. One of the proposed circuits can operate at up to 8.2 GHz input while performing a divide-by-4 operation.

  12. Computer algebra and operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  13. Comparative Study of DC and AC Microgrids in Commercial Buildings Across Different Climates and Operating Profiles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregosi, D.; Ravula, S.; Brhlik, D.; Saussele, J.; Frank, S.; Bonnema, E.; Scheib, J.; Wilson, E.

    2015-04-22

    Bosch has developed and demonstrated a novel DC microgrid system designed to maximize utilization efficiency for locally generated photovoltaic energy while offering high reliability, safety, redundancy, and reduced cost compared to equivalent AC systems. Several demonstration projects validating the system feasibility and expected efficiency gains have been completed and additional ones are in progress. This work gives an overview of the Bosch DC microgrid system and presents key results from a large simulation study done to estimate the energy savings of the Bosch DC microgrid over conventional AC systems. The study examined the system performance in locations across the United States for several commercial building types and operating profiles and found that the Bosch DC microgrid uses generated PV energy 6%–8% more efficiently than traditional AC systems.

  14. The Calculation of Unbalanced Voltage on the tertiary bus of a single phase auto transformer in case of Parallel Operation with Different Manufacturer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, E.B.; Woo, J.W.; Kwak, J.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea); Joe, S.H.; Hur, Y.H. [KEPCO (Korea); Han, S.O. [Chungnam University (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    This paper described the unbalanced voltage on the tertiary bus of a single phase auto transformer in the case of parallel operation with different manufacturer at each phase. The unbalanced capacitances between primary to secondary winding, secondary to tertiary winding and primary to tertiary winding makes unbalanced bus voltage in the tertiary bus side. The unbalanced voltage let the surge arrester to operate in the power frequency range, and it causes the arrester to burn out. The failure of the arrester at one phase makes line to ground fault, which lead to the surge arrester failure of the other two phase on the tertiary bus. (author). 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo; Brandon, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell based micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies for implementation in the residential sector. Since the design and operation of such CHP systems are greatly dependent upon the seasonal atmospheric conditions, it is important to evaluate their performance under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled...

  16. Implementation of Dividing Cubes Algorithm Based on CUDA%基于 CUDA 的 Dividing Cubes 算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文波; 曹耀钦; 孙伟; 李海龙

    2013-01-01

    In traditional Dividing Cubes algorithm ,voxels are divided into many small elements in one time which bring a large number of calculations .Therefore ,a progressive subdivision is proposed to reduce calculations .In the meanwhile ,the algorithm is transplanted into GPU , and implemented based on CUDA . The kernel , thread organization and memory allocation is also designed .Experimental results show that almost 10 times speedup is reached by using GPU′s parallel acceleration capacity .%针对传统Dividing Cubes算法中一次性将体元剖分为较小体元而带来大量计算的问题,提出递进式的体元剖分方式,以减少剖分过程中的计算量。同时,将算法移植到图形处理器(GPU )上执行,在统一计算设备架构(CUDA )下对其进行实现,并分别对 kernel函数、线程结构和存储空间进行了设计和分配。实验结果表明,利用GPU的并行加速能力可以达到将近10倍的加速比,有效地提升了等值面的绘制速度。

  17. Schwartz operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  18. The efficacy of different pre- and post-operative analgesics in the management of pain after orthodontic separator placement: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain-free treatment to the patients is considered as an important treatment objective for orthodontic health care providers. However, many orthodontists underestimate the degree of pain experienced by the patients. Hence, this study was conducted as a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial with the following objectives. Objective: To study the pain characteristics after separator placement; to compare the efficacy of various commonly used analgesics in pain management and to determine the efficacy of pre- and post-operative analgesics in pain management. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected from 154 patients (77 males and 77 females, age group of 14-21 years, with mean age of 18.8 years who reported to Department of Orthodontics. Patients were randomly divided in to four groups. Group 1: Paracetamol 650 mg, Group 2: Ibuprofen 400 mg, Group 3: Aspirin 300 mg, Group 4: Placebo and the study were conducted as a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. The patients were instructed to take two tablets, one tablet 1 h before separator placement, and the other one after 6 h. The pain evaluations were made by the patients, when teeth not touching (TNT, biting back teeth together, chewing food (CF using a 100-mm visual analogue scale for 7 days after separator placement. Patients were advised to record the severity of pain. Results: Group 3 (Aspirin 300 mg showed lowest pain values, followed by Group 2 (ibuprofen 400 mg, and Group 1 (paracetamol 650 mg. All NSAID′s achieved good pain control compared to Group 4 (placebo, where the intensity pain was maximum. Conclusion: Pre- and post-operative analgesics were found to be more effective in controlling orthodontic pain, after separator placement at all-time intervals.

