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Sample records for diversity suggests subdivided

  1. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario.

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    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W

    2009-04-14

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa.

  2. The contribution of genetic diversity to subdivide populations living in the silk road of China.

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    Zhang, Zhe; Wei, Shuguang; Gui, Hongsheng; Yuan, Zuyi; Li, Shengbin

    2014-01-01

    There are several indigenous ethnic populations along the silk road in the Northwest of China that display clear differences in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different linguistic traditions. However, extensive trade and other interactions probably facilitated the admixture of different gene pools between these populations over the last two millennia. To further explore the evolutionary relationships of the 13 ethnic populations residing in Northwest China and to reveal the features of population admixture, the 9 most-commonly employed CODIS loci (D3S1358, TH01, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, CSF1PO, vWA, TPOX, FGA) were selected for genotyping and further analysis. Phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis revealed clear pattern of population differentiation between 4 populations living in Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region and other 9 populations dwelled in the upper regions of Silk Road. R matrix regression showed high-level gene flow and population admixture dose exist among these ethic populations in the Northwest region of China. Furthermore, the Mantel test suggests that larger percent of genetic variance (21.58% versus 2.3%) can be explained by geographic isolation than linguistic barriers, which matched with the contribution of geographic factors to other world populations.

  3. The Contribution of Genetic Diversity to Subdivide Populations Living in the Silk Road of China

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    Gui, Hongsheng; Yuan, Zuyi; Li, Shengbin

    2014-01-01

    There are several indigenous ethnic populations along the silk road in the Northwest of China that display clear differences in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different linguistic traditions. However, extensive trade and other interactions probably facilitated the admixture of different gene pools between these populations over the last two millennia. To further explore the evolutionary relationships of the 13 ethnic populations residing in Northwest China and to reveal the features of population admixture, the 9 most-commonly employed CODIS loci (D3S1358, TH01, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, CSF1PO, vWA, TPOX, FGA) were selected for genotyping and further analysis. Phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis revealed clear pattern of population differentiation between 4 populations living in Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region and other 9 populations dwelled in the upper regions of Silk Road. R matrix regression showed high-level gene flow and population admixture dose exist among these ethic populations in the Northwest region of China. Furthermore, the Mantel test suggests that larger percent of genetic variance (21.58% versus 2.3%) can be explained by geographic isolation than linguistic barriers, which matched with the contribution of geographic factors to other world populations. PMID:24828511

  4. The contribution of genetic diversity to subdivide populations living in the silk road of China.

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    Zhe Zhang

    Full Text Available There are several indigenous ethnic populations along the silk road in the Northwest of China that display clear differences in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different linguistic traditions. However, extensive trade and other interactions probably facilitated the admixture of different gene pools between these populations over the last two millennia. To further explore the evolutionary relationships of the 13 ethnic populations residing in Northwest China and to reveal the features of population admixture, the 9 most-commonly employed CODIS loci (D3S1358, TH01, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, CSF1PO, vWA, TPOX, FGA were selected for genotyping and further analysis. Phylogenetic tree and principal component analysis revealed clear pattern of population differentiation between 4 populations living in Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region and other 9 populations dwelled in the upper regions of Silk Road. R matrix regression showed high-level gene flow and population admixture dose exist among these ethic populations in the Northwest region of China. Furthermore, the Mantel test suggests that larger percent of genetic variance (21.58% versus 2.3% can be explained by geographic isolation than linguistic barriers, which matched with the contribution of geographic factors to other world populations.

  5. Subdividing the Trefoil by Origami

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    Joel C. Langer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, David Cox and Jerry Shurman proved that the curves they call -clovers can be subdivided into equal lengths (for certain values of by origami, in the cases where , 2, 3, and 4. In this paper, we expand their work to include the 6-clover.

  6. SUBDIVIDING VERBS TO IMPROVE SYNTACTIC PARSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ting; Ma Jinshan; Zhang Huipeng; Li Sheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new way to improve the performance of dependency Parser:subdividing verbs according to their grammatical functions and integrating the information of verb subclasses into lexicalized parsing model.Firstly,the scheme of verb subdivision is described.Secondly,a maximum entropy model is presented to distinguish verb subclasses.Finally,a statistical parser is developed to evaluate the verb subdivision.Experimental results indicate that the use of verb subclasses has a good influence on parsing performance.

  7. Culturing and direct PCR suggest prevalent host generalism among diverse fungal endophytes of tropical forest grasses.

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    Higgins, K Lindsay; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Most studies examining endophytic fungi associated with grasses (Poaceae) have focused on agronomically important species in managed ecosystems or on wild grasses in subtropical, temperate and boreal grasslands. However grasses first arose in tropical forests, where they remain a significant and diverse component of understory and forest-edge communities. To provide a broader context for understanding grass-endophyte associations we characterized fungal endophyte communities inhabiting foliage of 11 species of phylogenetically diverse C(3) grasses in the understory of a lowland tropical forest at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Our sample included members of early-arising subfamilies of Poaceae that are endemic to forests, as well as more recently arising subfamilies that transitioned to open environments. Isolation on culture media and direct PCR and cloning revealed that these grasses harbor species-rich and phylogenetically diverse communities that lack the endophytic Clavicipitaceae known from diverse woodland and pasture grasses in the temperate zone. Both the incidence and diversity of endophytes was consistent among grass species regardless of subfamily, clade affiliation or ancestral habitat use. Genotype and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these endophytic fungi are predominantly host generalists, shared not only among distinctive lineages of Poaceae but also with non-grass plants at the same site.

  8. Genetic hitchhiking in a subdivided population of Mytilus edulis

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    David Patrice

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few models of genetic hitchhiking in subdivided populations have been developed and the rarity of empirical examples is even more striking. We here provide evidences of genetic hitchhiking in a subdivided population of the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. In the Bay of Biscay (France, a patch of M. edulis populations happens to be separated from its North Sea conspecifics by a wide region occupied only by the sister species M. galloprovincialis. Although genetic differentiation between the two M. edulis regions is largely non-significant at ten marker loci (average FST~0.007, a strong genetic differentiation is observed at a single locus (FST = 0.25. We validated the outlier status of this locus, and analysed DNA sequence polymorphism in order to identify the nature of the selection responsible for the unusual differentiation. Results We first showed that introgression of M. galloprovincialis alleles was very weak in both populations and did not significantly affect their differentiation. Secondly, we observed the genetic signature of a selective sweep within both M. edulis populations in the form of a star-shaped clade of alleles. This clade was nearly fixed in the North Sea and was segregating at a moderate frequency in the Bay of Biscay, explaining their genetic differentiation. Incomplete fixation reveals that selection was not direct on the locus but that the studied sequence recombined with a positively selected allele at a linked locus while it was on its way to fixation. Finally, using a deterministic model we showed that the wave of advance of a favourable allele at a linked locus, when crossing a strong enough barrier to gene flow, generates a step in neutral allele frequencies comparable to the step observed between the two M. edulis populations at the outlier locus. In our case, the position of the barrier is now materialised by a large patch of heterospecific M. galloprovincialis populations. Conclusion High FST

  9. New ancient DNA sequences suggest high genetic diversity for the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Partial DNA sequences of cytochrome b gene (mtDNA) were successfully retrieved from Late Pleistocene fossil bone of Mammuthus primigenius collected from the Xiguitu County (Yakeshi), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and from Zhaodong, Harbin of Heilongjiang Province in northern China. Two ancient DNA fragments ( 109 bp and 124 bp) were authenticated by reproducible experiments in two different laboratories and by phylogenetic analysis with other Elephantidae taxa. Phylogenetic analysis using these sequences and published data in either separate or combined datasets indicate unstable relationship among the woolly mammoth and the two living elephants, Elephas and Loxodonta. In addition to the short sequences used to attempt the long independent evolution of Elephantidae terminal taxa, we suggest that a high intra-specific diversity existed in Mammuthus primigenius crossing both spatial and temporal ranges, resulting in a complex and divergent genetic background for DNA sequences so far recovered. The high genetic diversity in the extinct woolly mammoth can explain the apparent instability of Elephantidae taxa on the molecular phylogenetic trees and can reconcile the apparent paradox regarding the unresolved Elephantidae trichotomy.

  10. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis

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    Hector Fernando Arocha-Garza

    2017-05-01

    shows that our isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  11. High diversity and suggested endemicity of culturable Actinobacteria in an extremely oligotrophic desert oasis.

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    Arocha-Garza, Hector Fernando; Canales-Del Castillo, Ricardo; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria; De la Torre-Zavala, Susana

    2017-01-01

    isolation effort produced 38 unique OTUs in six new monophyletic clades. This high biodiversity and uniqueness of Actinobacteria in an extreme oligotrophic environment, which has previously been reported for its diversity and endemicity, is a suggestive sign of microbial biogeography of Actinobacteria and it also represents an invaluable source of biological material for future ecological and bioprospecting studies.

  12. Fixation properties of subdivided populations with balancing selection

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    Lombardo, Pierangelo; Gambassi, Andrea; Dall'Asta, Luca

    2015-03-01

    In subdivided populations, migration acts together with selection and genetic drift and determines their evolution. Building upon a recently proposed method, which hinges on the emergence of a time scale separation between local and global dynamics, we study the fixation properties of subdivided populations in the presence of balancing selection. The approximation implied by the method is accurate when the effective selection strength is small and the number of subpopulations is large. In particular, it predicts a phase transition between species coexistence and biodiversity loss in the infinite-size limit and, in finite populations, a nonmonotonic dependence of the mean fixation time on the migration rate. In order to investigate the fixation properties of the subdivided population for stronger selection, we introduce an effective coarser description of the dynamics in terms of a voter model with intermediate states, which highlights the basic mechanisms driving the evolutionary process.

  13. Plant microbial diversity is suggested as the key to future biocontrol and health trends.

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    Berg, Gabriele; Köberl, Martina; Rybakova, Daria; Müller, Henry; Grosch, Rita; Smalla, Kornelia

    2017-05-01

    The microbiome of plants plays a crucial role in both plant and ecosystem health. Rapid advances in multi-omics tools are dramatically increasing access to the plant microbiome and consequently to the identification of its links with diseases and to the control of those diseases. Recent insights reveal a close, often symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and plants. Microorganisms can stimulate germination and plant growth, prevent diseases, and promote stress resistance and general fitness. Plants and their associated microorganisms form a holobiont and have to be considered as co-evolved species assemblages consisting of bacterial, archaeal and diverse eukaryotic species. The beneficial interplay of the host and its microbiome is responsible for maintaining the health of the holobiont, while diseases are often correlated with microbial dysbioses. Microbial diversity was identified as a key factor in preventing diseases and can be implemented as a biomarker in plant protection strategies. Targeted and predictive biocontrol approaches are possible by developing microbiome-based solutions. Moreover, combined breeding and biocontrol strategies maintaining diversity and ecosystem health are required. The analysis of plant microbiome data has brought about a paradigm shift in our understanding of its role in health and disease and has substantial consequences for biocontrol and health issues. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Genetic diversity in epichloid endophytes of Hordelymus europaeus suggests repeated host jumps and interspecific hybridizations.

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    Oberhofer, Martina; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Epichloid fungal endophytes (Epichloë and Neotyphodium spp.) are excellent model systems for studying speciation processes because of their variable life history traits that are linked to host grass fitness. Presumed jumps to new hosts and subsequent somatic hybridizations appear to be common among epichloid endophytes resulting in increased genetic variation upon which selection can act and speciation be initiated. In this study, we explored the endophyte diversity of a rare European native woodland grass species, Hordelymus europaeus, along a latitudinal transect covering the entire distribution range of H. europaeus. From 28 populations in six countries, isolates were sampled and molecularly characterized. Based on the sequences of tubB and tefA, six distinct epichloid taxa (interspecific hybrid or cryptic haploid species) were found, of which four were novel and two have been previously reported from this host. Of the novel endophytes, two were presumed to be interspecific hybrids and two of nonhybrid origin. While previously known endophytes of H. europaeus are seed-born and strictly asexual, one of the novel nonhybrid endophytes found in the glacial refugium of the Apennine peninsula reproduced sexually in cultured plants. This is the first case of a seed-borne, but sexually reproducing endophyte of this host. We discuss the origin, and possible ancestral species, of the six epichloid taxa using phylogenetic analyses. Repeated host jumps and somatic hybridizations characterize the diversity of the endophytes. To date, no other grass species is known to host a larger diversity of endophytes than H. europaeus.

  15. On Super Edge-Antimagicness of Subdivided Stars

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    Raheem A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enomoto, Llado, Nakamigawa and Ringel (1998 defined the concept of a super (a, 0-edge-antimagic total labeling and proposed the conjecture that every tree is a super (a, 0-edge-antimagic total graph. In the support of this conjecture, the present paper deals with different results on super (a, d-edge-antimagic total labeling of subdivided stars for d ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3}.

  16. The effect of hitch-hiking on genes linked to a balanced polymorphism in a subdivided population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Charlesworth, D; Vekemans, X

    2000-01-01

    The effect of multi-allelic balancing selection on nucleotide diversity at linked neutral sites was investigated by simulations of subdivided populations. The motivation is to understand the behaviour of self-recognition systems such as the MHC and plant self-incompatibility. For neutral sites, t...

  17. Investigation of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a Japanese native horse breed for suggestions on its conservation.

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    Onogi, Akio; Shirai, Kouichi; Amano, Tomoko

    2017-07-21

    Because native breeds can serve as genetic resources for adapting to environment changes, their conservation is important for future agroecosystems. Using pedigree analysis, we investigated genetic diversity and inbreeding in Japanese Hokkaido native horses, which have adapted to a cold climate and roughage diet. Genetic diversity was measured as the number of founders and the effective number of founders, ancestors and genomes. All metrics imply a decrease in genetic diversity. A comparison of these metrics suggested that pedigree bottlenecks contributed more than did random gene losses to the reduction of genetic diversity. Estimates of marginal contributions of ancestors suggest that the bottlenecks arose mainly because related stallions had been used for breeding. A tendency for an increase in inbreeding coefficients was observed. F-statistics revealed that a small effective population size majorly contributed to this increase, although non-random mating in particular regions also contributed. Because the bottlenecks are thought to have reduced the effective population size, our results imply that mitigation of bottlenecks is important for conservation. To this end, breeding should involve genetically diverse stallions. In addition, to prevent non-random mating observed in particular regions, efforts should be made to plan mating with consideration of kinships. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. The effect of hitch-hiking on genes linked to a balanced polymorphism in a subdivided population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Charlesworth, D; Vekemans, X

    2000-01-01

    The effect of multi-allelic balancing selection on nucleotide diversity at linked neutral sites was investigated by simulations of subdivided populations. The motivation is to understand the behaviour of self-recognition systems such as the MHC and plant self-incompatibility. For neutral sites, t...... to detect balancing selection by its effects on linked variation, using tests such as Tajima's D, is reduced when genes in a subdivided population are sampled from the total population, rather than within demes. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Aug...

  19. Initial characterization of shade avoidance response suggests functional diversity between Populus phytochrome B genes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Weston, David [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Allen, Sara M [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Shade avoidance signaling in higher plants involves perception of the incident red/far-red (R/FR) light by phytochromes and the modulation of downstream transcriptional networks to regulate developmental plasticity in relation to heterogeneous light environments. In this study, we characterized the expression and functional features of Populus phytochrome (PHY) gene family as well as the transcriptional responses of Populus to the changes in R/FR light. Expression data indicated that PHYA is the predominant PHY in the dark grown Populus seedling whereas PHYBs are most abundant in mature tissue types. Out of three Populus PHYs, PHYA is light labile and localized to cytosol in dark whereas both PHYB1 and PHYB2 are light stable and are localized to nucleus in mesophyll protoplasts. When expressed in Arabidopsis, PHYB1 rescued Arabidopsis phyB mutant phenotype whereas PHYB2 did not, suggesting functional diversification between these two gene family members. However, phenotypes of transgenic Populus lines with altered expression of PHYB1, PHYB2 or both and the expression of candidate shade response genes in these transgenic lines suggest that PHYB1 and PHYB2 may have distinct yet overlapping functions. The RNAseq results and analysis of Populus exposed to enriched-FR light indicate that genes associated in cell wall modification and brassinosteroid signaling were induced under far red light. Overall our data indicate that Populus transcriptional responses are at least partially conserved with Arabidopsis.

  20. The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) immunoglobulin heavy chain suggests the importance of clan III variable segments in repertoire diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Breanna; Deiss, Thaddeus C; Chen, Patricia L; Cruz-Schneider, Maria Paula; Sena, Leonardo; Hunter, Margaret E; Bonde, Robert K; Criscitiello, Michael F

    2017-07-01

    Manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent Afrotheria. Manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. To develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. Using the genomic scaffolds of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we characterized the potential IgH segmental diversity and constant region isotypic diversity and performed the first Afrotherian repertoire analysis. The Florida manatee has low V(D)J combinatorial diversity (3744 potential combinations) and few constant region isotypes. They also lack clan III V segments, which may have caused reduced VH segment numbers. However, we found productive somatic hypermutation concentrated in the complementarity determining regions. In conclusion, manatees have limited IGHV clan and combinatorial diversity. This suggests that clan III V segments are essential for maintaining IgH locus diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unexpected diversity in Shisa-like proteins suggests the importance of their roles as transmembrane adaptors.

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    Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V

    2012-03-01

    The Shisa family of single-transmembrane proteins is characterized by an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain and a proline-rich C-terminal region. Its founding member, Xenopus Shisa, promotes head development by antagonizing Wnt and FGF signaling. Recently, a mouse brain-specific Shisa protein CKAMP44 (Shisa9) was shown to play an important role in AMPA receptor desensitization. We used sequence similarity searches against protein, genome and EST databases to study the evolutionary origin and phylogenetic distribution of Shisa homologs. In addition to nine Shisa subfamilies in vertebrates, we detected distantly related Shisa homologs that possess an N-terminal domain with six conserved cysteines. These Shisa-like proteins include FAM159 and KIAA1644 mainly from vertebrates, and members from various bilaterian invertebrates and Porifera, suggesting their presence in the last common ancestor of Metazoa. Shisa-like genes have undergone large expansions in Branchiostoma floridae and Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and appear to have been lost in certain insects. Pattern-based searches against eukaryotic proteomes also uncovered several other families of predicted single-transmembrane proteins with a similar cysteine-rich domain. We refer to these proteins (Shisa/Shisa-like, WBP1/VOPP1, CX, DUF2650, TMEM92, and CYYR1) as STMC6 proteins (single-transmembrane proteins with conserved 6 cysteines). STMC6 genes are widespread in Metazoa, with the human genome containing 17 members. Frequent occurrences of PY motifs in STMC6 proteins suggest that most of them could interact with WW-domain-containing proteins, such as the NEDD4 family E3 ubiquitin ligases, and could play critical roles in protein degradation and sorting. STMC6 proteins are likely transmembrane adaptors that regulate membrane proteins such as cell surface receptors.

  2. On Super Edge-Antimagic Total Labeling Of Subdivided Stars

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    Javaid Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, Enomoto et al. proposed the conjecture that every tree is a super (a, 0-edge-antimagic total graph. In this paper, we give a partial sup- port for the correctness of this conjecture by formulating some super (a, d- edge-antimagic total labelings on a subclass of subdivided stars denoted by T(n, n + 1, 2n + 1, 4n + 2, n5, n6, . . . , nr for different values of the edge- antimagic labeling parameter d, where n ≥ 3 is odd, nm = 2m−4(4n+1+1, r ≥ 5 and 5 ≤ m ≤ r.

  3. Considerable MHC diversity suggests that the functional extinction of baiji is not related to population genetic collapse.

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    Shixia Xu

    Full Text Available To further extend our understanding of the mechanism causing the current nearly extinct status of the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer, one of the most critically endangered species in the world, genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II DRB locus was investigated in the baiji. Nine highly divergent DRB alleles were identified in 17 samples, with an average of 28.4 (13.2% nucleotide difference and 16.7 (23.5% amino acid difference between alleles. The unexpectedly high levels of DRB allelic diversity in the baiji may partly be attributable to its evolutionary adaptations to the freshwater environment which is regarded to have a higher parasite diversity compared to the marine environment. In addition, balancing selection was found to be the main mechanisms in generating sequence diversity at baiji DRB gene. Considerable sequence variation at the adaptive MHC genes despite of significant loss of neutral genetic variation in baiji genome might suggest that intense selection has overpowered random genetic drift as the main evolutionary forces, which further suggested that the critically endangered or nearly extinct status of the baiji is not an outcome of genetic collapse.

  4. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

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    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  5. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

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    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  6. Greater Genetic Diversity in Spatially Restricted Coral Reef Fishes Suggests Secondary Contact among Differentiated Lineages

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    M. Julian Caley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity is a central goal of conservation. It is the raw material for evolutionary change and if lost, can accelerate extinction of species. According to theory, total genetic diversity should be less in species with restricted ranges and in populations on the margins of distributional ranges, making such species or populations more vulnerable to environmental perturbations. Using mtDNA and nuclear Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR data we investigated how the genetic diversity and structure of three con-generic species pairs of coral reef fishes (Pomacentridae was related to species’ range size and position of populations within these ranges. Estimates of genetic structure did not differ significantly among species, but mtDNA and nucDNA genetic diversities were up to 10 times greater in spatially restricted species compared to their widespread congeners. In two of the three species pairs, the distribution of genetic variation indicated secondary contact among differentiated lineages in the spatially restricted species. In contrast, the widespread species displayed a typical signature of population expansion suggesting recent genetic bottlenecks, possibly associated with the (re colonization of the Great Barrier Reef. These results indicate that historical processes, involving hybridization and founder effects, possibly associated with Pleistocene sea level fluctuations, have differentially influenced the widespread and spatially restricted coral reef damselfish species studied here.

  7. Global analysis of lysine acetylation suggests the involvement of protein acetylation in diverse biological processes in rice (Oryza sativa.

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    Babi Ramesh Reddy Nallamilli

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa. We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions.

  8. Stability properties of underdominance in finite subdivided populations.

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    Philipp M Altrock

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available IN ISOLATED populations underdominance leads to bistable evolutionary dynamics: below a certain mutant allele frequency the wildtype succeeds. Above this point, the potentially underdominant mutant allele fixes. In subdivided populations with gene flow there can be stable states with coexistence of wildtypes and mutants: polymorphism can be maintained because of a migration-selection equilibrium, i.e., selection against rare recent immigrant alleles that tend to be heterozygous. We focus on the stochastic evolutionary dynamics of systems where demographic fluctuations in the coupled populations are the main source of internal noise. We discuss the influence of fitness, migration rate, and the relative sizes of two interacting populations on the mean extinction times of a group of potentially underdominant mutant alleles. We classify realistic initial conditions according to their impact on the stochastic extinction process. Even in small populations, where demographic fluctuations are large, stability properties predicted from deterministic dynamics show remarkable robustness. Fixation of the mutant allele becomes unlikely but the time to its extinction can be long.

  9. The isolation of Luminous Blue Variables: On subdividing the sample

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    A debate has arisen concerning the fundamental nature of LBVs) and their role in stellar evolution. While Smith and Tombleson proposed that their isolated environments indicate that LBVs must be largely the product of binary evolution, Humphreys et al. have recently expressed the view that the traditional single-star view still holds if one appropriately selects a subsample of LBVs. This paper finds the claim of Humphreys et al. to be quantitatively unjustified. A statistical test of "candidate" as opposed to "confirmed" LBVs shows no significant difference ($<$1$\\sigma$) between their environments. Even if the sample is further subdivided as proposed, the three most luminous LBVs are spatially dispersed similar to late O-type dwarfs, which have much longer lifetimes than expected for classical LBVs. Lower-luminosity LBVs have a distribution associated with red supergiants (RSGs), but these RSGs are dominated by stars of 10-15 M$_{\\odot}$ initial mass, with much longer lifetimes than expected for those low...

  10. Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2013-01-01

    Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

  11. Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja I Brusentsov

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia, Northern Asia (Siberia and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan. Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3 and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

  12. Nuclear distributions of NUP62 and NUP214 suggest architectural diversity and spatial patterning among nuclear pore complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Kinoshita

    Full Text Available The shape of nuclei in many adherent cultured cells approximates an oblate ellipsoid, with contralateral flattened surfaces facing the culture plate or the medium. Observations of cultured cell nuclei from orthogonal perspectives revealed that nucleoporin p62 (NUP62 and nucleoporin 214 (NUP214 are differentially distributed between nuclear pore complexes on the flattened surfaces and peripheral rim of the nucleus. High resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED immunofluorescence microscopy resolved individual NPCs, and suggested both heterogeneity and microheterogeneity in NUP62 and NUP214 immunolabeling among in NPC populations. Similar to nuclear domains and interphase chromosome territories, architectural diversity and spatial patterning of NPCs may be an intrinsic property of the nucleus that is linked to the functions and organization of underlying chromatin.

  13. Patterns of genetic diversity of the cryptogenic red alga Polysiphonia morrowii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) suggest multiple origins of the Atlantic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Destombe, Christophe; Kim, Byeongseok; Mauger, Stéphane; Raffo, María Paula; Kim, Myung Sook; Le Gall, Line

    2016-08-01

    The red alga Polysiphonia morrowii, native to the North Pacific (Northeast Asia), has recently been reported worldwide. To determine the origin of the French and Argentine populations of this introduced species, we compared samples from these two areas with samples collected in Korea and at Hakodate, Japan, the type locality of the species. Combined analyses of chloroplastic (rbcL) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA revealed that the French and Argentine populations are closely related and differ substantially from the Korean and Japanese populations. The genetic structure of P. morrowii populations from South Atlantic and North Atlantic, which showed high haplotype diversity compared with populations from the North Pacific, suggested the occurrence of multiple introduction events from areas outside of the so-called native regions. Although similar, the French and Argentine populations are not genetically identical. Thus, the genetic structure of these two introduced areas may have been modified by cryptic and recurrent introduction events directly from Asia or from other introduced areas that act as introduction relays. In addition, the large number of private cytoplasmic types identified in the two introduced regions strongly suggests that local populations of P. morrowii existed before the recent detection of these invasions. Our results suggest that the most likely scenario is that the source population(s) of the French and Argentine populations was not located only in the North Pacific and/or that P. morrowii is a cryptogenic species.

  14. Diversity of murine norovirus in wild-rodent populations: species-specific associations suggest an ancient divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B; McFadden, Nora; Blundell, Richard J; Meredith, Anna; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A survey of wild-rodent populations has revealed that murine norovirus (MNV) is present and diverse in wild-house mice Mus musculus. This virus is genetically similar to MNV infecting show mice and previously described variants circulating in laboratory mice. The detection of MNV in wild-mouse populations suggests that MNV infection of laboratory mice and show mice (from which laboratory mice are derived) derives from contact with or their origins from wild-mouse progenitors. The survey additionally identified frequent infection of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) with genetically divergent variants of MNV. These viruses are distinct from previously described MNV variants, differing by 22-23 % over the complete genome sequence compared with a maximum of 13 % between M. musculus-derived strains. Comparison with other noroviruses reveals that the Apodemus MNV groups with MNV in genogroup V and shares the same overall genome organization, predicted lengths of proteins encoded by ORFs 1-3 and the existence of a conserved alternative reading frame in VP1 encoding a homologue of the MNV ORF4. Different Apodemus MNV isolates were as variable as MNV isolates and showed evidence for inter-isolate recombination. Our observation of species-specific associations of MNV variants in wild populations suggests that murine noroviruses have an ancient origin, a feature that they may share with other norovirus genogroups.

  15. Low mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) suggests isolation and a founder effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSLYN SAW; NANCY M. ENDERSBY; STEPHEN W. MCKECHNIE

    2006-01-01

    Populations of Australian diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.), a serious pest of cruciferous crops, display extremely low levels of genetic differentiation across Australia and New Zealand sample locations, as determined previously using microsatellite markers. These data suggest high levels of contemporary gene flow that is consistent with Australian DBM being a vagile species. Here we examine Australian DBM samples for haplotype variation using the mitochondrial DNA sequences of a 257 bp fragment of the CO1 gene. We compare this variation to equivalent mtDNA sequence variation in samples from New Zealand, Kenya and Korea. Using 42 moths collected throughout Australia we show that Australian DBM have both low mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversities. The three Australian haplotypes detected are closely related and they cluster with the common haplotype group from Indonesia. In addition the Australian haplotype frequency distribution resembled more that from Indonesia than that from Kenya or Korea. These data are consistent with an original strong Australian/New Zealand founder effect, from a south-eastern Asian source, with subsequent continued isolation. In a single season, the frequency of PXMt01, the most common Australian haplotype, was estimated at 15 locations spread across southern Australia and New Zealand using a polymerase chain reaction BiPASA method. The PXMt01 haplotype frequency variation was heterogenous,suggesting a small degree of population isolation that was not detected using microsatellites.Differentiation was not a function of geographical distance. These data suggest transient and sporadic local colonisation events by small numbers of founding females.

  16. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A; Lane, Charles R; Thon, Michael R; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production.

  17. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Baroncelli

    Full Text Available Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l. is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production.

  18. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A.; Lane, Charles R.; Thon, Michael R.; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production. PMID:26086351

  19. Toward a universal carbonate clumped isotope calibration: Diverse synthesis and preparatory methods suggest a single temperature relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelson, Julia R.; Huntington, Katharine W.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Saenger, Casey; Lechler, Alex R.

    2017-01-01

    does not measurably change with either the precipitation methods used in this study or acid digestion temperature. This leaves phosphoric acid preparation, CO2 gas purification, and/or data reduction methods as the possible sources of the discrepancy among published calibrations. In particular, the use of appropriate 17O corrections has the potential to reduce disagreement among calibrations. Our study nearly doubles the available synthetic carbonate calibration data for Δ47 thermometry (adding 56 samples to the 74 previously published samples). This large population size creates a robust calibration that enables us to examine the potential for calibration slope aliasing due to small sample size. The similarity of Δ47 values among carbonates precipitated under such diverse conditions suggests that many natural samples grown at 4-85 °C in moderate pH conditions (6-10) may also be described by our Δ47-temperature relationship.

  20. Considerable MHC Diversity Suggests That the Functional Extinction of Baiji Is Not Related to Population Genetic Collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Shixia Xu; Jianfeng Ju; Xuming Zhou; Lian Wang; Kaiya Zhou; Guang Yang

    2012-01-01

    To further extend our understanding of the mechanism causing the current nearly extinct status of the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer), one of the most critically endangered species in the world, genetic diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB locus was investigated in the baiji. Nine highly divergent DRB alleles were identified in 17 samples, with an average of 28.4 (13.2%) nucleotide difference and 16.7 (23.5%) amino acid difference between alleles. The unexpectedly h...

  1. Expression of venom gene homologs in diverse python tissues suggests a new model for the evolution of snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Card, Daren C; Andrew, Audra L; Shaney, Kyle J; Adams, Richard H; Schield, Drew R; Casewell, Nicholas R; Mackessy, Stephen P; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-01-01

    Snake venom gene evolution has been studied intensively over the past several decades, yet most previous studies have lacked the context of complete snake genomes and the full context of gene expression across diverse snake tissues. We took a novel approach to studying snake venom evolution by leveraging the complete genome of the Burmese python, including information from tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. We identified the orthologs of snake venom genes in the python genome, and conducted detailed analysis of gene expression of these venom homologs to identify patterns that differ between snake venom gene families and all other genes. We found that venom gene homologs in the python are expressed in many different tissues outside of oral glands, which illustrates the pitfalls of using transcriptomic data alone to define "venom toxins." We hypothesize that the python may represent an ancestral state prior to major venom development, which is supported by our finding that the expansion of venom gene families is largely restricted to highly venomous caenophidian snakes. Therefore, the python provides insight into biases in which genes were recruited for snake venom systems. Python venom homologs are generally expressed at lower levels, have higher variance among tissues, and are expressed in fewer organs compared with all other python genes. We propose a model for the evolution of snake venoms in which venom genes are recruited preferentially from genes with particular expression profile characteristics, which facilitate a nearly neutral transition toward specialized venom system expression.

  2. Metagenome-based diversity analyses suggest a significant contribution of non-cyanobacterial lineages to carbonate precipitation in modern microbialites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificacion eLopez-Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are thought to play a key role in carbonate formation due to their metabolic activity, but other organisms carrying out oxygenic photosynthesis (photosynthetic eukaryotes or other metabolisms (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, sulfate reduction, may also contribute to carbonate formation. To obtain more quantitative information than that provided by more classical PCR-dependent methods, we studied the microbial diversity of microbialites from the Alchichica crater lake (Mexico by mining for 16S/18S rRNA genes in metagenomes obtained by direct sequencing of environmental DNA. We studied samples collected at the Western (AL-W and Northern (AL-N shores of the lake and, at the latter site, along a depth gradient (1, 5, 10 and 15 m depth. The associated microbial communities were mainly composed of bacteria, most of which seemed heterotrophic, whereas archaea were negligible. Eukaryotes composed a relatively minor fraction dominated by photosynthetic lineages, diatoms in AL-W, influenced by Si-rich seepage waters, and green algae in AL-N samples. Members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria classes of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial taxa, followed by Planctomycetes, Deltaproteobacteria (Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi. Community composition varied among sites and with depth. Although cyanobacteria were the most important bacterial group contributing to the carbonate precipitation potential, photosynthetic eukaryotes, anoxygenic photosynthesizers and sulfate reducers were also very abundant. Cyanobacteria affiliated to Pleurocapsales largely increased with depth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations showed considerable areas of aragonite-encrusted Pleurocapsa-like cyanobacteria at microscale. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a strong positive correlation of Pleurocapsales and Chroococcales with aragonite formation at

  3. Sweet Taste and Nutrient Value Subdivide Rewarding Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1–4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β′2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population. PMID:25728694

  4. Root transcriptomes of two acidic soil adapted Indica rice genotypes suggest diverse and complex mechanism of low phosphorus tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Wricha; Rai, Mayank

    2017-03-01

    Low phosphorus (P) tolerance in rice is a biologically and agronomically important character. Low P tolerant Indica-type rice genotypes, Sahbhagi Dhan (SD) and Chakhao Poreiton (CP), are adapted to acidic soils and show variable response to low P levels. Using RNAseq approach, transcriptome data was generated from roots of SD and CP after 15 days of low P treatment to understand differences and similarities at molecular level. In response to low P, number of genes up-regulated (1318) was more when compared with down-regulated genes (761). Eight hundred twenty-one genes found to be significantly regulated between SD and CP in response to low P. De novo assembly using plant database led to further identification of 1535 novel transcripts. Functional annotation of significantly expressed genes suggests two distinct methods of low P tolerance. While root system architecture in SD works through serine-threonine kinase PSTOL1, suberin-mediated cell wall modification seems to be key in CP. The transcription data indicated that CP relies more on releasing its internally bound Pi and coping with low P levels by transcriptional and translational modifications and using dehydration response-based signals. Role of P transporters seems to be vital in response to low P in CP while sugar- and auxin-mediated pathway seems to be preferred in SD. At least six small RNA clusters overlap with transcripts highly expressed under low P, suggesting role of RNA super clusters in nutrient response in plants. These results help us to understand and thereby devise better strategy to enhance low P tolerance in Indica-type rice.

