WorldWideScience

Sample records for diverse river systems

  1. Diversity of macrozoobenthos on Orlice river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spacek, J.; Koza, V.; Havlicek, V.

    2003-01-01

    There are 2 saprobiology monitoring profiles and 1 faunictic research profile on Orlice river, 5 saprobiology monitoring profiles and 2 faunictic research profile on Divoka Orlice river, 4 saprobiology monitoring profiles on Ticha Orlice river. It was collected 255 taxons of macrozoobentos on long therm research in years 1996-2002. Number of taxons: Turbellaria 3, Oligochaeta 13, Nematomorpha 1, Hirudinea 4, Gastropoda 6, Bivalvia 4, Malacostraca 3, Hydracarina 1, Odonata 4, Ephemeroptera 42, Plecoptera 28, Heteroptera 1, Megaloptera 2, Coleoptera 6, Trichoptera 70, Diptera 16, Diptera - Chironomidae 40, Diptera - Simuliidae 11. On locality Blesno - Orlice was discovered very rare plecoptera species Agnetina elegantula (KLAPALEK, 1905), on locality Chocen - Ticha Orlice was discovered rare chironomidae species Symposiocladius lignicola (KIEFFER, 1915). (authors)

  2. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  3. Re: Soviet river diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jas O.

    The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

  4. Linking hydro-morphology with invertebrate ecology in diverse morphological units of a large river-floodplain system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blettler, MCM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary research in the fields of ecohydrology and ecogeomorphology is becoming increasingly important as a way to understand how biological and physical processes interact with each other in river systems. The objectives of the current...

  5. Field Operations For The "Intelligent River" Observation System: A Basin-wide Water Quality Observation System In The Savannah River Basin And Platform Supporting Related Diverse Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A.; Koons, M.; O'Brien-Gayes, P.; Moorer, R.; Hallstrom, J.; Post, C.; Gayes, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Intelligent River (IR) initiative is an NSF sponsored study developing new data management technology for a range of basin-scale applications. The technology developed by Florida Atlantic and Clemson University established a network of real-time reporting water quality sondes; from the mountains to the estuary of the Savannah River basin. Coastal Carolina University led the field operations campaign. Ancillary studies, student projects and initiatives benefitted from the associated instrumentation, infrastructure and operational support of the IR program. This provided a vehicle for students to participate in fieldwork across the watershed and pursue individual interests. Student projects included: 1) a Multibeam sonar survey investigating channel morphology in the area of an IR sensor station and 2) field tests of developing techniques for acquiring and assimilating flood velocity data into model systems associated with a separate NSF Rapid award. The multibeam survey within the lower Savannah basin exhibited a range of complexity in bathymetry, bedforms and bottom habitat in the vicinity of one of the water quality stations. The complex morphology and bottom habitat reflect complex flow patterns, localized areas of depositional and erosive tendencies providing a valuable context for considering point-source water quality time series. Micro- Lagrangian drifters developed by ISENSE at Florida Atlantic University, a sled mounted ADCP, and particle tracking from imagery collected by a photogrammetric drone were tested and used to develop methodology for establishing velocity, direction and discharge levels to validate, initialize and assimilate data into advance models systems during future flood events. The prospect of expanding wide scale observing systems can serve as a platform to integrate small and large-scale cooperative studies across disciplines as well as basic and applied research interests. Such initiatives provide opportunities for embedded education

  6. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2009-01-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  7. Genetic diversity in populations of plants with different breeding and dispersal strategies in a free-flowing boreal river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, E; Andersson, E

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the genetic diversity of three plant species: Angelica archangelica (Apiacieae), Bistorta vivipara (Polygonaceae) and Viscaria alpina (Caryophyllaceae) along the free-flowing Vindel River in northern Sweden. The plants differ in reproductive strategy. A archangelica and V. alpina are insect pollinated outbreeders while B. vivipara reproduces with apomixis through bulbils. The seeds of A. archangelica may float for over a year, while the propagules (seeds and bulbils, respectively) of V. alpina and B. vivipara float for less than two days. Genetic diversity was assessed using starch gel electrophoresis. The clonal diversity of B. vivipara measured by Simpson's index (D) ranged between 0.78 and 0.99. Only a few clones were shared between localities. The average percentages polymorphic loci and mean He based on polymorphic loci for V. alpina over all localities were 23.1 and 0.15, respectively. Wright's F-statistics showed a significant overall deficit of heterozygotes. The diversity of A. archangelica was found to increase downstream. Genetic diversity of each species is sufficiently high to be used in studies on hydrochory. Dispersal appears to be related to the floating ability of progagules.

  8. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    , in urban waters strongly influenced by seepage of large rivers. Chironomid assemblages were studied in urban surface-water systems (man-made drainage ditches) in polder areas along lowland reaches of the rivers Rhine-Meuse in The Netherlands. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the key environmental...... factors. Taxon richness, Shannon index (H'), rareness of species, and life-history strategies at urban locations were compared with available data from similar man-made water bodies in rural areas, and the effectiveness of dredging for restoring chironomid diversity in urban waters was tested. Three......, chironomid taxon richness was negatively related to sludge layer and %% cover of lemnids. Dredging changed chironomid species composition, and increased taxon richness and life-history strategies indicative of good O2 conditions. Therefore, dredging can be regarded as an effective measure to restore...

  9. Plankton diversity as bioindicator of Surakarta rivers quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Rivers have essential role in human cultures. They are sanctuary for amount of biodiversity, but threatened seriously now. The objective of this research is to know Surakarta (Solo rivers quality based on plankton diversity. This town has amount of kampongs and industrial estates that discard wastes to rivers directly. Plankton community is one of the river qualities indicators, because pollutant and other organisms can influence their population. The research was conducted at four rivers in Surakarta, namely Pepe River, Premulung River, Anyar River and Jenes River. Data was collected in triple before and after rivers through the town. Data was analyzed by diversity index of Shannon Wienner. The result indicated that Surakarta rivers had been polluted in degree of lightly to seriously.

  10. Diversion path analysis at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaumann, C.M.; Stanford, C.A.; Thomason, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Diversion Path Analysis has been performed for parts of an enriched uranium facility at Savannah River Plant. Results of the analysis have proven helpful for evaluating and improving internal control safeguards in the facility. An abbreviated form of the initial Diversion Path Analysis method was developed for use at Savannah River Plant. It reduces the analysis time and improves presentation of results

  11. Reproductive strategy, clonal structure and genetic diversity in populations of the aquatic macrophyte Sparganium emersum in river systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; de Jong, M.D.E.; Steegh, A.; Verbruggen, E.; Van Groenendael, J.M.; Ouborg, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Many aquatic and riparian plant species are characterized by the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. Yet, little is known about how spatial variation in sexual and asexual reproduction affects the genotypic diversity within populations of aquatic and riparian plants. We used six

  12. phytoplankton diversity indices of Osse River, Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    The phytoplankton diversity indices of Osse River, Edo State, Nigeria, were investigated monthly from January. 2003 to April 2004. ... river using a plankton net of 55µm mesh net tied to a motorized boat and towed at low speed for five minutes at each station. ...... of the freshwater, brackish and marine phytoplankton of.

  13. Phytoplankton diversity indices of Osse river, Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytoplankton diversity indices of Osse River, Edo State, Nigeria, were investigated monthly from January 2003 to April 2004. The plankton samples were collected from five sampling stations in the open water of the river using a plankton net of 55μm mesh net tied to a motorized boat and towed at low speed for five ...

  14. Diversity And Sustainability Of Small – Scale Farming In Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the diversity and sustainability attributes of crops grown by small – scale farmers in Calabar Urban of Cross River State. It has as its objectives, the identification of the structure of agricultural system in Calabar- Urban, the determination of the types and diversity of crops grown by the farmers, the extent ...

  15. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, C. L.; Baxter, G. S.; Dickman, C. R.; Lisle, A.; Leung, L. K.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning. PMID:26637127

  16. Maintaining healthy rivers and lakes through water diversion from Yangtze River to Taihu Lake in Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Haoyun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Taihu water resources assessment, an analysis of the importance and rationality of the water diversion from the Yangtze River to Taihu Lake in solving the water problem and establishing a harmonious eco-environment in the Taihu Basin is performed. The water quantity and water quality conjunctive dispatching decision-making support system, which ensures flood control, water supply and eco-aimed dispatching, is built by combining the water diversion with flood control dispatching and strengthening water resources monitoring and forecasting. With the practice and effect assessment, measures such as setting the integrated basin management format, further developing water diversion and improving the hydraulic engineering projects system and water monitoring system are proposed in order to maintain healthy rivers and guarantee the development of the economy and society in the Taihu Basin.

  17. Ichthyological diversity of Inambari River, Madre de Dios, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Palacios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of this study were to know the diversity of fishes in the Inambari river basin, at Mazuco district, (Madre de Dios and the state of conservation of the aquatic habitats. Samples were collected from 22 stations using seines of small mesh (5mm and recording data from each habitat. Taxonomic composition of fishes, diversity and abundance, ecological characterization by altitudinal range, habitat and water type; and the conservation state of each water bodies have been studied. A total of 1411 individuals were collected and four orders, 13 families, 35 genera and 52 species were identified. The groups with more diversity were Characiformes (65% and Siluriformes (25%. Three new records for Peru: Serrapinnus notomelas, Pseudopimelodus bufonius y Pseudocetopsis gobiodes and one endemic species: Chaetostoma marcapatae have been register. The altitudinal pattern influence in micro habitats presence and as consequence in abundance and species richness; so higher richness and abundance were found in the lower zone (52 species and 1309 individuals, in streams (44 species and rivers (712 individuals. According type of water, the clearwaters showed higher values of richness (37 species and the whitewater higher abundance (789 individuals. The higher diversity indexes (H’ were found in the rivers, white waters and altitudes lower. The higher values of Index of Biological Integrity (IBI were obtained in the main channel of the Río Inambari, up river of Mazuko and lower values in the Mirador stream, down river of Mazuko, where it was observed gold mining activity artisanal.

  18. Diversity in the Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system. Lymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10⁷ different clonotypes protect humans against infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against self-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity

  19. 43 CFR 418.21 - Diversion of Truckee River water to Lahontan Reservoir, July through December.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diversion of Truckee River water to Lahontan Reservoir, July through December. 418.21 Section 418.21 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... Truckee River water to Lahontan Reservoir, July through December. Truckee River diversions through the...

  20. Spatial Patterns in Biofilm Diversity across Hierarchical Levels of River-Floodplain Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Peipoch

    Full Text Available River-floodplain systems are among the most diverse and productive ecosystems, but the effects of biophysical complexity at multiple scales on microbial biodiversity have not been studied. Here, we investigated how the hierarchical organization of river systems (i.e., region, floodplain, zone, habitats, and microhabitats influences epilithic biofilm community assemblage patterns by characterizing microbial communities using 16S rRNA gene sequence data and analyzing bacterial species distribution across local and regional scales. Results indicate that regional and local environmental filters concurrently sort bacterial species, suggesting that spatial configuration of epilithic biofilms resembles patterns of larger organisms in floodplain ecosystems. Along the hierarchical organization of fluvial systems, floodplains constitute a vector of maximum environmental heterogeneity and consequently act as a major landscape filter for biofilm species. Thus, river basins and associated floodplains may simply reflect very large scale 'patches' within which environmental conditions select for community composition of epilithic biofilms.

  1. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Fishes of River Bharathapuzha, Kerala, India: diversity, distribution, threats and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bijukumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here a comprehensive account of the diversity, distribution, threats, and suggest conservation measures for the fishes of Bharathapuzha, the largest west flowing river in the southern Indian state of Kerala. A total of 117 species under 43 families and 81 genera were recorded from the river, of which 98 were primary freshwater and 19 were secondary freshwater and/or diadromous species. Six species of non-native fish were also recorded, of which three were exotic to the country and three were transplanted from the gangetic plains. Twenty-eight percent (S = 33 of species that occur in the Bharathapuzha are endemic to the Western Ghats, while three species (Balitora jalpalli, Mesonoemacheilus remadevii and Pseudolaguvia austrina are restricted in their distribution to the river system. A little more than one-tenth (11%; S = 13 of species that occur in the river are listed under various threatened categories on the IUCN Red List. As part of this study, we also extend the distribution range of Osteochilichthys longidorsalis to the Bharathapuzha River system, based on its collection from the Thoothapuzha tributary. Several anthropogenic stressors including deforestation and loss of riparian cover, dams and other impoundments, pollution, sand mining, non-native species and destructive fishing practices are threatening the rich ichthyofaunal diversity and endemism in the Bharathapuzha. There is hence an urgent need to develop and implement conservation plans, some of which are discussed.

  2. Diversity of Chrysophyceae (Heterocontophyta in the Zasavica River (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of the Chrysophyceae class of algae have not been undertaken in Serbia thus far. The golden algae usually occur during the winter and spring months. Chrysophyceae of the Zasavica River in Serbia were studied at two localities from December 2012 to Jun 2013. In our research, 26 taxa were recorded and the genus with the highest diversity was Mallomonas (15 species. The most abundant species during the whole study period were Synura uvella, Dinobryon divergens and Dinobryon sociale. At the beginning of summer, Chrysophyceae disappeared from the phytoplankton community. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176020 i br. III 43004

  3. Diversity of metazoan parasites of the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852, as indicators of pollution in the Limpopo and Olifants River systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace N. Madanire-Moyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic systems are affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities that decrease water quality through the introduction of organic and inorganic pollutants. To investigate the relationship between fish parasite communities and water quality, metazoan parasites were examined in 140 specimens of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus sampled in three lakes in the Limpopo Province, namely the Luphephe–Nwanedi Dams (regarded as unpolluted, the Flag Boshielo Dam (regarded as moderately polluted and a return water dam on a mine site (regarded as polluted. The monogenean parasites Cichlidogyrus halli, digenean larval stages of Clinostomum and Diplostomum spp. and a gryporynchid cestode were found in or on O. mossambicus in all the sampled sites. The distribution of monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, Cichlidogyrus dossoui, Cichlidogyrus tilapiae, Scutogyrus longicornis and three Enterogyrus spp., metacercarial stages of two digeneans (Neascus and Acanthostomum spp. and nematodes (an unidentified nematode, Contracaecum sp., Paracamallanus cyathopharynx and Procamallanus laevionchus was limited to the unpolluted and moderately polluted lakes. Larval stages of Diplostomum sp. were present in O. mossambicus collected from the unpolluted and polluted sites. The variability of the calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity and the parameters of species richness and diversity suggest that the structure of parasite communities are affected by the pollution levels of the water. The unpolluted reference site had the highest species richness and the highest overall parasite abundance values.

  4. Diversity of metazoan parasites of the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852), as indicators of pollution in the Limpopo and Olifants River systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanire-Moyo, Grace N; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Olivier, Pieter A

    2012-02-16

    Aquatic systems are affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities that decrease water quality through the introduction of organic and inorganic pollutants. To investigate the relationship between fish parasite communities and water quality, metazoan parasites were examined in 140 specimens of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) sampled in three lakes in the Limpopo Province, namely the Luphephe-Nwanedi Dams (regarded as unpolluted), the Flag Boshielo Dam (regarded as moderately polluted) and a return water dam on a mine site (regarded as polluted). The monogenean parasites Cichlidogyrus halli, digenean larval stages of Clinostomum and Diplostomum spp. and a gryporynchid cestode were found in or on O. mossambicus in all the sampled sites. The distribution of monogeneans (Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, Cichlidogyrus dossoui, Cichlidogyrus tilapiae, Scutogyrus longicornis and three Enterogyrus spp.), metacercarial stages of two digeneans (Neascus and Acanthostomum spp.) and nematodes (an unidentified nematode, Contracaecum sp., Paracamallanus cyathopharynx and Procamallanus laevionchus) was limited to the unpolluted and moderately polluted lakes. Larval stages of Diplostomum sp. were present in O. mossambicus collected from the unpolluted and polluted sites. The variability of the calculated infection indices (prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity) and the parameters of species richness and diversity suggest that the structure of parasite communities are affected by the pollution levels of the water. The unpolluted reference site had the highest species richness and the highest overall parasite abundance values.

  5. Life history diversity of Snake River finespotted cutthroat trout: managing for persistence in a rapidly changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Kristen M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, native trout have experienced dramatic population declines, particularly in larger river systems where habitats associated with different spawning life history forms have been lost through habitat degradation and fragmentation. The resulting decrease in life history diversity has affected the capacity of populations to respond to environmental variability and disturbance. Unfortunately, because few large rivers are intact enough to permit full expression of life history diversity, it is unclear what patterns of diversity should be a conservation target. In this study, radiotelemetry was used to identify spawning and migration patterns of Snake River Finespotted Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii behnkei in the upper Snake River. Individuals were implanted with radio tags in October 2007 and 2008, and monitored through October 2009. Radio-tagged cutthroat trout in the upper Snake River exhibited variation in spawning habitat type and location, migration distance, spawn timing, postspawning behavior, and susceptibility to mortality sources. Between May and July, Cutthroat Trout spawned in runoff-dominated tributaries, groundwater-dominated spring creeks, and side channels of the Snake River. Individuals migrated up to 101 km from tagging locations in the upper Snake River to access spawning habitats, indicating that the upper Snake River provided seasonal habitat for spawners originating throughout the watershed. Postspawning behavior also varied; by August each year, 28% of spring-creek spawners remained in their spawning location, compared with 0% of side-channel spawners and 7% of tributary spawners. These spawning and migration patterns reflect the connectivity, habitat diversity, and dynamic template of the Snake River. Ultimately, promoting life history diversity through restoration of complex habitats may provide the most opportunities for cutthroat trout persistence in an environment likely to experience increased variability from

  6. Diversity of Cyanobacteria in the Zasavica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are ancient organisms that are capable of colonizing different habitats in various climatic zones due to their plasticity and rapid accommodation. They are a widely studied group of microorganisms due to the presence of many potentially toxic and invasive species. The aim of this research was a diversity exploration of the freshwater Cyanobacteria in the Zasavica River, which is part of the Special Nature Reserve “Zasavica” in Serbia. Organisms were sampled once a month at two study sites during one year. Phytoplankton and metaphyton analysis showed the presence of 50 freshwater cyanobacterial taxa, of which 12 are new taxa for Serbia. Three invasive and potentially toxic species (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Sphaerospermopsis aphanizomenoides and Raphidiopsis mediterranea were recorded only in metaphyton in April at one site. It can be expected that, if conditions change, this species can migrate and form phytoplankton blooms. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 176020

  7. Observational and numerical particle tracking to examine sediment dynamics in a Mississippi River delta diversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mead A.; Yuill, Brendan T.; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Marsh, Jonathan K.; Kolker, Alexander S.; Ameen, Alexander D.

    2017-07-01

    River diversions may serve as useful restoration tools along coastal deltas experiencing land loss due to high rates of relative sea-level rise and the disruption of natural sediment supply. Diversions mitigate land loss by serving as new sediment sources for land building areas in basins proximal to river channels. However, because of the paucity of active diversions, little is known about how diversion receiving-basins evacuate or retain the sediment required to build new land. This study uses observational and numerical particle tracking to investigate the behavior of riverine sand and silt as it enters and passes through the West Bay diversion receiving-basin located on the lowermost Mississippi River delta, USA. Fluorescent sediment tracer was deployed and tracked within the bed sediment over a five-month period to identify locations of sediment deposition in the receiving-basin and nearby river channel. A computational fluid dynamics model with a Lagrangian sediment transport module was employed to predict selective pathways for riverine flow and sand and silt particles through the receiving-basin. Observations of the fluorescent tracer provides snapshots of the integrated sediment response to the full range of drivers in the natural system; the numerical model results offer a continuous map of sediment advection vectors through the receiving basin in response to river-generated currents. Together, these methods provide insight into local and basin-wide values of sediment retention as influenced by grain size, transport time, and basin morphology. Results show that after two weeks of low Mississippi River discharge, basin silt retention was approximately 60% but was reduced to 4% at the conclusion of the study. Riverine sand retention was approximately near 100% at two weeks and 40% over the study period. Modeled sediment storage was predicted to be greatest at the margins of the primary basin transport pathway; this matched the observed dynamics of the silt

  8. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  9. Diversity of metazoan parasites of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) as indicators of pollution in a subtropical African river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanire-Moyo, G; Barson, M

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between parasite species diversity and organic pollution in the upper Manyame catchment, Zimbabwe, was investigated between October 2006 and January 2007. The parasite assemblage comprised 13 species in total. Species richness in the unpolluted sites was high; in the moderately polluted sites, it was low, while in the polluted sites, only one parasite species was encountered. Component community diversity, as measured by the Shannon index (H'), decreased with increase in organic pollution. The distribution and occurrence of ectoparasites (Dolops ranarum, Lamproglena clariae, Chonopeltis sp. and Macrogyrodactylus sp.) and one endoparasite (Lytocestus sp.) were limited to the unpolluted sites, demonstrating their sensitivity to organic pollution. The prevalence of the nematodes Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Procamallanus laevionchus and Contracaecum spp. larvae decreased along the pollution gradient, showing their high sensitivity to organic pollution. The platyhelminths Diplostomum sp. and Polyonchobothrium clarias were the most tolerant and occurred at both polluted and unpolluted sites. Proteocephalus sp. and Caryophyllaeus sp. were limited to the polluted sites, probably as a result of high abundance of oligochaetes and copepods, their intermediate hosts that thrive in sewage-enriched sediments, at the downstream sites. The observed results assume that the decrease in parasite diversity can be related to increased organic pollution. Some parasites requiring complex life histories were absent along with pollution-related disappearance of their vector hosts. Further studies should address the identification of parasite life stages that are more sensitive to pollutants.

  10. A snapshot on prokaryotic diversity of the Solimões River basin (Amazon, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, D; Santos-Júnior, C D; Kishi, L T; Oliveira, T C S; Garcia, J W; Sarmento, H; Miranda, F P; Henrique-Silva, F

    2017-05-18

    The Amazon region has the largest hydrographic basin on the planet and 
is well known for its huge biodiversity of plants and animals. However, 
there is a lack of studies on aquatic microbial biodiversity in the 
Solimões River, one of its main water courses. To investigate the 
microbial biodiversity of this region, we performed 16S rRNA gene clone 
libraries from Solimões River and adjacent rivers and lakes. Our question was which microorganisms inhabit the different types of aquatic 
environments in this part of the basin, and how diversity varies among 
these environments (rivers and lakes). The microbial 
diversity generating 13 clone libraries of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene 
and 5 libraries of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene was assessed. Diversity measured by several alpha diversity indices (ACE, Chao, Shannon and Simpson) revealed significant differences in diversity indices between lake and river samples. The site with higher microbial diversity was in the Solimões River (4S), downstream the confluence with Purus River. The most common bacterial taxon was the cosmopolitan Polynucleobacter genus, widely observed in all samples. The phylum Thaumarchaeota was the prevailing archaeal taxon. Our results provide the first insight into the microbial diversity of the world's largest river basin.

  11. Shift in bacterioplankton diversity and structure: Influence of anthropogenic disturbances along the Yarlung Tsangpo River on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Xun; Wang, Chao; Miao, Lingzhan; Hou, Jun; Yuan, Qiusheng

    2017-10-02

    River systems have critical roles in the natural water environment and the transportation of nutrients. Anthropogenic activities, including wastewater discharge and river damming, raise adverse impacts on ecosystem and continuum of rivers. An increasing amount of attention has been paid to riverine bacterioplankton as they make vital contributions to biogeochemical nutrient cycle. A comprehensive study was conducted on the bacterioplankton community along the Yarlung Tsangpo River, which is the longest plateau river in China and is suffering from various anthropogenic impacts. The results indicated that nutrient variations corresponded to anthropogenic activities, and silica, nitrogen and phosphorus were retained by the dam. River damming influenced the biomass and diversity of the bacterioplankton, but significant alterations in the community structure were not observed between upstream and downstream of the dam. Moreover, the spatial distribution of the bacterioplankton community changed gradually along the river, and the dominant bacterioplankton in the upstream, midstream and downstream portions of the river were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, respectively. Soluble reactive phosphorus, elevation, ammonium nitrogen, velocity and turbidity were the main environmental factors that shape the bacterioplankton community. Our study offers the first insights into the variation of a bacterioplankton community of a large river in plateau region.

  12. Patterns of variation in diversity of the Mississippi river microbiome over 1,300 kilometers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Payne

    Full Text Available We examined the downriver patterns of variation in taxonomic diversity of the Mississippi River bacterioplankton microbiome along 1,300 river kilometers, or approximately one third the total length of the river. The study section included portions of the Upper, Middle, and Lower Mississippi River, confluences with five tributaries draining distinct sub-basins, river cities, and extended stretches without major inputs to the Mississippi. The composition and proportional abundance of dominant bacterial phyla was distinct for free-living and particle-associated cells, and constant along the entire reach, except for a substantial but transient disturbance near the city of Memphis, Tennessee. At a finer scale of taxonomic resolution (operational taxonomic units, OTUs, however, there were notable patterns in downriver variation in bacterial community alpha diversity (richness within a site and beta diversity (variation in composition among sites. There was a strong and steady increase downriver in alpha diversity of OTUs on suspended particles, suggesting an increase in particle niche heterogeneity, and/or particle colonization. Relatively large shifts in beta diversity of free-living and particle-associated communities occurred following major tributary confluences and transiently at Memphis, while in long stretches between these points diversity typically varied more gradually. We conclude that the Mississippi River possesses a bacterioplankton microbiome distinct in diversity from other large river microbiomes in the Mississippi River Basin, that at major river confluences or urban point sources its OTU diversity may shift abruptly and substantially, presumably by immigration of distinct external microbiomes, but that where environmental conditions are more stable along the downriver gradient, microbiome diversity tends to vary gradually, presumably by a process of successional change in community composition.

  13. Diversity, threats and conservation of catfish fauna of the Krishna River, Sangli District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kumbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of freshwater catfish species of the Krishna River, Sangli District was studied from June 2009 to July 2012. The study area covered 105km from Karad City where the Koyna tributary joins the Krishna River up to Mhaishal, the state border of Maharashtra. It was divided into three streams for convenience, i.e., the upper stream starts from Karad and goes up to Takari, the middle stream from Takari to Bhilawadi and downstream from Bhilawadi to Mhaishal. A total of 13 species of catfish belonging to five families and 10 genera were recorded. The Bagridae family was dominant with six species, whereas Siluridae, Schilbidae and Clariidae had two species each and Sisoridae with one species. We have provided range extension for an endemic and threatened sisorid catfish Glyptothorax poonaensis. The occurrence and distribution of catfishes was more or less equal in number along the study area. The maximum number of species recorded was nine from the upper stream, whereas the middle and down streams had eight and seven species respectively. The distribution of catfish along the Krishna River system may be due to the slow and steady state water movement and its width that ensure the continuous availability of nutrition. It is suggested that the Krishna River would be a suitable habitat for the conservation of freshwater catfish if the threats are minimized.

  14. Macroinvertebrate diversity in the karst Jadro River (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađa Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of 10 years of investigation of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along the karst Jadro River. The Jadro is a typical karst river. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along the river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling, in addition to which several physicochemical parameters were also determined. Based on qualitative and quantitative composition of the macroinvertebrate fauna, correspondence analysis divided the river course into three sections: upstream, midcourse, and downstream. Forty-three taxa were recorded. Results of saprobiological analysis based on macrozoobenthos indicate that water of the Jadro River belongs to quality classes I and II.

  15. River System Behaviour Effects on Flood Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Van Mierlo, M.C.L.M.; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  16. River system behaviour effects on flood risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Mierlo, M.C.L.M. van; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  17. Factors Influencing Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in Municipal Drinking Waters in the Ohio River Basin, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Stanish, Lee F.; Hull, Natalie M.; Robertson, Charles E.; Harris, J. Kirk; Stevens, Mark J.; Spear, John R.; Pace, Norman R.

    2016-01-01

    The composition and metabolic activities of microbes in drinking water distribution systems can affect water quality and distribution system integrity. In order to understand regional variations in drinking water microbiology in the upper Ohio River watershed, the chemical and microbiological constituents of 17 municipal distribution systems were assessed. While sporadic variations were observed, the microbial diversity was generally dominated by fewer than 10 taxa, and was driven by the amou...

  18. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  19. Bridging the gaps: An overview of wood across time and space in diverse rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 50 years of research focused on large wood (LW) in rivers provide a basis for understanding how wood enters rivers; how wood decays, breaks, and is transported downstream; and how at least temporarily stable wood influences channel geometry, fluxes of water, sediment, and organic matter, and the abundance and diversity of aquatic and riparian organisms. Field-based studies have led to qualitative conceptual models and to numerical stimulations of river processes involving wood. Numerous important gaps remain, however, in our understanding of wood dynamics. The majority of research on wood in rivers focuses on small- to medium-sized rivers, defined using the ratio of wood piece size to channel width as channels narrower than the locally typical wood-piece length (small) and slightly narrower than the longer wood pieces present (medium). Although diverse geographic regions and biomes are represented by one or a few studies in each region, the majority of research comes from perennial rivers draining temperate conifer forests. Regional syntheses most commonly focus on the Pacific Northwest region of North America where most of these studies originate. Consequently, significant gaps in our understanding include lack of knowledge of wood-related processes in large rivers, dryland rivers, and rivers of the high and low latitudes. Using a wood budget as an organizing framework, this paper identifies other gaps related to wood recruitment, transport, storage, and how beavers influence LW dynamics. With respect to wood recruitment, we lack information on the relative importance of mass tree mortality and transport of buried or surficial downed wood from the floodplain into the channel in diverse settings. Knowledge gaps related to wood transport include transport distances of LW and thresholds for LW mobility in small to medium rivers. With respect to wood storage, we have limited data on longitudinal trends in LW loads within unaltered large and great rivers and on

  20. Tanzania River Scoring System (TARISS): a macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biological assessment of rivers using aquatic macroinvertebrates is an internationally recognised approach for the determination of riverine ecological conditions. In this study a Tanzanian macroinvertebrate-based biotic method, Tanzania River Scoring System (TARISS), was developed in 2012, based on the South ...

  1. [Age structure and genetic diversity of Homatula pycnolepis in the Nujiang River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xing-Jian; Liu, Shao-Ping; Liu, Ming-Dian; Duan, Xin-Bin; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the age structure of the Loach, Homatula pycnolepis through the otolith growth rings in 204 individual specimens collected from the Xiaomengtong River of the Nujiang River (Salween River) basin in April, 2008. There were only two different age classes, 1 and 2 years of age-no 3 year olds were detected. The age structure of H. pycnolepis was simple. The complete mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences (1140) of 80 individuals from 4 populations collected in the Nujiang River drainage were sequenced and a total of 44 variable sites were found among 4 different haplotypes. The global haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) were calculated at 0.7595, 0.0151 respectively, and 0, 0 in each population, indicating a consistent lack of genetic diversity in each small population. There was obvious geographic structure in both the Nujiang River basin (NJB) group, and the Nanding River (NDR) group. The genetic distance between NJB and NDR was calculated at 0.0356, suggesting that genetic divergence resulted from long-term isolation of individual population. Such a simple age structure and a lack of genetic diversity in H. pycnolepis may potentially be due to small populations and locale fishing pressures. Accordingly, the results of this study prompt us to recommend that the NJB, NDR and Lancang River populations should be protected as three different evolutionary significant units or separated management units.

  2. Downstream fish passage on Black River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downstream fish passage of juvenile alewife at the Black River hydroelectric system has traditionally been directed by a major screen assembly to a route avoiding altogether four out of five small hydroelectric power plants. This system includes retention of larvae/juveniles in a lake until mid July, diversion of fish via a major screen assembly and by-passing of a station using a fish ladder. However, difficulties with the arrangement have resulted in increasing numbers of fish passing by all five stations. A second option which reduces labour and maintenance activities and promotes increased growth of fish as they pass from reservoir to reservoir involves use of simple fishways coupled with fish pulsers to deflect fish from the station intakes. The fish pulsers use 100 Hz frequency at 20 pulses per minute placed directly in front of the station intake at a depth of 3 m. Both strategies have contributed to increased fish production and migration such that the present run is 5 million to 8 million fish. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Effects of geological changes and climatic fluctuations on the demographic histories and low genetic diversity of Squaliobarbus curriculus in Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Song, Na; Wang, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-09-15

    The 104 samples of Squaliobarbus curriculus were collected from four localities in Yellow River and one region in Yangtze River. Analyses of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA control region of 555bp revealed only 15 polymorphism sites and defined 19 haplotypes. Low-to-moderate levels of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity were observed in Yellow River populations (h=0.2529-0.7510, π=0.0712%-0.2197%). In contrast, Poyang Lake population showed high haplotype diversity and lower-middle nucleotide diversity (h=0.9636, π=0.5317%). Low genetic differentiation was estimated among Yellow River populations and significant level of genetic structure was detected between two rivers. Population genetic structure between two rivers was believed to be connected with geographical barriers and paleoclimatic events. The demographic history of S. curriculus in Yellow River examined by neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and Bayesian skyline analysis suggested a sudden and spatial population expansion dating to the Holocene. Climatic warming and changes of Yellow River course may have important effects on demographic facet of S. curriculus history. The same signal was also obtained on Poyang Lake population in late Pleistocene during the last interglacial period. During the period, the pronounced climatic change and the water system variation of PYL may have an important influence on the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  5. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  6. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  7. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, P.J.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Hohl, T.M.; Empey, P.A.; Wells, M.N.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  8. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  9. Metabolic diversity of the heterotrophic microorganisms and potential link to pollution of the Rouge River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiquia, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The heterotrophic microbial communities of the Rouge River were tracked using Biolog Ecoplates to understand the metabolic diversity at different temporal and spatial scales, and potential link to river pollution. Site less impacted by anthrophogenic sources (site 1), showed markedly lower metabolic diversity. The only substrates that were utilized in the water samples were carbohydrates. Sites more impacted by anthrophogenic sources (sites 8 and 9) showed higher metabolic diversity. Higher functional diversity was linked to the physico-chemical and biological properties of the water samples (i.e. higher concentrations of DO, DOC, chlorophyll, and bacterial density). Biolog analysis was found to be useful in differentiating metabolic diversity between microbial communities; in determining factors that most influence the separation of communities; and in identifying which substrates were most utilized by the communities. It can also be used as an effective ecological indicator of changes in river function attributable to urbanization and pollution. - BIOLOG differentiated metabolic diversity between microbial communities and can be used as ecological indicator of river function attributable to urbanization and pollution.

  10. Phytoplankton Diversity in the Cross River Estuary of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    environmental health or biological integrity of a particular water body. The Cross River estuary has been described as one of the richest inland fisheries resources in Nigeria, contributing one of the highest quotas of fish production (Moses, 2000) and that 90% of Nigeria's total marine/brackish water output comes from this ...

  11. A survey of zooplankton diversity of Challawa river, Kano and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended that appropriate authorities should ensure that neighboring industries comply with emission standards set out by government with the view to minimizing the negative effects of their actions on both humans and aquatic biodiversity of the river. Similarly, it was recommended that there should be continual ...

  12. Algal diversity of Adada River, Nigeria. I. Chlorophyta (green algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial water tankers collect water and sell to indigenes and towns around the river, hence the need to investigate the algal biodiversity in other to access its suitability for human consumption using known algal indicators of water quality and add to the pool of data useful for long term trends in floral composition in ...

  13. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Functional diversity and community assembly of river invertebrates show globally consistent responses to decreasing glacier cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Khamis, Kieran; Wilkes, Martin; Blaen, Phillip; Brittain, John E; Carrivick, Jonathan L; Fell, Sarah; Friberg, Nikolai; Füreder, Leopold; Gislason, Gisli M; Hainie, Sarah; Hannah, David M; James, William H M; Lencioni, Valeria; Olafsson, Jon S; Robinson, Christopher T; Saltveit, Svein J; Thompson, Craig; Milner, Alexander M

    2018-02-01

    Global change threatens invertebrate biodiversity and its central role in numerous ecosystem functions and services. Functional trait analyses have been advocated to uncover global mechanisms behind biodiversity responses to environmental change, but the application of this approach for invertebrates is underdeveloped relative to other organism groups. From an evaluation of 363 records comprising >1.23 million invertebrates collected from rivers across nine biogeographic regions on three continents, consistent responses of community trait composition and diversity to replicated gradients of reduced glacier cover are demonstrated. After accounting for a systematic regional effect of latitude, the processes shaping river invertebrate functional diversity are globally consistent. Analyses nested within individual regions identified an increase in functional diversity as glacier cover decreases. Community assembly models demonstrated that dispersal limitation was the dominant process underlying these patterns, although environmental filtering was also evident in highly glacierized basins. These findings indicate that predictable mechanisms govern river invertebrate community responses to decreasing glacier cover globally.

  15. Benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions in Lucknow

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P.K.; Agrahari, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Jain, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the benthic diversity of River Gomti in relation to the prevailing environmental conditions, four stations, viz., Maa Chandrika Devi, Daliganj, Ambedkar Park and Aquaduct, were identified from upstream to downstream along the course of the river in Lucknow. Dissolved oxygen was low on many occasions at all the stations except Maa Chandrika Devi and chemical oxygen demand values were high. There was a gradual increase in mean nitrite and phosphate values from up to downstream. Bent...

  16. Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

    2008-11-15

    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled.

  17. Algorithm Diversity for Resilent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    for this collection of informat ion is estimated to average 1 hour per response , inc luding the t ime for revie w ing instructions, searching e...failing to comply with a collect ion of informat ion if it does not display a currently valid OMS control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE...data structures. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computer security , software diversity, program transformation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18

  18. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  19. Taking the Pulse of a River System: Research on the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jennifer; Johnson, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Mark Twain raved about the Mississippi River basin as, 'the body of the Nation'. The 'upper body', upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River, includes commercially navigable reaches and branching tributaries that are recreationally and environmentally important. Together they feed and shelter an array of fish and wildlife in their flowing channels, floodplain lakes, backwaters, wetlands, and floodplain forests. Effective river management requires knowledge about factors controlling the dynamics and interactions of important ecosystem components. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) is the prized diagnostic tool in the Environmental Management Program for the Upper Mississippi River System that provides critical information about the status and trends of key environmental resources.

  20. DIVERSITY OF WATER ENVIRONMENT GASTROPODA IN A EMPAYANG-KASAP RIVER IN THE DISTRICT LAHAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desven Hecca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research has been conducted with the tittle the diversity of gastropods on the river water environment Empayang Lahat regency of South Sumatra province. The aim of this research species diversity of gastropods contained the region. This research was implemented conducted in October 2015, a river Empayang Kasap Sukajadi Lahat regency. The methods of this research is purposive random sampling method with 5 sampling stations, each station is divided into three substations (edges first, middle, edge 2 was determined by linear transects (line transect. The data of the sample was taken in the morning and afternoon. The results of this research were obtained 8 species of gastropods (Melanoides granifera, Elimia acuta, Brotia tetidinaria, Lymnae stagnalist, Lymnae rubiginosa, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila polita and Menetus sp with 7 genus, and of the six tribes (families of 4 order. The total index of the diversity in the river Empayang Kasap Sukajadi Lahat district was of 2.09 to 2.46. The highest levels of diversity found in the station V (2.46 and the lowest at station I (2.09. While the value of dominance index (C with a range of 0.17 to 0.26 at five stations in the lower state, the highest level of dominance index at station I (0.26 and the lowest at station III (0.17. River water quality conditions greatly affect the existence of gastropods.

  1. Status and conservation of the fish fauna of the Alabama River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Irwin, E.R.; Burkhead, N.M.; Freeman, B.J.; Bart, H.L.; Rinne, John N.; Hughes, Robert M.; Calamusso, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The Alabama River system, comprising the Alabama, Coosa, and Tallapoosa subsystems, forms the eastern portion of the Mobile River drainage. Physiographic diversity and geologic history have fostered development in the Alabama River system of globally significant levels of aquatic faunal diversity and endemism. At least 184 fishes are native to the system, including at least 33 endemic species. During the past century, dam construction for hydropower generation and navigation resulted in 16 reservoirs that inundate 44% of the length of the Alabama River system main stems. This extensive physical and hydrologic alteration has affected the fish fauna in three major ways. Diadromous and migratory species have declined precipitously. Fish assemblages persisting downstream from large main-stem dams have been simplified by loss of species unable to cope with altered flow and water quality regimes. Fish populations persisting in the headwaters and in tributaries to the mainstem reservoirs are now isolated and subjected to effects of physical and chemical habitat degradation. Ten fishes in the Alabama River system (including seven endemic species) are federally listed as threatened or endangered. Regional experts consider at least 28 additional species to be vulnerable, threatened, or endangered with extinction. Conserving the Alabama River system fish fauna will require innovative dam management, protection of streams from effects of urbanization and water supply development, and control of alien species dispersal. Failure to manage aggressively for integrity of remaining unimpounded portions of the Alabama River system will result in reduced quality of natural resources for future generations, continued assemblage simplification, and species extinction.

  2. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  3. Rethinking the Mississippi River diversion for effective capture of riverine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. Jun

    2015-03-01

    Many river deltas in the world are vibrant economic regions, serving as transportation hubs, population centres, and commercial hotspots. However, today, many of these deltaic areas face a tremendous challenge with land loss due to a number of factors, such as reduced riverine sediment supply, coastal land erosion, subsidence, and sea level rise. The development of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain (MRDP) in southeast Louisiana, USA, over the past century is a good example. Since 1932, approximately 4877 km2 of the coastal land of MRDP has become submerged. The lower Mississippi River main channel entering the Gulf of Mexico has become an isolated waterway with both sides losing land. In contrast, large open water areas in the Mississippi River's distributary basin, the Atchafalaya River basin, have been silted up over the past century, and the river mouth has developed a prograding delta feature at its two outlets to the Gulf of Mexico. The retrospective analysis of this paper makes it clear that the main cause of the land loss in the MRDP is not the decline of riverine sediment, but the disconnection of the sediment sources from the natural flood plains. Future sediment management efforts in the MRDP should focus on restoring the natural connection of riverine sediment supplies with flood plains, rather than solely using channelized river diversion. This could be achieved through controlled overbank flooding (COF) and artificial floods in conjunction with the use of a hydrograph-based sediment availability assessment.

  4. Wastewater Treatment Effluent Reduces the Abundance and Diversity of Benthic Bacterial Communities in Urban and Suburban Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Bradley; Rosi-Marshall, Emma

    2013-01-01

    In highly urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent can represent a significant component of freshwater ecosystems. As it is impossible for the composition of WWTP effluent to match the composition of the receiving system, the potential exists for effluent to significantly impact the chemical and biological characteristics of the receiving ecosystem. We assessed the impacts of WWTP effluent on the size, activity, and composition of benthic microbial communities by comparing two distinct field sites in the Chicago metropolitan region: a highly urbanized river receiving effluent from a large WWTP and a suburban river receiving effluent from a much smaller WWTP. At sites upstream of effluent input, the urban and suburban rivers differed significantly in chemical characteristics and in the composition of their sediment bacterial communities. Although effluent resulted in significant increases in inorganic nutrients in both rivers, surprisingly, it also resulted in significant decreases in the population size and diversity of sediment bacterial communities. Tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed significant effects of effluent on sediment bacterial community composition in both rivers, including decreases in abundances of Deltaproteobacteria, Desulfococcus, Dechloromonas, and Chloroflexi sequences and increases in abundances of Nitrospirae and Sphingobacteriales sequences. The overall effect of the WWTP inputs was that the two rivers, which were distinct in chemical and biological properties upstream of the WWTPs, were almost indistinguishable downstream. These results suggest that WWTP effluent has the potential to reduce the natural variability that exists among river ecosystems and indicate that WWTP effluent may contribute to biotic homogenization. PMID:23315724

  5. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  6. Virginia's Value Added: A Diverse System Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Every ecological, educational, or organizational system possesses a defining trait, one that affords competitive advantage. The Virginia system of higher education has consistently leaned on its institutional diversity to produce one of the most well-educated and productive bodies of learners in the nation. Given the national climate, a commitment…

  7. Fish Composition and Diversity in Perak, Galas and Kelantan Rivers (Malaysia after the Major Flood of 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Radhi Amonodin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish from three major rivers, namely the Kelantan River (KR and the Galas River (GR in Kelantan, and the Perak River (PR in Perak, Malaysia, were caught using gill nets with different mesh sizes, cast nets, and the electroshock method. There were 14 fishes representing five families and five fish species were collected from the Kelantan systems in February 2015. While the Galas system holds more fish, 48 individual fishes comprising of four families and 10 fish species were found there. A total of 213 fish specimens representing 10 families and 22 species were captured in PR in May 2015. For diversity index, PR had the highest value due to the catchment area and the environmental condition: Shannon-Weiner index (H’ (2.54, Species Evenness (J’ (0.73 and Simpson’s Dominance (D’ (8.93, compared to GR (H’ (2.09 (J’ (0.603 (D’ (6.52 and KR (H’ (1.62 (J’ (0.47 (D’ (5.62.