  19. The costs of monitoring simultaneously two sensory modalities decrease when dividing attention in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2010-02-01

    Traditional views of multisensory integration emphasise the advantage of stimulating or attending to different senses at one single spatial location. We challenge this view demonstrating that in-parallel processing of two sensory modalities can be more efficient when attention is spatially divided rather than focused. We asked subjects to monitor simultaneously vision and audition either at one location (focused attention) or in the two opposite hemifields (divided attention) or to monitor one single modality at one or two locations. Behavioural results demonstrated that the costs of monitoring two modalities, versus one modality, decrease when spatial attention is divided between two separate locations compared with focused attention. Neuroimaging data revealed increased activity in the posterior-parietal cortex (PPC) when monitoring two modalities at different locations, while no specific region was recruited in the focused attention conditions. We suggest that supramodal control and the integration of spatial representations hinders the selection of independent sensory streams when attention is spatially focused, while a greater exploitation of modality-specific resources and the engagement of PPC allows in-parallel processing when attention is spatially divided.

  20. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  1. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or a...

  2. Affinity and Hostility in Divided Communities: a Mathematical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thron, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We propose, develop, and analyze a mathematical model of intergroup attitudes in a community that is divided between two distinct social groups (which may be distinguished by religion, ethnicity, or some other socially distinguishing factor). The model is based on very simple premises that are both intuitive and justified by sociological research. We investigate the behavior of the model in various special cases, for various model configurations. We discuss the stability of the model, and the continuous or discontinuous dependence of model behavior on various parameters. Finally, we discuss possible implications for strategies to improve intergroup affinity, and to defuse tension and prevent deterioration of intergroup relationships.

  3. The NCI Digital Divide Pilot Projects: implications for cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Gustafson, David; Salovey, Peter; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Wilbright, Wayne; Bright, Mary Anne; Muha, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported four innovative demonstration research projects, "The Digital Divide Pilot Projects," to test new strategies for disseminating health information via computer to vulnerable consumers. These projects involved active research collaborations between the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and regional cancer control researchers to field test new approaches for enhancing cancer communication in vulnerable communities. The projects were able to use computers to successfully disseminate relevant cancer information to vulnerable populations. These demonstration research projects suggested effective new strategies for using communication technologies to educate underserved populations about cancer prevention, control, and care.

  4. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  5. Korean Nationalism in a Divided Nation: Challenges to US Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1976-5118.2008.00002.x Korean nationalism poses challenges for Koreans dwelling in each half of the divided Korean nation because each half of the nation must simultaneously deal with both their own and the other half’s form of semi-nationalism and also with peninsular pan-nationalism. Coping with these three forms of nationalism is also a problem for US policy toward each Korean state and toward ...

  6. CLOBAZAM SINGLE OR DIVIDED DOSE AGAINST DIAZEPAM IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY One-hundred-and-fifteen patients diagnosed as anxiety neurotics randomly received in a double blind study 20 mg clobazam (Frisium) as a single nightly dose (37 patients) or 10 mg b.d. (38 patients) or diazepam 5 mg b.d. (40 patients) for six weeks, followed by two weeks on placebo. Both the single and divided doses of clobazam were therapeutically equivalent to diazepam. After drug withdrawal, all three treatment groups continued to improve. Patients on clobazam showed better motor pe...