  5. Karyotype diversity suggests that Laonastes aenigmamus (Laotian rock rat) (Rodentia, Diatomyidae) is a multi-specific genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Florence; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Keovichit, Kham; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Laonastes aenigmamus (Khanyou) is a recently described rodent species living in geographically separated limestone formations of the Khammuan Province in Lao PDR. Chromosomes of 21 specimens of L. aenigmamus were studied using chromosome banding as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques using human painting, telomere repeats, and 28S rDNA probes. Four different karyotypes were established. Study with human chromosome paints and FISH revealed that four large chromosomes were formed by multiple common tandem fusions, with persistence of some interstitial telomeres. The rearrangements separating the different karyotypes (I to IV) were also reconstructed. Various combinations of Robertsonian translocations or tandem fusions involving the same chromosomes differentiate these karyotypes. These rearrangements create a strong gametic barrier, which isolates specimens with karyotype II from the others. C-banding and FISH with telomere repeats also exhibit large and systematized differences between karyotype II and others. These data indicate an ancient reproductive separation and suggest that Laonastes is not a mono-specific genus.

  6. A method for subdividing clinical guidelines into process modules with associated triggers and objectives to facilitate implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckmann, Roger S; Boxwala, Aziz A; Greenes, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Representation of multi-step clinical guidelines (CG) and their implementation in computerized decision support (DS) systems are complex and logistically challenging tasks. However, many simple rules based on CGs (e.g., medical logic modules), have been successfully implemented through a few popular DS models (e.g., prevention reminders, order entry systems). To facilitate mapping of CGs to practical DS models, we propose an empirical method for sub-dividing CGs into modules according to the locus in a clinical process flow model where implementation would be most effective (e.g., post-encounter provider order entry). We further propose a classification of triggers and objectives for CG modules that provides a framework for a DS system to implement the module Successful application of the method to ten diverse CGs in the outpatient setting is described.

  7. MULTISCALE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SUBDIVIDED PERIODIC ELASTIC STRUCTURES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-qun Cao; Jun-zhi Cui; De-chao Zhu; Jian-lan Luo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, from the view of point of macro- and meso- scalecoupling, we discuss the mechanical behaviour for subdivided periodic elastic structures of composite materials. A multiscale numerical method and its error estimate are reported. Finally, numerical experiments results supports strongly the theoretical ones presented in the paper.

  8. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - Existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    The geometric models of higher dimensional automata (HDA) and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes...

  9. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    The geometric models of Higher Dimensional Automata and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes...

  10. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  11. Phylogenetically diverse ureC genes and their expression suggest the urea utilization by bacterial symbionts in marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Su

    Full Text Available Urea is one of the dominant organic nitrogenous compounds in the oligotrophic oceans. Compared to the knowledge of nitrogen transformation of nitrogen fixation, ammonia oxidization, nitrate and nitrite reduction mediated by sponge-associated microbes, our knowledge of urea utilization in sponges and the phylogenetic diversity of sponge-associated microbes with urea utilization potential is very limited. In this study, Marinobacter litoralis isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria and the slurry of X. testudinaria were found to have urease activity. Subsequently, phylogenetically diverse bacterial ureC genes were detected in the total genomic DNA and RNA of sponge X. testudinaria, i.e., 19 operative taxonomic units (OTUs in genomic DNA library and 8 OTUs in cDNA library at 90% stringency. Particularly, 6 OTUs were common to both the genomic DNA library and the cDNA library, which suggested that some ureC genes were expressed in this sponge. BLAST and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the ureC sequences were similar with the urease alpha subunit of members from Proteobacteria, which were the predominant component in sponge X. testudinaria, and the remaining ureC sequences were related to those from Magnetococcus, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria. This study is the first assessment of the role of sponge bacterial symbionts in the regenerated utilization of urea by the detection of transcriptional activity of ureC gene, as well as the phylogenetic diversity of ureC gene of sponge bacterial symbionts. The results suggested the urea utilization by bacterial symbionts in marine sponge X. testudinaria, extending our understanding of nitrogen cycling mediated by sponge-associated microbiota.

  12. Allele mining across DREB1A and DREB1B in diverse rice genotypes suggest a highly conserved pathway inducible by low temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Clarissa Challam; Tapu Ghosh; Mayank Rai; Wricha Tyagi

    2015-06-01

    Low temperature stress is one of the major limiting factors affecting rice productivity in higher altitudes. DREB1A and DREB1B, are two transcription factors that have been reported to play key regulatory role in low temperature tolerance. In order to understand whether natural genetic variation in these two loci leads to cold tolerance or susceptibility, OsDREB1A and OsDREB1B were targeted across several rice genotypes showing differential response to low temperature. Expression data suggests induction of gene expression in shoots in response to low temperature in both tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Upon sequence analysis of 20 rice genotypes, eight nucleotide changes were identified including two in the coding region and six in the $5'$UTR. None of the discovered novel variations lie in the conserved region of the genes under study, thereby causing little or no changes in putative function of the corresponding proteins. In silico analysis using a diverse set of 400 O. sativa revealed much lower nucleotide diversity estimates across two DREB loci and one other gene (MYB2) involved in DREB pathway than those observed for other rice genes. None of the changes showed association with seedling stage cold tolerance, suggesting that nucleotide changes in DREB loci are unlikely to contribute to low temperature tolerance. So far, data concerning the physiological role and regulation of DREB1 in different genetic background are very limited; it is to be expected that they will be studied extensively in the near future.

  13. Stoichiometric differences in DNA molecules containing the atpA gene suggest mechanisms for the generation of mitochondrial genome diversity in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, I D; Isaac, P G; Leaver, C J

    1987-04-01

    Four genomic arrangements of the maize mitochondrial atpA gene (encoding the alpha subunit of the F(1) ATPase), have been characterized. Most N (fertile) and S (male-sterile) cytoplasms contain two atpA arrangements of equal abundance. Prolonged exposure of blots of maize mitochondrial DNA probed with atpA-specific sequences show that cytoplasms previously reported to lack one of the atpA arrangements do contain the second arrangement but at low levels. Similarly, restriction fragments containing the atpA gene previously thought unique to male-sterile S and T cytoplasms are present in low abundance in fertile cytoplasms. These observations suggest that fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of maize may be more closely related than previously thought, and suggest possible mechanisms to explain the observed mitochondrial genome diversity.

  14. The number of self-incompatibility alleles in a finite, subdivided population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H

    1998-01-01

    the applicability of the results to include proposed models for the major histocompatibility (MHC) loci. For a subdivided population over a large range of migration rates, it appears that the number of self-incompatibility alleles (or MHC-alleles) observed can provide a rough estimate of the total number......The actual and effective number of gametophytic self-incompatibility alleles maintained at mutation-drift-selection equilibrium in a finite population subdivided as in the island model is investigated by stochastic simulations. The existing theory founded by Wright predicts that for a given...... population size the number of alleles maintained increases monotonically with decreasing migration as is the case for neutral alleles. The simulation results here show that this is not true. At migration rates above Nm = 0.01-0.1, the actual and effective number of alleles is lower than for an undivided...

  15. Shared genetic diversity across the global invasive range of the monk parakeet suggests a common restricted geographic origin and the possibility of convergent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelaar, Pim; Roques, Severine; Hobson, Elizabeth A; Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Avery, Michael L; Russello, Michael A; Senar, Juan C; Wright, Timothy F; Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2015-05-01

    While genetic diversity is hypothesized to be an important factor explaining invasion success, there is no consensus yet on how variation in source populations or demographic processes affects invasiveness. We used mitochondrial DNA haplotypic and microsatellite genotypic data to investigate levels of genetic variation and reconstruct the history of replicate invasions on three continents in a globally invasive bird, the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). We evaluated whether genetic diversity at invasive sites could be explained by (i) the native source populations from which they were derived and (ii) demographic bottlenecks during introduction. Genetic data indicated a localized source area for most sampled invasive populations, with limited evidence for admixing of native source populations. This pattern largely coincides with historical data on pet trade exports. However, the invasive populations are genetically more similar than predicted from the export data alone. The extent of bottleneck effects varied among invasive populations. The observed low genetic diversity, evidence of demographic contraction and restricted source area do not support the hypothesis that invasion is favoured by the mixing and recombining of genetic variation from multiple source populations. Instead, they suggest that reduced genetic variation through random processes may not inhibit successful establishment and invasion in this species. However, convergent selection across invasive sites could also explain the observed patterns of reduction and similarity in genetic variation and/or the restricted source area. In general, the alternative explanation of intraspecific variation in invasive potential among genotypes or geographic areas is neglected, but warrants more attention as it could inform comparative studies and management of biological invaders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A large population of diverse neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system expresses short neuropeptide F, suggesting multiple distributed peptide functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, Dick R; Enell, Lina E; Santos, Jonathan G; Wegener, Christian; Johard, Helena AD

    2008-01-01

    Background Insect neuropeptides are distributed in stereotypic sets of neurons that commonly constitute a small fraction of the total number of neurons. However, some neuropeptide genes are expressed in larger numbers of neurons of diverse types suggesting that they are involved in a greater diversity of functions. One of these widely expressed genes, snpf, encodes the precursor of short neuropeptide F (sNPF). To unravel possible functional diversity we have mapped the distribution of transcript of the snpf gene and its peptide products in the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila in relation to other neuronal markers. Results There are several hundreds of neurons in the larval CNS and several thousands in the adult Drosophila brain expressing snpf transcript and sNPF peptide. Most of these neurons are intrinsic interneurons of the mushroom bodies. Additionally, sNPF is expressed in numerous small interneurons of the CNS, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the antennae, and in a small set of possibly neurosecretory cells innervating the corpora cardiaca and aorta. A sNPF-Gal4 line confirms most of the expression pattern. None of the sNPF immunoreactive neurons co-express a marker for the transcription factor DIMMED, suggesting that the majority are not neurosecretory cells or large interneurons involved in episodic bulk transmission. Instead a portion of the sNPF producing neurons co-express markers for classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, GABA and glutamate, suggesting that sNPF is a co-transmitter or local neuromodulator in ORNs and many interneurons. Interestingly, sNPF is coexpressed both with presumed excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. A few sNPF expressing neurons in the brain colocalize the peptide corazonin and a pair of dorsal neurons in the first abdominal neuromere coexpresses sNPF and insulin-like peptide 7 (ILP7). Conclusion It is likely that sNPF has multiple functions as neurohormone as well as local neuromodulator

  17. A large population of diverse neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system expresses short neuropeptide F, suggesting multiple distributed peptide functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegener Christian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect neuropeptides are distributed in stereotypic sets of neurons that commonly constitute a small fraction of the total number of neurons. However, some neuropeptide genes are expressed in larger numbers of neurons of diverse types suggesting that they are involved in a greater diversity of functions. One of these widely expressed genes, snpf, encodes the precursor of short neuropeptide F (sNPF. To unravel possible functional diversity we have mapped the distribution of transcript of the snpf gene and its peptide products in the central nervous system (CNS of Drosophila in relation to other neuronal markers. Results There are several hundreds of neurons in the larval CNS and several thousands in the adult Drosophila brain expressing snpf transcript and sNPF peptide. Most of these neurons are intrinsic interneurons of the mushroom bodies. Additionally, sNPF is expressed in numerous small interneurons of the CNS, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs of the antennae, and in a small set of possibly neurosecretory cells innervating the corpora cardiaca and aorta. A sNPF-Gal4 line confirms most of the expression pattern. None of the sNPF immunoreactive neurons co-express a marker for the transcription factor DIMMED, suggesting that the majority are not neurosecretory cells or large interneurons involved in episodic bulk transmission. Instead a portion of the sNPF producing neurons co-express markers for classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, GABA and glutamate, suggesting that sNPF is a co-transmitter or local neuromodulator in ORNs and many interneurons. Interestingly, sNPF is coexpressed both with presumed excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. A few sNPF expressing neurons in the brain colocalize the peptide corazonin and a pair of dorsal neurons in the first abdominal neuromere coexpresses sNPF and insulin-like peptide 7 (ILP7. Conclusion It is likely that sNPF has multiple functions as neurohormone as well as

  18. Immunoglobulin diversity in the phylogenetically primitive shark, Heterodontus francisci. Suggested lack of structural variation between light chains isolated from different animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, G W; Scheffel, C; Gerber-Jenson, B

    1980-06-01

    A two-step procedure employing gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography has been utilized to isolate LMW immunoglobulin from the horned shark, Heterodontus francisci. Light chains obtained by complete reduction and alkylation of the parent protein have been compared by several analytical techniques. Amino acid composition data implies a limited degree of variation in the light chains isolated from individual animals. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the CNBr digests of the light chains reveal indistinguishable banding profiles of the major peptides. Isoelectric focusing indicates limited heterogeneity in the light chain spectrotype and identity in the pI of the majority of bands detectable by staining. The suggested degree of structural similarity in the light chains of this phylogenetically primitive shark is discussed in terms of the evolutionary position of the species and current theories concerning the origins of structural diversity in immunoglobulins.

  19. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Milá

    Full Text Available The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%, yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%, with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In

  20. A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Tavares, Erika S; Muñoz Saldaña, Alberto; Karubian, Jordan; Smith, Thomas B; Baker, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    The Amazonian avifauna remains severely understudied relative to that of the temperate zone, and its species richness is thought to be underestimated by current taxonomy. Recent molecular systematic studies using mtDNA sequence reveal that traditionally accepted species-level taxa often conceal genetically divergent subspecific lineages found to represent new species upon close taxonomic scrutiny, suggesting that intraspecific mtDNA variation could be useful in species discovery. Surveys of mtDNA variation in Holarctic species have revealed patterns of variation that are largely congruent with species boundaries. However, little information exists on intraspecific divergence in most Amazonian species. Here we screen intraspecific mtDNA genetic variation in 41 Amazonian forest understory species belonging to 36 genera and 17 families in 6 orders, using 758 individual samples from Ecuador and French Guiana. For 13 of these species, we also analyzed trans-Andean populations from the Ecuadorian Chocó. A consistent pattern of deep intraspecific divergence among trans-Amazonian haplogroups was found for 33 of the 41 taxa, and genetic differentiation and genetic diversity among them was highly variable, suggesting a complex range of evolutionary histories. Mean sequence divergence within families was the same as that found in North American birds (13%), yet mean intraspecific divergence in Neotropical species was an order of magnitude larger (2.13% vs. 0.23%), with mean distance between intraspecific lineages reaching 3.56%. We found no clear relationship between genetic distances and differentiation in plumage color. Our results identify numerous genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages which may result in new species-level designations upon closer taxonomic scrutiny and thorough sampling, although lineages in the tropical region could be older than those in the temperate zone without necessarily representing separate species. In-depth phylogeographic surveys

  1. An adaptive scaled boundary finite element method by subdividing subdomains for elastodynamic problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method(SBFEM) is a semi-analytical numerical method,which models an analysis domain by a small number of large-sized subdomains and discretises subdomain boundaries only.In a subdomain,all fields of state variables including displacement,stress,velocity and acceleration are semi-analytical,and the kinetic energy,strain energy and energy error are all integrated semi-analytically.These advantages are taken in this study to develop a posteriori h-hierarchical adaptive SBFEM for transient elastodynamic problems using a mesh refinement procedure which subdivides subdomains.Because only a small number of subdomains are subdivided,mesh refinement is very simple and efficient,and mesh mapping to transfer state variables from an old mesh to a new one is also very simple but accurate.Two 2D examples with stress wave propagation were modelled.The results show that the developed method is capable of capturing propagation of steep stress regions and calculating accurate dynamic responses,using only a fraction of degrees of freedom required by adaptive finite element method.

  2. Cytology of the minor-vein phloem in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae suggests a high diversity of phloem-loading modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis R. Batashev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of abundant plasmodesmata at the bundle sheath/phloem interface in Oleaceae (Gamalei, 1974 and Cucurbitaceae (Turgeon et al., 1975 opened the questions whether these plasmodesmata are functional in phloem loading and how widespread is symplasmic loading. Analysis of over 800 dicot species allowed the definition of ‘open’ and ‘closed’ types of the minor vein phloem depending on the abundance of plasmodesmata between companion cells and bundle sheath (Gamalei, 1989; 1990. These types corresponded to potential symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loaders, respectively; however, this definition covered a spectrum of diverse structures of phloem endings. Here, a review of detailed cytological analyses of minor veins in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae is presented, including data on several cell types and their combinations which have not been reported previously. The percentage of Asteridae species with ‘open’ minor vein cytology which also contain sieve-element-companion cell complexes with ‘closed’ cytology, i.e. that show specialization for both symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loading, was determined. Along with recent data confirming the dissimilar functional specialization of structurally different parts of minor vein phloem in the stachyose-translocating species Alonsoa meridionalis (Voitsekhovskaja et al., 2009, these findings suggest that apoplasmic loading is indispensable in a large group of species previously classified as putative symplasmic loaders. Altogether, this study provides formal classifications of companion cells and of minor veins, respectively, in 24 families of the Asteridae based on their structural features, opening the way to a close investigation of the relationship between structure and function in phloem loading.

  3. Cytology of the minor-vein phloem in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae suggests a high diversity of phloem-loading modes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batashev, Denis R.; Pakhomova, Marina V.; Razumovskaya, Anna V.; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V.; Gamalei, Yuri V.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of abundant plasmodesmata at the bundle sheath/phloem interface in Oleaceae (Gamalei, 1974) and Cucurbitaceae (Turgeon et al., 1975) raised the questions as to whether these plasmodesmata are functional in phloem loading and how widespread symplasmic loading would be. Analysis of over 800 dicot species allowed the definition of “open” and “closed” types of the minor vein phloem depending on the abundance of plasmodesmata between companion cells and bundle sheath (Gamalei, 1989, 1990). These types corresponded to potential symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loaders, respectively; however, this definition covered a spectrum of diverse structures of phloem endings. Here, a review of detailed cytological analyses of minor veins in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae is presented, including data on companion cell types and their combinations which have not been reported previously. The percentage of Asteridae species with “open” minor vein cytology which also contain sieve-element-companion cell complexes with “closed” cytology, i.e., that show specialization for both symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loading, was determined. Along with recent data confirming the dissimilar functional specialization of structurally different parts of minor vein phloem in the stachyose-translocating species Alonsoa meridionalis (Voitsekhovskaja et al., 2009), these findings suggest that apoplasmic loading is indispensable in a large group of species previously classified as putative symplasmic loaders. Altogether, this study provides formal classifications of companion cells and of minor veins, respectively, in 24 families of the Asteridae based on their structural features, opening the way to a close investigation of the relationship between structure and function in phloem loading. PMID:23970890

  4. Cytology of the minor-vein phloem in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae suggests a high diversity of phloem-loading modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batashev, Denis R; Pakhomova, Marina V; Razumovskaya, Anna V; Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V; Gamalei, Yuri V

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of abundant plasmodesmata at the bundle sheath/phloem interface in Oleaceae (Gamalei, 1974) and Cucurbitaceae (Turgeon et al., 1975) raised the questions as to whether these plasmodesmata are functional in phloem loading and how widespread symplasmic loading would be. Analysis of over 800 dicot species allowed the definition of "open" and "closed" types of the minor vein phloem depending on the abundance of plasmodesmata between companion cells and bundle sheath (Gamalei, 1989, 1990). These types corresponded to potential symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loaders, respectively; however, this definition covered a spectrum of diverse structures of phloem endings. Here, a review of detailed cytological analyses of minor veins in 320 species from the subclass Asteridae is presented, including data on companion cell types and their combinations which have not been reported previously. The percentage of Asteridae species with "open" minor vein cytology which also contain sieve-element-companion cell complexes with "closed" cytology, i.e., that show specialization for both symplasmic and apoplasmic phloem loading, was determined. Along with recent data confirming the dissimilar functional specialization of structurally different parts of minor vein phloem in the stachyose-translocating species Alonsoa meridionalis (Voitsekhovskaja et al., 2009), these findings suggest that apoplasmic loading is indispensable in a large group of species previously classified as putative symplasmic loaders. Altogether, this study provides formal classifications of companion cells and of minor veins, respectively, in 24 families of the Asteridae based on their structural features, opening the way to a close investigation of the relationship between structure and function in phloem loading.

  5. Plan for Subdividing Genesis Mission Diamond-on-Silicon 60000 Solar Wind Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Patti J.; Allton, J. A.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Rodriquez, M. C.; See, T. H.; Sutter, B.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Genesis solar wind sample return mission experienced an off nominal landing resulting in broken, albeit useful collectors. Sample 60000 from the collector is comprised of diamond-like-carbon film on a float zone (FZ) silicon wafer substrate Diamond-on-Silicon (DOS), and is highly prized for its higher concentration of solar wind (SW) atoms. A team of scientist at the Johnson Space Center was charged with determining the best, nondestructive and noncontaminating method to subdivide the specimen that would result in a 1 sq. cm subsample for allocation and analysis. Previous work included imaging of the SW side of 60000, identifying the crystallographic orientation of adjacent fragments, and devising an initial cutting plan.

  6. The genealogy of sequences containing multiple sites subject to strong selection in a subdivided population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Magnus; Innan, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    A stochastic model for the genealogy of a sample of recombining sequences containing one or more sites subject to selection in a subdivided population is described. Selection is incorporated by dividing the population into allelic classes and then conditioning on the past sizes of these classes. The past allele frequencies at the selected sites are thus treated as parameters rather than as random variables. The purpose of the model is not to investigate the dynamics of selection, but to investigate effects of linkage to the selected sites on the genealogy of the surrounding chromosomal region. This approach is useful for modeling strong selection, when it is natural to parameterize the past allele frequencies at the selected sites. Several models of strong balancing selection are used as examples, and the effects on the pattern of neutral polymorphism in the chromosomal region are discussed. We focus in particular on the statistical power to detect balancing selection when it is present.

  7. The number of self-incompatibility alleles in a finite, subdivided population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H

    1998-01-01

    The actual and effective number of gametophytic self-incompatibility alleles maintained at mutation-drift-selection equilibrium in a finite population subdivided as in the island model is investigated by stochastic simulations. The existing theory founded by Wright predicts that for a given...... population size the number of alleles maintained increases monotonically with decreasing migration as is the case for neutral alleles. The simulation results here show that this is not true. At migration rates above Nm = 0.01-0.1, the actual and effective number of alleles is lower than for an undivided...... population with the same number of individuals, and, contrary to Wright's theoretical expectation, the number of alleles is not much higher than for an undivided population unless Nm

  8. Molecular genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from Central and South America revealed highly diverse populations and suggested possible different origins of the three archetypal lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most T. gondii strains in North America and Europe belong to three archetypal clonal lineages including the Type I, II and III but, isolates from Brazil are highly diverse. Here, we analyzed 164 T. gondii isolates from three countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica), from one c...

  9. Functional genomic analysis supports conservation of function among cellulose synthase-like a gene family members and suggests diverse roles of mannans in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liepman, Aaron H; Nairn, C Joseph; Willats, William G T

    2007-01-01

    , the CslA genes are members of extended multigene families; however, it is not known whether all CslA proteins are glucomannan synthases. CslA proteins from diverse land plant species, including representatives of the mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes, were produced...

  10. Comparison of live and dead molluscan assemblages suggests recent human-driven decline in benthic diversity in Phetchaburi (NW Gulf of Thailand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro; Sanfilippo, Rossana; Basso, Daniela; Rosso, Antonietta

    2015-12-01

    Dead and live molluscan assemblages from the coastal area of Phetchaburi (NW Gulf of Thailand) were compared by means of multivariate analysis. Seven thanatofacies were recognized, thriving in the area after the 1960s. Five of them, scattered along the tidal flat, represent oligotypic intertidal biotopes linked to a variety of environmental factors; the remaining two mirror high-diversity infralittoral associations. Conversely, only two poor, ill-defined biofacies thrive at present between the intertidal and the shallow infralittoral zones, somewhat resembling two of the thanatofacies. Diversity indexes reveal a dramatic biodiversity decline occurred from the 1960s onwards, far beyond the effects of time-averaging and accumulation. The responsibility for this reduction is largely attributable to the high impact of human activities, such as the intensive sea bottom trawling, the wastewaters from aquaculture (shrimp and fish ponds) and dense coastal villages, and, at a minor extent, the digging of edible molluscs from the tidal flat.

  11. Sequence diversity patterns suggesting balancing selection in partially sex-linked genes of the plant Silene latifolia are not generated by demographic history or gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao-Rico, Sara; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    DNA sequence diversity in genes in the partially sex-linked pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the sex chromosomes of the plant Silene latifolia is higher than expected from within-species diversity of other genes. This could be the footprint of sexually antagonistic (SA) alleles that are maintained by balancing selection in a PAR gene (or genes) and affect polymorphism in linked genome regions. SA selection is predicted to occur during sex chromosome evolution, but it is important to test whether the unexpectedly high sequence polymorphism could be explained without it, purely by the combined effects of partial linkage with the sex-determining region and the population's demographic history, including possible introgression from Silene dioica. To test this, we applied approximate Bayesian computation-based model choice to autosomal sequence diversity data, to find the most plausible scenario for the recent history of S. latifolia and then to estimate the posterior density of the most relevant parameters. We then used these densities to simulate variation to be expected at PAR genes. We conclude that an excess of variants at high frequencies at PAR genes should arise in S. latifolia populations only for genes with strong associations with fully sex-linked genes, which requires closer linkage with the fully sex-linked region than that estimated for the PAR genes where apparent deviations from neutrality were observed. These results support the need to invoke selection to explain the S. latifolia PAR gene diversity, and encourage further work to test the possibility of balancing selection due to sexual antagonism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An Approach of Electronic Subdividing Method for Measuring Straightness and Displacement of a Precision Linear Stage Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Hsiu-An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical encoders are commonly used in modern positioning systems. The accuracy and resolution of the optical encoders are always restricted by generated sinusoidal signals and the assembly technique. In this study, an electronic signal subdividing system is developed. This system is based on FPGA in combination with A/D and D/A converting circuits. Subdividing algorithm improves the segmenting signal amplitude method. Furthermore, we also construct a laser encoder for measuring straightness error and displacement of a linear stage simultaneously. The laser encoder consisting of the stainless steel bar and the sensor are developed for two-axis (X- and Z-axis position measurement. The two dimensional sinusoidal array on the stainless steel bar are machined by ultrasonic elliptical vibration cutting system. The stainless steel bar has a three dimensional micro-structured surface, which is a superposition of periodic sinusoidal waves in the X- and Z-directions with spatial wavelengths of 350 µm and amplitudes of 0.5 µm. The laser-based two-axis position sensor is used to detect local slope profiles of the grid surface, and the displacement and straightness error could be extracted from the X- and Z-axis sensing signal. The sensing signal is processed by FPGA subdividing system. In addition, the proposed subdividing method is verified by the performances and effects of measuring results.

  13. Analysis of tomato plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene family suggests a mycorrhiza-mediated regulatory mechanism conserved in diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junli; Liu, Jianjian; Chen, Aiqun; Ji, Minjie; Chen, Jiadong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Mian; Qu, Hongye; Xu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In plants, the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (HA) is considered to play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and respoding to environment stresses. Multiple paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of HA have been identified and characterized in several model plants, while limited information of the HA gene family is available to date for tomato. Here, we describe the molecular and expression features of eight HA-encoding genes (SlHA1-8) from tomato. All these genes are interrupted by multiple introns with conserved positions. SlHA1, 2, and 4 were widely expressed in all tissues, while SlHA5, 6, and 7 were almost only expressed in flowers. SlHA8, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal or nutrient-/salt-stress growth conditions, was strongly activated in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal-colonized roots. Extreme lack of SlHA8 expression in M161, a mutant defective to AM fungal colonization, provided genetic evidence towards the dependence of its expression on AM symbiosis. A 1521-bp SlHA8 promoter could direct the GUS reporter expression specifically in colonized cells of transgenic tobacco, soybean, and rice mycorrhizal roots. Promoter deletion assay revealed a 223-bp promoter fragment of SlHA8 containing a variant of AM-specific cis-element MYCS (vMYCS) sufficient to confer the AM-induced activity. Targeted deletion of this motif in the corresponding promoter region causes complete abolishment of GUS staining in mycorrhizal roots. Together, these results lend cogent evidence towards the evolutionary conservation of a potential regulatory mechanism mediating the activation of AM-responsive HA genes in diverse mycorrhizal plant species.

  14. On the number of spanning trees, the Laplacian eigenvalues, and the Laplacian Estrada index of subdivided-line graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yilun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of the Sierpiński-like graphs, the subdivided-line graph Г(G of a simple connected graph G is defined to be the line graph of the barycentric subdivision of G. In this paper we obtain a closed-form formula for the enumeration of spanning trees in Г(G, employing the theory of electrical networks. We present bounds for the largest and second smallest Laplacian eigenvalues of Г(G in terms of the maximum degree, the number of edges, and the first Zagreb index of G. In addition, we establish upper and lower bounds for the Laplacian Estrada index of Г(G based on the vertex degrees of G. These bounds are also connected with the number of spanning trees in Г(G.

  15. Transgenic Mouse Lines Subdivide External Segment of the Globus Pallidus (GPe) Neurons and Reveal Distinct GPe Output Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro, Kevin J.; Bouchard, Rachel S.; Holt, Hiromi A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Cell-type diversity in the brain enables the assembly of complex neural circuits, whose organization and patterns of activity give rise to brain function. However, the identification of distinct neuronal populations within a given brain region is often complicated by a lack of objective criteria to distinguish one neuronal population from another. In the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), neuronal populations have been defined using molecular, anatomical, and electrophysiological criteria, but these classification schemes are often not generalizable across preparations and lack consistency even within the same preparation. Here, we present a novel use of existing transgenic mouse lines, Lim homeobox 6 (Lhx6)–Cre and parvalbumin (PV)–Cre, to define genetically distinct cell populations in the GPe that differ molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically. Lhx6–GPe neurons, which do not express PV, are concentrated in the medial portion of the GPe. They have lower spontaneous firing rates, narrower dynamic ranges, and make stronger projections to the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta compared with PV–GPe neurons. In contrast, PV–GPe neurons are more concentrated in the lateral portions of the GPe. They have narrower action potentials, deeper afterhyperpolarizations, and make stronger projections to the subthalamic nucleus and parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus. These electrophysiological and anatomical differences suggest that Lhx6–GPe and PV–GPe neurons participate in different circuits with the potential to contribute to different aspects of motor function and dysfunction in disease. PMID:24501350

  16. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  17. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  18. Design of Subdivided Driving Circuit of Three Phase Stepping Motor%新型三相步进电机细分驱动器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霜; 李兴根

    2013-01-01

    以三相感应式步进电机为研究对象,针对传统驱动控制中存在的振动和噪声严重的问题,引入了细分驱动的控制策略.详细给出了三相步进电机细分驱动的控制原理,并设计了细分驱动电路.细分驱动电路主要包括电流给定发生电路、电流采样电路、电流控制电路以及驱动电路等.所设计的细分驱动电路不仅可以应用到三相步进电机的驱动控制中,更可以推广到其它两相步进电机等的驱动控制中.%Three phase induction stepping motor was studied,according to serious problems of vibration and noise using traditional control method,subdivided driving was introduced.Control theory of three phase induction stepping motor was presented and driving circuit was designed.The subdivided circuit contained current reference circuit,current sampling circuit,current control circuit,and driving circuit.The proposed subdivided driving circuit can not only be applied in three phase induction stepping motor control,but also other stepping motor like two phase stepping motor.

  19. 基于SOPC技术的步进电动机细分控制器设计%Design of Stepper Motor Subdivided Controller Based on SOPC Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昱; 刘景林; 董亮辉

    2011-01-01

    细分驱动技术是解决步进电动机在低速运行状态下转矩脉动、振荡、噪声等缺点的有效手段.设计了一种基于片上可编程系统SOPC (system on a programmable chip)技术的混合式步进电动机细分控制器.以FPGA为载体,以Nios Ⅱ软核为中央处理单元,以细分功能模块为片上外围设备,构建了完整的片上系统.配合步进电动机专用驱动芯片,实现了步进电动机的细分驱动.实验结果表明该设计有效提高了步进电动机在低速状态下的运行性能.%Subdivided drive technique is an effective means to solve torque ripple, vibration, noise and other shortcomings at low speed in stepper motor. A hybrid stepping motor subdivided controller based on SOPC ( System on a Programmable Chip) technology was designed. Taking the FPGA as a carrier,the Nios II soft-core as the central processing unit, the subdivision function block as the on-chip peripherals, a complete system was constructed on a chip. Combined with the dedicated stepper motor driver Ics,the subdivided drive technology was realized. Experimental results show that the design effectively improves the performance of the stepper motor in the state of low speed.