  8. Diversity in computerized reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.D.; Piel, L.

    1999-01-01

    Based on engineering judgement, the most important measures to increase the independency of redundant trains of a computerized safety instrumentation and control system (I and C) in a nuclear power plant are evaluated with respect to practical applications. This paper will contribute to an objective discussion on the necessary and justifiable arrangement of diversity in a computerized safety I and C system. Important conclusions are: - (i) diverse equipment may be used to control dependent failures only if measures necessary for designing, licensing, and operating a computerized safety I and C system homogeneous in equipment are neither technically nor economically feasible; - (ii) the considerable large operating experience in France with a non-diverse equipment digital reactor protection system does not call for equipment diversity. Although there are no generally accepted methods, the licensing authority is still required to take into account dependent failures in a probabilistic safety analysis; - (ii) the frequency of postulated initiating events implies which I and C functionality should be implemented on diverse equipment. Using non-safety I and C equipment in addition to safety I and C equipment is attractive because its necessary unavailability to control an initiating event in teamwork with the safety I and C equipment is estimated to range from 0.01 to 0.1. This can be achieved by operational experience

  9. Changes in estuarine sediment phosphorus fractions during a large-scale Mississippi River diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Eric D; Nguyen, Nhan T; White, John R

    2017-12-31

    Ongoing deterioration and loss of wetlands in the Mississippi River delta threatens the survival of Louisiana's coastal ecosystems and human settlements. In response, the State of Louisiana has proposed a $50 billion, 50-year restoration program. A central piece of this program is the reintroduction of Mississippi River water into the deltaic plain using managed diversions that mimic natural flood pulses. These diversions would transport critically needed sediment, but also deliver large nutrient loads. Coastal eutrophication is therefore a concern, particularly blooms of toxin-producing cyanobacteria. The Bonnet Carré Spillway (BCS) is an existing large flood diversion that protects New Orleans and provides an opportunity to investigate diversion nutrient transport. Here, we quantify sediment phosphorus (P) deposited by the BCS for the first time, and use a sequential P fractionation scheme to evaluate the likelihood of future sediment P release to the water column of the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary. In 2011, we collected sediment cores in the estuary for determination of P fractions before and after the discharge of 21.9km 3 of river water through the BCS in just under 6weeks. We observed the greatest net increases in sediment total P, inorganic P forms, and more labile organic P in the region near the inflow. We estimate that the diversion deposited ≥5000 metric tons of P in the sediments of the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary. The sum of readily available inorganic P, Fe/Al-bound inorganic P, and more labile organic P equaled approximately 20-30% of post-diversion sediment total P. These fractions are more likely to be released to the water column than the other sediment P forms we quantified. Diversion designs that encourage sedimentation in coastal marshes versus open bays can likely reduce the chances that deposited particulate P creates eutrophication risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Erosive forms in rivers systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Una Alvarez, E. de; Vidal Romani, J. R.; Rodriguez Martinez-Conde, R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the geomorphological meaning of the concepts of stability/change and to study its influence on a fluvial erosion system. Different cases of fluvial potholes in Galicia (NW of the Iberian Peninsula) are considered. The work conclusions refer to the nature of the process and its morphological evolution in order to advance towards later contributions with respect of this type of systems. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. Rethinking the Mississippi River diversion for effective capture of riverine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jun Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many river deltas in the world are vibrant economic regions, serving as transportation hubs, population centres, and commercial hotspots. However, today, many of these deltaic areas face a tremendous challenge with land loss due to a number of factors, such as reduced riverine sediment supply, coastal land erosion, subsidence, and sea level rise. The development of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain (MRDP in southeast Louisiana, USA, over the past century is a good example. Since 1932, approximately 4877 km2 of the coastal land of MRDP has become submerged. The lower Mississippi River main channel entering the Gulf of Mexico has become an isolated waterway with both sides losing land. In contrast, large open water areas in the Mississippi River’s distributary basin, the Atchafalaya River basin, have been silted up over the past century, and the river mouth has developed a prograding delta feature at its two outlets to the Gulf of Mexico. The retrospective analysis of this paper makes it clear that the main cause of the land loss in the MRDP is not the decline of riverine sediment, but the disconnection of the sediment sources from the natural flood plains. Future sediment management efforts in the MRDP should focus on restoring the natural connection of riverine sediment supplies with flood plains, rather than solely using channelized river diversion. This could be achieved through controlled overbank flooding (COF and artificial floods in conjunction with the use of a hydrograph-based sediment availability assessment.

  12. Pyrosequencing assessment of prokaryotic and eukaryotic diversity in biofilm communities from a French river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheux, Geneviève; Morin, Loïc; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Coffe, Gérard; Balestrino, Damien; Charbonnel, Nicolas; Bohatier, Jacques; Forestier, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent and significant increase in the study of aquatic microbial communities, little is known about the microbial diversity of complex ecosystems such as running waters. This study investigated the biodiversity of biofilm communities formed in a river with 454 Sequencing™. This river has the particularity of integrating both organic and microbiological pollution, as receiver of agricultural pollution in its upstream catchment area and urban pollution through discharges of the wastewater treatment plant of the town of Billom. Different regions of the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene were targeted using nine pairs of primers, either universal or specific for bacteria, eukarya, or archaea. Our aim was to characterize the widest range of rDNA sequences using different sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. A first look at reads abundance revealed that a large majority (47-48%) were rare sequences (<5 copies). Prokaryotic phyla represented the species richness, and eukaryotic phyla accounted for a small part. Among the prokaryotic phyla, Proteobacteria (beta and alpha) predominated, followed by Bacteroidetes together with a large number of nonaffiliated bacterial sequences. Bacillariophyta plastids were abundant. The remaining bacterial phyla, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria, made up the rest of the bulk biodiversity. The most abundant eukaryotic phyla were annelid worms, followed by Diatoms, and Chlorophytes. These latter phyla attest to the abundance of plastids and the importance of photosynthetic activity for the biofilm. These findings highlight the existence and plasticity of multiple trophic levels within these complex biological systems. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Stability Analysis of a Run-of-River Diversion Hydropower Plant with Surge Tank and Spillway in the Head Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasúa, José Ignacio; Elías, Paz; Wilhelmi, José Román; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Run-of-river hydropower plants usually lack significant storage capacity; therefore, the more adequate control strategy would consist of keeping a constant water level at the intake pond in order to harness the maximum amount of energy from the river flow or to reduce the surface flooded in the head pond. In this paper, a standard PI control system of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and a spillway in the head pond that evacuates part of the river flow plant is studied. A stability analysis based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is carried out and a practical criterion for tuning the gains of the PI controller is proposed. Conclusions about the head pond and surge tank areas are drawn from the stability analysis. Finally, this criterion is applied to a real hydropower plant in design state; the importance of considering the spillway dimensions and turbine characteristic curves for adequate tuning of the controller gains is highlighted. PMID:25405237

  14. Stability Analysis of a Run-of-River Diversion Hydropower Plant with Surge Tank and Spillway in the Head Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Sarasúa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Run-of-river hydropower plants usually lack significant storage capacity; therefore, the more adequate control strategy would consist of keeping a constant water level at the intake pond in order to harness the maximum amount of energy from the river flow or to reduce the surface flooded in the head pond. In this paper, a standard PI control system of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and a spillway in the head pond that evacuates part of the river flow plant is studied. A stability analysis based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is carried out and a practical criterion for tuning the gains of the PI controller is proposed. Conclusions about the head pond and surge tank areas are drawn from the stability analysis. Finally, this criterion is applied to a real hydropower plant in design state; the importance of considering the spillway dimensions and turbine characteristic curves for adequate tuning of the controller gains is highlighted.

  15. Integrating channel form and processes in the Gangetic plains rivers: Implications for geomorphic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, N. G.; Sinha, R.

    2018-02-01

    Geomorphic diversity at a variety of spatial and temporal scales has been studied in the western Ganga plains (WGP), India, to isolate the dominating factors at each scale that have the potential to cause major geomorphic change. The Ganga River and its major tributaries draining the WGP have been investigated in terms of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and planform morphology to assess the influence of potential controls such as climate, geology, topography, land use, hydrology, and sediment transport. These data were then compared with those from the rivers draining the eastern Ganga plains (EGP) to understand the geomorphic diversity across the Ganga plains and the causal factors. Our investigations suggest that in-channel geomorphic diversity over decadal scale in rivers with low width-to-depth (W/D) ratio is caused by periodic incision/aggradation, but it is driven by channel avulsion in rivers characterized by high W/D ratio. Similarly, planform (reach-scale) parameters such as sinuosity and braid-channel-ratio are influenced by intrinsic factors such as changes in hydrological conditions and morphodynamics (cutoffs, small-scale avulsion) that are in turn impacted by natural and human-induced factors. Finally, we have isolated the climatic and hydrologic effects on the longitudinal profile concavity of alluvial trunk channels in tectonically stable and unstable landscapes. We demonstrate that the rivers flowing through a tectonically stable landscape are graded in nature where higher discharge tends to create more concave longitudinal profiles compared to those in tectonically unstable landscape at 103-year scale.

  16. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  17. Discharge diversion in the Patía River delta, the Colombian Pacific: Geomorphic and ecological consequences for mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Cantera, Jaime R.

    2013-10-01

    In the Patía River delta, the best-developed delta on the western margin of South America, a major water diversion started in 1972. The diversion of the Patía flow to the Sanquianga River, the latter a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands, shifted the active delta plain from the south to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. The Sanquianga Mangrove National Park, a mangrove reserve measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of geomorphic changes along distributary channels and ecological impacts on mangrove ecosystems are evidenced by: (1) distributary channel accretion by operating processes such as sedimentation, overbank flow, increasing width of levees, sedimentation in crevasses, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanquianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the upper estuarine region (salinity America. Erosion rates from the Patía catchment have been more pronounced during the decades of 1970-1980 and 1990-2000, as a result of land degradation and deforestation. The high sediment and freshwater inputs into the mangrove ecosystem create additional stress (both at ongoing background levels and, occasionally, at dramatic levels), which may periodically push local environmental parameters beyond the thresholds for mangrove survival. The future environmental state of the Sanquianga Mangrove National Reserve deserves more scientific and governmental attention.

  18. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sinibrama macrops from Ou River and Ling River based on mtDNA D-loop region analysis, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangjie; Chenoweth, Erica L; Liu, Qigen

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the influence of human activities such as habitat fragmentation on freshwater fish population evolution, we investigated and compared the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Sinibrama macrops populations in the Oujiang River and Ling River. Mitochondrial control region sequences (D-loop region) of 131 specimens from six populations were obtained and analyzed. The diversity of main stream in the Ou River was lower than that in Ling River. Changtan population showed the lowest diversity (H = 0.646 ± 0.077; π = 0.00060 ± 0.00820). Pairwise F ST , gene flow (Nm), and genetic distance (Da) indicated that Longquan and Changtan significantly differentiate from other populations. Nested clade phylogeographical analysis (NCPA) showed some clades and total cladogram experienced isolation by distance. In conclusion, the populations from severely fragmented Ou River have the lower diversity and more intense differentiation than that from the mainstream of Ling River, Changtan population present the lowest diversity and were isolated by the dam construction.

  19. Dynamic genetic features of eukaryotic plankton diversity in the Nakdong River estuary of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Eun; Chung, Ik Kyo; Lee, Sang-Rae

    2017-07-01

    Estuaries are environments where freshwater and seawater mix and they display various salinity profiles. The construction of river barrages and dams has rapidly changed these environments and has had a wide range of impacts on plankton communities. To understand the dynamics of such communities, researchers need accurate and rapid techniques for detecting plankton species. We evaluated the diversity of eukaryotic plankton over a salinity gradient by applying a metagenomics tool at the Nakdong River estuary in Korea. Environmental samples were collected on three dates during summer and autumn of 2011 at the Eulsukdo Bridge at the mouth of that river. Amplifying the 18S rDNA allowed us to analyze 456 clones and 122 phylotypes. Metagenomic sequences revealed various taxonomic groups and cryptic genetic variations at the intra- and inter-specific levels. By analyzing the same station at each sampling date, we observed that the phylotypes presented a salinity-related pattern of diversity in assemblages. The variety of species within freshwater samples reflected the rapid environmental changes caused by freshwater inputs. Dinophyceae phylotypes accounted for the highest proportion of overall diversity in the seawater samples. Euryhaline diatoms and dinoflagellates were observed in the freshwater, brackish and seawater samples. The biological data for species composition demonstrate the transitional state between freshwater and seawater. Therefore, this metagenomics information can serve as a biological indicator for tracking changes in aquatic environments.

  20. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  1. Factors Influencing Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in Municipal Drinking Waters in the Ohio River Basin, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F Stanish

    Full Text Available The composition and metabolic activities of microbes in drinking water distribution systems can affect water quality and distribution system integrity. In order to understand regional variations in drinking water microbiology in the upper Ohio River watershed, the chemical and microbiological constituents of 17 municipal distribution systems were assessed. While sporadic variations were observed, the microbial diversity was generally dominated by fewer than 10 taxa, and was driven by the amount of disinfectant residual in the water. Overall, Mycobacterium spp. (Actinobacteria, MLE1-12 (phylum Cyanobacteria, Methylobacterium spp., and sphingomonads were the dominant taxa. Shifts in community composition from Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria to Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria were associated with higher residual chlorine. Alpha- and beta-diversity were higher in systems with higher chlorine loads, which may reflect changes in the ecological processes structuring the communities under different levels of oxidative stress. These results expand the assessment of microbial diversity in municipal distribution systems and demonstrate the value of considering ecological theory to understand the processes controlling microbial makeup. Such understanding may inform the management of municipal drinking water resources.

  2. Factors Influencing Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in Municipal Drinking Waters in the Ohio River Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Lee F; Hull, Natalie M; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Stevens, Mark J; Spear, John R; Pace, Norman R

    2016-01-01

    The composition and metabolic activities of microbes in drinking water distribution systems can affect water quality and distribution system integrity. In order to understand regional variations in drinking water microbiology in the upper Ohio River watershed, the chemical and microbiological constituents of 17 municipal distribution systems were assessed. While sporadic variations were observed, the microbial diversity was generally dominated by fewer than 10 taxa, and was driven by the amount of disinfectant residual in the water. Overall, Mycobacterium spp. (Actinobacteria), MLE1-12 (phylum Cyanobacteria), Methylobacterium spp., and sphingomonads were the dominant taxa. Shifts in community composition from Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria to Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria were associated with higher residual chlorine. Alpha- and beta-diversity were higher in systems with higher chlorine loads, which may reflect changes in the ecological processes structuring the communities under different levels of oxidative stress. These results expand the assessment of microbial diversity in municipal distribution systems and demonstrate the value of considering ecological theory to understand the processes controlling microbial makeup. Such understanding may inform the management of municipal drinking water resources.

  3. The performance of the Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) in a hydropower affected meandering river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähly, Severin; Bourqui, Pierre; Franca, Mario J.; Robinson, Christopher; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    More than half of the Swiss electricity is produced by hydropower. Large price fluctuations cause severe hydropeaking flow regimes due to corresponding production fluctuations, which undisputedly have a negative impact on aquatic biota. Water diversion due to dams on the other hand imposes downstream residual flow regimes. The absence of flood events and regular sediment supply disrupts sediment dynamics and disconnects floodplains, which are habitats of high value, from its main channel. The residual-flow controlled reach at the Sarine river in western Switzerland is the subject of the present study. The Sarine meanders strongly and the river reach under analysis has a bed incision of locally more than 100 m. Its incision provokes the isolation of the river which is consequently minimally touched by human structures and shows a natural geomorphology. Since the construction of a dam upstream this reach in 1948, aiming at the water abstraction to hydropower, vegetation could establish and the active floodplain decreased its area, as airborne images show. Nevertheless, it is classified as a floodplain of national importance and it has been under protection since 1992. It is supposed to be a valuable habitat for a wide range of organisms. The Hydromorphological Index of Diversity (HMID) is a simple tool for quantifying the habitat richness in a river reach, taking into account the mean values and the variation of water depth and flow velocity. For channelized rivers, HMID values from up to 5 are expected, while morphological pristine sites with a high spatial variability of water depth and velocity show values of 9 or higher. For the residual flow of the Sarine River, flow depth and velocity were measured using ADCP and ADV. The results are compared with a nearby natural reference river and the outcome of a 2D numerical simulation. Finally, the behaviour and limitations of the HMID, in a hydropower affected river, are discussed. In the close future an artificial flood

  4. Phylogenetic Diversity of T4-Type Phages in Sediments from the Subtropical Pearl River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maoqiu; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Chuanlun; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are an abundant and active component of marine sediments and play a significant role in microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling at local and global scales. To obtain a better understanding of the ecological characteristics of the viriobenthos, the abundance and morphology of viruses and the diversity and community structure of T4-type phages were systematically investigated in the surface sediments of the subtropical Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Viral abundances ranged from 4.49 × 10 8 to 11.7 × 10 8 viruses/g and prokaryotic abundances ranged from 2.63 × 10 8 to 9.55 × 10 8 cells/g, and both decreased from freshwater to saltwater. Diverse viral morphotypes, including tailed, spherical, filamentous, and rod-shaped viruses, were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the major capsid gene ( g23 ) indicated that the sediment T4-type phages were highly diverse and, similar to the trend in viral abundances, their diversity decreased as the salinity increased. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most of the g23 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with marine, paddy soil, and lake groups. The T4-type phage communities in freshwater and saltwater sediments showed obvious differences, which were related to changes in the Pearl River discharge. The results of this study demonstrated both allochthonous and autochthonous sources of the viral community in the PRE sediments and the movement of certain T4-type viral groups between the freshwater and saline water biomes.

  5. Phylogenetic Diversity of T4-Type Phages in Sediments from the Subtropical Pearl River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoqiu He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are an abundant and active component of marine sediments and play a significant role in microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling at local and global scales. To obtain a better understanding of the ecological characteristics of the viriobenthos, the abundance and morphology of viruses and the diversity and community structure of T4-type phages were systematically investigated in the surface sediments of the subtropical Pearl River Estuary (PRE. Viral abundances ranged from 4.49 × 108 to 11.7 × 108 viruses/g and prokaryotic abundances ranged from 2.63 × 108 to 9.55 × 108 cells/g, and both decreased from freshwater to saltwater. Diverse viral morphotypes, including tailed, spherical, filamentous, and rod-shaped viruses, were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the major capsid gene (g23 indicated that the sediment T4-type phages were highly diverse and, similar to the trend in viral abundances, their diversity decreased as the salinity increased. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most of the g23 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with marine, paddy soil, and lake groups. The T4-type phage communities in freshwater and saltwater sediments showed obvious differences, which were related to changes in the Pearl River discharge. The results of this study demonstrated both allochthonous and autochthonous sources of the viral community in the PRE sediments and the movement of certain T4-type viral groups between the freshwater and saline water biomes.

  6. Sustainable power and scenic beauty: The Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty and its relevance today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedoff, Andrei; Schott, Stephan; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Niagara Falls and the Niagara River have always attracted great public interest due to their natural beauty, their enormous potential for electricity generation, their recreational value and as an important ecosystem. There have been simultaneous efforts to preserve this unique natural wonder and harness its power through hydroelectric development projects by both the United States and Canada. This paper explores the evolution of these efforts that culminated with the signing of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty that established minimum water flow rates to protect the “scenic beauty” of the falls, allowing the remaining water to be diverted for power production. We examine the rationale that led to specific water flow restrictions and question to what extent they are relevant today, as water intake capacity on the Canadian side has just been extended by around 25%. We find that current restrictions under the Niagara River Water Treaty (that expired in 2000) are not based on sound scientific evidence and estimate the upper limit of potential foregone benefits from clean electricity generation and greenhouse gas reductions. We identify a number of important issues that emerged in the last decades and that would justify an exploration of new treaty rules. - Highlights: • We examine the history of water diversion at Niagara Falls. • We examine the rationale that led to water flow restrictions over Niagara Falls and its relevance today. • We estimate the opportunity cost of foregone energy generation with the new Canadian intake capacity. • Water flow stipulations were not based on the sound scientific or ecosystem analysis. • A renegotiation of the 1950 Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty is overdue

  7. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  8. Increased mitochondrial DNA diversity in ancient Columbia River basin Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbi M Johnson

    Full Text Available The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are now at risk of extinction. Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed "the four H's": habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower; here we explore a fifth H, history. Patterns of prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and, thus, elucidate a deeper history for this species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples. Our analysis provides the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, these losses do not appear equal across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results are unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins

  9. Increased mitochondrial DNA diversity in ancient Columbia River basin Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bobbi M; Kemp, Brian M; Thorgaard, Gary H

    2018-01-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are now at risk of extinction. Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed "the four H's": habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower; here we explore a fifth H, history. Patterns of prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and, thus, elucidate a deeper history for this species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples. Our analysis provides the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, these losses do not appear equal across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results are unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins may have divergent

  10. Increased mitochondrial DNA diversity in ancient Columbia River basin Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brian M.; Thorgaard, Gary H.

    2018-01-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries provide essential spawning and rearing habitat for many salmonid species, including Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Chinook salmon were historically abundant throughout the basin and Native Americans in the region relied heavily on these fish for thousands of years. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 1800s, salmon in the basin experienced broad declines linked to overfishing, water diversion projects, habitat destruction, connectivity reduction, introgression with hatchery-origin fish, and hydropower development. Despite historical abundance, many native salmonids are now at risk of extinction. Research and management related to Chinook salmon is usually explored under what are termed “the four H’s”: habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and hydropower; here we explore a fifth H, history. Patterns of prehistoric and contemporary mitochondrial DNA variation from Chinook salmon were analyzed to characterize and compare population genetic diversity prior to recent alterations and, thus, elucidate a deeper history for this species. A total of 346 ancient and 366 contemporary samples were processed during this study. Species was determined for 130 of the ancient samples and control region haplotypes of 84 of these were sequenced. Diversity estimates from these 84 ancient Chinook salmon were compared to 379 contemporary samples. Our analysis provides the first direct measure of reduced genetic diversity for Chinook salmon from the ancient to the contemporary period, as measured both in direct loss of mitochondrial haplotypes and reductions in haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, these losses do not appear equal across the basin, with higher losses of diversity in the mid-Columbia than in the Snake subbasin. The results are unexpected, as the two groups were predicted to share a common history as parts of the larger Columbia River Basin, and instead indicate that Chinook salmon in these subbasins may have

  11. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of βT and Jaccard’s coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing β-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion.

  12. Serving Diverse Knowledge Systems in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Birdsall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and academic disciplines are experiencing a major transformation to the digital era. A challenge for libraries is to adapt and coordinate their transformation with differing rates and types of changes in teaching, research, and scholarly communication among the disciplines they serve. This paper argues libraries need to acknowledge the diversity of knowledge systems and adopt a strategy that requires collaboration between libraries and multiple communities of knowing in the development and provision of heterogeneous services.

  13. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report

  14. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  15. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the Irrawaddy River in China: changes, threats and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang M.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompletely known fish assemblages and species diversity are substantial obstacles in fish conservation, particularly when their aquatic habitats are under threat due to rapid human-induced changes. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the upper Irrawaddy River in China (the Dulong, Daying and Ruili rivers were examined based on field collections and literature resources. The newly compiled fish assemblage recorded 85 species (in 8 orders, 20 families and 51 genera distributed in the upper Irrawaddy. The fish compositions in the Daying (67 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 7 orders and Ruili rivers (65 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 8 orders were more similar to each other and more speciose than that in the Dulong River (14 species, 10 genera, 4 families, 3 orders. Two indices of taxonomic diversity (the average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+, and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were used to discriminate four collections spanning a ten-year period. A decrease in taxonomic diversity and an increase in unevenness of the fish assemblages were found in both the Daying River and Ruili rivers, which indicated that the impacts were accumulated gradually during this decade, when dams and the spread of non-native species were major threats. Comparatively speaking, the Dulong River is still in a near-natural state, and thus the fish community has experienced less disturbance. In situ conservation (nature reserves and tributary protection and ex situ conservation (artificial propagation and release should be combined and managed to promote fish conservation in the future.

  16. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  17. Phylogenetic insights into the diversity of homocytous cyanobacteria from Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Melo, Itamar Soares de

    2017-11-01

    The Amazon Rainforest holds great tropical biodiversity, mainly because of its favourable climatic conditions. The high temperatures, luminosity and humidity coupled with the nutritional simplicity of cyanobacteria allow undiscovered diversity to flourish within this group of microorganisms. Some efforts to reveal this diversity have been attempted; however, most were focused on the microscopic observation of environmental samples without any genetic information. Very few studies focusing on morphological, ecological and molecular criteria have been conducted, and none have been devoted to homocytous cyanobacteria forms in Amazonia region. Therefore, the genetic relationships amongst strains retrieved from this ecosystem with regard to other environments from Brazil and the world have not been tested and, consequently, the Amazonian strains would naturally be assumed as novel to science. To examine these relationships, cultured homocytous cyanobacteria isolated from two Amazonian rivers (Amazonas and Solimões) were evaluated using a phylogenetic perspective, considering the 16S rRNA gene sequence. A total of eleven homocytous cyanobacterial strains were isolated. Morphologically, they were identified as Pseudanabaena, Leptolyngbya, Planktothrix and Phormidium, but genetically they were included in the typical clusters of Planktothrix, Pseudanabaena, Cephalothrix, Pantanalinema and Alkalinema. These three latter genera have been detected in other Brazilian ecosystems only (Pantanal, Atlantic Rainforest and Pampa), while those remaining have been extensively found in many parts of the world. The data provided here indicate that Amazonian rivers support a homocytous cyanobacterial diversity previously reported from other geographical and ecological environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. River density and landscape roughness are universal determinants of linguistic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Manrubia, Susanna

    2014-06-07

    Global linguistic diversity (LD) displays highly heterogeneous distribution patterns. Though the origin of the latter is not yet fully understood, remarkable parallelisms with biodiversity distribution suggest that environmental variables should play an essential role in their emergence. In an effort to construct a broad framework to explain world LD and to systematize the available data, we have investigated the significance of 14 variables: landscape roughness, altitude, river density, distance to lakes, seasonal maximum, average and minimum temperature, precipitation and vegetation, and population density. Landscape roughness and river density are the only two variables that universally affect LD. Overall, the considered set accounts for up to 80% of African LD, a figure that decreases for the joint Asia, Australia and the Pacific (69%), Europe (56%) and the Americas (53%). Differences among those regions can be traced down to a few variables that permit an interpretation of their current states of LD. Our processed datasets can be applied to the analysis of correlations in other similar heterogeneous patterns with a broad spatial distribution, the clearest example being biological diversity. The statistical method we have used can be understood as a tool for cross-comparison among geographical regions, including the prediction of spatial diversity in alternative scenarios or in changing environments.

  19. Diversity of microbial plankton across the Three Gorges Dam of the Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Dam (TGD of the Yangtze River, China, is one of the largest irrigation and hydroelectric engineering projects in the world. The effects of huge man-made projects like TGD on fauna and macrophyte are obvious, mainly through changes of water dynamics and flow pattern; however, it is less clear how microorganisms respond to such changes. This research was aimed to examine differences in microbial diversity at different seasons and locations (in front of and behind the TGD. In addition, differences between particle-attached and free-living communities were also examined. The community structures of total and potentially active microorganisms in the water columns behind and in front of the TGD were analyzed with the DNA- and RNA-based 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic approaches over three different seasons. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes were prepared after amplification from extracted DNA and, for some samples, after preparing cDNA from extracted rRNA. Differences were observed between sites at different seasons and between free-living and particle-attached communities. Both bacterial and archaeal communities were more diverse in summer than in winter, due to higher nutrient levels and warmer temperature in summer than in winter. Particle-attached microorganisms were more diverse than free-living communities, possibly because of higher nutrient levels and heterogeneous geochemical micro-environments in particles. Spatial variations in bacterial community structure were observed, i.e., the water reservoir behind the TGD (upstream hosted more diverse bacterial populations than in front of the dam (downstream, because of diverse sources of sediments and waters from upstream to the reservoir. These results have important implications for our understanding of responses of microbial communities to environmental changes in river ecosystems affected by dam construction.

  20. Fishes and aquatic habitats of the Orinoco River Basin: diversity and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, C A; Machado-Allison, A; Taphorn, D C

    2016-07-01

    About 1000 freshwater fishes have been found so far in the Orinoco River Basin of Venezuela and Colombia. This high ichthyological diversity reflects the wide range of landscapes and aquatic ecosystems included in the basin. Mountain streams descend from the high Andes to become rapid-flowing foothill rivers that burst out upon vast savannah flatlands where they slowly make their way to the sea. These white-water rivers are heavily laden with sediments from the geologically young Andes. Because their sediment deposits have formed the richest soils of the basin, they have attracted the highest density of human populations, along with the greatest levels of deforestation, wildfires, agricultural biocides and fertilizers, sewage and all the other impacts associated with urban centres, agriculture and cattle ranching. In the southern portion of the basin, human populations are much smaller, where often the only inhabitants are indigenous peoples. The ancient rocks and sands of the Guiana Shield yield clear and black water streams of very different quality. Here, sediment loads are miniscule, pH is very acid and fish biomass is only a fraction of that observed in the rich Andean tributaries to the north. For each region of the basin, the current state of knowledge about fish diversity is assessed, fish sampling density evaluated, the presence of endemic species and economically important species (for human consumption or ornamental purposes) described and gaps in knowledge are pointed out. Current trends in the fishery for human consumption are analysed, noting that stocks of many species are in steep decline, and that current fishing practices are not sustainable. Finally, the major impacts and threats faced by the fishes and aquatic ecosystems of the Orinoco River Basin are summarized, and the creation of bi-national commissions to promote standardized fishing laws in both countries is recommended. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Microbial diversity of soils on the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa da Santos, Ellen Karla Nobrex; Honda, Rubens Tomio; Nozawa, Sérgio Ricardo; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica Stropa

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of bacterial diversity in soils along the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil, was by partial sequencing of the genes codifying the rDNA16S region. Diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTU) and of the divergent sequences obtained were applied in comparative analysis of microbiological diversity in the two environments, based on richness estimators and OTU diversity indices. The higher OTU diversity in the Solimões was based on the higher number of parameters that evoke this. The interaction between the nucleotide sequences of bacteria inhabiting the two riverine environments indicated that the two microrganism communities are similar in composition.

  2. Biological diversity in the patent system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Oldham

    Full Text Available Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL. We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8-1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on

  3. Biological Diversity in the Patent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual

  4. Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichuña (Moquegua, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Montesinos-Tubée

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the floristic diversity of vascular plants is presented from the basin of the Tambo-Ichuña River, the high Andean Puna plateau and wetlands of Ichuña, Ubinas and Yunga Districts (3400 - 4700 m altitude, General Sanchez Cerro Province, Department of Moquegua, Peru. Vascular flora is composed of 70 families, 238 genera and 404 species. The Magnoliopsida represent 78% of the species, Liliopsida 16%, Gymnosperms 0.5% and Pteridophytes 6%. Among lifeforms, the Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous. Three vegetation formations have been identified, the humid scrubland being the most diverse in species richness. Between endemic species, 42 taxa are exclusive to Peru. A total number of 272 new additions of vascular species to the flora of the department of Moquegua are presented.

  5. Shutdown of the River Water System at the Savannah River Site: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluates alternative approaches to and environmental impacts of shutting down the River Water System at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Five production reactors were operated at the site.to support these facilities, the River Water System was constructed to provide cooling water to pass through heat exchangers to absorb heat from the reactor core in each of the five reactor areas (C, K, L, P, and R). The DOE Savannah River Strategic Plan directs the SRS to find ways to reduce operating costs and to determine what site infrastructure it must maintain and what infrastructure is surplus. The River Water System has been identified as a potential surplus facility. Three alternatives to reduce the River Water System operating costs are evaluated in this EIS. In addition to the No-Action Alternative, which consists of continuing to operate the River Water System, this EIS examines one alternative (the Preferred Alternative) to shut down and maintain the River Water System in a standby condition until DOE determines that a standby condition is no longer necessary, and one alternative to shut down and deactivate the River Water System. The document provides background information and introduces the River Water System at the SRS; sets forth the purpose and need for DOE action; describes the alternatives DOE is considering; describes the environment at the SRS and in the surrounding area potentially affected by the alternatives addressed and provides a detailed assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives; and identifies regulatory requirements and evaluates their applicability to the alternatives considered

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix A: River Operation Simulation (ROSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The River Operation Simulation Experts (ROSE) work group is comprised of representatives of the Corps, BPA, Reclamation, NMFS, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC), and Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). ROSE was responsible for using computer hydroregulation models to simulate the operation of the river system for all of the alternatives evaluated in screening and full scale analysis in SOR. These models are complex computer programs which sequentially route streamflows through each dam in the system, calculating the streamflows, reservoir elevations, spill, power generation and other information at each project and pertinent locations on the river system. ROSE first reviewed specifications of proposed alternatives to determine whether such alternatives were formulated adequately to be run on hydroregulation models

  7. Effects of a diversion hydropower facility on the hydrological regime of the Correntes River, a tributary to the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities that produce hydroelectricity by diversion of part of the river's flow, which are often considered to have lower environmental impact than conventional hydropower dams, are being built in large numbers on river systems throughout the world, yet their cumulative impacts are not well understood. This study evaluated the hydrological effects of operation of a diversion hydropower facility on the Correntes River in Brazil (mean discharge 73 m3 s-1), which is potentially important because of the ecological implications for the floodplains of the Pantanal into which it flows. Many similar dams are built or proposed on rivers feeding the Pantanal. The 210-MW facility known as Ponte de Pedra diverts part of the river flow into a diversion channel in a nearly "run-of-river" design. The natural (reconstructed) and regulated (observed) flow regimes were characterized using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Flow Duration Curves (FDC). Seven parameters of IHA were significantly altered by the reservoir formation (magnitude of lowest monthly flow, minimum flows of 1, 3 and 7 days, maximum flow of 90 days and counts of high and low pulses). Among these, Principal Components Analysis identified the maximum flow of 90 days and the count of high flow pulses as integrators of hydrological alterations. The FDC showed that the reservoir also changed the seasonal regime of the flows, with greater changes in the lowest flow season. The reduction of river-floodplain connectivity and loss of associated ecosystem services are the major downstream ecological implications of this altered flow regime. To maintain the seasonal flooding regime while meeting the requirements for hydroelectric production, proposed limits for flow regime alterations are up to ±18% in low flow, ±24% in the rising limb and ±22% in high flow and the falling limb, relative to the natural flow. Operational changes to maintain flows with these limits could easily be implemented because the

  8. How does Diversity Matter? The Case of Brazilian River Basin Councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity as a concept has often been perceived as a positive system attribute to pursue and protect. However, in some social settings, the way different kinds of diversity shape outcomes can vary significantly. Diversity of ideas and individuals sometimes can lead to disagreement and conflict, which in turn can lead to both positive and negative outcomes. In this study, we examine identity diversity, i.e., age, income, education, worldviews, etc., within the context of Brazilian water governance. We find that within the basins studied in this project, first, the more diversity in organizations and the sectors represented on the council, the more council members participate in council activities, perceive decision making to be democratic, and perceive technical information to facilitate decision making. Second, diversity in what members perceive to be the most pressing problems facing the basin and also diversity in worldviews often correlate negatively with some measures of participation and the perceived importance of technical knowledge. Third, diversity in the level of experience with water issues negatively correlates with some measures of participation and perceived democratic decision making. Fourth, diversity in the perception of the most important problem facing the basin leads to poorer outcomes in the council. Our work provides an argument for supporting broad sectoral representation of interests within deliberative decision making bodies; however, it also illustrates that it is critical for these bodies to explore ways to resolve basic disagreements about the most important problems that need to be addressed and where their collective efforts should be focused.

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix K: Resident fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. In this appendix the Resident Fish Work Group (RFWG) has attempted to characterize and evaluate impacts of dam operation on an extremely complex and diverse integrated resource. Not only is this required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for SOR, there are resident fish populations that have status under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) or equivalent state regulations (Kootenai River white sturgeon, Snake River white sturgeon, sandroller, shorthead and torrent sculpins, bull trout, westslope cutthroat trout, redband trout, and burbot). The RFWG has also attempted to develop operating alternatives that benefit not only resident fish, but anadromous fish, wildlife, and other human interests as well. The authors have recognized the co-evolution of resident fish, anadromous fish, and other integrated resources in the basin

  10. Fish diversity of floodplain lakes on the lower stretch of the Solimões River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Siqueira-Souza

    Full Text Available The fish community of the Solimões floodplain lakes was studied by bimonthly samples taken from May 2001 to April 2002. These were carried out at lakes Maracá (03º51'33"S, 62º35'08,6"W, Samaúma (03º50'42,1"S, 61º39'49,3"W, and Sumaúma and Sacambú (03º17'11,6"S and 60º04'31,4"W, located between the town of Coari and the confluence of the Solimões and Negro rivers. Collections were done with 15 gillnets of standardized dimensions with several mesh sizes. We collected 1,313 animals distributed in 77 species, belonging to 55 genera of 20 families and 5 orders. Characiformes was the most abundant Order, with a larger number of representatives in the Serrasalmidae and Curimatidae. The most abundant species in the samplings were Psectrogaster rutiloides (132 individuals, Pigocentrus nattereri (115 individuals, and Serrasalmus elongatus (109 individuals. Lakes Samaúma, Sacambú, and Sumaúma were adjusted to logarithmic and lognormal series. The diversity exhibited an inverse gradient to the river flow, showing the highest diversity at Lake Sumaúma, followed by Samaúma, Sacambú, and Maracá. Species richness estimated through the jackknife technique ranged from 78 to 107 species.

  11. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  12. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  13. Characterisation of adaptive genetic diversity in environmentally contrasted populations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (river red gum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Dillon

    Full Text Available As an increasing number of ecosystems face departures from long standing environmental conditions under climate change, our understanding of the capacity of species to adapt will become important for directing conservation and management of biodiversity. Insights into the potential for genetic adaptation might be gained by assessing genomic signatures of adaptation to historic or prevailing environmental conditions. The river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. is a widespread Australian eucalypt inhabiting riverine and floodplain habitats which spans strong environmental gradients. We investigated the effects of adaptation to environment on population level genetic diversity of E. camaldulensis, examining SNP variation in candidate gene loci sampled across 20 climatically diverse populations approximating the species natural distribution. Genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST = 17%, exceeding previous estimates based on neutral markers. Complementary statistical approaches identified 6 SNP loci in four genes (COMT, Dehydrin, ERECTA and PIP2 which, after accounting for demographic effects, exhibited higher than expected levels of genetic differentiation among populations and whose allelic variation was associated with local environment. While this study employs but a small proportion of available diversity in the eucalyptus genome, it draws our attention to the potential for application of wide spread eucalypt species to test adaptive hypotheses.

  14. Mammal diversity in the middle basin of the river Tambopata, Puno, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the mammalian diversity in the Tambopata River middle basin, one of the most important information gaps in Peru. Five sites were evaluated in Puno (San Fermín 850 m, Curva Alegre 950 m, Challohuma 1200 m, Yanahuaya 1600 m, and Yanacocha 1985 m. The trapping effort was 7072 trap-nights and 201 mistnet-nights. 76 species were recorded in the study area, including 16 species under some conservation’s category. Bats and rodents were the most diverse orders (67.5%. The diversity indices of Shannon-Wiener and Simpson for small mammals show a moderate and mild negative correlation with elevation, respectively. Meanwhile the altitude is negatively correlated with the relative abundance (RA of bats, and positively with the RA of non-volant mammals. The marsupials Marmosa (Micoureus demerarae, Marmosops bishopi and Marmosops impavidus; the rodent Neacomys musseri, and bats Platyrrhinus albericoi, P. masu, P. nigellus, Eumops auripendulus and Cormura brevirostris are first records for the department of Puno. Akodon baliolus and Oxymycterus juliacae are considered valid species. The species Sturnira lilium and Akodon baliolus were those with the highest RA. Our records, added to published and unpublished data, indicate that the Río Tambopata watershed is habitat of 141 species of mammals. Finally, we recommend the extension of the southern part of the buffer zone of the PNBS to include the montane forests of Yanacocha, to protect the unique middleelevation fauna of the Río Tambopata watershed.

  15. Influence of agricultural, industrial, and anthropogenic stresses on the distribution and diversity of macroinvertebrates in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Md Rawi, Che Salmah; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2011-07-01

    Abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates as well as physico-chemical parameters were investigated in five rivers of the Juru River Basin in northern Peninsula Malaysia: Ceruk Tok Kun River (CTKR), Pasir River (PR), Permatang Rawa River (PRR), Kilang Ubi River (KUR), and Juru River (JR). The physico-chemical parameters and calculated water quality index (WQI) were significantly different among the investigated rivers (ANOVA, Pmacroinvertebrates, especially the intolerant taxa, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were observed in the least polluted river, CTKR. Decreasing abundance of macroinvertebrates followed the deterioration of river water quality with the least number of the most tolerant taxa collected from PR. On the basis of composition and sensitivity of macroinvertebrates to pollutants in each river, the highest Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index score of 93 was reported in CTKR (good water quality). BMWP scores in PRR and JR were 38.7 and 20.1, respectively, classifying both of them into "moderate water quality" category. Poor water quality was reported in PR and KUR. The outcome of the multivariate analysis (CCA) was highly satisfactory, explaining 43.32% of the variance for the assemblages of macroinvertebrates as influenced by 19 physical and chemical variables. According to the CCA model, we assert that there were three levels of stresses on macroinvertebrate communities in the investigated rivers: Level 1, characterized of undisturbed or slightly polluted as in the case of CTKR; Level 2, characterized by a lower habitat quality (the JR) compared to the CTKR; and Level 3 showed severe environmental stresses (PRR, PR, and KUR) primarily contributed by agricultural, industrial, and municipal discharges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Restoration of rivers used for timber floating: effects on riparian plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfield, James M; Capon, Samantha J; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland; Palm, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    Fluvial processes such as flooding and sediment deposition play a crucial role in structuring riparian plant communities. In rivers throughout the world, these processes have been altered by channelization and other anthropogenic stresses. Yet despite increasing awareness of the need to restore natural flow regimes for the preservation of riparian biodiversity, few studies have examined the effects of river restoration on riparian ecosystems. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration in the Ume River system, northern Sweden, where tributaries were channelized to facilitate timber floating in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Restoration at these sites involved the use of heavy machinery to replace instream boulders and remove floatway structures that had previously lined stream banks and cut off secondary channels. We compared riparian plant communities along channelized stream reaches with those along reaches that had been restored 3-10 years prior to observation. Species richness and evenness were significantly increased at restored sites, as were floodplain inundation frequencies. These findings demonstrate how river restoration and associated changes in fluvial disturbance regimes can enhance riparian biodiversity. Given that riparian ecosystems tend to support a disproportionate share of regional species pools, these findings have potentially broad implications for biodiversity conservation at regional or landscape scales.

  17. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data for 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The 226 Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that 226 Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River

  18. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  19. Cyanobacterial community diversity in the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Lin Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial community diversity in the sediment of the Pearl River Estuary in China was evaluated in this study by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE during the wet and dry seasons. Nucleotide sequences obtained from DGGE bands were classified into five cyanobacterial clusters, including Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Chroococcus, Prochlorales and Tolypothrix. Synechococcus was identified as the dominant cyanobacterial group in the sediment samples; its distribution varied from the inner estuary to the outer estuary, with a wide range of salinity adaptation. Observed patterns of cyanobacterial communities changed markedly between sampling sites and seasons, suggesting that most cyanobacteria were not delivered via fresh water. Canonical correspondence analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between environmental variables and bacterial community structures during the dry season. The results suggested that the cyanobacterial community was significantly influenced by pH, salinity, PO4-P and NO3-N in sediments.

  20. Winter road access to projected works in the diversion of the Little Whale River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Whale hydroelectric complex in northern Quebec will require diversion of the Little Whale River, involving construction of dams 40 m and 30 m high and a canal 600 m long. The main mode of access to the construction sites will be a winter road, supplemented by an airfield designed for large-capacity aircraft. The method used by Hydro-Quebec in its environmental assessment of the winter road project is described. This method comprises five steps: delimitation of the study zone; establishment of a road corridor of choice by successively eliminating territory according to given constraints; description of the physical and biological environment; determination and optimization of the road route; and evaluation of potential impacts, along with establishment of measures to mitigate those impacts. The optimal routing is determined on the basis of criteria such as the presence of permafrost, the nature of the soils, avoidance of slopes steeper than 10%, and the depth and width of ice crossings

  1. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simagegnew Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia. Fish samples were collected in one wet and one dry season. The length-weight relationships were fitted using power equation for the most abundant species. A total of 348 fish specimens were collected using gillnets and hooks. These were identified into eight species and one Garra sp. representing seven genera and four families. Family Cyprinidae was the most dominant with six species (66.7%. Labeobarbus intermedius, Labeobarbus nedgia, and Labeo cylindricus were the most abundant fish species, respectively, with 60.72%, 16.83%, and 14.66% index of relative importance (IRI. The diversity index was higher for Geba River (H′ = 1.50 than for Sor River (H′ = 1.10. All the three most abundant species had negative allometric growth. Seasonal variations in the mean Fulton condition factor (FCF were statistically significant for L. cylindricus (p<0.05. There was variation in the sex ratio with the females dominating in all the three most abundant species. Further investigation into the fish diversity, food, feeding, and reproductive behaviors of fish species especially in the tributaries of these rivers and their socioeconomic aspects is recommended.

  2. Ecological effects and potential risks of the water diversion project in the Heihe River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shuai; Fu, Bojie; Gao, Guangyao; Shen, Qin

    2018-04-01

    To curb the severe ecological deterioration in the lower Heihe River Basin (HRB) in northwest China, a water diversion project was initiated in 2000. A comprehensive analysis of the ecological effects and potential risks associated with the project is needed. We assessed the hydrological and ecological achievements, and also analyzed the potential problems after the project was completed. We found that since the project began the hydrological regime has changed, with more than 57.82% of the upstream water being discharged to the lower reaches on average. As a result, the groundwater level in the lower reaches has risen; the terminal lake has gradually expanded to a maximum area in excess of 50km 2 since 2010, and there has been a significant recovery of vegetation in the riparian zone and the Ejin core oases, which represents the initial rehabilitation of the degraded downstream environment. Additionally, the economy of Ejin has developed spectacularly, with an annual growth rate of 28.06%. However, in the middle reaches, the average groundwater level has continuously declined by a total of 5.8m and significant degradation of the vegetation has occurred along the river course. The discrepancy in the water allocation between the middle and lower reaches has intensified. This highlights the inability of the current water diversion scheme to realize further ecological restoration and achieve sustainable development throughout the whole basin. In future water management programs, we recommend that water allocation is coordinated by considering the basin as an integrated entity and to scientifically determine the size of the midstream farmland and downstream oasis; restrict non-ecological water use in the lower reaches, and jointly dispatch the surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Demographic collapse and low genetic diversity of the Irrawaddy dolphin population inhabiting the Mekong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krützen, Michael; Beasley, Isabel; Ackermann, Corinne Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Ludwig, Arne; Ryan, Gerard E; Bejder, Lars; Parra, Guido J; Wolfensberger, Rebekka; Spencer, Peter B S

    2018-01-01

    In threatened wildlife populations, it is important to determine whether observed low genetic diversity may be due to recent anthropogenic pressure or the consequence of historic events. Historical size of the Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) population inhabiting the Mekong River is unknown and there is significant concern for long-term survival of the remaining population as a result of low abundance, slow reproduction rate, high neonatal mortality, and continuing anthropogenic threats. We investigated population structure and reconstructed the demographic history based on 60 Irrawaddy dolphins samples collected between 2001 and 2009. The phylogenetic analysis indicated reciprocal monophyly of Mekong River Orcaella haplotypes with respect to haplotypes from other populations, suggesting long-standing isolation of the Mekong dolphin population from other Orcaella populations. We found that at least 85% of all individuals in the two main study areas: Kratie and Stung Treng, bore the same mitochondrial haplotype. Out of the 21 microsatellite loci tested, only ten were polymorphic and exhibited very low levels of genetic diversity. Both individual and frequency-based approaches suggest very low and non-significant genetic differentiation of the Mekong dolphin population. Evidence for recent bottlenecks was equivocal. Some results suggested a recent exponential decline in the Mekong dolphin population, with the current size being only 5.2% of the ancestral population. In order for the Mekong dolphin population to have any potential for long-term survival, it is imperative that management priorities focus on preventing any further population fragmentation or genetic loss, reducing or eliminating anthropogenic threats, and promoting connectivity between all subpopulations.