  7. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  8. Commercial photovoltaic units: behavior to different conditions of operation; Modulos fotovoltaicos comerciales: comportamiento a diferentes condiciones de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, N.; Fabero, F.; Chenlo, F.

    2008-07-01

    Due to the increasing number of photovoltaic (PV) plants in Spain for the last years, PV market offers a wide range of novelty products: large-size cells, modules with a high number of connected cells, new designs, new materials, etc. to perform this work, I-V curve acquisition at different irradiance and temperature conditions have been obtained from a sample of 8 different commercial PV module that accomplish one or more of these novelty characteristics have been characterised. The experimental tests have been performed at Centro Nacional de Energias Renovables (CENER). Results include determination of temperature coefficients and variation with irradiance, linearity and other cell parameters. (Author)

  9. 外科手消毒后术中不同时段手带菌情况监测的研究%Analysis of clinical disinfection effect at different time during operation course after surgical handa antisepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丹燕; 黄旭华; 朱红军; 郑良杰; 林本丹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of hands-washing and non-hands-washing on clinical disinfection effect before surgical hands antisepsis.Methods Totally 40 surgcal staff wee divided into the handa-washing group and the non-hands-washing group.The sterilizing effect of handa at diggerent time points during operations and kinds of bacteria colony were compared between two groups.Results Bacteria colony of hands at different time points during operations showed no significant difference between two groups.Both groups were detected bacteris colony on their hands,mainly made up of coagulase negative staphylococcus,corynebacterium and eaterococcus and no difference was seen between two groups.Conchusions The non-hands-washing method can acquire the same disinfection effect as traditional hands-washing method.Its disinfection effect lasts three hours,easy to operate,little stimulation on the skin,and was worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨外科手消毒前免刷手与刷手两种方法对术中不同时点手带菌情况的影响.方法 以参加手术的外科医生和洗手护士为研究对象,随机分为刷手组和无刷手组各20人,比较免刷手和传统刷手洗手法在使用同种新型消毒剂后及术中不同时段的手清洁消毒效果及手皮肤菌落种类.结果 经比较发现,2组手术人员术中不同时段手部存活菌落数比较无显著差异.无刷手组与刷手组各时段手皮肤均有细菌检出,主要以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌、棒状杆菌及肠球菌为主,组间比较无显著差异.结论 使用新型消毒剂进行外科手消毒,免刷手能够达到与传统刷手洗手法相当的清洁消毒效果,消毒作用能持续3h以上,免去刷手步骤,且操作简单使用方便,对皮肤刺激小,值得临床推广使用.

  10. Inconsistencies in place definition: How different operational place definitions affect estimates of adolescent smoking and drinking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Joanne E; Weitzman, Beth C

    2007-06-01

    We find that estimates of the prevalence of teenage smoking and drinking in "urban," "suburban," and "rural" areas vary with different definitions of these types of geographic units. Given the salience of youth risk behavior to the public debate, we urge researchers to purposefully choose their definitions of geographic areas and to be explicit about those choices.

  11. Mechanisms of Organelle Inheritance in Dividing Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Organelles form essential compartments of all eukaryotic cells. Mechanisms that ensure the unbiased inheritance of organelles during cell division are therefore necessary to maintain the viability of future cell generations. Although inheritance of organelles represents a fundamental component of the cell cycle, surprisingly little is known about the underlying mechanisms that facilitate unbiased organelle inheritance. Evidence from a select number of studies, however,indicates that ordered organelle inheritance strategies exist in dividing cells of higher plants. The basic requirement for unbiased organelle inheritance is the duplication of organelle volume and distribution of the resulting organelle populations in a manner that facilitates unbiased partitioning of the organelle population to each daughter cell. Often, partitioning strategies are specific to the organelle, being influenced by the functional requirements of the organelle and whether the cells are mitotically active or re-entering into the cell cycle. Organelle partitioning mechanisms frequently depend on interactions with either the actin or microtubule cytoskeleton. In this focused review, we attempt to summarize key findings regarding organelle partitioning strategies in dividing cells of higher plants. We particularly concentrate on the role of the cytoskeleton in mediating unbiased organelle partitioning.