  20. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  1. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  2. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  3. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  4. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  5. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  6. Implications of isolation and low genetic diversity in peripheral populations of an amphi-Atlantic coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, F; Norris, R D; Knowlton, N

    2009-10-01

    Limited dispersal and connectivity in marine organisms can have negative fitness effects in populations that are small and isolated, but reduced genetic exchange may also promote the potential for local adaptation. Here, we compare the levels of genetic diversity and connectivity in the coral Montastraea cavernosa among both central and peripheral populations throughout its range in the Atlantic. Genetic data from one mitochondrial and two nuclear loci in 191 individuals show that M. cavernosa is subdivided into three genetically distinct regions in the Atlantic: Caribbean-North Atlantic, Western South Atlantic (Brazil) and Eastern Tropical Atlantic (West Africa). Within each region, populations have similar allele frequencies and levels of genetic diversity; indeed, no significant differentiation was found between populations separated by as much as 3000 km, suggesting that this coral species has the ability to disperse over large distances. Gene flow within regions does not, however, translate into connectivity across the entire Atlantic. Instead, substantial differences in allele frequencies across regions suggest that genetic exchange is infrequent between the Caribbean, Brazil and West Africa. Furthermore, markedly lower levels of genetic diversity are observed in the Brazilian and West African populations. Genetic diversity and connectivity may contribute to the resilience of a coral population to disturbance. Isolated peripheral populations may be more vulnerable to human impacts, disease or climate change relative to those in the genetically diverse Caribbean-North Atlantic region.

  7. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  8. Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic consequences of host spatial structure, aggregated transmission dynamics and life history characteristics in parasite populations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guha Dharmarajan

    2015-03-01

    Inbreeding in parasite populations can have important epidemiological and evolutionary implications. However, theoretical models have predominantly focussed on the evolution of parasite populations under strong selection or in epidemic situations, and our understanding of neutral gene dynamics in parasite populations at equilibrium has been limited to verbal arguments or conceptual models. This study focusses on how host–parasite population dynamics affects observed levels of inbreeding in a random sample of parasites from an infinite population of hosts by bridging traditional genetic and parasitological processes utilizing a backward–forward branching Markov process embedded within a flexible statistical framework, the logarithmic-poisson mixture model. My results indicate that levels of inbreeding in parasites are impacted by demographic and/or transmission dynamics (subdivided mating, aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure), and that this inbreeding is poorly estimated by ‘equilibrium’ levels of inbreeding calculated assuming regular systems of mating. Specifically, the model reveals that at low levels of inbreeding ( ≤ 0.1), equilibrium levels of inbreeding are lower than those observed, while at high levels of inbreeding the opposite pattern occurs. The model also indicates that inbreeding could have important epidemiological implications (e.g., the spread of recessive drug resistance genes) by directly impacting the observed frequency of rare homozygotes in parasite populations. My results indicate that frequencies of rare homozygotes are affected by aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure, and also that an increase in the frequency of rare homozygotes can be caused by a decrease in effective population size solely due to the presence of a subdivided breeding system.

  9. Three- and four-body corrected fragment molecular orbital calculations with a novel subdividing fragmentation method applicable to structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Chiduru; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Okiyama, Yoshio; Tsukamoto, Takayuki; Kato, Akifumi; Tanaka, Shigenori; Mochizuki, Yuji; Nakano, Tatsuya

    2013-04-01

    We develop an inter-fragment interaction energy (IFIE) analysis based on the three- and four-body corrected fragment molecular orbital (FMO3 and FMO4) method to evaluate the interactions of functional group units in structure-based drug design context. The novel subdividing fragmentation method for a ligand (in units of their functional groups) and amino acid residues (in units of their main and side chains) enables us to understand the ligand-binding mechanism in more detail without sacrificing chemical accuracy of the total energy and IFIEs by using the FMO4 method. We perform FMO4 calculations with the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for an estrogen receptor (ER) and the 17β-estradiol (EST) complex using the proposed fragmentation method and assess the interaction for each ligand-binding site by the FMO4-IFIE analysis. When the steroidal EST is divided into two functional units including "A ring" and "D ring", respectively, the FMO4-IFIE analysis reveals their binding affinity with surrounding fragments of the amino acid residues; the "A ring" of EST has polarization interaction with the main chain of Thr347 and two hydrogen bonds with the side chains of Glu353 and Arg394; the "D ring" of EST has a hydrogen bond with the side chain of His524. In particular, the CH/π interactions of the "A ring" of EST with the side chains of Leu387 and Phe404 are easily identified in cooperation with the CHPI program. The FMO4-IFIE analysis using our novel subdividing fragmentation method, which provides higher resolution than the conventional IFIE analysis in units of ligand and each amino acid reside in the framework of two-body approximation, is a useful tool for revealing ligand-binding mechanism and would be applicable to rational drug design such as structure-based drug design and fragment-based drug design.

  10. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  11. Doing Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Christiansen, Tanja Juul

    2012-01-01

    Questions of agency in text–audience relations are less studied than other aspects of rhetorical agency. We suggest conceptualizing and analyzing the relationship between texts and audiences from the perspective of performativity, as it has been developed by Judith Butler. Thus, we argue that tex...... demonstrate the explanatory potential of the performative framework. Subsequently, we discuss how the concept of personae may provide a basis for alternatives to the restrictive positioning that currently dominates diversity management rhetoric....

  12. Diversity by design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.

    2011-01-01

    How do you get citizens/media consumers to voluntarily choose to expose themselves to diverse content? Is there a role for government in helping people make diverse choices? Professor Helberger addresses these questions by suggesting "diversity by design" as an antidote to the ironic fact that broad

  13. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 expressing corneal sensory neurons can be subdivided into at least three subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem eAlamri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is innervated by 3 main functional classes of sensory neurons: polymodal nociceptors, pure mechano-nociceptors and cold-sensing neurons. Here we explored transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1 expression in guinea pig corneal sensory neurons, a widely used molecular marker of polymodal nociceptors. We used retrograde tracing to identify corneal afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and double label in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry to determine their molecular profile. In addition, we used immunohistochemistry to reveal the neurochemistry and structure of TRPV1 expressing nerve endings in the corneal epithelium. Approximately 45% of corneal afferent neurons expressed TRPV1, 28% expressed Piezo2 (a marker of putative pure mechano-nociceptors and 8% expressed the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8; a marker of cold-sensing neurons. There was no co-expression of TRPV1 and Piezo2 in corneal afferent neurons, but 6% of TRPV1 neurons co-expressed TRPM8. The TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons could be divided into 3 subpopulations on the basis of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and/or or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha3 (GFRα3 co-expression. In the corneal epithelium, the TRPV1 axons that co-expressed CGRP and GFRα3 ended as simple unbranched endings in the wing cell layer. In contrast, those that only co-expressed GFRα3 had ramifying endings that branched and terminated in the squamous cell layer, whereas those that only co-expressed CGRP had simple endings in the basal epithelium. This study shows that the majority of TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons (>90% are likely to be polymodal nociceptors. Furthermore, TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons can be subdivided into specific subpopulations based on their molecular phenotype, nerve terminal morphology and distribution in the corneal

  14. Managing Workplace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requirements, and incentives; perceived practices and organizational outcomes related to managing employee diversity; and several other issues. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.

  15. Diversity-dependent cladogenesis and trait evolution in the adaptive radiation of the auks (aves: alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jason T; Mursleen, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Through the course of an adaptive radiation, the evolutionary speed of cladogenesis and ecologically relevant trait evolution are expected to slow as species diversity increases, niches become occupied, and ecological opportunity declines. We develop new likelihood-based models to test diversity-dependent evolution in the auks, one of only a few families of seabirds adapted to underwater "flight," and which exhibit a large variety of bill sizes and shapes. Consistent with the expectations of adaptive radiation, we find both a decline in rates of cladogenesis (a sixfold decline) and bill shape (a 64-fold decline) evolution as diversity increased. Bill shape diverged into two clades at the basal cladogenesis event with one clade possessing mostly long, narrow bills used to forage primarily on fish, and the other with short thick bills used to forage primarily on plankton. Following this initial divergence in bill shape, size, a known correlate of both prey size and maximum diving depth, diverged rapidly within each of these clades. These results suggest that adaptive radiation in foraging traits underwent initial divergence in bill shape to occupy different food resources, followed by size differentiation to subdivide each niche along the depth axis of the water column.

  16. Increasing diversity in radiologic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carwile, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly important in the radiologic technology workplace. For significant changes to occur in work force diversity, educators must first recruit and retain students from a wide variety of backgrounds. This article examines personality, race and gender as factors affecting career choice and how educators can use these factors to increase diversity in their programs. An overview of the ASRT's efforts to improve diversity within the profession is presented, along with suggestions for developing effective recruitment and retention plans to increase diversity.

  17. Analyzing viewpoint diversity in twitter

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Information diversity has a long tradition in human history. Recently there have been claims that diversity is diminishing in information available in social networks. On the other hand, some studies suggest that diversity is actually quite high in social networks such as Twitter. However these studies only focus on the concept of source diversity and they only focus on American users. In this paper we analyze different dimensions of diversity. We also provide an experimental design in which ...

  18. Identity, Diversity and Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise; Villeseche, Florence

    2016-01-01

    – The work can encourage policy makers, diversity and HR managers to question their own practices and assumptions leading to more theoretical informed diversity management practices. Originality/value – The theoretical connections between identity and diversity literature have so far not been reviewed...... systematically. The work foregrounds how important it is for diversity scholars to consider identity underpinnings of diversity research to help further develop the field within and beyond the three streams the authors discuss.......The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the identity and diversity literatures and discuss how a better understanding of the theoretical connections between the two informs both diversity research and diversity management practices. Design/methodology/approach – Literature...

  19. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  20. Analyzing viewpoint diversity in twitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozdag, V.E.; Gao, Q.; Warnier, M.E.; Houben, G.J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Information diversity has a long tradition in human history. Recently there have been claims that diversity is diminishing in information available in social networks. On the other hand, some studies suggest that diversity is actually quite high in social networks such as Twitter. However these stud

  1. Cultural diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Raghu

    2011-01-01

    The concept of cultural diversity has emerged as an influential one having impact on multiple policy and legal instruments especially following the adoption of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in 2005. The discussions on its appropriate implementation are however profoundly fragmented and often laden with political considerations. The present brief paper offers some thoughts on the meaning of cultural diversity and its implementati...

  2. Valuing gender diversity in teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Villeseche, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Team gender diversity has been much debated in many different contexts – not least since the search for a main effect of diversity on performance was launched. However, results have so far been inconclusive, and a number of scholars suggest that more attention should be directed at contextual...... factors which could influence the effect of gender diversity on team performance. In this study, we explore the effect of positive diversity attitudes and assess the degree of gender diversity where such group attitudes have greater impact. This is done by using a sample of 1085 leaders of academic...... research teams. Findings show that positive diversity attitude in the form of group openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of gender diversity meaning that the effect of openness to diversity is stronger when gender groups are more balanced...

  3. Valuing Gender Diversity in Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Villeseche, Florence

    Team gender diversity has been much debated in many different contexts – not least since the search for a main effect of diversity on performance was launched. However, results have so far been inconclusive, and a number of scholars suggest that more attention should be directed at contextual...... factors which could influence the effect of gender diversity on team performance. In this study, we explore the effect of positive diversity attitudes and assess the degree of gender diversity where such group attitudes have greater impact. This is done by using a sample of 1085 leaders of academic...... research teams. Findings show that positive diversity attitude in the form of group openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of gender diversity meaning that the effect of openness to diversity is stronger when gender groups are more balanced...

  4. Genetic Diversity and Relationship of Weedy Rice in Taizhou City,Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Juan; Nilda R. BURGOS; MA Kun; ZHOU Yong-jun; GENG Rui-mei; YU Liu-qing

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellite markers and morphological charactedstics were used to explore the genetic diversity and possible origin of weedy dce in Taizhou City, Jiangsu Province, China. Fifty-two weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions were compared with two wild rice, four hybdd rice and five cultivars using 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. A total of 107 fragments were amplified, averaging 5.6 alleles per primer pair. The polymorphic index content (PIC) values ranged from 0.3077 to 0.7951, averaging at 0.5870. The average genetic distance of all samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.46 with an average of 0.262. The genetic distance among Taizhou weedy rice ranged from 0.03 to 0.44 with an average of 0.224. Cluster analysis showed that all the weedy rice accessions from Taizhou City were indica, and could be subdivided into different genotypes. The majority (86%) of weedy rice was most closely related to hybrid rice. The Taizhou weedy dce accessions were morphologically similar, but still could be delineated into indica or japonica group by some morphological traits. it is suggested that the levels of genetic and morphological diversities of weedy rice in Taizhou City are low and these weedy rice plants originated from the segregating progenies of hybrid rice that had naturally introgressed with cultivated rice.

  5. On the origins and genetic diversity of South American chickens: one step closer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga-Neira, A; Villacís-Rivas, G; Cueva-Castillo, F; Escudero-Sánchez, G; Ulloa-Nuñez, A; Rubilar-Quezada, M; Monteiro, R; Miller, M R; Beja-Pereira, A

    2017-06-01

    Local chicken populations are a major source of food in the rural areas of South America. However, very little is known about their genetic composition and diversity. Here, we analyzed five populations from South America to investigate their maternal genetic origin and diversity, hoping to mitigate the lack of information on local chicken populations from this region. We also included three populations of chicken from the Iberian Peninsula and one from Easter Island, which are potential sources of the first chickens introduced in South America. The obtained sequencing data from South American chickens indicate the presence of four haplogroups (A, B, E and D) that can be further subdivided into nine sub-haplogroups. Of these, four (B1, D1a, E1a(b), E1b) were absent from local Iberian Peninsula chickens and one (D1a) was present only on Easter Island. The presence of the sub-haplogroups A1a(b) and E1a(b) in South America, previously only observed in Eastern Asia, and the significant population differentiation between Iberian Peninsula and South American populations, suggest a second maternal source of the extant genetic pool in South American chickens. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  7. Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of diversity management which, in the context of organizations, consists in the strategic process of harnessing the potential of all employees to create an inclusive environment and, at the same time, contribute to meeting organizational goals. The entry first...... describes the complex construct of diversity that has been variously conceptualized in the literature, embracing multiple social and informational diversity dimensions such as gender, age, culture, values, and workstyle. This is followed by illustration of the historical development of diversity-management...... discourse and practice, and possible overarching approaches guiding organizations. It goes on to elucidate elements linked to the implementation of diversity management: positive and negative outcomes, most spread practices including communication, and contingency factors shaping the understanding...

  8. Everyday Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Journal has been an important forum for discussing issues around cultural diversity. Articles on cultural diversity have been present in virtually every issue of the journal. These have ranged from conceptual pieces on cosmopolitanism, identity, dialogue, prejudice, pluralism, cultural and social capital and social inclusion, to articles embedded in empirical research on ethnic precincts and segregation in cities, experiences of religious minorities, immigrant entrepreneurs, and more. Over its five year history, the journal has also had themed editions on cultural diversity issues, including one on embracing diversity in sport, and another on the Chinese in Australian politics. The scope of this work has been wide, and authors have brought a range of disciplinary and methodological approaches to the journal.   The purpose of this paper is to draw together some of the work that has been published around cultural diversity, particularly relating to everyday experiences of cosmopolitanism and racism. Focusing on everyday social relations has been an important part of recent scholarship on cultural diversity in Australia (e.g. Wise and Velayutham 2009. In contrast to research framed around multicultural policy or mediated representations of diversity, the scholarship of the ‘everyday’ aims to explore people’s lived experiences and daily interactions with others.

  9. Genetic and ecological data provide incongruent interpretations of population structure and dispersal in naturally subdivided populations of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B C; Martin, K; Ritland, C; Young, J

    2008-04-01

    The dispersal of individuals among populations affects the demographic and adaptive trajectories of animal populations and is fundamental to understanding population dynamics. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura) are a high elevation grouse species that live year-round in patchily distributed alpine areas in western North America. We investigated the patterns of dispersal and identified barriers to gene flow for a threatened subspecies (L. l. saxatilis) endemic to Vancouver Island, Canada. Connectivity among seven sites was examined using nine microsatellite loci (n = 133 individuals, H(O) = 0.62, mean number of alleles = 10) and direct movement observations using radio-telemetry (n = 118 individuals). Average movement distances of individuals measured by radio-telemetry were 0.63-3.23 km and considerably less than the shortest distance between sampling sites (18 km). Furthermore, despite extensive radio-telemetry data, movement was never observed between any of the seven sampling sites. In contrast, genetic results (STRUCTURE, TESS) showed connectivity among most of the seven sampling sites and suggested that genetic variation is best explained by two clusters of individuals which separated the South sampling site from all other areas of Vancouver Island. Analysis of molecular data also showed a generally consistent pattern of isolation by distance (Mantel test r = 0.11, P definition of a metapopulation. We conclude the incongruities between the genetic and radio-telemetry data are best explained by episodic dispersal patterns. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of combining genetic and ecological data in understanding patterns of dispersal and population structure.

  10. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  11. Understanding Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDaan van Knippenberg is Professor of Organizational Behavior at RSM Erasmus University, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. His research interests include work group performance, especially work group diversity and group decision making, leadership, in particular the roles of

  12. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  13. Understanding Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDaan van Knippenberg is Professor of Organizational Behavior at RSM Erasmus University, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. His research interests include work group performance, especially work group diversity and group decision making, leadership, in particular the roles of

  14. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  15. How diverse is the genus Wolbachia? Multiple-gene sequencing reveals a putatively new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, V.I.D.; Fleming, V.; Feil, E.J.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    At least 20% of all arthropods and some nematode species are infected with intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia. This highly diverse genus has been subdivided into eight “supergroups” (A to H) on the basis of nucleotide sequence data. Here, we report the discovery of a new Wolbachia supergr

  16. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.; Blackwood, C.B.; Curtis, C.D.; Tilman, D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the ecological determinants of microbial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we test two alternative hypotheses concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant detritus production increase the supply of limiting resources (i.e. organic substrates) thereby increasing fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates entering soil, thereby increasing the number of niches to be filled by a greater array of heterotrophic fungi. These two hypotheses were simultaneously examined in experimental plant communities consisting of one to 16 species that have been maintained for a decade. We used ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), in combination with cloning and sequencing, to quantify fungal community composition and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally integrated measure of resource supply. Plant diversity was unrelated to fungal diversity, but fungal diversity was a unimodal function of resource supply. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that plant diversity showed a relationship to fungal community composition, although the occurrence of RISA bands and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not differ among the treatments. The relationship between fungal diversity and resource availability parallels similar relationships reported for grasslands, tropical forests, coral reefs, and other biotic communities, strongly suggesting that the same underlying mechanisms determine the diversity of organisms at multiple scales. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Production diversity and dietary diversity in smallholder farm households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibhatu, Kibrom T; Krishna, Vijesh V; Qaim, Matin

    2015-08-25

    Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition remain problems of significant magnitude in large parts of the developing world. Improved nutrition requires not only better access to food for poor population segments, but also higher dietary quality and diversity. Because many of the poor and undernourished people are smallholder farmers, diversifying production on these smallholder farms is widely perceived as a useful approach to improve dietary diversity. However, empirical evidence on the link between production and consumption diversity is scarce. Here, this issue is addressed with household-level data from Indonesia, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi. Regression models show that on-farm production diversity is positively associated with dietary diversity in some situations, but not in all. When production diversity is already high, the association is not significant or even turns negative, because of foregone income benefits from specialization. Analysis of other factors reveals that market access has positive effects on dietary diversity, which are larger than those of increased production diversity. Market transactions also tend to reduce the role of farm diversity for household nutrition. These results suggest that increasing on-farm diversity is not always the most effective way to improve dietary diversity in smallholder households and should not be considered a goal in itself. Additional research is needed to better understand how agriculture and food systems can be made more nutrition-sensitive in particular situations.

  18. Nematode diversity in agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeates, G.W.; Bongers, T.

    1999-01-01

    The diversity of nematode faunae in agroecosystems and their relationships to soil processes suggests that they are potential bioindicators. However, the effects of plants, soil types and nematode biogeography mean a 'functional group' may be a better indicator than particular nematodes.

  19. Diversity's Calling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a Harvard-educated scholar of English and poetry, Dr. M. Lee Pelton puts a prominent face on changes that are underway at Boston's Emerson College. Faced with a public controversy over its limited faculty diversity, Emerson College has responded with a spate of hirings and promotions of minorities, capped by the…

  20. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...

  1. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  2. Knowledge Diversity, Transfer and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Moreira, Solon; Markus, Arjan

    from the widely accepted view that distant, externally-developed knowledge is difficult to incorporate into the focal firm?s own production. We suggest that high levels of intrafirm network diversity, tie strength, and network density are essential for a diversity of knowledge inputs, knowledge...

  3. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  4. Troubling Diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on the cultural encounter between nurses and ethnic minority patients in Danish hospitals, this paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of nursing discourses on cultural difference and intercultural contact. Articles from the Danish professional journal ‘The Nurse......', published in the period from 2000 to 2008, pertaining to cultural contact and intercultural understanding have been analyzed in order to uncover nurses' experience of ethnic and cultural diversity and the ways, in which these experiences challenge their cultural and professional expertise. Results...... are related to recent contributions to diversity management theory and intercultural communication theory, calling for a strengthened focus on the historical, political, and social dimensions of intercultural contact. In continuation of these trends, an alternative, theoretical framework...

  5. Teaching Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Kay Young McChesney

    2015-01-01

    This article is targeted to faculty teaching race and ethnicity, racism, diversity, and multicultural courses. Many students equate race with skin color. The premise of this article is that to teach students about the social construction of race, teachers must first know enough science to teach students that race is not biological. This article examines the biology of race by showing how advances in DNA sequencing led ...

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L. Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Roy

    Full Text Available The North-eastern (NE India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2 to 0.453 (P2 vs P3. With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A. K.; Pattanayak, A.; Harish, G. D.; Singh, S. K.; Ngachan, S. V.; Bansal, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur; and P3, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and quality rice

  8. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  9. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  10. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    . A prominent research theme in health care studies is, therefore, to explicate the gap between theory and practice. The question this paper addresses is how a learning environment can be designed to bridge this theory-practice gap, expose the differences in situated interactions and qualify health...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...

  11. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  12. Whose Diversity Counts? The Politics and Paradoxes of Modern Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Baker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Is “diversity” a modern concept, like indigeneity or biodiversity, which is conceived precisely at the time that it seems to be threatened and on the verge of disappearing? In the face of perceived threats to diversity, projects and policies have been crafted to protect, promote, or conserve diversity, but in doing so they have often demonstrated a paradoxical propensity toward purity and authority in representations of diversity. Perceptions of “pure” natural diversity might represent native forests comprised solely of native species; “pure” cultural diversity might represent indigenous peoples who still speak indigenous languages and wear native dress. If purity is emblematic of diversity, what, then, is the place of hybrid landscapes and peoples? In our study, we draw on a range of examples—of agrobiodiversity conservation in Bolivia, satellite mapping initiatives in Madagascar and Ecuador, scientific authority about anthropogenic climate change, indigenous language and identity in Peru, and a comparison of the Amazon and Atlantic Forest in Brazil—to demonstrate gaps between representations of diversity, and the heterogeneous local realities they obscure. We suggest that hybridity is a form of diversity unto itself—albeit a form of diversity that is more complex, and thus harder to codify and categorize.

  13. Supplier Diversity: A Missing Link in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Bertie M.; Maltbia, Terrence E.; Scott, Chaunda L.

    2006-01-01

    By examining supplier diversity programs and comparing their components with the role of the diversity practitioners, we highlight the important role that diversity practitioners can have in supplier diversity programs. In reviewing the U.S. auto industry and its successful supplier diversity model, our findings suggest that diversity…

  14. The Political Economy of Diversity: Diversity Programs in Fortune 500 Companies

    OpenAIRE

    John Ryan; James Hawdon; Allison Branick

    2002-01-01

    Using data from a 1998 SHRM survey, this study examines the prevalence and nature of diversity initiatives in Fortune 500 companies. The rhetoric of diversity in industry suggests that a diverse workforce is good for business. Diversity is typically defined in terms of such demographic factors as race, age, gender, ethnic background, and, to a lessor extent, sexual orientation. Our analysis shows that most Fortune 500 companies have some diversity initiatives, but that these initiatives are d...

  15. Diversity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mentor Ademaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity measures are a type of non-criminal measures foreseen in the Chapter IV of the Code of Juvenile Justice, which may be imposed on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts. These measures can be applied in cases of minor offenses, for which is foreseen the criminal sanction with a fine or imprisonment up to three years or for criminal offenses committed by negligence for which is foreseen the sentence up to five years of imprisonment, except those cases that result in death. With the imposition of these measures is intended to prevent criminal proceedings against juveniles whenever is possible, rehabilitation and reintegration of juvenile in his/her community and the prevention of recidivist behaviour. Competent authority to impose them is the public prosecutor, the juvenile judge and juvenile court. And they are executed by the Kosovo Correctional Service.

  16. Design Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankl, Kathrina

    2014-01-01

    The publication 'Design Diversity', an exhibition catalogue, focuses on aging and design – a product culture in transformation that aims to help change conventional notions of the later years of life. Age is positioned as a generational issue that has the same relevance for all age groups...... courageous projects for "best agers" and "golden agers" never get beyond the prototype stage, products that paint a more "beige" picture of everyday life can be found in large numbers. This fact raises some key questions: Does the existing product culture reflect today's views on old age? Do contemporary...... awareness of the fact that material culture shapes our view of aging, and therefore is also capable of changing it....

  17. Disability as diversity in Fortune 100 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Phoebe; Monaco, Gregory; Schmeling, James; Schartz, Helen; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the inclusion of people with disabilities in the diversity policies of the most successful businesses in the United States, we examined the publicly available workforce and supplier diversity policies of the top 100 companies on Fortune Magazine's 2003 list of the 500 most profitable companies in the nation. The majority of these companies have extensive information about their diversity policies and practices available on their corporate website. The information was used to categorize the policies into those that include people with disabilities, do not define diversity, and enumerate what is meant by diversity (e.g. in terms of race or gender) but do not expressly mention disability. In addition, we looked beyond the diversity policies to information available on corporate websites relating to a variety of diversity initiatives. Findings suggest that the majority of the companies that top the Fortune 500 list have developed and implemented diversity policies. Of these, 42% have diversity policies that include people with disabilities in the definition of a diverse workforce. Furthermore, 47% of companies with workplace diversity policies discuss diversity in a way that neither expressly includes nor excludes people with disabilities. Far fewer (15%) supplier diversity policies include disability in the definition of diversity, but a significant number of companies use criteria that allow a business owner with a disability to benefit from the company's supplier diversity program. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Performance of Gender Diverse Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Villeseche, Florence

    Team gender diversity has been much debated in many different contexts – not least since the search for a main effect of diversity on performance was launched. However, results have so far been inconclusive, and a number of scholars suggest that more attention should be directed at contextual...... factors which could influence the effect of gender diversity on team performance. In this study, we explore the effect of positive diversity attitudes and assess the degree of gender diversity where such group attitudes have greater impact. This is done by using a sample of 1085 leaders of academic...... research teams. Findings show that positive diversity attitude in the form of group openness to diversity is strongly associated with team performance. We also find a moderating effect of gender diversity meaning that the effect of openness to diversity is stronger when gender groups are more balanced...

  19. Diversity As Technology: A New Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The business case for diversity is really a technological one. Like the Hubble telescope uses multiple lenses to acquire an understanding of the universe that no one lens can achieve alone, the business case suggests that diversity (however defined provides multiple perspectives that help organizations better understand an increasingly complex and heterogeneous marketplace. If the prevailing argument for diversity is indeed technology-driven, the present paper suggests that looking at diversity through the lens of the Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM3 might provide insights that could improve both the acceptance of diversity in the organization and its impact on organizational performance.

  20. A comparative study on the illite crystallinity and the clay mineral reflectance spectral index for subdividing the very low-grade metamorphic belt along the Lizhou-Hekou geological section in the Youjiang sedimentary basin, Guangxi,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shouxun

    2004-01-01

    To examine the application potential of hyperspectral remote sensing techniques in classifying very low-grade metamorphic belts, the composition of clay minerals and the cyrstallinity of illite from mudstones were measured using XRD and VIS-SWIR (400-2500 nm) reflectance spectroscopy. Based on the illite cyrstallinity, Kubler Index (KI), the Early Triassic LuoLou Group and the Middle Triassic lower Baifeng Formation were classified as the lower Epizone with KI△2θ° ranging from 0.22 to 0.25, the upper Baifeng Formation as upper anchizone with KI△2θ°ranging from 0.26 to 0.33, and the Hekou Formation as lower anchizone with KI△2θ° ranging from 0.38 to 0.40. According to a KI△2θ° value of 0.43, it is possible that there may exist a local diagenetic zone in the upper strata. The illite cyrstallinity Kubler index and the metamorphic grade increase from the bottom to the top of the stratigraphic sequence. The metamorphic grade boundaries nearly match the stratigraphic boundaries, indicating a burial metamorphism nature for the stratigraphic sequence. From the bottom to the top of the sequence, the spectral absorption band center of clay minerals from fresh rocks is around 2200 nm. The absorption band centers change towards shorter wavelengths: the Luolou Group being at 2220 nm, the Baifeng Formation at 2217-2213 nm, the lower member of the Hekou Formation at 2214-2206 nm, and the upper member of the Hekou Formation at 2205-2197 nm. The spectral absorption band center of illite shows the same change pattern. These results indicate that very low-grade metamorphic belts can be subdivided using spectral indices of clay minerals, which are measured by using field portable spectroradiometers. However, it may not work well with satellite and airborne sensors.

  1. The diverse applications of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukul; Dubey, Shivani; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  2. The diverse applications of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mukul, E-mail: mukulsharma@acropolis.edu.in; Darwhekar, Gajanan, E-mail: gdarwhekar@acropolis.edu.in [Acropolis Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Indore MP India (India); Dubey, Shivani, E-mail: dubeyshivani08@rediffmail.com [Mata Gujri College of Professional Studies, Indore MP India (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirkjain1@rediffmail.com [School of Studies in Microbiology, Vikram University, Ujjain MP India (India)

    2015-07-31

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  3. Teaching Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Young McChesney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is targeted to faculty teaching race and ethnicity, racism, diversity, and multicultural courses. Many students equate race with skin color. The premise of this article is that to teach students about the social construction of race, teachers must first know enough science to teach students that race is not biological. This article examines the biology of race by showing how advances in DNA sequencing led to genetics research that supports arguments that race is not biological. DNA comparisons show that all human populations living today are one species that came from Africa. The article explains the migration of humans out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and how they populated Australia, then Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The article shows how recent research maps the timing of the migration and admixture of specific population groups into Europe and India. The article shows how a mutation in one nucleotide can result in a trait like blue eyes, or Hemoglobin S (which confers resistance to malaria, which can be subject to evolution through natural selection. DNA comparisons show how natural selection shaped the genetics of human skin color to adapt to less UV light in the northern latitudes of Europe and Asia. The article shows that there is no relation between skin color or other “racial” characteristics and complex traits like intelligence. The science in this article will help teachers explain that as race is not biological, race is socially constructed and culturally enacted.

  4. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  5. Establishing Differences between Diversity Requirements and Other Courses with Varying Degrees of Diversity Inclusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Engberg, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how diversity requirements differ from courses that are highly inclusive or less inclusive of diversity. Results suggest that instructor characteristics are statistically different and that highly inclusive and less inclusive diversity courses score highest and lowest, respectively, on measures of effective teaching compared…

  6. Training In Diversity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Treven

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The labor force all around the world is becoming increasingly diverse. Thus, organizations that can manage employee diversity effectively gain a competitive advantage. In such organizations diversity training is a necessity. Diversity training helps managers understand and value individual differences and develop strong diagnostic skills. The paper explores various approaches to training, like awareness-based and skill-based diversity training. A special attention to potential problems that may occur in the process of diversity training is given.

  7. Diverse coral communities in mangrove habitats suggest a novel refuge from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Herlan, James J.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Larson, Rebekka A.

    2014-01-01

    Risk analyses indicate that more than 90% of the world's reefs will be threatened by climate change and local anthropogenic impacts by the year 2030 under "business-as-usual" climate scenarios. Increasing temperatures and solar radiation cause coral bleaching that has resulted in extensive coral mortality. Increasing carbon dioxide reduces seawater pH, slows coral growth, and may cause loss of reef structure. Management strategies include establishment of marine protected areas with environmental conditions that promote reef resiliency. However, few resilient reefs have been identified, and resiliency factors are poorly defined. 

  8. Chemical composition of inks of diverse marine molluscs suggests convergent chemical defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Charles D; Kicklighter, Cynthia E; Johnson, P M; Zhang, Xu

    2007-05-01

    Some marine molluscs, notably sea hares, cuttlefish, squid, and octopus, release ink when attacked by predators. The sea hare Aplysia californica releases secretions from the ink gland and opaline gland that protect individuals from injury or death from predatory spiny lobsters through a combination of mechanisms that include chemical deterrence, sensory disruption, and phagomimicry. The latter two mechanisms are facilitated by millimolar concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) in sea hare ink and opaline, which stimulate the chemosensory systems of predators, ultimately leading to escape by sea hares. We hypothesize that other inking molluscs use sensory disruption and/or phagomimicry as a chemical defense. To investigate this, we examined concentrations of 21 FAA and ammonium in the defensive secretions of nine species of inking molluscs: three sea hares (Aplysia californica, Aplysia dactylomela, Aplysia juliana) and six cephalopods (cuttlefish: Sepia officinalis; squid: Loligo pealei, Lolliguncula brevis, Dosidicus gigas; octopus: Octopus vulgaris, Octopus bimaculoides). We found millimolar levels of total FAA and ammonium in these secretions, and the FAA in highest concentration were taurine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, and lysine. Crustaceans and fish, which are major predators of these molluscs, have specific receptor systems for these FAA. Our chemical analysis supports the hypothesis that inking molluscs have the potential to use sensory disruption and/or phagomimicry as a chemical defense.

  9. Diverse coral communities in mangrove habitats suggest a novel refuge from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K. K.; Rogers, C. S.; Herlan, J. J.; Brooks, G. R.; Smiley, N. A.; Larson, R. A.