  4. Population bottlenecks, genetic diversity and breeding ability of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from three polluted English Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduarda M; Hamilton, Patrick B; Coe, Tobias S; Ball, Jonathan S; Cook, Alastair C; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Tyler, Charles R

    2013-10-15

    Pollution is a significant environmental pressure on fish populations in both freshwater and marine environments. Populations subjected to chronic exposure to pollutants can experience impacts ranging from altered reproductive capacity to changes in population genetic structure. Few studies, however, have examined the reproductive vigor of individuals within populations inhabiting environments characterized by chronic pollution. In this study we undertook an analysis of populations of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from polluted sites, to determine levels of genetic diversity, assess for evidence of historic population genetic bottlenecks and determine the reproductive competitiveness of males from these locations. The sites chosen included locations in the River Aire, the River Tees and the River Birket, English rivers that have been impacted by pollution from industrial and/or domestic effluents for over 100 years. Male reproductive competitiveness was determined via competitive breeding experiments with males and females derived from a clean water site, employing DNA microsatellites to determine parentage outcome. Populations of stickleback collected from the three historically polluted sites showed evidence of recent population bottlenecks, although only the River Aire population showed low genetic diversity. In contrast, fish collected from two relatively unpolluted sites within the River Gowy and Houghton Springs showed weak, or no evidence of such bottlenecks. Nevertheless, males derived from polluted sites were able to reproduce successfully in competition with males derived from clean water exposures, indicating that these bottlenecks have not resulted in any substantial loss of reproductive fitness in males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  6. Preliminary checklists for applying SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation to rivers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation. SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istraživanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, održivo korišćenje i zaštita 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia

  7. Genesis and Diversity of Cryosols of the Northeast Siberian Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The North-Siberian Lena River Delta (LRD) is the largest Arctic delta and an important interface between the Arctic Ocean in the North and the large Siberian land masses in the South. LRD consists not only of Holocene deltaic sediment deposits as a river terrace and the modern active floodplains but also of remnants of the former Pleistocene mainland including large islands of ice-complex sediments and the Arga-Muora-Sise Island, which is composed of pure sand sediments of still debated origin. The highly diverse landscape structure of LRD is reflected by a great variety of permafrost-affected soils (cryosols). This study aims at describing this great cryosol diversity and at analysing the dominant soil-forming processes in this comparatively scarcely studied soil region. The soil development in the investigated continuous permafrost region is limited by the short thawing period of around three months (June to September) and takes place in the shallow (below 1 m) seasonally thawed active layer. The geological parent material plays an important role for the development of soils in the LRD region. The distribution of the various soil types closely follows the pattern of the geomorphic units characterised by differing sedimentation conditions. The properties and genesis of the soils on the Holocene river terrace and the modern floodplains are strongly affected by the enormous amounts of fluvial sediments (about 12 x 106 tons per year) brought by the Lena River into its delta. The fluvial sedimentation together with the also pronounced aeolian sedimentation results in a fast vertical growth of soils. The upward rise of the soil surface leads to an upward movement of the permafrost table resulting in fast incorporation of soil material formed in the supra-permafrost zone into the permafrost. Due to the morphodynamics of ice-wedge polygons and resulting formation of patterned ground with elevated rims and depressed and water-saturated centres, the Holocene river terrace

  8. A note on reliability estimation of functionally diverse systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlewood, B.; Popov, P.; Strigini, L.

    1999-01-01

    It has been argued that functional diversity might be a plausible means of claiming independence of failures between two versions of a system. We present a model of functional diversity, in the spirit of earlier models of diversity such as those of Eckhardt and Lee, and Hughes. In terms of the model, we show that the claims for independence between functionally diverse systems seem rather unrealistic. Instead, it seems likely that functionally diverse systems will exhibit positively correlated failures, and thus will be less reliable than an assumption of independence would suggest. The result does not, of course, suggest that functional diversity is not worthwhile; instead, it places upon the evaluator of such a system the onus to estimate the degree of dependence so as to evaluate the reliability of the system

  9. Abundances of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Community Diversity in the Weihe River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The spread of antibiotic resistance genes in river systems is an emerging environmental issue due to their potential threat to aquatic ecosystems and public health. In this study, we used droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR to evaluate pollution with clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs at 13 monitoring sites along the main stream of the Weihe River in China. Six clinically relevant ARGs and a class I integron-integrase (intI1 gene were analyzed using ddPCR, and the bacterial community was evaluated based on the bacterial 16S rRNA V3–V4 regions using MiSeq sequencing. The results indicated Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes as the dominant phyla in the water samples from the Weihe River. Higher abundances of blaTEM, strB, aadA, and intI1 genes (103 to 105 copies/mL were detected in the surface water samples compared with the relatively low abundances of strA, mecA, and vanA genes (0–1.94 copies/mL. Eight bacterial genera were identified as possible hosts of the intI1 gene and three ARGs (strA, strB, and aadA based on network analysis. The results suggested that the bacterial community structure and horizontal gene transfer were associated with the variations in ARGs.

  10. Migratory behavior and physiological development as potential determinants of life history diversity in fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall‐run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in both free‐flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio‐tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were higher in the free‐flowing Clearwater River than in impounded reaches. This supports the notion that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish's physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches, where water velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lowermost reach of Lower Granite Reservoir, suggesting that the behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast with those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings despite similarity in hydrodynamic conditions between the two studies. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater River migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr‐like in their development and never showed the increase in gill Na+/K+‐ATPase activity displayed by smolts from the Snake River. Results from this study provide evidence that behavioral and life history differences between Snake and Clearwater River subyearlings may have a physiological basis that is modified by environmental conditions.

  11. Migratory Behavior and Physiological Development as Potential Determinants of Life History Diversity in Fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2018-03-09

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in free-flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio-tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were highest in the free-flowing Clearwater River compared to impounded reaches. This provided support for our hypothesis that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish’s physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches where velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lower-most reach of Lower Granite Reservoir suggesting that behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings in spite of hydrodynamic conditions being similar. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater river migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr-like in their development and never showed an increase in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity as did smolts from the Snake River. The later emergence timing and cooler rearing temperatures in the Clearwater River may suppress normal physiological development that causes many fish to delay downstream movement and adopt a yearling life history strategy.

  12. The Effects of Surface Debris Diversion Devices on River Hydrodynamic Conditions and Implications for In-Stream Hydrokinetic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Toniolo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Floating objects designed to divert woody debris—known as debris diversion devices—can protect hydrokinetic turbines deployed in rivers; they also change the hydrodynamic conditions of a river, at least locally. Modifications associated with velocity adjustments in both magnitude and direction would be expected. Thus, one could assume that extra macro-turbulent levels would be found immediately behind a device and downstream of that location. This article presents a set of cross-sectional and longitudinal velocity measurements carried out to quantify these effects. Results show important changes in the velocity components. In addition, significant changes in the vorticity field, calculated along cross-sectional profiles, demonstrate the role of a submerged chain used to maintain the debris diversion device in place. More importantly, findings suggest that hydrokinetic turbines should not be installed in a river’s central area behind a debris diversion device, due to the additional turbulence created by the submerged chain.

  13. Switched diversity approach for multireceiving optical wireless systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Hassan; Refai, Hazem H; Lopresti, Peter G

    2011-10-10

    A number of existing spatial diversity schemes have been shown to improve the performance of optical wireless communication systems in diversity-rich environments. Among all, switched diversity has low complexity and is simple to implement. In this paper, an innovative spatial diversity scheme based on switched diversity is proposed. The scheme, namely switch-to-dominant combining, contributes to a higher bit error rate (BER) performance when compared to conventional switched diversity schemes, including switch-and-stay and switch-and-examine diversity. The optical multireceiver wireless system operates in a spatially correlated and lognormally distributed fading channel. Analytical analyses are conducted to demonstrate BER and processing load performance offered by the new scheme and compare them to available schemes, i.e., conventional switched combining and selection combining. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. Molecular diversity and distribution of anammox community in sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W; Xu, M-Y; Wu, W-M; Guo, J; Xia, C-Y; Sun, G-P; Wang, A-J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) community in sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source of Hong Kong. The diversity and distribution of the anammox community were investigated based on a comparative analyses of 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidation (hzo) genes of anammox bacteria. Candidatus Brocadia and two new anammox bacterial clusters were detected based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes. In contrast, the targeting of hzo genes indicated the presence of only Candidatus Jettenia with four different clusters. It was found that the sequence diversities of hzo genes were higher than those of the 16S rRNA genes. The abundance of anammox bacteria varied significantly among the sediment samples based on qPCR. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that nitrite concentration was the key factor influencing the abundance of anammox bacteria. The redundance analysis (RDA) confirmed that the combination of the contents of nitrite and nitrate, and the ratio of total nitrogen vs total carbon (TN/TC) had significant impact on the anammox bacterial community structure. The results revealed that the diverse anammox bacteria were present in sediments of the Dongjiang River, and the community structures were associated with varied environmental factors caused by urban pollutant invasion. This is the first report about the distribution of anammox bacterial community in sediments of the Dongjiang River, which provides helpful information of anammox niche specificity and influencing factors in the river ecosystem. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Status and trends of selected resources in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry L.; Hagerty, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Like other large rivers, the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) serves a diversity of roles. The UMRS provides commercial and recreational fishing, floodplain agriculture, drinking water for many communities, an important bird migration pathway, a variety of recreational activities, and a navigation system that transports much of the country's agricultural exports. These multiple roles present significant management challenges. Regular assessment of the condition of the river is needed to improve management plans and evaluate their effectiveness. This report provides a summary of the recent status (mean and range of conditions) and trends (change in direction over time) for 24 indicators of the ecological condition of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers using data collected through the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). The 24 indicators were grouped into seven categories: hydrology, sedimentation, water quality, land cover, aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish. Most of the data used in the report were collected between about 1993 and 2004, although some older data were also used to compare to recent conditions.Historical observations and current LTRMP data clearly indicate that the UMRS has been changed by human activity in ways that have diminished the ecological health of the river. The data indicate that status and trends differ among regions, and we expect that regional responses to various ecological rehabilitation techniques will differ as well. The continuing role of the LTRMP will be to provide the data needed to assess changes in river conditions and to determine how those changes relate to management actions, natural variation, and the overall ecological integrity of the river system.

  16. Diversidade genética e sistema de reprodução em uma população base de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. procedente de Katherine River, Austrália. Genetic diversity and mating system in a base population of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. from Katherine River, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno SEBBENN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar pormarcadores microssatélites a diversidade genéticae o sistema de reprodução de uma população basede Eucalyptus camaldulensis composta por 25 progênies de polinização aberta, localizada naFazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP de IlhaSolteira, em Selvíria MS. Foram genotipadas 100 árvores de 25 progênies de polinização aberta(4 árvores/progênie para oito locos microssatélites.Todos os locos avaliados foram polimórficos.A heterozigosidade observada nas matrizesfoi significativamente maior que aobservada nas progênies , o queindica que algum processo está reduzindo aheterozigosidade nas progênies. O índice defixação observado nas matrizes foisignificativamente menor que o detectado nasprogênies sugerindo seleção a favorde heterozigotos. A estimativa da taxa decruzamento multiloco foi alta, massignificativamente diferente da unidade (1,0,revelando que a espécie é de sistema mistode reprodução com predomínio de cruzamentos.A taxa de cruzamento entre parentes foitambém alta e significativamente diferente de zero, o que juntamente coma taxa de autofecundação explicam a alta taxa deendogamia detectada nas progênies. De modogeral, foi observada alta diversidade genética nasárvores matrizes e nas progênies. Como adiversidade genética é fundamental para programasde conservação e melhoramento genético, esteresultado indica que a população estudada tem altopotencial para ser usada para estes propósitos.The aim of this work was to evaluatethe genetic diversity and the mating system ofa base population of Eucalyptus camaldulensis,composed of 25 open-pollinated families, located inthe experimental station of UNESP Ilha Solteira,in Selvíria MS. One hundred individuals from 25families (4 trees/family were genotyped througheight microsatellite loci. All evaluated loci werepolymorphic. The observed heterozigosity in theseed-trees was significantly higherthan observed in offspring

  17. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  18. Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Nikolova, Mariyana; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Mollov, Mihail; Swain, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Lead isotope signatures ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb), determined by magnetic sector ICP-MS in river channel sediment, metal ores and mine waste, have been used as geochemical tracers to quantify the delivery and dispersal of sediment-associated metals in the lower Danube River catchment. Due to a diverse geology and range of ore-body ages, Pb isotope signatures in ore-bodies within the lower Danube River catchment show considerable variation, even within individual metallogenic zones. It is also possible to discriminate between the Pb isotopic signatures in mine waste and river sediment within river systems draining individual ore bodies. Lead isotopic data, along with multi-element data; were used to establish the provenance of river sediments and quantify sedimentary contributions to mining-affected tributaries and to the Danube River. Data indicate that mining-affected tributaries in Serbia and Bulgaria contribute up to 30% of the river channel sediment load of the lower Danube River. Quantifying relative sediment contributions from mining-affected tributaries enables spatial patterns in sediment-associated metal and As concentrations to be interpreted in terms of key contaminant sources. Combining geochemical survey data with that regarding the provenance of contaminated sediments can therefore be used to identify foci for remediation and environmental management strategies.

  19. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.

    2017-12-01

    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  20. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in upper reaches of Heihe River, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.

    2013-03-01

    Vegetation plays a key role to water conservation in southern Qilian Mountains (Northwestern China), the upper reaches of Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for vegetation protection because they can supply plants with nitrogen source. Nevertheless, little is known about nitrogen-fixing bacteria in this region. In present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established for detecting the difference of nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities between Potentilla parvifolia shrub and Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to Proteobacteria. At the genus level, the Azospirillum sp. was only detected in shrub soil while Thiocapsa sp., Derxiasp., Ectothiorhodospira sp., Mesorhizobium sp., Klebsiella sp., Ensifer sp., Methylocella sp. and Peseudomonas sp. were just detected in meadow soil. Shannon-Wiener index of nifH gene ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in meadow soil than shrub soil. Contrarily, the nifH gene copies and CFUs of cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria ranged from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g-1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g-1 soil, respectively. Furthermore, both of them were lower in meadow soil than shrub soil. Statistical analysis revealed that diversity and copies of nifH gene mostly correlated with aboveground biomass in shrub soil. In meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was principally affected by altitude while copies did by soil available K.

  1. Information Systems' Diverse Origins Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scime, Anthony; Andoh-Baidoo, Francis Kofi; Bush, Charles; Osatuyi, Babajide

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of IS programs and research has been of interest to various professions. It has been argued that IS has developed to the extent where it does not have to rely on other reference disciplines, but should rather serve as a reference discipline for other disciplines. While IS may have developed its own discipline, its location in…

  2. Hybrid diversity method utilizing adaptive diversity function for recovering unknown aberrations in an optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of recovering unknown aberrations in an optical system includes collecting intensity data produced by the optical system, generating an initial estimate of a phase of the optical system, iteratively performing a phase retrieval on the intensity data to generate a phase estimate using an initial diversity function corresponding to the intensity data, generating a phase map from the phase retrieval phase estimate, decomposing the phase map to generate a decomposition vector, generating an updated diversity function by combining the initial diversity function with the decomposition vector, generating an updated estimate of the phase of the optical system by removing the initial diversity function from the phase map. The method may further include repeating the process beginning with iteratively performing a phase retrieval on the intensity data using the updated estimate of the phase of the optical system in place of the initial estimate of the phase of the optical system, and using the updated diversity function in place of the initial diversity function, until a predetermined convergence is achieved.

  3. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  4. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2009-10-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold, the optimal switching threshold is a function of both the average channel SNR and the number of diversity branches, where computing the optimal switching threshold is not a simple task when the number of diversity branches is high. The newly proposed multi-branch switched diversity system is based on a sequence of switching thresholds, instead of a single switching threshold, where a different diversity branch uses a different switching threshold for signal comparison. Thanks to the fact that each switching threshold in the sequence can be optimized only based on the number of the remaining diversity branches, the proposed system makes it easy to find these switching thresholds. Furthermore, some selected numerical and simulation results show that the proposed switched diversity system with the sequence of optimal switching thresholds outperforms the conventional system with the single optimal switching threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  5. Environmental drivers of fish functional diversity and composition in the Lower Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, T.K.; Olden, J.D.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Paukert, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater conservation efforts require an understanding of how natural and anthropogenic factors shape the present-day biogeography of native and non-native species. This knowledge need is especially acute for imperiled native fishes in the highly modified Lower Colorado River Basin (LCRB), USA. In the present study we employed both a taxonomic and functional approach to explore how natural and human-related environmental drivers shape landscape-scale patterns of fish community composition in the LCRB. Our results showed that hydrologic alteration, watershed land use, and regional climate explained 30.3% and 44.7% of the total variation in fish community taxonomic and functional composition, respectively. Watersheds with greater dam densities and upstream storage capacity supported higher non-native functional diversity, suggesting that dams have provided additional "niche opportunities" for non-native equilibrium life-history strategists by introducing new reservoir habitat and modifying downstream flow and thermal regimes. By contrast, watersheds characterized by greater upstream land protection, lower dam densities, and higher variation in spring and summer precipitation supported fish communities with a strong complement of native species (opportunistic-periodic strategists). In conclusion, our study highlights the utility of a life-history approach to better understand the patterns and processes by which fish communities vary along environmental gradients.

  6. Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium in the Yellow River Estuary: Rates, Abundance, and Community Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Cuina; Wang, Yu; Ge, Chenghao; Ahmad, Hafiz Adeel; Gao, Baoyu; Ni, Shou-Qing

    2017-07-28

    Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) is an important nitrate reduction process in estuarine sediments. This study reports the first investigation of DNRA in the Yellow River Estuary located in Eastern Shandong, China. Saltwater intrusion could affect the physicochemical characteristics and change the microbial community structure of sediments. In this study, the activity, abundance and community diversity of DNRA bacteria were investigated during saltwater intrusion. The slurry incubation experiments combined with isotope-tracing techniques and qPCR results showed that DNRA rates and nrfA (the functional gene of DNRA bacteria) gene abundance varied over wide ranges across different sites. DNRA rates had a positive and significant correlation with sediment organic content and extractable NH 4 + , while DNRA rates were weakly correlated with nrfA gene abundance. In comparison, the activities and abundance of DNRA bacteria did not change with a trend along salinity gradient. Pyrosequencing analysis of nrfA gene indicated that delta-proteobacteria was the most abundant at all sites, while epsilon-proteobacteria was hardly found. This study reveals that variability in the activities and community structure of DNRA bacteria is largely driven by changes in environmental factors and provides new insights into the characteristics of DNRA communities in estuarine ecosystems.

  7. Assessment of denitrification process in lower Ishikari river system, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Minagawa, Masao

    2013-11-01

    Sediment denitrification rate and its role in removal of dissolved nitrate load in lower Ishikari river system were examined. Denitrification rate were measured using acetylene inhibition technique on the sediment samples collected during August 2009-July 2010. The denitrification rate varied from 0.001 to 1.9 μg Ng(-1) DM h(-1) with an average value of 0.21 μg Ng(-1) DM h(-1) in lower Ishikari river system. Denitrification rate showed positive correlation with dissolved nitrate concentration in the river basin, indicating overlying water column supplied nitrate for the sediment denitrification processes. Nutrient enrichment experiments result showed that denitrification rate increased significantly with addition of nitrate in case of samples collected from Barato Lake however no such increase was observed in the samples collected from Ishikari river main channel and its major tributaries indicating that factors other than substrate concentration such as population of denitrifier and hydrological properties of stream channel including channel depth and flow velocity may affects the denitrification rate in lower Ishikari river system. Denitrification rate showed no significant increase with the addition of labile carbon (glucose), indicating that sediment samples had sufficient organic matter to sustain denitrification activity. The result of nutrient spiraling model indicates that in- stream denitrification process removes on an average 5%d(-1) of dissolve nitrate load in Ishikari river. This study was carried out to fill the gap present in the availability of riverine denitrification rate measurement and its role in nitrogen budget from Japanese rivers characterize by small river length and high flow rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  9. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi; Loebl, Andy; Mays, Gary T.; Muhlheim, Michael David; Mullens, James Allen; Poore, Willis P. III; Qualls, A.L.; Wilson, Thomas L.; Waterman, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same

  10. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within

  11. Human induced discharge diversion in a tropical delta and its environmental implications: The Patía River, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Kettner, Albert

    2012-03-01

    SummaryThe Patía River, the number one in terms of sediment yield ˜1500 t km-2 yr-1 draining the western South America, has the most extensive and well developed delta on the Pacific coast, measuring 1700 km2. During the Holocene, nature forced the Patía delta to the south; however, a major water diversion, starting in 1972, diverted the Patía flow to the Sanguianga River, the latter, a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands. This human induced discharge diversion shifted the active delta plain back to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of morphological changes along the delta coast and distributary channels, are evidenced by: (1) coastal retreat along the abandoned delta lobe; 63% of the southern shoreline is retreating at maximum rates of 7 m yr-1, with a corresponding coastal land loss of 106 m yr-1; (2) transgressive barrier islands with exposed peat soils in the surf zone; (3) abandonment of former active distributaries in the southern delta plain with associated closing of inlets and formation of ebb tidal deltas; (4) breaching events on barrier islands; and (5) distributary channel accretion in the northern delta plain by morphological processes such as sedimentation (also in crevasses), overbank flow, increasing width of levees, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove. The Sanguianga Mangrove National Park (SMNP), the largest mangrove reserve in Colombia, measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Observed environmental changes in the SMNP, include (1) seaward advance of the sub-aqueous delta front at the Sanquianga inlet evidenced by an increase in tidal flat area from 5.4 Mm2 in 1986 to 14 Mm2 in 2001; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanguianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the

  12. Executive coaching in diversity from the systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerato Motsoaledi

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe the application of systems psychodynamic role analysis and to determine its trustworthiness in assisting executives to work effectively with conscious and unconscious diversity dynamics in their organisations. Motivation for the study: Executives generally struggle to understand the deeper meaning of diversity behaviour that manifests inside and around them, leading to conflict. Without understanding the unconscious meaning of the behaviour, organisations founder easily. Awareness of below-the-surface behaviour leads to insight and taking responsibility for diversity-related behaviours. Research design, approach and method: The researcher coached six executives in South African state departments over a period of 10 months. The coaching addressed and analysed the executives’ organisational roles. She analysed the data using discourse analysis. Main findings: Themes relating to the diversity dynamics of gender, race, ethnicity, authority, disability, language, age, de-authorisation of diversity work and the coaching process emerged. The coaching assisted the executives to gain insights into below-the-surface diversity dynamics, to address diversity in a sustained manner and to take up their organisational roles more effectively. Practical/managerial implications: Coached executives will have a more objective and dynamic experience of diversity issues that manifest in organisations, between colleagues and within themselves. Contribution/value-add: Executive coaching from a systems psychodynamic perspective displays trustworthiness in improving participants’ diversity awareness, especially with regard to gender, race, ethnicity and authorisation.

  13. Predicting the impacts of Mississippi River diversions and sea-level rise on spatial patterns of eastern oyster growth rate and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; La Peyre, Megan K.; Hu, Kelin; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2017-01-01

    There remains much debate regarding the perceived tradeoffs of using freshwater and sediment diversions for coastal restoration in terms of balancing the need for wetland restoration versus preserving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) production. Further complicating the issue, climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and land subsidence are also expected to affect estuarine water quality. In this study, we developed a process-based numerical modeling system that couples hydrodynamic, water quality, and oyster population dynamics. We selected Breton Sound Estuary (BSE) (∼2740 km2) in the eastern Mississippi River Deltaic Plain since it is home to several of the largest public oyster seed grounds and private leases for the Gulf coast. The coupled oyster population model was calibrated and validated against field observed oyster growth data. We predicted the responses of oyster population in BSE to small- (142 m3 s−1) and large-scale (7080 m3 s−1) river diversions at the Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion structure planned in the 2012 Coastal Master Plan (Louisiana) under low (0.38 m) and high (1.44 m) relative sea-level rise (RSLR = eustatic SLR + subsidence) compared to a baseline condition (Year 2009). Model results showed that the large-scale diversion had a stronger negative impact on oyster population dynamics via freshening of the entire estuary, resulting in reduced oyster growth rate and production than RSLR. Under the large-scale diversion, areas with optimal oyster growth rates (>15 mg ash-free dry weight (AFDW) oyster−1 wk−1) and production (>500 g AFDW m−2 yr−1) would shift seaward to the southeastern edge of the estuary, turning the estuary into a very low oyster production system. RSLR however played a greater role than the small-scale diversion on the magnitude and spatial pattern of oyster growth rate and production. RSLR would result in an overall estuary-wide decrease in oyster growth rate and production as a

  14. Appropriate models in decision support systems for river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Morell, M.; Todorovik, O.; Dimitrov, D.; Selenica, A.; Spirkovski, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, new ideas and techniques appear very quickly, like sustainability, adaptive management, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and participations of new stakeholders, which contribute a lot to the development of decision support systems in river basin management. However, the

  15. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    Private health facilities should be included in the HIV surveillance system to ensure better representativeness. Key words: HIV, surveillance, Rivers State. INTRODUCTION. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a chronic viral infection that attacks the immune system of the infected individual and rapidly progresses to ...

  16. Phytoplankton diversity in the Upper Paraná River floodplain during two years of drought (2000 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAF. Borges

    Full Text Available Floodplain lakes and lotic environments of the High Paraná River floodplain present notable biodiversity, especially in relation to phytoplanktonic community. The goal of this work was to evaluate phytoplankton diversity (alpha, beta and gamma in three subsystems during two years of drought (2000 and 2001. We sampled 33 habitats at the pelagic zone subsurface during February and August. Due to low hydrometric levels of the Paraná and Ivinhema Rivers, there was no clear distinction between the potamophase and limnophase periods for the two hydrosedimentological cycles analysed. We recorded 366 taxa. The values obtained for gamma diversity estimators ranged from 55.5-87.8%. DCA and variance analyses revealed only spatial differences in the phytoplankton composition. The mean values of species richness, evenness and Shannon diversity were low, especially when compared to those obtained in previous periods for Baía subsystem. The highest mean values of species richness were verified in the connected floodplain lakes. The highest beta diversity was obtained from the Paraná subsystem and lotic environments in 2001. In general, we observed that the Upper Paraná River floodplain has the highest values of species richness, evenness and H' during the potamophase period, when the flood facilitates dispersion. However, this pattern was not observed in 2000 and 2001, years influenced by La Niña. Besides the low precipitation observed during that period, we must consider the influence of the Porto Primavera impoundment, which also altered the discharge regime of the Paraná River by decreasing the degree of connectivity between fluvial channels and the lentic environments of the floodplain. Thus, the prevalence of conditions characterising the limnophase during 2000 and 2001 explains the lack of significant variability registered for most components of phytoplankton diversity over the study period. We conclude that variations in phytoplankton diversity

  17. Forecasting landscape effects of Mississippi River diversions on elevation and accretion in Louisiana deltaic wetlands under future environmental uncertainty scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Steyer, Gregory D.; Couvillion, Brady R.; John M. Rybczyk,; Beck, Holly J.; William J. Sleavin,; Ehab A. Meselhe,; Mead A. Allison,; Ronald G. Boustany,; Craig J. Fischenich,; Victor H. Rivera-Monroy,

    2014-01-01

    Large sediment diversions are proposed and expected to build new wetlands to alleviate the extensive wetland loss (5,000 km2) affecting coastal Louisiana during the last 78 years. Current assessment and prediction of the impacts of sediment diversions have focused on the capture and dispersal of both water and sediment on the adjacent river side and the immediate outfall marsh area. However, little is known about the effects of sediment diversions on existing wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion dynamics in the receiving basin at the landscape scale. In this study, we used a spatial wetland surface elevation model developed in support of Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan to examine such landscape-scale effects of sediment diversions. Multiple sediment diversion projects were incorporated in the model to simulate surface elevation and vertical accretion for the next 50 years (2010-2060) under two environmental (moderate and less optimistic) scenarios. Specifically, we examined landscape-scale surface elevation and vertical accretion trends under diversions with different geographical locations, diverted discharge rates, and geomorphic characteristics of the receiving basin. Model results indicate that small diversions ( 1,500 m3 s-1) are required to achieve landscape-level benefits to promote surface elevation via vertical accretion to keep pace with rising sea level.

  18. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  19. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remans, Roseline; Flynn, Dan F B; DeClerck, Fabrice; Diru, Willy; Fanzo, Jessica; Gaynor, Kaitlyn; Lambrecht, Isabel; Mudiope, Joseph; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nkhoma, Phelire; Siriri, David; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl A

    2011-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD), has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are generated and strategies for future research are suggested calling for

  20. Impact of water diversion on the hydrogeochemical characterization of surface water and groundwater in the Yellow River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Fadong; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Tu, Chun; Ouyang, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the response of different ecosystems to the water diversion. • We characterized the interaction between surface water and groundwater. • We use the Piper and HFE-D to illustrate the salinization process. - Abstract: The Yellow River Delta is undergoing severe ecosystem degradation through salinization caused mainly by seawater intrusion. The Yellow River diversion project, in operation since 2008, aims to mitigate a projected ecosystem disaster. We conducted field investigations across three ecosystems (Farmland, Wetland and Coast) in the delta to assess the effectiveness of the annual water pulse and determine the relationships between surface water and groundwater. The chemical characteristics of the groundwater in Farmland exclude the possibility of seawater intrusion. The Wetland is vulnerable to pollution by groundwater discharge from Farmland and to secondary salinization caused by rising water tables. The salinity values of groundwater at Coast sites likely reflect the presence of seawater trapped in the clay sediments, a premise corroborated through measurements of groundwater levels, stable isotopes and major ion signatures. Our δD–δ 18 O two-dimensional graphic plot demonstrated that groundwaters of Farmland and Wetland changed toward more depleted isotopic compositions following water diversion, but this was not the case in the Coast sites, where the water table varied little year-round. A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) demonstrated that freshening is taking place in the largest portions of the aquifers and that, without sustained water diversion recharge, these underground water bodies may switch from freshening to salinization on a seasonal time scale. Thus, the qualities of waters in coastal aquifers in the Yellow River Delta are substantially influenced by the process of ecological water diversion, and also by land use practices and by the lithological properties of the drainage landscape

  1. From academic to applied: Operationalising resilience in river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Melissa; Thoms, Martin C.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of resilience acknowledges the ability of societies to live and develop with dynamic environments. Given the recognition of the need to prepare for anticipated and unanticipated shocks, applications of resilience are increasing as the guiding principle of public policy and programs in areas such as disaster management, urban planning, natural resource management, and climate change adaptation. River science is an area in which the adoption of resilience is increasing, leading to the proposition that resilience may become a guiding principle of river policy and programs. Debate about the role of resilience in rivers is part of the scientific method, but disciplinary disunity about the ways to approach resilience application in policy and programs may leave river science out of the policy process. We propose six elements that need to be considered in the design and implementation of resilience-based river policy and programs: rivers as social-ecological systems; the science-policy interface; principles, capacities, and characteristics of resilience; cogeneration of knowledge; adaptive management; and the state of the science of resilience.

  2. Spatial Structure of Soil Macrofauna Diversity and Tree Canopy in Riparian Forest of Maroon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sayad

    2017-02-01

    with a mean temperature of 24.5oc. Plant cover, mainly comprises Populus euphratica Olivie and Tamarix arceuthoides Bge and Lycium shawii Roemer & Schultes. Soil macrofauna were sampled using 175 sampling point along parallel transects (perpendicular to the river. The distance between transects was 100m. We considered distance between samples as 50 m. tree canopy were measured in 5* 5 plots. soil macrofauna were extracted from 50 cm×50 cm×10 cm soil monolith by hand-sorting procedure. All soil macrofauna were identified to family level. Evenness (Sheldon index, richness (Menhinich index and diversity (Shannon H’ index by using PAST version 1.39, were determined in each sample. Classical statistical parameters, i.e. mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, minimum and maximum, were calculated using SPSS17 software. For analysis of the relationship between Soil macrofauna diversity indices and tree canopy (Total canopy, Populous canopy, Tamarix canopy and Serim canopy we calculated the correlation among soil properties and macrofauna using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Next, to determining the spatial structure, we calculated the semivariances. Semivariance quantifies the spatial dependence of spatially ordered variable values. In order to gather information about the spatial connection between any two variables, and to compare the similarity of their spatial structure patterns, cross-variograms were constructed. Cross-variograms are plots of cross-semivariance against the lag distance. Results and Discussion: Soil macrofauna communities were dominated by earthworm, diplopods, coleoptera, gastropoda, araneae, and insect larvae. Correlation analysis of soil macrofauna and tree canopy indicated weak relationships between them. Weak, but significant relationships were found between macrofauna diversity, evenness, richness and total canopy, Populous canopy and Tamarix canopy (positive. Macrofauna indices and tree canopy(excepted Tamarix canopy were

  3. Diversity and dynamics of amphibians in floodplain ecosystems of the Samara river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High emphasis is placed on amphibian importance as a buffer system, which has inhibiting effect on technogenic transformation of biogeocoenoses. Issues of the animals’ use in biological restoration, ecological rehabilitation of technogenic landscapes and in bioindication of environmental conditions are covered. Сhange in any component of the ecosystem leads to changing of the whole ecosystem. Anuran amphibians are extremely vulnerable to harmful effects of many factors of natural and anthropogenic origin. That is why, the destruction of forests, draining of wetlands, global climate change, global and local environmental pollution lead to complete disappearance or drastic decrease in numbers of many species of amphibians, reduction and fragmentation of their habitats, increased diversity and overall proportion of morphological anomalies in the natural populations of this group of animals. Recent studies of morphological changes in amphibians are increasingly being used to assess the state of the natural state of their populations and quality of their environment. In the biogeocenoses which are in the conditions of transformation amphibians have a number of advantages relative to their activity, the rate of reproduction, and euribiont character. Practical recommendations on protection and enrichment of the regional herpetofauna are given. The impact of the number and species diversity of amphibians on forest ecosystems of the steppe Dnieperin various conditions is assessed. Parametric entropy factors, the coefficient of biodiversity helped to identify the dominant species of amphibians. Taking into account the influence of predictors, there is the possibility to determine the number and species diversity of amphibians in the conditions of floodplain lime-ash forest. As a result of recording, the following species were caught: Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768, Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842, Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758, Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1758

  4. Diversity and testing requirements of programmable automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Maskuniitty, M.

    1993-04-01

    In the report programmable digital operation and safety automation systems for nuclear power plants are discussed. The programmable systems deviate by their properties and behaviour from the conventional non-programmable systems in such extent, that their verification and validation for safety critical applications requires new methods and practices. The safety assessment can not be based on conventional probabilistic methods due to the difficulties in the quantification of the reliability of the software and hardware. A safety critical programmable system shall include diverse redundant parts so that no residual program fault can not cause the failure of the intended function of the system. Although complete testing of a programmable system is impossible, different tests have a central role in the production and validation process of the system. Diversity is important also in confidence building measures for the implemented system. Independent analysis and testing of the system should use different methods and tools from those used in the production and validation process by the system vendor. Use of diversity and testing are concluded to be central issues in producing safe programmable system and in proving them to be safe enough. By combining functional and programming diversity in a suitable way one can produce a system that is safe enough without having a non-programmable back-up system. (48 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.)

  5. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  6. The effect of organic farming systems on species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2017-11-01

    Organic farming systems have been well known to support the diversity of a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms, arable flora, invertebrates, birds, and mammals, which benefit from organic management leading to increases in abundance and/or species richness. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of organic farming on species diversity reported in several articles and compare this with the current study in Gondanglegi, Malang. A review of several studies showed that organic farming systems have been reported to increase species diversity, including that of mammals, birds, arthropods, vascular plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The researchers about arthropod groups consisted of carabid beetles, butterflies, wasps, predators, and bees. Agricultural landscape, habitat type, farming system, landscape composition and connectivity all contribute to explaining species biodiversity and richness. Moreover, based on current and relevant studies, the results showed that the application of refugia blocks has increased arthropod diversity and composition.

  7. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.

    2012-07-13

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  8. Diversity in School Performance Feedback Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Goedele; Schildkamp, Kim; Luyten, Hans; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As data-based decision making is receiving increased attention in education, more and more school performance feedback systems (SPFSs) are being developed and used worldwide. These systems provide schools with data on their functioning. However, little research is available on the characteristics of the different SPFSs. Therefore, this study…

  9. Diversity modelling for electrical power system simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharip, R M; Abu Zarim, M A U A

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers diversity of generation and demand profiles against the different future energy scenarios and evaluates these on a technical basis. Compared to previous studies, this research applied a forecasting concept based on possible growth rates from publically electrical distribution scenarios concerning the UK. These scenarios were created by different bodies considering aspects such as environment, policy, regulation, economic and technical. In line with these scenarios, forecasting is on a long term timescale (up to every ten years from 2020 until 2050) in order to create a possible output of generation mix and demand profiles to be used as an appropriate boundary condition for the network simulation. The network considered is a segment of rural LV populated with a mixture of different housing types. The profiles for the 'future' energy and demand have been successfully modelled by applying a forecasting method. The network results under these profiles shows for the cases studied that even though the value of the power produced from each Micro-generation is often in line with the demand requirements of an individual dwelling there will be no problems arising from high penetration of Micro-generation and demand side management for each dwellings considered. The results obtained highlight the technical issues/changes for energy delivery and management to rural customers under the future energy scenarios

  10. Diversity modelling for electrical power system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharip, R. M.; Abu Zarim, M. A. U. A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers diversity of generation and demand profiles against the different future energy scenarios and evaluates these on a technical basis. Compared to previous studies, this research applied a forecasting concept based on possible growth rates from publically electrical distribution scenarios concerning the UK. These scenarios were created by different bodies considering aspects such as environment, policy, regulation, economic and technical. In line with these scenarios, forecasting is on a long term timescale (up to every ten years from 2020 until 2050) in order to create a possible output of generation mix and demand profiles to be used as an appropriate boundary condition for the network simulation. The network considered is a segment of rural LV populated with a mixture of different housing types. The profiles for the 'future' energy and demand have been successfully modelled by applying a forecasting method. The network results under these profiles shows for the cases studied that even though the value of the power produced from each Micro-generation is often in line with the demand requirements of an individual dwelling there will be no problems arising from high penetration of Micro-generation and demand side management for each dwellings considered. The results obtained highlight the technical issues/changes for energy delivery and management to rural customers under the future energy scenarios.

  11. Contribution to the diversity and conservation knowledge of mammals in the basin of the Apurimac river, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work documents the diversity of mammals in the headwaters of the Apurímac river, one of the most important information gaps in Peru, based on an evaluation of fi ve sampling areas in the departments of Apurímac (Cconoc, Velavelayoc, Ayacucho (Yanamonte, Ccentabamba and Cuzco (Catarata. Capture’s effort was 1280 trap-nights and 41 mistnet-nights. Sixty species were recorded in the study area and included 15 threatened species and four species endemic to Perú. As expected, bats and rodents were the most diverse orders (66,7 %. The species diversity in the sites sampled declines signifi cantly with elevation from the lowest elevation sites (Ccentabamba and Catarata to the highest (Velavelayoc. The marsupial Monodelphis peruviana and the Dwarf Brocket deer Mazama chunyi are fifi rst records for the department of Ayacucho. The bats Artibeus planirostris and Myotis keaysi, and the river otter Lontra longicaudis are fifi rst records for the department of Apurímac. For bats, the relative abundance showed a signifi cant negative correlation with elevation, but was not signifi cant for small terrestrial mammals. The species of Sturnira, Akodon and Thomasomys had the highest values of relative abundance. The diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener and Simpson also showed also a signifi cant negative correlation with elevation. The Apurímac river headwater is estimated to have at least 97 mammals species. We recommend creating conservation areas in Huanipaca, Yanamonte and Catarata, and enlarging the area of the Santuario Histórico Machu Picchu to include the archaeological site of Choquequirao.

  12. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  13. Advancing Shannon Entropy for Measuring Diversity in Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From economic inequality and species diversity to power laws and the analysis of multiple trends and trajectories, diversity within systems is a major issue for science. Part of the challenge is measuring it. Shannon entropy H has been used to rethink diversity within probability distributions, based on the notion of information. However, there are two major limitations to Shannon’s approach. First, it cannot be used to compare diversity distributions that have different levels of scale. Second, it cannot be used to compare parts of diversity distributions to the whole. To address these limitations, we introduce a renormalization of probability distributions based on the notion of case-based entropy Cc as a function of the cumulative probability c. Given a probability density p(x, Cc measures the diversity of the distribution up to a cumulative probability of c, by computing the length or support of an equivalent uniform distribution that has the same Shannon information as the conditional distribution of p^c(x up to cumulative probability c. We illustrate the utility of our approach by renormalizing and comparing three well-known energy distributions in physics, namely, the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, and Fermi-Dirac distributions for energy of subatomic particles. The comparison shows that Cc is a vast improvement over H as it provides a scale-free comparison of these diversity distributions and also allows for a comparison between parts of these diversity distributions.

  14. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Melaku, Simagegnew; Getahun, Abebe; Wakjira, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia. Fish samples were collected in one wet and one dry season. The length-weight relationships were fitted using power equation for the most abundant species. A total of 348 fish specimens were collected using gillnets and hooks. These were identified into eight species and one Garra sp. rep...

  15. Exploitation of Extra Diversity in UWB MB-OFDM System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heo, Joo; Chang, KyungHi

    2005-01-01

    .... We also compare the performance of a proposed SFBC (Space-Frequency Block Code) MB-OFDM system with that of conventional MB-OFDM system and manifest the extra spatial diversity gain of MB-OFDM UWB system. Simulation results show SFBC MB-OFDM system outperforms conventional MB-OFDM system about 1.5 dB of Eb/No at target BER of 10-4.

  16. Diversity and non-integer differentiation for system dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Oustaloup, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Based on a structured approach to diversity, notably inspired by various forms of diversity of natural origins, Diversity and Non-integer Derivation Applied to System Dynamics provides a study framework to the introduction of the non-integer derivative as a modeling tool. Modeling tools that highlight unsuspected dynamical performances (notably damping performances) in an ""integer"" approach of mechanics and automation are also included. Written to enable a two-tier reading, this is an essential resource for scientists, researchers, and industrial engineers interested in this subject area. Ta

  17. Impact of hydropower project (RoR on the ichthyofaunal diversity of river Birahiganga in Central Himalaya (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurnam Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Study examined the present status of ichthyofaunal diversity of river Birahiganga in compliance to the construction of one hydropower project (HPP. The river is diverted through tunnel, leaving very less water in its fragmented course (~2.5 km. Sometime river gets almost dried in summer season. Altogether 20 fish species belonging to two orders, three families and eight genera were reported from fragmented and continuous flowing stretches of the river. Snow trout (Schizothorax and Schizothoraichthys spp. have shown major share in total fish catch composition whereas the typical hill stream fishes (Garra and Pseudecheneis spp. were the least contributor. Installation of HPP has effect on the fish population structure. Maximum species richness (20 sp. was recorded from mainstream whereas 16 sp. were procured from the fragmented stretch. Relative abundance of most of the species was considerably high in the mainstream than the fragmented stretch, except Glyptothorax pectinopterus which has shown equal abundance at both the sites. Low water discharge in the fragmented stretch supports only small sized fishes. The degradation of habitat ecology and variation in physico-chemical features seems distressing the fish population structure. The threat status of fish fauna ascertain that out of 20 species, status of 6 species is under lower risk Near Threatened, 5 as Vulnerable and 4 as Endangered.

  18. Clinch River Breeder Reactor secondary control rod system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeehan, E.R.; Sim, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The shutdown system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) includes two independent systems--a primary and a secondary system. The Secondary Control Rod System (SCRS) is a new design which is being developed by General Electric to be independent from the primary system in order to improve overall shutdown reliability by eliminating potential common-mode failures. The paper describes the status of the SCRS design and fabrication and testing activities. Design verification testing on the component level is largely complete. These component tests are covered with emphasis on design impact results. A prototype unit has been manufactured and system level tests in sodium have been initiated

  19. Sediment deposition and associated organic carbon dynamics in a tropical River system; the Tana River (Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omengo, Fred; Alleman, Tine; Geeraert, Naomi; Bouillon, Steven; Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Floodplains are known to play a potentially important role in regulating the downstream transport of sediments, carbon, and nutrients in river systems. We investigated sediment and carbon transport, retention and deposition in the floodplains of the lower Tana River (Kenya), between the two main downstream gauging stations Garissa and Garsen. The Tana River is the largest river in Kenya and runs for more than 1,000 km from Kenya's highlands (Mt Kenya and the Aberdare mountains). The catchment covers around 100,000km² and the hydrology is controlled by the shifting of intertropical convergence Zone (ITCZ), leading to a bimodal precipitation cycle. Sediment cores were taken at various sites within the floodplains, and analysed for bulk density, organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen content, stable isotope signatures (δ13C) of organic C, and grain size distribution. We determined 137Cs and 210Pbxs activities in order to estimate historical sedimentation rates and to quantify the post-depositional losses of organic carbon. In addition, we measured fresh sediment deposition rates immediately after an extended period of flooding, along with associated flood heights and the distance relative to the main River . Fresh sediment deposition rates ranged between 1mm and 15mm for the period of study at an average rate of 1.13 gcm-3 (dry weight). This varied with distance of the floodplain from the main river and its elevation relative to the full bank. The fresh deposited sediment had an average organic carbon content of 1.55 ± 0.42%. Sediment cores showed a strong downcore gradient in OC content, from 3 - 12%C in the top layers to typically less than 0.5 % below 50 cm. The C:N ratios varied from 8 to 16 with majority averaging 9-11. Stable isotope signatures (δ13C) of organic C varied between -28‰ to -16‰ for the deeper core samples. 137Cs and 210Pbxs profiles indicate a vertical accretion at an average rate of 0.6 cm per year in the sites measured so far. The Tana river

  20. Diverse Approaches to Implement and Monitor River Restoration: A Comparative Perspective in France and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Bertrand; Kail, Jochem; Toedter, Anne; Wolter, Christian; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    River restoration is a main emphasis of river management in European countries. Cross-national comparisons of its implementation are still rare in scientific literature. Based on French and German national censuses, this study compares river restoration practices and monitoring by analysing 102 French and 270 German projects. This comparison aims to draw a spatial and temporal framework of restoration practices in both countries to identify potential drivers of cross-national similarities and differences. The results underline four major trends: (1) a lag of almost 15 years in river restoration implementation between France and Germany, with a consequently higher share of projects in Germany than in France, (2) substantial similarities in restored reach characteristics, short reach length, small rivers, and in "agricultural" areas, (3) good correspondences between stressors identified and restoration measures implemented. Morphological alterations were the most important highlighted stressors. River morphology enhancement, especially instream enhancements, were the most frequently implemented restoration measures. Some differences exist in specific restoration practices, as river continuity restoration were most frequently implemented in French projects, while large wood introduction or channel re-braiding were most frequently implemented in German projects, and (4) some quantitative and qualitative differences in monitoring practices and a significant lack of project monitoring, especially in Germany compared to France. These similarities and differences between Germany and France in restoration application and monitoring possibly result from a complex set of drivers that might be difficult to untangle (e.g., environmental, technical, political, cultural).