  12. A divide and conquer approach to multiple alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, A; Füllen, G; Perrey, S

    1995-01-01

    We present a report on work in progress on a divide and conquer approach to multiple alignment. The algorithm makes use of the costs calculated from applying the standard dynamic programming scheme to all pairs of sequences. The resulting cost matrices for pairwise alignment give rise to secondary matrices containing the additional costs imposed by fixing the path through the dynamic programming graph at a particular vertex. Such a constraint corresponds to a division of the problem obtained by slicing both sequences between two particular positions, and aligning the two sequences on the left and the two sequences on the right, charging for gaps introduced at the slicing point. To obtain an estimate for the additional cost imposed by forcing the multiple alignment through a particular vertex in the whole hypercube, we will take a (weighted) sum of secondary costs over all pairwise projections of the division of the problem, as defined by this vertex, that is, by slicing all sequences at the points suggested by the vertex. We then use that partition of every single sequence under consideration into two 'halfs' which imposes a minimal (weighted) sum of pairwise additional costs, making sure that one of the sequences is divided somewhere close to its midpoint. Hence, each iteration can cut the problem size in half. As the enumeration of all possible partitions may restrict this approach to small-size problems, we eliminate futile partitions, and organize their enumeration in a way that starts with the most promising ones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Stratified Flow Past a Hill: Dividing Streamline Concept Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Laura S.; Thompson, Michael Y.; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Fernando, Harindra J. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Sheppard formula (Q J R Meteorol Soc 82:528-529, 1956) for the dividing streamline height H_s assumes a uniform velocity U_∞ and a constant buoyancy frequency N for the approach flow towards a mountain of height h, and takes the form H_s/h=( {1-F} ) , where F=U_{∞}/Nh. We extend this solution to a logarithmic approach-velocity profile with constant N. An analytical solution is obtained for H_s/h in terms of Lambert-W functions, which also suggests alternative scaling for H_s/h. A `modified' logarithmic velocity profile is proposed for stably stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flows. A field experiment designed to observe H_s is described, which utilized instrumentation from the spring field campaign of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program. Multiple releases of smoke at F≈ 0.3-0.4 support the new formulation, notwithstanding the limited success of experiments due to logistical constraints. No dividing streamline is discerned for F≈ 10, since, if present, it is too close to the foothill. Flow separation and vortex shedding is observed in this case. The proposed modified logarithmic profile is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.

  14. The digital divide phenomenon in a hand surgery outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Selene G; Sodha, Samir; McGuire, Kevin J; Bozentka, David J; Rozental, Tamara D; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2004-04-01

    The Internet has become an important source of medical information for patients. However, the availability of this resource for individuals in the lower socioeconomic groups is limited, a concept termed the digital divide. To evaluate this phenomenon, we conducted a survey study to quantify the accessibility and use of the Internet for obtaining medical information in an outpatient hand surgery clinic population. A 28-question survey was distributed to 207 patients concerning computer accessibility, Internet use for medical and nonmedical information, Internet trust and security, and patient economic demographics. After analysis of the data, we found individuals in households with higher incomes had a greater likelihood of owning computers than those in lower income brackets. As income increases, the time spent on the Internet also increases. Another statistically significant trend was that higher income patient households thought that Internet information was trustworthy, secure, and private compared with the lower income brackets. We concluded that clinical settings where the predominant patient population earns less than $18,000 may not benefit or use physician Internet-based services or information. The concept of the digital divide seems to be a real phenomenon in the clinical practice of orthopaedics.