    2014-08-01

    Risk analyses indicate that more than 90% of the world's reefs will be threatened by climate change and local anthropogenic impacts by the year 2030 under "business-as-usual" climate scenarios. Increasing temperatures and solar radiation cause coral bleaching that has resulted in extensive coral mortality. Increasing carbon dioxide reduces seawater pH, slows coral growth, and may cause loss of reef structure. Management strategies include establishment of marine protected areas with environmental conditions that promote reef resiliency. However, few resilient reefs have been identified, and resiliency factors are poorly defined. Here we characterize the first natural, non-reef coral refuge from thermal stress and ocean acidification and identify resiliency factors for mangrove-coral habitats. We measured diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and seawater chemistry; characterized substrate parameters; and examined water circulation patterns in mangrove communities where scleractinian corals are growing attached to and under mangrove prop roots in Hurricane Hole, St. John, US Virgin Islands. Additionally, we inventoried the coral species and quantified incidences of coral bleaching, mortality, and recovery for two major reef-building corals, Colpophyllia natans and Diploria labyrinthiformis, growing in mangrove-shaded and exposed (unshaded) areas. Over 30 species of scleractinian corals were growing in association with mangroves. Corals were thriving in low-light (more than 70% attenuation of incident PAR) from mangrove shading and at higher temperatures than nearby reef tract corals. A higher percentage of C. natans colonies were living shaded by mangroves, and no shaded colonies were bleached. Fewer D. labyrinthiformis colonies were shaded by mangroves, however more unshaded colonies were bleached. A combination of substrate and habitat heterogeneity, proximity of different habitat types, hydrographic conditions, and biological influences on seawater chemistry generate chemical conditions that buffer against ocean acidification. This previously undocumented refuge for corals provides evidence for adaptation of coastal organisms and ecosystem transition due to recent climate change. Identifying and protecting other natural, non-reef coral refuges is critical for sustaining corals and other reef species into the future.

  10. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  11. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...... and therefore it is often based on normative expectations. Recent research has further indicated that the link between diversity and efficiency may be more complex and cannot a priori be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of the issues is necessary and suggests...... that the combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing...

  12. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...... and therefore it is often based on normative expectations. Recent research has further indicated that the link between diversity and efficiency may be more complex and cannot a priori be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of the issues is necessary and suggests...... that the combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing...

  13. Diversity: A Philosophical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahotra Sarkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, diversity, whether it be ecological, biological, cultural, or linguistic diversity, has emerged as a major cultural value. This paper analyzes whether a single concept of diversity can underwrite discussions of diversity in different disciplines. More importantly, it analyzes the normative justification for the endorsement of diversity as a goal in all contexts. It concludes that no more than a relatively trivial concept of diversity as richness is common to all contexts. Moreover, there is no universal justification for the endorsement of diversity. Arguments to justify the protection of diversity must be tailored to individual contexts.

  14. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  15. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Roel W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional sugg

  16. Diversity of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Abou Zaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal abundance, biomass, and taxonomic composition of copepods in El-Mex Bay (Southeastern Mediterranean region were studied from autumn 2011 to 2012. Most species within the copepod communities displayed a clear pattern of succession throughout the investigation period. Generally copepods were the predominant group. They contributed numerically 57% of the total zooplankton counts with an average of 5083 organisms/m3 and a total number of 203,333 individuals. The bay harbored 50 species belonging to 28 genera within 19 families and 4 orders under one class. Calanoids were represented by 24 species which formed 31.6% of total copepods predominantly Acartia clausi, Calocalanus pavo, Clausocalanus furcatus, Eucalanus crassus, Nannocalanus minor, Paracalanus parvus, Eucalanus subcrassus, and Temora longicornis. Cyclopoids comprised 13 species of which Acanthocyclops americanus, Halicyclops magniceps, Oithona attenuata, and Oithona nana were the most abundant adult copepods. Eleven Harpacticoid species were also recorded with Euterpina acutifrons, Microsetella norvegica, Onychocamptus mohammed being the most prevalent. It was found however, that two Poecilostomatoida species were rarely encountered in the plankton Oncaea minuta and Corycaeus typicus. Copepod larvae and copepodite stages formed the main bulk of copepod Fauna as noticed in the El-Mex Bay during the investigation period. Their percentage was 36.7% of the total count and their total numbers were 74,629 individuals with an average of 1866 organisms/m3. The persistent relationships between total copepod counts, copepod orders, and physico-chemical variables suggested that physical factors operate on the copepod communities, either directly to limit maximum distribution along the bay, or indirectly on abundance.

  17. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories.

  18. Managing Workplace Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Andrew Patrick; Vincent Raj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requ...

  19. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  20. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before e

  1. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before

  2. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  3. Diversity in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Antonio S; Ruckes, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This Paper develops a theory of diversity in work groups within organizations. Diversity is determined by the group members' dfferences in backgrounds. Diverse teams possess more information than homogeneous ones. If beliefs and preferences are expressed openly, diverse teams can reach better decisions. However, due to their members' heterogeneous backgrounds diverse teams are more prone to conflict. The Paper shows that the relative performance of heterogeneous and homogeneous groups depends...

  4. The Phylogenetic Diversity of Metagenomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembel, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Green, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity—patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities—provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context. PMID:21912589

  5. Doing Diversity Work in Higher Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how diversity is used as a key term to describe the social and educational mission of universities in Australia. The paper suggests that we need to explore what diversity "does" in specific contexts. Drawing on interviews with diversity and equal opportunities practitioners, the paper suggests that…

  6. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English, preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  7. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes ... the authority to enforce such a limit, the FDA recommended in a draft guidance issued Thursday that ...

  8. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  9. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  10. Diversity as Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trittin, Hannah; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose reconceptualizing diversity management from a communication-centered perspective. We base our proposal on the observation that the literature on diversity management, both in the instrumental and critical traditions, is primarily concerned with fostering the diversity of...... of diversity management as dynamic processes of voice articulation and mediation......In this paper, we propose reconceptualizing diversity management from a communication-centered perspective. We base our proposal on the observation that the literature on diversity management, both in the instrumental and critical traditions, is primarily concerned with fostering the diversity...... as the range of individual opinions and societal discourses that get expressed and can find resonance in organizational settings. We contribute to the literature on diversity management by moving away from a focus on individual-bound and inalterable criteria of diversity and toward a reconceptualization...

  11. Does staff diversity imply openness to diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    university departments in Denmark. The authors set out to investigate the relationship between different types of staff diversity and openness to diversity in terms of linguistic, visible, value, and informational heterogeneity. Design/methodology/approach – This study uses responses from 489 staff members...

  12. CERN Diversity Newsletter - April 2017

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069427; Koutava, Ioanna; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  13. CERN Diversity Newsletter - March 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Quarterly CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  14. CERN Diversity Newsletter - November 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Quarterly CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  15. CERN Diversity Newsletter - September 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Quarterly CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  16. MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiaoyan; Hu Jiandong

    2002-01-01

    A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system. The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.

  17. MACROSCOPIC DIVERSITY FOR CDMA MOBILE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeiXiaoyan; HuJiandong

    2002-01-01

    A novel system of macroscopic diversity with voting rule in CDMA cellular system is suggested in order to raise the coverage and quality of service of CDMA mobile communication system.The estimation of the impact of macroscopic diversity on performance of CDMA cellular system is analyzed and investigated.

  18. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive construct......In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive...

  20. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  1. Three Suggestions to Improve Medical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佳丽

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of ESP,medical English teaching has an important impact on both English teachers and medical students.A good medical English teaching can help the medical students to improve themselves smoothly and easily in the medical area.In this article,three suggestions were provided for the medical English teachers to improve their English teaching in medical field.

  2. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  3. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  4. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  5. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    of Technology, Beijing 100124, China 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Trusted Computing, Beijing 100124, China 3. National Engineering Laboratory for...CTISCP, Beijing 100124, China ⇤yangzhen@bjut.edu.cn Abstract In this paper we described our efforts for TREC contextual suggestion task. Our goal of this

  6. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  7. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  8. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...

  9. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  10. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  11. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  12. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  13. Diversity management in a Danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Annette; Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Since diversity management were introduced in Europe the late 90ies, it has been debated, whether this new language of the value of difference organisation would catalyse organisational change in favour of the position of underprivileged groups. This article argues, that diversity management...... is translated in a specific societal and organizational context, and points at how strong institutions make their impact on the Danish versions of diversity management. On the basis of a case study of implementation of diversity management in a specific organization we probe into how discourses of diversity...... management and corporate social responsibility are combined. The study suggests that this version of diversity management potentially leads to changes in the positions of ethnic minorities, primarily in the form of assimilation, as it maintains a focus at the sameness of people; not at the value...

  14. How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, Etienne; Grace, James B.; Huston, Michael A.; Lambers, Hans; Teste, François P.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most species-rich plant communities occur on ancient, strongly weathered soils, whereas those on recently developed soils tend to be less diverse. Mechanisms underlying this well-known pattern, however, remain unresolved. Here, we present a conceptual model describing alternative mechanisms by which pedogenesis (the process of soil formation) might drive plant diversity. We suggest that long-term soil chronosequences offer great, yet largely untapped, potential as 'natural experiments' to determine edaphic controls over plant diversity. Finally, we discuss how our conceptual model can be evaluated quantitatively using structural equation modeling to advance multivariate theories about the determinants of local plant diversity. This should help us to understand broader-scale diversity patterns, such as the latitudinal gradient of plant diversity.

  15. Review of Arapaho NWR Diversion Reconstruction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary of the issues and suggestions for each structure for the Diversion Reconstruction Project at the Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge after inspection by Water...

  16. Trophic Niche in a Raptor Species: The Relationship between Diet Diversity, Habitat Diversity and Territory Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-López, Juan; Fargallo, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research reports that many populations of species showing a wide trophic niche (generalists) are made up of both generalist individuals and individuals with a narrow trophic niche (specialists), suggesting trophic specializations at an individual level. If true, foraging strategies should be associated with individual quality and fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that individuals will select the most favourable habitats for feeding. In addition, the "landscape heterogeneity hypothesis" predicts a higher number of species in more diverse landscapes. Thus, it can be predicted that individuals with a wider realized trophic niche should have foraging territories with greater habitat diversity, suggesting that foraging strategies, territory quality and habitat diversity are inter-correlated. This was tested for a population of common kestrels Falco tinnunculus. Diet diversity, territory occupancy (as a measure of territory quality) and habitat diversity of territories were measured over an 8-year period. Our results show that: 1) territory quality was quadratically correlated with habitat diversity, with the best territories being the least and most diverse; 2) diet diversity was not correlated with territory quality; and 3) diet diversity was negatively correlated with landscape heterogeneity. Our study suggests that niche generalist foraging strategies are based on an active search for different prey species within or between habitats rather than on the selection of territories with high habitat diversity.

  17. Trophic Niche in a Raptor Species: The Relationship between Diet Diversity, Habitat Diversity and Territory Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Navarro-López

    Full Text Available Recent research reports that many populations of species showing a wide trophic niche (generalists are made up of both generalist individuals and individuals with a narrow trophic niche (specialists, suggesting trophic specializations at an individual level. If true, foraging strategies should be associated with individual quality and fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that individuals will select the most favourable habitats for feeding. In addition, the "landscape heterogeneity hypothesis" predicts a higher number of species in more diverse landscapes. Thus, it can be predicted that individuals with a wider realized trophic niche should have foraging territories with greater habitat diversity, suggesting that foraging strategies, territory quality and habitat diversity are inter-correlated. This was tested for a population of common kestrels Falco tinnunculus. Diet diversity, territory occupancy (as a measure of territory quality and habitat diversity of territories were measured over an 8-year period. Our results show that: 1 territory quality was quadratically correlated with habitat diversity, with the best territories being the least and most diverse; 2 diet diversity was not correlated with territory quality; and 3 diet diversity was negatively correlated with landscape heterogeneity. Our study suggests that niche generalist foraging strategies are based on an active search for different prey species within or between habitats rather than on the selection of territories with high habitat diversity.

  18. Diversity does not travel!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we offer insights into the social construction of diversity in Finnish organizations and society. In Finnish organizations, gender is highlighted while other markers of diversity are blotted out. 'Non-Finns' become subject to cultural assimilation. The US-based concept of Diversity...... Management becomes adopted and adapted in particular ways. Standardized concepts of diversity and its management do not travel, rather they become translated locally. In organizational practice, globalization is slow and laborious....

  19. International diversity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    While the concern with demographic diversity in organizations has increased during recent years, international diversity management still remains an understudied area. This is unfortunate since the transfer of diversity management practices within multinational corporations faces particular...... challenges in balancing between global integration and local responsiveness. The aim of this paper is to illustrate some of the central problems that multinational corporations need to deal with when transferring diversity management practices from headquarters to local subsidiaries. This is illustrated...

  20. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  1. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time.

  2. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  3. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy: a suggestive electroclinical pattern

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is an electroencephalographic pattern suggestive of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy that could be used to improve the chances of early diagnosis.
METHODS—A retrospective study was made of all the clinical records and electroencephalograms of neonates identified with pyridoxine dependent seizures between 1983 and 1994, at this hospital. Neonates whose seizures began after more than 28 days of life were excluded; in all, five patients from four fami...

  4. Suggestions for Improving Translation Teaching Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional translation teaching mode, the teacher is the main body of classroom, the teachers often explain too much and give few opportunities to students to practice. Even in terms of observation and evaluation of translation, it is also basically teacher-centered, so there is rare opportunity and time for students to debate and to express their own views. So the author gives some suggestions on solving this problem.

  5. Unity in Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    The cultural diversities of peoples and dialects in the United States have brought a richness to the English language that has made it one of the most supple of all the languages in the world. In addition to the diversity in the language are the diversities in literature, technology, nationality, politics, and styles of teaching. Teachers of…

  6. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  7. Diversity cognition and climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Knippenberg, D.; Homan, A.C.; van Ginkel, W.; Roberson, Q.M.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic diversity at work can yield performance benefits but also invite psychological disengagement and be a source of interpersonal tension. In managing this double-edged sword of demographic diversity, the role of diversity cognition (beliefs, attitudes) and climates seems particularly

  8. Unity in Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    The cultural diversities of peoples and dialects in the United States have brought a richness to the English language that has made it one of the most supple of all the languages in the world. In addition to the diversity in the language are the diversities in literature, technology, nationality, politics, and styles of teaching. Teachers of…

  9. Diversity cognition and climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Knippenberg, D.; Homan, A.C.; van Ginkel, W.; Roberson, Q.M.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic diversity at work can yield performance benefits but also invite psychological disengagement and be a source of interpersonal tension. In managing this double-edged sword of demographic diversity, the role of diversity cognition (beliefs, attitudes) and climates seems particularly promis

  10. The State of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines what is being done to implement cultural diversity in libraries. Topics addressed include affirmative action; defining cultural diversity, including the significance of ethnicity, race, and race relations in the workplace; problems in implementing cultural diversity; and examples of successful implementation programs. (Contains three…

  11. Trust in a Time of Increasing Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impact of ethnic diversity in Danish municipalities on citizens’ social trust over the last three decades. During this period, Danish society has grown increasingly ethnically diverse, and this begs the question whether this has influenced trust in others negatively....... Existing evidence from the Anglo-Saxon countries would suggest that this is the case, whereas evidence from the European continent mainly suggests that no link exists between ethnic diversity and social trust. The empirical analysis uses individual-level data on social trust from several surveys in Denmark...... in the period from 1979 to 2009 coupled with diversity at the municipality level. Individual-level measures of trust over time enable us to estimate the impact on social trust of changes in ethnic diversity within municipalities and, we argue, thereby obtain a more precise estimate of the effect of ethnic...

  12. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  13. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.

  14. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  15. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a didactic experiment carried out at an MA programme at The Copenhagen Business School. The experiment aimed at encouraging students to take charge of their learning processes via a course programme design that would motivate students to take an active part in choosing...... and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  16. Suggestions about Taxi Service in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ No matter what kinds1 of work we are engaged in, we usually play the role of the customers2 in life. Maybe we offer service to our clients, but at the same time, we get service from other people. So, to the society3, it is very important of the level of the service occupations4. In this essay, I want to talk about the service of the taxi in Beijing5. Because there are some problems in this service occupation, I will give three suggestions to these problems6.

  17. Suggestions for Implementing Flipped Classroom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷

    2016-01-01

    Educators in the twenty-first century are constantly adopting new technologies and pedagogies. Flipped Classroom Model is one of the most promising approaches to transforming learning experiences, which has been applied to both K-12 edu-cation and higher education at home and abroad. Influenced by culture and learning styles, the effectiveness and concrete imple-mentation strategies of this teaching model is different in different countries. How to localize the model in China is an important question for educators to think about. The paper makes suggestions for implementing Flipped Classroom in China, aiming at helping teachers to flip their classrooms successfully.

  18. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  19. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive...... constructions of national and European identities/belongings. On this basis the article claims that diversity represents a dual challenge to be conceptualized within and beyond the nation state. The article explores the formation of national and transnational identities based on analyses of political actors......’ debates about gender and diversity within the national and transnational European Polity....

  20. Work group diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes.

  1. Diversity Management: Seeking Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tony Bledsoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity management is widely valued in higher education today, but closer examination often reveals a lack of action to support the level of diversity that institutions claim to embrace in many of their strategic documents. This paper includes an assessment of diversity management within South Carolina’s technical colleges and an examination of survey results.  It is a companion study to a prior study of diversity in North Carolina Independent Colleges and Universities (NCICU.  The purpose of that research was to review campus-wide documents and structure of schools in the NCICU to determine diversity transparency (Bledsoe/Oatsvall.

  2. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  3. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  4. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  5. TEACHING READING:PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionAmong the four skills,reading has been viewed as the most basic and useful skill for Chinese learners ofEnglish.Many college students will.after leaving their English class,come into contact largely(andsometimes solely)with the written form of the language.Therefore the instruction of reading has becomevery important in English teaching Although great developments have been made both in the linguisticand pragmatic fields of reading analysis.teaching Chinese students the specific skills of reading inEnglish is still a tough problem.Many English teachers have become more and more aware of theChinese students difficulties and more and more aware of how inefficient the traditional approach is inthe design of teaching materials and leaching methods.As a result,this paper is an attempt to analysesome current theoretical achievements and suggest a revised method for teaching Chinese students.

  6. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-01-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the ‘punctuated equilibrium’ debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  7. Diversity and inclusion training in pediatric departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Fernando S; Walker, Leslie R; Stoll, Barbara J; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; St Geme, Joseph W; Cheng, Tina L; Gonzalez del Rey, Javier A; Harris, Christopher E; Rimsza, Mary E; Li, Jie; Sectish, Theodore C

    2015-04-01

    The diversifying US population of children necessitates assessing the diversity of the pediatric academic workforce and its level of cultural competency training. Such data are essential for workforce and educational policies. An 8-question survey was sent to 131 US pediatric chairs to assess plans for diversity, targeted groups, departmental diversity, diversity measures, perceived success in diversity, and presence and type of cultural competency training. In all, 49.6% of chairs responded, and three-quarters of them reported having a plan for diversity, which targeted racial; ethnic; gender; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender; disabled; and social class groups. Of the residents, 75% were women, as compared with 54% of faculty and 26% of chairs. Racial and ethnic diversity was limited among trainees, faculty, and leaders; leadership positions (0%-14%). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender physicians were represented in some groups. Measures of diversity included the number of trainees and faculty, promotion success, climate assessments, and exit interviews. Overall, 69% of chairs reported being successful in diversity efforts. A total of 90% reported cultural competency training for trainees, and 74% reported training for faculty and staff. Training in cultural competency included linguistic training, primarily in Spanish. Pipeline issues for minorities are ongoing challenges. Pediatric leadership needs more representation of racial and ethnic minorities, women, and LGBT. Suggestions for workforce and educational policies are made. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

  9. PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR OFFICE FURNITURE MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Söğütlü

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the problems encountered in production lines for office furniture manufacturers and gives suggestions to the problems. For this response, a questionnaire was designed and conducted with directors or owners of 50 office furniture manufacturers of small, medium and large scale size enterprises which were randomly selected from different cities. The questionnaire aims to focus on identifying the fundamental obstacles for production, marketing, sales and law. The data from questionnaire was calculated with frequency numbers and percentages for statistical values. In respect to the scope of dependent variables for the study, relationships between the independent variables such as the size of the company scale and Chi Square Single Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were determined. According to the results, 52% of customers constitute owners. The biggest obstacle is the lack of qualified personnel in office furniture production while 46% of customers complain about pour designs. As a result, the study concludes with specific obstacles for logistics (30%, distributions (18%, unpaid bills after delivery (28%, and unconscious of the consumer (24% in the office furniture sector.

  10. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  11. Tag Correspondence Model for User Tag Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂存超; 刘知远; 孙茂松

    2015-01-01

    Some microblog services encourage users to annotate themselves with multiple tags, indicating their attributes and interests. User tags play an important role for personalized recommendation and information retrieval. In order to better understand the semantics of user tags, we propose Tag Correspondence Model (TCM) to identify complex correspondences of tags from the rich context of microblog users. The correspondence of a tag is referred to as a unique element in the context which is semantically correlated with this tag. In TCM, we divide the context of a microblog user into various sources (such as short messages, user profile, and neighbors). With a collection of users with annotated tags, TCM can automatically learn the correspondences of user tags from multiple sources. With the learned correspondences, we are able to interpret implicit semantics of tags. Moreover, for the users who have not annotated any tags, TCM can suggest tags according to users’ context information. Extensive experiments on a real-world dataset demonstrate that our method can effciently identify correspondences of tags, which may eventually represent semantic meanings of tags.

  12. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  13. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  14. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  16. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  17. Maintenance of cultural diversity: social roles, social networks, and cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino suggests that patterns that give rise to group-level cultural traits can also increase individual-level cultural diversity. I distinguish social roles and related social network structures and discuss ways in which each might maintain diversity. I suggest that cognitive analogs of "cohesion," a property of networks that helps maintenance of diversity, might mediate the effects of social roles on diversity.

  18. Gender diversity in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijerinck, Herman C. W.

    2017-03-01

    There is a strong business case for the value of diversity. Research by the World Economic Forum shows a 36% higher return on equity (ROE) for companies having a workforce with strong gender diversity1. Also growth is influenced in a positive way: in 2009 - 2012 companies with a strong female leadership have increased their ROE by 10.1% as compared to an average of 7.4% for the rest. Diversity is not a problem but a solution!2

  19. Disequilibrium and Resolution: The Nonlinear Effects of Diversity Courses on Well-Being and Orientations toward Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that participating in college diversity courses contributes to numerous positive outcomes. However, dealing with diversity issues is a difficult and novel experience for many students; therefore, some of the benefits of diversity coursework may accrue only after taking multiple courses. In a large multi-institutional…

  20. Information Entropy Measures for Stand Structural Diversity:Joint Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xiangdong; Lu Yuanchang

    2004-01-01

    Structural diversity is the key attribute of a stand. A set of biodiversity measures in ecology was introduced in forest management for describing stand structure, of which Shannon information entropy (Shannon index) has been the most widely used measure of species diversity. It is generally thought that tree size diversity could serve as a good proxy for height diversity. However, tree size diversity and height diversity for stand structure is not completely consistent. Stand diameter cannot reflect height information completely. Either tree size diversity or height diversity is one-dimensional information entropy measure. This paper discussed the method of multiple-dimensional information entropy measure with the concept of joint entropy. It is suggested that joint entropy is a good measure for describing overall stand structural diversity.

  1. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iread with great interest Rashid and Rafiq's article published in the spring issue of this journal(1. The authors not only highlighted the shortcomings of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in Bangladesh but also prescribed awonderful policy, which is felt to be both costeffective and befitting with the country's existing programme on immunization. To complement thisI would like to add few more points: ||l|| Most neonates mount an immune response, which is believed to be adequate to reduce their risk of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV acquisition after vaccination(2. Though the pre-term babies (<37 weeks show a slower response than the term (||“||37 weeks babies, immunogenicity, which is inversely proportional to the gestational age, can be improved by increasing the vaccine dosage (2,3. l| Timing first dose of hepatitis B vaccine with BCG probably has a positive interaction: administration of BCG at the time of HBV vaccine priming at birth markedly increases the cytokines as well as ntibody responses to HBV vaccine(4. This astonishing finding might suggest that BCG has a synergistic effect on hepatitis B vaccination. Bangladesh is reported to have a very high (94% coverage of BCG vaccine(5; the uptake of HBV vaccine can be equally improved by timing it with BCG.l| The present infant vaccination policy will leave adolescents unguarded and hence nationwide prevention of the disease will be delayed. A recent survey unveils that available infrastructure in Bangladesh has sufficient spare capacity to sustain storage of an increased quantity of vaccines(5. To make good use of this unused legroom adolescent vaccination should be started along with infant vaccination. Countries such as Spain and Portugal have both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes in place, since 1993 and 2000 respectively, and these countries will be able to end the adolescent programme once the first immunised newborn cohort has reached the target age of the

  2. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  3. The Genomic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship in the Family Iridoviridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke A. Ring

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Iridoviridae family are large viruses (~120-200 nm that contain a linear double-stranded DNA genome. The genomic size of Iridoviridae family members range from 105,903 bases encoding 97 open reading frames (ORFs for frog virus 3 to 212,482 bases encoding 211 ORFs for Chilo iridescent virus. The family Iridoviridae is currently subdivided into five genera: Chloriridovirus, Iridovirus, Lymphocystivirus, Megalocytivirus, and Ranavirus. Iridoviruses have been found to infect invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, and fish. With such a diverse array of hosts, there is great diversity in gene content between different genera. To understand the origin of iridoviruses, we explored the phylogenetic relationship between individual iridoviruses and defined the core-set of genes shared by all members of the family. In order to further explore the evolutionary relationship between the Iridoviridae family repetitive sequences were identified and compared. Each genome was found to contain a set of unique repetitive sequences that could be used in future virus identification. Repeats common to more than one virus were also identified and changes in copy number between these repeats may provide a simple method to differentiate between very closely related virus strains. The results of this paper will be useful in identifying new iridoviruses and determining their relationship to other members of the family.

  4. The diversity pyramid: an organizational model to structure diversity recruitment and retention in nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lisa; O'Rourke, Marilyn E

    2011-10-01

    The literature on increasing the diversity of individuals who enter and practice the nursing profession comes with sound argument, yet we have seen only modest gains in diversification over the past 10 years. This article addresses how to develop a sustainable program to increase the recruitment and retention of underrepresented students. The diversity pyramid is suggested as a conceptual planning model for increasing diversity that is matched to an institution and its resources. The foundation of the pyramid is an organizational commitment to attracting and retaining diverse students. The middle level addresses financial support for underrepresented students. From the top of the pyramid, one chooses appropriate media and relational tactics necessary to attract the underrepresented students a program seeks. All three elements of the pyramid-organizational commitment to diversity, significant financial support, and a targeted use of resources-play important and sequential roles in building a sustainable diversity initiative.

  5. Analysis of genotype diversity and evolution of Dengue virus serotype 2 using complete genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waman, Vaishali P.; Kolekar, Pandurang; Ramtirthkar, Mukund R.; Kale, Mohan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is one of the most common arboviral diseases prevalent worldwide and is caused by Dengue viruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae). There are four serotypes of Dengue Virus (DENV-1 to DENV-4), each of which is further subdivided into distinct genotypes. DENV-2 is frequently associated with severe dengue infections and epidemics. DENV-2 consists of six genotypes such as Asian/American, Asian I, Asian II, Cosmopolitan, American and sylvatic. Comparative genomic study was carried out to infer population structure of DENV-2 and to analyze the role of evolutionary and spatiotemporal factors in emergence of diversifying lineages. Methods Complete genome sequences of 990 strains of DENV-2 were analyzed using Bayesian-based population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to infer genetically distinct lineages. The role of spatiotemporal factors, genetic recombination and selection pressure in the evolution of DENV-2 is examined using the sequence-based bioinformatics approaches. Results DENV-2 genetic structure is complex and consists of fifteen subpopulations/lineages. The Asian/American genotype is observed to be diversified into seven lineages. The Asian I, Cosmopolitan and sylvatic genotypes were found to be subdivided into two lineages, each. The populations of American and Asian II genotypes were observed to be homogeneous. Significant evidence of episodic positive selection was observed in all the genes, except NS4A. Positive selection operational on a few codons in envelope gene confers antigenic and lineage diversity in the American strains of Asian/American genotype. Selection on codons of non-structural genes was observed to impact diversification of lineages in Asian I, cosmopolitan and sylvatic genotypes. Evidence of intra/inter-genotype recombination was obtained and the uncertainty in classification of recombinant strains was resolved using the population genetics approach. Discussion Complete genome-based analysis revealed that the

  6. Analysis of genotype diversity and evolution of Dengue virus serotype 2 using complete genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali P. Waman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Dengue is one of the most common arboviral diseases prevalent worldwide and is caused by Dengue viruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. There are four serotypes of Dengue Virus (DENV-1 to DENV-4, each of which is further subdivided into distinct genotypes. DENV-2 is frequently associated with severe dengue infections and epidemics. DENV-2 consists of six genotypes such as Asian/American, Asian I, Asian II, Cosmopolitan, American and sylvatic. Comparative genomic study was carried out to infer population structure of DENV-2 and to analyze the role of evolutionary and spatiotemporal factors in emergence of diversifying lineages. Methods Complete genome sequences of 990 strains of DENV-2 were analyzed using Bayesian-based population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to infer genetically distinct lineages. The role of spatiotemporal factors, genetic recombination and selection pressure in the evolution of DENV-2 is examined using the sequence-based bioinformatics approaches. Results DENV-2 genetic structure is complex and consists of fifteen subpopulations/lineages. The Asian/American genotype is observed to be diversified into seven lineages. The Asian I, Cosmopolitan and sylvatic genotypes were found to be subdivided into two lineages, each. The populations of American and Asian II genotypes were observed to be homogeneous. Significant evidence of episodic positive selection was observed in all the genes, except NS4A. Positive selection operational on a few codons in envelope gene confers antigenic and lineage diversity in the American strains of Asian/American genotype. Selection on codons of non-structural genes was observed to impact diversification of lineages in Asian I, cosmopolitan and sylvatic genotypes. Evidence of intra/inter-genotype recombination was obtained and the uncertainty in classification of recombinant strains was resolved using the population genetics approach. Discussion Complete genome-based analysis

  7. Diversity Enhances NPP, N Retention, and Soil Microbial Diversity in Experimental Urban Grassland Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grant L; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Urban grasslands, landscapes dominated by turfgrasses for aesthetic or recreational groundcovers, are rapidly expanding in the United States and globally. These managed ecosystems are often less diverse than the natural or agricultural lands they replace, leading to potential losses in ecosystem functioning. Research in non-urban systems has provided evidence for increases in multiple ecosystem functions associated with greater plant diversity. To test if biodiversity-ecosystem function findings are applicable to urban grasslands, we examined the effect of plant species and genotypic diversity on three ecosystem functions, using grassland assemblages of increasing diversity that were grown within a controlled environment facility. We found positive effects of plant diversity on reduced nitrate leaching and plant productivity. Soil microbial diversity (Mean Shannon Diversity, H') of bacteria and fungi were also enhanced in multi-species plantings, suggesting that moderate increments in plant diversity influence the composition of soil biota. The results from this study indicate that plant diversity impacts multiple functions that are important in urban ecosystems; therefore, further tests of urban grassland biodiversity should be examined in situ to determine the feasibility of manipulating plant diversity as an explicit landscape design and function trait.

  8. Diversity Enhances NPP, N Retention, and Soil Microbial Diversity in Experimental Urban Grassland Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant L Thompson

    Full Text Available Urban grasslands, landscapes dominated by turfgrasses for aesthetic or recreational groundcovers, are rapidly expanding in the United States and globally. These managed ecosystems are often less diverse than the natural or agricultural lands they replace, leading to potential losses in ecosystem functioning. Research in non-urban systems has provided evidence for increases in multiple ecosystem functions associated with greater plant diversity. To test if biodiversity-ecosystem function findings are applicable to urban grasslands, we examined the effect of plant species and genotypic diversity on three ecosystem functions, using grassland assemblages of increasing diversity that were grown within a controlled environment facility. We found positive effects of plant diversity on reduced nitrate leaching and plant productivity. Soil microbial diversity (Mean Shannon Diversity, H' of bacteria and fungi were also enhanced in multi-species plantings, suggesting that moderate increments in plant diversity influence the composition of soil biota. The results from this study indicate that plant diversity impacts multiple functions that are important in urban ecosystems; therefore, further tests of urban grassland biodiversity should be examined in situ to determine the feasibility of manipulating plant diversity as an explicit landscape design and function trait.

  9. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seile Yohannes

    Full Text Available The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01, the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144, and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66 are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided

  10. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Seile; Bekele, Endashaw

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and

  11. Putting Diversity to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to critically explore why a diversity agenda in favor of equal opportunities failed despite apparent organizational support and commitment to diversity. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on data from a municipal center, this study inquires into how organ...

  12. Advancing Diversity in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul L.; Shaw, Rose A.; Taylor, Jan R.; Hallar, Brittan L.