  1. Diverse Approaches to Implement and Monitor River Restoration: A Comparative Perspective in France and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Bertrand; Kail, Jochem; Toedter, Anne; Wolter, Christian; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-11-01

    River restoration is a main emphasis of river management in European countries. Cross-national comparisons of its implementation are still rare in scientific literature. Based on French and German national censuses, this study compares river restoration practices and monitoring by analysing 102 French and 270 German projects. This comparison aims to draw a spatial and temporal framework of restoration practices in both countries to identify potential drivers of cross-national similarities and differences. The results underline four major trends: (1) a lag of almost 15 years in river restoration implementation between France and Germany, with a consequently higher share of projects in Germany than in France, (2) substantial similarities in restored reach characteristics, short reach length, small rivers, and in "agricultural" areas, (3) good correspondences between stressors identified and restoration measures implemented. Morphological alterations were the most important highlighted stressors. River morphology enhancement, especially instream enhancements, were the most frequently implemented restoration measures. Some differences exist in specific restoration practices, as river continuity restoration were most frequently implemented in French projects, while large wood introduction or channel re-braiding were most frequently implemented in German projects, and (4) some quantitative and qualitative differences in monitoring practices and a significant lack of project monitoring, especially in Germany compared to France. These similarities and differences between Germany and France in restoration application and monitoring possibly result from a complex set of drivers that might be difficult to untangle (e.g., environmental, technical, political, cultural).

  2. Diversity of fish sound types in the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Repetitive species-specific sound enables the identification of the presence and behavior of soniferous species by acoustic means. Passive acoustic monitoring has been widely applied to monitor the spatial and temporal occurrence and behavior of calling species. Methods Underwater biological sounds in the Pearl River Estuary, China, were collected using passive acoustic monitoring, with special attention paid to fish sounds. A total of 1,408 suspected fish calls comprising 18,942 pulses were qualitatively analyzed using a customized acoustic analysis routine. Results We identified a diversity of 66 types of fish sounds. In addition to single pulse, the sounds tended to have a pulse train structure. The pulses were characterized by an approximate 8 ms duration, with a peak frequency from 500 to 2,600 Hz and a majority of the energy below 4,000 Hz. The median inter-pulsepeak interval (IPPI of most call types was 9 or 10 ms. Most call types with median IPPIs of 9 ms and 10 ms were observed at times that were exclusive from each other, suggesting that they might be produced by different species. According to the literature, the two section signal types of 1 + 1 and 1 + N10 might belong to big-snout croaker (Johnius macrorhynus, and 1 + N19 might be produced by Belanger’s croaker (J. belangerii. Discussion Categorization of the baseline ambient biological sound is an important first step in mapping the spatial and temporal patterns of soniferous fishes. The next step is the identification of the species producing each sound. The distribution pattern of soniferous fishes will be helpful for the protection and management of local fishery resources and in marine environmental impact assessment. Since the local vulnerable Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis mainly preys on soniferous fishes, the fine-scale distribution pattern of soniferous fishes can aid in the conservation of this species. Additionally, prey and predator

  3. Efficiency of Different Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture Systems in the Red River Delta of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Huong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture (IAA is characteristic with diversity of small-scale production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam where most integrated aquaculture systems are closely associated to the VAC model, an ecosystem production that three components: garden (V, pond (A and livestock pen (C are integrated. These VAC systems effectively use all the available land, air, water and solar energy resources, and also effectively recycle by-products and waste for providing diversified agricultural products to meet the complex nutritional demands of rural communities. The IAA systems are dynamic, diverse and subject to economic and environmental changes. By investigating 167 aquaculture households, the traditional VAC, New VAC, Animal Fish (AF and Commercial Fish (FS systems are identified as four existing IAA systems. This paper presents the main characteristics and economic efficiency of these IAA systems. The study’s results indicate clear evidence that the traditional VAC system and New VAC system are the most efficient and effective models. The findings of this study have shed light on the important role of integrated aquaculture systems to food security and economic development of households and local communities. The VAC systems are likely to propose for improving household food security and developing the local economy.

  4. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  5. Automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems: application to the Ebro River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, V; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Sarrate, R; Morales-Hernandez, M; Gonzalez-Sanchis, M; Garcia-Navarro, P

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems is addressed using a benchmark test case based in the Ebro River. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza in Spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding and high pollutant levels in living areas, some lands outside the city are prepared to be flooded. Going one step further, this paper is focused on the pollutant level control at a certain point downstream of the river under flooding episodes, and several control strategies for that purpose are presented and tested.

  6. Cytogenetic and morphological diversity in populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae from Brazilian northeastern river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Souza Medrado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, morphometric and cytogenetic analyses were carried out in populations of the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae from Contas and Recôncavo Sul River basins (State of Bahia, Brazil, providing new data on the genetic structure of this species along the region. Based on morphologic measurements, we observed that populations from the same hydrographic basin were more similar to each other (Contas and Preto do Costa Rivers, and remarkably divergent from Recôncavo Sul (Mineiro Stream, as indicated by clustering analysis. Cytogenetic data revealed a same diploid number for all populations (2n = 48, but distinct karyotype formulae (8M+24SM+12ST+4A, FN = 92 in Contas River, 8M+24SM+10ST+6A, FN = 90 in Preto do Costa River, and 8M+18SM+16ST+6A, FN = 90 in Mineiro Stream. Ag-NORs were identified at telomeres on a subtelocentric chromosome pair, although multiple ribosomal sites have been detected in some specimens from Contas River. These results show that A. fasciatus populations from northeastern river basins are well differentiated and present peculiar cytogenetic features when compared to populations from other regions. Therefore, the apparent chromosomal plasticity of this species, likely to represent a complex of cryptic forms, is corroborated. Finally, we demonstrated that morphological features can be successfully used to support other sources of genetic information.

  7. Integrating Diverse Data Systems for International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International collaborations, especially ones that arise with little or no financial resources, still face challenges in opening up data collections via a wide variety of differing and often non-interoperable means. In turn, this hampers the collaborative process, slows or even prevents scientific exchange. Early efforts that proposed a centralized, and project specific data archive encountered many difficulties, ranging from little or no adoption, to the inability to provide required documentation and metadata to make the datasets findable or usable. In time, virtualized approaches appeared to gain traction, for e.g. virtual observatories. In this contribution, we report on several international collaboration case studies with distributed data systems; their needs, successes, challenges and failures and synthesize a set of suggested practices to inform future international collaboration efforts.

  8. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.

    2017-08-09

    The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest and best preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, linked in space and time with a compositionally diverse succession of volcanic rocks that partially record the apparent emergence and passage of the Yellowstone plume head through eastern Oregon during the late Cenozoic. This compositionally diverse suite of volcanic rocks are considered part of the La Grande-Owyhee eruptive axis (LOEA), an approximately 300-kilometer-long (185 mile), north-northwest-trending, middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic belt located along the eastern margin of the Columbia River flood basalt province. Volcanic rocks erupted from and preserved within the LOEA form an important regional stratigraphic link between the (1) flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau on the north, (2) bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes of the Owyhee Plateau on the south, (3) bimodal basalt-rhyolite and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau, and (4) the High Lava Plains of central Oregon.This field-trip guide describes a 4-day geologic excursion that will explore the stratigraphic and geochemical relationships among mafic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and coeval and compositionally diverse volcanic rocks associated with the early “Yellowstone track” and High Lava Plains in eastern Oregon. Beginning in Portland, the Day 1 log traverses the Columbia River gorge eastward to Baker City, focusing on prominent outcrops that reveal a distal succession of laterally extensive, large-volume tholeiitic flood lavas of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalt formations of the CRBG. These “great flows” are typical of the well-studied flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau, where interbedded silicic and calc-alkaline lavas are conspicuously absent. The latter part of Day 1 will highlight exposures of middle to late Miocene silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolite domes, and

  9. Reliability modeling of Clinch River breeder reactor electrical shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, R.A.; Duetsch, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    The initial simulation of the probabilistic properties of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) electrical shutdown systems is described. A model of the reliability (and availability) of the systems is presented utilizing Success State and continuous-time, discrete state Markov modeling techniques as significant elements of an overall reliability assessment process capable of demonstrating the achievement of program goals. This model is examined for its sensitivity to safe/unsafe failure rates, sybsystem redundant configurations, test and repair intervals, monitoring by reactor operators; and the control exercised over system reliability by design modifications and the selection of system operating characteristics. (U.S.)

  10. Geochemical Constraints on Archaeal Diversity in the Vulcano Hydrothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. L.; Amend, J. P.

    2006-12-01

    The shallow marine hydrothermal system of Vulcano, Italy hosts a wide diversity of cultured thermophilic Archaea, including Palaeococcus helgesonii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyrococcus furiosus, to name a few. However, recent studies have revealed a plethora of uncultured archaeal lineages in the Vulcano system. For example, a 16S rRNA gene survey of an onshore geothermal well identified a diverse archaeal community including deeply-branching uncultured Crenarchaeota, Korarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Additionally, culture-independent hybridization techniques suggested that Archaea account for nearly half of the microbial community in the Vulcano system. Furthermore, geochemical characterization of fluids revealed numerous lithotrophic and heterotrophic exergonic reactions that could support as yet uncultured organisms. Archaeal diversity throughout the Vulcano hydrothermal system was investigated using 16S rRNA gene surveys at five submarine vents and an onshore sediment seep. Overall, archaeal diversity was higher (10 groups) at submarine vents with moderate temperatures (59°C) compared with higher temperature (94°C) vents (4 groups). Archaeal communities at the moderately thermal vents were dominated by Thermococcales and also contained Archaeoglobales, Thermoproteales, and uncultured archaea among the Korarchaeota, Marine Group I, and the Deep-sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeota (DHVE). Fluid composition also affects the microbial community structure. At two high-temperature sites variations in archaeal diversity can be attributed to differences in iron and hydrogen concentrations, and pH. Comparing sites with similar temperature and pH conditions suggests that the presence of Desulfurococcales is limited to sites at which metabolic energy yields exceed 10 kJ per mole of electrons transferred. The Vulcano hydrothermal system hosts diverse archaeal communities, containing both cultured and uncultured species, whose distribution appears to be constrained by

  11. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  12. FAULT-TOLERANT DESIGN FOR ADVANCED DIVERSE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    YANG GYUN OH; JIN KWON JEONG; CHANG JAE LEE; YOON HEE LEE; SEUNG MIN BAEK; SANG JEONG LEE

    2013-01-01

    For the improvement of APR1400 Diverse Protection System (DPS) design, the Advanced DPS (ADPS) has recently been developed to enhance the fault tolerance capability of the system. Major fault masking features of the ADPS compared with the APR1400 DPS are the changes to the channel configuration and reactor trip actuation equipment. To minimize the fault occurrences within the ADPS, and to mitigate the consequences of common-cause failures (CCF) within the safety I&C systems, several fault avo...

  13. Watershed characterization for precipitation-runoff modeling system, north fork, American River and east fork, Carson River watersheds, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. LaRue; Reece, Brian D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of its Global Change Hydrology Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating the potential effects of climate change on the water resources of several river basins in the United States. The American River Basin in California represents the windward slope of the north-central Sierra Nevada, and the California part of the Carson River Basin, most of which is in Nevada, represents the leeward slope. Parts of the American River and Carson River Basins—the North Fork American River and East Fork Carson River watersheds, both in California—were studied to determine the sensitivity of water resources to potential climate change. The water resources of both basins are derived primarily from snowmelt. A geographic information system (GIS) data base has been created to facilitate paired-basin analysis. The GIS data base incorporates (1) land-surface data, which include elevation, land use and land cover, soil type, and geology; (2) hydrologic data, such as stream networks and streamflow-gaging stations; and (3) climatic data, such as snow-course, snow-telemetry, radiosonde, and meteorological data. Precipitation-runoff models were developed and calibrated for the North Fork watershed within the American River Basin and for the East Fork watershed within the Carson River Basin. (These watersheds were selected to represent the climatic and physiographic variability of the two larger basins.) Synthesized climate scenarios then were used in the model to predict potential effects of climate change.

  14. [Responses of functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian-Bo; Liu, Dong-Xiao; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Zhang, Yong; Tong, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2013-10-01

    Based on the biological traits such as life history, resistance ability against environmental disturbance, and physiological characteristics of aquatic insects, and by using the fourth-corner statistical method, this paper studied the responses of the functional diversity of aquatic insect community to land use change in the middle reach of Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province of East China. For the test aquatic insect community, some of its biological traits were sensitive to land use change, and altered along human disturbance gradients as expected. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance, the maximal insect body length decreased gradually, the dominant respiration pattern evolved from gill respiration to tegument respiration, and the abundance of burrowers increased significantly. At the same time, the functional diversity measured as Rao's quadratic entropy was significantly higher in reference sites than in disturbed sites (P functional diversity of the aquatic community were mainly induced by the land use change caused by human activities, which resulted in the decline of stream water quality and habitat quality and the variations of aquatic insect community composition and biological traits. The aquatic insect biological traits and functional diversity could be the potentially effective indicators in the stream health assessment in the future.

  15. Evolution of biomolecular loadings along a major river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymond, Chantal V.; Kündig, Nicole; Stark, Courcelle; Peterse, Francien; Buggle, Björn; Lupker, Maarten; Plötze, Michael; Blattmann, Thomas M.; Filip, Florin; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transport history and fate of organic carbon (OC) within river systems is crucial in order to constrain the dynamics and significance of land-ocean interactions as a component of the global carbon cycle. Fluvial export and burial of terrestrial OC in marine sediments influences atmospheric CO2 over a range of timescales, while river-dominated sedimentary sequences can provide valuable archives of paleoenvironmental information. While there is abundant evidence that the association of organic matter (OM) with minerals exerts an important influence on its stability as well as hydrodynamic behavior in aquatic systems, there is a paucity of information on where such associations form and how they evolve during fluvial transport. Here, we track total organic carbon (TOC) and terrestrial biomarker concentrations (plant wax-derived long-chain fatty acids (FA), branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and lignin-derived phenols) in sediments collected along the entire course of the Danube River system in the context of sedimentological parameters. Mineral-specific surface area-normalized biomarker and TOC concentrations show a systematic decrease from the upper to the lower Danube basin. Changes in OM loading of the available mineral phase correspond to a net decrease of 70-80% of different biomolecular components. Ranges for biomarker loadings on Danube River sediments, corresponding to 0.4-1.5 μgFA/m2 for long-chain (n-C24-32) fatty acids and 17-71 ngbrGDGT/m2 for brGDGTs, are proposed as a benchmark for comparison with other systems. We propose that normalizing TOC as well as biomarker concentrations to mineral surface area provides valuable quantitative constraints on OM dynamics and organo-mineral interactions during fluvial transport from terrigenous source to oceanic sink.

  16. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  17. Assessment of Tree Diversities in Oban Division of the Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many tropical forests are under great anthropogenic pressure and require management intervention to maintain the overall biodiversity, productivity and sustainability. This cannot be possible without proper understanding of their structure and species diversities. Tree diversity in Oban Division of the CRNP was assessed.

  18. Laboratory robotics systems at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyches, G.M.; Burkett, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Many analytical chemistry methods normally used at the Savannah River site require repetitive procedures and handling of radioactive and other hazardous solutions. Robotics is being investigated as a method of reducing personnel fatigue and radiation exposure and also increasing product quality. Several applications of various commercially available robot systems are discussed involving cold (nonradioactive) and hot (radioactive) sample preparations and glovebox waste removal. Problems encountered in robot programming, parts fixturing, design of special robot hands and other support equipment, glovebox operation, and operator-system interaction are discussed. A typical robot system cost analysis for one application is given

  19. Patterns of fish diversity and assemblage structure and water quality in the longest Asian tropical river (Mekong)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chea, R.; Lek, S.; Grenouillet, G.

    2016-12-01

    Although the Mekong River is one of the world's 35 biodiversity hotspots, the large-scale patterns of fish diversity and assemblage structure remain poorly addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial variability of water quality in the Lower Mekong Basin and the fish distribution patterns in the Lower Mekong River (LMR) and to identify their environmental determinants. Daily fish catch data at 38 sites distributed along the LMR were related to 15 physicochemical and 19 climatic variables. As a result, four different clusters were defined according to the similarity in assemblage composition and 80 indicator species were identified. While fish species richness was highest in the Mekong delta and lowest in the upper part of the LMR, the diversity index was highest in the middle part of the LMR and lowest in the delta. We found that fish assemblages changed along the environmental gradients and that the main drivers affecting the fish assemblage structure were the seasonal variation of temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen, pH, and total phosphorus. Specifically, upstream assemblages were characterized by cyprinids and Pangasius catfish, well suited to low temperature, high dissolved oxygen and high pH. Fish assemblages in the delta were dominated by perch-like fish and clupeids, more tolerant to high temperatures, and high levels of nutrients (nitrates and total phosphorus) and salinity. Overall, the patterns were consistent between seasons. Our study contributes to establishing the first holistic fish community study in the LMR. Overall of the LMR water quality, we found that the water in the mainstream was less polluted than its tributaries; eutrophication and salinity could be key factors affecting water quality in LMR. Moreover, the seasonal variation of water quality seemed to be less marked than spatial variation occurring along the longitudinal gradient of Mekong River. Significant degradations were mainly associated with human

  20. An integrated modelling framework for regulated river systems in Land Surface Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Anis, Muhammad; razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Many of the large river systems around the world are highly regulated with numerous physical flow control and storage structures as well as a range of water abstraction rules and regulations. Most existing Land Surface Models (LSM) do not represent the modifications to the hydrological regimes introduced by water management (reservoirs, irrigation diversions, etc.). The interactions between natural hydrological processes and changes in water and energy fluxes and storage due to human interventions are important to the understanding of how these systems may respond to climate change amongst other drivers for change as well as to the assessment of their feedbacks to the climate system at regional and global scales. This study presents an integrated modelling approach to include human interventions within natural hydrological systems using a fully coupled modelling platform. The Bow River Basin in Alberta (26,200 km2), one of the most managed Canadian rivers, is used to demonstrate the approach. We have dynamically linked the MESH modelling system, which embeds the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), with the MODSIM-DSS water management modelling tool. MESH models the natural hydrology while MODSIM optimizes the reservoir operation of 4 simulated reservoirs to satisfy demands within the study basin. MESH was calibrated for the catchments upstream the reservoirs and gave good performance (NSE = 0.81) while BIAS was only 2.3% at the catchment outlet. Without coupling with MODSIM (i.e. no regulation), simulated hydrographs at the catchment outlet were in complete disagreement with observations (NSE = 0.28). The coupled model simulated the optimization introduced by the operation of the multi-reservoir system in the Bow river basin and shows excellent agreement between observed and simulated hourly flows (NSE = 0.98). Irrigation demands are fully satisfied during summer, however, there are some shortages in winter demand from industries, which can be rectified by

  1. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  2. Solving the stability-accuracy-diversity dilemma of recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Liu, Kecheng; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Runtong

    2017-02-01

    Recommender systems are of great significance in predicting the potential interesting items based on the target user's historical selections. However, the recommendation list for a specific user has been found changing vastly when the system changes, due to the unstable quantification of item similarities, which is defined as the recommendation stability problem. To improve the similarity stability and recommendation stability is crucial for the user experience enhancement and the better understanding of user interests. While the stability as well as accuracy of recommendation could be guaranteed by recommending only popular items, studies have been addressing the necessity of diversity which requires the system to recommend unpopular items. By ranking the similarities in terms of stability and considering only the most stable ones, we present a top- n-stability method based on the Heat Conduction algorithm (denoted as TNS-HC henceforth) for solving the stability-accuracy-diversity dilemma. Experiments on four benchmark data sets indicate that the TNS-HC algorithm could significantly improve the recommendation stability and accuracy simultaneously and still retain the high-diversity nature of the Heat Conduction algorithm. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the TNS-HC algorithm with a number of benchmark recommendation algorithms. The result suggests that the TNS-HC algorithm is more efficient in solving the stability-accuracy-diversity triple dilemma of recommender systems.

  3. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with diversity for future wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Khoa N

    2012-01-01

    The book examines several aspects of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) employing linear diversity techniques such as inter-carrier interference, bit error rate, peak to average power and inter-block interference. It should be a useful reference for readers interested in modern wireless communication systems.

  4. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers...

  5. Life History Attributes of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, James E; DeGrandchamp, Kelly L; Williamson, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) system starts at the confluence of the Ohio River at Cairo, Illinois, and serves as a conduit for many aquatic invasive species to enter the waterways of the central and northern interior...

  6. Impacts of Urbanization on River Systems in the Taihu Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available River systems are valuable to human beings; meanwhile, they are intensively influenced by human activities, especially urbanization. In this study, based on the data derived from topographic maps and remote sensing images, the temporal and spatial change of river system geomorphology in the Taihu Region over the past 50 years was investigated in conjunction with urbanization. Results demonstrated that the number of river systems decreased drastically, that the morphology of river channels changed into wider and straighter and that the structure of river network tended to simplify in the Taihu Region in recent 50 years. Meanwhile, the changes in river density, the water surface ratio, the river development coefficient, the main river area length ratio and the box dimension in the rapid urbanization period were much greater than those in the slow urbanization period, but the decrease of river sinuosity in the slow urbanization period was more intense. Moreover, the spatial differences of the changes in the river development coefficient were the largest, and the changes in the river indicators in the low-urbanized regions were the most intense. In addition, the changes in the water surface ratio had the closest correlation with urbanization, and the relational degrees between population urbanization and the changes in river systems were the largest. The results can provide a reliable basis to determine reasonable management and conservation strategies of river systems in the Taihu Region.

  7. Does reintroducing large wood influence the hydraulic landscape of a lowland river system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Adrian; Thoms, Martin; Reid, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Our understanding of the effectiveness of reintroduced large wood for restoration is largely based on studies from high energy river systems. By contrast, few studies of the effectiveness of reintroducing large wood have been undertaken on large, low energy, lowland river systems: river systems where large wood is a significant physical feature on the in-channel environment. This study investigated the effect of reintroduced large wood on the hydraulic landscape of the Barwon-Darling River, Australia, at low flows. To achieve this, the study compared three hydraulic landscapes of replicated reference (naturally wooded), control (unwooded,) and managed (wood reintroduced) treatments on three low flow periods. These time periods were prior to the reintroduction of large wood to managed reaches; several months after the reintroduction of large wood into the managed reaches; and then more than four years after wood reintroduction following several large flood events. Hydraulic landscapes of reaches were characterised using a range of spatial measures calculated from velocity measurements taken with a boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler. We hypothesised that reintroduced large wood would increase the diversity of the hydraulic landscape at low flows and that managed reaches would be more similar to the reference reaches. Our results suggest that the reintroduction of large wood did not significantly change the character of the hydraulic landscape at the reach scale after several months (p = 0.16) or several years (p = 0.29). Overall, the character of the hydraulic landscape in the managed reaches was more similar to the hydraulic landscape of the control reaches than the hydraulic landscape of the reference reaches, at low flows. Some variability in the hydraulic landscapes was detected over time, and this may reflect reworking of riverbed sediments and sensitivity to variation in discharge. The lack of a response in the low flow hydraulic landscape to the

  8. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  9. Diversity of chironomidae, in relation to pollution of the river Niger at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the first results on the quality of the River Niger at Niamey based on the Chironomidae infestation of its water. Two sampling methods were used for collecting the chironomid larvae and included use of hand net of 500 >m mesh-size and artificial substrata of stones covered with galvanized wire netting.

  10. 43 CFR 418.20 - Diversions from the Truckee River to Lahontan Reservoir, January through June.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... during this period. (6) Values for TSM/J will vary with the Carson Division water demand as shown in... defined in the following table along with an example of TSM/J for Carson River water demand of 271,000... upon water availability and Project demand as expressed in the following relationship: TRD=TDD+ TCL+CDD...

  11. Links between river incision, landslide activity, organic material erosion, and plant species diversity in an Andean Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. E.; West, A.; Hilton, R. G.; Malhi, Y.; Asner, G. P.; Silman, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Quesada, C.; Farfan Rios, W.; Martin, R.; New, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Landslides are fundamental agents shaping mountain landscapes and environments. This study identifies spatial heterogeneity in landslide occurrence in a tropical montane cloud forest of the Kosñipata Valley, in the eastern Andes of Peru, and explores implications of this observed variability. It takes advantage of a change in incision associated with a major river knickpoint to (i) provide empirical evidence for the hypothesized role of landslides in landform evolution, and (ii) reveal important links to the evolution of the biosphere. In the Kosñipata River catchment, we have determined forest landslide occurrence over a 25-year period using satellite images from 1988 to 2012. Landslide activity increases dramatically above an observed threshold slope angle. As a result of this threshold, enhanced river incision downstream of a knickpoint at ~1700m has led to higher landslide rates because it steepens hillslopes. As a consequence of spatially heterogeneous landslide distribution, the lowest elevations in the Kosñipata see greatest forest disturbance, and consequently highest rates of mobilization of organic material. The resulting variability in the source area of organic material is important for determining the characteristics of biomarkers delivered to rivers, and for influencing the potential fate of associated organic carbon. Increased disturbance may also explain co-variation of landslide rates with plant species richness, pointing to a possible link between erosional processes and biodiversity, although other climatic and ecological changes with elevation also probably influence diversity. Altogether, the results of this study suggest the non-equilibrium Kosñipata landscape is characterized by predicted heterogeneity in hillslope failure that may also introduce variability in sources of sedimentary carbon and in biodiversity.

  12. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) is being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration. This summary of the SOR story begins where the Draft EIS summary left off. It is divided into seven parts, each of which reports some aspect of the study's outcome: Part 1 is a history. The SOR was not a simple study on any level, and to understand the EIS alternatives, some background is necessary. Part 2 reports the major findings of the technical analysis of alternative system operating strategies, and presents the agencies' Preferred Alternative. Part 3 explains actions the agencies may take with respect to the Columbia River Regional Forum, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement, and the Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. Part 4 presents the Purpose and Need, elements at the core of any Federal EIS. It includes a map showing the Columbia River Basin and information on the affected Federal projects. Part 5 describes the substantial public participation and outreach that occurred during the SOR, and Part 6 summarizes efforts to incorporate the Tribal perspective into the study. Part 7 describes other activities that will be taking place in the next few years, which are related to and build upon the SOR

  13. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  14. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moraes, Fernando C; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Salomon, Paulo S; Mahiques, Michel M; Bastos, Alex C; Almeida, Marcelo G; Silva, Jomar M; Araujo, Beatriz F; Brito, Frederico P; Rangel, Thiago P; Oliveira, Braulio C V; Bahia, Ricardo G; Paranhos, Rodolfo P; Dias, Rodolfo J S; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G; Pereira, Renato C; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S; Moreira, Ana P B; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L; Teixeira, João B; Valle, Rogerio A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 10(6)-km(2) plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume's eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km(2)) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth-ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes.

  15. Morphostratigraphic framework of the Venice Lagoon (Italy) by very shallow water VHRS surveys: Evidence of radical changes triggered by human-induced river diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Luigi; Rizzetto, Federica; Zecchin, Massimo; Brancolini, Giuliano; Baradello, Luca

    2009-05-01

    This study is mainly based on a wide Very High Resolution Seismic (VHRS) survey that utilized an ad hoc technique designed for investigations in very shallow waters (about 1 m depth). This method allowed the acquisition of excellent images of the subsurface down to 15-20 m b.s.l. with a resolution of about 10 cm. Buried geomorphological features, such as fluvial channel-levee systems and tidal channels, were imaged for the first time in the shallows and provided new insight into the Holocene evolution of the southern lagoon basin. Furthermore, the new seismic data were used to reconstruct the morphostratigraphic framework of the Venice Lagoon. We provide an Upper Quaternary morphostratigraphic model of the Venice Lagoon and present some evidence of radical changes resulting from human-induced river diversion in the sedimentary regime and in the morphological setting of the southern basin that has occurred over the last millennium.

  16. Solving the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma of recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Kuscsik, Zoltán; Liu, Jian-Guo; Medo, Matús; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2010-03-09

    Recommender systems use data on past user preferences to predict possible future likes and interests. A key challenge is that while the most useful individual recommendations are to be found among diverse niche objects, the most reliably accurate results are obtained by methods that recommend objects based on user or object similarity. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm specifically to address the challenge of diversity and show how it can be used to resolve this apparent dilemma when combined in an elegant hybrid with an accuracy-focused algorithm. By tuning the hybrid appropriately we are able to obtain, without relying on any semantic or context-specific information, simultaneous gains in both accuracy and diversity of recommendations.

  17. Solving the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma of recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Kuscsik, Zoltán; Liu, Jian-Guo; Medo, Matúš; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems use data on past user preferences to predict possible future likes and interests. A key challenge is that while the most useful individual recommendations are to be found among diverse niche objects, the most reliably accurate results are obtained by methods that recommend objects based on user or object similarity. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm specifically to address the challenge of diversity and show how it can be used to resolve this apparent dilemma when combined in an elegant hybrid with an accuracy-focused algorithm. By tuning the hybrid appropriately we are able to obtain, without relying on any semantic or context-specific information, simultaneous gains in both accuracy and diversity of recommendations. PMID:20176968

  18. Pilot-scale benthic microbial electrochemical system (BMES) for the bioremediation of polluted river sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; He, Weihua; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Chao; Tian, Yan; Feng, Yujie

    2017-07-01

    A benthic microbial electrochemical system (BMES) of 350 L is built for the bioremediation of river sediment (Ashi river, Harbin, China). Carbon mesh anode with honeycomb-structure supports and activated carbon cathodes are applied for the construction. Synthesis wastewater with glucose is added to simulate the natural condition of Ashi River as an intermittent pollutant-holding water body and accelerate the removal of accumulated bio-refractory organic contents in sediment, represented by the concentration changes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as the co-metabolic substrate for bacteria. The effluent TOC in the water layer of BMES is stable at 40 ± 2 mg L-1 and further reduced to 19 ± 5 mg L-1 after the addition of synthesis wastewater, while the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene and Benzo(a)pyrene) in sediment samples reaches 74%. A maximum power density of 63 ± 3 mW m-2 is achieved by BMES, which decrease to 42 ± 2 mW m-2 due to cathode degradation and further reduce to 30 ± 3 mW m-2 attributed to substrate limitation at the end of operation. Community analyses show the diversity of anode community is improved during operation and the abundance of Chloroflexi, Firmicutes and exoelectrogenic microbes like G. psychrophilus increase.

  19. Asymmetric Hardware Distortions in Receive Diversity Systems: Outage Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah

    2017-02-22

    This paper studies the impact of asymmetric hardware distortion (HWD) on the performance of receive diversity systems using linear and switched combining receivers. The asymmetric attribute of the proposed model motivates the employment of improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme rather than the traditional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. The achievable rate performance is analyzed for the ideal and non-ideal hardware scenarios using PGS and IGS transmission schemes for different combining receivers. In addition, the IGS statistical characteristics are optimized to maximize the achievable rate performance. Moreover, the outage probability performance of the receive diversity systems is analyzed yielding closed form expressions for both PGS and IGS based transmission schemes. HWD systems that employ IGS is proven to efficiently combat the self interference caused by the HWD. Furthermore, the obtained analytic expressions are validated through Monte-Carlo simulations. Eventually, non-ideal hardware transceivers degradation and IGS scheme acquired compensation are quantified through suitable numerical results.

  20. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea in Tropical Compost Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya eDe Gannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA has changed the paradigm of nitrification being initiated solely by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the present study, AOA abundance and diversity was examined in composts produced from combinations of plant waste materials common in tropical agriculture (rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, coffee hulls, which were mixed with either cow- or sheep-manure. The objective was to determine how AOA abundance and diversity varied as a function of compost system and time, the latter being a contrast between the start of the compost process (mesophilic phase and the finished product (mature phase. The results showed that AOA were relatively abundant in composts of tropical agricultural wastes, and significantly more so than were the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, while the AOA communities in the composts were predominatly group I.1b, the communities were diverse and exhibited structures that diverged between compost types and phases. These patterns could be taken as indicators of the ecophysiological diversity in the soil AOA (groub I.1b, in that significantly different AOA communties developed when exposed to varying physico-chemical environments. Nitrification patterns and levels differed in the composts which, for the mature material, could have signifcant effects on its performanc as a plant growth medium. Thus, it will also be important to determine the association of AOA (and diversity in their communities with nitrification in these systems.

  1. Application of an Environmental Decision Support System to a Water Quality Trading Program Affected by Surface Water Diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obropta, Christopher C.; Niazi, Mehran; Kardos, Josef S.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental decision support systems (EDSSs) are an emerging tool used to integrate the evaluation of highly complex and interrelated physicochemical, biological, hydrological, social, and economic aspects of environmental problems. An EDSS approach is developed to address hot-spot concerns for a water quality trading program intended to implement the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the Non-Tidal Passaic River Basin of New Jersey. Twenty-two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) spread throughout the watershed are considered the major sources of phosphorus loading to the river system. Periodic surface water diversions to a major reservoir from the confluence of two key tributaries alter the natural hydrology of the watershed and must be considered in the development of a trading framework that ensures protection of water quality. An EDSS is applied that enables the selection of a water quality trading framework that protects the watershed from phosphorus-induced hot spots. The EDSS employs Simon’s (1960) three stages of the decision-making process: intelligence, design, and choice. The identification of two potential hot spots and three diversion scenarios enables the delineation of three management areas for buying and selling of phosphorus credits among WWTPs. The result shows that the most conservative option entails consideration of two possible diversion scenarios, and trading between management areas is restricted accordingly. The method described here is believed to be the first application of an EDSS to a water quality trading program that explicitly accounts for surface water diversions.

  2. Long-term geomorphic response to flow regulation in a 10-km reach downstream of the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent study reported considerable sediment trapping by three large channel bars downstream 18–28 km of the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River diversion (commonly known as the Old River Control Structure, ORCS during the 2011 Mississippi River flood. In this study, we analyzed 3-decadal morphological changes of the 10-km river channel and the three bars to elucidate the long-term effects of river engineering including diversion, revetment and dike constructions. Satellite images captured between 1985 and 2015 in approximate 5-year intervals were selected to estimate the change of channel morphology and bar surface area. The images were chosen based on river stage heights at the time when they were captured to exclude the temporal water height effect on channel and bar morphology. Using a set of the satellite images captured during the period of 1984–1986 and of 2013–2014, we developed rating curves of emerged bar surface area with the corresponding river stage height for determining the change in bar volume from 1985 to 2013. Two of the three bars have grown substantially in the past 30 years, while one bar has become braided and its surface area has shrunken. As a whole, there were a net gain of 4,107,000 m2 in surface area and a net gain of 30,271,000 m3 in volume, an equivalent of approximately 36 million metric tons of sediment assuming a bulk density of 1.2 t/m3. Sediment trapping on the bars was prevalent during the spring floods, especially during the period of 1990–1995 and of 2007–2011 when large floods occurred. The results suggest that although revetments and dikes have largely changed the morphology of the channel and the bars, they seem to have a limited impact on the overwhelming trend of sediment deposition caused by the river diversion.

  3. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in sediments from the coastal Pearl River estuary to the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the diversity and abundance of nitrifying microbes including ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and betaproteobacteria (beta-AOB) were investigated, along with the physicochemical parameters potentially affecting them, in a transect of surface sediments from the coastal margin adjacent to the Pearl River estuary to the slope in the deep South China Sea. Nitrifying microbial diversity was determined by detecting the amoA (ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) gene. An obvious comm...

  4. Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Percocypris pingi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae): Implications for Conservation and Hatchery Release in the Yalong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Deng, Yuanping; Yang, Kun; Gan, Weixiong; Zeng, Rukui; Deng, Longjun; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    Percocypris pingi is a near threatened cyprinid species, which has suffered a dramatic decline due to anthropogenic factors. As one response to this decline, hatchery release for P. pingi has been conducted in the lower reaches of the Yalong River since 2012. To understand the conservation status of this species and the potential impact of the release of hatchery-reared fish, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of wild and hatchery populations of P. pingi. Two hatchery populations (Jinping [JPH] and Ya'an [YAH]) and two wild populations (Muli [MLW] and Woluo [WLW]) of P. pingi were analyzed based on microsatellite markers and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results showed that P. pingi possesses moderate levels of genetic diversity, with observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.657 to 0.770 and nucleotide diversities ranging from 0.00212 to 0.00491. Our results also suggested WLW harbors considerable proportions of genetic diversity in this species and serves as a refuge for P. pingi during anthropogenic disturbance, thus playing an important role for the conservation of P. pingi populations. Microsatellite and mitochondrial markers both indicated close genetic relationships between YAH and MLW, JPH and WLW, respectively. The results to some extent reflected the geographical provenances for original broodstocks of the two hatchery populations, which provide some practical guidance for hatchery release of P. pingi. The existence of remarkable genetic divergence distributed along limited geographical range (approximately 10 kilometers) suggests the two wild populations should be regarded at least as two distinct evolutionary significant units (ESUs) and management units (MUs). Considering reduced intra-population genetic variation in hatchery population for release and significant genetic compositions of the two hatchery populations, some appropriate breeding strategies were proposed to benefit conservation of P. pingi.

  5. Large barchanoid dunes in the Amazon River and the rock record: Implications for interpreting large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes de Almeida, Renato; Padalino Galeazzi, Cristiano; Tavares Freitas, Bernardo; Janikian, Liliane; Ianniruberto, Marco; Marconato, André

    2016-11-01

    The interpretation of large river deposits from the rock record is hampered by the scarcity of direct observations of active large river systems. That is particularly true for deep-channel environments, where tens of meters deep flows dominate. These conditions are extremely different from what is found in smaller systems, from which current facies models were derived. MBES and shallow seismic surveys in a selected area of the Upper Amazonas River in Northern Brazil revealed the presence of large compound barchanoid dunes along the channel thalweg. The dunes are characterized by V-shaped, concave-downstream crest lines and convex-up longitudinal profiles, hundreds of meters wide, up to 300 m in wavelength and several meters high. Based on the morphology of compound dunes, expected preserved sedimentary structures are broad, large-scale, low-angle, concave up and downstream cross-strata, passing laterally and downstream to inclined cosets. Examples of such structures from large river deposits in the rock record are described in the Silurian Serra Grande Group and the Cretaceous São Sebastião and Marizal formations in Northeastern Brazil, as well as in Triassic Hawkesburry Sandstone in Southeastern Australia and the Plio-Pleistocene Içá Formation in the western Amazon. All these sedimentary structures are found near channel base surfaces and are somewhat coarser than the overlying fluvial deposits, favoring the interpretation of thalweg depositional settings. The recognition of large barchanoid dunes as bedforms restricted to river thalwegs and probably to large river systems brings the possibility of establishing new criteria for the interpretation of fluvial system scale in the rock record. Sedimentary structures compatible with the morphological characteristics of these bedforms seem to be relatively common in large river deposits, given their initial recognition in five different fluvial successions in Brazil and Australia, potentially enabling substantial

  6. Accumulated state assessment of the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Monique G; Wilson, Julie E

    2013-07-01

    Effects-based analysis is a fundamental component of watershed cumulative effects assessment. This study conducted an effects-based analysis for the Peace-Athabasca-Slave River System, part of the massive Mackenzie River Basin, encompassing 20% of Canada's total land mass and influenced by cumulative contributions of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam (Peace River) and industrial activities including oil sands mining (Athabasca River). This study assessed seasonal changes in 1) Peace River water quality and quantity before and after dam development, 2) Athabasca River water quality and quantity before and after oil sands developments, 3) tributary inputs from the Peace and Athabasca Rivers to the Slave River, and 4) upstream to downstream differences in water quality in the Slave River. In addition, seasonal benchmarks were calculated for each river based on pre-perturbation post-perturbation data for future cumulative effects assessments. Winter discharge (January-March) from the Peace and Slave Rivers was significantly higher than before dam construction (pre-1967) (p Slave River, as there were no significant differences in loadings of dissolved N, total P (TP), total organic C (TOC), total As, total Mn, total V, and turbidity and specific conductance between these rivers. In the Athabasca River, TP and specific conductance concentrations increased significantly since before oil sands developments (1967-2010), whereas dissolved N and sulfate have increased after the oil sands developments (1977-2010). Recently, the Athabasca River had significantly higher concentrations of dissolved N, TP, TOC, dissolved sulfate, specific conductance, and total Mn than either the Slave or the Peace Rivers during the winter months. The transboundary nature of the Peace, Athabasca, and Slave River basins has resulted in fragmented monitoring and reporting of the state of these rivers, and a more consistent monitoring framework is recommended. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Assessing the Influences of a Flood Diversion Project on Mitigating River Stage, Inundation Extent and Economic Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan usually suffers severe inundation disasters during typhoons and strong rainstorms, and therefore flood mitigation is considered an important issue. To assess the effect of the Yuansantze flood diversion tunnel (YFDT on flood mitigation at the upstream reaches of the Keelung River, a three-dimensional, unstructured grid, Finite-Volume, primitive equation Community Ocean Model (FVCOM was used. The model was validated with observed data for water levels and inundation extent during different typhoon events. The simulated results show a good agreement with field measurements of water level with three historical typhoon events but underestimated the measured inundation extent with Typhoon Nari. The validated model was then applied to assess the flood mitigation and economic loss with the YFDT. The results demonstrated that the river level decreases approximately 3 m with the YFDT and that the inundation extent decreases by more than 50% in the Ruifang District with YFDT. The YDFT aims to not only mitigate hazards but also reduce economic losses. The average annual expected benefit after construction of the YFDT is approximately 184 million NTD in the Ruifang District.

  8. Diversity and abundance of primates and their threats in the interfluvium of the Napo and Putumayo rivers, Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Aquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the northeastern Peruvian Amazonia remain areas with scarce information on primates, one of them being the interfluvium between the Napo and Putumayo rivers. This lack of information motivated us to conduct a study to determine the diversity and abundance of primates within the area, as well as to identify the threats, which inhibit these primate species populations. For this purpose, we conducted transect censuses in three sampling sites in October 2007, September 2013 and November 2014. In 1040 km of transect walks we observed 308 groups of nine primate species, the most common being Leontocebus nigricollis (109 groups and the rarest being Alouatta seniculus (16 groups. Smaller groups of Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha (8-11 individuals and A. seniculus (3-5 individuals were observed in Tamboryacu, a majorly disturbed sampling site. Likewise, the lowest population densities estimated for L. l. lagothricha and A. seniculus corresponded to this same sampling site with 3.8 indiv. /km2 and 1.6 indiv. /km2, respectively, while for the remaining species there were no major differences among the sampling sites. Among the activities, hunting and logging are the predominant threats responsible for the scarce populations of A. seniculus and l. l. lagothricha, mainly in the Napo River Basin.

  9. Genetic diversity of Prochilodus lineatus stocks using in the stocking program of Tietê River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the genetic diversity in four brood stocks and one juvenile stock of curimba Prochilodus lineatus in a Hydropower plant in São Paulo - Brazil, using the Tietê River stocking program. Materials and methods. Five RAPD primers were used to amplify the extracted DNA from 150 fin-clip samples. Results. Fifty-nine fragments were polymorphic, 52 had frequencies with significant differences (p<0.05, 45 had low frequencies, 54 were excluded, and two were fixed fragments. High values for polymorphic fragments (71.19% to 91.53% and Shannon index (0.327 to 0.428 were observed. The genetic divergence values within each stock were greater than 50%. Most of the genetic variation was found within the groups through the AMOVA analysis, which was confirmed by the results of the identity and genetic distance. High ancestry levels (FST among the groups value indicated high and moderate genetic differentiation. The estimates of number of migrants by generation (Nm indicated low levels of gene flow. High and moderate genetic divergence between groups (0.58 to 0.83 was observed. Conclusions. The results indicate high variability within the stocks, and genetic differentiation among them. The fish stocks analyzed represent a large genetic base that will allow the fish technicians to release juveniles without genetic risks to wild populations present in the river. These genetic procedures may be used as models for other migratory species, including those threatened by extinction.

  10. High genetic diversity in cryptic populations of the migratory sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, N; Maes, G E; Volckaert, F A M

    2006-02-01

    The detection and conservation of spawning units is of crucial importance in highly migratory species. The sutchi catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Pangasiidae; Teleostei) is a common large-sized tropical fish, which migrates annually to several upstream spawning sites on the Lower Mekong River and feeds on the huge floodplain of the Lower Mekong and Tonle Sap for the other half of the year. We hypothesised that because of the relative size of the feeding and spawning habitat, genetic variability would be high and homogeneous in foraging populations, but that spawning stocks would be distinct in space and time. To test these predictions, 567 individuals from 10 geographic locations separated by up to 1230 km along the Lower Mekong River were genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. The level of genetic diversity was much higher than other freshwater fish and reached values comparable to marine species (mean H(e)=0.757). All samples collected at the potential spawning sites deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, suggesting admixture. Individual-based clustering methods revealed genetic heterogeneity and enabled the detection of three genetically distinct sympatric populations. There was no evidence of recent reduction in effective population size in any population. Contrasting with the vast extent of the feeding grounds, the shortage of spawning grounds seems to have moved sutchi catfish towards diachronous spawning. Hence the sustainable exploitation of this natural resource hinges on the conservation of the limited spawning grounds and open migration routes between the spawning and feeding grounds.