  15. MRI enterography with divided dose oral preparation: Effect on bowel distension and diagnostic quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the impact of an extended oral preparation magnetic resonance (MR enterography protocol on bowel distension, timing of imaging, and the quality of diagnostic images. Materials and Methods: An analysis of 52 patients who underwent divided oral preparation and 39 patients who underwent standard preparation for MR enterography examination was done. Distension was assessed by measuring the transverse diameters of the jejunum, ileum, and the ileocecal region. Diagnostic quality of the examination was assessed subjectively by two radiologists and graded as poor, diagnostic, and excellent (Grades 1-3. Correlation between bowel diameter and diagnostic quality was assessed using regression analysis. Results: The mean diameters of the jejunum, ileum, and colon in patients who underwent divided preparation were 1.90 ± 0.47, 2.14 ± 0.41, and 4.27 ± 0.96 cm, respectively, and the mean diameters in patients who underwent standard preparation were 1.46 ± 0.47, 2.02 ± 0.47, and 4.45 ± 0.90 cm, respectively. A total of 96.6% of patients on divided dose had diagnostic distension of the bowel (Grades 2 and 3. A total of 87.9% of the patients on standard dose had diagnostic distension of the bowel (Grades 2 and 3. A greater number of patients who underwent divided preparation had diagnostic quality examinations compared to those given standard preparation (96.6% vs. 87.9%. A greater number of patients who underwent divided preparation had Grade 3 quality examinations compared to those on standard preparation (75.5% vs. 68.5%. There was significant difference between diagnostic (Grades 2 and 3 and optimal grades (Grade 3 of the jejunal diameters in patients having divided or standard preparation (89.7% vs. 66.6%, P < 0.05; 40.8% vs. 25%, P < 0.05, respectively. Linear regression showed a positive correlation between increasing bowel diameter and diagnostic grade of the examination (ρ = 0.76. Conclusion: Using an extended oral preparation with

  16. Analysis of Fast Radix-10 Digit Recurrence Algorithms for Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Dividers on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Baesler

    2013-01-01

    and decimal formats, for instance, commercial, financial, and insurance applications. In this paper we present five different radix-10 digit recurrence dividers for FPGA architectures. The first one implements a simple restoring shift-and-subtract algorithm, whereas each of the other four implementations performs a nonrestoring digit recurrence algorithm with signed-digit redundant quotient calculation and carry-save representation of the residuals. More precisely, the quotient digit selection function of the second divider is implemented fully by means of a ROM, the quotient digit selection function of the third and fourth dividers are based on carry-propagate adders, and the fifth divider decomposes each digit into three components and requires neither a ROM nor a multiplexer. Furthermore, the fixed-point divider is extended to support IEEE 754-2008 compliant decimal floating-point division for decimal64 data format. Finally, the algorithms have been synthesized on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, and implementation results are given.

  17. The Worker Component At The World Trade Center Cleanup: Addressing Cultural And Language Differences In Emergency Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, B.; Carpenter, C.; Blair. D.

    2003-02-24

    On September 11, 2001, the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) caused astronomical loss of life and property. Systems in place to manage disaster response were strained to the limit because key first responders were among the casualties when the twin towers collapsed. In addition, the evolution of events required immediate response in a rapidly changing and extremely hazardous situation. Rescue, recovery, and clean up became an overpowering and sustained effort that would utilize the resources of federal, state and local governments and agencies. One issue during the response to the WTC disaster site that did not receive much attention was that of the limited and non-English speaking worker. The Operating Engineers National HAZMAT Program (OENHP), with its history of a Hispanic Outreach Program, was acutely aware of this issue with the Hispanic worker. The Hispanic population comprises approximately 27% of the population of New York City (1). The extremely unfortunate and tragic events of that day provided an opportunity to not only provide assistance for the Hispanic workers, but also to apply lessons learned and conduct studies on worker training with language barriers in a real life environment. However, due to the circumstances surrounding this tragedy, the study of these issues was conducted primarily by observation. Through partnerships with other organizations such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the New York Health Department, the New York Department of Design and Construction (DDC), the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (NYCOSH), and private companies such as 3M and MSA, OENHP was able to provide translated information on hazards, protective measures, fit testing of respirators, and site specific safety and health training. The OENHP translated materials on hazards and how to protect workers into Spanish to assist in getting the information to the limited and non- English speaking workers.