    2011-01-01

    Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels, especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the…

  13. Diversity and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity, in its broadest sense, is discussed here in its relation to social cohesion, cross-cultural relations, ingroup-outgroup relations and educational interventions. The main thesis of the paper is that real social cohesion in an ingroup rests on the acknowledgment of and the dialog with the diversities of the members of the…

  14. The Diversity Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frederick R.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses social policy influences on the workplace and how the linkage of demographic change with multiculturalism has led to changes in organizational policies. It examines the emergence of diversity management practice, the influence of globalizing markets in driving corporate diversity policies, and the roles of corporate and government…

  15. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  16. Microbial diversity--insights from population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mes, Ted H M

    2008-01-01

    Although many environmental microbial populations are large and genetically diverse, both the level of diversity and the extent to which it is ecologically relevant remain enigmatic. Because the effective (or long-term) population size, N(e), is one of the parameters that determines population genetic diversity, tests and simulations that assume selectively neutral mutations may help to identify the processes that have shaped microbial diversity. Using ecologically important genes, tests of selective neutrality suggest that adaptive as well as non-adaptive types of selection act and that departure from neutrality may be widespread or restricted to small groups of genotypes. Population genetic simulations using population sizes between 10(3) and 10(7) suggest extremely high levels of microbial diversity in environments that sustain large populations. However, census and effective population sizes may differ considerably, and because we know nothing of the evolutionary history of environmental microbial populations, we also have no idea what N(e) of environmental populations is. On the one hand, this reflects our ignorance of the microbial world. On the other hand, the tests and simulations illustrate interactions between microbial diversity and microbial population genetics that should inform our thinking in microbial ecology. Because of the different views on microbial diversity across these disciplines, such interactions are crucial if we are to understand the role of genes in microbial communities.

  17. Genetic diversity of staphylocoagulase genes (coa: insight into the evolution of variable chromosomal virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Watanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The production of staphylocoagulase (SC causing the plasma coagulation is one of the important characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus. Although SCs have been classified into 10 serotypes based on the differences in the antigenicity, genetic bases for their diversities and relatedness to chromosome types are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the nucleotide sequences of 105 SC genes (coa, 59 of which were determined in this study. D1 regions, which contain prothrombin-activating and -binding domains and are presumed to be the binding site of each type-specific antiserum, were classified into twelve clusters having more than 90% nucleotide identities, resulting to create two novel SC types, XI and XII, in addition to extant 10 types. Nine of the twelve SC types were further subdivided into subtypes based on the differences of the D2 or the central regions. The phylogenetical relations of the D1 regions did not correlate exactly with either one of agr types and multilocus sequence types (STs. In addition, genetic analysis showed that recombination events have occurred in and around coa. So far tested, STs of 126 S. aureus strains correspond to the combination of SC type and agr type except for the cases of CC1 and CC8, which contained two and three different SC types, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data suggested that the evolution of coa was not monophyletic in the species. Chromosomal recombination had occurred at coa and agr loci, resulting in the carriage of the combinations of allotypically different important virulence determinants in staphylococcal chromosome.

  18. Freedom of Expression, Diversity, and Truth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens; Hallsson, Bjørn Gunnar; Møller, Emil Frederik Lundbjerg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to examine how diversity benefits deliberation, information exchange and other socio-epistemic practices associated with free speech. We separate five distinct dimensions of diversity, and discuss a variety of distinct mechanisms by which various forms of diversity may...... be thought to have epistemically valuable outcomes. We relate these results to the moral justification of free speech. Finally, we characterise a collective action problem concerning the compliance with truth-conducive norms of deliberation, and suggest what may solve this problem....

  19. Will Your Campus Diversity Initiative Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Grant

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author gives suggestions on how to make campus diversity initiative work. The author suggests making sure that the following conditions apply to a campus initiative before getting involved: (1) The communications about the initiative, on and off campus, are comparable to those for a capital campaign; (2) The initiative has an…

  20. Managing Protean Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz; Muhr, Sara Louise

    2016-01-01

    . In this article, we follow the call for critically investigating the contexts influencing diversity management by analyzing the development of a global human resource management project initiated to promote a culturally diverse workforce. We find that despite good intentions, as well as support from the top......Recently, global workforce diversity and its management have received criticism for not paying attention to the contextual influence stemming from socially constructed dialectics of power and politics. These contextual dynamics, however, tend to be viewed as external to the organization...... management, the project dissolves through micropolitics and power dynamics. We contribute to the critical literature on workforce diversity by identifying how organizational contextual dynamics influence the way the concept of workforce diversity is constructed and understood at work. Based on these findings...

  1. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  2. Trainee Readiness For Diversity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhyung Chung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although trainee readiness is critical for diversity training effectiveness, extant research has not paid attention to the relationship between trainee readiness for diversity training and diversity training outcomes. This study identifies motivational, behavioral, and cognitive trainee readiness for diversity training and proposes a theoretical framework of how individual characteristics (perceived discrimination, demographic attributes, and previous diversity-related experience and organizational characteristics (diversity climate and demographic dissimilarity influence motivational, behavioral, and cognitive trainee readiness for diversity training.

  3. Toppling Disciplinary Silos: One Suggestion for Accounting and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Daniel; Davig, William

    1999-01-01

    The topic of managing diversity is presented as a way to combine management and accounting to enable students to understand different accounting standards and cultural differences internationally. (SK)

  4. Chamaedorea: diverse species in diverse habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available DIVERSES ESPÈCES DANS DIVERS HABITATS. Des espèces extraordinairement diverses se trouvant dans des habitats également divers caractérisent Chamaedorea, un genre qui compte environ 90 espèces dioïques limitées aux sous-bois des forêts néo-tropicales constamment dans la pluie et les nuages du Mexique à la Bolivie et à l’Équateur. Une vaste gamme de formes biologiques, de tiges, de feuilles, d’inflorescences, de fleurs, et de fruits reflète la diversité des espèces. Bien que le genre soit plus riche en espèces dans les forêts denses et humides situées entre 800-1,500 mètres d’altitude, quelques espèces exceptionnelles se trouvent dans des forêts moins denses et/ou occasionnellement sèches, sur des substances dures ou dans d’autres habitats inhabituels. DIVERSAS ESPECIES EN DIVERSOS HÁBITATS. Especies notablemente diversas presentes en habitats igualmente diversos caracterizan a Chamaedorea, un genero de aproximadamente 90 especies dioicas limitadas al sotobosque de los bosques lluviosos y nubosos neotropicales desde Mexico hasta Bolivia y Ecuador. Una amplia gama de formas biológicas, tallos, hojas, inflorescencias, flores, y frutos refleja la diversidad de las especies. Aunque el género es más rico en especies en los bosques densos y húmedos de 800-1,500 metros de altura, unas pocas especies excepcionales ocurren en bosques abiertos o ocasionalmente secos, en substrato severo o en otros habitats extraordinarios. Remarkably diverse species occurring in equally diverse habitats characterize Chamaedorea, a genus of about 90, dioecious species restricted to the understory of neotropical rain and cloud forests from Mexico to Bolivia and Ecuador. A vast array of habits, stems, leaves, inflorescences, flowers, and fruits reflect the diversity of species. Although the genus is most species-rich in dense, moist or wet, diverse forests from 800-1,500 meters elevation, a few exceptional species occur in open and/or seasonally

  5. The dynamical landscape of marine phytoplankton diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Marina; Jahn, Oliver; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Follows, Michael J; d'Ovidio, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Observations suggest that the landscape of marine phytoplankton assemblage might be strongly heterogeneous at the dynamical mesoscale and submesoscale (10-100 km, days to months), with potential consequences in terms of global diversity and carbon export. But these variations are not well documented as synoptic taxonomic data are difficult to acquire. Here, we examine how phytoplankton assemblage and diversity vary between mesoscale eddies and submesoscale fronts. We use a multi-phytoplankton numerical model embedded in a mesoscale flow representative of the North Atlantic. Our model results suggest that the mesoscale flow dynamically distorts the niches predefined by environmental contrasts at the basin scale and that the phytoplankton diversity landscape varies over temporal and spatial scales that are one order of magnitude smaller than those of the basin-scale environmental conditions. We find that any assemblage and any level of diversity can occur in eddies and fronts. However, on a statistical level, the results suggest a tendency for larger diversity and more fast-growing types at fronts, where nutrient supplies are larger and where populations of adjacent water masses are constantly brought into contact; and lower diversity in the core of eddies, where water masses are kept isolated long enough to enable competitive exclusion.

  6. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  7. CERN Diversity Newsletter - July 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2015-01-01

    The first official edition of the CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  8. Urban thermal diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KoenSTEEMERS; MarylisRAMOS; MariaSINOU

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the interrelationships between urban form, microclimate and thermal comfort. It draws on recent research of monitoring, surveying and modelling urban thermal characteristics and proposes a method of mapping urban diversity. Because the urban context provides a rich and varied environment that influences the way we use urban spaces (movement, sequence, activity) and how we feel in them (stimulation, thermal comfort), the aim here is to highlight the notion of diversity. Thus thermal diversity is used as a measure of the urban environment, rather than more conventional spatially or temporally fixed average values.

  9. Religious diversity and pluralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlin, Lars; Borup, Jørn; Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup

    2012-01-01

    . Religious diversity has grown in Denmark with the arrival of new immigrant groups and with new forms and interpretations of traditional religious and spiritual traditions. More importantly, the relations and interactions between religious groups -- the hallmarks of religious pluralism -- are still incipient....... Both religious diversity and religious pluralism build on assumptions of stable relationships between religion and religious adherents and clear-cut boundaries between religious groups, assumptions which may be difficult to sustain in late modern societies. This article gives an overview of the Project......'s findings and discusses theoretical challenges related to religious diversity and religious pluralism....

  10. How diversity gets lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article...... describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an “other,” and consequently their input was neglected...

  11. Diversity and deliberation: bioethics commissions and moral reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveny, M Cathleen

    2006-06-01

    This article considers the sort of diversity in perspective appropriate for a presidential commission on bioethics, and by implication, high-level governmental commissions on ethics more generally. It takes as its point of comparison the respective reports on human cloning produced by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, appointed by President Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush's President's Council on Bioethics, under the leadership of its original chair, Leon Kass. I argue that the Clinton Commission Report exemplifies forensic diversity (the type of diversity between contesting parties in a legal case), while the Kass Council Report exemplifies academic diversity (the diversity found in a medieval disputatio). Drawing upon Thomas Aquinas, I argue that the type of diversity most appropriate for such advisory bodies is deliberative diversity, which facilitates the President's process of taking counsel. After considering their respective charges, I suggest that neither the Clinton Commission nor the Kass Council possessed an adequate degree of deliberative diversity for their respective tasks.

  12. Diversity Shrinkage: Cross-Validating Pareto-Optimal Weights to Enhance Diversity via Hiring Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q Chelsea; Wee, Serena; Newman, Daniel A

    2017-07-27

    To reduce adverse impact potential and improve diversity outcomes from personnel selection, one promising technique is De Corte, Lievens, and Sackett's (2007) Pareto-optimal weighting strategy. De Corte et al.'s strategy has been demonstrated on (a) a composite of cognitive and noncognitive (e.g., personality) tests (De Corte, Lievens, & Sackett, 2008) and (b) a composite of specific cognitive ability subtests (Wee, Newman, & Joseph, 2014). Both studies illustrated how Pareto-weighting (in contrast to unit weighting) could lead to substantial improvement in diversity outcomes (i.e., diversity improvement), sometimes more than doubling the number of job offers for minority applicants. The current work addresses a key limitation of the technique-the possibility of shrinkage, especially diversity shrinkage, in the Pareto-optimal solutions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, sample size and predictor combinations were varied and cross-validated Pareto-optimal solutions were obtained. Although diversity shrinkage was sizable for a composite of cognitive and noncognitive predictors when sample size was at or below 500, diversity shrinkage was typically negligible for a composite of specific cognitive subtest predictors when sample size was at least 100. Diversity shrinkage was larger when the Pareto-optimal solution suggested substantial diversity improvement. When sample size was at least 100, cross-validated Pareto-optimal weights typically outperformed unit weights-suggesting that diversity improvement is often possible, despite diversity shrinkage. Implications for Pareto-optimal weighting, adverse impact, sample size of validation studies, and optimizing the diversity-job performance tradeoff are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Examining Correlates of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Bryk, Anthony S.

    1987-01-01

    Statistical methods are presented for studying "correlates of diversity," defined as characteristics of educational organizations that predict dispersion on the dependent variable. Strategies based on exact distribution theory and asymptotic normal approximation are considered. (TJH)

  14. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient diversity. For example, U-negative and Duffy-negative blood types are unique to the African-American community. ... most common blood type and because type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for ...

  15. Diversity and Generation X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S K

    2001-09-01

    Managing Generation X (1965-1980) to be of better service to patients and organizations is a challenge for nurse managers. This article provides action scenarios that assist in understanding diversity and generations.

  16. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  17. Does Labor Diversity Promote Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services....

  18. Does Labor Diversity Promote Entrepreneurship?

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2012-01-01

    We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services.

  19. Molecular analyses of Pythium irregulare isolates from grapevines in South Africa suggest a single variable species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pythium irregulare species complex is the most common and widespread Pythium spp. associated with grapevines in South Africa. This species complex can be subdivided into several morphological and phylogenetic species that are all highly similar at the sequence level. The complex includes P. re...

  20. One species, many terpenes: matching chemical and biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Francesco; Bagnoli, Francesca; Fineschi, Silvia

    2009-08-01

    Volatile terpenes have been proposed as chemotaxonomic markers, despite the strong environmental control on their synthesis. To clarify whether chemical profiles match biological diversity, cork oak, a monoterpene-emitting species that has been bred by humans and frequently hybridizes with other oaks, is a useful case-study. Analysis of the available genetic information in cork oak provenances suggests that volatile terpenes might indeed suitably track geographical diversity even at the intraspecific level. Phylogeographical diversity does not reflect chemical diversity in other evergreen oaks that have not been intensively bred. Breeding for productive traits might therefore drive selection for terpene diversity, in turn modulating important adaptive mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stressors.

  1. Leadership in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, P L

    1994-12-01

    As principal change agents, healthcare leaders are well positioned to integrate diversity into their institutions' organizational structure. Thus healthcare leaders must be competent in handling diversity issues. Diversity refers to any characteristic that helps shape a person's attitudes, behaviors, perspective, and interpretation of what is "normal." In the healthcare ministry, diversity encompasses the cultural differences that can be found across functions or among organizations when they merge or partner. Managers and supervisors will have to be familiar with the nuances of diversity if they are to be effective. Those managers who are not adept at incorporating diversity into human resource management may incorrectly evaluate subordinates' capabilities and provide inappropriate training or supervision. As a result, some employees may be underutilized. Others may resist needed direction, overlook instructions, or hide problems such as a language barrier. If executives, marketers, and strategic planners are to develop relevant healthcare services that take into account the needs of their constituencies, they will need to determine how different groups understand and access healthcare. Healthcare leaders who know how to uncover cultural dynamics and challenge cultural assumptions will go far in enabling their staff and managers to confront personal attitudes about community residents. Ultimately, quality of service delivery will be improved.

  2. The isolation of luminous blue variables: on subdividing the sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2016-09-01

    A debate has arisen concerning the fundamental nature of luminous blue variables (LBVs) and their role in stellar evolution. While Smith & Tombleson proposed that their isolated environments indicate that LBVs must be largely the product of binary evolution, Humphreys et al. have recently expressed the view that the traditional single-star view still holds if one appropriately selects a subsample of LBVs. This paper finds the claim of Humphreys et al. to be quantitatively unjustified. A statistical test of `candidate' as opposed to `confirmed' LBVs shows no significant difference (discriminate.

  3. Biodiversity, chemical diversity and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sheo B; Pelaez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Drugs developed from microbial natural products are in the fundaments of modern pharmaceutical companies. Despite decades of research, all evidences suggest that there must remain many interesting natural molecules with potential therapeutic application yet to be discovered. Any efforts to successfully exploit the chemical diversity of microbial secondary metabolites need to rely heavily on a good understanding of microbial diversity, being the working hypothesis that maximizing biological diversity is the key strategy to maximizing chemical diversity. This chapter presents an overview of diverse topics related with this basic principle, always in relation with the discovery of novel secondary metabolites. The types of microorganisms more frequently used for natural products discovery are briefly reviewed, as well as the differences between terrestrial and marine habitats as sources of bioactive secondary metabolite producers. The concepts about microbial diversity as applied to prokaryotes have evolved in the last years, but recent data suggest the existence of true biogeographic patterns of bacterial diversity, which are also discussed. Special attention is dedicated to the existing strategies to exploit the microbial diversity that is not easy to tackle by conventional approaches. This refers explicitly to the current attempts to isolate and cultivate the previously uncultured bacteria, including the application of high throughput techniques. Likewise, the advances of microbial molecular biology has allowed the development of metagenomic approaches, i.e., the expression of biosynthetic pathways directly obtained from environmental DNA and cloned in a suitable host, as another way of accessing microbial genetic resources. Also, approaches relying on the genomics of metabolite producers are reviewed.

  4. Stand structural diversity rather than species diversity enhances aboveground carbon storage in secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chen, Han Y. H.; Chang, Scott X.; Zhao, Yan-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ming-Shan

    2016-08-01

    Stand structural diversity, typically characterized by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height, plays a critical role in influencing aboveground carbon (C) storage. However, few studies have considered the multivariate relationships of aboveground C storage with stand age, stand structural diversity, and species diversity in natural forests. In this study, aboveground C storage, stand age, tree species, DBH and height diversity indices, were determined across 80 subtropical forest plots in Eastern China. We employed structural equation modelling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand structural diversity, species diversity, and stand age on aboveground C storage. The three final SEMs with different directions for the path between species diversity and stand structural diversity had a similar goodness of fit to the data. They accounted for 82 % of the variation in aboveground C storage, 55-59 % of the variation in stand structural diversity, and 0.1 to 9 % of the variation in species diversity. Stand age demonstrated strong positive total effects, including a positive direct effect (β = 0.41), and a positive indirect effect via stand structural diversity (β = 0.41) on aboveground C storage. Stand structural diversity had a positive direct effect on aboveground C storage (β = 0.56), whereas there was little total effect of species diversity as it had a negative direct association with, but had a positive indirect effect, via stand structural diversity, on aboveground C storage. The negligible total effect of species diversity on aboveground C storage in the forests under study may have been attributable to competitive exclusion with high aboveground biomass, or a historical logging preference for productive species. Our analyses suggested that stand structural diversity was a major determinant for variations in aboveground C storage in the secondary subtropical forests in Eastern China. Hence, maintaining tree DBH and

  5. NASFAA Diversity and Inclusion: Recommendations of the Professional Diversity Caucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2015

    2015-01-01

    NASFAA's Diversity and Inclusion Report emphasizes the importance of diversity and inclusivity to NASFAA. Included in this report is a diversity statement developed by NASFAA's Professional Diversity Caucus, and approved by NASFAA's Board in March of 2015. The Caucus convened in the summer of 2014 to better understand issues related to diversity…

  6. Genetic diversity in aspen and its relation to arthropod abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Vornam, Barbara; Volmer, Katharina; Prinz, Kathleen; Kleemann, Frauke; Köhler, Lars; Polle, Andrea; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The ecological consequences of biodiversity have become a prominent public issue. Little is known on the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem services. Here, a diversity experiment was established with European and North American aspen (Populus tremula, P. tremuloides) planted in plots representing either a single deme only or combinations of two, four and eight demes. The goals of this study were to explore the complex inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity of aspen and to then relate three measures for diversity (deme diversity, genetic diversity determined as Shannon index or as expected heterozygosity) to arthropod abundance. Microsatellite and AFLP markers were used to analyze the genetic variation patterns within and between the aspen demes and deme mixtures. Large differences were observed regarding the genetic diversity within demes. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the total genetic diversity was found within demes, but the genetic differentiation among demes was also high. The complex patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation resulted in large differences of the genetic variation within plots. The average diversity increased from plots with only one deme to plots with two, four, and eight demes, respectively and separated plots with and without American aspen. To test whether intra- and interspecific diversity impacts on ecosystem services, arthropod abundance was determined. Increasing genetic diversity of aspen was related to increasing abundance of arthropods. However, the relationship was mainly driven by the presence of American aspen suggesting that species identity overrode the effect of intraspecific variation of European aspen.

  7. The complete genome sequences of a Peruvian and a Colombian isolate of Andean potato latent virus and partial sequences of further isolates suggest the existence of two distinct potato-infecting tymovirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuze, Jan; Koenig, Renate; De Souza, Joao; Vetten, Heinrich Josef; Muller, Giovanna; Flores, Betty; Ziebell, Heiko; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2013-05-01

    The complete genomic RNA sequences of the tymovirus isolates Hu and Col from potato which originally had been considered to be strains of the same virus species, i.e. Andean potato latent virus (APLV), were determined by siRNA sequencing and assembly, and found to share only c. 65% nt sequence identity. This result together with those of serological tests and comparisons of the coat protein gene sequences of additional tymovirus isolates from potato suggest that the species Andean potato latent virus should be subdivided into two species, i.e. APLV and Andean potato mild mosaic virus (APMMV). Primers were designed for the broad specificity detection of both viruses.

  8. The Underlying Structure of Diverse Work Groups: A Literature Review on Faultlines and Diversity Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanciu, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity can be seen everywhere, as either a readily observable trait of people, such as gender and ethnicity, or as a hidden set of abilities, such work skills and personality traits. Organizations consider that work-teams with a diverse composition outperform homogeneous work-teams. Although this is often the case, there can be specific types of diversity composition that are detrimental for organizational outcomes. Usually this occurs in situations where members of a team align on more than one diversity attribute, thus creating a diversity faultline. As of yet, however, the literature is lacking a systematic overview as to whether diversity faultlines are always associated with poor organizational outcomes. To address this issue we conducted a literature review in which we sought to unravel the different underlying structures of diversity faultlines and their association with organizational outcomes. We distinguished between affective outcomes and productive outcomes. The findings indicate that faultlines can be categorized as based on social category aspects, information/ decision-making aspects, or a combination of the two attributes. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is no straightforward relationship between the various faultlines and outcomes. We argue that this is potentially due to the fact that these studies have not addressed the normative fit of faultlines. Our review also hints at the necessity of researchers to reach a consensus on how to operationalize some diversity traits.

  9. Low functional β-diversity despite high taxonomic β-diversity among tropical estuarine fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villéger, Sébastien; Ramos Miranda, Julia; Flores Hernandez, Domingo; Mouillot, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of β-diversity, defined as dissimilarity among communities, has been widely used to investigate biodiversity patterns and community assembly rules. However, in ecosystems with high taxonomic β-diversity, due to marked environmental gradients, the level of functional β-diversity among communities is largely overlooked while it may reveal processes shaping community structure. Here, decomposing biodiversity indices into α (local) and γ (regional) components, we estimated taxonomic and functional β-diversity among tropical estuarine fish communities, through space and time. We found extremely low functional β-diversity values among fish communities (<1.5%) despite high dissimilarity in species composition and species dominance. Additionally, in contrast to the high α and γ taxonomic diversities, α and γ functional diversities were very close to the minimal value. These patterns were caused by two dominant functional groups which maintained a similar functional structure over space and time, despite the strong dissimilarity in taxonomic structure along environmental gradients. Our findings suggest that taxonomic and functional β-diversity deserve to be quantified simultaneously since these two facets can show contrasting patterns and the differences can in turn shed light on community assembly rules.

  10. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    overlooked area of research. Although research based on Cohen and Levinthal‘s work has made considerable impact, there is scarcity of research on certain fundamental points argued by Cohen and Levinthal. Among these is the importance of employee diversity as well as the type and nature of interaction between...... that contribute to the neo-Schumpeterian economics literature and hopefully inspires further research into this area. The main findings of the dissertation can be divided into four distinct parts. First, diversity of individuals within firms is associated with firm innovative performance. This is in line...... with the arguments put forth by Cohen and Levinthal and subsequent researchers, but has not been verified empirically before. Second, the relationship between the diversity of individuals and innovative performance and idea generation is moderated by adherence to goals. This result might help to explain...

  11. An Algorithmic Diversity Diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2016-01-01

    With the growing influence of personalized algorithmic recommender systems on the exposure of media content to users, the relevance of discussing the diversity of recommendations increases, particularly as far as public service media (PSM) is concerned. An imagined implementation of a diversity...... diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content....

  12. Diversity of Poissonian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

  13. Diversity as strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A

    2004-09-01

    IBM's turnaround in the last decade is an impressive and well-documented business story. But behind that success is a less told people story, which explains how the corporation dramatically altered its already diverse composition and created millions of dollars in new business. By the time Lou Gerstner took the helm in 1993, IBM had a long history of progressive management when it came to civil rights and equal-opportunity employment. But Gerstner felt IBM wasn't taking full advantage of a diverse market for talent, nor was it maximizing the potential of its diverse customer and employee base. So in 1995, he launched a diversity task force initiative to uncover and understand differences among people within the organization and find ways to appeal to an even broader set of employees and customers. Gerstner established a task force for each of eight constituencies: Asians; blacks; the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered community; Hispanics; white men; Native Americans; people with disabilities; and women. He asked the task forces to research four questions: What does your constituency need to feel welcome and valued at IBM? What can the corporation do, in partnership with your group, to maximize your constituency's productivity? What can the corporation do to influence your constituency's buying decisions so that IBM is seen as a preferred solution provider? And with which external organizations should IBM form relationships to better understand the needs of your constituency? The answers to these questions became the basis for IBM's diversity strategy. Thomas stresses that four factors are key to implementing any major change initiative: strong support from company leaders, an employee base that is fully engaged with the initiative, management practices that are integrated and aligned with the effort, and a strong and well-articulated business case for action. All four elements have helped IBM make diversity a key corporate strategy tied to real growth.

  14. Functional dominance rather than taxonomic diversity and functional diversity mainly affects community aboveground biomass in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Buyantuev, Alexander; Li, Frank Yonghong; Jiang, Lin; Niu, Jianming; Ding, Yong; Kang, Sarula; Ma, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and productivity has been a hot topic in ecology. However, the relative importance of taxonomic diversity and functional characteristics (including functional dominance and functional diversity) in maintaining community productivity and the underlying mechanisms (including selection and complementarity effects) of the relationship between diversity and community productivity have been widely controversial. In this study, 194 sites were surveyed in five grassland types along a precipitation gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland of China. The relationships between taxonomic diversity (species richness and the Shannon-Weaver index), functional dominance (the community-weighted mean of four plant traits), functional diversity (Rao's quadratic entropy), and community aboveground biomass were analyzed. The results showed that (1) taxonomic diversity, functional dominance, functional diversity, and community aboveground biomass all increased from low to high precipitation grassland types; (2) there were significant positive linear relationships between taxonomic diversity, functional dominance, functional diversity, and community aboveground biomass; (3) the effect of functional characteristics on community aboveground biomass is greater than that of taxonomic diversity; and (4) community aboveground biomass depends on the community-weighted mean plant height, which explained 57.1% of the variation in the community aboveground biomass. Our results suggested that functional dominance rather than taxonomic diversity and functional diversity mainly determines community productivity and that the selection effect plays a dominant role in maintaining the relationship between biodiversity and community productivity in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

  15. The interplay of diversity training and diversity beliefs on team creativity in nationality diverse teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Astrid C; Buengeler, Claudia; Eckhoff, Robert A; van Ginkel, Wendy P; Voelpel, Sven C

    2015-09-01

    Attaining value from nationality diversity requires active diversity management, which organizations often employ in the form of diversity training programs. Interestingly, however, the previously reported effects of diversity training are often weak and, sometimes, even negative. This situation calls for research on the conditions under which diversity training helps or harms teams. We propose that diversity training can increase team creativity, but only for teams with less positive pretraining diversity beliefs (i.e., teams with a greater need for such training) and that are sufficiently diverse in nationality. Comparing the creativity of teams that attended nationality diversity training versus control training, we found that for teams with less positive diversity beliefs, diversity training increased creative performance when the team's nationality diversity was high, but undermined creativity when the team's nationality diversity was low. Diversity training had less impact on teams with more positive diversity beliefs, and training effects were not contingent upon these teams' diversity. Speaking to the underlying process, we showed that these interactive effects were driven by the experienced team efficacy of the team members. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for nationality diversity management.

  16. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance....... Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...

  17. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    . Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...... of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance...

  18. Authoritarian Disbeliefs in Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Kauff, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic diversity poses a threat to authoritarians, as it indicates non-conformism to group norms and poses a threat to group conformity. According to authoritarian dynamic theory, threats elicit authoritarian reactions in people with authoritarian predispositions. In the present article we tested a mediation model derived from authoritarian dynamic theory in a sample of 171 students. As expected, authoritarian predisposition negatively predicted diversity beliefs. This effect was fully mediated by an authoritarian manifestation, that is, authoritarian aggression. The two other components of right-wing authoritarianism, authoritarian submission and conventionalism, did not mediate the effect. Results confirm contemporary research on authoritarianism and the differentiation of authoritarian predispositions and its manifestations.

  19. Avihepadnavirus diversity in parrots is comparable to that found amongst all other avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Harkins, Gordon W; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Julian, Laurel; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-04-10

    Avihepadnaviruses have previously been isolated from various species of duck, goose, stork, heron and crane. Recently the first parrot avihepadnavirus was isolated from a Ring-necked Parakeet in Poland. In this study, 41 psittacine liver samples archived in Poland over the last nine years were tested for presence of Parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). We cloned and sequenced PHBV isolates from 18 birds including a Crimson Rosella, an African grey parrot and sixteen Ring-necked Parakeets. PHBV isolates display a degree of diversity (>78% genome wide pairwise identity) that is comparable to that found amongst all other avihepadnaviruses (>79% genome wide pairwise identity). The PHBV viruses can be subdivided into seven genetically distinct groups (tentatively named A-G) of which the two isolated of PHBV-G are the most divergent sharing ∼79% genome wide pairwise identity with all their PHBVs. All PHBV isolates display classical avihepadnavirus genome architecture.

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity in a highly valuable medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus using molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity was evaluated among 14 cultivars of Catharanthus roseus using RAPD and ISSR markers.The RAPD primers resulted in the amplification of 56 bands, among which 46 (82% bands were polymorphic Four ISSRprimers amplified 31 loci out of which 17 were polymorphic and 14 are monomorphic. The Jaccard's similarity derived fromthe combined marker system showed that the varieties First Kiss Coral and Cooler Orchid were the most closely relatedcultivars, with 98% similarity. In the dendrogram constructed on the basis of both RAPD and ISSR data two clear clusterswere obtained. The smaller cluster included C. roseus Cv Blue Pearl and C. roseus Cv. Patricia White and the larger clusterwas subdivided into two sub clusters with C. roseus Cv. First Kiss Polka Dot isolated from the rest of the cultivars. This maybe useful for breeding for improved quality.

  1. Effects of polyandry on male phenotypic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M; Dornelas, M; Magurran, A E

    2010-11-01

    Polyandry has the potential to affect the distribution of phenotypes and to shape the direction of sexual selection. Here, we explore this potential using Trinidadian guppies as a model system and ask whether polyandry leads to directional and/or diversifying selection of male phenotypic traits. In this study, we compare the phenotypic diversity of offspring from multiply and singly sired broods. To quantify phenotypic diversity, we first combine phenotypic traits using multivariate methods, and then take the dispersion of individuals in multivariate space as our measure of diversity. We show that, when each trait is examined separately, polyandry generates offspring with a higher proportion of bright coloration, indicating directional selection. However, our multivariate approach reveals that this directionality is accompanied by an increase in phenotypic diversity. These results suggest that polyandry (i) selects for the production of sons with the preferred brighter colour phenotypes whereas (ii) enhancing the diversity of male sexual traits. Promoting phenotypic diversity may be advantageous in coping with environmental and reproductive variability by increasing long-term fitness. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Riverside morphological response to pulsed sediment diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meselhe, Ehab A.; Sadid, Kazi M.; Allison, Mead A.

    2016-10-01

    Sediment diversions deliver sediment and fresh water from rivers to surrounding wetland areas as a strategy to build and sustain coastal wetland areas. Numerical modeling of the lower Mississippi River, USA, coupled with detailed field observations are used to provide quantitative information about the morphodynamic behavior of river channels in response to diverting large quantities of water and sediment. This study suggests that reduction in river stream power caused by the extraction of significant amounts of water discharge results in river channel aggradation in the vicinity and downstream of diversions. The aggradation quantities depend on the diversion sand capture efficiency and the diverted water discharge relative to the main river discharge. Additional factors observed to influence the sand capture efficiency include the invert elevation of the diversion intake, placement of the diversion intake on top of a lateral or point bars, and the local degree of the river channel curvature. Notably, the capture efficiency of fine material (silt and clay), to a large degree, is not site specific and is rather influenced by the timing of the diversion structure operations relative to the incoming fine-material hydrograph.

  3. Action Methods for Teaching Cultural Diversity Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasulo, Dan

    This paper is devoted to the description of action methods that can be used to provide a practical understanding and awareness of culturally diverse material. It draws from such varied disciplines as cross-cultural psychology, international business, and sociodrama, with the goal of suggesting a methodology for using role playing to teach ethnic,…

  4. Generational diversity: teaching and learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan A; Romanello, Mary L

    2005-01-01

    Nursing students represent multiple generations--Baby Boomers, Generation X, and now the Millennials. Each generation has its own set of values, ideas, ethics, beliefs, and learning styles. The authors describe the context, characteristics, and learning styles of each generation and provide suggestions for enhanced teaching and learning across multiple generations. Using generational diversity as a teaching tool in the classroom is also discussed.

  5. Ethnic diversity and employment growth in English cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing.

  6. Meeting diversity in ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, R.N.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Settels, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Key Features: Offers the conceptual tools for creating more adaptable ergonomic designs to meet the needs of diverse human populations, Unlock the strategic business value found in ergonomically safe and comfortable products, Learn from in-depth case studies how ergonomic intervention was

  7. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...

  8. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short...

  9. Composition: Unity - Diversity series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Unity-Diversity series are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it...

  10. Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    In Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity, 16 internationally renowned scholars reflect on the nature and history of peoplehood and discuss how narratives inform national identities, public culture and academic historiography. The book is a timely contribution to the ongoing debate on belonging...

  11. Diversity without representation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1992 United Nations ‘Earth Summit’ conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, biodiversity has received increasing attention from scientists, governments and the public worldwide. There is growing recognition that the diversity of life on Earth...