  11. Ecology and diversity of freshwater shrimps in Banco National Park, Côte d’Ivoire (Banco River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gourène

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimps are an important component of river invertebrate assemblages in tropical freshwater where they are a controlling group in food webs. In order to determine shrimp diversity in the Banco Basin (Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa and examine whether the patterns of species distribution were related to environmental conditions, six sites were monitored. Sampling was conducted in 2008 during February, May, September and November using a long-handled net (25-cm diameter, 2-mm mesh. For each site, we measured environmental variables (conductivity, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, current speed, and water depth and width. Three shrimp species, Macrobrachium thysi (Powell 1980, Macrobrachium dux (Lenz 1910 and Desmocaris trispinosa (Aurivillius 1898 were identified. D. trispinosa was the largest distributed (more than 50% of occurrence and the most abundant (67% of total number of specimens caught. It was followed by M. thysi with 47% and 32% of occurrence and abundance, respectively. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed a spatial distribution of the shrimp community, significantly influenced by width, depth, conductivity, type of substrate, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Due to the fact that the Banco River hosts an endemic species in Côte d’Ivoire (Macrobrachium thysi, the conservation of integrity of this basin was recommended.

  12. Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Huey

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie. Concentrations and loads for most water quality variables were greatest during storm events. Turbidity was an effective indicator of TSS, E. coli and Enterococci spp. The greatest threat to public health from microbial contamination occurs during storm runoff events. Efforts to manage surface runoff and erosion would likely improve water quality of the upper Pecos River basin in New Mexico, USA.

  13. FAULT-TOLERANT DESIGN FOR ADVANCED DIVERSE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG GYUN OH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of APR1400 Diverse Protection System (DPS design, the Advanced DPS (ADPS has recently been developed to enhance the fault tolerance capability of the system. Major fault masking features of the ADPS compared with the APR1400 DPS are the changes to the channel configuration and reactor trip actuation equipment. To minimize the fault occurrences within the ADPS, and to mitigate the consequences of common-cause failures (CCF within the safety I&C systems, several fault avoidance design features have been applied in the ADPS. The fault avoidance design features include the changes to the system software classification, communication methods, equipment platform, MMI equipment, etc. In addition, the fault detection, location, containment, and recovery processes have been incorporated in the ADPS design. Therefore, it is expected that the ADPS can provide an enhanced fault tolerance capability against the possible faults within the system and its input/output equipment, and the CCF of safety systems.

  14. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohamadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  15. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D.; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2016-01-01

    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components. PMID:26987052

  16. A system dynamics approach for integrated management of the Jucar River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martin, Adria; Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    System dynamics (SD) is a modelling approach that allows the analysis of complex systems through the mathematical definition of variables and their relationships. Based on systems thinking, SD is suitable for interdisciplinary studies of the management of complex systems. Over the past 50 years, SD tools have been applied to fields as diverse as economics, ecology, politics, sociology and resource management. Its application to the field of water resources has grown significantly over the last two decades, facilitating the enhancement of models by adding social, economic and ecological components. However, its application to the operation of complex multireservoir systems has been very limited so far. In this contribution, we have developed a SD model for the Jucar River Basin, one of the most vulnerable basins in the western Mediterranean region with regard to droughts. The system has three main reservoirs, which allows for a multiannual management of the storage that compensates the highly variable streamflow from upstream. Our SD model of the Jucar River Basin is able to capture the complexity of the water resource system. The model developed consists of five interlinked subsystems: a) Topology of the system network, including the 3 main reservoirs, water seepage and evaporation, inflows and catchments. b) Monthly operating rules of each reservoir. The rules were derived from the expert knowledge eluded from the operators of the reservoirs. c) Monthly urban, agricultural and environmental water demands. d) State index of the system and drought mitigation measures triggered depending on the state index. e) Mancha Oriental aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction with the Jucar River. The comparison between observed and simulated series showed that the model provides a good representation of the observed reservoir operation and total deficits. The interdisciplinary and open nature of the methodology allows to add new variables and dynamics to the model that are

  17. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) ERDC/EL TR-17-18 September 2017 Hydrologic ...Impact Statement” ERDC/EL TR-17-18 ii Abstract This report describes the Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) water

  18. Improvements MOIRA system for application to nuclear sites Spanish river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Diaz, E.; Iglesias Ferrer, R.; Dvorzhak, A.; Hofman, D.

    2011-01-01

    Possible consequences of a nuclear accident must have radioactive contamination in the medium and long-term freshwater aquatic systems. Faced with this problem, it is essential to have a realistic assessment of the radiological impact, ecological, social and economic potential management strategies, to take the best decisions rationally. MOIRA is a system of decision support developed in the course of the European Framework Programmes with participation of the UPM, which has been improved and adapted to Spanish nuclear sites in recent years in the context ISIDRO Project, sponsored by the Council Nuclear, with the participation of CIEMAT and UPM. The paper focuses on these advances, primarily related to complex hydraulic systems such as rivers Tajo, Ebro and Jucar, which are located several Spanish plants.

  19. Structure of the parasites communities in two Erythrinidae fish from Amazon river system (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Natália Milhomem; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the parasite communities of Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus from Amazon river system. Hoplias malabaricus were infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Tetrahymena sp., Urocleidoides eremitus, Braga patagonica, metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and larvae of Nomimoscolex matogrossensis. Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus were also infected by these same species of protozoans, nematodes, digeneans and cestodes, except for Tetrahymena sp. and B. patagonica, which were replaced by Argulus pestifer, Urocleidoides sp., Whittingtonocotyle caetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju and Gorytocephalus spectabilis. For both hosts, I. multifiliis and P. pillulare were the predominant parasites. Most of the parasites presented an overdispersion. Parasite species richness, Brillouin diversity, evenness and Berger-Parker dominance were similar for the two hosts. The length and weight of H. malabaricus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of U. eremitus and Contracaecum sp., while the weight of H. unitaeniatus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of I. multifiliis. The diversity of ectoparasites seemed to be influenced by the behavior of these two hosts. This was shown by the similar parasite communities and was characterized by low species diversity, low evenness and low richness, and by a high prevalence of ectoparasites.

  20. Structure of the parasites communities in two Erythrinidae fish from Amazon river system (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Milhomem Alcântara

    Full Text Available This study compared the parasite communities of Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus from Amazon river system. Hoplias malabaricus were infected by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Tetrahymena sp., Urocleidoides eremitus, Braga patagonica, metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum, Procamallanus(Spirocamallanus inopinatus, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and larvae of Nomimoscolex matogrossensis. Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus were also infected by these same species of protozoans, nematodes, digeneans and cestodes, except for Tetrahymena sp. and B. patagonica, which were replaced by Argulus pestifer, Urocleidoides sp., Whittingtonocotylecaetei, Whittingtonocotyle jeju and Gorytocephalus spectabilis. For both hosts, I. multifiliis and P. pillulare were the predominant parasites. Most of the parasites presented an overdispersion. Parasite species richness, Brillouin diversity, evenness and Berger-Parker dominance were similar for the two hosts. The length and weight of H. malabaricusshowed a positive correlation with the abundance of U. eremitusand Contracaecum sp., while the weight of H. unitaeniatus showed a positive correlation with the abundance of I. multifiliis. The diversity of ectoparasites seemed to be influenced by the behavior of these two hosts. This was shown by the similar parasite communities and was characterized by low species diversity, low evenness and low richness, and by a high prevalence of ectoparasites.

  1. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.

  2. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling systems with per-user threshold

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2010-05-01

    A multiuser switched diversity scheduling scheme with per-user feedback threshold is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The conventional multiuser switched diversity scheduling scheme uses a single feedback threshold for every user, where the threshold is a function of the average signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the users as well as the number of users involved in the scheduling process. The proposed scheme, however, constructs a sequence of feedback thresholds instead of a single feedback threshold such that each user compares its channel quality with the corresponding feedback threshold in the sequence. Numerical and simulation results show that thanks to the flexibility of threshold selection, where a potentially different threshold can be used for each user, the proposed scheme provides a higher system capacity than that for the conventional scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  3. Flood forecasting and early warning system for Dungun River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, I; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Fukami, K; Hanapi, M N; Livia, L; Nor, M D

    2013-01-01

    Floods can bring such disasters to the affected dweller due to loss of properties, crops and even deaths. The damages to properties and crops by the severe flooding are occurred due to the increase in the economic value of the properties as well as the extent of the flood. Flood forecasting and warning system is one of the examples of the non-structural measures which can give early warning to the affected people. People who live near the flood-prone areas will be warned so that they can evacuate themselves and their belongings before the arrival of the flood. This can considerably reduce flood loss and damage and above all, the loss of human lives. Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model is a runoff analysis model converting rainfall into runoff for a given river basin. The simulation can be done using either ground or satellite-based rainfall to produce calculated discharge within the river. The calculated discharge is used to generate the flood inundation map within the catchment area for the selected flood event using Infowork RS.

  4. Hydrogeologic data for the Big River-Mishnock River stream-aquifer system, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogeology, ground-water development alternatives, and water quality in the BigMishnock stream-aquifer system in central Rhode Island are being investigated as part of a long-term cooperative program between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the ground-water resources throughout Rhode Island. The study area includes the Big River drainage basin and that portion of the Mishnock River drainage basin upstream from the Mishnock River at State Route 3. This report presents geologic data and hydrologic and water-quality data for ground and surface water. Ground-water data were collected from July 1996 through September 1998 from a network of observation wells consisting of existing wells and wells installed for this study, which provided a broad distribution of data-collection sites throughout the study area. Streambed piezometers were used to obtain differences in head data between surface-water levels and ground-water levels to help evaluate stream-aquifer interactions throughout the study area. The types of data presented include monthly ground-water levels, average daily ground-water withdrawals, drawdown data from aquifer tests, and water-quality data. Historical water-level data from other wells within the study area also are presented in this report. Surface-water data were obtained from a network consisting of surface-water impoundments, such as ponds and reservoirs, existing and newly established partial-record stream-discharge sites, and synoptic surface-water-quality sites. Water levels were collected monthly from the surface-water impoundments. Stream-discharge measurements were made at partial-record sites to provide measurements of inflow, outflow, and internal flow throughout the study area. Specific conductance was measured monthly at partial-record sites during the study, and also during the fall and spring of 1997 and 1998 at 41 synoptic sites throughout the study area. General geologic data, such as

  5. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  6. Evaluation of Flow Paths and Confluences for Saltwater Intrusion and Its Influence on Fish Species Diversity in a Deltaic River Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X.; Cui, B.; Zhang, Z.; Fang, Y.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater in a delta is often at risk of saltwater intrusion, which has been a serious issue in estuarine deltas all over the world. Salinity gradients and hydrologic connectivity in the deltas can be disturbed by saltwater intrusion, which can fluctuate frequently and locally in time and space to affect biotic processes and then to affect the distribution patterns of the riverine fishes throughout the river network. Therefore, identifying the major flow paths or locations at risk of saltwater intrusion in estuarine ecosystems is necessary for saltwater intrusion mitigation and fish species diversity conservation. In this study, we use the betweenness centrality (BC) as the weighted attribute of the river network to identify the critical confluences and detect the preferential flow paths for saltwater intrusion through the least-cost-path algorithm from graph theory approach. Moreover, we analyse the responses of the salinity and fish species diversity to the BC values of confluences calculated in the river network. Our results show that the most likely location of saltwater intrusion is not a simple gradient change from sea to land, but closely dependent on the river segments' characteristics. In addition, a significant positive correlation between the salinity and the BC values of confluences is determined in the Pearl River Delta. Changes in the BC values of confluences can produce significant variation in the fish species diversity. Therefore, the dynamics of saltwater intrusion are a growing consideration for understanding the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish community structure. Freshwater can be diverted into these major flow paths and critical confluences to improve river network management and conservation of fish species diversity under saltwater intrusion.

  7. Long-Distance Delivery of Fine Sediment to Wetlands from a Bay-Head Delta: A Possible Analog for Large River-Sediment Diversions and Coastal Wetland Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Wang, J.

    2016-02-01

    Large river-sediment diversions are being proposed as primary tools for wetland restoration and land building in the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain. To date, much emphasis in the study of diversion performance has focused on proximal sand-rich deposition. To better understand far-field dispersal and deposition of fine sediments, which account for the majority of sediment supply, sediment cores from Fourleague Bay, Louisiana and adjacent marshes are being analyzed for 7Be, a naturally occurring radioisotope, as well as mineral and water content. The bay, which receives about 2% of total sediment discharge from the Atchafalaya River, is 20 km long and extends southeastward from the river's outlets. During 2015, time-series cores have been collected from ten sites, five located in the bay and five from the marshes, and have been analyzed for 7Be using gamma spectrometry. All sites fall within a distance of 9 km to 25 km from the outlet of the Atchafalaya River. Preliminary results show that cores sampled during the summer season, collected July 2015, contain higher activity of 7Be in the marsh cores, with no detectable 7Be contained in bay cores. The highest activity of 7Be, 3.2 ± 0.79 dpm/g, was found in the top two centimeters of the marsh core closest to the river mouth, site FLM-1. No activity was detectable beyond a depth of 4-6 cm. Surficial activity declined in samples further from the river mouth, with the lowest detectable value being 1.8 ± 0.72 dpm/g in the top two centimeters of site FLM-5. Results show that the range of influence for fine sediment delivery to wetlands is > 10 km, suggesting that the area that may be nourished sediment from a large diversion extends far beyond the footprint of proximal sandy deltaic deposits.

  8. Improving the Performance of Highly Constrained Water Resource Systems using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms and RiverWare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Instead of building new infrastructure to increase their supply reliability, water resource managers are often tasked with better management of current systems. The managers often have existing simulation models that aid their planning, and lack methods for efficiently generating and evaluating planning alternatives. This presentation discusses how multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) decision support can be used with the sophisticated water infrastructure model, RiverWare, in highly constrained water planning environments. We first discuss a study that performed a many-objective tradeoff analysis of water supply in the Tarrant Regional Water District (TRWD) in Texas. RiverWare is combined with the Borg MOEA to solve a seven objective problem that includes systemwide performance objectives and individual reservoir storage reliability. Decisions within the formulation balance supply in multiple reservoirs and control pumping between the eastern and western parts of the system. The RiverWare simulation model is forced by two stochastic hydrology scenarios to inform how management changes in wet versus dry conditions. The second part of the presentation suggests how a broader set of RiverWare-MOEA studies can inform tradeoffs in other systems, especially in political situations where multiple actors are in conflict over finite water resources. By incorporating quantitative representations of diverse parties' objectives during the search for solutions, MOEAs may provide support for negotiations and lead to more widely beneficial water management outcomes.

  9. Fluvial River Regime in Disturbed River Systems: A Case Study of Evolution of the Middle Yangtze River in Post-TGD (Three Gorges Dam), China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Lu, J; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The fluvial river is a kind of open system that can interact with its outside environments and give response to disturbance from outside on the earth. It can adjust itself to the disturbances outside the system and reflects new characteristics in the process of reaching a new equilibrium. The TGD

  10. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieliński, Mateusz; Dopieralska, Jolanta; Belka, Zdzislaw; Walczak, Aleksandra; Siepak, Marcin; Jakubowicz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  11. Implementation of FPGA-Based Diverse Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Soo Yun; Lee, Yoon Hee; Shon, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Obsolete analog and digital hardware platforms in NPPs are commonly replaced with programmable logic controller (PLC) and distributed control system (DCS). Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are highlighted as an alternative to obsolete hardware platforms. FPGAs are digital integrated circuits (ICs) that contain the configurable (programmable) blocks of logic along with configurable interconnections among these blocks. Designers can configure (program) such devices to perform a tremendous variety of tasks. FPGAs have been evolved from the technology of programmable logic device (PLD). Nowadays, they can contain millions of logic gates by nanotechnology and can be used to implement extremely large and complex functions that previously could be realized only using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). This paper presents the implementation of an FPGA-based diverse protection system (DPS) which executes the protective functions in NPP when the protective functions of the plant protection system (PPS) fails.

  12. Microbial diversity in different compartments of an aquaponics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmautz, Zala; Graber, Andreas; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Goesmann, Alexander; Junge, Ranka; Smits, Theo H M

    2017-05-01

    Aquaponics is a solution for sustainable production of fish and plants in a single semi-closed system, where nutrient-rich water from the aquaculture provides nutrients for plant growth. We examined the microbial communities within an experimental aquaponics system. Whereas the fish feces contained a separate community dominated by bacteria of the genus Cetobacterium, the samples from plant roots, biofilter, and periphyton were more similar to each other, while the communities were more diverse. Detailed examination of the data gave the first indications to functional groups of organisms in the different compartments of the aquaponic system. As other nitrifiers other than members of the genus Nitrospira were only present at low numbers, it was anticipated that Nitrospirae may perform the nitrification process in the biofilm.

  13. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  14. Water quality analysis in rivers with non-parametric probability distributions and fuzzy inference systems: application to the Cauca River, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Duque, William; Osorio, Carolina; Piamba, Christian; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2013-02-01

    The integration of water quality monitoring variables is essential in environmental decision making. Nowadays, advanced techniques to manage subjectivity, imprecision, uncertainty, vagueness, and variability are required in such complex evaluation process. We here propose a probabilistic fuzzy hybrid model to assess river water quality. Fuzzy logic reasoning has been used to compute a water quality integrative index. By applying a Monte Carlo technique, based on non-parametric probability distributions, the randomness of model inputs was estimated. Annual histograms of nine water quality variables were built with monitoring data systematically collected in the Colombian Cauca River, and probability density estimations using the kernel smoothing method were applied to fit data. Several years were assessed, and river sectors upstream and downstream the city of Santiago de Cali, a big city with basic wastewater treatment and high industrial activity, were analyzed. The probabilistic fuzzy water quality index was able to explain the reduction in water quality, as the river receives a larger number of agriculture, domestic, and industrial effluents. The results of the hybrid model were compared to traditional water quality indexes. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it considers flexible boundaries between the linguistic qualifiers used to define the water status, being the belongingness of water quality to the diverse output fuzzy sets or classes provided with percentiles and histograms, which allows classify better the real water condition. The results of this study show that fuzzy inference systems integrated to stochastic non-parametric techniques may be used as complementary tools in water quality indexing methodologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling of the impact of Rhone River nutrient inputs on the dynamics of planktonic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Baklouti, Melika; Garreau, Pierre; Guyennon, Arnaud; Carlotti, François

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies devoted to the Mediterranean Sea highlight that a large number of uncertainties still exist particularly as regards the variations of elemental stoichiometry of all compartments of pelagic ecosystems (The MerMex Group, 2011, Pujo-Pay et al., 2011, Malatonne-Rizotti and the Pan-Med Group, 2012). Moreover, during the last two decades, it was observed that the inorganic ratio N:P ratio in among all the Mediterranean rivers, including the Rhone River, has dramatically increased, thus strengthening the P-limitation in the Mediterranean waters (Ludwig et al, 2009, The MerMex group, 2011) and increasing the anomaly in the ratio N:P of the Gulf of Lions and all the western part of NW Mediterranean. At which time scales such a change will impact the biogeochemical stocks and fluxes of the Gulf of Lion and of the whole NW Mediterranean sea still remains unknown. In the same way, it is still uncertain how this increase in the N:P ratio will modify the composition of the trophic web, and potentially lead to regime shifts by favouring for example one of the classical food chains of the sea considered in Parsons & Lalli (2002). To address this question, the Eco3M-MED biogeochemical model (Baklouti et al., 2006a,b, Alekseenko et al., 2014) representing the first trophic levels from bacteria to mesozooplankton, coupled with the hydrodynamical model MARS3D (Lazure&Dumas, 2008) is used. This model has already been partially validated (Alekseenko et al., 2014) and the fact that it describes each biogenic compartment in terms of its abundance (for organisms), and carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll (for autotrophs) implies that all the information on the intracellular status of organisms and on the element(s) that limit(s) their growth will be available. The N:P ratios in water, organisms and in the exported material will also be analyzed. In practice, the work will first consist in running different scenarios starting from similar initial early winter

  16. River Maintenance Management System Using Three-Dimensional UAV Data in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S.; Kawai, Y.

    2016-10-01

    River administration facilities such as levees and river walls play a major role in preventing flooding due to heavy rain. The forms of such facilities must be constantly monitored for alteration due to rain and running water, and limited human resources and budgets make it necessary to efficiently maintain river administration facilities. During maintenance, inspection results are commonly recorded on paper documents. Continuous inspection and repair using information systems are an on-going challenge. This study proposes a maintenance management system for river facilities that uses three-dimensional data to solve these problems and make operation and maintenance more efficient. The system uses three-dimensional data to visualize river facility deformation and its process, and it has functions that visualize information about river management at any point in the three-dimensional data. The threedimensional data is generated by photogrammetry using a camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

  17. Comparison of genetic diversity in the recently founded Connecticut River Atlantic salmon population to that of its primary donor stock, Maine's Penobscot River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidle, A.P.; King, T.L.; Letcher, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to the Connecticut River (CR) from 1996 to 1999 were assayed for variability at nine microsatellite DNA loci. Heterozygosity and allele frequencies were compared to the anadromous Atlantic salmon returning to Maine's Penobscot River from 1998 to 2000. The Penobscot River was the primary source of the salmon used to found the previously extirpated population in the Connecticut River. While there were no significant differences in heterozygosity between the source population and the Connecticut River sea-run spawners, microsatellite allele frequencies were significantly different between the populations. Two techniques of estimating effective population size (Ne) suggested a healthy level of genetic variation in the Connecticut River population of anadromous Atlantic salmon. This is significant because the sea-run population is maintained almost entirely through hatchery production. Healthy ratios of Ne to N indicate that hatchery production has not resulted in excessive inbreeding to date. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  19. William Halse Rivers Rivers (1864-1922) and the sensory nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2008-01-01

    The polymath William Rivers played an important role in his work with Henry Head in demonstrating the varied, evolving patterns of sensory loss, and epicritic and protopathic sensation, after the section of the superficial ramus of Head's left radial nerve. After a mixed and frustrated army career Rivers devoted his attentions to shell shock and other psychological disturbances which were well received in his time. Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen were among the distinguished patients whose writings revealed Rivers as the revered object of their gratitude. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic micropollutants in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China: A case study of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenhua; Yang, Haohan; Dong, Huike; Ma, Binni; Sun, Hongwei; Pan, Ting; Jiang, Runren; Zhou, Ranran; Shen, Jie; Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua

    2018-04-12

    Water diversion has been increasingly applied to improve water quality in many water bodies. However, little is known regarding pollution by organic micropollutants (OMPs) in water diversion projects, especially at the supplier, and this pollution may threaten the quality of transferred water. In the present study, a total of 110 OMPs belonging to seven classes were investigated in water and sediment collected from a supplier of the Yangtze River within four water diversion projects. A total of 69 and 58 target OMPs were detected in water and sediment, respectively, at total concentrations reaching 1041.78 ng/L and 5942.24 ng/g dry weight (dw). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pharmaceuticals were the predominant pollutants identified. When preliminarily compared with the pollution in the receiving water, the Yangtze River generally exhibited mild OMPs pollution and good water quality parameters, implying a clean water source in the water diversion project. However, in Zongyang and Fenghuangjing, PAHs pollution was more abundant than that in the corresponding receiving water in Chaohu Lake. Ammonia nitrogen pollution in the Wangyu River was comparable to that in Taihu Lake. These findings imply that water diversion may threaten receiving waters in some cases. In addition, the risks of all detected pollutants in both water and sediment were assessed. PAHs in water, especially phenanthrene and high-molecular-weight PAHs, posed high risks to invertebrates, followed by the risks to fish and algae. Pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics and antidepressants, may also pose risks to algae and fish at a number of locations. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe OMPs pollution in water diversion projects, and the results provide a new perspective regarding the security of water diversion projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water quality impacts on instream biota of the Shingwedzi River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality impacts on instream biota of the Shingwedzi River, South Africa. PSO Fouche, W Vlok. Abstract. Water quality, macroinvertebrate diversity (using SASS5) and fish diversity (using the fish response assessment index) of the Shingwedzi River system were monitored in 2007/2008 to determine the present status ...

  2. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to

  3. Threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom; Barnhart, M. Christopher; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Schrader, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The Meramec River Basin in east-central Missouri is an important stronghold for native freshwater mussels (Order: Unionoida) in the United States. Whereas the basin supports more than 40 mussel species, previous studies indicate that the abundance and distribution of most species are declining. Therefore, resource managers have identified the need to prioritize threats to native mussel populations in the basin and to design a mussel monitoring program. The objective of this study was to identify threats of habitat and water-quality degradation to mussel diversity in the basin. Affected habitat parameters considered as the main threats to mussel conservation included excess sedimentation, altered stream geomorphology and flow, effects on riparian vegetation and condition, impoundments, and invasive non-native species. Evaluating water-quality parameters for conserving mussels was a main focus of this study. Mussel toxicity data for chemical contaminants were compared to national water quality criteria (NWQC) and Missouri water quality standards (MWQS). However, NWQC and MWQS have not been developed for many chemical contaminants and some MWQS may not be protective of native mussel populations. Toxicity data indicated that mussels are sensitive to ammonia, copper, temperature, certain pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products; these compounds were identified as the priority water-quality parameters for mussel conservation in the basin. Measures to conserve mussel diversity in the basin include expanding the species and life stages of mussels and the list of chemical contaminants that have been assessed, establishing a long term mussel monitoring program that measures physical and chemical parameters of high priority, conducting landscape scale modeling to predict mussel distributions, determining sublethal effects of primary contaminants of concern, deriving risk-based guidance values for mussel conservation, and assessing the effects of wastewater

  4. Reliability evaluation of the Savannah River reactor leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Sindelar, R.L.; Wallace, I.T.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Reactors have been in operation since the mid-1950's. The primary degradation mode for the primary coolant loop piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking. The leak-before-break (LBB) capability of the primary system piping has been demonstrated as part of an overall structural integrity evaluation. One element of the LBB analyses is a reliability evaluation of the leak detection system. The most sensitive element of the leak detection system is the airborne tritium monitors. The presence of small amounts of tritium in the heavy water coolant provide the basis for a very sensitive system of leak detection. The reliability of the tritium monitors to properly identify a crack leaking at a rate of either 50 or 300 lb/day (0.004 or 0.023 gpm, respectively) has been characterized. These leak rates correspond to action points for which specific operator actions are required. High reliability has been demonstrated using standard fault tree techniques. The probability of not detecting a leak within an assumed mission time of 24 hours is estimated to be approximately 5 x 10 -5 per demand. This result is obtained for both leak rates considered. The methodology and assumptions used to obtain this result are described in this paper. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on molecular diversity of plankton from the Chubut rivers estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, J.M.; Halac, S.; Calvo, A.Y.; Villafane, V.; Jones, L.R.; Helbling, W.E.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of a project designed to evaluate the impact of UVR upon estuarine plankton, we present here a molecular analysis of plankton diversity. Water samples were exposed to three radiation treatments (PAR, PAR + UV-A and PAR + UV-A + UV-B) in microcosms for ca 10 days during the Austral summer. At the beginning (t 0 ) and at the end of the experiment samples were filtered 0 through 20, 10, 5 and 0.22 μm pore sizes. The DNA amount retained in each filter indicated that most of the plankton biomass was in the 0.22-5 μm fraction at t0. In contrast, at the end of the experiment this proportion changed according to the radiation treatment and big cells (> 20 μm) dominated. An rDNA library was obtained from the DNA corresponding to the 0.22-5 μm fraction. There was no relationship between treatments and the number and frequency of restriction genotypes. Analyses of 27 clones fraction from t 0 indicated the presence of three genera of Rhodobacteraceae, one genus of Rhodospirillaceae, one SAR11 genus, one genus of Bacillaceae, an unclassified sequences of Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Rhodospirillaceae. Also, there were six sequences similar to Ostreococcus tauri (Mamiellales). Even though the sequence analyses are still ongoing, our initial data suggest a big impact of UV-B radiation in the amount and composition of the plankton community towards big cells. (authors)

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  8. Productivity-Diversity Relationships from Chemolithoautotrophically Based Sulfidic Karst Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Megan L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystems thriving in the absence of photosynthetic processes are no longer considered unique phenomena, we haveyet to understand how these ecosystems are energetically sustained via chemosynthesis. Ecosystem energetics were measuredin microbial mats from active sulfidic caves (Movile Cave, Romania; Frasassi Caves, Italy; Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming, USA; andCesspool Cave, Virginia, USA using radiotracer techniques. We also estimated bacterial diversity using 16S rRNA sequences torelate the productivity measurements to the composition of the microbial communities. All of the microbial communities investigatedwere dominated by chemolithoautotrophic productivity, with the highest rates from Movile Cave at 281 g C/m2/yr. Heterotrophicproductivities were at least one order of magnitude less than autotrophy from all of the caves. We generated 414 new 16S rRNAgene sequences that represented 173 operational taxonomic units (OTUs with 99% sequence similarity. Although 13% of theseOTUs were found in more than one cave, the compositions of each community were significantly different from each other (P≤0.001.Autotrophic productivity was positively correlated with overall species richness and with the number of bacterial OTUs affiliated withthe Epsilonproteobacteria, a group known for sulfur cycling and chemolithoautotrophy. Higher rates of autotrophy were also stronglypositively correlated to available metabolic energy sources, and specifically to dissolved sulfide concentrations. The relationship ofautotrophic productivity and heterotrophic cycling rates to bacterial species richness can significantly impact the diversity of highertrophic levels in chemolithoautotrophically-based cave ecosystems, with the systems possessing the highest productivity supportingabundant and diverse macro-invertebrate communities.

  9. Tracking the Recovery of Freshwater Mussel Diversity in Ontario Rivers: Evaluation of a Quadrat-Based Monitoring Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Reid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed inventories and population monitoring are essential components of efforts to conserve and recover freshwater mussel diversity in Canada. We used two datasets to assess the efficacy of a quadrat-based sampling protocol for: (1 detecting mussel species at risk; (2 characterizing species composition; (3 providing accurate estimates of abundance; and (4 detecting changes in density. The protocol is based on a systematic design (with random starts that samples 20% of monitoring sites with visual-tactile surface searches and excavation of 1 m2 quadrats. The first dataset included 40 sampling sites in five Ontario rivers, and the second dataset consisted of complete census sampling at two 375 m2 sites that represented contrasting mussel assemblages. Our results show that the protocol can be expected to detect the majority of species present at a site and provide accurate and precise estimates of total mussel density. Excavation was essential for detection of small individuals and to accurately estimate abundance. However, the protocol was of limited usefulness for reliable detection of most species at risk. Furthermore, imprecise density estimates precluded detection of all but the most extreme changes in density of most individual species. Meeting monitoring objectives will require either substantially greater sampling effort under the current protocol, or a fundamental revision of the sampling approach.

  10. Genetic diversity of pacu and piapara broodstocks in restocking programs in the rivers Paraná and Paranapanema (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu and Leporinus elongatus (piapara broodstocks used in restocking programs in the rivers Paraná and Paranapanema is analyzed. One hundred and twenty specimens (two broodstocks of each species from fish ponds in Palotina PR Brazil and in Salto Grande SP Brazil were assessed. Ten primers produced 96 fragments, comprising 68 (70.83% and 94 (97.92% polymorphic fragments for P. mesopotamicus and L. elongatus broodstocks, respectively. Differences (p < 0.05 in the frequency of 15 and 27 fragments were detected for each species, without exclusive fragments. Shannon Index (0.347 - 0.572 and the percentage of polymorphic fragments (57.3% - 94.8% revealed high intra-population genetic variability for all broodstocks. Results of molecular variance analyses (AMOVA showed that most variations do not lie between the broodstocks but within each broodstock (89%. Genetic (0.088 and 0.142 and identity (0.916 and 0.868 distance rates demonstrated similarity between the broodstocks of each species, corroborated by Fst (0.1023 and 010.27 and Nm (4.18 and 4.33 rates, with a slight genetic difference due to genic flux. High intrapopulation genetic variability and similarity between the broodstocks of each species was also detected, proving a common ancestry.

  11. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  12. Different responses of functional traits and diversity of stream macroinvertebrates to environmental and spatial factors in the Xishuangbanna watershed of the upper Mekong River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Yang, Weifang; Zhou, Yunlei; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Kai; Vidal, Nicolas; Jeppesen, Erik; Liu, Zhengwen; Wang, Beixin

    2017-01-01

    Functional traits and diversity indices have provided new insights into community responses to stressors. Most traits of aquatic organisms have frequently been tested for predictability and geographical stability in response to environmental variables, but such tests of functional diversity indices are rare. We sampled macroinvertebrates at 18 reference sites (RS) and 35 disturbed sites (DS) from headwater streams in the upper Mekong River Basin, Xishuangbanna (XSBN), China. We selected 29 qualitative categories of eight traits and then calculated five functional diversity indices, namely functional richness (FRic), functional evenness (FEve), functional dispersion (FDis), functional divergence (FDiv) and Rao's Quadratic Entropy (RaoQ), and two trait diversity indices, namely trait richness (TR) and trait diversity (TD). We used combination of RLQ and fourth-corner to examine the response of traits and functional diversity to the disturbance and environmental variables. We used variance partitioning to explore the relative role of environmental variables and spatial factors in constraining trait composition and functional diversity. We found that the relative frequency of ten trait categories, and the values of TD, TR, FRic and FDis in RS were significantly different (pfunctional diversity and trait diversity. However, spatial variables were mainly significant in shaping ecological traits, FRic and FEve. Our results confirm the dominant role of environmental variables in the determination of community trait composition and functional diversity, and substantiate the contribution of spatial vectors in explaining the variance of functional traits and diversity. We conclude that the traits "Refuge", "External protection", "Respiration" and "Body shape", and diversity indices FDis, TD, and TR are promising indicators of stream conditions at XSBN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soil bacterial diversity changes in different broomcorn millet intercropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoning; Liu, Sichen; Wang, Junjie; Wang, Haigang; Chen, Ling; Tian, Xiang; Zhang, Lijun; Chang, Jianwu; Wang, Lun; Mu, Zhixin; Qiao, Zhijun

    2017-12-01

    Plants growing in soil and the diverse microorganisms with which they are in direct contact have adapted to exploit their close association for mutual benefit. Various intercropping systems have been used to control plant disease and improve productivity in fields. Although high-throughput sequencing approaches have provided new insights into the soil bacterial community, current knowledge of intercropping of broomcorn millet with different leguminous plants is limited. In this study, characterization of different bacterial communities of monoculture and intercropping systems was achieved by deep sequencing. A total of 4684 operational taxonomic units were classified to the species level with good sampling depth and sequencing coverage. The abundance of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes varied at different growth stages and was related to growth of the intercropped plant. According to diversity analyses, Glycomyces, Aeromicrobium, Adhaeribacter, and Streptomyces were the dominant genera. In addition, we predicted functional gene composition based on bacterial OTUs present. Functional results showed that membrane transport and nutrient metabolism was highly abundant in all samples, although abundance varied at different growth stages, which indicated these pathways might be affected by the dominant categories of bacterial community. The dynamic changes observed during intercropping of broomcorn millet with different leguminous plants suggest that soil bacterial community structure exhibits a crop species-specific pattern. Further, agronomic trait data from different broomcorn millet intercropping systems were consistent with functional results and suggest that agronomic traits may be influenced by soil bacterial communities. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its ''Generic Safety Evaluation Report'' approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  15. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.; Ketcham, D.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table tested which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its Generic Safety Evaluation Report approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the US and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective approach developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluation program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  16. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Tai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a key role in water conservation in the southern Qilian Mountains (northwestern China, located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for the protection of the nitrogen supply for vegetation in the region. In the present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established to determine differences between the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities of the Potentilla parvifolia shrubland and the Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All of the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to the Proteobacteria. At the genus level, Azospirillum was only detected in the shrubland soil, while Thiocapsa, Derxia, Ectothiorhodospira, Mesorhizobium, Klebsiella, Ensifer, Methylocella and Pseudomonas were only detected in the meadow soil. The phylogenetic tree was divided into five lineages: lineages I, II and III mainly contained nifH sequences obtained from the meadow soils, while lineage IV was mainly composed of nifH sequences obtained from the shrubland soils. The Shannon–Wiener index of the nifH genes ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils. Based on these analyses of diversity and phylogeny, the plant species were hypothesised to influence N cycling by enhancing the fitness of certain nitrogen-fixing taxa. The number of nifH gene copies and colony-forming units (CFUs of the cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria were lower in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils, ranging from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g−1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g−1 soil, respectively. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed that the diversity and number of the nifH gene copies were primarily correlated with aboveground biomass in the shrubland soil. In the meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was most affected by altitude, while copy number was most impacted by soil-available K. These results suggest that the nitrogen-fixing bacterial

  17. High diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X. S.; Mao, W. L.; Liu, G. X.; Chen, T.; Zhang, W.; Wu, X. K.; Long, H. Z.; Zhang, B. G.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-08-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in water conservation in the southern Qilian Mountains (northwestern China), located in the upper reaches of the Heihe River. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are crucial for the protection of the nitrogen supply for vegetation in the region. In the present study, nifH gene clone libraries were established to determine differences between the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities of the Potentilla parvifolia shrubland and the Carex alrofusca meadow in the southern Qilian Mountains. All of the identified nitrogen-fixing bacterial clones belonged to the Proteobacteria. At the genus level, Azospirillum was only detected in the shrubland soil, while Thiocapsa, Derxia, Ectothiorhodospira, Mesorhizobium, Klebsiella, Ensifer, Methylocella and Pseudomonas were only detected in the meadow soil. The phylogenetic tree was divided into five lineages: lineages I, II and III mainly contained nifH sequences obtained from the meadow soils, while lineage IV was mainly composed of nifH sequences obtained from the shrubland soils. The Shannon-Wiener index of the nifH genes ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 and was higher in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils. Based on these analyses of diversity and phylogeny, the plant species were hypothesised to influence N cycling by enhancing the fitness of certain nitrogen-fixing taxa. The number of nifH gene copies and colony-forming units (CFUs) of the cultured nitrogen-fixing bacteria were lower in the meadow soils than in the shrubland soils, ranging from 0.4 × 107 to 6.9 × 107 copies g-1 soil and 0.97 × 106 to 12.78 × 106 g-1 soil, respectively. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the diversity and number of the nifH gene copies were primarily correlated with aboveground biomass in the shrubland soil. In the meadow soil, nifH gene diversity was most affected by altitude, while copy number was most impacted by soil-available K. These results suggest that the nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities beneath Potentilla

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  19. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix N, wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included

  20. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix G: Land use and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. The SOR began in early 1990, prior to the filing of petitions for endangered status for several salmon species under the Endangered Species Act. The comprehensive review of Columbia River operations encompassed by the SOR was prompted by the need for Federal decisions to (1) develop a coordinated system operating strategy (SOS) for managing the multiple uses of the system into the 21st century; (2) provide interested parties with a continuing and increased long-term role in system planning (Columbia River Regional Forum); (3) renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA), a contractual arrangement among the region's major hydroelectric-generating utilities and affected Federal agencies to provide for coordinated power generation on the Columbia River system; and (4) renew or develop new Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. The review provides the environmental analysis required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR

  2. Trace element assessment in water of river kassa system, jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences. Journal Home ... The value of index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) is approximately 2; for Zn and Pb which indicates, moderate contamination. Areas of the river ... The major sources of contamination are mining and agricultural activities on the flood plain of this river. The anomalous ...

  3. Propagation of a cadmium spill through an impounded river system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, G.T.; Joziasse, J.; Bakker, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of impoundments (sluices, weirs, etc.) and stream components (tributaries, river branches, associated canals) on the metal content in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch part of the River Meuse is assessed using the decrease in the cadmium content

  4. Multicriteria performance and sustainability in livestock farming systems: Functional diversity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichit, M.; Puillet, L.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification drastically reduces diversity at different scales of livestock farming systems (LFS). This homogenization process leads to environmental degradation and ignores the fact that multiple performance criterions often come in conflict. Taking advantage of diversity at

  5. Nucleotide diversity of Hemigrammus cf. marginatus (Characiformes, Characidae in the upper Paraná river floodplain - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.6669

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Simone Pavanelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characidae is the largest and more diversified family from Characiformes and presents several classification problems, with several genera currently allocated as incertae sedis, such as the genus Hemigrammus. The upper Paraná river floodplain is an environment with high fish diversity. There is at least one species of Hemigrammus, however there are divergences among some authors about the number and the identification of the species from this genus. Therefore the goal of this study was to characterize, using a molecular approach, individuals of Hemigrammus from the upper Paraná river floodplain and to compare them with individuals from the type locality of Hemigrammus marginatus, since this is the only species distributed in this floodplain. For this, the DNA was extracted and a partial region from the mitochondrial genes ATPase 6 and ATPase 8 were amplified and sequenced. The results evidenced the existence of two species of Hemigrammus in the floodplain, although impossible to be distinguished only through morphological traits. High nucleotide diversity among individuals from the upper Paraná river in relation to those from the type locality was also observed, indicating that both species of Hemigrammus present in the upper Paraná river floodplain are not Hemigrammus marginatus. 

  6. Environmental data management system at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, C.H.; Gordon, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The volume and complexity of data associated with escalating environmental regulations has prompted professionals at the Savannah River Site to begin taking steps necessary to better manage environmental information. This paper describes a plan to implement an integrated environmental information system at the site. Nine topic areas have been identified. They are: administrative, air, audit ampersand QA, chemical information/inventory, ecology, environmental education, groundwater, solid/hazardous waste, and surface water. Identification of environmental databases that currently exist, integration into a ''friendly environment,'' and development of new applications will all take place as a result of this effort. New applications recently completed include Groundwater Well Construction, NPDES (Surface Water) Discharge Monitoring, RCRA Quarterly Reporting, and Material Safety Data Sheet Information. Database applications are relational (Oracle RDBMS) and reside largely in DEC VMS environments. In today's regulatory and litigation climate, the site recognizes they must have knowledge of accurate environmental data at the earliest possible time. Implementation of this system will help ensure this

  7. Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, using PRMS and MODFLOW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allander, Kip K.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Jeton, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Walker Lake is a terminal lake in west-central Nevada with almost all outflow occurring through evaporation. Diversions from Walker River since the early 1900s have contributed to a substantial reduction in flow entering Walker Lake. As a result, the lake is receding, and salt concentrations have increased to a level in which Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan Cutthroat trout) are no longer present, and the lake ecosystem is threatened. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to restore the Walker Lake ecosystem and fishery to a level that is more sustainable. However, Walker Lake is interlinked with the lower Walker River and adjacent groundwater system which makes it difficult to understand the full effect of upstream water-management actions on the overall hydrologic system including the lake level, volume, and dissolved-solids concentrations of Walker Lake. To understand the effects of water-management actions on the lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, a watershed model and groundwater flow model have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  8. Biota of the upper Mississippi River ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, James G.; Naimo, Teresa J.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Dahlgren, Robert; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Lubinski, Kenneth S.; Rogers, Sara J.; Brewer, Sandra; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    The Mississippi River is one of the world's major river systems in size, habitat and biotic diversity, and biotic productivity. The navigable Upper Mississippi River, extending 1,370 km (850 mi) from St. Anthony Falls (Minnesota) to the confluence with the Ohio River, has been impounded by 27 locks and dams to enhance commercial navigation. The reach between two consecutive locks and dams is termed a "pool." The upstream portions of many pools are similar to the unimpounded river, whereas the downstream reaches are similar to reservoirs.

  9. Development of a GIS-Based Decision Support System for Diagnosis of River System Health and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a decision support system (DSS to inform policy making has been progressing rapidly. This paper presents a generic framework and the development steps of a decision tool prototype of geographic information systems (GIS-based decision support system of river health diagnosis (RHD-DSS. This system integrates data, calculation models, and human knowledge of river health status assessment, causal factors diagnosis, and restoration decision making to assist decision makers during river restoration and management in Zhejiang Province, China. Our RHD-DSS is composed of four main elements: the graphical user interface (GUI, the database, the model base, and the knowledge base. It has five functional components: the input module, the database management, the diagnostic indicators management, the assessment and diagnosis, and the visual result module. The system design is illustrated with particular emphasis on the development of the database, model schemas, diagnosis and analytical processing techniques, and map management design. Finally, the application of the prototype RHD-DSS is presented and implemented for Xinjiangtang River of Haining County in Zhejiang Province, China. This case study is used to demonstrate the advantages gained by the application of this system. We conclude that there is great potential for using the RHD-DSS to systematically manage river basins in order to effectively mitigate environmental issues. The proposed approach will provide river managers and designers with improved insight into river degradation conditions, thereby strengthening the assessment process and the administration of human activities in river management.

  10. Performance of a coupled lagged ensemble weather and river runoff prediction model system for the Alpine Ammer River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiatek, G.; Kunstmann, H.; Werhahn, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Ammer River catchment located in the Bavarian Ammergau Alps and alpine forelands, Germany, represents with elevations reaching 2185 m and annual mean precipitation between1100 and 2000 mm a very demanding test ground for a river runoff prediction system. Large flooding events in 1999 and 2005 motivated the development of a physically based prediction tool in this area. Such a tool is the coupled high resolution numerical weather and river runoff forecasting system AM-POE that is being studied in several configurations in various experiments starting from the year 2005. Corner stones of the coupled system are the hydrological water balance model WaSiM-ETH run at 100 m grid resolution, the numerical weather prediction model (NWP) MM5 driven at 3.5 km grid cell resolution and the Perl Object Environment (POE) framework. POE implements the input data download from various sources, the input data provision via SOAP based WEB services as well as the runs of the hydrology model both with observed and with NWP predicted meteorology input. The one way coupled system utilizes a lagged ensemble prediction system (EPS) taking into account combination of recent and previous NWP forecasts. Results obtained in the years 2005-2011 reveal that river runoff simulations depict high correlation with observed runoff when driven with monitored observations in hindcast experiments. The ability to runoff forecasts is depending on lead times in the lagged ensemble prediction and shows still limitations resulting from errors in timing and total amount of the predicted precipitation in the complex mountainous area. The presentation describes the system implementation, and demonstrates the application of the POE framework in networking, distributed computing and in the setup of various experiments as well as long term results of the system application in the years 2005 - 2011.