  18. Performance of operational satellite bio-optical algorithms in different water types in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Minu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The in situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs and optically active substances (OAS measured using hyperspectral radiometer, were used for optical classification of coastal waters in the southeastern Arabian Sea. The spectral Rrs showed three distinct water types, that were associated with the variability in OAS such as chlorophyll-a (chl-a, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM and volume scattering function at 650 nm (β650. The water types were classified as Type-I, Type-II and Type-III respectively for the three Rrs spectra. The Type-I waters showed the peak Rrs in the blue band (470 nm, whereas in the case of Type-II and III waters the peak Rrs was at 560 and 570 nm respectively. The shifting of the peak Rrs at the longer wavelength was due to an increase in concentration of OAS. Further, we evaluated six bio-optical algorithms (OC3C, OC4O, OC4, OC4E, OC3M and OC4O2 used operationally to retrieve chl-a from Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS, Ocean Colour Temperature Scanner (OCTS, Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM2. For chl-a concentration greater than 1.0 mg m−3, algorithms based on the reference band ratios 488/510/520 nm to 547/550/555/560/565 nm have to be considered. The assessment of algorithms showed better performance of OC3M and OC4. All the algorithms exhibited better performance in Type-I waters. However, the performance was poor in Type-II and Type-III waters which could be attributed to the significant co-variance of chl-a with CDOM.

  19. Simultaneous Hydrogen and Methane Production Through Multi-Phase Anaerobic Digestion of Paperboard Mill Wastewater Under Different Operating Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Multi-phase anaerobic reactor for H2 and CH4 production from paperboard mill wastewater was studied. The reactor was operated at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12, 18, 24, and 36 h, and organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2.2, 1.5, 1.1, and 0.75 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m(3) day, respectively. HRT of 12 h and OLR of 2.2 kg COD/m(3) day provided maximum hydrogen yield of 42.76 ± 14.5 ml/g CODremoved and volumetric substrate uptake rate (-rS) of 16.51 ± 4.43 mg COD/L h. This corresponded to the highest soluble COD/total COD (SCOD/TCOD) ratio of 56.25 ± 3.3 % and the maximum volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield (YVFA) of 0.21 ± 0.03 g VFA/g COD, confirming that H2 was mainly produced through SCOD conversion. The highest methane yield (18.78 ± 3.8 ml/g CODremoved) and -rS of 21.74 ± 1.34 mgCOD/L h were achieved at an HRT of 36 h and OLR of 0.75 kg COD/m(3) day. The maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) and methane production rate (MPR) were achieved at carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 47.9 and 14.3, respectively. This implies the important effect of C/N ratio on the distinction between the dominant microorganism bioactivities responsible for H2 and CH4 production.

  20. 不同手术方法治疗腹股沟疝的临床效果对比%Comparison of clinical effects of different operation methods in the treatment of inguinal hernia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德明

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the clinical effects of different operation methods in the treatment of inguinal hernia.Methods:52 patients with inguinal hernia were randomly divided into two groups.Laparoscopic group was given laparoscopic hernia repair, the control group was given open tension-free hernia repair.The clinical effects of two groups were compared.Results:In the laparoscopic group,operation time,blood loss,degree of elevated temperature and useing analgesic drugs were less than that of the control group,the incidence of complications was lower than the control group(0% VS 28%,P<0.05).Conclusion:Clinical effect of laparoscopic hernia repair in the treatment of patients with inguinal hernia is better than open tension-free hernia repair,and it is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:比较不同手术方法治疗腹股沟疝的临床效果。方法:将52例腹股沟疝患者分成两组,给予腹腔镜组腹腔镜疝修补术,给予对照组开放式无张力疝修补术,比较两组临床效果。结果:腹腔镜组手术时间、失血量、体温增加度数、止痛药物应用次数均少于对照组,并发症发生率低于对照组(0 VS 28.0%,P<0.05)。结论:腹腔镜疝修补术治疗腹股沟疝患者的临床效果优于开放式无张力疝修补术。