  12. Human diversity in images

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    A photo contest is being jointly organized by the CERN Equal Opportunities team and the CERN Photo Club. All you need to do is submit a photo or quotation. The contest is open to everyone.   Diversity at CERN You don’t need to be a photographer or to have sophisticated photographic equipment to capture CERN’s diversity of working styles, gender, age, ethnic, origin and physical ability. Its many facets are all around you! The emphasis of the initiative is on capturing this diversity in an image using creativity, intuition and cultural empathy. You can also contribute with a quotation (whether or not you specify who said it is optional) telling the organizers what strikes you about diversity at CERN. The photo entries and a collection of the quotations will be displayed in an exhibition to be held in May in the Main Building, as well as on the CERN Photo Club website. The best photos will be awarded prizes. So over to you: dig deep inside human nature, explore individual tal...

  13. Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    In Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity, 16 internationally renowned scholars reflect on the nature and history of peoplehood and discuss how narratives inform national identities, public culture and academic historiography. The book is a timely contribution to the ongoing debate on belonging...

  14. Workplace Diversity Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  15. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  16. Strength in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Diversity has always been science’s big secret, yet it’s a secret we’ve always been keen to share. CERN was founded on the basis of bringing a diverse mix of people together to pursue common aims, and it’s one of the things that’s driven this Organization’s success over the decades.   Now, we are launching a new diversity programme aimed at strengthening our tradition of inclusiveness. This programme is being launched with a range of key goals in mind for the 2012-2014 timeframe. We’ll be striving to achieve a fair gender balance across all professional categories, and to provide strong gender role models across the Organization. We’ll be improving our career development processes to allow people to progress through both technical and managerial pathways, and we’ll be re-launching workshops that bring people from diverse professions and generations together to share their experience on key aspects of lif...

  17. Diversity Networking Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Join us at the APS Diversity Reception to relax, network with colleagues, and learn about programs and initiatives for women, underrepresented minorities, and LGBT physicists. You'll have a great time meeting friends in a supportive environment and making connections.

  18. Unity in Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Pfisterer (Stella); N. Payandeh (Nasim)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMechanisms and Practices of Cross-Sector Development Partnerships to Create Mutuality The value of cross-sector partnerships derives from an increasing level of diversity, since it translates into wider range of available resources and capabilities. However it also implies contrasting

  19. Composition: Unity - Diversity series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Unity-Diversity series are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it...

  20. Banking on Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  1. Introduction [to Diversity Challenged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary

    This paper introduces a collection of papers that examines the impact of affirmative action on college admission and the importance of school desegregation. The book addresses whether or not the educational value of diversity is sufficiently compelling to justify the consideration of race when making college admission decisions. This introduction…

  2. Diversity: A Corporate Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

  3. Unity through Diversity: Value-in-Diversity Beliefs, Work Group Diversity, and Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); S.A. Haslam (Alexander); M.J. Platow (Michael)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch on work group diversity has more or less neglected the possibility that reactions to diversity may be informed by individuals' beliefs about the value of diversity (vs. homogeneity) for their work group. We studied the role of such diversity beliefs as a moderator of the relatio

  4. Unity through Diversity: Value-in-Diversity Beliefs, Work Group Diversity, and Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); S.A. Haslam (Alexander); M.J. Platow (Michael)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractResearch on work group diversity has more or less neglected the possibility that reactions to diversity may be informed by individuals' beliefs about the value of diversity (vs. homogeneity) for their work group. We studied the role of such diversity beliefs as a moderator of the relatio

  5. Do global diversity patterns of vertebrates reflect those of monocots?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsey McInnes

    Full Text Available Few studies of global diversity gradients in plants exist, largely because the data are not available for all species involved. Instead, most global studies have focussed on vertebrates, as these taxa have historically been associated with the most complete data. Here, we address this shortfall by first investigating global diversity gradients in monocots, a morphologically and functionally diverse clade representing a quarter of flowering plant diversity, and then assessing congruence between monocot and vertebrate diversity patterns. To do this, we create a new dataset that merges biome-level associations for all monocot genera with country-level associations for almost all ∼70,000 species. We then assess the evidence for direct versus indirect effects of this plant diversity on vertebrate diversity using a combination of linear regression and structural equation modelling (SEM. Finally, we also calculate overlap of diversity hotspots for monocots and each vertebrate taxon. Monocots follow a latitudinal gradient although with pockets of extra-tropical diversity, mirroring patterns in vertebrates. Monocot diversity is positively associated with vertebrate diversity, but the strength of correlation varies depending on the clades being compared. Monocot diversity explains marginal amounts of variance (<10% after environmental factors have been accounted for. However, correlations remain among model residuals, and SEMs apparently reveal some direct effects of monocot richness. Our results suggest that collinear responses to environmental gradients are behind much of the congruence observed, but that there is some evidence for direct effects of producer diversity on consumer diversity. Much remains to be done before broad-scale diversity gradients among taxa are fully explained. Our dataset of monocot distributions will aid in this endeavour.

  6. The biology of hair diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Trees as templates for tropical litter arthropod diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, David A; Johnston, Mary K; Kaspari, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Increased tree species diversity in the tropics is associated with even greater herbivore diversity, but few tests of tree effects on litter arthropod diversity exist. We studied whether tree species influence patchiness in diversity and abundance of three common soil arthropod taxa (ants, gamasid mites, and oribatid mites) in a Panama forest. The tree specialization hypothesis proposes that tree-driven habitat heterogeneity maintains litter arthropod diversity. We tested whether tree species differed in resource quality and quantity of their leaf litter and whether more heterogeneous litter supports more arthropod species. Alternatively, the abundance-extinction hypothesis states that arthropod diversity increases with arthropod abundance, which in turn tracks resource quantity (e.g., litter depth). We found little support for the hypothesis that tropical trees are templates for litter arthropod diversity. Ten tree species differed in litter depth, chemistry, and structural variability. However, the extent of specialization of invertebrates on particular tree taxa was low and the more heterogeneous litter between trees failed to support higher arthropod diversity. Furthermore, arthropod diversity did not track abundance or litter depth. The lack of association between tree species and litter arthropods suggests that factors other than tree species diversity may better explain the high arthropod diversity in tropical forests.

  8. Alpha, beta and gamma diversity differ in response to precipitation in the Inner Mongolia grassland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution pattern and maintenance mechanism of species diversity along environmental gradients is essential for developing biodiversity conservation strategies under environmental change. We have surveyed the species diversity at 192 vegetation sites across different steppe zones in Inner Mongolia, China. We analysed the total species diversitydiversity and its composition (α diversity and β diversity of different steppe types, and their changes along a precipitation gradient. Our results showed that (i β diversity contributed more than α diversity to the total (γ diversity in the Inner Mongolia grassland; the contribution of β diversity increased with precipitation, thus the species-rich (meadow steppe grassland had greater contribution of β diversity than species-poor (desert steppe grassland. (ii All α, β and γ species diversity increased significantly (P0.10. (iii The α diversity increased logarithmically, while β diversity increased exponentially, with γ diversity. Our results suggest that for local species diversity patterns, the site species pool is more important in lower precipitation areas, while local ecological processes are more important in high precipitation areas. In addition, for β diversity maintenance niche processes and diffusion processes are more important in low and high precipitation areas, respectively. Our results imply that a policy of "multiple small reserves" is better than one of a "single large reserve" for conserving species diversity of a steppe ecosystem, and indicate an urgent need to develop management strategies for climate-sensitive desert steppe ecosystem.

  9. Computational Biology Study of S100 Family with Suggestions for Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The S100 family is a class of calcium-regulated proteins with EF-hand. They are widely distributed and are implicated in diverse intracellular and extracellular physiological processes. A study of the S100 family using computational biology methods such as multiple sequence alignment, structural alignment and the construction of an evolutionary tree will promote understanding of S100 protein structures and their function, and could provide suggestions for crystallization.

  10. Pseudomonas genomes: diverse and adaptable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silby, Mark W; Winstanley, Craig; Godfrey, Scott A C; Levy, Stuart B; Jackson, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Members of the genus Pseudomonas inhabit a wide variety of environments, which is reflected in their versatile metabolic capacity and broad potential for adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Here, we examine and compare the genomes of a range of Pseudomonas spp. encompassing plant, insect and human pathogens, and environmental saprophytes. In addition to a large number of allelic differences of common genes that confer regulatory and metabolic flexibility, genome analysis suggests that many other factors contribute to the diversity and adaptability of Pseudomonas spp. Horizontal gene transfer has impacted the capability of pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. in terms of disease severity (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and specificity (Pseudomonas syringae). Genome rearrangements likely contribute to adaptation, and a considerable complement of unique genes undoubtedly contributes to strain- and species-specific activities by as yet unknown mechanisms. Because of the lack of conserved phenotypic differences, the classification of the genus has long been contentious. DNA hybridization and genome-based analyses show close relationships among members of P. aeruginosa, but that isolates within the Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae species are less closely related and may constitute different species. Collectively, genome sequences of Pseudomonas spp. have provided insights into pathogenesis and the genetic basis for diversity and adaptation.

  11. Democratic Theory and the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between democratic political theory and the reality of linguistic diversity in contemporary political communities. After suggesting a distinction between "liberal" and "participatory" democratic theories, and asserting that there have been fruitful explorations of linguistic diversity in…

  12. Diversity faultlines, shared objectives, and top management team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Knippenberg, D.; Dawson, J.F.; West, M.A.; Homan, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Faultline theory suggests that negative effects of team diversity are better understood by considering the influence of different dimensions of diversity in conjunction, rather than for each dimension separately. We develop and extend the social categorization analysis that lies at the heart of faul

  13. STARS Quarterly Review. Fall 2012: The Role of Institutional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The Fall 2012 SQR: "The Role of Institutional Diversity," explores how the diversity of STARS institutions has changed over time and how participation in STARS according to institution type compares to U.S. demographics. Findings in this review suggest that the institutional characteristics that make higher education institutions distinct also…

  14. Democratic Theory and the Challenge of Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the relationship between democratic political theory and the reality of linguistic diversity in contemporary political communities. After suggesting a distinction between "liberal" and "participatory" democratic theories, and asserting that there have been fruitful explorations of linguistic diversity in…

  15. Diversity in Theological Education [with CD-ROM]. ATS Folio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, Pittsburgh, PA.

    This folio is provided as a resource for addressing race and ethnicity in theological education. "Using the Folio" suggests ways in which the various contents of the folio might be used in a range of institutional settings. "Perspectives on Diversity" presents, in a newsletter format, several short essays on diversity in theological education.…

  16. Diversity and Intercultural Communication in Continuing Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegahn, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Responds to common myths about workplace diversity: (1) there is not much diversity in the workplace; (2) the way business is done is neutral; and (3) it is the responsibility of minority cultures to adapt to the dominant culture. Suggests responses for continuing professional educators. (JOW)

  17. Applying Diversity Management Concepts to Improve the Minority Educational Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntebi, Joy; Shcherbakova, Maria; Wooten, Lynn P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this conceptual article is to investigate existing diversity management paradigms and extend their implications toward the goal of increasing minority representation in management education. We suggest that the existing learning-and-effectiveness diversity management paradigm (Thomas & Ely, 1996, "Harvard Business…

  18. Pride, prejudice and performance: relations between diversity, HRM and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Y.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Today, managing diversity is considered one of the main challenges for HRM in modern organizations. In this article, a framework is developed to suggest that the design and implementation of HRM activities should be influenced by strategic choices on the management of diversity which are themselves

  19. Pride, prejudice and performance: relations between diversity, HRM and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Y.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Today, managing diversity is considered one of the main challenges for HRM in modern organizations. In this article, a framework is developed to suggest that the design and implementation of HRM activities should be influenced by strategic choices on the management of diversity which are themselves

  20. Diversity faultlines, shared objectives, and top management team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Knippenberg, D.; Dawson, J.F.; West, M.A.; Homan, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Faultline theory suggests that negative effects of team diversity are better understood by considering the influence of different dimensions of diversity in conjunction, rather than for each dimension separately. We develop and extend the social categorization analysis that lies at the heart of

  1. Applying Diversity Management Concepts to Improve the Minority Educational Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntebi, Joy; Shcherbakova, Maria; Wooten, Lynn P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this conceptual article is to investigate existing diversity management paradigms and extend their implications toward the goal of increasing minority representation in management education. We suggest that the existing learning-and-effectiveness diversity management paradigm (Thomas & Ely, 1996, "Harvard Business…

  2. Diversity And Sustainability Of Small – Scale Farming In Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity And Sustainability Of Small – Scale Farming In Cross River State: A Case Of Edim Otop Community – Calabar Urban. ... The analyses suggest that socio-cultural/economic considerations are critical in assessing the diversity of crops ...

  3. Historical legacies in world amphibian diversity revealed by the turnover and nestedness components of Beta diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Baselga

    Full Text Available Historic processes are expected to influence present diversity patterns in combination with contemporary environmental factors. We hypothesise that the joint use of beta diversity partitioning methods and a threshold-based approach may help reveal the effect of large-scale historic processes on present biodiversity. We partitioned intra-regional beta diversity into its turnover (differences in composition caused by species replacements and nestedness-resultant (differences in species composition caused by species losses components. We used piecewise regressions to show that, for amphibian beta diversity, two different world regions can be distinguished. Below parallel 37, beta diversity is dominated by turnover, while above parallel 37, beta diversity is dominated by nestedness. Notably, these regions are revealed when the piecewise regression method is applied to the relationship between latitude and the difference between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and the present temperature but not when present energy-water factors are analysed. When this threshold effect of historic climatic change is partialled out, current energy-water variables become more relevant to the nestedness-resultant dissimilarity patterns, while mountainous areas are associated with higher spatial turnover. This result suggests that nested patterns are caused by species losses that are determined by physiological constraints, whereas turnover is associated with speciation and/or Pleistocene refugia. Thus, the new threshold-based view may help reveal the role of historic factors in shaping present amphibian beta diversity patterns.

  4. Historical legacies in world amphibian diversity revealed by the turnover and nestedness components of Beta diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baselga, Andrés; Gómez-Rodríguez, Carola; Lobo, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    Historic processes are expected to influence present diversity patterns in combination with contemporary environmental factors. We hypothesise that the joint use of beta diversity partitioning methods and a threshold-based approach may help reveal the effect of large-scale historic processes on present biodiversity. We partitioned intra-regional beta diversity into its turnover (differences in composition caused by species replacements) and nestedness-resultant (differences in species composition caused by species losses) components. We used piecewise regressions to show that, for amphibian beta diversity, two different world regions can be distinguished. Below parallel 37, beta diversity is dominated by turnover, while above parallel 37, beta diversity is dominated by nestedness. Notably, these regions are revealed when the piecewise regression method is applied to the relationship between latitude and the difference between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the present temperature but not when present energy-water factors are analysed. When this threshold effect of historic climatic change is partialled out, current energy-water variables become more relevant to the nestedness-resultant dissimilarity patterns, while mountainous areas are associated with higher spatial turnover. This result suggests that nested patterns are caused by species losses that are determined by physiological constraints, whereas turnover is associated with speciation and/or Pleistocene refugia. Thus, the new threshold-based view may help reveal the role of historic factors in shaping present amphibian beta diversity patterns.

  5. Genetic Diversity Among Botulinum Neurotoxin Producing Clostridial Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K K; Smith, T J; Helma, C H; Ticknor, L O; Foley, B T; Svennson, R T; Brown, J L; Johnson, E A; Smith, L A; Okinaka, R T; Jackson, P J; Marks, J D

    2006-07-06

    Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for many diverse anaerobic spore forming rod-shaped bacteria which have the common property of producing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The BoNTs are exoneurotoxins that can cause severe paralysis and even death in humans and various other animal species. A collection of 174 C. botulinum strains were examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and BoNT genes to examine genetic diversity within this species. This collection contained representatives of each of the seven different serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT A-G). Analysis of the16S rRNA sequences confirmed earlier reports of at least four distinct genomic backgrounds (Groups I-IV) each of which has independently acquired one or more BoNT serotypes through horizontal gene transfer. AFLP analysis provided higher resolution, and can be used to further subdivide the four groups into sub-groups. Sequencing of the BoNT genes from serotypes A, B and E in multiple strains confirmed significant sequence variation within each serotype. Four distinct lineages within each of the BoNT A and B serotypes, and five distinct lineages of serotype E strains were identified. The nucleotide sequences of the seven serotypes of BoNT were compared and show varying degrees of interrelatedness and recombination as has been previously noted for the NTNH gene which is linked to BoNT. These analyses contribute to the understanding of the evolution and phylogeny within this species and assist in the development of improved diagnostics and therapeutics for treatment of botulism.

  6. Opposing Responses of Bird Functional Diversity to Vegetation Structural Diversity in Wet and Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitters, Holly; York, Alan; Swan, Matthew; Christie, Fiona; Di Stefano, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance regimes are changing worldwide, and the consequences for ecosystem function and resilience are largely unknown. Functional diversity (FD) provides a surrogate measure of ecosystem function by capturing the range, abundance and distribution of trait values in a community. Enhanced understanding of the responses of FD to measures of vegetation structure at landscape scales is needed to guide conservation management. To address this knowledge gap, we used a whole-of-landscape sampling approach to examine relationships between bird FD, vegetation diversity and time since fire. We surveyed birds and measured vegetation at 36 landscape sampling units in dry and wet forest in southeast Australia during 2010 and 2011. Four uncorrelated indices of bird FD (richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) were derived from six bird traits, and we investigated responses of these indices and species richness to both vertical and horizontal vegetation diversity using linear mixed models. We also considered the extent to which the mean and diversity of time since fire were related to vegetation diversity. Results showed opposing responses of FD to vegetation diversity in dry and wet forest. In dry forest, where fire is frequent, species richness and two FD indices (richness and dispersion) were positively related to vertical vegetation diversity, consistent with theory relating to environmental variation and coexistence. However, in wet forest subject to infrequent fire, the same three response variables were negatively associated with vertical diversity. We suggest that competitive dominance by species results in lower FD as vegetation diversity increases in wet forest. The responses of functional evenness were opposite to those of species richness, functional richness and dispersion in both forest types, highlighting the value of examining multiple FD metrics at management-relevant scales. The mean and diversity of time since fire were uncorrelated with vegetation

  7. Media Pluralism and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    challenges for media pluralism policies in the light of a fast changing media environment. The book is unique in that it confronts insights from all parts of the world and from a broad range of disciplines including law, economics, media studies, and sociology.......In the western world, a diverse and pluralistic media landscape is deemed essential for democracy. But how universal is media pluralism as a concept underpinning media policies? To what extent do normative approaches, regulatory dimensions and monitoring systems differ throughout the world......? Adopting a truly global, theoretical and multidisciplinary perspective, Media Pluralism and Diversity advances our understanding of media pluralism across the globe. It compares metrics developed in different parts of the world to assess levels of, or threats to, media pluralism. It identifies common...

  8. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  9. Genetic diversity in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, John C; Carlton, Jane M

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in genetic characterisation of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates show that the extensive clinical variability in trichomoniasis and its disease sequelae are matched by significant genetic diversity in the organism itself, suggesting a connection between the genetic identity of isolates and their clinical manifestations. Indeed, a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in T vaginalis isolates has been observed using multiple genotyping techniques. A unique two-type population structure that is both local and global in distribution has been identified, and there is evidence of recombination within each group, although sexual recombination between the groups appears to be constrained. There is conflicting evidence in these studies for correlations between T vaginalis genetic identity and clinical presentation, metronidazole susceptibility, and the presence of T vaginalis virus, underscoring the need for adoption of a common standard for genotyping the parasite. Moving forward, microsatellite genotyping and multilocus sequence typing are the most robust techniques for future investigations of T vaginalis genotype-phenotype associations.

  10. NSF announces diversity programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  11. Bridging faultlines by valuing diversity: diversity beliefs, information elaboration, and performance in diverse work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Astrid C; van Knippenberg, Daan; Van Kleef, Gerben A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2007-09-01

    Although there are numerous potential benefits to diversity in work groups, converging dimensions of diversity often prevent groups from exploiting this potential. In a study of heterogeneous decision-making groups, the authors examined whether the disruptive effects of diversity faultlines can be overcome by convincing groups of the value of diversity. Groups were persuaded either of the value of diversity or the value of similarity for group performance, and they were provided with either homogeneous or heterogeneous information. As expected, informationally diverse groups performed better when they held pro-diversity rather than pro-similarity beliefs, whereas the performance of informationally homogeneous groups was unaffected by diversity beliefs. This effect was mediated by group-level information elaboration. Implications for diversity management in organizations are discussed. (c) 2007 APA.

  12. Celebrating diversity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    With international women’s day coming up on 8 March, along with the recent appointment of a new Diversity Programme Leader, it seems timely to take a look at how far we’ve come over recent years in promoting gender equality at CERN. In short, the news is good, but we still have some way to travel.   CERN does not have a policy of positive discrimination, but rather one of presenting a level playing field. We work to ensure, for example, that the diversity of candidates presented for interview reflects the diversity of applicants. It’s an approach that is having the desired effect. Overall, the percentage of female staff members has risen from 17% to 20% over the last decade, with parity being achieved among professional administrators and significant advances being made among research and applied physicists, engineers and technicians. At recruitment, our approach is working: we’re managing to attract growing numbers of women. This brings us to the phen...

  13. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these perspec

  14. Diversity mindsets and the performance of diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Knippenberg; W.P. van Ginkel; A.C. Homan

    2013-01-01

    Diversity can enhance as well as disrupt team performance. Diversity beliefs and climates may play an important moderating role in these effects, but it is unclear what form these should take to promote the positive effects of diversity. Addressing this question in an integration of research in team

  15. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these perspec

  16. Managing a culturally diverse workforce : Diversity perspectives in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podsiadlowski, Astrid; Groeschke, Daniela; Kogler, Marina; Springer, Cornelia; van der Zee, Karen

    The authors conducted two studies to analyze why and how organizations approach and manage cultural diversity in the Austrian workplace and to identify organizations' diversity perspectives. In Study 1, 29 interviews revealed insights into organizational approaches to diversity and how these

  17. Diversity in Elementary Schools in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Szécsi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on views among Hungarian administrators, teacher educators, mentor teachers and teacher candidates concerning diversity, and explores their related life experiences. The views of 28 participants were examined with Q methodology and follow-up interviews. Results of the Q methodology suggest there were three distinguishing viewpoints. Viewpoint 1 tended to be supportive of diversity issues, Viewpoint 2 appeared to have ethnocentric attitudes, and Viewpoint 3 tended to be culturally sensitive, yet, focused on family responsibilities. Follow-up interviews indicated that the life-experiences of participants associated with the three viewpoints were significantly dissimilar. This investigation provides directions in developing more effective teacher preparation to better address the challenges of increasingly diverse students in Hungary.

  18. Suggestions for a Web based universal exchange and inference language for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry; Caruso, Thomas P; Balis, Ulysses G J

    2013-12-01

    Mining biomedical and pharmaceutical data generates huge numbers of interacting probabilistic statements for inference, which can be supported by mining Web text sources. This latter can also be probabilistic, in a sense described in this report. However, the diversity of tools for probabilistic inference is troublesome, suggesting a need for a unifying best practice. Physicists often claim that quantum mechanics is the universal best practice for probabilistic reasoning. We discuss how the Dirac notation and algebra suggest the form and algebraic and semantic meaning of XML-like Web tags for a clinical and biomedical universal exchange language formulated to make sense directly to the eye of the physician and biomedical researcher.

  19. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR FOOD DIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Mark G. Brown

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, consumer demand for food diversity is measured by the entropy and Simpson indices for budget shares. Results show that consumer demand for food diversity is related to total food expenditures and household size and composition.

  20. Cultural diversity and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    effects of cultural diversity. Our main finding is that increases in cultural fractionalization significantly increased output, while increases in cultural polarization significantly decreased output. We address the issue of identifying the causal effects of cultural diversity by using the supply...

  1. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each...... individual’s residential surroundings. We focus on contextual diversity within a radius of 80 meters of a given individual, but compare the effect in the micro-context to the impact of diversity in more aggregate contexts. The results show that ethnic diversity in the micro-context affects trust negatively...

  2. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  3. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, tree diversity and root nutrient relations in a mixed Central European forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christa; Polle, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge is limited about whether root nutrient concentrations are affected by mixtures of tree species and interspecific root competition. The goal of this field study was to investigate root nutrient element concentrations in relation to root and ectomycorrhizal (EM) diversity in six different mixtures of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and lime (Tilia sp.) in an old-growth, undisturbed forest ecosystem. Root biomass and nutrient concentrations per tree taxon as well as the abundance and identity of all EM fungi were determined in soil cores of a volume of 1 L (r=40 mm, depth=200 mm). Stand-level nutrient concentrations in overall root biomass and H' (Shannon-Wiener diversity) were obtained by pooling the data per stand. At stand level, Shannon H' for roots and aboveground tree species abundance were correlated. H' for roots and EM fungi were not correlated because of the contribution of ash roots that form only arbuscular mycorrhizal but no EM associations. Nutrient element concentrations in roots showed taxon-related differences and increased in the following order: beech ≤ lime tree diversity because of two effects: increasing contribution of ash roots to the mixture and increasing Ca accumulation in beech roots with increasing root diversity. On a small scale, increasing root diversity, but not EM diversity, was correlated with decreasing P concentrations in beech roots pointing to interspecific tree competition. Nitrogen (N) concentrations of beech roots were unaltered in relation to root and EM diversity. Opposing behavior was observed for lime and ash: the N concentrations in lime roots increased, whereas those in ash roots decreased with increasing EM diversity in a given soil volume. This suggests that EM diversity facilitates N acquisition of lime roots at the expense of non-EM ash.

  4. Demographic diversity, value congruence, and workplace outcomes in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michael G; Mark, Barbara A

    2012-06-01

    Nursing scholars and healthcare administrators often assume that a more diverse nursing workforce will lead to better patient and nurse outcomes, but this assumption has not been subject to rigorous empirical testing. In a study of nursing units in acute care hospitals, the influence of age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, and perceived value diversity on nurse job satisfaction, nurse intent to stay, and patient satisfaction were examined. Support was found for a negative relationship between perceived value diversity and all outcomes and for a negative relationship between education diversity and intent to stay. Additionally, positive relationships were found between race/ethnicity diversity and nurse job satisfaction as well as between age diversity and intent to stay. From a practice perspective, the findings suggest that implementing retention, recruitment, and management practices that foster a strong shared value system among nurses may lead to better workplace outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The genetic diversity and structure of 18 sheep breeds exposed to isolation and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurković, M; Ramljak, J; Ivanković, S; Mioč, B; Ivanković, A; Pavić, V; Brka, M; Veit-Kensch, C; Medugorac, I

    2016-02-01

    The phylogenetic layout of the genotyped (30 microsatellite) 18 sheep breeds in this study demands and provides the opportunity to evaluate both neutral and adaptive components of genetic diversity in a naturally and artificially selected and subdivided sheep population. Seven Pramenka strains from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia characterized by a very low intensity of artificial selection, preserved the highest neutral genetic variability. Eight central and north-western European breeds under considerable artificial isolation and selection preserved the lowest genetic variability. Only combinations of various phylogenetic parameters offer a reasonable explanation for underlying evolutionary forces working in the investigated island and mainland sheep breeds under variable natural and artificial selection. More than 60% of total genetic, diversity was allocated to virtually unselected Pramenka strains, and an additional 25% to native moderately selected Graue Gehoernte Heidschnucke and intensively selected Ostfriesische Milchschafe. Some economically very important breeds and strains did not contribute to a pool with maximal genetic diversity, while they play an important role in the cultural heritage of respective countries.

  6. Factors Influencing Arthropod Diversity on Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Y. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs have potential for providing substantial habitat to plants, birds, and arthropod species that are not well supported by other urban habitats. Whereas the plants on a typical green roof are chosen and planted by people, the arthropods that colonize it can serve as an indicator of the ability of this novel habitat to support a diverse community of organisms. The goal of this observational study was to determine which physical characteristics of a roof or characteristics of its vegetation correlate with arthropod diversity on the roof. We intensively sampled the number of insect families on one roof with pitfall traps and also measured the soil arthropod species richness on six green roofs in the Boston, MA area. We found that the number of arthropod species in soil, and arthropod families in pitfall traps, was positively correlated with living vegetation cover. The number of arthropod species was not significantly correlated with plant diversity, green roof size, distance from the ground, or distance to the nearest vegetated habitat from the roof. Our results suggest that vegetation cover may be more important than vegetation diversity for roof arthropod diversity, at least for the first few years after establishment. Additionally, we found that even green roofs that are small and isolated can support a community of arthropods that include important functional groups of the soil food web.

  7. Does genetic diversity predict health in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C Lie

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, especially at genes important for immune functioning within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, has been associated with fitness-related traits, including disease resistance, in many species. Recently, genetic diversity has been associated with mate preferences in humans. Here we asked whether these preferences are adaptive in terms of obtaining healthier mates. We investigated whether genetic diversity (heterozygosity and standardized mean d(2 at MHC and nonMHC microsatellite loci, predicted health in 153 individuals. Individuals with greater allelic diversity (d(2 at nonMHC loci and at one MHC locus, linked to HLA-DRB1, reported fewer symptoms over a four-month period than individuals with lower d(2. In contrast, there were no associations between MHC or nonMHC heterozygosity and health. NonMHC-d(2 has previously been found to predict male preferences for female faces. Thus, the current findings suggest that nonMHC diversity may play a role in both natural and sexual selection acting on human populations.

  8. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND STABILITY OF BIRD COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When comparing the suggested stability indicators, we obtained statistically significant correlations for indicators of annual stability of species and total number and standard deviation of the logarithm of the number. Annual Stability Index can be applied with a high degree of reliability as a characteristic of the averaged structure of the community and its pyramid of abundances. The results of correlation analysis confirm our assumptions about the correlation between stability over the years and indices of species diversity and relative uniformity.The final task of the study was to create a mathematical model of stability, where the independent variables are the indices of species diversity. The calculation of these indices allows forecasting birds’ community stability. According to the result of multiple regression for the indicators of diversity and stability of the breeding birds’ community highest correlation coefficients were obtained fro Shannon index and Simpson's dominance Index.Community stability could be determined by its overall species diversity. When considering the stability of community its diversity should be considered as a combination of uniformity of their total number and number of species. The most suitable predictors for the community stability were the nonparametric index of dominance and information-statistical indices, since they considered simultaneously evenness and richness. The community stability is subject of the complexity of its internal communications pattern.

  9. A latitudinal phylogeographic diversity gradient in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian Tilston; Seeholzer, Glenn F; Harvey, Michael G; Cuervo, Andrés M; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-04-01

    High tropical species diversity is often attributed to evolutionary dynamics over long timescales. It is possible, however, that latitudinal variation in diversification begins when divergence occurs within species. Phylogeographic data capture this initial stage of diversification in which populations become geographically isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. There is limited understanding of the broader implications of intraspecific diversification because comparative analyses have focused on species inhabiting and evolving in restricted regions and environments. Here, we scale comparative phylogeography up to the hemisphere level and examine whether the processes driving latitudinal differences in species diversity are also evident within species. We collected genetic data for 210 New World bird species distributed across a broad latitudinal gradient and estimated a suite of metrics characterizing phylogeographic history. We found that lower latitude species had, on average, greater phylogeographic diversity than higher latitude species and that intraspecific diversity showed evidence of greater persistence in the tropics. Factors associated with species ecologies, life histories, and habitats explained little of the variation in phylogeographic structure across the latitudinal gradient. Our results suggest that the latitudinal gradient in species richness originates, at least partly, from population-level processes within species and are consistent with hypotheses implicating age and environmental stability in the formation of diversity gradients. Comparative phylogeographic analyses scaled up to large geographic regions and hundreds of species can show connections between population-level processes and broad-scale species-richness patterns.

  10. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined.

  11. 2008-09 Diversity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to Board of Regents' policy, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) prepares a diversity report intended to provide an overview of the current status of enrollment and employment of members of diverse groups across the System. The information presented in this report follows the NSHE "2007-08 Diversity Report" that was…

  12. Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

  13. An engineer's perspective on diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Andre H.

    2003-10-01

    Organizational diversity has arrived at an important crossroads in our history. Over the past year, a somewhat novel approach to diversity based on organizational effectiveness has enabled many people from various backgrounds and levels of experience to better understand how diversity works and be able to assess both collective and individual progress.

  14. The Western Tradition of Suggestion and Lozanov's Suggestology/Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    It is argued that while Georgi Lozanov's suggestology and suggestopedic methods are informed by work in the field of suggestion in the former Soviet bloc, his work has also been influenced by work on suggestion in the west, particularly in France, where suggestion is a more controversial technique. For Lozanov, suggestion is a normal phenomenon…

  15. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may ei

  16. A Comparison of Authoritarian and Permissive Wording of Hypnotic Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Robert B.; Church, Jay K.