  11. Genetic diversity of the forage peanut in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco, and Paranã River valleys of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azêvedo, H S F S; Sousa, A C B; Martins, K; Oliveira, J C; Yomura, R B T; Silva, L M; Valls, J F M; Assis, G M L; Campos, T

    2016-09-09

    Arachis pintoi and A. repens are legumes with a high forage value that are used to feed ruminants in consortium systems. Not only do they increase the persistence and quality of pastures, they are also used for ornamental and green cover. The objective of this study was to analyze microsatellite markers in order to access the genetic diversity of 65 forage peanut germplasm accessions in the section Caulorrhizae of the genus Arachis in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco and Paranã River valleys of Brazil. Fifty-seven accessions of A. pintoi and eight of A. repens were analyzed using 17 microsatellites, and the observed heterozygosity (H O ), expected heterozygosity (H E ), number of alleles per locus, discriminatory power, and polymorphism information content were all estimated. Ten loci (58.8%) were polymorphic, and 125 alleles were found in total. The H E ranged from 0.30 to 0.94, and H O values ranged from 0.03 to 0.88. By using Bayesian analysis, the accessions were genetically differentiated into three gene pools. Neither the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean nor a neighbor-joining analysis clustered samples into species, origin, or collection area. These results reveal a very weak genetic structure that does not form defined clusters, and that there is a high degree of similarity between the two species.

  12. Analysis of the ancient river system in Loulan period in Lop Nur region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Jia, Peng; Nie, Yueping

    2010-09-01

    The Lop Nur region is located in the east of the Tarim Basin. It has served as the strategic passage and communication hub of the Silk Road since Han Dynasty. During Wei-Jin period, the river system there was well developed and the ancient city of Loulan was bred there. In this study, GIS is used to accomplish automatic extraction of the river course in the Lop Nur region at first using ArcGIS. Then the RCI index is constituted to extract ancient river course from Landsat ETM image with band 3 and band 4. It is concluded that the north river course of Peacock River conformed before the end of the 4th century AD according to the distribution of the entire river course of the Lop Nur region. Later, the Peacock River changed its way to south to Tarim River, and flowed into Lop Nur along the direction paralleling Altun Mountain from west to east. It was the change of the river system that mainly caused the decrease in water supply around ancient city of Loulan before the end of 4th century. The ancient city of Loulan has been gradually ruined in the sand because of the absence of water supply since then.

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  14. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  15. Contrasts in Sediment Delivery and Dispersal from River Mouth to Accumulation Zones in High Sediment Load Systems: Fly River, Papua New Guinea and Waipaoa River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, A. S.; Walsh, J. P.; Hale, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships between sediment-transport processes, short-term sedimentary deposition, subsequent burial, and long-term accumulation are critical to understanding the morphological development of the continental margin. This study focuses on processes involved in formation and evolution of the clinoform in the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea in which much of the riverine sediment accumulates, and comparison to those processes active off the Waipaoa River, New Zealand that form mid-shelf deposits and export sediment to the slope. In tidally dominated deltas, sediment discharged from the river sources must transit through an estuarine region located within the distributary channels, where particle pathways can undergo significant transformations. Within the distributaries of the Fly River tidally dominated delta, near-bed fluid-mud concentrations were observed at the estuarine turbidity maximum and sediment delivery to the nearshore was controlled by the morphology and gradient of the distributary. El Niño results in anonymously low flow and sediment discharge conditions, which limits transport of sediment from the distributaries to the nearshore zone of temporary storage. Because the sediment stored nearshore feeds the prograding clinoform, this perturbation propagates throughout the dispersal system. In wave-dominated regions, transport mechanisms actively move sediment away from the river source, separating the site of deposition and accumulation from the river mouth. River-flood and storm-wave events each create discrete deposits on the Waipaoa River shelf and data has been collected to determine their form, distribution, and relationship to factors such as flood magnitude or wave energy. In this case, transport pathways appear to be influenced by structurally controlled shelf bathymetry. In both cases, the combined fluvial and marine processes can initiate and maintain gravity-driven density flows, and although their triggers and controls differ vastly

  16. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix J, recreation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  18. Spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system of southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of macroinvertebrate distributions and associated environmental drivers in subtropical Asian rivers is relatively scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we examined the spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system, the Dongjiang River Basin, in southeastern China. A total of 70 families and 9 classes of macroinvertebrates were identified from 74 sites sampled in January 2013. Our study has the following findings: (1 a distinct spatial differentiation of macroinvertebrate communities was present in the Dongjiang River Basin indicated by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, which corresponded to the northern region (NR, middle region (MR, and southern region (SR gradient; (2 ANOVAs showed that diversity indices (total taxa, Margalef index and the Shannon diversity index, biotic indices (richness of EPT, percentage of EPT, and family biotic index and most of the studied environmental conditions (elevation, slope, steam order, water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, substrates, ammoniacal nitrogen, total phosphorus, percentage of urban land, percentage of rural land, and percentage of forest land differed significantly among the three regions and a degradation gradient was observed in the NR–MR–SR direction; (3 Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that NR sites were characterized by steep slope and coarse substrate, MR sites were characterized by high water temperatures and shallow slopes, and SR sites were primarily characterized by high total phosphorus and ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations; and (4 the Indicator Species Analysis, in conjunction with CCA analysis indicated that the most representative indicator taxon is Tipulidae for NR, Semisulcospira sp. for MR, and Branchiura sp. for SR.

  19. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieliński, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.zielinski@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Dopieralska, Jolanta, E-mail: dopieralska@amu.edu.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Belka, Zdzislaw, E-mail: zbelka@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Walczak, Aleksandra, E-mail: awalczak@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Siepak, Marcin, E-mail: siep@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, 61-606 Poznań (Poland); Jakubowicz, Michal, E-mail: mjakub@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  20. The ESA River & Lake System: Current Capabilities and Future Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Richard G.; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa A. M.

    Measuring the earth's river and lake resources using satellite radar altimetry offers a unique global monitoring capability, which complements the detailed measurements made by the steadily decreasing number of in-situ gauges. To exploit this unique remote monitoring capability, a global pilot...... scheme was implemented in 2005 to derive river and lake surface height measurements from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Near-Real-Time (NRT) products from the Jason-2 satellite altimeter are automatically generated based on data acquired daily from CNES; allowing for estimates of river and lake...

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix L: Soils, geology and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix addresses the study of geology, soils, and groundwater concerns relative to the System Operation Review (SOR). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, scope, and process for this resource area. In order, the respective sections of this chapter discuss the relevant issues for the study, and the means by which the SOR team carried out the study

  2. Building an Intelligent Water Information System - American River Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    recorded by sensors into information in the form that is useful for decision-making. In a sense it 'monetizes' the data. It is the cyber infrastructure that links measurements, data processing, models and users. System software must provide flexibility for multiple types of access from user queries to automated and direct links with analysis tools and decision-support systems. We are currently installing a basin-scale ground-based sensor network focusing on measurements of snowpack, solar radiation, temperature, rH and soil moisture across the American River basin. Although this is a research network, it also provides core elements of a full ground-based operational system.

  3. Emerging diversity of hydrothermal systems on slow spreading ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Peter A.

    The development of seafloor hydrothermal research has followed a classic scientific progression in which discoveries were initially interpreted as special cases until further exploration revealed their more general significance. The first high-temperature seafloor hydrothermal system was found at the Atlantis II Deep of the slow spreading Red Sea in 1963. At that time, the hydrothermal activity was largely discounted as an anomaly associated with continental rifting rather than as part of an early stage of opening of an ocean basin that could continue with the development of ocean ridges as in the Atlantic. When high-temperature black smoker hydrothermal venting was found on the East Pacific Rise in 1979, the scientific consensus then held that the relatively high rate of magma supply at intermediate to fast spreading rates was required for such activity. Accordingly, high-temperature hydrothermal activity could not occur on the slow spreading half of the global ocean ridge system. High-temperature black smokers like those on the East Pacific Rise were first discovered on a slow spreading ocean ridge at the TAG hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 1985. The scientific consensus then ruled out the possibility for such activity on the ultraslow portion of the ocean ridge system. Plumes indicative of active high-temperature black smokers were found on the ultraslow spreading Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic in 2001, and active black smokers were found on the Southwest Indian Ridge in 2006. A diversity of high-temperature hydrothermal systems remains to be found on ocean ridges, particularly at slow spreading rates.

  4. Paleodrainage of the Columbia River system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington State: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Reidel, S.P.; Tallman, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The evolution of the Columbia River drainage system on the Columbia Plateau of Washington in the last 17 My reflects the geologic history of the plateau. We have updated an interpretation of the evolution of the Columbia River system and defined the geomorphic and structural features that have controlled the position of ancestral streams. The sequence of geologic events and the resulting drainage system for various time intervals in the last 17 My are summarized below. 121 refs., 14 figs

  5. Microbiological studies in the Mandovi-Zuari river system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Row, A.

    Total heterotrophic and coliform bacteria were surveyed during October 1977 to September 1978 from 9 stations each along the rivers Mandovi and Zuari and 3 along the coast of Goa. Total heterotrophic population showed wide temporal and spatial...

  6. Low-Temperature Microbial Activity in River Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, K

    2001-01-01

    This technical note examines dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and changes in river microbiology during winter, low temperatures, and periods of ice cover with the objective of providing guidance for winter water quality modeling...

  7. Hydromorphological control of nutrient cycling in complex river floodplain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, T.; Bondar-Kunze, E.; Felkl, M.; Habersack, H.; Mair, M.; Pinay, G.; Tritthart, M.; Welti, N.

    2009-04-01

    Riparian zones and floodplains are key components within river ecosystems controlling nutrient cycling by promoting transformation processes and thus, act as biogeochemical hot spots. The intensity of these processes depends on the exchange conditions (the connectivity) with the main channel and the morphological setting of the water bodies. At the landscape scale, three interrelated principles of hydromorphological dynamics can be formulated regarding the cycling and transfer of carbon and nutrients in large rivers ecosystems: a) The mode of carbon and nutrient delivery affects ecosystem functioning; b) Increasing residence time and contact area impact nutrient transformation; c) Floods and droughts are natural events that strongly influence pathways of carbon and nutrient cycling. These three principles of hydromorphological dynamics control the nutrient uptake and retention and are linked over different temporal and spatial scales. All three factors can be strongly affected by natural disturbances or anthropogenic impacts, through a change in either the water regime or the geomorphologic setting of the river valley. Any change in natural water regimes will affect the biogeochemistry of riparian zones and floodplains as well as their ability to cycle and mitigate nutrient fluxes originating from upstream and/or upslope. Especially these areas have been altered by river regulation and land use changes over the last 200 years leading to the deterioration of the functioning of these compartments within the riverine landscape. The resulting deficits have prompted rehabilitation and restoration measures aiming to increase the spatial heterogeneity, the complexity, of these ecosystems. Yet, a more integrated approach is needed considering the present status of nutrient dynamics and the effects of restoration measures at different scales. The present paper analyses the effects of river side-arm restoration on ecosystem functions within the side-arm and highlights

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix T: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix documents the public and agency review of the SOR Draft EIS and how the SOR agencies used the review to formulate the FINAL EIS. The appendix includes a summary of the review process, a discussion of the nature of the comments, a list of all commentors, reproductions of comment letters, and responses to all comments. Changes in the EIS text in response to comments are noted in the responses

  9. Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin dam-hydraulic system, travel time and temperature modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Bishnu; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    SummaryTiete River System in the State of Sao Paolo, Brazil is characterized by complex hydraulics and operational problems due to series of dams and point and diffuse inflows along the river. A one dimension Lagrangian river model was developed and applied to the 313 km reach of the Upper and Middle Tiete River Basin from the Penha Dam to the head water of Bara Bonita Reservoir, a stretch of river that includes six small to medium size dams (3.4-22 m high) including the Pirapora Reservoir and 26 inflows into the river (11 tributaries, 9 diffuse source areas, and discharges of 4 cities stormwater and 2 wastewater treatment plants. The conservative tracer transport and temperature model that accounts for the short and long wave radiation and heat transfers at the free surface was included and solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The time variable catchment input to the model was the simulated output of the external hydrological model called Runoff Load Model which results were provided by CETESB. The numerical treatment of series of dams and spillway (that included uncontrolled overflow spillway, gate-controlled ogee spillway; and underflow gates and tunnels) and parameterisation of hydraulic jumps are described. Special attention was focused on the high spatial and temporal variation of flows in Tiete River Basin, a result of the large variation in catchment inflows and channel geometry due to dams and reservoirs along the river. Predicted and measured spatial and seasonal variation of flow and temperature profiles along the river show good agreement. The simulated travel time of conservative tracer is compared against the CETESB's 1982 and 1984 field study data in a 254 km reach of the Middle Tiete River that again shows good agreement. Being Lagrangian in construction, this new model is computationally efficient making it an ideal tool for long term simulation for water resource planning, management and operation decision making in a large and complex river

  10. Description and assessment of the Raft River Lotic system in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal Area. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Raft River is the only perennial lotic system within this area and one concern has been the impact a spill of geothermal water would have on the biota of the stream. Identification of the structure of these communities is the baseline information which was the objective of this study. The results of the inventory in terms of potential recovery of downstream communities from the impact of geothermal water induced perturbations are discussed.

  11. Tree species diversity under pastoral and farming systems in Kilosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of tree diversity through improper land use practices such as overgrazing and poor farming practices in tropical areas and other natural ecosystems is one of today's most worrying environmental problems. This study was conducted to assess the impact of farming and pastoralism on tree species diversity in two forests ...

  12. Water metagenomic analysis reveals low bacterial diversity and the presence of antimicrobial residues and resistance genes in a river containing wastewater from backyard aquacultures in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tatsuya; Tuyet Hoa, Tran Thi; Harada, Kazuo; Warisaya, Minae; Asayama, Megumi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Lee, Joon Won; Phu, Tran Minh; Ueda, Shuhei; Sumimura, Yoshinori; Hirata, Kazumasa; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2017-03-01

    The environmental pathways for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance have recently received increased attention. Aquatic environments act as reservoirs or sources of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, antimicrobial residues, and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Therefore, it is imperative to identify the role of polluted water in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial residues, ARGs, and microbiota in the freshwater systems of the Mekong Delta. We selected 12 freshwater sites from aquacultures and rivers in Can Tho, Vietnam and analyzed them for 45 antimicrobial residues and 8 ARGs by LC/MS/MS and real-time PCR, respectively. A 16S rDNA-based metagenomic analysis was conducted to characterize the water microbiota. Residues of sulfamethoxazole (10/12) and sulfadimidine (7/12) were widely detected, together with the sulfa-resistance genes sul1 (11/12) and sul2 (9/12). Additionally, sulfamethoxazole residues and the β-lactamase-resistance gene bla CTX-M-1 were detected in eight freshwater systems (8/12), suggesting that these freshwater systems may have been polluted by human activity. The metagenomic analysis showed that all the tested freshwater systems contained the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, representing 64% of the total microbiota. Moreover, the Cai Rang River site (Ri-E), which is located at the merge point of wastewaters from backyard-based aquacultures, contained the genera Polynucleobacter, Variovorax, and Limnohabitans, representing more than 78.4% of the total microbiota. Bacterial diversity analysis showed that the Ri-E exhibited the lowest diversity compared with other regions. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the differences among water microbiotas in backyard-based aquacultures could be explained by the farmers' aquaculture techniques. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a collapse of bacterial diversity at the merge point of wastewaters

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix I: Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix discusses the work performed by the SOR Power Work Group. The Power Work Group (PWG) had several major responsibilities: first, to determine the effects of each of the various system operating strategies (SOS) on the Northwest regional power system; second, given these effects, to determine what, if any, actions are required to meet forecasted regional energy consumption; and finally, to estimate the cost for serving the forecasted regional energy consumption. The Northwest regional power system consists of Federal and non-Federal hydroelectric power projects (hydropower or hydro projects) on the main stem of the Columbia and Snake Rivers, numerous smaller hydro projects on other river reaches, and a number of thermal plants (coal, nuclear and combustion turbines)

  14. A modeling study of the impacts of Mississippi River diversion and sea-level rise on water quality of a deltaic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater and sediment management in estuaries affects water quality, particularly in deltaic estuaries. Furthermore, climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and land subsidence also affect estuarine water quality by changing salinity, circulation, stratification, sedimentation, erosion, residence time, and other physical and ecological processes. However, little is known about how the magnitudes and spatial and temporal patterns in estuarine water quality variables will change in response to freshwater and sediment management in the context of future SLR. In this study, we applied the Delft3D model that couples hydrodynamics and water quality processes to examine the spatial and temporal variations of salinity, total suspended solids, and chlorophyll-α concentration in response to small (142 m3 s−1) and large (7080 m3 s−1) Mississippi River (MR) diversions under low (0.38 m) and high (1.44 m) relative SLR (RSLR = eustatic SLR + subsidence) scenarios in the Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana, USA. The hydrodynamics and water quality model were calibrated and validated via field observations at multiple stations across the estuary. Model results indicate that the large MR diversion would significantly affect the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of the studied water quality variables across the entire estuary, whereas the small diversion tends to influence water quality only in small areas near the diversion. RSLR would also play a significant role on the spatial heterogeneity in estuary water quality by acting as an opposite force to river diversions; however, RSLR plays a greater role than the small-scale diversion on the magnitude and spatial pattern of the water quality parameters in this deltaic estuary.

  15. 78 FR 33049 - Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Green River/Tusher Diversion Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ..., Salt Lake City, Utah 84138-1100, or via email at bronson.smart@ut.usda.gov . Information may also be... publicly available at any time during the EIS process. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Bronson Smart... held on November 15, 2012 at Green River City Hall in Green River, Utah. Through additional...

  16. Application of optimization technique for flood damage modeling in river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sangita Deb; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

    2018-04-01

    A river system is defined as a network of channels that drains different parts of a basin uniting downstream to form a common outflow. An application of various models found in literatures, to a river system having multiple upstream flows is not always straight forward, involves a lengthy procedure; and with non-availability of data sets model calibration and applications may become difficult. In the case of a river system the flow modeling can be simplified to a large extent if the channel network is replaced by an equivalent single channel. In the present work optimization model formulations based on equivalent flow and applications of the mixed integer programming based pre-emptive goal programming model in evaluating flood control alternatives for a real life river system in India are proposed to be covered in the study.

  17. Reduced-complexity radio architectures for enhanced receive selection combining in multiuser diversity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki; Alrabadi, Osama; Papadias, Constantinos B.

    2012-01-01

    Although antenna selection is a simple and efficient technique for enhancing the downlink performance of multiuser diversity systems, the large antenna interelement spacing required for achieving spatial diversity is prohibitive for user terminals due to size restrictions. In order to allay...... this problem, we propose miniaturized switched beam receiver designs assisted by low-cost passive reflectors. Unlike conventional spatial receive diversity systems, the proposed angular diversity architectures occupy a small volume whereas the antenna system properties are optimized by controlling the strong...... reactive fields present at small dimensions. The systems are designed for maximum antenna efficiency and low interbeam correlation, thus yielding N practically uncorrelated receive diversity branches. The simulation results show that the proposed enhanced diversity combining systems improve the average...

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix H: Navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Navigation Technical Appendix presents the analysis of the various SOR alternatives in terms of their potential affects on the congressionally authorized navigation system within the Columbia and Snake river waterways. The focus of the study, impacts to the authorized navigation, improvements/developments, reflects on one of the continuing historical missions of the US Army Corps of Engineers: to promote safe commercial navigation of the nation's waterways benefiting the development of commerce within the US. The study and evaluation process involved Scoping, Screening and Full Scale Evaluation. During screening two models were developed; one was used to evaluate the effects of the various alternatives on navigation through the Snake River Projects and the other the effects on the Dworshak Pool. Full Scale Analysis was expanded to included a study of effects throughout the system

  19. Design of river height and speed monitoring system by using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siagian, E. C.; Tanjung, K.; Soeharwinto

    2018-02-01

    River is one part of the hydrologic cycle. Water in rivers is generally collected from precipitation, such as rain, dew, springs, underground runoff, and in certain countries also comes from melt ice/snow. The height and speed of water in a river is always changing. Changes in altitude and speed of water can affect the surrounding environment. In this paper, we will design a system to measure the altitude and speed of the river. In this work we use Arduino Uno, ultrasonic sensors and flow rate sensors. Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 is used as a river height meter. Based on the test results, this sensor has an accuracy of 96.6%.

  20. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: Focus on benthic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Fluvial networks play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. The Seine River, from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km), is studied here as an example of a large human-impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets upstream and downstream from one of the world's largest wastewater treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions using a hydrobiogeochemical model. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows for the quantification of pelagic and benthic effects on OC export toward the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e., net CO2 production). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25% of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. Benthic processes also substantially affect river metabolism under any hydrological condition. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total river respiration along the studied stretch (0.27 out of 0.86 g C m-2 d-1). Even though the importance of benthic processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, these results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and resuspension, on C cycling in downstream river systems. It opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, whereby biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics should be taken into account.

  1. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  2. Sediment Transport Dynamic in a Meandering Fluvial System: Case Study of Chini River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, M. H. M.; Awang, S.; Shaaban, A. J.; Yahaya, N. K. E. M.; Jusoh, A. M.; Arumugam, M. A. R. M. A.; Ghani, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Sedimentation in river reduces the flood carrying capacity which lead to the increasing of inundation area in the river basin. Basic sediment transport can predict the fluvial processes in natural rivers and stream through modeling approaches. However, the sediment transport dynamic in a small meandering and low-lying fluvial system is considered scarce in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to analyze the current riverbed erosion and sedimentation scenarios along the Chini River, Pekan, Pahang. The present study revealed that silt and clay has potentially been eroded several parts of the river. Sinuosity index (1.98) indicates that Chini River is very unstable and continuous erosion process in waterways has increase the riverbank instability due to the meandering factors. The riverbed erosional and depositional process in the Chini River is a sluggish process since the lake reduces the flow velocity and causes the deposited particles into the silt and clay soil at the bed of the lake. Besides, the bed layer of the lake comprised of cohesive silt and clayey composition that tend to attach the larger grain size of sediment. The present study estimated the total sediment accumulated along the Chini River is 1.72 ton. The HEC-RAS was employed in the simulations and in general the model performed well, once all parameters were set within their effective ranges.

  3. A meteo-hydrological modelling system for the reconstruction of river runoff: the case of the Ofanto river catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Verri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A meteo-hydrological modelling system has been designed for the reconstruction of long time series of rainfall and river runoff events. The modelling chain consists of the mesoscale meteorological model of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, the land surface model NOAH-MP and the hydrology–hydraulics model WRF-Hydro. Two 3-month periods are reconstructed for winter 2011 and autumn 2013, containing heavy rainfall and river flooding events. Several sensitivity tests were performed along with an assessment of which tunable parameters, numerical choices and forcing data most impacted on the modelling performance.The calibration of the experiments highlighted that the infiltration and aquifer coefficients should be considered as seasonally dependent.The WRF precipitation was validated by a comparison with rain gauges in the Ofanto basin. The WRF model was demonstrated to be sensitive to the initialization time and a spin-up of about 1.5 days was needed before the start of the major rainfall events in order to improve the accuracy of the reconstruction. However, this was not sufficient and an optimal interpolation method was developed to correct the precipitation simulation. It is based on an objective analysis (OA and a least square (LS melding scheme, collectively named OA+LS. We demonstrated that the OA+LS method is a powerful tool to reduce the precipitation uncertainties and produce a lower error precipitation reconstruction that itself generates a better river discharge time series. The validation of the river streamflow showed promising statistical indices.The final set-up of our meteo-hydrological modelling system was able to realistically reconstruct the local rainfall and the Ofanto hydrograph.

  4. Zooplankton From a Reef System Under the Influence of the Amazon River Plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Melo, Pedro A M C; Schwamborn, Ralf; Diaz, Xiomara F G; Figueiredo, Lucas G P; Silva, Andrea P; Campelo, Renata P S; de Melo Júnior, Mauro; Melo, Nuno F A C; Costa, Alejandro E S F; Araújo, Moacyr; Veleda, Dóris R A; Moura, Rodrigo L; Thompson, Fabiano

    2018-01-01

    At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km 2 ) that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community. Information on functional traits was gathered for the most abundant copepod species. Overall, 179 zooplankton taxa were recorded. Copepods were the richest (92 species), most diverse and most abundant group, whereas meroplankton were rare and less abundant. Species diversity (>3.0 bits.ind -1 ) and evenness (>0.6) were high, indicating a complex community. Small holoplanktonic species dominated the zooplankton, and the total density varied from 107.98 ind. m -3 over the reef area to 2,609.24 ind. m -3 in the estuarine plume, with a significant difference between coastal and oceanic areas. The most abundant copepods were the coastal species ithona plumifera and Clausocalanus furcatus and early stages copepodites of Paracalanidae. The holoplanktonic Oikopleura , an important producer of mucous houses, was very abundant on the reefs. The indicator species index revealed three groups: (1) indicative of coastal waters under the influence of the estuarine plume [ Euterpina acutifrons, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oikopleura (Vexillaria) dioica and Hydromedusae]; (2) characterized coastal and oceanic conditions ( Clausocalanus ); (3) characterized the reef system ( O. plumifera ). Two major copepods functional groups were identified and sorted according to their trophic strategy and coastal-oceanic distribution. The species that dominated the coastal area and the area over the rhodolith beds are indicators of the

  5. Zooplankton From a Reef System Under the Influence of the Amazon River Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Neumann-Leitão

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At the mouth of the Amazon River, a widespread carbonate ecosystem exists below the river plume, generating a hard-bottom reef (∼9500 km2 that includes mainly large sponges but also rhodolith beds. The mesozooplankton associated with the pelagic realm over the reef formation was characterized, considering the estuarine plume and oceanic influence. Vertical hauls were carried out using a standard plankton net with 200 μm mesh size during September 2014. An indicator index was applied to express species importance as ecological indicators in community. Information on functional traits was gathered for the most abundant copepod species. Overall, 179 zooplankton taxa were recorded. Copepods were the richest (92 species, most diverse and most abundant group, whereas meroplankton were rare and less abundant. Species diversity (>3.0 bits.ind-1 and evenness (>0.6 were high, indicating a complex community. Small holoplanktonic species dominated the zooplankton, and the total density varied from 107.98 ind. m-3 over the reef area to 2,609.24 ind. m-3 in the estuarine plume, with a significant difference between coastal and oceanic areas. The most abundant copepods were the coastal species ithona plumifera and Clausocalanus furcatus and early stages copepodites of Paracalanidae. The holoplanktonic Oikopleura, an important producer of mucous houses, was very abundant on the reefs. The indicator species index revealed three groups: (1 indicative of coastal waters under the influence of the estuarine plume [Euterpina acutifrons, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oikopleura (Vexillaria dioica and Hydromedusae]; (2 characterized coastal and oceanic conditions (Clausocalanus; (3 characterized the reef system (O. plumifera. Two major copepods functional groups were identified and sorted according to their trophic strategy and coastal-oceanic distribution. The species that dominated the coastal area and the area over the rhodolith beds are indicators of the estuarine

  6. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  7. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  8. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  9. The influence of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river watershed on water quality in the river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoye, Elizabeth; Machiwa, John F.

    This work assessed the impacts of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river basin on water quality in the river system. Seasonal changes in water quality parameters were also investigated. Ten river water-sampling stations were selected and samples were collected and analysed according to standard analytical procedures. The results showed that physico-chemical parameters of river water ranged as follows: pH, from 6.95 ± 0.09 to 8.07 ± 0.23; temperature, from 14.0 ± 0.06 to 31.1 ± 0.4 °C; EC, from 39.8 ± 0.8 to 48,734 306 μs/cm; TDS, from 19.9 ± 0.4 to 24,367 ± 152.9 mg/l; turbidity, from 3.0 ± 0.6 to 840 ± 69.3 NTU and DO, from 6.8 ± 0.02 to 16.78 mg/l. The ranges for nutrient concentrations were NO 3-N, from 0.006 ± 0.0003 to 0.62 ± 0.3 mg/l; NH 4-N, from 0.34 ± 0.17 to 16.2 ± 0.5 mg/l; PO 4-P, from 0.009 ± 0.001 to 1.75 ± 0.2 mg/l and TP, from 0.02 ± 0.003 to 3.56 ± 0.38 mg/l. Generally, water samples from stations with forested catchments had high levels of DO and low levels of NH 4-N and NO 3-N compared to those from farmland, industrial, residential and market places. There were clear seasonal variations showing an increase in the concentrations of nutrients during rainy season. The results show impairment of the water quality of the river by anthropogenic activities in the catchment. Water pollution prevention strategies to ensure prevention of pollution and protection of water resources in the Ruvu river watershed are recommended.

  10. The Geomorphology, Hydrology and Evolution of a Chain of Ponds River System: A Poorly Recognised and Unique River Planform Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.; Fryirs, K.

    2016-12-01

    Chain-of-ponds river types are alluvial, discontinuous watercourses that contain irregularly spaced, deep, steep-sided ponds separated by an ephemeral flow path. Despite being widespread, chains of ponds are now rare in Australia, having experienced extensive channelisation since European settlement and landuse intensification. The Mulwaree system is one of the largest remaining chain of ponds systems in the country. Little is known about its geomorphic structure, Quaternary evolution or hydrological function. The valley fill of the Mulwaree River contains layers of gravel and cobble clast-supported sediments at a depth of 20 m. Atop, silt and fine sand sediments are 1-3 m deep. The ponds, which sit in this valley-fill, are large (1000-4000 m2 and up to 8 m deep), and are relic form from a much larger and more energetic gravel-bed river that occurred in this valley in the past. Optically-stimulated luminescence ages date the change from high-energy gravel bed to the very low energy system seen today at approximately 20-25 ka. The oldest dates for the gravel bed system at 5-7 m deep are 60-90 ka. The coarser substrate beneath the fine-grained floodplain is mostly saturated, forming a near-surface aquifer in the valley fill/floodplain. The water levels in the floodplain are similar to the level of the adjacent ponds (within 0.2 m) and this water level adjusts readily (within 0.5-2 days) to rain/flow. There is significant hydrological connectivity between the ponds and adjacent floodplain. During high flow conditions, stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) results from the ponds show no deviation through the profile as the water column is being mixed. However, during low-flow conditions, water in the ponds is enriched near the surface due to evaporation, and has a similar signal to the adjacent near-surface, floodplain aquifer below a weak thermocline. This shows that these systems have a dual function, behaving more as groundwater dependent systems during low flow

  11. The ESA River & Lake System: Current Capabilities and Future Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Richard G.; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa A. M.

    Measuring the earth's river and lake resources using satellite radar altimetry offers a unique global monitoring capability, which complements the detailed measurements made by the steadily decreasing number of in-situ gauges. To exploit this unique remote monitoring capability, a global pilot...

  12. Variability in the hydrology of the Ikpoba River system | Iloba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variability in some physico-chemical parameters was studied in Ikpoba River from June to November, 2009, in three stations. The study shows high variability in transparency, flow velocity, BOD, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, phosphate with over 40% variability coefficient which is an indication that these parameters ...

  13. Defining biophysical reference conditions for dynamics river systems: an Alaskan example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pess, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    Defining reference conditions for dynamic river ecosystems is difficult for two reasons. First long-term, persistent anthropogenic influences such as land development, harvest of biological resources, and invasive species have resulted in degraded, reduced, and simplified ecological communities and associated habitats. Second, river systems that have not been altered through human disturbance rarely have a long-term dataset on ecological conditions. However there are exceptions which can help us define the dynamic nature of river ecosystems. One large-scale exception is the Wood River system in Bristol Bay, Alaska, where habitat and salmon populations have not been altered by anthropogenic influences such as land development, hatchery production, and invasive species. In addition, the one major anthropogenic disturbance, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) harvest, has been quantified and regulated since its inception. First, we examined the variation in watershed and stream habitat characteristics across the Wood River system. We then compared these stream habitat characteristics with data that was collected in the 1950s. Lastly, we examined the correlation between pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (O. keta), and Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and habitat characteristics in the Wood River system using four decades of data on salmon. We found that specific habitat attributes such as stream channel wetted width, depth, cover type, and the proportion of spawnable area were similar to data collected in the 1950s. Greater stream habitat variation occurred among streams than over time. Salmon occurrence and abundance, however was more temporal and spatially variable. The occurrence of pink and chum salmon increased from the 1970's to the present in the Wood River system, while sockeye abundance has fluctuated with changes in ocean conditions. Pink, Chinook and chum salmon ranged from non-existent to episodic to abundantly perennial, while sockeye

  14. Nutrient dynamics and control of eutrophication in the Marne River system: modelling the role of exchangeable phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Josette; Némery, Julien; Billen, Gilles; Théry, Sylvain

    2005-03-01

    The Marne River (12,762 km 2) is one of the main tributaries of the Seine river, upstream from the City of Paris. Its population counts 2 million inhabitants of which 70% are concentrated in the downstream part of the basin. It has a high industrial activity and an intensive agriculture. The Marne River water supplies drinking water production to a large number of Parisians. A diversion reservoir (350×10 6 m 3) is used mainly to sustain summer low flows. On the basis of field observations and experimental studies, a hydrological and ecological model of this river system was built using the Riverstrahler approach (Billen, G., Garnier, J., Hanset, Ph., 1994. Modelling phytoplankton development in whole drainage networks: the riverstrahler model applied to the seine river system. Hydrobiologia 289, 119-137; Garnier, J., Billen, G., Coste, M., 1995. Seasonnal succession of diatoms and Chlorophyceae in the drainage network of the river Seine: observations and modelling. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 750-765). The modelling strategy was to consider separately nine sub-basins and the main branch, to which was coupled a model of the reservoir. The point and diffuse sources of nutrients were analysed over more than 10 years (1991-2001) taking into account the role of exchangeable phosphorus (Némery (2003). Origine et devenir du phosphore dans le continuum aquatique de la Seine, des petis basins à l'estuaire. Rôle du phosphore échangeable sur l'eutrophisation. Thèse Univ. Paris 6, p. 258; Némery, J., Garnier, J., Morel, C., 2004. Phosphorus budget in the Marne watershed (France): urban vs. diffuse sources, dissolved vs. particulate forms. Biogeochemistry (in press)). The model was validated through its ability to reproduce available water quality observations. Different realistic scenarios of future reduction of phosphorus load were tested, in various hydrological conditions (dry and wet years). Phytoplankton development can be slightly reduced by a further 85% abatement of

  15. Geographic Information System and Geoportal «River basins of the European Russia»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.; Maltsev, K. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ermolaeva, P. O.; Gayazov, A. I.; Mozzherin, V. V.; Kharchenko, S. V.; Marinina, O. A.; Lisetskii, F. N.

    2018-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geoportal with open access «River basins of the European Russia» were implemented. GIS and Geoportal are based on the map of basins of small rivers of the European Russia with information about natural and anthropogenic characteristics, namely geomorphometry of basins relief; climatic parameters, representing averages, variation, seasonal variation, extreme values of temperature and precipitation; land cover types; soil characteristics; type and subtype of landscape; population density. The GIS includes results of spatial analysis and modelling, in particular, assessment of anthropogenic impact on river basins; evaluation of water runoff and sediment runoff; climatic, geomorphological and landscape zoning for the European part of Russia.

  16. A hybrid conceptual-fuzzy inference streamflow modelling for the Letaba River system in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katambara, Zacharia; Ndiritu, John G.

    There has been considerable water resources developments in South Africa and other regions in the world in order to meet the ever-increasing water demands. These developments have not been matched with a similar development of hydrological monitoring systems and hence there is inadequate data for managing the developed water resources systems. The Letaba River system ( Fig. 1) is a typical case of such a system in South Africa. The available water on this river is over-allocated and reliable daily streamflow modelling of the Letaba River that adequately incorporates the main components and processes would be an invaluable aid to optimal operation of the system. This study describes the development of a calibrated hybrid conceptual-fuzzy-logic model and explores its capability in reproducing the natural processes and human effects on the daily stream flow in the Letaba River. The model performance is considered satisfactory in view of the complexity of the system and inadequacy of relevant data. Performance in modelling streamflow improves towards the downstream and matches that of a stand-alone fuzzy-logic model. The hybrid model obtains realistic estimates of the major system components and processes including the capacities of the farm dams and storage weirs and their trajectories. This suggests that for complex data-scarce River systems, hybrid conceptual-fuzzy-logic modelling may be used for more detailed and dependable operational and planning analysis than stand-alone fuzzy modelling. Further work will include developing and testing other hybrid model configurations.

  17. A diverse and resilient financial system for investments in the energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzin, F.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413317404; Sanders, M.W.J.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175620059; Täube, Florian

    Diversity makes the financial system more resilient. In addition, there is a diverse investment demand to make the transition to a more sustainable energy system. We need, among others, investment in energy transition, circular resource use, better water management and reducing air pollution. The

  18. A diverse and resilient financial system for investments in the energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzin, Friedemann; Sanders, Mark; Täube, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Diversity makes the financial system more resilient. In addition, there is a diverse investment demand to make the transition to a more sustainable energy system. We need, among others, investment in energy transition, circular resource use, better water management and reducing air pollution. The

  19. Modeling of water flow in multi-channel river system in the Narew National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcinkowski Paweł

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of water flow in multi-channel river system in the Narew National Park. Anastomosing rivers constitute a rare example of multi-channel systems, which used to be very common before the agricultural and industrial development. Presently few of them remain worldwide and the only example in Poland is the Upper River Narew within Narew National Park. Although hydraulic modeling using one-dimensional models is commonly used to describe water flow in rivers, for multi-channel rivers problem is more complicated. For this type of rivers it is expected that the feedback between process of plants growth (expressed by Manning’s coefficient and distribution of flow in anabranches is high. However, assignment procedure on roughness coefficients in splitting and rejoining channels is laborious and difficult. Therefore, for efficient water flow modeling in multi-channel systems a stand-alone hydraulic model equipped with automatic optimization procedure was developed. Optimization and validation stages, based on field measurements data of discharge and water levels, indicated that the model accurately simulates water flow in multi-channel system.

  20. Model-Aided Altimeter-Based Water Level Forecasting System in Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, H.; Hossain, F.; Okeowo, M. A.; Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Saah, D. S.; Anderson, E.; Hwang, E.

    2017-12-01

    Mekong River, one of the massive river systems in the world, has drainage area of about 795,000 km2 covering six countries. People living in its drainage area highly rely on resources given by the river in terms of agriculture, fishery, and hydropower. Monitoring and forecasting the water level in a timely manner, is urgently needed over the Mekong River. Recently, using TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry water level measurements in India, Biancamaria et al. [2011] has demonstrated the capability of an altimeter-based flood forecasting system in Bangladesh, with RMSE from 0.6 - 0.8 m for lead times up to 5 days on 10-day basis due to T/P's repeat period. Hossain et al. [2013] further established a daily water level forecasting system in Bangladesh using observations from Jason-2 in India and HEC-RAS hydraulic model, with RMSE from 0.5 - 1.5 m and an underestimating mean bias of 0.25 - 1.25 m. However, such daily forecasting system relies on a collection of Jason-2 virtual stations (VSs) to ensure frequent sampling and data availability. Since the Mekong River is a meridional river with few number of VSs, the direct application of this system to the Mekong River becomes challenging. To address this problem, we propose a model-aided altimeter-based forecasting system. The discharge output by Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model is used to reconstruct a daily water level product at upstream Jason-2 VSs based on the discharge-to-level rating curve. The reconstructed daily water level is then used to perform regression analysis with downstream in-situ water level to build regression models, which are used to forecast a daily water level. In the middle reach of the Mekong River from Nakhon Phanom to Kratie, a 3-day lead time forecasting can reach RMSE about 0.7 - 1.3 m with correlation coefficient around 0.95. For the lower reach of the Mekong River, the water flow becomes more complicated due to the reversal flow between the Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River

  1. Mating system evolution and worker caste diversity in Pheidole ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming H; Wheeler, Diana E; Fjerdingstad, Else J

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of social groups is generally optimized by a division of labour, achieved through behavioural or morphological diversity of members. In social insects, colonies may increase the morphological diversity of workers by recruiting standing genetic variance for size and shape via multiply mated queens (polyandry) or multiple-breeding queens (polygyny). However, greater worker diversity in multi-lineage species may also have evolved due to mutual worker policing if there is worker reproduction. Such policing reduces the pressure on workers to maintain reproductive morphologies, allowing the evolution of greater developmental plasticity and the maintenance of more genetic variance for worker size and shape in populations. Pheidole ants vary greatly in the diversity of worker castes. Also, their workers lack ovaries and are thus invariably sterile regardless of the queen mating frequency and numbers of queens per colony. This allowed us to perform an across-species study examining the genetic effects of recruiting more patrilines on the developmental diversity of workers in the absence of confounding effects from worker policing. Using highly variable microsatellite markers, we found that the effective mating frequency of the soldier-polymorphic P. rhea (avg. meN = 2.65) was significantly higher than that of the dimorphic P. spadonia (avg. meN = 1.06), despite a significant paternity skew in P. rhea (avg. B = 0.10). Our findings support the idea that mating strategies of queens may co-evolve with selection to increase the diversity of workers. We also detected patriline bias in the production of different worker sizes, which provides direct evidence for a genetic component to worker polymorphism. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Hydrodynamic modeling of hydrologic surface connectivity within a coastal river-floodplain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C. R.; Guneralp, I.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic surface connectivity (HSC) within river-floodplain environments is a useful indicator of the overall health of riparian habitats because it allows connections amongst components/landforms of the riverine landscape system to be quantified. Overbank flows have traditionally been the focus for analyses concerned with river-floodplain connectivity, but recent works have identified the large significance from sub-bankfull streamflows. Through the use of morphometric analysis and a digital elevation model that is relative to the river water surface, we previously determined that >50% of the floodplain for Mission River on the Coastal Bend of Texas becomes connected to the river at streamflows well-below bankfull conditions. Guided by streamflow records, field-based inundation data, and morphometric analysis; we develop a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for lower portions of Mission River Floodplain system. This model not only allows us to analyze connections induced by surface water inundation, but also other aspects of the hydrologic connectivity concept such as exchanges of sediment and energy between the river and its floodplain. We also aggregate hydrodynamic model outputs to an object/landform level in order to analyze HSC and associated attributes using measures from graph/network theory. Combining physically-based hydrodynamic models with object-based and graph theoretical analyses allow river-floodplain connectivity to be quantified in a consistent manner with measures/indicators commonly used in landscape analysis. Analyzes similar to ours build towards the establishment of a formal framework for analyzing river-floodplain interaction that will ultimately serve to inform the management of riverine/floodplain environments.

  3. Floodplain Impact on Riverine Dissolved Carbon Cycling in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelDuco, E.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown substantial increases in the export of terrestrial carbon by rivers over the past several decades, and have linked these increases to human activity such as changes in land use, urbanization, and intensive agriculture. The Mississippi River (MR) is the largest river in North America, and is among the largest in the world, making its carbon export globally significant. The Atchafalaya River (AR) receives 25% of the Mississippi River's flow before traveling 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America, providing a unique opportunity to study floodplain impacts on dissolved carbon in a large river. The aim of this study was to determine how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the AR change spatially and seasonally, and to elucidate which processes control carbon cycling in this intricate swamp river system. From May 2015 -May 2016, we conducted monthly river sampling from the river's inflow to its outflow, analyzing samples for DOC and DIC concentrations and δ 13C stable isotope composition. During the study period, the river discharged a total of 5.35 Tg DIC and a total of 2.34 Tg DOC into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the mass inflow-outflow balance, approximately 0.53 Tg ( 10%) of the total DIC exported was produced within the floodplain, while 0.24 Tg ( 10%) of DOC entering the basin was removed. The AR was consistently saturated with pCO2 above atmospheric pressure, indicating that this swamp-river system acts a large source of DIC to the atmosphere as well as to coastal margins. Largest changes in carbon constituents occurred during periods of greatest inundation of the basin, and corresponded with shifts in isotopic composition that indicated large inputs of DIC from floodplains. This effect was particularly pronounced during initial flood stages. This study demonstrates that a major river with extensive floodplains in its coastal margin can act as an important source of DIC as well

  4. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xinhui; Wang, Xiangxiu

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...... similarities. These groups were distinct with respect to species richness, biomass and indicators, especially for groups representing spatial dimension. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model indicated that the spatial patterns of phytoplankton assemblages were mostly explained by water quality variables...

  5. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix Q: Regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The SOR is currently developing a System Operating Strategy (SOS) that will guide the physical operations of the Columbia River system. The SOR is also addressing the institutional arrangements that must be in place to make needed changes to the SOS in the future, or make interpretations of the strategy in the light of changing water conditions or river needs. For convenience, this future institutional arrangement is referred to as ''The Columbia River Regional Forum,'' or simply ''the Forum,'' even though the nature of this institution is still to be determined. This appendix and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) identify the Forum as an administrative process that will not result in impacts to the environment and will not require analysis in a NEPA context. The composition of and procedures followed by a decision making body cannot--in and of themselves--be used to predict a particular decision with definable impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, because of the relationship to the other SOR actions, the SOR lead agencies have prepared this Technical Appendix to provide opportunities for review and comment on the Forum alternatives

  6. Loss of the CNA I secured river water system: analysis and effect evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, Sandra; Guala, Mariana I.; Lorenzo, Andrea T.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    In this work the evolution of the plant parameters is evaluated in the case of a loss of the secured circuit of river water (system UK). In particular the systems which are affected for this loss were studied. It was evaluated the functional degradation of these systems. (author)

  7. Waveform Diversity and Design for Interoperating Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    University Di Pisa Department Di Ingegneria Dell Informazione Elettronica, Informatica , Telecomunicazioni Via Girolamo Caruso 16 Pisa, Italy 56122...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University Di Pisa Department Di Ingegneria Dell Informazione Elettronica, Informatica ...DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA DELL’INFORMAZIONE ELETTRONICA, INFORMATICA , TELECOMUNICAZIONI WAVEFORM DIVERSITY AND DESIGN FOR INTEROPERATING

  8. The Relationship Between Diversity and Accuracy in Multiple Classifier Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    for majority voting fusion, and thus is expected to show a relationship with majority voting error [38]. Shipp and 34 Kuncheva consider a large number... Shipp , Catherine A. and Ludmila Kuncheva. “Relationships between combina- tion methods and measures of diversity in combining classifiers.”, Information

  9. Fish fauna from Sapucaí-Mirim River, tributary of Grande River, upper Paraná River basin, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Alexandre Kannebley de; Garavello,Julio Cesar; Cesario,Vinicius Vendramini; Cardoso,Rodrigo Torres

    2016-01-01

    The fish species composition of Sapucaí-Mirim River is herein reported and discussed in the faunistic context of Grande and Paranaíba river basins, both formers of the Paraná River. The Sapucaí-Mirim is an important tributary of this hydrographic system, flowing to the left bank of Grande River in a region occupied by the reservoir of the Porto Colombia hydroelectric power plant, at São Paulo state northeastern region, in southeastern Brazil. The poorly known fish diversity of the Sapucaí-Mir...