    The authoritarian/permissive dimension of hypnosis refers to the manner in which hypnotic suggestions are phrased. In the authoritarian mode suggestions imply the subject is under control of the hypnotist; permissive suggestions are phrased to emphasize the subject's own thinking. To compare the permissive suggestions of the Creative Imagination…

  17. Honey bee foraging ecology: Season but not landscape diversity shapes the amount and diversity of collected pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Nadja; Keller, Alexander; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2017-01-01

    The availability of pollen in agricultural landscapes is essential for the successful growth and reproduction of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.). The quantity and diversity of collected pollen can influence the growth and health of honey bee colonies, but little is known about the influence of landscape structure on pollen diet. In a field experiment, we rotated 16 honey bee colonies across 16 agricultural landscapes, used traps to collect samples of collected pollen and observed intra-colonial dance communication to gain information about foraging distances. DNA metabarcoding was applied to analyze mixed pollen samples. Neither the amount of collected pollen nor pollen diversity was related to landscape diversity. However, we found a strong seasonal variation in the amount and diversity of collected pollen in all sites independent of landscape diversity. The observed increase in foraging distances with decreasing landscape diversity suggests that honey bees compensated for lower landscape diversity by increasing their pollen foraging range in order to maintain pollen amount and diversity. Our results underscore the importance of a diverse pollen diet for honey bee colonies. Agri-environmental schemes aiming to support pollinators should focus on possible spatial and temporal gaps in pollen availability and diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  18. Cycles in fossil diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  19. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eSemrau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially-mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30 years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past five years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

  20. Bridging Faultlines by Valuing Diversity: Diversity Beliefs, Information Elaboration, and Performance in Diverse Work Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan (Astrid); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough there are numerous potential benefits to diversity in work groups, converging dimensions of diversity often prevent groups from exploiting this potential. In a study of heterogeneous decision-making groups, we examined whether the disruptive effects of diversity faultlines can b

  1. A novel diversion protocol dramatically reduces diversion hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah, Osei Kwame; Weiss, Steven J; Ernst, Amy A; Richards, Michael; Sklar, David P

    2008-07-01

    Ambulance diversion is a problem in many communities. When patients are diverted prompt and appropriate medical care may be delayed. Compare diversion hours and drop-off times before and after a dramatic change in diversion policy restricting each hospital to 1 hour out of every 8. This study was a retrospective study in a county of 600,000 people and 10 hospitals from September 2004 to February 2006. A countywide diversion protocol was implemented in March 2005 that limited diversion hours to 1 hour out of every 8 (maximum of 90 h/mo). No other changes were implemented during the study period. Pretrial (9/04-2/05), interim (3/05-8/05), and posttrial (9/05-2/06) periods were compared. The main outcome measures were ambulance diversion hours and emergency medical service (EMS) drop-off times. Results were compared using analysis of variance and a Tukey post hoc analysis. P ambulance diversion hours (difference, 251 hours; 95% CI, 136-368) and significant increase in additional time that EMS crews required to transport patients (drop-off times) (difference, 178 hours; 95% CI, 74-283) were observed. Posttrial diversion hours decreased to 18% of the pretrial values (from 305 to 54). This novel ambulance diversion protocol dramatically reduced diversion hours at the cost of increasing EMS drop-off times in a large community.

  2. The impact of cultural diversity forum on students' openness to diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Susan; Baldwin, Dee; Cannella, Kathleen A S; Charles, Jennell; Parker, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    As the population demographics for the United States (U.S.) shift towards increasing diversity, it is essential that nurses provide culturally competent care. Cultural sensitivity has been identified as a major curricular element in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's (AACN) The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. Thus it is imperative that nursing faculty use effective strategies to help nursing students develop cultural sensitivity and competence. Educational workshops focusing on cultural diversity are usually designed to increase people's cultural sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cultural diversity forum on nursing students' cultural sensitivity as measured by their openness to diversity. A convenience sample of students was recruited from a public university in the southeastern United States. The workshop was designed as a forum that combined a keynote presentation, shared meal, and a small group interactional activity. Cultural sensitivity was measured using the Openness to Diversity/Challenge Scale (ODCS), and was administered to students before and after the forum. A convenience sample of 47 students agreed to participate and completed both the pretest and posttest. Following the workshop, the students had more cultural sensitivity as measured by their scores on the ODCS (Wilcoxin Signed-Rank test z= -3.286, p = 0.001). The findings suggested that an educational format like the cultural diversity forum can promote students' cultural sensitivity. Further research needs to continue to focus on the effectiveness of strategies to increase the cultural sensitivity of baccalaureate nursing students.

  3. Practical exercises in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 4 July, the Bulletin took part in an interactive workshop in the framework of the CERN Diversity programme. And it was time very well spent. Read on…   Discussion on the theme "unconscious bias". The participants begin to gather in the Pump Room (Building 2016) around 1.30 p.m. With name-tags stuck to our chests, we take our places at Table 7, which we now realise we selected for ourselves at random. Some people have already arrived, and after some tentative, courteous introductions, the atmosphere at the “sevens table” begins to warm up. A few minutes later, the workshop begins. Alan Richter, CEO of HR consultancy firm QED Consulting is the Master of Ceremonies. First exercise, “the circle”, or how to prove that diversity starts right under your nose. Skiers to the left, non-skiers to the right. The overwhelming majority are skiers. How do the non-skiers feel about finding themselves in the minority? Uncomfortable? Exc...

  4. Tobacco Diversity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco variants in Indonesia are very diverse which can be identified from their morphology or their characteristics. This is related to tobacco long adaptation in different agro ecology of plantation areas which spread out at 15 provinces, from dry to irrigated land and from low land to high land areas. Tobacco has been introduced in Indonesia for more than four centuries and mostly used as cigarette. This commodity and its products are still economically important for government and farmer income. It contributes in government income which reached up to 114 trillion rupiahs and farmer income up to 70% in 2014. Tobacco diversity in Indonesia can be grouped according to their growing season and their usage in cigarette blending. Tobaccos which grown at the end of wet season and harvested in dry season are called Voor Oogst tobaccos, otherwise tobaccos which grown at dry season and harvested in wet season are called Na Oogst tobaccos. Based on their usage, tobaccos are categorized as main ingredients for kretek cigarette, Rolled Your Own (RYO cigarette, and cigar industries.

  5. Healthcare leadership's diversity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Reginald

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this research study was to obtain healthcare executives' perspectives on diversity in executive healthcare leadership. The study focused on identifying perspectives about diversity and its potential impact on the access of healthcare services by people of color. The study also identified perspectives about factors that influence the attainment of executive healthcare roles by people of color. Design/methodology/approach A convenience sample of healthcare executives was obtained. The executives identified themselves as belonging to one of two subgroups, White healthcare executives or executives of color. Participants were interviewed telephonically in a semi-structured format. The interviews were transcribed and entered into a qualitative software application. The data were codified and important themes were identified. Findings The majority of the study participants perceive that diversity of the executive healthcare leadership team is important. There were differences in perspective among the subgroups as it relates to solutions to improve access to healthcare by people of color. There were also differences in perspective among the subgroups, as it relates to explaining the underrepresentation of people of color in executive healthcare leadership roles. Research limitations/implications This research effort benefited from the subject matter expertise of 24 healthcare executives from two states. Expansion of the number of survey participants and broadening the geographical spread of where participants were located may have yielded more convergence and/or more divergence in perspectives about key topics. Practical implications The findings from this research study serve to add to the existing body of literature on diversity in executive healthcare leadership. The findings expand on the importance of key elements in contemporary literature such as diversity, cultural competency and perspectives about the need for representation of people of

  6. Statistical model semiquantitatively approximates arabinoxylooligosaccharides' structural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Nielsen, Michael Krogsgaard; Lange, Lene

    2016-01-01

    A statistical model describing the random distribution of substituted xylopyranosyl residues in arabinoxylooligosaccharides is suggested and compared with existing experimental data. Structural diversity of arabinoxylooligosaccharides of various length, originating from different arabinoxylans...... (wheat flour arabinoxylan (arabinose/xylose, A/X = 0.47); grass arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.24); wheat straw arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.15); and hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw arabinoxylan (A/X = 0.05)), is semiquantitatively approximated using the proposed model. The suggested approach can be applied...... not only for prediction and quantification of arabinoxylooligosaccharides' structural diversity, but also for estimate of yield and selection of the optimal source of arabinoxylan for production of arabinoxylooligosaccharides with desired structural features....

  7. Diversity begets diversity: host expansions and the diversification of plant-feeding insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylin Sören

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant-feeding insects make up a large part of earth's total biodiversity. While it has been shown that herbivory has repeatedly led to increased diversification rates in insects, there has been no compelling explanation for how plant-feeding has promoted speciation rates. There is a growing awareness that ecological factors can lead to rapid diversification and, as one of the most prominent features of most insect-plant interactions, specialization onto a diverse resource has often been assumed to be the main process behind this diversification. However, specialization is mainly a pruning process, and is not able to actually generate diversity by itself. Here we investigate the role of host colonizations in generating insect diversity, by testing if insect speciation rate is correlated with resource diversity. Results By applying a variant of independent contrast analysis, specially tailored for use on questions of species richness (MacroCAIC, we show that species richness is strongly correlated with diversity of host use in the butterfly family Nymphalidae. Furthermore, by comparing the results from reciprocal sister group selection, where sister groups were selected either on the basis of diversity of host use or species richness, we find that it is likely that diversity of host use is driving species richness, rather than vice versa. Conclusion We conclude that resource diversity is correlated with species richness in the Nymphalidae and suggest a scenario based on recurring oscillations between host expansions – the incorporation of new plants into the repertoire – and specialization, as an important driving force behind the diversification of plant-feeding insects.

  8. Global taxonomic diversity of living reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincheira-Donoso, Daniel; Bauer, Aaron M; Meiri, Shai; Uetz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Reptiles are one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily remarkable groups of living organisms, having successfully colonized most of the planet, including the oceans and some of the harshest and more environmentally unstable ecosystems on earth. Here, based on a complete dataset of all the world's diversity of living reptiles, we analyse lineage taxonomic richness both within and among clades, at different levels of the phylogenetic hierarchy. We also analyse the historical tendencies in the descriptions of new reptile species from Linnaeus to March 2012. Although (non-avian) reptiles are the second most species-rich group of amniotes after birds, most of their diversity (96.3%) is concentrated in squamates (59% lizards, 35% snakes, and 2% amphisbaenians). In strong contrast, turtles (3.4%), crocodilians (0.3%), and tuataras (0.01%) are far less diverse. In terms of species discoveries, most turtles and crocodilians were described early, while descriptions of lizards, snakes and amphisbaenians are multimodal with respect to time. Lizard descriptions, in particular, have reached unprecedented levels during the last decade. Finally, despite such remarkably asymmetric distributions of reptile taxonomic diversity among groups, we found that the distributions of lineage richness are consistently right-skewed, with most clades (monophyletic families and genera) containing few lineages (monophyletic genera and species, respectively), while only a few have radiated greatly (notably the families Colubridae and Scincidae, and the lizard genera Anolis and Liolaemus). Therefore, such consistency in the frequency distribution of richness among clades and among phylogenetic levels suggests that the nature of reptile biodiversity is fundamentally fractal (i.e., it is scale invariant). We then compared current reptile diversity with the global reptile diversity and taxonomy known in 1980. Despite substantial differences in the taxonomies (relative to 2012), the patterns of

  9. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  10. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160159.html Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests Gender-related differences seem to start ... are more likely when women are carrying baby boys, new research suggests. After analyzing more than half ...

  11. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pre-paid, customer satisfaction survey cards. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901... RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  12. Diversity in action: Interpersonal networks and the distribution of advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Nicholas; Schafer, Markus H

    2013-01-01

    Does diversity beget the active dissemination of social support in the form of advice to others? Previous research by Robert Putnam suggests that individuals in compositionally diverse geographical areas become closed off from their social ties and less trusting of others, which are both antithetical to social support exchange. We argue, however, that studies of compositional diversity are ill-suited to reflect diversity as it is actually lived and experienced in social life. Drawing from the first nationally representative study with comprehensive indicators of interactional diversity in social life, we analyze self-reports of advice-giving across a variety of social roles. Results of regression analysis are consistent: greater interactional diversity is positively associated with advice-giving, whether the target is stranger, neighbor, close friend, or family member. These findings hold independent of important covariates such as reciprocity, sociability, and homophily. This research contributes to a growing literature set on identifying the unanticipated benefits of diversity in modern society. In sum, we call future research to consider not only diversity in structure, but also diversity in action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction of transcript diversity from scientific literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parantu K Shah

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcript diversity generated by alternative splicing and associated mechanisms contributes heavily to the functional complexity of biological systems. The numerous examples of the mechanisms and functional implications of these events are scattered throughout the scientific literature. Thus, it is crucial to have a tool that can automatically extract the relevant facts and collect them in a knowledge base that can aid the interpretation of data from high-throughput methods. We have developed and applied a composite text-mining method for extracting information on transcript diversity from the entire MEDLINE database in order to create a database of genes with alternative transcripts. It contains information on tissue specificity, number of isoforms, causative mechanisms, functional implications, and experimental methods used for detection. We have mined this resource to identify 959 instances of tissue-specific splicing. Our results in combination with those from EST-based methods suggest that alternative splicing is the preferred mechanism for generating transcript diversity in the nervous system. We provide new annotations for 1,860 genes with the potential for generating transcript diversity. We assign the MeSH term "alternative splicing" to 1,536 additional abstracts in the MEDLINE database and suggest new MeSH terms for other events. We have successfully extracted information about transcript diversity and semiautomatically generated a database, LSAT, that can provide a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms behind tissue-specific gene expression. LSAT (Literature Support for Alternative Transcripts is publicly available at http://www.bork.embl.de/LSAT/.

  14. Life history diversity in Klamath River steelhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Brian W.; Wilzbach, Peggy; Duffy, Walter G. G.; Quinones, Rebecca M.; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Oncorhynchus mykiss exhibits a vast array of life histories, which increases its likelihood of persistence by spreading risk of extirpation among different pathways. The Klamath River basin (California–Oregon) provides a particularly interesting backdrop for the study of life history diversity in O. mykiss, in part because the river is slated for a historic and potentially influential dam removal and habitat recolonization project. We used scale and otolith strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses to characterize life history diversity in wildO. mykiss from the lower Klamath River basin. We also determined maternal origin (anadromous or nonanadromous) and migratory history (anadromous or nonanadromous) of O. mykiss and compared length and fecundity at age between anadromous (steelhead) and nonanadromous (Rainbow Trout) phenotypes of O. mykiss. We identified a total of 38 life history categories at maturity, which differed in duration of freshwater and ocean rearing, age at maturation, and incidence of repeat spawning. Approximately 10% of adult fish sampled were nonanadromous. Rainbow Trout generally grew faster in freshwater than juvenile steelhead; however, ocean growth afforded adult steelhead greater length and fecundity than adult Rainbow Trout. Although 75% of individuals followed the migratory path of their mother, steelhead produced nonanadromous progeny and Rainbow Trout produced anadromous progeny. Overall, we observed a highly diverse array of life histories among Klamath River O. mykiss. While this diversity should increase population resilience, recent declines in the abundance of Klamath River steelhead suggest that life history diversity alone is not sufficient to stabilize a population. Our finding that steelhead and Rainbow Trout give rise to progeny of the alternate form (1) suggests that dam removal might lead to a facultatively anadromous O. mykiss population in the upper basin and (2) raises the question of whether both forms of

  15. Celebrating Racial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Kathleen

    This book is a teacher's guide to lessons on racism and multicultural education for students in preschool through grade 12. The emphasis is on the Catholic tradition, and suggestions are given for using the manual to support a religious education program. Suggestions are also provided for using the manual in social studies and language arts…

  16. Contrasting effects of diversity on the temporal stability of plant populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2007-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that diversity enhances the temporal stability of a community. However, the effect of diversity on the stability of the individual populations within the community remains unclear. Some models predict a decrease of population stability with diversity, w

  17. Believing shapes seeing: The impact of diversity beliefs on the construal of group composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan; L.L. Greer; K.A. Jehn; L. Koning

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that diversity effects depend on how group members perceive their group’s composition. However, what determines how diversity is perceived is unclear. We argue that the way in which group members construe their group’s diversity is shaped by group members’ beliefs abo

  18. How reliably can we infer diversity-dependent diversification from phylogenies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, Rampal S.; Pigot, Alex L.; Phillimore, Albert B.

    2016-01-01

    Slowdowns in lineage accumulation in phylogenies suggest that speciation rates decline as diversity increases. Likelihood methods have been developed to detect such diversity dependence. However, a thorough test of whether such approaches correctly infer diversity dependence is lacking. Here, we sim

  19. Making Sense of Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    they categorize differences and perhaps produce or reproduce inequalities of various kinds is becoming equally important. References Bourdieu, Pierre. 1979. Distinction, Critique sociale du jugement. Editions de Minuit, Paris [1984 Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Harvard University Press...... or less desirable. The paper initially approaches the question of diversity from a sociological perspective. With reference to a comprehensive survey of the students who attend international study programs at Denmark’s second largest university (Aarhus University) in terms of nationality, age, gender....... It also allows for an understanding of where students “are coming from” when they talk about others. As pointed out by Pierre Bourdieu (1989: 17) visions of division are created from specific points in social space which makes it important to get a basic understanding of positions when interpreting...

  20. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise...... overlooked area of research. Although research based on Cohen and Levinthal‘s work has made considerable impact, there is scarcity of research on certain fundamental points argued by Cohen and Levinthal. Among these is the importance of employee diversity as well as the type and nature of interaction between...... different knowledge bases. As has been pointed out in academic reviews of the literature, the stream of research following in Cohen and Levinthal‘s footsteps has almost completely ignored these arguments. In this dissertation we develop these neglected arguments further and examine them empirically...

  1. Genetic and Metabolite Diversity of Sardinian Populations of Helichrysum italicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melito, Sara; Sias, Angela; Petretto, Giacomo L.; Chessa, Mario; Pintore, Giorgio; Porceddu, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae) is a small shrub endemic to the Mediterranean Basin, growing in fragmented and diverse habitats. The species has attracted attention due to its secondary metabolite content, but little effort has as yet been dedicated to assessing the genetic and metabolite diversity present in these populations. Here, we describe the diversity of 50 H. italicum populations collected from a range of habitats in Sardinia. Methods H. italicum plants were AFLP fingerprinted and the composition of their leaf essential oil characterized by GC-MS. The relationships between the genetic structure of the populations, soil, habitat and climatic variables and the essential oil chemotypes present were evaluated using Bayesian clustering, contingency analyses and AMOVA. Key results The Sardinian germplasm could be partitioned into two AFLP-based clades. Populations collected from the southwestern region constituted a homogeneous group which remained virtually intact even at high levels of K. The second, much larger clade was more diverse. A positive correlation between genetic diversity and elevation suggested the action of natural purifying selection. Four main classes of compounds were identified among the essential oils, namely monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Oxygenated monoterpene levels were significantly correlated with the AFLP-based clade structure, suggesting a correspondence between gene pool and chemical diversity. Conclusions The results suggest an association between chemotype, genetic diversity and collection location which is relevant for the planning of future collections aimed at identifying valuable sources of essential oil. PMID:24260149

  2. Genetic and metabolite diversity of Sardinian populations of Helichrysum italicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Melito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae is a small shrub endemic to the Mediterranean Basin, growing in fragmented and diverse habitats. The species has attracted attention due to its secondary metabolite content, but little effort has as yet been dedicated to assessing the genetic and metabolite diversity present in these populations. Here, we describe the diversity of 50 H. italicum populations collected from a range of habitats in Sardinia. METHODS: H. italicum plants were AFLP fingerprinted and the composition of their leaf essential oil characterized by GC-MS. The relationships between the genetic structure of the populations, soil, habitat and climatic variables and the essential oil chemotypes present were evaluated using Bayesian clustering, contingency analyses and AMOVA. KEY RESULTS: The Sardinian germplasm could be partitioned into two AFLP-based clades. Populations collected from the southwestern region constituted a homogeneous group which remained virtually intact even at high levels of K. The second, much larger clade was more diverse. A positive correlation between genetic diversity and elevation suggested the action of natural purifying selection. Four main classes of compounds were identified among the essential oils, namely monoterpenes, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Oxygenated monoterpene levels were significantly correlated with the AFLP-based clade structure, suggesting a correspondence between gene pool and chemical diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest an association between chemotype, genetic diversity and collection location which is relevant for the planning of future collections aimed at identifying valuable sources of essential oil.

  3. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  4. The Right Mix? Gender Diversity in Top Management Teams and Organizational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels; Ryom Villadsen, Anders

    Recent research has illustrated how human demographic diversity influences the outcomes of public sector organizations. Most studies focus on workforce diversity and little is known about how managerial diversity affects organizational outcomes. This study focuses on top management team gender...... diversity. Theory suggests that diversity can lead to varied outcomes. It may provide knowledge and new ideas used for organizational development. However, team diversity is likely to slow down decision making and make consensus more difficult to reach. In a longitudinal study of top management teams...

  5. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each......, while the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....

  6. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  7. From Diversity Management to Diversimilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise

    “Diversimilation” as a corporate response to diversity By PhD fellow Lotte Holck, Copenhagen Business School (IOA) Abstract Across the North Atlantic organizations struggle to harvest the perceived ’ fruits’ of diversity of enhanced organizational learning and requisite variety enriching task...... performance in response to globalized markets and customers – but by means of different approaches to organizing diversity (Klarsfeld 2012, Embrick 2011, Banting 2010, Holvino & Kamp 2009, Matten & Moon 2008, Risberg & Søderberg 2008, Campbell 2007, Boxenbaum 2007). The argument of this paper...... is that this is partly due to the history of diversity and maturity of the diversity agenda, where especially the US confrontation with and acknowledgement of a colonial past has made way for a more "advanced" approach valuing diversity, while in a Danish context - through distancing itself from having an explicit...

  8. Diversity in the dermatology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Jorge A; Pandya, Amit G

    2016-12-01

    The United States is becoming increasingly diverse, and minorities are projected to represent the majority of our population in the near future. Unfortunately, health disparities still exist for these groups, and inequalities have also become evident in the field of dermatology. There is currently a lack of diversity within the dermatology workforce. Potential solutions to these health care disparities include increasing cultural competence for all physicians and improving diversity in the dermatology workforce. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  9. Unity and diversity in human language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-02-12

    Human language is both highly diverse-different languages have different ways of achieving the same functional goals-and easily learnable. Any language allows its users to express virtually any thought they can conceptualize. These traits render human language unique in the biological world. Understanding the biological basis of language is thus both extremely challenging and fundamentally interesting. I review the literature on linguistic diversity and language universals, suggesting that an adequate notion of 'formal universals' provides a promising way to understand the facts of language acquisition, offering order in the face of the diversity of human languages. Formal universals are cross-linguistic generalizations, often of an abstract or implicational nature. They derive from cognitive capacities to perceive and process particular types of structures and biological constraints upon integration of the multiple systems involved in language. Such formal universals can be understood on the model of a general solution to a set of differential equations; each language is one particular solution. An explicit formal conception of human language that embraces both considerable diversity and underlying biological unity is possible, and fully compatible with modern evolutionary theory.

  10. Neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lauren H; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-11-01

    Infants' direct interactions with caregivers have been shown to powerfully influence social and cognitive development. In contrast, little is known about the cognitive influence of social contexts beyond the infant's immediate interactions with others, for example, the communities in which infants live. The current study addressed this issue by asking whether neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' propensity to learn from diverse social partners. Data were taken from a series of experiments in which 19-month-old infants from monolingual, English-speaking homes were tested in paradigms that assessed their tendency to imitate the actions of an adult who spoke either English or Spanish. Infants who lived in more linguistically diverse neighborhoods imitated more of the Spanish speaker's actions. This relation was observed in two separate datasets and found to be independent from variation in infants' general imitative abilities, age, median family income and population density. These results provide novel evidence suggesting that infants' social learning is predicted by the diversity of the communities in which they live.

  11. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  12. Diversity Management in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is a phenomenon which is increasingly manifesting itself in the globalized society; therefore, it is observable in various areas of human activity, and thus also in the labour market and work teams. Age, sex, ethnicity and nationality, creed or disabilities are among the parameters of diversity. The aim of the article is to identify and evaluate the implementation of Diversity Management in workplaces, whilst bearing in mind researched factors of diversity. The results were gained by conducting a primary survey by questionnaire in organizations (n = 315. The results showed that a total of 41.9% of selected organizations operating in the Czech Republic implement Diversity Management. The largest part of organizations operate in the tertiary sector (69.7%. The survey results show the situation concerning Diversity Management in the selected organizations and support the oppinion that Diversity Management is a current global matter and its concerns all organizations. The research parameters influenced the application of Diversity Management in organizations (Cramer’s V is from 0.176 to 0.430. One of the recommendations for organizations is that they devote more attention to this phenomenon, as qualified human resources is on the decline and adequate attention will once again need to be devoted to groups of potential workers who have hitherto been overlooked. Diversity Management represents a new opportunity for organizations to build the employer’s good brand and attract knowledge workers.

  13. Diversity-Guided Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2002-01-01

    Population diversity is undoubtably a key issue in the performance of evolutionary algorithms. A common hypothesis is that high diversity is important to avoid premature convergence and to escape local optima. Various diversity measures have been used to analyze algorithms, but so far few...... algorithms have used a measure to guide the search. The diversity-guided evolutionary algorithm (DGEA) uses the wellknown distance-to-average-point measure to alternate between phases of exploration (mutation) and phases of exploitation (recombination and selection). The DGEA showed remarkable results...

  14. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Autonomic responses to suggestions for cold and warmth in hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, A; Mariauzouls, C; Wyler, F; Bircher, A J; Wyler-Harper, J

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether suggestions for cold or warmth during hypnosis affect fingertip skin temperature. Hypnosis without specific suggestions for cold or warmth ('neutral hypnosis') caused a drop in respiration frequency, however, pulse rate, fingertip skin temperature, and electrodermal activity were not affected. The cold and warmth suggestions decreased and increased fingertip skin temperature, respectively. Compared with the neutral trance phase, the other three autonomic variables measured were also affected by suggestions for cold. However, there was no association between the changes in autonomic variables induced by suggestions and hypnotizability scores measured by the 'Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults'. Fingertip skin temperature was mostly affected when the images used for the cold and warmth suggestions during hypnosis included experiences of physical temperature and psychological stress or relaxation, indicating that the psychological content of the imagery amplified the autonomic response.

  16. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, W.; Leeuwen, B. van; Sebel, P.; Winograd, E; Baumann, P.; Bonke, Benno

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively and the story of Ro...

  17. THE EFFECTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sezerel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of diversity management practices relies on the combination of a series of variables properly. The relevant literature suggests that diversity management is highly depended on an adequate organizational culture. Thus, a research model that proposes that organizational culture has impact on diversity management perceptions of employees. There are two data sets in this research. The independent variable of the research is organizational culture and the dependent variable of the research is the level of diversity management perceptions. The research is adopted in quantitative method and the data collected via questionnaires. This research which is conducted in a hotel chain finds that the mission dimension of organizational culture impacts all three levels of diversity management.

  18. mtDNA sequences suggest a recent evolutionary divergence for Beringian and Northern American populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, G.F.; Schmiechen, A.M.; Reed, J.K. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)); Frazier, B.L.; Redd, A.; Ward, R.H. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); Voevoda, M.I. (Institute of Internal Medicine, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    Conventional descriptions of the pattern and process of human entry into the New World from Asia are incomplete and controversial. In order to gain an evolutionary insight into this process, the authors have sequenced the control region of mtDNA in samples of contemporary tribal populations of eastern Siberia, Alaska, and Greenland and have compared them with those of Amerind speakers of the Pacific Northwest and with those of the Altai of central Siberia. Specifically, they have analyzed sequence diversity in 33 mitochondiral lineages identified in 90 individuals belonging to five Circumpolar populations of Beringia, North America, and Greenland: Chukchi from Siberia, Inupiaq Eskimos and Athapaskans from Alaska, Eskimos from West Greenland, and Haida from Canada. Hereafter, these five populations are referred to as Circumarctic peoples'. These data were then compared with the sequence diversity in 47 mitochondrial lineages identified in a sample of 145 individuals from three Amerind-speaking tribes (Bella Coola, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, and Yakima) of the Pacific Northwest, plus 16 mitrochondrial lineages identified in a sample of 17 Altai from central Siberia. Sequence diversity within and among Circumarctic populations is considerably less than the sequence diversity observed within and among the three Amerind tribes. The similarity of sequences found among the geographically dispersed Circumarctic groups, plus the small values of mean pairwise sequence differences within Circumarctic populations, suggest a recent and rapid evolutionary radiation of these populations. In addition, Circumarctic populations lack the 9-bp deletion which has been used to trace various migrations out of Asia, while populations of southeastern Siberia possess this deletion. On the basis of these observations, while the evolutionary affinities of Native Americans extend west to the Circumarctic populations of eastern Siberia, they do not include the Altai of central Siberia.

  19. Diversity in High Schools and Diversity Management: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…

  20. WATER DIVERSION MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Case

    1999-12-21

    The distribution of seepage in the proposed repository will be highly variable due in part to variations in the spatial distribution of percolations. The performance of the drip shield and the backfill system may divert the water flux around the waste packages to the invert. Diversion will occur along the drift surface, within the backfill, at the drip shield, and at the Waste Package (WP) surface, even after the drip shield and WP have been breached by corrosion. The purpose and objective of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) are to develop a conceptual model and constitutive properties for bounding the volume and rate of seepage water that flows around the drip shield (CRWMS M&O 1999c). This analysis model is to be compatible with the selected repository conceptual design (Wilkins and Heath, 1999) and will be used to evaluate the performance of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS), and to provide input to the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Model. This model supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) postclosure performance assessment for the Site Recommendation (SR). This document characterizes the hydrological constitutive properties of the backfill and invert materials (Section 6.2) and a third material that represents a mixture of the two. These include the Overton Sand which is selected as a backfill (Section 5.2), crushed tuff which is selected as the invert (Section 5.1), and a combined material (Sections 5.9 and 5.10) which has retention and hydraulic conductivity properties intermediate to the selected materials for the backfill and the invert. The properties include the grain size distribution, the dry bulk density and porosity, the moisture retention, the intrinsic permeability, the relative permeability, and the material thermal properties. The van Genuchten relationships with curve fit parameters are used to define the basic retention relationship of moisture potential to volumetric moisture content, and the basic relationship of unsaturated

  1. Diversity in fosfomycin resistance proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Thompson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain strains of the soil microorganism Streptomyces produce an antibiotic, fosfomycin [(1 R,2 S-epoxypropylphosphonic acid], which is effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens by inhibiting the first committed step in cell-wall biosynthesis. Fosfomycin resistance proteins are metallo-enzymes that are known to inactivate the antibiotic by the addition of nucleophiles such as water, glutathione (GSH, l-cysteine and bacillithiol (BSH to the oxirane ring of the molecule. Progress in the characterisation of FosB-type fosfomycin resistance proteins found in many Gram-positive organisms has been slow. This paper provides a brief description of the diversity of fosfomycin resistance proteins in general and, more specifically, new data characterising the substrate selectivity, structure, mechanism and metal-ion dependence of FosB enzymes from pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus and Bacillus. These new findings include the high-resolution X-ray diffraction structures of FosB enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus in various liganded states and kinetic data that suggest that Mn(II and BSH are the preferred divalent cation and thiol substrate for the reaction, respectively. The discovery of the inhibition of the enzyme by Zn(II led to the determination of a ternary structure of the FosB·Zn(II·fosfomycin·l-Cys complex which reveals both substrates present in a pose prior to reaction.

  2. The diverse aims of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Moral Education in the Schools. Some Practical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Clive

    This document contains practical suggestions for moral education which, although tentative, are based to a considerable extent on classroom experimentation. There are three main sections. The first suggests a series of mini-courses to be incorporated in the school curriculum. It deals with personal and social values in general, human relations,…

  4. Students' Suggestions for Eliminating Bullying at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2015-01-01

    Students' suggestions for how to eliminate bullying at universities were gathered as part of an e-questionnaire sent to each university student (N = 10,551) at a Finnish university. The suggestions (n = 2804) regarding how to address bullying at universities were divided into the following four classes: support (944), punishment (78), support and…

  5. Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching in Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Kay U.

    The suggestive-accelerative approach to foreign language instruction is described. This method, first used in Bulgaria by Georgi Lozanov, emphasizes bringing the imagination to bear on the learning task, in a relaxed classroom environment. After establishing a calm atmosphere through direct and indirect suggestion, the teacher proceeds to…

  6. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  7. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...suggestion are crawled. Approximately 60,442 candidate sug- gestions are crawled for all contexts, resulting in average 1208 candidate suggestions per

  8. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van der Laan (W.); B.L. van Leeuwen (B.); P.S. Sebel (P.); E. Winograd (E.); P. Baumann (P.); B. Bonke (Benno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting

  9. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  10. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  11. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  12. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled.

  13. Genetic and biochemical diversity of Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleckaityte, Milda; Janulaitiene, Migle; Lasickiene, Rita; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-06-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is considered a substantial player in the progression of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We analysed 17 G. vaginalis strains isolated from the genital tract of women diagnosed with BV to establish a potential link between genotypes/biotypes and the expression of virulence factors, vaginolysin (VLY) and sialidase, which are assumed to play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of BV. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis revealed two G. vaginalis genotypes. Gardnerella vaginalis isolates of genotype 2 appeared more complex than genotype 1 and were subdivided into three subtypes. Biochemical typing allowed us to distinguish four different biotypes. A great diversity of the level of VLY production among the isolates of G. vaginalis may be related to a different cytotoxicity level of the strains. We did not find any correlation between VLY production level and G. vaginalis genotype/biotype. In contrast, a link between G. vaginalis genotype and sialidase production was established. Our findings on the diversity of VLY expression level in different clinical isolates and linking sialidase activity with the genotype of G. vaginalis could help to evaluate the pathogenic potential of different G. vaginalis strains.

  14. Functional diversity of laminins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domogatskaya, Anna; Rodin, Sergey; Tryggvason, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Laminins are a large family of conserved, multidomain trimeric basement membrane proteins that contribute to the structure of extracellular matrix and influence the behavior of associated cells, such as adhesion, differentiation, migration, phenotype stability, and resistance to anoikis. In lower organisms such as Hydra there is only one isoform of laminin, but higher organisms have at least 16 trimeric isoforms with varying degrees of cell/tissue specificity. In vitro protein and cell culture studies, gene manipulation in animals, and laminin gene mutations in human diseases have provided insight into the specific functions of some laminins, but the biological roles of many isoforms are still largely unexplored, mainly owing to difficulties in isolating them in pure form from tissues or cells. In this review, we elucidate the evolution of laminins, describe their molecular complexity, and explore the current knowledge of their diversity and functional aspects, including laminin-mediated signaling via membrane receptors, in vitro cell biology, and involvement in various tissues gained from animal model and human disease studies. The potential use of laminins in cell biology research and biotechnology is discussed.

  15. Digital Diversity Combiner (DIDICOM) - An Applique for Obtaining Quadruple Diversity with Dual Diversity Drama Radio Terminals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    AD-ARO 985 ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER BRIFFISS AF9 NY F/S 17/2.1 DIGITAL DIVERSITY COMBINER (DIDICOM3 - AN APPLIQUE FOR OBTAININ-ETC(U) JAN 80 F 0...In-Houw Report Jenuuuy 19 GO DIGITAL DIVERSITY COMBINER 0 (DIDICOM) - AN APPLIQUE FOR OBTAINING QUADRUPLE DIVERSITY WITH DUAL DIVERSITY DRAMA RADIO...APPROVED: g e14F.r{ FRED I. DIAOND Technical Director Comunications and Control Division FOR THE COHNDR Acting Chief, Plans Office If your address has

  16. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  17. Improved viability of populations with diverse life-history portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Correigh M; Hall, Jason E; Guilbault, Kimberly R; Quinn, Thomas P

    2010-06-23

    A principle shared by both economists and ecologists is that a diversified portfolio spreads risk, but this idea has little empirical support in the field of population biology. We found that population growth rates (recruits per spawner) and life-history diversity as measured by variation in freshwater and ocean residency were negatively correlated across short time periods (one to two generations), but positively correlated at longer time periods, in nine Bristol Bay sockeye salmon populations. Further, the relationship between variation in growth rate and life-history diversity was consistently negative. These findings strongly suggest that life-history diversity can both increase production and buffer population fluctuations, particularly over long time periods. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of biocomplexity beyond spatio-temporal aspects of populations, and suggest that maintaining diverse life-history portfolios of populations may be crucial for their resilience to unfavourable conditions like habitat loss and climate change.

  18. Improved viability of populations with diverse life-history portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Correigh M.; Hall, Jason E.; Guilbault, Kimberly R.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    A principle shared by both economists and ecologists is that a diversified portfolio spreads risk, but this idea has little empirical support in the field of population biology. We found that population growth rates (recruits per spawner) and life-history diversity as measured by variation in freshwater and ocean residency were negatively correlated across short time periods (one to two generations), but positively correlated at longer time periods, in nine Bristol Bay sockeye salmon populations. Further, the relationship between variation in growth rate and life-history diversity was consistently negative. These findings strongly suggest that life-history diversity can both increase production and buffer population fluctuations, particularly over long time periods. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of biocomplexity beyond spatio-temporal aspects of populations, and suggest that maintaining diverse life-history portfolios of populations may be crucial for their resilience to unfavourable conditions like habitat loss and climate change. PMID:20007162

  19. "Nested" cryptic diversity in a widespread marine ecosystem engineer: a challenge for detecting biological invasions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walls Kathy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecosystem engineers facilitate habitat formation and enhance biodiversity, but when they become invasive, they present a critical threat to native communities because they can drastically alter the receiving habitat. Management of such species thus needs to be a priority, but the poorly resolved taxonomy of many ecosystem engineers represents a major obstacle to correctly identifying them as being either native or introduced. We address this dilemma by studying the sea squirt Pyura stolonifera, an important ecosystem engineer that dominates coastal communities particularly in the southern hemisphere. Using DNA sequence data from four independently evolving loci, we aimed to determine levels of cryptic diversity, the invasive or native status of each regional population, and the most appropriate sampling design for identifying the geographic ranges of each evolutionary unit. Results Extensive sampling in Africa, Australasia and South America revealed the existence of "nested" levels of cryptic diversity, in which at least five distinct species can be further subdivided into smaller-scale genetic lineages. The ranges of several evolutionary units are limited by well-documented biogeographic disjunctions. Evidence for both cryptic native diversity and the existence of invasive populations allows us to considerably refine our view of the native versus introduced status of the evolutionary units within Pyura stolonifera in the different coastal communities they dominate. Conclusions This study illustrates the degree of taxonomic complexity that can exist within widespread species for which there is little taxonomic expertise, and it highlights the challenges involved in distinguishing between indigenous and introduced populations. The fact that multiple genetic lineages can be native to a single geographic region indicates that it is imperative to obtain samples from as many different habitat types and biotic zones as possible

  20. The evolution of African plant diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Linder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa includes some 45,000 plant species. The spatial patterns of this diversity have been well explored. We can group the species into a set of biogeographical regions (largely co-incident with regions defined for terrestrial vertebrate groups. Furthermore, we know that the diversity is unevenly distributed, with southern Africa (especially the south-western tip disproportionally species rich, while the West African interior is disproportionally species poor. However, the origins of this diversity have only been explored for two anomalous African Floras (the Tropic-alpine Flora and the Cape Flora, whereas the origins of the diversity of the other floras are still unknown. Here I argue that six floras, with distinct geographical centres, different extra-African affinities, ages of radiation and radiation rates, can be delimited: the Austro-temperate, Tropic-alpine, Lowland forest, Tropic-montane, Savanna and Arid Floras. The oldest flora may be the Lowland forest Flora, and the most recent is the Tropic-alpine, which probably evolved during the Plio-Pleistocene on the summits of the East Africa volcanoes. My results suggest that the most rapidly radiating flora is the Austro-temperate Flora, while the other floras are all diversifying at more or less the same rate, this is also consistent with the current massive species richness in this flora (about half of the African species richness. The Austro-temperate Flora appears to be related to the floras of the other southern continents, the Tropic-alpine Flora to that of the Northern Hemisphere, and the four tropical floras to the tropical regions of the other continents, consistent with the theory of phylogenetic niche conservatism. Current African diversity may be the result of the sequential adding of new floras to the continent. Possibly the species poverty especially of the Lowland forest Flora may be the result of the spread of C4 grasslands and associated regular fires.

  1. The Changing Face of Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Noni Mendoza; Mendez, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    As the nation's schools strive to provide quality education for students most at risk for failure, the notion of diversity continues to lead the discussion. Revisiting understandings about diversity as a response to creating equitable learning opportunities to foster achievement for all students has become increasingly urgent given that, while the…

  2. Student Diversity and Higher Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenstine, Neil L.

    This chapter traces the evolution of the concept of diversity in higher education, noting the real but slow progress in achieving greater inclusion. It highlights Harvard University's experiences, demonstrating why the goal of diversity remains so important to the actual quality and breadth of education for all students and why Harvard's existing…

  3. Diversity in the Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system. Lymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10⁷ different clonotypes protect humans against infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against self-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity that fo

  4. Large infrequently operated river diversions for Mississippi delta restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John W.; Lane, Robert R.; D'Elia, Christopher F.; Wiegman, Adrian R. H.; Rutherford, Jeffrey S.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Brantley, Christopher G.; Kemp, G. Paul

    2016-12-01

    Currently the Mississippi delta stands as a highly degraded and threatened coastal ecosystem having lost about 25% of coastal wetlands during the 20th century. To address this problem, a 50 billion, 50-year restoration program is underway. A central component of this program is reintroduction of river water back into the deltaic plain to mimic natural functioning of the delta. However, opposition to diversions has developed based on a number of perceived threats. These include over-freshening of coastal estuaries, displacement of fisheries, perceived water quality problems, and assertions that nutrients in river water leads to wetland deterioration. In addition, growing climate impacts and increasing scarcity and cost of energy will make coastal restoration more challenging and limit restoration options. We address these issues in the context of an analysis of natural and artificial diversions, crevasse splays, and small sub-delta lobes. We suggest that episodic large diversions and crevasses (>5000 m3 s-1) can build land quickly while having transient impacts on the estuarine system. Small diversions (water level stress. We use land building rates for different sized diversions and impacts of large periodic inputs of river water to coastal systems in the Mississippi delta to conclude that high discharge diversions operated episodically will lead to rapid coastal restoration and alleviate concerns about diversions. Single diversion events have deposited sediments up to 40 cm in depth over areas up to 130-180 km2. This approach should have broad applicability to deltas globally.

  5. Approach to decreasing emergency department ambulance diversion hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilke, Gary M; Brown, Lana; Skogland, Patty; Simmons, Charles; Guss, David A

    2004-02-01

    Analysis between two local Emergency Departments (EDs) suggested an oscillatory phenomenon for ambulance diversion: When one hospital went on diversion it led to a disproportionate flow of ambulance traffic to a neighboring facility that subsequently was forced to go on divert. We hypothesized if one hospital could avoid diversion status, the need for diversion could be averted in the neighboring facility. ED A secured additional resources and made a commitment to no diversion for 1 week. No changes in operations occurred in hospital B. We found no differences in ambulance runs or ED census at either facility comparing the week before, during, and after the trial. There was a dramatic decline in diversion hours from 19.7 to 1.4 and 27.7 to 0 at hospitals A and B, respectively, during the trial period (p < 0.05) compared to the weeks before and after. We conclude that reciprocating effects can be decreased with one institution's commitment to avoid diversion, thus decreasing the need for diversion at a neighboring facility.

  6. Positive interactions between herbivores and plant diversity shape forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Patton, Susan C; LaForgia, Marina; Parker, John D

    2014-05-22

    The effects of herbivores and diversity on plant communities have been studied separately but rarely in combination. We conducted two concurrent experiments over 3 years to examine how tree seedling diversity, density and herbivory affected forest regeneration. One experiment factorially manipulated plant diversity (one versus 15 species) and the presence/absence of deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We found that mixtures outperformed monocultures only in the presence of deer. Selective browsing on competitive dominants and associational protection from less palatable species appear responsible for this herbivore-driven diversity effect. The other experiment manipulated monospecific plant density and found little evidence for negative density dependence. Combined, these experiments suggest that the higher performance in mixture was owing to the acquisition of positive interspecific interactions rather than the loss of negative intraspecific interactions. Overall, we emphasize that realistic predictions about the consequences of changing biodiversity will require a deeper understanding of the interaction between plant diversity and higher trophic levels. If we had manipulated only plant diversity, we would have missed an important positive interaction across trophic levels: diverse seedling communities better resist herbivores, and herbivores help to maintain seedling diversity.

  7. Anthropology in the cognitive sciences: the value of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Sara J

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin (this issue) offer a provocative proposal outlining several reasons why anthropology and the rest of cognitive science might consider parting ways. Among those reasons, they suggest that separation might maintain the diversity needed to address larger problems facing humanity, and that the research strategies used across the disciplines are already so diverse as to be incommensurate. The present paper challenges the view that research strategies are incommensurate and offers a multimethod approach to cultural research that can help to establish common ground while maintaining diversity.

  8. Genetic diversity in the Yangtze finless porpoise by RAPD analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Shunping; Wang Ding; Wang Wei; Chen Daoquan; Zhao Qingzhong; Gong Weiming

    2005-01-01

    To estimate the genetic diversity in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaenaphocaenoides asiaeorientalis), the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA techniquewas applied to examine ten animals captured from the Yangtze River. Out of 20 arbitrary primers used in the experiment, seventeen produced clearly reproducible bged from 0.0986 to 0.5634. Compared with other cetacean populations, this genetic distance is quite low. Such a low genetic diversity suggests that this population may be suffering from reduced genetic variation, and be very fragile. More studiesare needed for understanding the basis for this apparent low genetic diversity and to help protect this endangered, unique population.

  9. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-02-07

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  10. Knowledge sharing in diverse organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that both strengths and weaknesses of diversity in organisations stem from the different demographic, national, linguistic, social and cultural backgrounds of their members. However, few attempts have been made to link different types of diversity to knowledge sharing despite....... As predicted, results showed that diversity related to internationalisation (cultural and linguistic) had more positive associations with knowledge sharing than inherent demographic diversity (age and gender), which generally had negative or no relationships with knowledge sharing. The implications...... the fact that organisations which can make full use of their collective knowledge and expertise could be expected to be more efficient, effective and creative. Therefore, a survey was directed towards 16 diverse academic departments in three large universities in Denmark, and 489 academics took part...

  11. Different modes of variation for each BG lineage suggest different functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaway, John; Ramirez-Valdez, R. Andrei; Chappell, Paul E.; Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Lea, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian butyrophilins have various important functions, one for lipid binding but others as ligands for co-inhibition of αβ T cells or for stimulation of γδ T cells in the immune system. The chicken BG homologues are dimers, with extracellular immunoglobulin variable (V) domains joined by cysteines in the loop equivalent to complementarity-determining region 1 (CDR1). BG genes are found in three genomic locations: BG0 on chromosome 2, BG1 in the classical MHC (the BF-BL region) and many BG genes in the BG region just outside the MHC. Here, we show that BG0 is virtually monomorphic, suggesting housekeeping function(s) consonant with the ubiquitous tissue distribution. BG1 has allelic polymorphism but minimal sequence diversity, with the few polymorphic residues at the interface of the two V domains, suggesting that BG1 is recognized by receptors in a conserved fashion. Any phenotypic variation should be due to the intracellular region, with differential exon usage between alleles. BG genes in the BG region can generate diversity by exchange of sequence cassettes located in loops equivalent to CDR1 and CDR2, consonant with recognition of many ligands or antigens for immune defence. Unlike the mammalian butyrophilins, there are at least three modes by which BG genes evolve. PMID:27628321

  12. Long-term persistence of a positive plant diversity-productivity relationship in the absence of legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies investigating the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning lasted only a few years. These studies generally showed a positive relationship between diversity and productivity that strengthened with time. This pattern suggests the experimental communities have not ye

  13. Suggestion and veridicality in the reconstruction of sexual trauma, or can a bait of suggestion catch a carp of falsehood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M I

    1996-01-01

    Freud used the term suggestion in psychoanalysis in different ways, including suggestion as an integral part of the transference and suggestion in the sense of undue influence or technical error. This distinction can be expressed in terms of the patient's suggestibility (capacity for transference) and the analyst's unwarranted suggestion or persuasion representing countertransference, theoretical bias, or a departure from technical neutrality. Whether suggestion is explicit or implicit, the effects of suggestion and suggestibility may be mutual and reciprocal. To the extent that a psychoanalyst maintains the goal of technical neutrality, undue suggestion is likely to be minimal. To the extent that it occurs for transferential or countertransferential reasons, suggestion may itself be analyzed. Problems of suggestion are more likely to occur and persist when they are part of the analyst's theoretical orientation, influencing the course of the analysis and expressing compromise formations for both patient and analyst. At times, even tentatively stated words or unintended behaviors of the analyst can have a dynamic impact that may not be readily analyzed. The analytic situation itself may have retrospective (nachträglich) action. A previously published case is described in which an apparent enactment led the analyst to urge a reconstruction of sexual abuse even though the patient never actually recalled what was presumed to have been fellatio. The need for technical neutrality and alternative reconstructions in such cases is considered. The degree to which the personality and goals of the analyst influence the course of reconstruction remains a vexing issue for psychoanalysis as a scientific endeavor. There is a need for detailed analytic case studies in which alternative reconstructions can be compared by investigating opportunities for external confirmation or falsification.

  14. Emission Inventory for PFOS in China: Review of Past Methodologies and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Chao Lim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified.

  15. Wheat Landrace Genome Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Luzie U; West, Claire; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Collier, Sarah; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Yang, Cai-Yun; King, Julie; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda; Edwards, Keith J; Griffiths, Simon

    2017-02-17

    Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focussing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating bi-parental populations were developed mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity (WINGEN et al. 2014). A modern spring elite variety, 'Paragon,' was used as common reference parent. Genetic maps were constructed following identical rules to make them comparable. In total, 1,611 linkage groups were identified, based on recombination from an estimated 126,300 crossover events over the whole NAM panel. A consensus map, named landrace consensus map (LRC) was constructed and contained 2,498 genetic loci. These newly developed genetics tools were used to investigate the rules underlying genome fluidity or rigidity, e.g. by comparing at marker distances and marker orders. In general, marker order was highly correlated, which provides support for strong synteny between bread wheat accessions. However, many exceptional cases of incongruent linkage groups and increased marker distances were also found. Segregation distortion was detected for many markers, sometimes as hot-spots present in different populations. Furthermore, evidence for translocations in at least 36 of the maps was found. These translocations fell, in general, into many different translocation classes, but a few translocation classes were found in several accessions, the most frequent one being the well known T5B:7B translocation. Loci involved in recombination rate, which is an interesting trait for plant breeding, were identified by QTL analyses using the

  16. Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165947.html Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests Work with monkeys indicates birth ... 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists exploring how the Zika virus passes from pregnant monkeys to their fetuses ...

  17. Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without Meds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160744.html Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without ... appear to be effective, according to a new review. Millions of Americans seek pain relief through such ...

  18. Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  19. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  20. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  1. Molecular Dynamic Screening Sesquiterpenoid Pogostemon Herba as Suggested Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, Sentot Joko; Kikuchi, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    Virtual molecular dynamic sesquiterpenoid Pogostemon Herba (CID56928117, CID94275, CID107152, and CID519743) have screening as cyclooxygenase (COX-1/COX-2) selective inhibitor. Molecular interaction studies sesquiterpenoid compounds with COX-1 and COX-2 were using the molecular docking tools by Hex 8.0 and interactions were further visualized using by Discovery Studio Client 3.5 software tool and Virtual Molecular Dynamic 1.9.1 software. The binding energy calculation of molecular dynamic interaction was calculated by AMBER12 software. The analysis of the sesquiterpenoid compounds showed that CID56928117, CID94275, CID107152, and CID519743 have suggested as inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2. Collectively, the scoring binding energy calculation (with PBSA Model Solvent) sesquiterpenoid compounds: CID519743 had suggested as candidate for non-selective inhibitor; CID56928117 and CID94275 had suggested as candidate for a selective COX-1 inhibitor; and CID107152 had suggested as candidate for a selective COX-2 inhibitor.

  2. Biodiversity assessment in forests - from genetic diversity to landscape diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granke O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing biodiversity in forests requires a reliable and sustainable monitoring concept, which must include all levels of diversity, the genetic, the species and the landscape level. Diversity studies should not be reduced to quantitative analysis, but qualitative interpretations are an important part for the understanding of the results. Also, the linkage of terrestrial data and remote sensing data as well the implementation of abiotic and biotic data collected on existing monitoring systems are useful sources to analyse cause-effect relationships and interactions between the different aspects of diversity.

  3. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  4. [A technical suggestion for laboratory tests in cases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio Pellacchio, M C; Celli, R

    1994-01-01

    The paper suggests completing the clinical tests carried out in cases of rape by collecting material not only from the fornix of the vagina but also from the cervical canal using cotton-wool buds, and examining any spermatozoa adhering to the cotton filaments by staining with Baecchi's method. Alternatively, the paper suggests carrying out these tests in anticipation of their possible use as forensic evidence if requested by the court.

  5. Highlighting Impact and the Impact of Highlighting: PRB Editors' Suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Associate Editor Manolis Antonoyiannakis discusses the highlighting, as Editors' Suggestions, of a small percentage of the papers published each week. We highlight papers primarily for their importance and impact in their respective fields, or because we find them particularly interesting or elegant. It turns out that the additional layer of scrutiny involved in the selection of papers as Editors' Suggestions is associated with a significantly elevated and sustained citation impact.

  6. Effect of preoperative suggestion on postoperative gastrointestinal motility.

    OpenAIRE

    Disbrow, E A; Bennett, H L; Owings, J T

    1993-01-01

    Autonomic behavior is subject to direct suggestion. We found that patients undergoing major operations benefit more from instruction than from information and reassurance. We compared the return of intestinal function after intra-abdominal operations in 2 groups of patients: the suggestion group received specific instructions for the early return of gastrointestinal motility, and the control group received an equal-length interview offering reassurance and nonspecific instructions. The sugges...

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  8. Diversity in Teams: was macht diverse Teams erfolgreich?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Buengeler; A.C. Homan

    2015-01-01

    Teams in Organisationen sind zunehmend divers zusammengesetzt. Mit Diversity sind neben Unterschieden bezüglich demografischer Merkmale beispielsweise auch Differenzen in unmittelbar aufgabenbezogenen Merkmalen sowie in Werten, Einstellungen und Eigenschaften gemeint, welche oftmals nicht sofort ers

  9. Homeostasis of T Cell Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinay S. Mahajan; Ilya B. Leskov; Jianzhu Chen

    2005-01-01

    T cell homeostasis commonly refers to the maintenance of relatively stable T cell numbers in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Among the large numbers of T cells in the periphery, T cells exhibit structural diversity, I.e., the expression of a diverse repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs), and functional diversity, I.e., the presence of T cells at na(I)ve, effector, and memory developmental stages. Although the homeostasis of T cell numbers has been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of structural and functional diversity of T cells is still at an early stage. The fundamental feature throughout T cell development is the interaction between the TCR and either self or foreign peptides in association with MHC molecules. In this review, we present evidence showing that homeostasis of T cell number and diversity is mediated through competition for limiting resources.The number of T cells is maintained through competition for limiting cytokines, whereas the diversity of T cells is maintained by competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes. In other words, diversity of the self-peptide repertoire limits the structural (TCR) diversity of a T cell population. We speculate that cognate low affinity self-peptides,acting as weak agonists and antagonists, regulate the homeostasis of T cell diversity whereas non-cognate or null peptides which are extremely abundant for any given TCR, may contribute to the homeostasis of T cell number by providing survival signals. Moreover, self-peptides and cytokines may form specialized niches for the regulation of T cell homeostasis.

  10. Homeostasis of T Cell Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VinayS.Mahajan; IlyaB.Leskov; JianzhuChen

    2005-01-01

    T cell homeostasis commonly refers to the maintenance of relatively stable T cell numbers in the peripheral lymphoid organs. Among the large numbers of T cells in the periphery, T cells exhibit structural diversity, i.e., the expression of a diverse repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs), and functional diversity, i.e., the presence of T cells at naive, effector, and memory developmental stages. Although the homeostasis of T cell numbers has been extensively studied, investigation of the mechanisms underlying the maintenance of structural and functional diversity of T cells is still at an early stage. The fundamental feature throughout T cell development is the interaction between the TCR and either self or foreign peptides in association with MHC molecules. In this review, we present evidence showing that homeostasis of T cell number and diversity is mediated through competition for limiting resources. The number of T cells is maintained through competition for limiting cytokines, whereas the diversity of T cells is maintained by competition for self-peptide-MHC complexes. In other words, diversity of the self-peptide repertoire limits the structural (TCR) diversity of a T cell population. We speculate that cognate low affinity self-peptides, acting as weak agonists and antagonists, regulate the homeostasis of T cell diversity whereas non-cognate or null peptides which are extremely abundant for any given TCR, may contribute to the homeostasis of T cell number by providing survival signals. Moreover, self-peptides and cytokines may form specialized niches for the regulation of T cell homeostasis. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1): 1-10.

  11. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

  12. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Suggestion for Safeguards System under Nuclear Supply Assurance Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Seong Youn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Various ideas about nuclear fuel supply assurance have been proposed with the expectation of a new era of 'Nuclear Renaissance.' The possibility is ever than high now as the environmental impact due to the fossil fuel burning is worsening. But there are several obstacles to realize the resurrection of nuclear power as promising energy source in the future. The disposal of high radioactive wastes like nuclear spent fuel could be the first one that everyone can imagine, because those wastes are regarded as one of the direct threat to human health. But the most dangerous threat can be materialized through the diversion of nuclear material, if some malicious actors like some rogue states or terrorist groups take chance of the nuclear industry booming. Most supply assurance ideas based on multilateral approach provide the way to provide nuclear fuel while limiting dissipation of sensitive technologies. But regarding the safeguards implementation under the supply assurance environment, it seems that any appropriate approach has not been prepared. It is prerequisite to establish safeguards implementation system for multilateral facilities prior to their actual operation.

  14. Suggestion of Modified Y-View in Supine Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Dong A University Medicine Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seong Min [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Yeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This study was performed to design a modified Y-View as an imaging method for the Y-View in supine position for patients who requires Y-View imaging for the diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome but having trouble for the positioning of patients complaining of shoulder pain. On the result of comparative analysis of the images obtained by changing the lateral-medio degree of X-ray tube into 35 degrees, 40 degrees, and 45 degrees while patient is in supine position, 40 degrees of X-ray tube in lateral-medio direction produced the most valuable image for the diagnosis by best describing the shapes of acromion, clavicle space, and coracoacromial arch. Therefore, patients who have difficulty in Y-View position to obtain Y-View image, modified Y-View can be applied as a useful alternative method. By this study, various applications not only in shoulder impingement syndrome but also in diverse omarthralgia diseases are expected.

  15. Gender Diversity in Top Management and Financial Performance. The Role of Organizational Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    and financial performance of public organizations. Theory suggests that management diversity can be a positive asset for organizations. It may allow for the use of more diverse knowledge and human skill sets. In this paper it is suggested that organizations, however, may only be able to leverage...... these advantages if they have a supporting management structure. In a longitudinal study of top management teams in Danish municipalities, the study finds top management team gender diversity to be associated with higher financial performance but only in municipalities with a management structure that supports......Recent research has illustrated how demographic diversity influences the outcome of public sector organizations. Most studies focus on workforce diversity and little is known about how managerial diversity affects organizational outcome. This study focuses on top management team gender diversity...

  16. Acute skin reaction suggestive of pembrolizumab-induced radiosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaud, Vincent; David, Isabelle; Lamant, Laurence; Resseguier, Sarah; Radut, Roxana; Attal, Justine; Meyer, Nicolas; Delord, Jean-Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The combination of localized radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a promising therapeutic strategy for various cancers, including metastatic melanoma. Radiation therapy may enhance tumor antigen presentation and cytokine release, which may optimize the systemic antitumor immune response induced by these immunotherapeutic antibodies, with a potential delayed abscopal effect. However, clinical experience of using immune checkpoint inhibitors with concurrent radiotherapy remains scarce. We report here for the first time a case suggestive of acute skin radiosensitization induced by pembrolizumab, with a suggestive time relationship between the completion of ionizing radiation, drug administration, and rapid onset of the skin reaction. This suggests that radiation therapy may also interact rapidly with anti-programmed-death 1 antibodies. Therefore, caution should be exercised when prescribing this combination therapy in advanced cancers.

  17. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward.

  18. Feasibility of Music and Hypnotic Suggestion to Manage Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alisa J; Kekecs, Zoltan; Roberts, R Lynae; Gavin, Russell; Brown, Kathleen; Elkins, Gary R

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility and possible effects of hypnotic suggestion and music for chronic pain. Ten people completed the 2-week intervention that consisted of daily listening to hypnotic suggestions combined with music. Averaged subjective pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, overall distress, anxiety, and depression decreased from baseline to endpoint. Participants rated pre- and postlistening pain intensity and pain bothersomeness decreased for each session. Information provided during end-of-study interviews indicated all participants were satisfied with treatment and felt they benefited from being in the study. Means and standard deviations are reported for outcome measures and a case study is provided. This preliminary study supports the use of a combined hypnotic suggestion and music intervention for chronic pain.

  19. Strategies for designing and monitoring malaria vaccines targeting diverse antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After more than 50 years of intensive research and development, only one malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, has progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials. Despite only partial efficacy, this candidate is now forecast to become the first licensed malaria vaccine. Hence, more efficacious second-generation malaria vaccines that can significantly reduce transmission are urgently needed. This review will focus on a major obstacle hindering development of effective malaria vaccines: parasite antigenic diversity. Despite extensive genetic diversity in leading candidate antigens, vaccines have been and continue to be formulated using recombinant antigens representing only one or two strains. These vaccine strains represent only a small fraction of the diversity circulating in natural parasite populations, leading to escape of non-vaccine strains and challenging investigators’ abilities to measure strain-specific efficacy in vaccine trials. Novel strategies are needed to overcome antigenic diversity in order for vaccine development to succeed. Many studies have now catalogued the global diversity of leading Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax vaccine antigens. In this review, we describe how population genetic approaches can be applied to this rich data source to predict the alleles that best represent antigenic diversity, polymorphisms that contribute to it, and to identify key polymorphisms associated with antigenic escape. We also suggest an approach to summarise the known global diversity of a given antigen to predict antigenic diversity, how to select variants that best represent the strains circulating in natural parasite populations and how to investigate the strain-specific efficacy of vaccine trials. Use of these strategies in the design and monitoring of vaccine trials will not only shed light on the contribution of genetic diversity to the antigenic diversity of malaria, but will also maximise the potential of future malaria vaccine

  20. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively.

  1. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  2. Social Class and Diagnostic Suggestion as Variables in Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Peter A.

    1975-01-01

    Sixty graduate students in clinical psychology made diagnostic assessments of one of two staged interviews identical in content but enacted to convey either a middle- or lower-class impression. The results indicate the existence of a class bias and suggest a status differential between psychologists and psychiatrists. (Author)

  3. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  4. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  5. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  6. Molecular Dynamic Screening Sesquiterpenoid Pogostemon Herba as Suggested Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, Sentot Joko; Kikuchi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Virtual molecular dynamic sesquiterpenoid Pogostemon Herba (CID56928117, CID94275, CID107152, and CID519743) have screening as cyclooxygenase (COX-1/COX-2) selective inhibitor. Methods: Molecular interaction studies sesquiterpenoid compounds with COX-1 and COX-2 were using the molecular docking tools by Hex 8.0 and interactions were further visualized using by Discovery Studio Client 3.5 software tool and Virtual Molecular Dynamic 1.9.1 software. The binding energy calculation of molecular dynamic interaction was calculated by AMBER12 software. Result: The analysis of the sesquiterpenoid compounds showed that CID56928117, CID94275, CID107152, and CID519743 have suggested as inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2. Conclusion: Collectively, the scoring binding energy calculation (with PBSA Model Solvent) sesquiterpenoid compounds: CID519743 had suggested as candidate for non-selective inhibitor; CID56928117 and CID94275 had suggested as candidate for a selective COX-1 inhibitor; and CID107152 had suggested as candidate for a selective COX-2 inhibitor. PMID:28077888

  7. Evidence suggesting possible SCA1 gene involvement in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, S.R.; Wange, S.; Sun, C. [NIDR, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several findings suggest a possible role for the SCA1 gene on chromosome 6p in some cases of schizophrenia. First, linkage analyses in Irish pedigrees provided LOD scores up to 3.0 for one model tested using microsatellites closely linked to SCA1. Reanalysis of these data using affected sibpair methods yielded a significant result (p = 0.01) for one marker. An attempt to replicate this linkage finding was made using 44 NIMH families (206 individuals, 80 affected) and 12 Utah families (120 individuals, 49 affected). LOD scores were negative in these new families, even allowing for heterogeneity, as were results using affected sibpair methods. However, one Utah family provided a LOD score of 1.3. We also screened the SCA1 trinucleotide repeat to search for expansions characteristic of this disorder in these families and in 38 additional unrelated schizophrenics. We found 1 schizophrenic with 41 repeats, which is substantially larger than the maximum size of 36 repeats observed in previous studies of several hundred controls. We are now assessing whether the distribution of SCA1 repeats differs significantly in schizophrenia versus controls. Recent reports suggest possible anticipation in schizophrenia (also characteristic of SCA1) and a few cases of psychiatric symptoms suggesting schizophrenia have been observed in the highly related disorder DRPLA (SCA2), which is also based on trinucleotide repeat expansion. These findings suggest that further investigations of this gene and chromosome region may be a priority.

  8. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  9. Firo-B Interpersonal Compatibility: A Suggested Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Copeland, Ellis P.

    1980-01-01

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Behavior (FIRO-B) scale is a measure of inclusion, control and affection. Examination of the component algorithms which yield its global compatibility score suggest an inconsistent use of absolute values and real numbers. A modification of Schutz's original mathematical schema is presented.…

  10. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology of a nu...... neurogenesis provide a novel set of characters that highlight the developmental plasticity of the segmented annelid nervous system....

  11. Teaching Visual Literacy across the Curriculum: Suggestions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Deandra

    2015-01-01

    This final chapter highlights seven general suggestions and strategies for faculty (and others) working to develop visual literacy in classrooms and across the curriculum. The chapters throughout this volume illustrate and elaborate on these strategies; they are condensed here as a quick guide to effective practice.

  12. Suggested Guidelines for Screen Layouts and Design of Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents detailed guidelines based on the literature for screen layout and design of online catalogs, and discusses the potential advantages in terms of number of transactions per hour and user satisfaction. Further research questions are suggested and an extensive bibliography is provided. (CLB)

  13. Should Authors be Requested to Suggest Peer Reviewers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Al-Khatib, Aceil

    2017-02-02

    As part of a continuous process to explore the factors that might weaken or corrupt traditional peer review, in this paper, we query the ethics, fairness and validity of the request, by editors, of authors to suggest peer reviewers during the submission process. One of the reasons for the current crisis in science pertains to a loss in trust as a result of a flawed peer review which is by nature biased unless it is open peer review. As we indicate, the fact that some editors and journals rely on authors' suggestions in terms of who should peer review their paper already instills a potential way to abuse the trust of the submission and publishing system. An author-suggested peer reviewer choice might also tempt authors to seek reviewers who might be more receptive or sympathetic to the authors' message or results, and thus favor the outcome of that paper. Authors should thus not be placed in such a potentially ethically compromising situation, especially as a mandatory condition for submission. However, the fact that they do not have an opt-out choice during the submission process-especially when using an online submission system that makes such a suggestion compulsory-may constitute a violation of authors' rights.

  14. Suggestion in Education: The Historical Path of Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Mary L.

    Although techniques of autosuggestion in personal development have a long history in some Eastern cultures, suggestibility as a character trait first came into focus in the West with the "animal magnetism" of Franz Mesmer. The uncovering of the nature and phenomena of hypnosis resulted in a steady and enduring interest in this state of…

  15. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7... should be submitted, in writing, to the Security Officer, Office of National Drug Control...

  16. Constructive suggestions for the practical education of professional life counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J

    2005-09-01

    Professional life counselors will serve an increasingly important role in the life quality of global citizens in the 21st century. The optimal preparation of service providers will reflect basic principles of human development, professional helping, and educational processes. The dynamic systems appreciations of constructivism offer valuable scaffoldings for mentoring and apprenticeship in human helping. Suggestions are made for practical refinements in professional education.

  17. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  18. 18 CFR 154.8 - Informal submission for staff suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... company may informally submit a proposed tariff or any part thereof or material relating thereto for the... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal submission for staff suggestions. 154.8 Section 154.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  19. Firo-B Interpersonal Compatibility: A Suggested Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Copeland, Ellis P.

    1980-01-01

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Behavior (FIRO-B) scale is a measure of inclusion, control and affection. Examination of the component algorithms which yield its global compatibility score suggest an inconsistent use of absolute values and real numbers. A modification of Schutz's original mathematical schema is presented.…

  20. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…