  10. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS

  11. Application of the target fish community model to an urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixler, Marcia S

    2011-04-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. We tested the efficacy of the TFC approach to specify the fish community in the highly urbanized Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts. To create a TFC for the Charles River we assembled a list of fish species that historically inhabited the Charles River watershed, identified geomorphically and zoogeographically similar reference rivers regarded as being in high quality condition, amassed fish survey data for the reference rivers, and extracted from the collections the information needed to define a TFC. We used a similarity measurement method to assess the extent to which the study river community complies with the TFC and an inference approach to summarize the manner in which the existing fish community differed from target conditions. The five most abundant species in the TFC were common shiners (34%), fallfish (17%) redbreast sunfish (11%), white suckers (8%), and American eel (7%). Three of the five species predicted to be most abundant in the TFC were scarce or absent in the existing river community. Further, the river was dominated by macrohabitat generalists (99%) while the TFC was predicted to contain 19% fluvial specialist species, 43% fluvial dependent species, and 38% macrohabitat generalist species. In addition, while the target community was dominated by fish intolerant (37%) and moderately tolerant (39%) of water quality degradation, the existing community was dominated by tolerant individuals (59%) and lacked intolerant species expected in the TFC. Similarity scores for species, habitat use specialization, and water quality degradation tolerance categories were 28%, 35% and 66%, respectively. The clear

  12. Environmental evaluation of Turkey's transboundary rivers' hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkun, M.

    2010-01-01

    The hydroelectric power and potential environmental impacts of hydroelectric projects in 2 transboundary rivers in Turkey were assessed. The southeastern Anatolia project (GAP) is expected to encompass 27 dams and 19 hydroelectric power plants. The large-scale project will increase domestic electricity production and help to provide irrigation for large agricultural schemes. The Coruh project will consist of 27 dams and hydroelectric power plants, which are expected to have serious environmental impacts in both upstream Turkey and downstream Georgia. A slowing down of each river's velocity will cause changes in sediment transport, while the storage of water in large reservoirs will alter water quality and cause changes in local micro-climates. Irrigation methods may cause soil erosion and salinization. The construction of 2 GAP dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has caused protest from Syria and Iraq. Economic development in the regions caused by the proposed hydroelectric projects is expected to have significant environmental impacts on woodland and grassland areas. The projects are expected to adversely affect threatened plant, mammal, and fish species. More detailed cumulative impact and environmental impact assessments are needed to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social problems that are likely to arise as a result of the projects. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  14. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofikat Abosede ADESALU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three different rivers in Ogun and Ondo states were investigated for both micro and macro-biota of the water bodies. Several physical and chemical properties of these rivers were determined. The pH value of the studied water bodies was essentially neutral with salinity values between 0.02 - 4.0‰. Microalgae communities were represented by three divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers (Ondo state, while at Ibefun River (Ogun state, five divisions: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Pyrrhophyta were identified. Diatoms dominated these water bodies, with Navicula radiosa Kutz. at Ifara River, Fragilaria sp. in Oluwa River, while out of 90 algal taxa identified in Ibefun river, 64 were diatoms species belonging to 26 genera, with Melosira sp. and Synedra sp. recording the highest numbers of cell count. Dinoflagellates recorded only Peridinium sp. while Phacus orbicularis Hubner and Trachelomonas sp. dominated the euglenoids. For the zooplankton composition at Ibefun, rotifers (75.95% were represented by Brachionus sp., which recorded 62.03%, and Gastropus sp. with 13.92% of the total zooplankton, thus dominated the spectrum, while the copepod recorded 22.78% of the total organisms, with Copilia sp. and Euchirella sp. having 8.86% each. The macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 3 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, with the dominant group Insecta accounted for 57% of the total individuals (7 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Hirudinea accounted for 29% and 14% respectively of the total individuals at Oluwa and Ifara Rivers. At Ibefun River, the macrobenthic invertebrates were represented by 5 taxa, belonging to 3 groups, Bivalves, Oligochaeta and Insecta, with bivalves being the dominant group (51.7% of the total individuals, as 64 individuals/m2, while Oligochaeta and Insecta accounted for 26.6% and 21.9% respectively of the total individuals. The dominant taxon, Macoma cumana

  15. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake river basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake river Plain contains total dissolved solids similar to those in the overlying Snake River Plain aquifer system but contains higher concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, silica, fluoride, sulfate, chloride, arsenic, boron, and lithium, and lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. 132 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  17. The theory of diversity and redundancy in information system security : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, Jackson R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Walker, Andrea Mae; Armstrong, Robert C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Allan, Benjamin A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Pierson, Lyndon George

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this research was to explore first principles associated with mixing of diverse implementations in a redundant fashion to increase the security and/or reliability of information systems. Inspired by basic results in computer science on the undecidable behavior of programs and by previous work on fault tolerance in hardware and software, we have investigated the problem and solution space for addressing potentially unknown and unknowable vulnerabilities via ensembles of implementations. We have obtained theoretical results on the degree of security and reliability benefits from particular diverse system designs, and mapped promising approaches for generating and measuring diversity. We have also empirically studied some vulnerabilities in common implementations of the Linux operating system and demonstrated the potential for diversity to mitigate these vulnerabilities. Our results provide foundational insights for further research on diversity and redundancy approaches for information systems.

  18. TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY AND THE ROLE OF ALGAEFLORA FOR BIOLOGICAL DEPURATION OF WATERS FROM RIVER COGÂLNIC (R. MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALARU VICTOR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2004-2005 there were performed studies regarding the taxonomic structure of the algaeflora in river Cogâlnic in order to point out the role of the algae during the process of water quality improvement and the role of the indicator of the most representative species. River Cogâlnic, or Cunduc, starts from nearby village Iurceni, district Nisporeni and flows into lake Sasac, and runs for a distance of 243 km. Decrease of the analyzed water quality from the river is caused by the sewerage waters from different sectors from town Hinceshti and Cimishlia that are directed into the river without any depuration. We've studied about 118 samples in which we've discovered about 382 species and intraspecific taxonomic units of algae of the following types: Cyanophyta -73, Euglenophyta-75, Chlorophyta-111, Xantophyta-3, Bacillariophyta-118 and Chrysophyta-2. Mass development of the euglena within Colgalnic river, among which are the following types of species Euglena-26, Trachelomonas-14 and Phacus-13, demonstrate a high level of trophicity in water. Among the chloride algae predominate the following species Scenedesmus-21, and from cyanophyta species predominates Oscillatoria-23. The high taxonomic level of the bacillariophyta algae is determined by species as Navicula-27, Nitzschia-24 and Surirella-16. Most of species refer to categories β and β-α , demonstrating a high level of water pollution. This fact speaks about the high concentration of nitrogen and phosphor compounds in water. It was demonstrated that as far as we go from the places were the sewerage waters flow into the river, the excessive quantities of biological elements decrease clearly. Also, go down the quantity of bicarbonates and oxidizers. Numeric growth of the algae is nothing else but a positive role for water depuration.

  19. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lair, G.J., E-mail: georg.lair@boku.ac.a [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter-Jordan-Str. 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Zehetner, F., E-mail: franz.zehetner@boku.ac.a [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter-Jordan-Str. 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Fiebig, M. [Institute of Applied Geology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter-Jordan-Str. 70, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Gerzabek, M.H. [Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter-Jordan-Str. 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Gestel, C.A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hein, T. [Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management (IHG), University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Max-Emanuel-Str. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); WasserCluster Lunz - Interuniversity Center for Aquatic Ecosystem Research, Dr. Carl Kupelwieser Promenade 5, 3293 Lunz am See (Austria); Hohensinner, S. [Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management (IHG), University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Max-Emanuel-Str. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Hsu, P. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorferstr. 40, 21073 Hamburg (Germany); Jones, K.C. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, LA1 4YQ Lancaster (United Kingdom); Jordan, G. [Geological Institute of Hungary (MAFI), Budapest, H-1143, Stefania ut 14 (Hungary); Koelmans, A.A. [Wageningen University Research Centre, Department of Environmental Science, Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Group, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen-IMARES, Haringkade 1, 1976 CP, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded 'AquaTerra' project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management. - Human activities have changed the hydraulics and contaminant fate in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  20. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lair, G.J.; Zehetner, F.; Fiebig, M.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Gestel, C.A.M. van; Hein, T.; Hohensinner, S.; Hsu, P.; Jones, K.C.; Jordan, G.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded 'AquaTerra' project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management. - Human activities have changed the hydraulics and contaminant fate in river-floodplain ecosystems.

  1. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. An Innovative Steering System for a River Push Barge Operated in Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative steering system for a river push barge dedicated for operation in environmentally sensitive inland waterways. Development of the inland waterborne transport in Poland is dependent on the exploitation of rivers which can be adapted to navigation in the limited range because a high percent of their length is classified within special environment protection areas of Natura 2000 network. This is now the main reason that their better exploitation cannot be obtained without an introduction of a new generation of waterborne environment friendly inland units. In naturally winding rivers with differing and rapidly changing depths and widths it is important to equip a push barge with an efficient steering system that has a low environmental impact. The innovative steering system proposed in the paper is composed of main steering devices located at the pusher stern, auxiliary steering devices installed on the barge bow and a mechanical coupling system.

  3. Switched diversity strategies for dual-hop relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2011-04-29

    This paper investigates the effect of different switched diversity configurations on the implementation complexity and achieved performance of dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying networks. A low-complexity model of the relay station is adopted, wherein single-input single-output antenna configuration is employed. Each of the transmitter and the receiver however employs multiple antennas to improve the overall link performance. Single-phase and two-phase based receive switching strategies are investigated assuming optimum first hop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, the simple scheme in which the switched diversity is applied independently over the two hops is studied using tight upper bounds. Thorough performance comparisons and switching thresholds optimization for the aforementioned strategies are presented. Simulation results are also provided to validate the mathematical development and to verify the numerical computations.

  4. PREDICTS: Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity in Changing Terrestrial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Mace

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The PREDICTS project (www.predicts.org.uk is a three-year NERC-funded project to model and predict at a global scale how local terrestrial diversity responds to human pressures such as land use, land cover, pollution, invasive species and infrastructure. PREDICTS is a collaboration between Imperial College London, the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Microsoft Research Cambridge, UCL and the University of Sussex. In order to meet its aims, the project relies on extensive data describing the diversity and composition of biological communities at a local scale. Such data are collected on a vast scale through the committed efforts of field ecologists. If you have appropriate data that you would be willing to share with us, please get in touch (enquiries@predicts.org.uk. All contributions will be acknowledged appropriately and all data contributors will be included as co-authors on an open-access paper describing the database.

  5. Mercury concentrations of fish in Southern Indian Lake and Issett Lake, Manitoba 1975-88: The effect of lake impoundment and Churchill River diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, N.E.; Bodaly, R.A.; Fudge, R.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Southern Indian and Issett Lakes in northern Manitoba were flooded in 1976 as part of Manitoba Hydro's Churchill River diversion project. Fish were collected from 1975 to 1988 from five regional sites on the lakes to examine the effects of impoundment and river diversion on muscle mercury concentrations. Raw data for individual fish caught in 1987 and 1988 are presented, along with means and analyses calculated over the entire 1975-1988 study period. Mercury concentrations in whitefish, pike, and walleye increased significantly after impoundment. Whitefish mercury levels peaked in 1978 and have since declined to near pre-flooding levels. Northern pike and walleye mercury levels were much higher than for whitefish. Pike mercury concentrations showed no indication of declining after 12 years of impoundment, but walleye mercury levels at 2 of the 5 Southern Indian Lake sites declined from maximum recorded levels. Significant variability in fish mercury concentrations was noted both from year to year and among the sites. It is suggested that site-to-site variations are due to varying conditions in the reservoir which stimulate mercury methylation. Since there appears to be an ongoing long-term source of mercury and organic material from the eroding shorelines, pike and walleye mercury concentrations are expected to remain high for many years. 25 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs

  6. Geocode of River Networks in Global Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    As typical hierarchical systems, river networks are of great significance to aquatic organisms and its diversity. Different aspects of river networks have been investigated in previous studies such as network structure, formation cause, material transport, nutrient cycle and habitat variation. Nevertheless, river networks function as biological habitat is far from satisfactory in plateau areas. This paper presents a hierarchical method for habitat characterization of plateau river networks with the geocode extracted from abiotic factors including historical geologic period, climate zone, water source and geomorphic process at different spatial scales. As results, characteristics of biological response with vertical differentiation within typical plateau river networks are elucidated. Altitude, climate and landform are of great influence to habitat and thereby structure of aquatic community, while diverse water source and exogenic action would influence biological abundance or spatiotemporal distribution. Case studies are made in the main stream of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River, respectively extended to the river source to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which demonstrate high potentials for decision making support to river protection, ecological rehabilitation and sustainable management of river ecosystems.

  7. Application of the Nutrition Functional Diversity indicator to assess food system contributions to dietary diversity and sustainable diets of Malawian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Brian G; DeClerck, Fabrice A J; Fanzo, Jessica; Mundorf, Adrienne R; Rose, Donald

    2015-09-01

    Dietary diversity is associated with nutrient adequacy and positive health outcomes but indicators to measure diversity have focused primarily on consumption, rather than sustainable provisioning of food. The Nutritional Functional Diversity score was developed by ecologists to describe the contribution of biodiversity to sustainable diets. We have employed this tool to estimate the relative contribution of home production and market purchases in providing nutritional diversity to agricultural households in Malawi and examine how food system provisioning varies by time, space and socio-economic conditions. A secondary analysis of nationally representative household consumption data to test the applicability of the Nutritional Functional Diversity score. The data were collected between 2010 and 2011 across the country of Malawi. Households (n 11 814) from predominantly rural areas of Malawi. Nutritional Functional Diversity varied demographically, geographically and temporally. Nationally, purchased foods contributed more to household nutritional diversity than home produced foods (mean score=17·5 and 7·8, respectively). Households further from roads and population centres had lower overall diversity (PNutritional diversity was lowest during the growing season when farmers plant and tend crops (PNutritional Functional Diversity score is an effective indicator for identifying populations with low nutritional diversity and the relative roles that markets, agricultural extension and home production play in achieving nutritional diversity. This information may be used by policy makers to plan agricultural and market-based interventions that support sustainable diets and local food systems.

  8. Diel activity patterns of juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon with implications for operation of a gated water diversion in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.; Perry, Russell W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Romine, Jason G.; Blake, Aaron R.; Burau, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    In the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, tidal forces that reverse river flows increase the proportion of water and juvenile late fall-run Chinook salmon diverted into a network of channels that were constructed to support agriculture and human consumption. This area is known as the interior delta, and it has been associated with poor fish survival. Under the rationale that the fish will be diverted in proportion to the amount of water that is diverted, the Delta Cross Channel (DCC) has been prescriptively closed during the winter out-migration to reduce fish entrainment and mortality into the interior delta. The fish are thought to migrate mostly at night, and so daytime operation of the DCC may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment and mortality. To assess this, the DCC gate was experimentally opened and closed while we released 2983 of the fish with acoustic transmitters upstream of the DCC to monitor their arrival and entrainment into the DCC. We used logistic regression to model night-time arrival and entrainment probabilities with covariates that included the proportion of each diel period with upstream flow, flow, rate of change in flow and water temperature. The proportion of time with upstream flow was the most important driver of night-time arrival probability, yet river flow had the largest effect on fish entrainment into the DCC. Modelling results suggest opening the DCC during daytime while keeping the DCC closed during night-time may allow for water diversion that minimizes fish entrainment into the interior delta.

  9. Fluorescence and dissolved organic matter properties in a connected aquifer river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Reza; Baker, Andy; Andersen, Martin S.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Fogwill, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    There have been limited investigations on the sources, distribution, and transformation of dissolved organic carbon in groundwater systems that are connected to streams and rivers. The role of such landscape settings in the terrestrial carbon cycle is therefore not well understood. We used optical methods to study dissolved organic matter (DOM) in groundwater in a connected river/aquifer reach adjacent to a limestone karst landscape near Wellington, NSW, Australia. Optical properties of water samples and their relation to DOM structure and source enables prompt evaluation of the relative abundance of organic matter components, and fingerprints the sources of DOM. We collected surface water samples along the river, and groundwater samples from alluvial and karst monitoring bores and from caves where they intercepted the groundwater table. Absorbance values were measured at wavelengths of 254, 340 and 350 nm and fluorescence properties were characterised by obtaining excitation (400 nm to 240 nm) - emission matrices (210 to 620 nm). The absorbance data were processed to provide the specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and spectral slopes. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was applied to discriminate fluorescent DOM components and to assess their dynamics in river and groundwater. Our groundwater DOM data show lower spectral slope, high SUVA values, and lower fluorescence/absorbance ratio, compared to the river. This is indicating a greater amount of relatively high molecular weight, chromophoric, and hydrophobic groundwater DOM is present in the groundwater compared to the river, which had relatively low molecular weight and hydrophilic DOM. PARAFAC modelling revealed different models were necessary for river and groundwater samples, with component one of the groundwater PARAFAC model in the 'peak T' region, and component one of the river model in the 'peak C' region. These results suggest that sedimentary organic matter in the alluvial and karstic aquifer is a

  10. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  11. The Upper Mississippi River System—Topobathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jayme M.; Hanson, Jenny L.; Sattler, Stephanie R.

    2017-03-23

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), the navigable part of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, is a diverse ecosystem that contains river channels, tributaries, shallow-water wetlands, backwater lakes, and flood-plain forests. Approximately 10,000 years of geologic and hydrographic history exist within the UMRS. Because it maintains crucial wildlife and fish habitats, the dynamic ecosystems of the Upper Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries are contingent on the adjacent flood plains and water-level fluctuations of the Mississippi River. Separate data for flood-plain elevation (lidar) and riverbed elevation (bathymetry) were collected on the UMRS by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program. Using the two elevation datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) developed a systemic topobathy dataset.

  12. Characterization of pool thermal stratification in the San Joaquin River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature is a critical water quality parameter for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawystcha) and is a potentially limiting factor for the successful reintroduction of Chinook into the San Joaquin River system. When ambient stream water temperatures exceed salmon thermal tolerances, salmon seek out cooler water in pools as thermal refuge. While current models of the San Joaquin River can estimate ambient surface water temperature, vertical variations in pool temperature are unknown and not modeled. This study measured river pool thermal stratification in the San Joaquin River system to assess available thermal refuge and identify the key drivers of thermal stratification in this system. During July 2012, daytime vertical water temperature profiles were measured in 53 river pools to survey the prevalence of thermal stratification in the San Joaquin River system from the Mariposa Bypass to the its confluence with the Merced River. Between September and November 2012 six of the pools that exhibited thermal stratification during July were instrumented with water temperature sensor arrays and piezometers. The water temperature sensor arrays were constructed by attaching sensors at regular intervals to the exterior of a PVC pipe to measure the vertical water temperature in the pool and into the sediment. Additionally, piezometers determined pool water head along with pressure head at two different depths into the sediment. Sensor arrays were setup for a minimum of two weeks at each site with sensors recording data every 15 minutes. Thermal stratification occurred in 82% of the 53 pools surveyed in the San Joaquin River during July. Pool depths ranged from 0.64 m to 6.37 m with an average depth of 2.09 m. Differences in vertical water temperature ranged from less than 3 °C to 11.4 °C with an average water temperature difference of 4.2 °C. Vertical water temperature differences did not correlate with pool depth. In the six pools instrumented for two weeks, thermal

  13. Diversity and genetic distance in populations of Steindachnerina in the upper Paraná river floodplain of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A V; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Pavanelli, C S; Júlio, H F; Panarari, R S

    2002-08-01

    Whereas four species of the genus Steindachnerina occur in the Paraná river basin, S. insculpta was the only endemic species of the region under analysis, which is the third lower section of the upper Paraná river. Among other factors, this species has been characterised by the absence of spots in the basal region of the dorsal fin. However, various specimens with this characteristic appeared in the region after the construction of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Plant in 1982. An analysis of the genetic variability of Steindachnerina populations with or without spots is provided. Specimens were collected in different sites of the floodplain of the upper Paraná river and samples were compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and morphological analyses. Ninety-eight amplified loci with nine random primers were analysed in 19 specimens of each phenotype. Data for genetic distance showed great divergences between the two phenotypes and indicate two different species. Spotted specimens may be identified as S. brevipinna, found in the region downstream Sete Quedas Falls. The species must have overcome the geographical barrier during the building of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam that submerged the waterfalls and which became an obstacle between the upper and middle Paraná river some 150 km downstream. Since phenotypes do not share dominant alleles, absence of gene flow has been suggested.

  14. Seasonality Affects the Diversity and Composition of Bacterioplankton Communities in Dongjiang River, a Drinking Water Source of Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality ranks the most vital criterion for rivers serving as drinking water sources, which periodically changes over seasons. Such fluctuation is believed associated with the state shifts of bacterial community within. To date, seasonality effects on bacterioplankton community patterns in large rivers serving as drinking water sources however, are still poorly understood. Here we investigated the intra-annual bacterial community structure in the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source of Hong Kong, using high-throughput pyrosequencing in concert with geochemical property measurements during dry, and wet seasons. Our results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla of bacterioplankton communities, which varied in composition, and distribution from dry to wet seasons, and exhibited profound seasonal changes. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria seemed to be more associated with seasonality that the relative abundances of Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were significantly higher in the dry season than those in the wet season (p < 0.01, while the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria was about 10-fold higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Temperature and NO3--N concentration represented key contributing factors to the observed seasonal variations. These findings help understand the roles of various bacterioplankton and their interactions with the biogeochemical processes in the river ecosystem.

  15. Seasonality Affects the Diversity and Composition of Bacterioplankton Communities in Dongjiang River, a Drinking Water Source of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Xia, Chunyu; Xu, Meiying; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Water quality ranks the most vital criterion for rivers serving as drinking water sources, which periodically changes over seasons. Such fluctuation is believed associated with the state shifts of bacterial community within. To date, seasonality effects on bacterioplankton community patterns in large rivers serving as drinking water sources however, are still poorly understood. Here we investigated the intra-annual bacterial community structure in the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source of Hong Kong, using high-throughput pyrosequencing in concert with geochemical property measurements during dry, and wet seasons. Our results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria , and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla of bacterioplankton communities, which varied in composition, and distribution from dry to wet seasons, and exhibited profound seasonal changes. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes , and Cyanobacteria seemed to be more associated with seasonality that the relative abundances of Actinobacteria , and Bacteroidetes were significantly higher in the dry season than those in the wet season ( p bacterioplankton and their interactions with the biogeochemical processes in the river ecosystem.

  16. Genetic diversity of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus from Feather River and Lake Oroville, California, and virulence of selected isolates for Chinook salmon and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendorf, C.M.; Kelley, G.O.; Yun, S.C.; Kurath, G.; Andree, K.B.; Hedrick, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a significant pathogen of young salmonid fishes worldwide but particularly within the historical range of the Pacific Northwest and California. In the Sacramento and San Joaquin River drainages of California, IHNV outbreaks in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha have been observed regularly at large production hatcheries, including Coleman National Fish Hatchery (established in 1941) and Feather River State Fish Hatchery (FRH; established in 1967), since facility operations began. Recent severe epidemics at the FRH in 1998 and 2000-2002 prompted investigations into the characteristics and potential sources of virus at this facility. Both phylogenetic analyses of a variable portion of the glycoprotein gene and serologic comparisons based on neutralization with three polyclonal rabbit sera were used to characterize 82 IHNV isolates from the Feather River watershed between 1969 and 2004. All isolates examined were in the L genogroup and belonged to one of three serologic groups typical of IHNV from California. The IHNV isolates from the Feather River area demonstrated a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 4.0%, and new isolates appeared to emerge from previous isolates rather than by the introduction of more diverse subgroups from exogenous sources. The earliest isolates examined from the watershed formed the subgroup LI, which disappeared coincidently with a temporal shift to new genetic and serologic types of the larger subgroup LII. Experimental challenges demonstrated no significant differences in the virulence for juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout O. mykiss from selected isolates representing the principal types of IHNV found historically and from recent epidemics at FRH. While most isolates were equally virulent for both host species, one isolate was found to be more virulent for Chinook salmon than for rainbow trout. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  17. Aquatic avifauna of the coastal lakes of the Mhlathuze River system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides the first attempt to bring together all published and unpublished data on the aquatic avifauna of Lakes Mzingazi, Nsezi, Cubhu and Mangeza, situated near Richards Bay in the lower reaches of the Mhlathuze River system. Whilst the amount of data located was limited, it does show that the systems ...

  18. Nitrogen Leaching in Intensive Cropping Systems in Tam Duong District, Red River Delta of Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, M.V.; Keulen, van H.; Roetter, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental and economic consequences of nitrogen (N) lost in rice-based systems in Vietnam is important but has not been extensively studied. The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of N lost in major cropping systems in the Red River Delta. An experiment was conducted in the

  19. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of water in aquatic systems is subject to temporal and spatial variations due to varying effects of natural and anthropogenic factors. This study assessed the dynamics of water quality in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system along an upstream–downstream gradient above and below Maun during February, ...

  20. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.

  1. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  2. Predicting the effects of climate change on population connectivity and genetic diversity of an imperiled freshwater mussel, Cumberlandia monodonta (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae), in riverine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Berg, David J

    2017-01-01

    In the face of global climate change, organisms may respond to temperature increases by shifting their ranges poleward or to higher altitudes. However, the direction of range shifts in riverine systems is less clear. Because rivers are dendritic networks, there is only one dispersal route from any given location to another. Thus, range shifts are only possible if branches are connected by suitable habitat, and stream-dwelling organisms can disperse through these branches. We used Cumberlandia monodonta (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Margaritiferidae) as a model species to investigate the effects of climate change on population connectivity because a majority of contemporary populations are panmictic. We combined ecological niche models (ENMs) with population genetic simulations to investigate the effects of climate change on population connectivity and genetic diversity of C. monodonta. The ENMs were constructed using bioclimatic and landscape data to project shifts in suitable habitat under future climate scenarios. We then used forward-time simulations to project potential changes in genetic diversity and population connectivity based on these range shifts. ENM results under current conditions indicated long stretches of highly suitable habitat in rivers where C. monodonta persists; populations in the upper Mississippi River remain connected by suitable habitat that does not impede gene flow. Future climate scenarios projected northward and headwater-ward range contraction and drastic declines in habitat suitability for most extant populations throughout the Mississippi River Basin. Simulations indicated that climate change would greatly reduce genetic diversity and connectivity across populations. Results suggest that a single, large population of C. monodonta will become further fragmented into smaller populations, each of which will be isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. Because C. monodonta is a widely distributed species and purely aquatic, our

  3. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HUMAN -TRANSFORMED SYSTEMS OF THE IRPIN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to learn the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors and their consequences in the system “Natural environment (Irpin river – human-transformed environment (Nyvka river”. Methods: To assess the structural and functional changes of hydroecosystems, transformed under technogenic impact, hydrochemical, toxicological and biological techniques, as well as the methods of mathematical statistics for experimental data processing and summarization of obtained results, were applied. Results: it is proposed to determine the dynamics of the biotic self-regulation mechanism change under impact of the modifying (anthropogenic factors, by the example of the two-component system – “Natural environment (Irpin River – environment, transformed under technogenic impact (Nyvka River, the right-hand tributary of the Irpin River”. It is proposed to extend additionally the opportunities of the ecological assessment due to application of the integrating index – the index of ecological conformity. Discussion: obtained results stipulate necessity of the further investigation of structural and functional patterns of the Irpin River ecosystem in space and time. Assessment of anthropogenic factors impact on hydroecosystem condition will make it possible to correct the nature guard activity concerning the improvement of the fishery object ecological condition and recreation essence of the Irpin River. Integration of the Nyvka and Irpin Rivers into a single system “Natural environment – environment, transformed under technogenic impact” will make it possible to obtain the objective assessment of technogenic changes in hydroecosystems. Implementation of the index of ecological conformity will make it possible to estimate completely the inner processes in the rivers.

  4. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  5. Patterns of copepod diversity in the Chilean coastal upwelling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Escribano, Ruben; Vergara, Odette; Jorquera, Erika; Donoso, Katty; Mendoza, Paula

    2010-12-01

    The copepod community structure from the Northern and Central/southern upwelling regions off Chile was studied and compared. The derived community descriptors were species abundance (N), species richness (R) and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'). These descriptors were related to distinct habitats and conditions, sea surface temperature (SST) and depth of the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). From 159 samples, obtained between 2002 and 2008, a total number of 118 species were found of which the calanoids Paracalanus indicus, Acartia tonsa and Eucalanus inermis, along with the cyclopoid Oithona similis, and the poecilostomatoids Triconia conifera and Oncaea media were the dominant species. H' was higher in the northern region, but no differences in N and R were detected between regions. N was higher in the epipelagic vs the deep habitat, but R and H' did not differ. N, R and H' correlated positively to SST and negatively to OMZ depth. The ascent of the OMZ to the upper layer forced by upwelling was proposed as a mechanism that aggregates and increases copepod diversity in the food-rich photic zone. All these findings suggest a fundamental role of upwelling variation for modulating copepod dynamics and community structure in this highly productive but strongly variable marine ecosystem.

  6. Switch and examine transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a switch and examine transmit diversity algorithm for spectrum sharing cognitive networks. We consider a cognitive network composed of a primary link that employs constant rate and constant power transmission scheme with automatic-and-repeat request (ARQ) protocol, while the secondary link is composed of a fixed power multiple-antenna secondary transmitter and a single antenna receiver. Our objective is to develop a low complex transmit diversity algorithm at the secondary transmitter that maximizes the performance of the secondary link in terms of the effective throughput while maintaining a predetermined maximum loss in the packet rate of the primary link. In achieving this objective, we develop an algorithm that selects the best antenna, which maintains the quality of the secondary link in terms of signal-to-noise ratio above a specific threshold, based on overhearing the acknowledgment (ACK) and negative acknowledgment (NACK) feedback messages transmitted over the primary link. We also develop closed form expressions for the bit error rates and the effective throughput of the secondary link. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Use of the RHS method in Golijska Moravica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available River Habitat Survey (RHS is terrain method developed in UK in 1994. for determination of physical character of rivers and river basin. This method is applied for the first time in Golijska Moravica river basin. Two indices which broadly describe the diversity of river habitat and landscape features (Habitat Quality Assessment (HQA and extent and severity of artificial modification to the channel (Habitat Modification Class (HMC has been developed for reporting purposes. These are based on simple scoring systems which have been agreed by technical experts.

  8. A passive collection system for whole size fractions in river suspended solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato; Seiya Nagao

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve difficulties in collection of river suspended solids (SS) such as frequent observations during stochastic rainfall events, a simple passive collection system of SS has been developed. It is composed of sequentially connected two large-scale filter vessels. A portion of river water flows down into the filter vessels utilizing a natural drop of streambed. The system enable us to carry out long-term, unmanned SS collection. It is also compatible with dissolved component collection. Its performance was validated in a forested catchment by applying to radiocesium and stable carbon transport. (author)

  9. Genetic diversity and variation of mitochondrial DNA in native and introduced bighead carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Fa; Yang, Qin-Ling; Xu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Hui; Chapman, Duane C.; Lu, Guoping

    2010-01-01

    The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from five river systems in three countries (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur rivers, China; Danube River, Hungary; Mississippi River basin, USA) and their mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and D-loop region were sequenced (around 1,345 base pairs). Moderate genetic diversity was found in bighead carp, ranging from 0.0014 to 0.0043 for nucleotide diversity and from 0.6879 to 0.9333 for haplotype diversity. Haplotype analysis provided evidence that (1) multiple haplotype groups might be present among bighead carp, (2) bighead carp probably originated from the Yangtze River, and (3) bighead carp in the Mississippi River basin may have some genetic ancestry in the Danube River. The analysis of molecular variance showed significant genetic differentiation among these five populations but also revealed limited differentiation between the Yangtze and Amur River bighead carp. This large-scale study of bighead carp genetic diversity and variation provides the first global perspective of bighead carp in the context of biodiversity conservation as well as invasive species control and management.

  10. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2

  11. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  12. The rivers of civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  13. Real Time Monitoring System of Pollution Waste on Musi River Using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrozi, Muhammad; Saparudin; Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Real-time Monitoring and early detection system which measures the quality standard of waste in Musi River, Palembang, Indonesia is a system for determining air and water pollution level. This system was designed in order to create an integrated monitoring system and provide real time information that can be read. It is designed to measure acidity and water turbidity polluted by industrial waste, as well as to show and provide conditional data integrated in one system. This system consists of inputting and processing the data, and giving output based on processed data. Turbidity, substances, and pH sensor is used as a detector that produce analog electrical direct current voltage (DC). Early detection system works by determining the value of the ammonia threshold, acidity, and turbidity level of water in Musi River. The results is then presented based on the level group pollution by the Support Vector Machine classification method.

  14. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, J.; Navarrete, D.; Maldonado, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis) were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 i...

  15. Remote sensing of rivers: an emerging tool to facilitate management and restoration of fluvial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleiter, C. J.; Overstreet, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    All phases of river restoration, from design to implementation to assessment, require spatially distributed, high-resolution data on channels and floodplains. Conventional field methods are cost prohibitive for large areas, but remote sensing presents an increasingly viable alternative for characterizing fluvial systems. For example, bathymetric maps useful for habitat assessment can be derived from readily available, free or low cost image data, provided depth measurements are available for calibration. In combination with LiDAR, spectrally-based bathymetry can be used to determine bed elevations for estimating scour and fill and/or to obtain topographic input data for morphodynamic modeling. New, water-penetrating green LiDAR systems that measure sub-aerial and submerged elevations could provide a single-sensor solution for mapping riparian environments. Our current research on the Snake River focuses on comparing optical- and LiDAR-based methods for retrieving depths and bed elevations. Multi-sensor surveys from 2012 and 2013 will allow us to evaluate each instrument's capabilities for measuring volumes of erosion and deposition in a dynamic gravel-bed river. Ongoing studies also suggest that additional river attributes, such as substrate composition and flow velocity, could be inferred from hyperspectral image data. In general, remote sensing has considerable potential to facilitate various aspects of river restoration, from site evaluation to post-project assessment. Moreover, by providing more extensive coverage, this approach favors an integrated, watershed perspective for planning, execution, and monitoring of sustainable restoration programs. To stimulate progress toward these objectives, our research group is now working to advance the remote sensing of rivers through tool development and sensor deployment. Bathymetric map of the Snake River, WY, derived from hyperspectral image data via optimal band ratio analysis. Flow direction is from right to left.

  16. Hydrologic connectivity affects fish assemblage structure, diversity, and ecological traits in the unregulated Gambia River, West Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    White, Seth M.; Ondračková, Markéta; Reichard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2012), s. 521-530 ISSN 0006-3606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fish assemblage * functional morphology * large tropical rivers * lateral migration * multivariate analysis * pre-impoundment * reference condition * trophic position Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.351, year: 2012

  17. Exploring the diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in fishes from the River Danube using mitochondrial DNA barcodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudlai, Olena; Oros, M.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Georgieva, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 2 December (2017), č. článku 592. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14198S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diplostomum * Diplostomidae * Metacercariae * Freshwater fish es * Barcodes * cox1 * nad3 * River Danube * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  18. The effect of feed water dissolved organic carbon concentration and composition on organic micropollutant removal and microbial diversity in soil columns simulating river bank filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelkamp, C; van der Hoek, J P; Schoutteten, K; Hulpiau, L; Vanhaecke, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Cabo, A J; Callewaert, C; Boon, N; Löwenberg, J; Singhal, N; Verliefde, A R D

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated organic micropollutant (OMP) biodegradation rates in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating river bank filtration (RBF) processes. The dosed OMP mixture consisted of 11 pharmaceuticals, 6 herbicides, 2 insecticides and 1 solvent. Columns were filled with soil from a RBF site and were fed with four different organic carbon fractions (hydrophilic, hydrophobic, transphilic and river water organic matter (RWOM)). Additionally, the effect of a short-term OMP/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) shock-load (e.g. quadrupling the OMP concentrations and doubling the DOC concentration) on OMP biodegradation rates was investigated to assess the resilience of RBF systems. The results obtained in this study imply that - in contrast to what is observed for managed aquifer recharge systems operating on wastewater effluent - OMP biodegradation rates are not affected by the type of organic carbon fraction fed to the soil column, in case of stable operation. No effect of a short-term DOC shock-load on OMP biodegradation rates between the different organic carbon fractions was observed. This means that the RBF site simulated in this study is resilient towards transient higher DOC concentrations in the river water. However, a temporary OMP shock-load affected OMP biodegradation rates observed for the columns fed with the river water organic matter (RWOM) and the hydrophilic fraction of the river water organic matter. These different biodegradation rates did not correlate with any of the parameters investigated in this study (cellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP), DOC removal, specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), richness/evenness of the soil microbial population or OMP category (hydrophobicity/charge). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Basin Approach to a Hydrological Service Delivery System in the Amur River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Borsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basin approach to the design, development, and operation of a hydrological forecasting and early warning system in a large transboundary river basin of high flood potential, where accurate, reliable, and timely available daily water-level and reservoir-inflow forecasts are essential for water-related economic and social activities (the Amur River basin case study. Key aspects of basin-scale system planning and implementation are considered, from choosing efficient forecast models and techniques, to developing and operating data-management procedures, to disseminating operational forecasts using web-GIS. The latter, making the relevant forecast data available in real time (via Internet, visual, and well interpretable, serves as a good tool for raising awareness of possible floods in a large region with transport and industrial hubs located alongside the Amur River (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

  20. Spectrally efficient switched transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied

    2011-09-01

    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link. The proposed bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) uses the scan and wait (SWC) combining technique where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In our scheme, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. Selected numerical examples show that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to an existing switching efficient scheme (SES). This spectral efficiency comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Successive Interference Cancellation for DS-CDMA Systems with Transmit Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new successive interference cancellation (SIC technique for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA systems with transmit diversity. The transmit diversity is achieved with a space-time block code (STBC. In our work we first consider hard decision SIC with an STBC, and then investigate the performance of soft decision SIC with an STBC. System performance over a Rayleigh fading channel is investigated and the analysis is confirmed by simulation.

  2. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Brian G; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-06-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  3. Application of science-based restoration planning to a desert river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Brian G.; Jimenez, Justin; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-01-01

    Persistence of many desert river species is threatened by a suite of impacts linked to water infrastructure projects that provide human water security where water is scarce. Many desert rivers have undergone regime shifts from spatially and temporally dynamic ecosystems to more stable systems dominated by homogenous physical habitat. Restoration of desert river systems could aid in biodiversity conservation, but poses formidable challenges due to multiple threats and the infeasibility of recovery to pre-development conditions. The challenges faced in restoring desert rivers can be addressed by incorporating scientific recommendations into restoration planning efforts at multiple stages, as demonstrated here through an example restoration project. In particular, use of a watershed-scale planning process can identify data gaps and irreversible constraints, which aid in developing achievable restoration goals and objectives. Site-prioritization focuses limited the resources for restoration on areas with the greatest potential to improve populations of target organisms. Investment in research to understand causes of degradation, coupled with adoption of a guiding vision is critical for identifying feasible restoration actions that can enhance river processes. Setting monitoring as a project goal, developing hypotheses for expected outcomes, and implementing restoration as an experimental design will facilitate adaptive management and learning from project implementation. Involvement of scientists and managers during all planning stages is critical for developing process-based restoration actions and an implementation plan to maximize learning. The planning process developed here provides a roadmap for use of scientific recommendations in future efforts to recover dynamic processes in imperiled riverine ecosystems.

  4. Remanence of lead pollution in an urban river system: a multi-scale temporal and spatial study in the Seine River basin, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S; Le Pape, P; Evrard, O; Priadi, C R; Quantin, C; Bonté, P; Roy-Barman, M

    2014-03-01

    Total lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic ratio ((206)Pb/(20)7Pb) were determined in 140 samples from the Seine River basin (France), covering a period of time from 1945 to 2011 and including bed sediments (bulk and size fractionated samples), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediment cores, and combined sewer overflow (CSO) particulate matter to constrain the spatial and temporal variability of the lead sources at the scale of the contaminated Seine River basin. A focus on the Orge River subcatchment, which exhibits a contrasted land-use pattern, allows documenting the relation between hydrodynamics, urbanization, and contamination sources. The study reveals that the Pb contamination due to leaded gasoline that peaked in the 1980s has a very limited impact in the river nowadays. In the upstream Seine River, the isotopic ratio analysis suggests a pervasive contamination which origin (coal combustion and/or gasoline lead) should be clarified. The current SPM contamination trend follows the urbanization/industrialization spatial trend. Downstream of Paris, the lead from historical use originating from the Rio Tinto mine, Spain ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.1634 ± 0.0001) is the major Pb source. The analysis of the bed sediments (bulk and grain size fractionated) highlights the diversity of the anthropogenic lead sources in relation with the diversity of the human activities that occurred in this basin over the years. The "urban" source, defined by waste waters including the CSO samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.157 ± 0.003), results of a thorough mixing of leaded gasoline with "historical" lead over the years. Finally, a contamination mixing scheme related to hydrodynamics is proposed.

  5. Larval trematode communities in Radix auricularia and Lymnaea stagnalis in a reservoir system of the Ruhr River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-del-Olmo Ana

    2010-06-01

    better suited for monitoring the effect of environmental change on host-parasite associations in the reservoir system on the Ruhr River and other similar systems due to the important role of this host in trematode transmission in lakes. Whereas variations in trematode community diversity and abundance may indicate the degree of eutrophication on a larger scale (among reservoirs, the infection rates of the two life history groups of dominant species, the 'cyprinid' and 'anatid' assemblages, may be particularly useful in depicting environmental variability, eutrophication effects and infection 'hot spots' on smaller spatial scales.

  6. The dynamics of channel slope, width, and sediment transport in tectonically actively river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, B.

    2016-12-01

    related to underlying controls on erosion. The modeling highlights that channel geometry adjustment during transient responses to baselevel absorbs some of the topographic impact that would be solely accommodated by channel slope if the river systems behaved in a 1-D manner such that is often prescribed by many modern river erosion models.

  7. Modeling possible cooling-water intake system impacts on Ohio River fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-04-26

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b) demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species x 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data), the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was by no means

  8. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgin Perry

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV, a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species × 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data, the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was

  9. Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Fuller; Karen Pope; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2010-01-01

    Extensive modifications of river systems have left floodplains some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world and made restoration of these systems a priority. Modified river ecosystems frequently support invasive species to the detriment of native species. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) is an invasive amphibian that thrives in modified...

  10. Computer control of the beam transport system of the Chalk River electron test accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, G.E.; Kidner, S.H.; Fraser, J.S.

    1977-05-01

    The beam transport system of the Chalk River Electron Test Accelerator comprises steering coils and solenoidal focusing magnets driven by voltage-programmed, current-regulated power supplies. This report describes the beam transport and beam diagnostics systems presently in use. The computer controls all beam transport magnets from a single, allocatable control knob. The system is currently being expanded to two knobs and two readouts. (author)

  11. Investigation of isotopes and hydrological processes in Indus river system, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor Ahmad, M; Latif, Z.; Tariq, J.A.; Akram, W.; Rafique, M.

    2009-11-01

    dominance of moisture source from Mediterranean. Kachura station having delta /sup 18/O- /sup 2/H line with slope 4 and low d-excess shows evaporation effect in Kachura Lake. Delta /sup 18/O and delta /sup 2/H values of Indus River get enriched going downstream towards Arabian Sea because of contribution from rains at low altitude plains and base flow, and evaporation. Low tritium in some samples also indicates contribution of base flow (relatively older groundwater). River Chenab has the widest variation in delta /sup 18/O and delta /sup 2/H, and slope of delta/sup 18/O- delta/sup 2/H line is 6.1, which is due to variable contribution of snow melt at high altitude and rains fallen at low altitudes. High d-excess in snow melt and low d-excess in monsoon show that the moisture source in winter is generally western (Mediterranean) and the monsoon dominantly originates from Indian Ocean. The isotope data also reflect evaporation effect during dry periods. Kabul River has wide variation in isotopic values due to variable contribution from Swat River, which carries snow melt. High d-excess is associated with the depleted isotopic values, while low d-excess is associated with enriched isotopic values generally during summer monsoon. Therefore, slope of delta/sup 18/O- delta/sup 2/H line is 7, which seems mainly due to dominance of moisture source from Mediterranean in winter (having depleted isotopic values and high d-excess) and from Bay of Bengal in summer with relatively high d-excess. River Jhelum and its tributaries upstream of Mangla Lake have enriched delta /sup 18/O and delta /sup 2/H due to low altitude of its catchment. The precipitation in the catchment of river Ravi results from the moisture source from Indian Ocean and there is not any significant effect of evaporation. The isotopic variation seems mainly due to water diversions from the western rivers through link canals. (author)

  12. MACROFAUNA DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE ACROSS DIFFERENT LAND USE SYSTEMS IN EMBU, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Ayuke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on diversity and abundance of soil macrofauna of various land use systems in Embu, Kenya (natural forest, plantation forest, fallow, coffee, tea, napier, and maize. Each was sampled for macrofauna using three sampling methods (monolith, transect and pitfall traps. Thirty four (34 genera/species of soil macrofauna were recorded, the highest number (27 being observed in napier. Majority of these genera/species being Coleoptera. Rényi diversity profile indicated that in terms of species richness (α at 0, maize the richest of all the land use systems, but plantation forest the least. It was however not possible to clearly order or rank the land use system in terms of diversity because of the bias of each of the two diversity indices as indicated by the numerous crossings observed for the diversity profiles/curves. Shannon index of diversity (α = 1 indicated that coffee was the most diverse of the land use systems followed by plantation forest > natural forest > napier > maize > tea, while fallow/pasture was the least diverse (Figure 1. On the other hand, Simpson’s diversity (α = 2 indicated that plantation forest was the most diverse followed by fallowed by coffee > natural forest > napier > maize >tea > fallow/pasture. Rényi evenness profile indicated that the plantation forest was most even in terms of species distribution followed by natural forest and coffee > napier > tea > maize but least even in the fallow/pasture. Hymenoptera were most abundant of the macrofauna groups constituting about 45% of the total followed by Isoptera (39%, Coleoptera (6%, Oligochaeta (5%, Orthoptera (3% and Arenae (2%. The other groups that comprised of Hemiptera, Diptera, Phasmidae and Blattelidae each constituted coffee (1170 > natural forest (1110 > tea (755, but lowest in plantation forest (309, although analysis of variance indicated no significant variation among the land use systems. This study however

  13. On the diversity of multiple optimal controls for quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shir, O M; Baeck, Th; Beltrani, V; Rabitz, H; Vrakking, M J J

    2008-01-01

    This study presents simulations of optimal field-free molecular alignment and rotational population transfer (starting from the J = 0 rotational ground state of a diatomic molecule), optimized by means of laser pulse shaping guided by evolutionary algorithms. Qualitatively different solutions are obtained that optimize the alignment and population transfer efficiency to the maximum extent that is possible given the existing constraints on the optimization due to the finite bandwidth and energy of the laser pulse, the finite degrees of freedom in the laser pulse shaping and the evolutionary algorithm employed. The effect of these constraints on the optimization process is discussed at several levels, subject to theoretical as well as experimental considerations. We show that optimized alignment yields can reach extremely high values, even with severe constraints being present. The breadth of optimal controls is assessed, and a correlation is found between the diversity of solutions and the difficulty of the problem. In the pulse shapes that optimize dynamic alignment we observe a transition between pulse sequences that maximize the initial population transfer from J = 0 to J = 2 and pulse sequences that optimize the transfer to higher rotational levels

  14. Parasite diversity in Oxydoras niger (Osteichthyes: Doradidae) from the basin of Solimões River, Amazonas state, Brazil, and the relationship between monogenoidean and condition factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A M O; Tavares-Dias, M; Jerônimo, G T; Martins, M L

    2011-08-01

    This study describes the parasitic fauna of Oxydoras niger from the Coari Lake, tributary of the medium Solimões River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, and the relationship between the number of Monogenoidea and the condition factor. From a total of 27 examined fish, 70.3% were parasitised by at least one parasite species as follows: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa), Chilodonella sp. (Protozoa), Cosmetocleithrum gussevi, C. confusus, C. parvum and Cosmetocleithrum sp. (Monogenoidea), Paracavisona impudica (Acanthocephala), Cucullanus grandistomis (Nematoda), Proteocephalus kuyukuyu (Cestoda) and Dadaytrema sp. (Digenea). Monogenoidea helminthes were the most prevalent parasite when compared to protozoan and intestinal helminthes. This study showed that O. niger has a great parasite diversity composed mainly of monogenoideans followed by acanthocephalan and digenean. This is the first record of Dadaytrema in O. niger from the Brazilian Amazon. There was a positive correlation between the number of monogenoideans and the condition factor (Kn) of fish, and with this mean intensity of infection, fish welfare was not affected.

  15. Diversity and distribution of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming, 1873-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Heinold, Brian D.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ruiter, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado), compiled collection record data to document the historical and present-day occurrence of mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly species in the South Platte River Basin. Data were compiled from records collected between 1873 and 2010 to identify where regional knowledge about species occurrence in the basin is lacking and to encourage future researchers to locate additional populations of these poorly understood but very important organisms. This report provides a description of how data were compiled, a map of approximate collection locations, a listing of the most recent collection records from unique locations, general remarks for each species, a species list with selected summary information, and distribution maps of species collection records.

  16. Seasonal nutrient chemistry in mountainous river systems of tropical Western Peninsular India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pradhan, U.K.; Wu, Y.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zhang, J.

    %) is important, in view of alterations in biogeochemical processes of adjacent Arabian Sea. Furthermore, the yield of nutrient such as PO3-4 was found to be a function of runoff per catchment area in studied river systems, is comparable...

  17. Modeling suspended sediment discharge from the Waipaoa River system, New Zealand : The last 3000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kettner, A.J.; Gomez, B.; Syvitski, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    HydroTrend, a hydrologic-transport model, is used to simulate the water and suspended sediment discharge of the Waipaoa River system over the last 3 Kyr, a time period in which a well-documented sequence of natural events and anthropogenic activities that profoundly impacted drainage basin processes

  18. Aquatic Insect Fauna of Three River Systems in the Akyem Abuakwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three river systems in the Akyem Abuakwa Traditional Area: Ayensu, Birim and Densu were sampled over a period of one year during the wet, dry and intermediate seasons for aquatic insect fauna. Fifteen sampling sites were chosen based on certain parameters such as accessibility as well as the inclusion of high and low ...

  19. Genetic Diversity and Host Range of Rhizobia Nodulating Lotus tenuis in Typical Soils of the Salado River Basin (Argentina)▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, María Julia; Muñoz, Socorro; Soto, María José; Ruiz, Oscar; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-01-01

    A total of 103 root nodule isolates were used to estimate the diversity of bacteria nodulating Lotus tenuis in typical soils of the Salado River Basin. A high level of genetic diversity was revealed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR, and 77 isolates with unique genomic fingerprints were further differentiated into two clusters, clusters A and B, after 16S rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Cluster A strains appeared to be related to the genus Mesorhizobium, whereas cluster B was related to the genus Rhizobium. 16S rRNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis further supported the distribution of most of the symbiotic isolates in either Rhizobium or Mesorhizobium: the only exception was isolate BA135, whose 16S rRNA gene was closely related to the 16S rRNA gene of the genus Aminobacter. Most Mesorhizobium-like isolates were closely related to Mesorhizobium amorphae, Mesorhizobium mediterraneum, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, or the broad-host-range strain NZP2037, but surprisingly few isolates grouped with Mesorhizobium loti type strain NZP2213. Rhizobium-like strains were related to Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium etli, or Rhizobium tropici, for which Phaseolus vulgaris is a common host. However, no nodC or nifH genes could be amplified from the L. tenuis isolates, suggesting that they have rather divergent symbiosis genes. In contrast, nodC genes from the Mesorhizobium and Aminobacter strains were closely related to nodC genes from narrow-host-range M. loti strains. Likewise, nifH gene sequences were very highly conserved among the Argentinian isolates and reference Lotus rhizobia. The high levels of conservation of the nodC and nifH genes suggest that there was a common origin of the symbiosis genes in narrow-host-range Lotus symbionts, supporting the hypothesis that both intrageneric horizontal gene transfer and intergeneric horizontal gene transfer are important mechanisms for the spread of symbiotic capacity in the Salado River Basin. PMID

  20. Numerical models for calculating hydrologic processes in river and lake-river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforovskaya, V. S.; Voevodin, A. F.

    2017-10-01

    We use one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) longitudinal-vertical mathematical models and their 2D+1D combination as well as numerical methods to study unsteady processes in the complex open channel systems under the influence of water management measures. The analysis shows the economic feasibility and efficiency of using the developed mathematical models to study hydrological process in water bodies. The study of the physical processes in complex water body, consisting of significantly different components, based on the use of only one chosen mathematical model, is uneconomical and inefficient from the viewpoint of computational expense.

  1. Integrated Database Construction for Efficient Support of Yeongsan River Estuary Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G H; Kim, K H; Lee, S J

    2014-01-01

    Yeongsan River is one of the four major rivers in South Korea, and it flows toward the Yellow Sea by passing through Damyang and Gwangju. In particular, the skewness of the main stream in Yeongsan River is relatively higher compared to other rivers. Accordingly, flood damage occurred frequently due to the flooding of sea water during tidal periods. Additionally, the environment of the estuary in Yeongsan River has been severely damaged due to indiscreet development and the inflow of various waste waters. Therefore, water quality improvement and management are crucial. For better water quality management, the government ministry is collecting various data from different fields to identify the water quality conditions. The necessity of collected data is being heightened in order to apply them into the estuary management system. However, in terms of the observed data, the observed field or items frequently modified according to social interests. Additionally, index is needed in order to search for massive amount of observation data. Due to this, the process of construction into database is relatively difficult. Therefore, in this study, these characteristics were considered for construction into the integrated DB

  2. Interactive effects of water diversion and climate change for juvenile chinook salmon in the lemhi river basin (USA.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Annika W; Bartz, Krista K; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    The combined effects of water diversion and climate change are a major conservation challenge for freshwater ecosystems. In the Lemhi Basin, Idaho (U.S.A.), water diversion causes changes in streamflow, and climate change will further affect streamflow and temperature. Shifts in streamflow and temperature regimes can affect juvenile salmon growth, movement, and survival. We examined the potential effects of water diversion and climate change on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). To examine the effects for juvenile survival, we created a model relating 19 years of juvenile survival data to streamflow and temperature and found spring streamflow and summer temperature were good predictors of juvenile survival. We used these models to project juvenile survival for 15 diversion and climate-change scenarios. Projected survival was 42-58% lower when streamflows were diverted than when streamflows were undiverted. For diverted streamflows, 2040 climate-change scenarios (ECHO-G and CGCM3.1 T47) resulted in an additional 11-39% decrease in survival. We also created models relating habitat carrying capacity to streamflow and made projections for diversion and climate-change scenarios. Habitat carrying capacity estimated for diverted streamflows was 17-58% lower than for undiverted streamflows. Climate-change scenarios resulted in additional decreases in carrying capacity for the dry (ECHO-G) climate model. Our results indicate climate change will likely pose an additional stressor that should be considered when evaluating the effects of anthropogenic actions on salmon population status. Thus, this type of analysis will be especially important for evaluating effects of specific actions on a particular species. Efectos Interactivos de la Desviación del Agua y el Cambio Climático en Individuos Juveniles de Salmón Chinook en la Cuenca del Río Lemhi (E.U.A.). Conservation Biology

  3. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  4. Ichtyocoenosis of a section of the Jihlava river influenced by the Dukovany-Dalesice power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaz, M.; Wohlgemuth, E.

    1990-01-01

    The impact was investigated of the construction and operation of a hydropower station with two deep valley reservoirs and subsequently of a nuclear power station whose water management is closely associated with the river ecosystem, upon the ichthyocoenosis of the downstream river section. The initial quantitative and species composition of the ichthyocoenosis, being descriptive for the barbel zone community, changed into the community of the salmonid type, characteristic of the trout and grayling zones. This process was spontaneous as well as caused by the activity of fish management. The development of fishery catches in the past 30 years and their changes due to the operation of the power system are also analyzed in detail. After a temporary decrease, the annual mean fishery yields improved significantly in the affected river section, not only in their absolute weights but also in terms of the sport and market value of the fish caught. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs., 22 refs

  5. Hydrological interdependencies of irrigation systems and river catchments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.; Prieto, D.; Giesen, van de N.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses (re)distributing effects of small and large irrigation systems at the catchment scale. Scales of catchment and system, each with their own temporal and spatial properties, are to be integrated. To be able to quantify water fluxes in irrigation, water fluxes within the system at

  6. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  7. Functional safeguards for computers for protection systems for Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritz, W.R.

    1977-06-01

    Reactors at the Savannah River Plant have recently been equipped with a ''safety computer'' system. This system utilizes dual digital computers in a primary protection system that monitors individual fuel assembly coolant flow and temperature. The design basis for the (SRP safety) computer systems allowed for eventual failure of any input sensor or any computer component. These systems are routinely used by reactor operators with a minimum of training in computer technology. The hardware configuration and software design therefore contain safeguards so that both hardware and human failures do not cause significant loss of reactor protection. The performance of the system to date is described

  8. Structure of parasites community in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis (Cichlidae), a host from the Amazon River system in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the component communities of parasites in Chaetobranchopsis orbicularis from a tributary of the Amazon River system, in Northern Brazil. In 32 fish examined, 902,551 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Sciadicleithrum geophagi, Posthodiplostomum sp., Clinostomum marginatum, Echinorhynchus paranensis, Neoechinorhynchus pterodoridis, and Dolops longicauda. I. multifiliis was the dominant and abundant parasite species. The ectoparasites presented aggregate dispersion, but the endoparasites showed random dispersion pattern. Mean species richness was 4.0 ± 1.5 parasites, mean Brillouin diversity (HB) was 0.33 ± 0.28, mean evenness was 0.15 ± 0.13, and Berger-Parker dominance (d) was 0.85 ± 0.17. The species richness of parasites and HB were positively correlated with the length of hosts. There was positive correlation between the abundance of P. pillulare and length and weight, between the abundance of I. multifiliis and weight, as well as between the abundance of E. paranensis and N. pterodoridis and the length of hosts. Body condition of the hosts was not affected by moderate parasitism. The low diversity of endoparasites indicates that C. orbicularis is a host with low position in the food web. This is the first record of all these parasites for C. orbicularis.

  9. Ectoparasites and endoparasites community ofAgeneiosus ucayalensis(Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae), catfish from Amazon River system in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferreira, Drielly; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the community of ectoparasites and endoparasites in Ageneiosus ucayalensis (Auchenipteridae) of a tributary from the Amazon River system, in Northern Brazil. Of 34 fish examined, 100% were parasitized by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis , Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus , Demidospermus sp., metacercariae of Genarchella genarchella , Clinostomum marginatum and Herpetodiplostomum sp., Procamallanus ( Spirocamallanus ) belenensis , Cucullanus ageneiosus and larvae of Contracaecum sp. digeneans C. marginatum and Herpetodiplostomum sp. were dominant parasite species, while I. multifiliis was the parasite with higher infection level. Such parasite species showed an aggregated dispersion, except P. ( S. ) belenensis , which showed a random dispersion. The Brillouin diversity (0.53 ± 0.29) was high, while evenness (0.28 ± 0.16) and species richness of parasites (3.7 ± 1.1) were low. The size of the hosts did not influence diversity, species richness and abundance of parasites. The ectoparasites were characterized by high prevalence and abundance, while endoparasites community presented low prevalence and abundance. The main factors responsible for structuring the parasite community in A. ucayalensis were mainly the behavior of this host and the availability of endoparasites infective stages in the environment. This was the first report of I. multifiliis , C. bulbocirus , Demidospermus sp., Contracaecum sp., C. marginatum , Herpetodiplostomum sp. and G. genarchella for A. ucayalensis . The presence of endohelminth larvae suggests that A. ucayalensis is part of the diet of other fish at the top of the food web in the Amazonian ecosystem studied.

  10. Ensembles of 21st Century Colorado River Flow Projections Exhibit Substantial Diversity in Response to Seasonal Hydroclimatic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, S. A.; Woodhouse, C. A.; McCabe, G. J., Jr.; Pederson, G. T.

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 40 million people depend on the Colorado River, and that number is likely to grow in the future, making the River's response to projected increases in temperature and possible changes in precipitation a critical societal issue. By far the most common way of approaching the problem is synthesize results obtained by forcing a hydrological model with a set of downscaled future climate scenarios. One weakness with this type of analysis is that full hydrologic model simulations can be computationally demanding, and so the number of potential climate futures is generally somewhat limited. Here we sidestep that issue by using a very large set of synthetic climate futures to drive a simple statistical model of water year flow at Lees Ferry. 62,500 climate series, comprising 500 iterations of 125 unique combinations of summer temperature changes ranging from 0 to +4°C and summer and winter precipitation changes ranging from -20 to +20% were input into the flow model. Without substantial temperature increases, significant increases in the occurrence of very low flows (<75%) were unlikely, even with sharp decreases in temperature. Conversely, increases in precipitation, could buffer the effect of summer temperature increases up to about 3°C on mean water year flows. While very simple models like this one are inappropriate for some questions, they do provide an effective way of prioritizing and framing more complex investigations, and facilitate conversations with stakeholders about research directions.

  11. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions...... in the river system occur in periods of high sea water levels where the sluice is closed and increased catchment run-off take place. Climate model data from the ENSEMBLES data archive are used to assess the changes in climate variables and the resulting effect on catchment run-off. Extreme catchment run......, and increases in storm surge levels of up to 0.8 m in 2100 are estimated. The changes in extreme catchment run-off and sea water level have a significant effect on the flood risk in the river system. While most parts today have a low risk of dike overtopping with annual exceedance probabilities of 0.1 % or less...

  12. Phase-Shift Cyclic-Delay Diversity for MIMO OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Han Nam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase-shift cyclic-delay diversity (PS CDD scheme and space-frequency-block-code (SFBC PS CDD are developed for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems. The proposed PS CDD scheme preserves the diversity advantage of traditional CDD in uncorrelated multiantenna channels, and furthermore removes frequency-selective nulling problem of the traditional CDD in correlated multiantenna channels.

  13. Production systems, diversity and richness of cavy culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess existing cavy (Cavia porcellus) production systems of Cameroon western highlands and rain forest agro-ecological zones, a household ... for a well designed and comprehensive national breeding program for cavies, and increased capacity building of farmers to address mortality rates and health issues.

  14. Quantitative mineralogy of the Yukon River system: Changes with reach and season, and determining sediment provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    mineral dissolution during transport between Eagle and Pilot Station, a distance of over 2000 km. We estimate that approximately 3 wt% of the quartz, 15 wt% of the feldspar (1 wt% of the alkali and 25 wt% of the plagioclase), and 26 wt% of the carbonates (31 wt% of the calcite and 15 wt% of the dolomite) carried by the river dissolve in this reach. The mineralogies of the suspended sediments change with the season. For example, during the summer of 2002 the quartz content varied by 20 wt%, with a minimum in mid-summer. The calcite content varied by a similar amount, and had a maximum corresponding to the quartz minimum. These modes are related to the relative amount of sediment flowing from the White River system, which is relatively poor in quartz, but rich in carbonate minerals. Suspended total clay minerals varied by as much as 25 wt%, with maxima in mid July, and suspended feldspar varied up to 10 wt%. Suspended sediment data from the summers of 2001 and 2003 support the 2002 trends. A calculation technique was developed to determine theproportion of various sediment sources in a mixed sediment by unmixing its quantitative mineralogy. Results from this method indicate that at least three sediment sources can be identified quantitatively with good accuracy. With this technique, sediment mineralogies can be used to calculate the relative flux of sediment from different tributaries, thereby identifying sediment provenance.

  15. Inter-simple sequence repeat data reveals high genetic diversity in wild populations of the narrowly distributed endemic Lilium regale in the Minjiang River Valley of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhu-hua; Shi, Jisen; Xi, Meng-li; Jiang, Fu-xing; Deng, Ming-wen; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2015-01-01

    Lilium regale E.H. Wilson is endemic to a narrow geographic area in the Minjiang River valley in southwestern China, and is considered an important germplasm for breeding commercially valuable lily varieties, due to its vigorous growth, resistance to diseases and tolerance for low moisture. We analyzed the genetic diversity of eight populations of L. regale sampled across the entire natural distribution range of the species using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat markers. The genetic diversity (expected heterozygosity= 0.3356) was higher than those reported for other narrowly distributed endemic plants. The levels of inbreeding (Fst = 0.1897) were low, and most of the genetic variability was found to be within (80.91%) than amongpopulations (19.09%). An indirect estimate of historical levels of gene flow (Nm =1.0678) indicated high levels of gene flow among populations. The eight analyzed populations clustered into three genetically distinct groups. Based on these results, we recommend conservation of large populations representing these three genetically distinct groups.

  16. Application of a Sediment Information System to the Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyou; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Li, Changzhi

    Based on survey and analysis of a huge number of observed entrance sediment transport data and the research results of physical and numerical modeling of Three Gorges Reservoir on the Yangtze River, a sediment information system was designed. The basis of this system includes spatial data and properties of geographic elements, and various documents involved to the Three Gorges Project (TGP). Database and knowledge base are constructed as the information bank. The running environment is constructed by the general control program to realize requirements about various sediment information. The system chooses the window software as the system software. The techniques of graphical user interfaces and groupware geographic information system are applied in this system. In this phase, the emphases of the system are development of document system, map system, and presentation system. Cross-section system of the TGP was also attached. For further improvement of the system, a prepared interface of decision supporting subsystem is finished.

  17. Diversity of the DNA Replication System in the Archaea Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise and timely duplication of the genome is essential for cellular life. It is achieved by DNA replication, a complex process that is conserved among the three domains of life. Even though the cellular structure of archaea closely resembles that of bacteria, the information processing machinery of archaea is evolutionarily more closely related to the eukaryotic system, especially for the proteins involved in the DNA replication process. While the general DNA replication mechanism is conserved among the different domains of life, modifications in functionality and in some of the specialized replication proteins are observed. Indeed, Archaea possess specific features unique to this domain. Moreover, even though the general pattern of the replicative system is the same in all archaea, a great deal of variation exists between specific groups.

  18. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkaline vent systems.Therefore, further understanding on the electroactive roles of various organic species within hydrothermal chimneys will have important implications for habitability as well as prebiotic chemistry. This work is funded by NASA Astrobiology Institute JPL Icy Worlds Team and a NAI Director's Discretionary Fund award.Yamaguchi A. et al. (2014) Electrochimica Acta, 141, 311-318.Russell, M. J. et al. (2014), Astrobiology, 14, 308-43.Roldan, A. (2014) Chem. Comm. 51

  19. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea in Tropical Compost Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya eDe Gannes; Gaius eEudoxie; David H Dyer; William James Hickey

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the p...

  20. Savannah River Plant's Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) (Nuclear materials inventory control)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croom, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) is a new computer inventory control system for nuclear materials at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The system has two major components, inventory files and system parameter files. AIMS, part of the overall safeguards program, maintains an up-to-date record of nuclear material by location, produces reports required by ERDA in addition to onplant reports, and is capable of a wide range of response to changing input/output requirements through use of user-prepared parameter cards, as opposed to basic system reprogramming

  1. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vucelick, Jessica; McMichael, Geoffrey; Chamness, Mickie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2006-02-01

    In 2004, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 25 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2004, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (4) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites. (5) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve passage conditions for juvenile fish. For example, Taylor has had problems meeting bypass flow and submergence operating criteria since the main river channel shifted away from the site 2 years ago, and Fruitvale consistently has had problems meeting bypass flow criteria when the water is low. (6) Continued problems at Gleed point to design flaws. This site should be considered for redesign or replacement.

  2. A concurrent neuro-fuzzy inference system for screening the ecological risk in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Duque, William; Juraske, Ronnie; Kumar, Vikas; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José Luis; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-05-01

    A conceptual model to assess water quality in river basins was developed here. The model was based on ecological risk assessment principles, and incorporated a novel ranking and scoring system, based on self-organizing maps, to account for the likely ecological hazards posed by the presence of chemical substances in freshwater. This approach was used to study the chemical pollution in the Ebro River basin (Spain), whose currently applied environmental indices must be revised in terms of scientific accuracy. Ecological hazard indexes for chemical substances were calculated by pattern recognition of persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity properties. A fuzzy inference system was proposed to compute ecological risk points (ERP), which are a combination of the ecological hazard to aquatic sensitive organisms and environmental concentrations. By aggregating ERP, changes in water quality over time were estimated. The proposed concurrent neuro-fuzzy model was applied to a comprehensive dataset of the network controlling the levels of dangerous substances, such as metals, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in the Ebro river basin. The approach was verified by comparison versus biological monitoring. The results showed that water quality in the Ebro river basin is affected by presence of micro-pollutants. The ERP approach is suitable to analyze overall trends of potential threats to freshwater ecosystems by anticipating the likely impacts from multiple substances, although it does not account for synergies among pollutants. Anyhow, the model produces a convenient indicator to search for pollutant levels of concern.

  3. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) River System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Aahmad, R A

    2004-12-01

    A survey of the river water frequently used by the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) indicated that 66.7% of the river water samples were Giardia cyst positive and 5.6% were Cryptosporidium oocyst positive. Although Giardia cysts were detected in samples from all the sites (e.g. upstream, midstream, and downstream), Cryptosporidium was only present in one river water sample taken from downstream from a village. The only sample of upstream water which contained Giardia cysts had a concentration of 0.7 cysts/l. All samples taken from midstream contained cysts with a mean concentration of 9.8 +/- 6.6 cysts/l (range = 1-20 cysts/l). Eighty-three point three percent of the samples collected from downstream contained cysts and 16.7% had oocysts. The average concentration of cysts was 12.9 +/- 16.4 cysts/l (range = 0-44 cysts/l), whereas the oocyst concentration was 0.4 oocysts/l. All river samples tested positive for the presence of E. coli, indicating fecal contamination. The results of this study imply that the river system is contaminated with fecal-oral transmitted parasites. The river water, used by the Orang Asli, is a probable route for Giardia and Cryptosporidium transmission in this community. Long term strategies, incorporating health education regarding personal hygiene, and provision of toilets and the importance of their proper usage, need to be embraced by this community in order to control the spread of these parasites.

  4. Diversity, risk mediation, and change in a Trans-Himalayan agropastoral system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the diversity and dynamism of social, agricultural, and livestock husbandry practices in a traditional mountain production system in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. These are interpreted in the context of their role in mediating environmental risk. The production system is a little known

  5. A SYSTEM DYNAMICS-BASED CONFLICT RESOLUTION MODEL FOR RIVER WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz, M. Akhbari, A. Moridi, R. Kerachian

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics approach by simulating a bargaining process can be used for resolving conflict of interests in water quality management. This approach can be a powerful alternative for traditional approaches for conflict resolution, which often rely on classical game theory. Waste load allocation models for river water quality management determine the optimal monthly waste load allocation to each point load. Most of these approaches are based on the multi-objective optimization models and do not consider the existing conflicts. In this study, a system dynamics-based conflict resolution model is presented for monthly waste load allocation in river systems. In this model, the stakeholders and decision-makers negotiate with each other considering their relative authorities, aspirations and dissatisfactions. System dynamics approach is actually used for simulating the bargaining process among the players. The model incorporates the objectives and preferences of stakeholders and decision-makers of the system in the form of utility functions and could provide a final agreement among the players. To evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of the concentration of the water quality indicator in the system, a water quality simulation model is also linked to the conflict resolution model. In the proposed model, a pre-assigned utility is allocated to different water users and the results are evaluated using a simulation model. The allocated utilities are tested and adjusted in order to provide an agreement between the assumed utilities and the utilities assigned by the model. The proposed model is applied to the Karkheh River system located in the southwest of Iran. The results show that the model can effectively incorporate the preferences of the players in providing a final agreement and the runtime of the proposed model is much less than the classical conflict resolution models. It is also shown that the waste load allocation can significantly reduce

  6. Diversity and abundance of aquatics macroinvertebrates and water quality from high and low watersheds of Gariche River, Chiriqui province, Republic of Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Johana del C; Rios, Tomas; Bernal Vega, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Diversity and abundance of aquatic microinvertebrate and quality of water in four sampling stations located in Gariche river high and low watersheds, during the dry season (January to April) and the rainy season (July to October) of 2010, were determined using methods described by Pino and Bernal (2009). A total of 4 964 individuals, belonging to 50 genera, 30 families and nine orders of class Insecta were identified. The average of the Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index in the dry season was 2.36 and 1.95 in rainy season, representing a middle diversity in this ecosystem. In dry season, the abundance of individuals was higher in the order Hemiptera, family Veliidae, and genus Rhagovelia followed by Trichoptera, family Hydroptilidae, and genus Atanatolica. In rainy season, the most representative orders were Ephemeroptera, family Leptophlebiidae and genus Thraulodes, followed by Hemiptera, family Veliidae and genus Rhagovelia. The Jaccard Index indicated that the stations with the greatest similarity were 1 and 2, with a 65.2 % (dry season) and 76.9 % (rainy season), while the similarity was low between stations 1 and 3, with 33.3 % (dry season) and 41.7 % (rainy season). The Biotic Index BMWP/PAN for the dry and rainy seasons, indicated a regular water quality for stations 1 and 2, but with acceptable quality at stations 3 and 4. The physic and chemical variables showed values within acceptable limits during the dry season, while in the rainy season the levels were low, according to the values established by the primary environmental quality standards and quality levels for freshwater recreational use without direct contact, influencing in the heterogeneity of aquatic macroinvertebrates in each sampling station.

  7. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae) occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into "Yuanjiang-Nanhun" basin and "Ejia-Jiepai" basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the conservation

  8. Species delimitation, genetic diversity and population historical dynamics of Cycas diannanensis (Cycadaceae occurring sympatrically in the Red River region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu eJian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species’ evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atpI-atpH and trnL-rps4 and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into Yuanjiang-Nanhun basin and Ejia-Jiepai basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the

  9. A stochastic conflict resolution model for water quality management in reservoir river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerachian, Reza; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, optimal operating rules for water quality management in reservoir-river systems are developed using a methodology combining a water quality simulation model and a stochastic GA-based conflict resolution technique. As different decision-makers and stakeholders are involved in the water quality management in reservoir-river systems, a new stochastic form of the Nash bargaining theory is used to resolve the existing conflict of interests related to water supply to different demands, allocated water quality and waste load allocation in downstream river. The expected value of the Nash product is considered as the objective function of the model which can incorporate the inherent uncertainty of reservoir inflow. A water quality simulation model is also developed to simulate the thermal stratification cycle in the reservoir, the quality of releases from different outlets as well as the temporal and spatial variation of the pollutants in the downstream river. In this study, a Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm (VLGA), which has computational advantages comparing to other alternative models, is used. VLGA provides a good initial solution for Simple Genetic Algorithms and comparing to Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) reduces the number of state transitions checked in each stage. The proposed model, which is called Stochastic Varying Chromosome Length Genetic Algorithm with water Quality constraints (SVLGAQ), is applied to the Ghomrud Reservoir-River system in the central part of Iran. The results show, the proposed model for reservoir operation and waste load allocation can reduce the salinity of the allocated water demands as well as the salinity build-up in the reservoir.

  10. Implementation of Environmental Flows for Intermittent River Systems: Adaptive Management and Stakeholder Participation Facilitate Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conallin, John; Wilson, Emma; Campbell, Josh

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pressure on freshwater ecosystems is increasing, and often leading to unacceptable social-ecological outcomes. This is even more prevalent in intermittent river systems where many are already heavily modified, or human encroachment is increasing. Although adaptive management approaches have the potential to aid in providing the framework to consider the complexities of intermittent river systems and improve utility within the management of these systems, success has been variable. This paper looks at the application of an adaptive management pilot project within an environmental flows program in an intermittent stream (Tuppal Creek) in the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. The program focused on stakeholder involvement, participatory decision-making, and simple monitoring as the basis of an adaptive management approach. The approach found that by building trust and ownership through concentrating on inclusiveness and transparency, partnerships between government agencies and landholders were developed. This facilitated a willingness to accept greater risks and unintended consequences allowing implementation to occur.

  11. SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF YENISEI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the questions of formation of problem-focused geoinformation system of the Yenisei river basin based on interdisciplinary scientific studies. The creation of a system, in which are collected and systematized information about its river network, will provide an opportunity for analysis and modeling of hydrological processes various natural and man-made phenomena, qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resources, ecological status. Methodological basis of development is a regional system of indicators for sustainable environmental management. Development is created in the service-oriented paradigm on the basis of geoportal technologies, interactive web mapping, distributed storage and data processing. The focus in this article is paid to the problems of software design and technological support, the characteristics of software components implementation of the web GIS, the effective processing and presentation of geospatial data.

  12. The current content of artificial radionuclides in the water of the Tobol-Irtysh river system (from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Alexander I.; Chumichev, Vladimir B.; Valetova, Nailia K.; Katrich, Ivan Yu.; Kabanov, Alexander I.; Dunaev, Gennady E.; Shkuro, Valentina N.; Rodin, Victor M.; Mironenko, Alexander N.; Kireeva, Elena V.

    2007-01-01

    Data on content of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and 3 H in water of the Tobol-Irtysh part of the Techa-Iset-Tobol-Irtysh-Ob river system (through which the 'Mayak' PA radioactive wastes are transported) are presented and discussed. The data were received in 2004-2005 under the ISTC project on radioecological monitoring of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Monthly observations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 3 H content in water in the area of the Tobol and Irtysh confluence have been conducted starting from May 2004. To obtain information on the investigated river system as a whole, the radioecological survey of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers at the section from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River was carried out in 2004. It is shown that the impact of 'Mayak' PA waste transport by 90 Sr is distinctly traced as far as the area of the Irtysh and Ob confluence

  13. On multiuser switched diversity transmission for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users share the spectrum with primary users. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting the user among those that satisfy the interference constraints and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level. The first scheme selects the user with the maximum SNR at the receiver, whereas in the second scheme the users are scanned in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition, we consider two power adaptive settings. In the on/off power adaptive setting, the users transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not while in the full power adaptive setting, the users vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results of our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load of both schemes. © 2012 ICST.

  14. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems With Multiuser Diversity Over Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-04-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD) FSO scheme in which the Nth best user is selected and the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. More specifically, we first present the statistics analysis for the considered system over both weak and strong atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these statistics, the outage probability, bit-error rate performance, average capacity, diversity order, and coverage are analyzed. Results show that the diversity order for the gamma-gamma fading is N min{α, β}/2, where N is the number of users, and α and β are the channel fading parameters related to the effective atmospheric conditions of the link.

  15. CRISPR-based immune systems of the Sulfolobales: complexity and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett, Roger Antony; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Vestergaard, Gisle Alberg

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR (cluster of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of Sulfolobus, targeting DNA and RNA respectively of invading viruses or plasmids are complex and diverse. We address their classification and functional diversity, and the wide sequence diversity of RAMP...... (repeat-associated mysterious protein)-motif containing proteins encoded in Cmr modules. Factors influencing maintenance of partially impaired CRISPR-based systems are discussed. The capacity for whole CRISPR transcripts to be generated despite the uptake of transcription signals within spacer sequences...... is considered. Targeting of protospacer regions of invading elements by Cas protein-crRNA (CRISPR RNA) complexes exhibit relatively low sequence stringency, but the integrity of protospacer-associated motifs appears to be important. Different mechanisms for circumventing or inactivating the immune systems...

  16. Connectivity of Multi-Channel Fluvial Systems: A Comparison of Topology Metrics for Braided Rivers and Delta Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Marra, W. A.; Addink, E. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    Advancing quantitative understanding of the structure and dynamics of complex networks has transformed research in many fields as diverse as protein interactions in a cell to page connectivity in the World Wide Web and relationships in human societies. However, Geosciences have not benefited much from this new conceptual framework, although connectivity is at the center of many processes in hydro-geomorphology. One of the first efforts in this direction was the seminal work of Smart and Moruzzi (1971), proposing the use of graph theory for studying the intricate structure of delta channel networks. In recent years, this preliminary work has precipitated in a body of research that examines the connectivity of multiple-channel fluvial systems, such as delta networks and braided rivers. In this work, we compare two approaches recently introduced in the literature: (1) Marra et al. (2014) utilized network centrality measures to identify important channels in a braided section of the Jamuna River, and used the changes of bifurcations within the network over time to explain the overall river evolution; and (2) Tejedor et al. (2015a,b) developed a set of metrics to characterize the complexity of deltaic channel networks, as well as defined a vulnerability index that quantifies the relative change of sediment and water delivery to the shoreline outlets in response to upstream perturbations. Here we present a comparative analysis of metrics of centrality and vulnerability applied to both braided and deltaic channel networks to depict critical channels in those systems, i.e., channels where a change would contribute more substantially to overall system changes, and to understand what attributes of interest in a channel network are most succinctly depicted in what metrics. Marra, W. A., Kleinhans, M. G., & Addink, E. A. (2014). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, doi:10.1002/esp.3482Smart, J. S., and V. L. Moruzzi (1971), Quantitative properties of delta channel networks

  17. Hidrochemical study of a fractured aquifer system in Precambrian rocks on the coast of the la Plata River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarequiz, R.; Morales, E.; Da Rosa, E.; Bittencourt, A.

    2004-01-01

    The studied system is located in Punta Espinillo area, in the Northwest of Montevideo department (U), next to the right margin of Santa Lucia River, in the mouth of it, into de la Plata river. The area is surrounded by the safety water of the la Plata river. The area is characterised by an intesive agricultural activity and has a high demand of water for irrigation systems, which one has not been rational plane. Nowadays, there is a great density of wells. The water is extracted from a fractured aquifer system that has exceptional water amounts, but the great exploitaition generaes high drawdwons, even coming to the complete depletion.

  18. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  19. Application of Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) for Dungun River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, I; Nor, N D M; Sidek, L M; Basri, H; F K; Hanapi, M N; Livia L

    2013-01-01

    The Northeast monsoon happening during the months of October until January is the major rainy season found in the eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The Dungun river basin (1,858 km 2 ) is exposed to this season thus experiencing characteristically regular flooding due to the prolong rainfall events. The annual rainfall over the river basins are 2,880 mm with great proportion falling in the months of December (19.4%). This study is to apply the Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) model which Dungun river basin has been chosen for this study as the catchments have range of flood and relevant data that can be used to develop the model. The satellite data used in this study is provided by JAXA Global Rainfall Watch. The main feature of this real-time flood analysis model is the satellite-based rainfall data input employed during the model creation phase. The performance of the model for the river basins from satellite and ground-based rainfall data are compared using three error analysis methods.

  20. Changes in atmospheric rivers and moisture transport over the Northeast Pacific and western North America in response to ENSO diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Zhou, Yang; Alexander, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    The year-to-year changes in atmospheric rivers (ARs) and moisture transport over the northeast Pacific and western North America are investigated during December to February (DJF) from 1979/80 to 2015/16. Changes in AR frequency, intensity, and landfall characteristics are compared between three ENSO phases: central Pacific El Niño (CPEN), eastern Pacific El Niño (EPEN), and La Niña (NINA). During EPEN events, the subtropical jet extends to the south and east with an anomalous cyclonic flow around a deeper Aleutian Low. More moisture is transported towards North America and AR frequency is increased over western North America. In CPEN events, the Aleutian low shifts further southward relative to its position in EPEN, resulting in an increase in the frequency and intensity of landfalling ARs over the southwestern US. In NINA events, the landfalling AR frequency is reduced associated with anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the eastern North Pacific. We diagnose the contribution of multiple factors to the seasonal mean moisture transport using moisture budgets. During the three ENSO phases, the change in low-frequency circulation (dynamical process) is the leading contributor to the seasonal mean moisture flux divergence, while the contributions of the synoptic anomalies and the change in moisture anomaly (thermodynamic process) are not significant along the west coast of North America.

  1. Occurrences of dissolved trace metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) in the Pearl River Estuary (China), a large river-groundwater-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Lin, Wenfang; Yang, Xiqian; Zhai, Weidong; Dai, Minhan; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2012-12-01

    This study for the first time examined dissolved metals (Cu, Cd, and Mn) together with dissolved oxygen and carbonate system in the whole Pearl River Estuary system, from the upper rivers to the groundwater discharges until the estuarine zone, and explored their potential impacts in the adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) during May-August 2009. This river-groundwater-estuary system was generally characterized by low dissolved metal levels as a whole, whilst subject to severe perturbations locally. In particular, higher dissolved Cu and Cd occurred in the North River (as high as 60 nmol/L of Cu and 0.99 nmol/L of Cd), as a result of an anthropogenic source from mining activities there. Dissolved Cu levels were elevated in the upper estuary near the city of Guangzhou (Cu: ˜40 nmol/L), which could be attributable to sewage and industrial effluent discharges there. Elevated dissolved metal levels (Cu: ˜20-40 nmol/L; Cd: ˜0.2-0.8 nmol/L) also occurred in the groundwaters and parts of the middle and lower estuaries, which could be attributable to a series of geochemical reactions, e.g., chloride-induced desorption from the suspended sediments, oxidation of metal sulfides, and the partial dissolution of minerals. The high river discharge during our sampling period (May-August 2009) significantly diluted anthropogenic signals in the estuarine mixing zone. Of particular note was the high river discharge (which may reach 18.5 times as high as in the dry season) that transported anthropogenic signals (as indicated by dissolved Cu and Cd) into the adjacent shelf waters of the northern SCS, and might have led to the usually high phytoplankton productivity there (chlorophyll-a value >10 μg/L).

  2. Bypass system modification at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River improved the survival of juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.W.; Sandford, B.P.; Reagan, R.E.; Gilbreath, L.G.; Meyer, E.B.; Ledgerwood, R.D.; Adams, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    From 1987 to 1992, we evaluated a fish bypass system at Bonneville Dam Powerhouse 2 on the Columbia River. The survival of subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha released into the system ranged from 0.774 to 0.911 and was significantly lower than the survival of test fish released into turbines and the area immediately below the powerhouse where bypass system flow reentered the river. Yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon and yearling coho salmon O. kisutch released into the bypass system were injured or descaled. Also, levels of blood plasma cortisol and lactate were significantly higher in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon that passed through the bypass system than in fish released directly into a net located over the bypass exit. This original system was then extensively modified using updated design criteria, and the site where juvenile fish reentered the river was relocated 2.8 km further downstream to reduce predation on bypassed fish by northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis. Based on studies conducted from 1999 to 2001, the new bypass system resulted in high fish survival, virtually no injuries to fish, fish passage times that were generally similar to water travel times, and mild stress responses from which fish recovered quickly. The mean estimated survival of subyearling Chinook salmon passing through the new bypass system was 0.946 in 2001, which was an usually low-flow year. Survival, physical condition, passage timing, and blood physiological indicators of stress were all useful metrics for assessing the performance of both bypass systems and are discussed. The engineering and hydraulic criteria used to design the new bypass system that resulted in improved fish passage conditions are described.

  3. Genetic diversity and dispersal of Phragmites australis in a small river system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fér, T.; Hroudová, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2009), s. 165-171 ISSN 0304-3770 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6111304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : genetic variation * long-distance dispersal * spatial autocorrelation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.697, year: 2009

  4. Geomorphology and River Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARY BRIERLEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering-dominated practices, visible in a "command and control" outlook on natural systems, have induced enormous damage to the environment. Biodiversity losses and declining provision of ecosystem services are testimony to the non-sustainable outcomes brought about by such practices. More environmentally friendly approaches that promote a harmonious relationship between human activities and nature are required. Moves towards an "ecosystem approach" to environmental management require coherent (integrative scientific guidance. Geomorphology, the study of the form of the earth, provides a landscape template with which to ground this process. This way of thinking respects the inherent diversity and complexity of natural systems. Examples of the transition toward such views in environmental practice are demonstrated by the use of science to guide river management, emphasising applications of the River Styles framework.

  5. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 10. Evaluation of Bird and Mammal Utilization of Dike Systems Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    systems at all river stages (Schramm and Pennington 1981; Pennington, Baker, and Bond 1983; Nailon and Pennington 1984). The pools contained in dike fields...Field Guide to Animal Tracks, Houghton-Mifflin Company, Boston, Mass. Nailon , R. W., and Pennington, C. H. 1984. "Fish of Two Dike Pools in the Lower

  6. Two Case Studies to Quantify Resilience across Food-Energy-Water Systems: the Columbia River Treaty and Adaptation in Yakima River Basin Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Richey, A.; Rushi, B. R.; Stockle, C.; Yoder, J.; Barik, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Rajagopalan, K.; Brady, M.; Barber, M. E.; Boll, J.; Padowski, J.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) plays a significant role in meeting agricultural and hydroelectric demands nationwide. Climatic and anthropogenic stressors, however, potentially threaten the productivity, resilience, and environmental health of the region. Our objective is to understand how resilience of each Food-Energy-Water (FEW) sector, and the combined Nexus, respond to exogenous perturbations and the extent to which technological and institutional advances can buffer these perturbations. In the process of taking information from complex integrated models and assessing resilience across FEW sectors, we start with two case studies: 1) Columbia River Treaty (CRT) with Canada that determines how multiple reservoirs in the Columbia River basin (CRB) are operated, and 2) climate change adaptation actions in the Yakima River basin (YRB). We discuss these case studies in terms of the similarities and contrasts related to FEW sectors and management complexities. Both the CRB and YBP systems are highly sensitive to climate change (they are both snowmelt-dominant) and already experience water conflict. The CRT is currently undergoing renegotiation; a new CRT will need to consider a much more comprehensive approach, e.g., treating environmental flows explicitly. The YRB also already experiences significant water conflict and thus the comprehensive Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP) is being pursued. We apply a new modeling framework that mechanistically captures the interactions between the FEW sectors to quantify the impacts of CRT and YBIP planning (as well as adaptation decisions taken by individuals, e.g., irrigators) on resilience in each sector. Proposed modification to the CRT may relieve impacts to multiple sectors. However, in the YRB, irrigators' actions to adapt to climate change (through investing in more efficient irrigation technology) could reduce downstream water availability for other users. Developing a process to quantify resilience to perturbations

  7. Measuring diversity in medical reports based on categorized attributes and international classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přečková Petra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Narrative medical reports do not use standardized terminology and often bring insufficient information for statistical processing and medical decision making. Objectives of the paper are to propose a method for measuring diversity in medical reports written in any language, to compare diversities in narrative and structured medical reports and to map attributes and terms to selected classification systems. Methods A new method based on a general concept of f-diversity is proposed for measuring diversity of medical reports in any language. The method is based on categorized attributes recorded in narrative or structured medical reports and on international classification systems. Values of categories are expressed by terms. Using SNOMED CT and ICD 10 we are mapping attributes and terms to predefined codes. We use f-diversities of Gini-Simpson and Number of Categories types to compare diversities of narrative and structured medical reports. The comparison is based on attributes selected from the Minimal Data Model for Cardiology (MDMC. Results We compared diversities of 110 Czech narrative medical reports and 1119 Czech structured medical reports. Selected categorized attributes of MDMC had mostly different numbers of categories and used different terms in narrative and structured reports. We found more than 60% of MDMC attributes in SNOMED CT. We showed that attributes in narrative medical reports had greater diversity than the same attributes in structured medical reports. Further, we replaced each value of category (term used for attributes in narrative medical reports by the closest term and the category used in MDMC for structured medical reports. We found that relative Gini-Simpson diversities in structured medical reports were significantly smaller than those in narrative medical reports except the "Allergy" attribute. Conclusions Terminology in narrative medical reports is not standardized. Therefore it is nearly

  8. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Sarwar

    2018-03-08

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix R, Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region's non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region's power producers to maximize the power system's reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed