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Sample records for diverse developmental physiological

  1. Microalgal distribution, diversity and photo-physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgal distribution, diversity and photo-physiological performance across five ... D'Esny (MAPD), the sandy beach of Blue Bay (SBBB) and the estuarine area of Le ... Microalgal density in the water column (micro-phytoplankton) was highest in ... Diatom was the most abundant microalgal group, followed by dinoflagellate ...

  2. Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Durán José

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features

  3. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  4. Neonatal Hemodynamics: From Developmental Physiology to Comprehensive Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine L. Vrancken

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of neonatal circulatory homeostasis is a real challenge, due to the complex physiology during postnatal transition and the inherent immaturity of the cardiovascular system and other relevant organs. It is known that abnormal cardiovascular function during the neonatal period is associated with increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Understanding the functional and structural characteristics of the neonatal circulation is, therefore, essential, as therapeutic hemodynamic interventions should be based on the assumed underlying (pathophysiology. The clinical assessment of systemic blood flow (SBF by indirect parameters, such as blood pressure, capillary refill time, heart rate, urine output, and central-peripheral temperature difference is inaccurate. As blood pressure is no surrogate for SBF, information on cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance should be obtained in combination with an evaluation of end organ perfusion. Accurate and reliable hemodynamic monitoring systems are required to detect inadequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation at an early stage before this result in irreversible damage. Also, the hemodynamic response to the initiated treatment should be re-evaluated regularly as changes in cardiovascular function can occur quickly. New insights in the understanding of neonatal cardiovascular physiology are reviewed and several methods for current and future neonatal hemodynamic monitoring are discussed.

  5. Early Developmental Conditioning of Later Health and Disease: Physiology or Pathophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M. A.; Gluckman, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental animal studies and epidemiological observations have shown that environmental influences during early development affect the risk of later pathophysiological processes associated with chronic, especially noncommunicable, disease (NCD). This field is recognized as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). We discuss the extent to which DOHaD represents the result of the physiological processes of developmental plasticity, which may have potential adverse consequences in terms of NCD risk later, or whether it is the manifestation of pathophysiological processes acting in early life but only becoming apparent as disease later. We argue that the evidence suggests the former, through the operation of conditioning processes induced across the normal range of developmental environments, and we summarize current knowledge of the physiological processes involved. The adaptive pathway to later risk accords with current concepts in evolutionary developmental biology, especially those concerning parental effects. Outside the normal range, effects on development can result in nonadaptive processes, and we review their underlying mechanisms and consequences. New concepts concerning the underlying epigenetic and other mechanisms involved in both disruptive and nondisruptive pathways to disease are reviewed, including the evidence for transgenerational passage of risk from both maternal and paternal lines. These concepts have wider implications for understanding the causes and possible prevention of NCDs such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, for broader social policy and for the increasing attention paid in public health to the lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. PMID:25287859

  6. Physiological variation as a mechanism for developmental caste-biasing in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapheim, Karen M; Smith, Adam R; Ihle, Kate E; Amdam, Gro V; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T

    2012-04-07

    Social castes of eusocial insects may have arisen through an evolutionary modification of an ancestral reproductive ground plan, such that some adults emerge from development physiologically primed to specialize on reproduction (queens) and others on maternal care expressed as allo-maternal behaviour (workers). This hypothesis predicts that variation in reproductive physiology should emerge from ontogeny and underlie division of labour. To test these predictions, we identified physiological links to division of labour in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee, Megalopta genalis. Queens are larger, have larger ovaries and have higher vitellogenin titres than workers. We then compared queens and workers with their solitary counterparts-solitary reproductive females and dispersing nest foundresses-to investigate physiological variation as a factor in caste evolution. Within dyads, body size and ovary development were the best predictors of behavioural class. Queens and dispersers are larger, with larger ovaries than their solitary counterparts. Finally, we raised bees in social isolation to investigate the influence of ontogeny on physiological variation. Body size and ovary development among isolated females were highly variable, and linked to differences in vitellogenin titres. As these are key physiological predictors of social caste, our results provide evidence for developmental caste-biasing in a facultatively eusocial bee.

  7. Phenotypic and genetic effects of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Castañeda

    Full Text Available A central problem in evolutionary physiology is to understand the relationship between energy metabolism and fitness-related traits. Most attempts to do so have been based on phenotypic correlations that are not informative for the evolutionary potential of natural populations. Here, we explored the effect of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits, their genetic (covariances and genetic architecture in Drosophila melanogaster. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated in two populations (San Fernando and Valdivia, Chile, using a half-sib family design where broods were split into ethanol-free and ethanol-supplemented conditions. Our findings show that metabolic rate, body mass and development times were sensitive (i.e., phenotypic plasticity to ethanol conditions and dependent on population origin. Significant heritabilities were found for all traits, while significant genetic correlations were only found between larval and total development time and between development time and metabolic rate for flies of the San Fernando population developed in ethanol-free conditions. Posterior analyses indicated that the G matrices differed between ethanol conditions for the San Fernando population (mainly explained by differences in genetic (covariances of developmental traits, whereas the Valdivia population exhibited similar G matrices between ethanol conditions. Our findings suggest that ethanol-free environment increases the energy available to reduce development time. Therefore, our results indicate that environmental ethanol could modify the process of energy allocation, which could have consequences on the evolutionary response of natural populations of D. melanogaster.

  8. Developmental light level affects growth, morphology, and leaf physiology of young carambola trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marler, T.E.; Schaffer, B.; Crane, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Growth and leaf physiology responses of container-grown 'Arkin' carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) trees to long-term exposure of approximately 25%, approximately 50%, or 100% sunlight were studied in four experiments in Guam and Florida. Shading increased rachis length and leaflet area, and decreased leaflet thickness. Shaded trees also had a more horizontal branch orientation. Shading reduced dark respiration (Rd) and light compensation and saturation points but increased chlorophyll concentration and N-use efficiency. Light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (A) was not affected by developmental light level. Trees in full sun had smaller total leaf area, canopy diameter, and shoot:root ratio and exhibited leaflet movement to avoid direct solar radiation. Also, trees grown in 100% sunlight had a more vertical branch orientation and greater stomatal density than shaded trees. The ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm) declined during midday in 100% sunlight trees. This pattern was accompanied by a midday suppression of A in 100% sunlight-grown trees in Guam. 'Arkin' carambola trees exposed to approximately 25%, approximately 50%, or 100% sunlight for up to 39 weeks exhibited physiological and morphological adaptations that resulted in similar growth. These results indicate that carambola efficiently adapts to different developmental light intensities

  9. Phenotypic and Genetic Effects of Contrasting Ethanol Environments on Physiological and Developmental Traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Luis E.; Nespolo, Roberto F.

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in evolutionary physiology is to understand the relationship between energy metabolism and fitness-related traits. Most attempts to do so have been based on phenotypic correlations that are not informative for the evolutionary potential of natural populations. Here, we explored the effect of contrasting ethanol environments on physiological and developmental traits, their genetic (co)variances and genetic architecture in Drosophila melanogaster. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated in two populations (San Fernando and Valdivia, Chile), using a half-sib family design where broods were split into ethanol-free and ethanol-supplemented conditions. Our findings show that metabolic rate, body mass and development times were sensitive (i.e., phenotypic plasticity) to ethanol conditions and dependent on population origin. Significant heritabilities were found for all traits, while significant genetic correlations were only found between larval and total development time and between development time and metabolic rate for flies of the San Fernando population developed in ethanol-free conditions. Posterior analyses indicated that the G matrices differed between ethanol conditions for the San Fernando population (mainly explained by differences in genetic (co)variances of developmental traits), whereas the Valdivia population exhibited similar G matrices between ethanol conditions. Our findings suggest that ethanol-free environment increases the energy available to reduce development time. Therefore, our results indicate that environmental ethanol could modify the process of energy allocation, which could have consequences on the evolutionary response of natural populations of D. melanogaster. PMID:23505567

  10. Functional Dysregulation of CDC42 Causes Diverse Developmental Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Simone; Krumbach, Oliver H F; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Coppola, Simona; Amin, Ehsan; Pannone, Luca; Nouri, Kazem; Farina, Luciapia; Dvorsky, Radovan; Lepri, Francesca; Buchholzer, Marcel; Konopatzki, Raphael; Walsh, Laurence; Payne, Katelyn; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Vergano, Samantha Schrier; Langley, Katherine G; Larsen, Douglas; Farwell, Kelly D; Tang, Sha; Mroske, Cameron; Gallotta, Ivan; Di Schiavi, Elia; Della Monica, Matteo; Lugli, Licia; Rossi, Cesare; Seri, Marco; Cocchi, Guido; Henderson, Lindsay; Baskin, Berivan; Alders, Mariëlle; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie; Nickerson, Deborah A; Chong, Jessica X; Meeks, Naomi; Brown, Kathleen; Causey, Tahnee; Cho, Megan T; Demuth, Stephanie; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Gelb, Bruce D; Bamshad, Michael J; Zenker, Martin; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza; Hennekam, Raoul C; Tartaglia, Marco; Mirzaa, Ghayda M

    2018-01-17

    Exome sequencing has markedly enhanced the discovery of genes implicated in Mendelian disorders, particularly for individuals in whom a known clinical entity could not be assigned. This has led to the recognition that phenotypic heterogeneity resulting from allelic mutations occurs more commonly than previously appreciated. Here, we report that missense variants in CDC42, a gene encoding a small GTPase functioning as an intracellular signaling node, underlie a clinically heterogeneous group of phenotypes characterized by variable growth dysregulation, facial dysmorphism, and neurodevelopmental, immunological, and hematological anomalies, including a phenotype resembling Noonan syndrome, a developmental disorder caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. In silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses demonstrate that mutations variably perturb CDC42 function by altering the switch between the active and inactive states of the GTPase and/or affecting CDC42 interaction with effectors, and differentially disturb cellular and developmental processes. These findings reveal the remarkably variable impact that dominantly acting CDC42 mutations have on cell function and development, creating challenges in syndrome definition, and exemplify the importance of functional profiling for syndrome recognition and delineation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RAC1 Missense Mutations in Developmental Disorders with Diverse Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Margot R F; Ansor, Nurhuda M; Kousi, Maria; Yue, Wyatt W; Tan, Perciliz L; Clarkson, Katie; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Corning, Ken; Jones, Julie R; Lam, Wayne W K; Mancini, Grazia M S; Marcelis, Carlo; Mohammed, Shehla; Pfundt, Rolph; Roifman, Maian; Cohn, Ronald; Chitayat, David; Millard, Tom H; Katsanis, Nicholas; Brunner, Han G; Banka, Siddharth

    2017-09-07

    RAC1 is a widely studied Rho GTPase, a class of molecules that modulate numerous cellular functions essential for normal development. RAC1 is highly conserved across species and is under strict mutational constraint. We report seven individuals with distinct de novo missense RAC1 mutations and varying degrees of developmental delay, brain malformations, and additional phenotypes. Four individuals, each harboring one of c.53G>A (p.Cys18Tyr), c.116A>G (p.Asn39Ser), c.218C>T (p.Pro73Leu), and c.470G>A (p.Cys157Tyr) variants, were microcephalic, with head circumferences between -2.5 to -5 SD. In contrast, two individuals with c.151G>A (p.Val51Met) and c.151G>C (p.Val51Leu) alleles were macrocephalic with head circumferences of +4.16 and +4.5 SD. One individual harboring a c.190T>G (p.Tyr64Asp) allele had head circumference in the normal range. Collectively, we observed an extraordinary spread of ∼10 SD of head circumferences orchestrated by distinct mutations in the same gene. In silico modeling, mouse fibroblasts spreading assays, and in vivo overexpression assays using zebrafish as a surrogate model demonstrated that the p.Cys18Tyr and p.Asn39Ser RAC1 variants function as dominant-negative alleles and result in microcephaly, reduced neuronal proliferation, and cerebellar abnormalities in vivo. Conversely, the p.Tyr64Asp substitution is constitutively active. The remaining mutations are probably weakly dominant negative or their effects are context dependent. These findings highlight the importance of RAC1 in neuronal development. Along with TRIO and HACE1, a sub-category of rare developmental disorders is emerging with RAC1 as the central player. We show that ultra-rare disorders caused by private, non-recurrent missense mutations that result in varying phenotypes are challenging to dissect, but can be delineated through focused international collaboration. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Katanin: A Sword Cutting Microtubules for Cellular, Developmental, and Physiological Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Luptovčiak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available KATANIN is a well-studied microtubule severing protein affecting microtubule organization and dynamic properties in higher plants. By regulating mitotic and cytokinetic and cortical microtubule arrays it is involved in the progression of cell division and cell division plane orientation. KATANIN is also involved in cell elongation and morphogenesis during plant growth. In this way KATANIN plays critical roles in diverse plant developmental processes including the development of pollen, embryo, seed, meristem, root, hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf, shoot, and silique. KATANIN-dependent microtubule regulation seems to be under the control of plant hormones. This minireview provides an overview on available KATANIN mutants and discusses advances in our understanding of KATANIN biological roles in plants.

  13. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  14. Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: evidence for developmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Brickman, Daniel; Gelman, Susan A

    2008-08-01

    Evaluating whether a limited sample of evidence provides a good basis for induction is a critical cognitive task. We hypothesized that whereas adults evaluate the inductive strength of samples containing multiple pieces of evidence by attending to the relations among the exemplars (e.g., sample diversity), six-year-olds would attend to the degree to which each individual exemplar in a sample independently appears informative (e.g., premise typicality). To test these hypotheses, participants were asked to select between diverse and non-diverse samples to help them learn about basic-level animal categories. Across various between-subject conditions (N=133), we varied the typicality present in the diverse and non-diverse samples. We found that adults reliably selected to examine diverse over non-diverse samples, regardless of exemplar typicality, six-year-olds preferred to examine samples containing typical exemplars, regardless of sample diversity, and nine-year-olds were somewhat in the midst of this developmental transition.

  15. Prologue: Toward Accurate Identification of Developmental Language Disorder Within Linguistically Diverse Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B

    2018-04-05

    Although the 5 studies presented within this clinical forum include children who differ widely in locality, language learning profile, and age, all were motivated by a desire to improve the accuracy at which developmental language disorder is identified within linguistically diverse schools. The purpose of this prologue is to introduce the readers to a conceptual framework that unites the studies while also highlighting the approaches and methods each research team is pursuing to improve assessment outcomes within their respective linguistically diverse community. A disorder within diversity framework is presented to replace previous difference vs. disorder approaches. Then, the 5 studies within the forum are reviewed by clinical question, type of tool(s), and analytical approach. Across studies of different linguistically diverse groups, research teams are seeking answers to similar questions about child language screening and diagnostic practices, using similar analytical approaches to answer their questions, and finding promising results with tools focused on morphosyntax. More studies that are modeled after or designed to extend those in this forum are needed to improve the accuracy at which developmental language disorder is identified.

  16. Functional diversity supports the physiological tolerance hypothesis for plant species richness along climatic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Marko J.; Grace, James B.; Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman

    2013-01-01

    1. The physiological tolerance hypothesis proposes that plant species richness is highest in warm and/or wet climates because a wider range of functional strategies can persist under such conditions. Functional diversity metrics, combined with statistical modeling, offer new ways to test whether diversity-environment relationships are consistent with this hypothesis. 2. In a classic study by R. H. Whittaker (1960), herb species richness declined from mesic (cool, moist, northerly) slopes to xeric (hot, dry, southerly) slopes. Building on this dataset, we measured four plant functional traits (plant height, specific leaf area, leaf water content and foliar C:N) and used them to calculate three functional diversity metrics (functional richness, evenness, and dispersion). We then used a structural equation model to ask if ‘functional diversity’ (modeled as the joint responses of richness, evenness, and dispersion) could explain the observed relationship of topographic climate gradients to species richness. We then repeated our model examining the functional diversity of each of the four traits individually. 3. Consistent with the physiological tolerance hypothesis, we found that functional diversity was higher in more favorable climatic conditions (mesic slopes), and that multivariate functional diversity mediated the relationship of the topographic climate gradient to plant species richness. We found similar patterns for models focusing on individual trait functional diversity of leaf water content and foliar C:N. 4. Synthesis. Our results provide trait-based support for the physiological tolerance hypothesis, suggesting that benign climates support more species because they allow for a wider range of functional strategies.

  17. Annual research review: Rare genotypes and childhood psychopathology--uncovering diverse developmental mechanisms of ADHD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerif, Gaia; Baker, Kate

    2015-03-01

    Through the increased availability and sophistication of genetic testing, it is now possible to identify causal diagnoses in a growing proportion of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition to developmental delay and intellectual disability, many genetic disorders are associated with high risks of psychopathology, which curtail the wellbeing of affected individuals and their families. Beyond the identification of significant clinical needs, understanding the diverse pathways from rare genetic mutations to cognitive dysfunction and emotional-behavioural disturbance has theoretical and practical utility. We overview (based on a strategic search of the literature) the state-of-the-art on causal mechanisms leading to one of the most common childhood behavioural diagnoses - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - in the context of specific genetic disorders. We focus on new insights emerging from the mapping of causal pathways from identified genetic differences to neuronal biology, brain abnormalities, cognitive processing differences and ultimately behavioural symptoms of ADHD. First, ADHD research in the context of rare genotypes highlights the complexity of multilevel mechanisms contributing to psychopathology risk. Second, comparisons between genetic disorders associated with similar psychopathology risks can elucidate convergent or distinct mechanisms at each level of analysis, which may inform therapeutic interventions and prognosis. Third, genetic disorders provide an unparalleled opportunity to observe dynamic developmental interactions between neurocognitive risk and behavioural symptoms. Fourth, variation in expression of psychopathology risk within each genetic disorder points to putative moderating and protective factors within the genome and the environment. A common imperative emerging within psychopathology research is the need to investigate mechanistically how developmental trajectories converge or diverge between and within

  18. Physiological Measures of Emotion from a Developmental Perspective: State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Buss, Kristin A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Bell, Martha Ann; Diaz, Anjolii; Adam, Emma K.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Schmidt, Louis A.; Feldman, Ruth; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Rigterink, Tami; Strang, Nicole M.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Pollak, Seth D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Kirwan, Michael; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany; Gunnar, Megan R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Boyce, W. Thomas; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Gates, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a dramatic growth in research examining the development of emotion from a physiological perspective. However, this widespread use of physiological measures to study emotional development coexists with relatively few guiding principles, thus reducing opportunities to move the field forward in innovative ways. The…

  19. Integrating 4-d light-sheet imaging with interactive virtual reality to recapitulate developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yichen; Yu, Jing; Abiri, Arash; Abiri, Parinaz; Lee, Juhyun; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Baek, Kyung In; Sevag Packard, René R.; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2018-02-01

    There currently is a limited ability to interactively study developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology. We therefore combined light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) with virtual reality (VR) to provide a hybrid platform for 3- dimensional (3-D) architecture and time-dependent cardiac contractile function characterization. By taking advantage of the rapid acquisition, high axial resolution, low phototoxicity, and high fidelity in 3-D and 4-D (3-D spatial + 1-D time or spectra), this VR-LSFM hybrid methodology enables interactive visualization and quantification otherwise not available by conventional methods such as routine optical microscopes. We hereby demonstrate multi-scale applicability of VR-LSFM to 1) interrogate skin fibroblasts interacting with a hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel, 2) navigate through the endocardial trabecular network during zebrafish development, and 3) localize gene therapy-mediated potassium channel expression in adult murine hearts. We further combined our batch intensity normalized segmentation (BINS) algorithm with deformable image registration (DIR) to interface a VR environment for the analysis of cardiac contraction. Thus, the VR-LSFM hybrid platform demonstrates an efficient and robust framework for creating a user-directed microenvironment in which we uncovered developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  20. Life under Multiple Extreme Conditions: Diversity and Physiology of the Halophilic Alkalithermophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Around the world, there are numerous alkaline, hypersaline environments that are heated either geothermally or through intense solar radiation. It was once thought that such harsh environments were inhospitable and incapable of supporting a variety of life. However, numerous culture-dependent and -independent studies revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and archaea that survive and grow under these multiple harsh conditions. This diversity includes the halophilic alkalithermophiles, a novel group of polyextremophiles that require for growth and proliferation the multiple extremes of high salinity, alkaline pH, and elevated temperature. Life under these conditions undoubtedly involves the development of unique physiological characteristics, phenotypic properties, and adaptive mechanisms that enable control of membrane permeability, control of intracellular osmotic balance, and stability of the cell wall, intracellular proteins, and other cellular constituents. This minireview highlights the ecology and growth characteristics of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles that have been isolated thus far. Biochemical, metabolic, and physiological properties of the extremely halophilic alkalithermophiles are described, and their roles in resistance to the combined stressors of high salinity, alkaline pH, and high temperature are discussed. The isolation of halophilic alkalithermophiles broadens the physicochemical boundaries for life and extends the boundaries for the combinations of the maximum salinity, pH, and temperature that can support microbial growth. PMID:22492435

  1. The role of reduced oxygen in the developmental physiology of growth and metamorphosis initiation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearing oxygen level is known to affect final body size in a variety of insects, but the physiological mechanisms by which oxygen affects size are incompletely understood. In Manduca and Drosophila, the larval size at which metamorphosis is initiated largely determines adult size, and metamorphosis ...

  2. Genetic diversity of cucumber estimated by morpho-physiological and EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhakar; Ansari, Waquar Akhter; Pandey, Maneesh; Singh, Bijendra

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, genetic variation among 40 cucumber genotypes was analyzed by means of morpho-physiological traits and 21 EST-SSR markers. Diversity was observed for morpho-physiological characters like days to 50% female flowering (37-46.9, number of fruits/plant (1.33-5.80), average fruit weight (41-333), vine length (36-364), relative water content (58.5-92.7), electrolyte leakage (15.9-37.1), photosynthetic efficiency (0.40-0.75) and chlorophyll concentration index (11.1-28.6). The pair wise Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.00 to 0.27 for quantitative traits and 0.24 to 0.96 for EST-SSR markers indicating that the accessions represent genetically diverse populations. With twenty-one EST-SSR markers, polymorphism revealed among 40 cucumber genotypes, number of alleles varied 2-6 with an average 3.05. Polymorphism information content varied from 0.002 to 0.989 (mean = 0.308). The number of effective allele (Ne), expected heterozygosity (He) and unbiased expected heterozygosity (uHe) of these EST-SSRs were 1.079-1.753, 0.074-0.428 and 0.074-0.434, respectively. Same 21 EST-SSR markers transferability checked in four other Cucumis species: snapmelon ( Cucumis melo var. momordica ), muskmelon ( Cucumis melo L.), pickling melon ( Cucumis melo var. conomon ) and wild muskmelon ( Cucumis melo var. agrestis ) with frequency of 61.9, 95.2, 76.2, and 76.2%, respectively. Present study provides useful information on variability, which can assist geneticists with desirable traits for cucumber germplasm utilization. Observed physiological parameters may assists in selection of genotype for abiotic stress tolerance also, EST-SSR markers may be useful for genetic studies in related species.

  3. Diversity of developmental patterns in achelate lobsters-today and in the Mesozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Joachim T; Audo, Denis; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Haug, Carolin

    2013-11-01

    Modern achelate lobsters, slipper and spiny lobsters, have a specific post-embryonic developmental pattern with the following phases: phyllosoma, nisto (slipper lobsters) or puerulus (spiny lobsters), juvenile and adult. The phyllosoma is a peculiar larva, which transforms through a metamorphic moult into another larval form, the nisto or puerulus which largely resembles the juvenile. Unlike the nisto and puerulus, the phyllosoma is characterised by numerous morphological differences to the adult, e.g. a thin head shield, elongate appendages, exopods on these appendages and a special claw. Our reinvestigation of the 85 million years old fossil "Eryoneicus sahelalmae" demonstrates that it represents an unusual type of achelatan lobster larva, characterised by a mixture of phyllosoma and post-phyllosoma characters. We ascribe it to its own genus: Polzicaris nov. gen. We study its significance by comparisons with other cases of Mesozoic fossil larvae also characterised by a mixture of characters. Accordingly, all these larvae are interpreted as ontogenetic intermediates between phyllosoma and post-phyllosoma morphology. Remarkably, most of the larvae show a unique mixture of retained larval and already developed post-larval features. Considering the different-and incompatible-mixture of characters of each of these larvae and their wide geographical and temporal distribution, we interpret all these larvae as belonging to distinct species. The particular character combinations in the different larvae make it currently difficult to reconstruct an evolutionary scenario with a stepwise character acquisition. Yet, it can be concluded that a larger diversity of larval forms and developmental patterns occurred in Mesozoic than in modern faunas.

  4. Large Variability in the Diversity of Physiologically Complex Surgical Procedures Exists Nationwide Among All Hospitals Including Among Large Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Thenuwara, Kokila; Lubarsky, David A

    2017-11-22

    Multiple previous studies have shown that having a large diversity of procedures has a substantial impact on quality management of hospital surgical suites. At hospitals with substantial diversity, unless sophisticated statistical methods suitable for rare events are used, anesthesiologists working in surgical suites will have inaccurate predictions of surgical blood usage, case durations, cost accounting and price transparency, times remaining in late running cases, and use of intraoperative equipment. What is unknown is whether large diversity is a feature of only a few very unique set of hospitals nationwide (eg, the largest hospitals in each state or province). The 2013 United States Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to study heterogeneity among 1981 hospitals in their diversities of physiologically complex surgical procedures (ie, the procedure codes). The diversity of surgical procedures performed at each hospital was quantified using a summary measure, the number of different physiologically complex surgical procedures commonly performed at the hospital (ie, 1/Herfindahl). A total of 53.9% of all hospitals commonly performed 3-fold larger diversity (ie, >30 commonly performed physiologically complex procedures). Larger hospitals had greater diversity than the small- and medium-sized hospitals (P 30 procedures (lower 99% CL, 71.9% of hospitals). However, there was considerable variability among the large teaching hospitals in their diversity (interquartile range of the numbers of commonly performed physiologically complex procedures = 19.3; lower 99% CL, 12.8 procedures). The diversity of procedures represents a substantive differentiator among hospitals. Thus, the usefulness of statistical methods for operating room management should be expected to be heterogeneous among hospitals. Our results also show that "large teaching hospital" alone is an insufficient description for accurate prediction of the extent to which a hospital sustains the

  5. The Mediator complex of Caenorhabditis elegans: insights into the developmental and physiological roles of a conserved transcriptional coregulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants, Jennifer M; Goh, Grace Y S; Taubert, Stefan

    2015-02-27

    The Mediator multiprotein complex ('Mediator') is an important transcriptional coregulator that is evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes. Although some Mediator subunits are essential for the transcription of all protein-coding genes, others influence the expression of only subsets of genes and participate selectively in cellular signaling pathways. Here, we review the current knowledge of Mediator subunit function in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a metazoan in which established and emerging genetic technologies facilitate the study of developmental and physiological regulation in vivo. In this nematode, unbiased genetic screens have revealed critical roles for Mediator components in core developmental pathways such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. More recently, important roles for C. elegans Mediator subunits have emerged in the regulation of lipid metabolism and of systemic stress responses, engaging conserved transcription factors such as nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). We emphasize instances where similar functions for individual Mediator subunits exist in mammals, highlighting parallels between Mediator subunit action in nematode development and in human cancer biology. We also discuss a parallel between the association of the Mediator subunit MED12 with several human disorders and the role of its C. elegans ortholog mdt-12 as a regulatory hub that interacts with numerous signaling pathways. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Plasticity in physiological condition of female brown bears across diverse ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Grant V.; Gustine, David; Mangipane, Buck A.; Joly, Kyle; Leacock, William; Mangipane, Lindsey; Erlenbach, Joy; Sorum, Mathew; Cameron, Matthew; Belant, Jerrold L.; Cambier, Troy

    2018-01-01

    Variation in life history strategies facilitates the near global distribution of mammals by expanding realized niche width. We investigated physiological plasticity in the spring body composition of adult female brown bears (Ursus arctos) across 4 diverse Alaskan ecosystems. Brown bears are a highly intelligent omnivore with a historic range spanning much of North America, Europe, and Asia. We hypothesized that body mass, fat mass, lean mass, and total caloric content would increase across populations with increasing food resource availability. Throughout their range, brown bears enter a period of torpor during winter months, decreasing their metabolic rate as an adaptation to this period of reduced food availability. They also give birth to and nourish offspring during this time. Due to this specific life history strategy, we further hypothesized that proportional body fat and the proportion of total calories derived from fat would be consistent across populations. Our results supported our first hypothesis: body, fat, and lean masses, and caloric content of bears across populations increased with the quality and abundance of available food. However, the proportional body fat content and proportion of calories from fat differed across populations indicating population-specific strategies to meet the demands of reduced seasonal food availability, offspring production and rearing, and climate as well as some plasticity to respond to environmental change or ecosystem perturbations. Investigations of body condition and energetics benefit from combined assessments of absolute, proportional, and caloric metrics to understand the nuances of brown bear physiological dynamics across and within populations.

  7. Implementing sponge physiological and genomic information to enhance the diversity of its culturable associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Adi; Keren, Ray; Haber, Markus; Schwartz, Inbar; Ilan, Micha

    2014-02-01

    In recent years new approaches have emerged for culturing marine environmental bacteria. They include the use of novel culture media, sometimes with very low-nutrient content, and a variety of growth conditions such as temperature, oxygen levels, and different atmospheric pressures. These approaches have largely been neglected when it came to the cultivation of sponge-associated bacteria. Here, we used physiological and environmental conditions to reflect the environment of sponge-associated bacteria along with genomic data of the prominent sponge symbiont Candidatus Poribacteria sp. WGA-4E, to cultivate bacteria from the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei. Designing culturing conditions to fit the metabolic needs of major bacterial taxa present in the sponge, through a combined use of diverse culture media compositions with aerobic and microaerophilic states, and addition of antibiotics, yielded higher diversity of the cultured bacteria and led to the isolation of novel sponge-associated and sponge-specific bacteria. In this work, 59 OTUs of six phyla were isolated. Of these, 22 have no close type strains at the species level (< 97% similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence), representing novel bacteria species, and some are probably new genera and even families. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Field transcriptome revealed critical developmental and physiological transitions involved in the expression of growth potential in japonica rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamatsuki Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on synergistic interactions between internal and external signals, and yield potential of crops is a manifestation of how these complex factors interact, particularly at critical stages of development. As an initial step towards developing a systems-level understanding of the biological processes underlying the expression of overall agronomic potential in cereal crops, a high-resolution transcriptome analysis of rice was conducted throughout life cycle of rice grown under natural field conditions. Results A wide range of gene expression profiles based on 48 organs and tissues at various developmental stages identified 731 organ/tissue specific genes as well as 215 growth stage-specific expressed genes universally in leaf blade, leaf sheath, and root. Continuous transcriptome profiling of leaf from transplanting until harvesting further elucidated the growth-stage specificity of gene expression and uncovered two major drastic changes in the leaf transcriptional program. The first major change occurred before the panicle differentiation, accompanied by the expression of RFT1, a putative florigen gene in long day conditions, and the downregulation of the precursors of two microRNAs. This transcriptome change was also associated with physiological alterations including phosphate-homeostasis state as evident from the behavior of several key regulators such as miR399. The second major transcriptome change occurred just after flowering, and based on analysis of sterile mutant lines, we further revealed that the formation of strong sink, i.e., a developing grain, is not the major cause but is rather a promoter of this change. Conclusions Our study provides not only the genetic basis for functional genomics in rice but also new insight into understanding the critical physiological processes involved in flowering and seed development, that could lead to novel strategies for optimizing crop productivity.

  9. H2B ubiquitination: Conserved molecular mechanism, diverse physiologic functions of the E3 ligase during meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Cao, Chunwei; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Jianguo; Li, Wei

    2017-09-03

    RNF20/Bre1 mediated H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) has various physiologic functions. Recently, we found that H2Bub participates in meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation during meiosis. We then analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the E3 ligase for H2Bub, its E2 Rad6 and their partner WW domain-containing adaptor with a coiled-coil (WAC) or Lge1, and found that the molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. However, RNF20 has diverse physiologic functions in different organisms, which might be caused by the evolutionary divergency of their domain/motif architectures. In the current extra view, we not only elucidate the evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub, but also discuss the diverse physiologic functions of RNF20 during meiosis.

  10. Developmental Changes in the Consideration of Sample Diversity in Inductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.; Brickman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Determining whether a sample provides a good basis for broader generalizations is a basic challenge of inductive reasoning. Adults apply a diversity-based strategy to this challenge, expecting diverse samples to be a better basis for generalization than homogeneous samples. For example, adults expect that a property shared by two diverse mammals…

  11. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  12. Diversity of immunoglobulin lambda light chain gene usage over developmental stages in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Tseng, Chia T; Felippe, M Julia B

    2014-10-01

    To further studies of neonatal immune responses to pathogens and vaccination, we investigated the dynamics of B lymphocyte development and immunoglobulin (Ig) gene diversity. Previously we demonstrated that equine fetal Ig VDJ sequences exhibit combinatorial and junctional diversity levels comparable to those of adult Ig VDJ sequences. Herein, RACE clones from fetal, neonatal, foal, and adult lymphoid tissue were assessed for Ig lambda light chain combinatorial, junctional, and sequence diversity. Remarkably, more lambda variable genes (IGLV) were used during fetal life than later stages and IGLV gene usage differed significantly with time, in contrast to the Ig heavy chain. Junctional diversity measured by CDR3L length was constant over time. Comparison of Ig lambda transcripts to germline revealed significant increases in nucleotide diversity over time, even during fetal life. These results suggest that the Ig lambda light chain provides an additional dimension of diversity to the equine Ig repertoire. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-Service Teachers' Dispositions towards Diversity: Arguing for a Developmental Hierarchy of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carmen; Ballantyne, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This article explores Australian pre-service teachers' beliefs about and attitudes towards diversity. Building on Garmon's [Garmon, M. A. (2004). "Changing preservice teachers' attitudes/beliefs about diversity: what are the critical factors?" "Journal of Teacher Education, 55"(3), 201-213] argument that there are three…

  14. Bacterial diversity in Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, guano: molecular and morpho-physiological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowski, Marek K; Weglenski, Piotr; Golik, Pawel; Sasin, Joanna M; Borsuk, Piotr; Zmuda, Magdalena J; Stankovic, Anna

    2004-11-01

    The total number of bacteria and culturable bacteria in Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) guano was determined during 42 days of decomposition in a location adjacent to the rookery in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. Of the culturable bacteria, 72 randomly selected colonies were described using 49 morpho-physiological tests, 27 of which were subsequently considered significant in characterizing and differentiating the isolates. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene in each of 72 pure isolates, three major phylogenetic groups were identified, namely the Moraxellaceae/Pseudomonadaceae (29 isolates), the Flavobacteriaceae (14), and the Micrococcaceae (29). Grouping of the isolates on the basis of morpho-physiological tests (whether 49 or 27 parameters) showed similar results to those based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clusters were characterized by considerable intra-cluster variation in both 16S rRNA gene sequences and morpho-physiological responses. High diversity in abundance and morphometry of total bacterial communities during penguin guano decomposition was supported by image analysis of epifluorescence micrographs. The results indicate that the bacterial community in penguin guano is not only one of the richest in Antarctica, but is extremely diverse, both phylogenetically and morpho-physiologically.

  15. Maternal dietary free or bound fructose diversely influence developmental programming of lipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuruk, Armagan Aytug; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. Methods Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or ...

  16. Maternal dietary free or bound fructose diversely influence developmental programming of lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Armagan Aytug; Nergiz-Unal, Reyhan

    2017-12-01

    Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or water containing maltodextrin (vehicle), fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) containing 55% fructose, sucrose (20% w/v) for 12 weeks before mating and throughout the pregnancy and lactation periods. Body weight, water, and feed intake were measured throughout the study. At the end of the lactation period, blood was drawn to determine the fasting levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in blood. Triglycerides and acetyl Co-A Carboxylase-1 (ACC1) levels in livers were analyzed, and insulin resistance was calculated. The energy intake of dams in the HFCS group was higher than in the fructose group, while weight gain was less in the HFCS group than in the fructose group. HFCS resulted in greater insulin resistance in dams, whereas free fructose had a robust effect on the fetal programming of insulin resistance. Free fructose and HFCS in the maternal diet increased blood and liver triglycerides and NEFA content in pups. Furthermore, fructose and HFCS exposure increased phosphorylated ACC1 as compared to maltodextrin and control, indicating greater fatty acid synthesis in pups and dams. Different types of added sugar in the maternal diet have different metabolic effects on the developmental programming of lipogenesis. Consequently, high fructose intake via processed foods may increase the risk for chronic diseases, and free fructose might contribute to developmental programming of chronic diseases more than bound fructose.

  17. Beyond the Baby and the Bathwater: Postdualistic Developmental Psychologies for Diverse Childhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Erica

    2001-01-01

    Argues for departure from prevailing isolationist research and policy focus on young children. Supports analysis of how diverse contexts and environments not only support or surround children's development but also how the cultural "bathwater" enters into the shaping and elaboration of the baby it supports. Focuses on child development…

  18. Migratory behavior and physiological development as potential determinants of life history diversity in fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall‐run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in both free‐flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio‐tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were higher in the free‐flowing Clearwater River than in impounded reaches. This supports the notion that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish's physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches, where water velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lowermost reach of Lower Granite Reservoir, suggesting that the behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast with those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings despite similarity in hydrodynamic conditions between the two studies. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater River migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr‐like in their development and never showed the increase in gill Na+/K+‐ATPase activity displayed by smolts from the Snake River. Results from this study provide evidence that behavioral and life history differences between Snake and Clearwater River subyearlings may have a physiological basis that is modified by environmental conditions.

  19. Migratory Behavior and Physiological Development as Potential Determinants of Life History Diversity in Fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, 5501-A Cook-Underwood Road Cook Washington 98605 USA; Kock, Tobias J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, 5501-A Cook-Underwood Road Cook Washington 98605 USA; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Post Office Box 18 Ahsahka Idaho 81530 USA; Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Post Office Box 999 Richland Washington 99352 USA; Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Post Office Box 999 Richland Washington 99352 USA

    2018-03-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in free-flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio-tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were highest in the free-flowing Clearwater River compared to impounded reaches. This provided support for our hypothesis that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish’s physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches where velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lower-most reach of Lower Granite Reservoir suggesting that behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings in spite of hydrodynamic conditions being similar. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater river migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr-like in their development and never showed an increase in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity as did smolts from the Snake River. The later emergence timing and cooler rearing temperatures in the Clearwater River may suppress normal physiological development that causes many fish to delay downstream movement and adopt a yearling life history strategy.

  20. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  1. An Electro-Physiological Temporal Principal Component Analysis of Processing Stages of Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltesz, Fruzsina; Szucs, Denes

    2009-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) still lacks a generally accepted definition. A major problem is that the cognitive component processes contributing to arithmetic performance are still poorly defined. By a reanalysis of our previous event-related brain potential (ERP) data (Soltesz et al., 2007) here our objective was to identify and compare…

  2. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, Charlotte D.; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Muyzer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  3. Metagenomic Insights into the Uncultured Diversity and Physiology of Microbes in Four Hypersaline Soda Lake Brines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavourakis, C.D.; Ghai, R.; Rodriguez-valera, F.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tringe, S.G.; Hugenholtz, P.; Muyzer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still

  4. Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Sho; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2016-11-26

    The aim of this study was to obtain primary information about the global diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by evaluating morphological, physiological and isozyme variation. A total of 107 garlic accessions collected worldwide were grown in Yamaguchi, Japan. Five morphological traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter, number of cloves per bulb, number of bulbils and scape length) and one physiological trait (bolting period) of the collected garlic showed wide variation. Meanwhile, a total of 140 garlic accessions, including the 107 mentioned above, were characterized by leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) isozyme analyses; they clearly showed polymorphisms in putative isozyme loci (Lap-1, Lap-2 and Pgi-1). Allelic frequencies were estimated in each group of accessions categorized by their geographical origin, and the observed (H o ) and expected (H e ) heterozygosities were calculated. The allelic frequencies differed between groups. A principal component analysis based on morpho-physiological data indicated a grouping of the garlic accessions into Central Asian and Northern Mediterranean groups as well as others. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits, on the assumption that ancestral domesticated garlic populations have adapted in various regions using standing variation or mutations that accumulated during expansion, and have evolved along with human-preferred traits over a long history of cultivation.

  5. Diversity of Physiological Traits In jerusalem Artichoke genotypes under Non-stress and Drought Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttanaprasert, R.; Banterng, P.; Vorasoot, N.; Kesmala, T.; Patanothai, A.; Jogloy, S.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological traits such as SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), specific leaf area (SLA) and harvest index (HI) play an important role in crop yield. The objectives of this work were to study the effect of drought stress on HI, SCMR and SLA and explore genetic variability for these physiological traits in Jerusalem artichoke (JA) (Helianthus tuberosus L.). Field experiments were conducted in the dry period of 2010/11 and 2011/12 in the Northeast of Thailand using a strip plot design with four replications. A horizontal factor was three different water regimes (W1:100 percent Crop water requirement (ETcrop), W2: 75 percent ETcrop and W3: 45 percent ETcrop) and a vertical factor was 40 JA genotypes. Measurements on HI, relative water content (RWC), SLA and SCMR were conducted at 40, 60 and 70 days after transplantation. Drought stress significantly reduced RWC and SLA but significantly increased SCMR. High variations in SCMR (32-59) and SLA (78-213 cm/sup 2/ g/sup -1/) were found among genotypes. The correlations between HI and SCMR (r = 0.56 to 0.78, p<=0.01) were positive and significant, whereas the respective ones between HI and SLA (r = -0.60 to -0.76, p<=0.01) were negative and significant as those between SCMR and SLA (r = -0.73 to -0.90, p<=0.01). These findings suggested that SCMR was linked with SLA and HI in JA. SCMR could be used as a physiological trait for indirect selection for HI and productivity under various water regimes in JA. (author)

  6. United in Diversity : A Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Subpopulations in the Basal Ganglia Circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Viereckel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia consist of a number of different nuclei that form a diverse circuitry of GABAergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. This complex network is further organized in subcircuits that govern limbic and motor functions in humans and other vertebrates. Due to the interconnection of the individual structures, dysfunction in one area or cell population can affect the entire network, leading to synaptic and molecular alterations in the circuitry as a whole. The studies in this ...

  7. Physiological genomics of response to soil drying in diverse Arabidopsis accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, David L; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Sen, Saunak; Wayne, Tierney; Juenger, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana, like many species, is characterized by abundant genetic variation. This variation is rapidly being cataloged at the sequence level, but careful dissection of genetic variation in whole-organism responses to stresses encountered in the natural environment are lacking; this functional variation can be exploited as a natural mutant screen to determine gene function. Here, we document physiological and transcriptomic response to soil drying in 17 natural accessions of Arabidopsis. By imposing ecologically realistic stress conditions, we found that acclimation in Arabidopsis involved a strong signature of increased investment in photosynthesis, carbohydrate turnover, and root growth. Our results extend previous work in the Columbia accession suggesting that abscisic acid signaling pathways play an important role in drought stress response. We also identified several mechanisms, including an increase in leaf nitrogen concentration and upregulation of two-component signaling relays, that were common to most natural accessions but had not been identified in studies using only the Columbia accession. Principal component analysis reveals strong correlations between suites of genes and specific physiological responses to stress. The functional variants we identified may represent adaptive mutations in natural habitats and useful variants for agronomic improvement of crop species.

  8. Low-dose ionizing radiation limitations to seed germination: Results from a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hu, Dawei; Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Qin, Youcai; Sun, Yi; Liu, Dianlei; Li, Lei; Liu, Hong

    2017-08-01

    There is much uncertainty about the risks of seed germination after repeated or protracted environmental low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination using a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation. A low-dose ionizing radiation environment simulator was built to investigate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds germination process and then a kinetic model expressing the relationship between wheat seed germination dynamics and low-dose ionizing radiation intensity variations was developed by experimental data, plant physiology, relevant hypotheses and system dynamics, and sufficiently validated and accredited by computer simulation. Germination percentages were showing no differences in response to different dose rates. However, root and shoot lengths were reduced significantly. Plasma governing equations were set up and the finite element analysis demonstrated H 2 O, CO 2 , O 2 as well as the seed physiological responses to the low-dose ionizing radiation. The kinetic model was highly valid, and simultaneously the related influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination proposed in the modeling process was also adequately verified. Collectively these data demonstrate that low-dose ionizing radiation has an important effect on absorbing water, consuming O 2 and releasing CO 2 , which means the risk for embryo and endosperm development was higher. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aeolian dispersal of bacteria in southwest Greenland: their sources, abundance, diversity and physiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Starnawski, Piotr; Lever, Mark; Finster, Kai

    2018-04-01

    The Arctic is undergoing dramatic climatic changes that cause profound transformations in its terrestrial ecosystems and consequently in the microbial communities that inhabit them. The assembly of these communities is affected by aeolian deposition. However, the abundance, diversity, sources and activity of airborne microorganisms in the Arctic are poorly understood. We studied bacteria in the atmosphere over southwest Greenland and found that the diversity of bacterial communities correlated positively with air temperature and negatively with relative humidity. The communities consisted of 1.3×103 ± 1.0×103 cells m-3, which were aerosolized from local terrestrial environments or transported from marine, glaciated and terrestrial surfaces over long distances. On average, airborne bacterial cells displayed a high activity potential, reflected in the high 16S rRNA copy number (590 ± 300 rRNA cell-1), that correlated positively with water vapor pressure. We observed that bacterial clades differed in their activity potential. For instance, a high activity potential was seen for Rubrobacteridae and Clostridiales, while a low activity potential was observed for Proteobacteria. Of those bacterial families that harbor ice-nucleation active species, which are known to facilitate freezing and may thus be involved in cloud and rain formation, cells with a high activity potential were rare in air, but were enriched in rain.

  10. Phylogenetic and physiological diversity of microorganisms isolated from a deep greenland glacier ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, V. I.; Sheridan, P. P.; Brenchley, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied a sample from the GISP 2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project) ice core to determine the diversity and survival of microorganisms trapped in the ice at least 120,000 years ago. Previously, we examined the phylogenetic relationships among 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences in a clone library obtained by PCR amplification from genomic DNA extracted from anaerobic enrichments. Here we report the isolation of nearly 800 aerobic organisms that were grouped by morphology and amplified rDNA restriction analysis patterns to select isolates for further study. The phylogenetic analyses of 56 representative rDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: the high-G+C gram-positives, low-G+C gram-positives, Proteobacteria, and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The most abundant and diverse isolates were within the high-G+C gram-positive cluster that had not been represented in the clone library. The Jukes-Cantor evolutionary distance matrix results suggested that at least 7 isolates represent new species within characterized genera and that 49 are different strains of known species. The isolates were further categorized based on the isolation conditions, temperature range for growth, enzyme activity, antibiotic resistance, presence of plasmids, and strain-specific genomic variations. A significant observation with implications for the development of novel and more effective cultivation methods was that preliminary incubation in anaerobic and aerobic liquid prior to plating on agar media greatly increased the recovery of CFU from the ice core sample.

  11. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J; Birarda, Giovanni; Auerbach, Anna; Koskinen, Kaisa; Wolf, Peter; Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2017-06-22

    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or younger than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. Amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.

  12. Mammalian sleep dynamics: how diverse features arise from a common physiological framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J K Phillips

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian sleep varies widely, ranging from frequent napping in rodents to consolidated blocks in primates and unihemispheric sleep in cetaceans. In humans, rats, mice and cats, sleep patterns are orchestrated by homeostatic and circadian drives to the sleep-wake switch, but it is not known whether this system is ubiquitous among mammals. Here, changes of just two parameters in a recent quantitative model of this switch are shown to reproduce typical sleep patterns for 17 species across 7 orders. Furthermore, the parameter variations are found to be consistent with the assumptions that homeostatic production and clearance scale as brain volume and surface area, respectively. Modeling an additional inhibitory connection between sleep-active neuronal populations on opposite sides of the brain generates unihemispheric sleep, providing a testable hypothetical mechanism for this poorly understood phenomenon. Neuromodulation of this connection alone is shown to account for the ability of fur seals to transition between bihemispheric sleep on land and unihemispheric sleep in water. Determining what aspects of mammalian sleep patterns can be explained within a single framework, and are thus universal, is essential to understanding the evolution and function of mammalian sleep. This is the first demonstration of a single model reproducing sleep patterns for multiple different species. These wide-ranging findings suggest that the core physiological mechanisms controlling sleep are common to many mammalian orders, with slight evolutionary modifications accounting for interspecies differences.

  13. Diversity, Localization, and Physiological Properties of Filamentous Microbes Belonging to Chloroflexi Subphylum I in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Methanogenic Sludge Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that the thermophilic filamentous anaerobe Anaerolinea thermophila, which is the first cultured representative of subphylum I of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi, not only was one of the predominant constituents of thermophilic sludge granules but also was a causative agent of filamentous sludge bulking in a thermophilic (55°C) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in which high-strength organic wastewater was treated (Y. Sekiguchi, H. Takahashi, Y. Kamagata, A. Ohashi, and H. Harada, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:5740-5749, 2001). To further elucidate the ecology and function of Anaerolinea-type filamentous microbes in UASB sludge granules, we surveyed the diversity, distribution, and physiological properties of Chloroflexi subphylum I microbes residing in UASB granules. Five different types of mesophilic and thermophilic UASB sludge were used to analyze the Chloroflexi subphylum I populations. 16S rRNA gene cloning-based analyses using a 16S rRNA gene-targeted Chloroflexi-specific PCR primer set revealed that all clonal sequences were affiliated with the Chloroflexi subphylum I group and that a number of different phylotypes were present in each clone library, suggesting the ubiquity and vast genetic diversity of these populations in UASB sludge granules. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the three different types of mesophilic sludge granules using a Chloroflexi-specific probe suggested that all probe-reactive cells had a filamentous morphology and were widely distributed within the sludge granules. The FISH observations also indicated that the Chloroflexi subphylum I bacteria were not always the predominant populations within mesophilic sludge granules, in contrast to thermophilic sludge granules. We isolated two mesophilic strains and one thermophilic strain belonging to the Chloroflexi subphylum I group. The physiological properties of these isolates suggested that these populations may contribute to the

  14. Explaining bathymetric diversity patterns in marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes: physiological contributions to adaptation of life at depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Thatje, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Bathymetric biodiversity patterns of marine benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes have been identified in the extant fauna of the deep continental margins. Depth zonation is widespread and evident through a transition between shelf and slope fauna from the shelf break to 1000 m, and a transition between slope and abyssal fauna from 2000 to 3000 m; these transitions are characterised by high species turnover. A unimodal pattern of diversity with depth peaks between 1000 and 3000 m, despite the relatively low area represented by these depths. Zonation is thought to result from the colonisation of the deep sea by shallow-water organisms following multiple mass extinction events throughout the Phanerozoic. The effects of low temperature and high pressure act across hierarchical levels of biological organisation and appear sufficient to limit the distributions of such shallow-water species. Hydrostatic pressures of bathyal depths have consistently been identified experimentally as the maximum tolerated by shallow-water and upper bathyal benthic invertebrates at in situ temperatures, and adaptation appears required for passage to deeper water in both benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes. Together, this suggests that a hyperbaric and thermal physiological bottleneck at bathyal depths contributes to bathymetric zonation. The peak of the unimodal diversity-depth pattern typically occurs at these depths even though the area represented by these depths is relatively low. Although it is recognised that, over long evolutionary time scales, shallow-water diversity patterns are driven by speciation, little consideration has been given to the potential implications for species distribution patterns with depth. Molecular and morphological evidence indicates that cool bathyal waters are the primary site of adaptive radiation in the deep sea, and we hypothesise that bathymetric variation in speciation rates could drive the unimodal diversity-depth pattern over time. Thermal

  15. Physiological Responses of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to Short Periods of Water Stress During Different Developmental Stages

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vurayai; V. Emongor and B. Moseki

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the responses of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) to short periods of water stress imposed at different growth stages, and the recuperative ability of the species from drought stress. A major problem associated with Bambara groundnut production is its very low yields due to intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal variability in rainfall in semi-arid regions. The response pattern of physiological processes to water stress imposed at different growth ...

  16. In-situ effects of eutrophication and overfishing on physiology and bacterial diversity of the red sea coral Acropora hemprichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Christian; Villa Lizcano, Javier Felipe; Bayer, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Aranda, Manuel; Wild, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs of the Central Red Sea display a high degree of endemism, and are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic effects due to intense local coastal development measures. Overfishing and eutrophication are among the most significant local pressures on these reefs, but there is no information available about their potential effects on the associated microbial community. Therefore, we compared holobiont physiology and 16S-based bacterial communities of tissue and mucus of the hard coral Acropora hemprichii after 1 and 16 weeks of in-situ inorganic nutrient enrichment (via fertilizer diffusion) and/or herbivore exclusion (via caging) in an offshore reef of the Central Red Sea. Simulated eutrophication and/or overfishing treatments did not affect coral physiology with respect to coral respiration rates, chlorophyll a content, zooxanthellae abundance, or δ (15)N isotopic signatures. The bacterial community of A. hemprichii was rich and uneven, and diversity increased over time in all treatments. While distinct bacterial species were identified as a consequence of eutrophication, overfishing, or both, two bacterial species that could be classified to the genus Endozoicomonas were consistently abundant and constituted two thirds of bacteria in the coral. Several nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria were found in the coral specimens that were exposed to experimentally increased nutrients. However, no particular bacterial species was consistently associated with the coral under a given treatment and the single effects of manipulated eutrophication and overfishing could not predict the combined effect. Our data underlines the importance of conducting field studies in a holobiont framework, taking both, physiological and molecular measures into account.

  17. In-situ effects of eutrophication and overfishing on physiology and bacterial diversity of the red sea coral Acropora hemprichii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jessen

    Full Text Available Coral reefs of the Central Red Sea display a high degree of endemism, and are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic effects due to intense local coastal development measures. Overfishing and eutrophication are among the most significant local pressures on these reefs, but there is no information available about their potential effects on the associated microbial community. Therefore, we compared holobiont physiology and 16S-based bacterial communities of tissue and mucus of the hard coral Acropora hemprichii after 1 and 16 weeks of in-situ inorganic nutrient enrichment (via fertilizer diffusion and/or herbivore exclusion (via caging in an offshore reef of the Central Red Sea. Simulated eutrophication and/or overfishing treatments did not affect coral physiology with respect to coral respiration rates, chlorophyll a content, zooxanthellae abundance, or δ (15N isotopic signatures. The bacterial community of A. hemprichii was rich and uneven, and diversity increased over time in all treatments. While distinct bacterial species were identified as a consequence of eutrophication, overfishing, or both, two bacterial species that could be classified to the genus Endozoicomonas were consistently abundant and constituted two thirds of bacteria in the coral. Several nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria were found in the coral specimens that were exposed to experimentally increased nutrients. However, no particular bacterial species was consistently associated with the coral under a given treatment and the single effects of manipulated eutrophication and overfishing could not predict the combined effect. Our data underlines the importance of conducting field studies in a holobiont framework, taking both, physiological and molecular measures into account.

  18. In-situ effects of eutrophication and overfishing on physiology and bacterial diversity of the red sea coral Acropora hemprichii.

    KAUST Repository

    Jessen, Christian

    2013-04-22

    Coral reefs of the Central Red Sea display a high degree of endemism, and are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic effects due to intense local coastal development measures. Overfishing and eutrophication are among the most significant local pressures on these reefs, but there is no information available about their potential effects on the associated microbial community. Therefore, we compared holobiont physiology and 16S-based bacterial communities of tissue and mucus of the hard coral Acropora hemprichii after 1 and 16 weeks of in-situ inorganic nutrient enrichment (via fertilizer diffusion) and/or herbivore exclusion (via caging) in an offshore reef of the Central Red Sea. Simulated eutrophication and/or overfishing treatments did not affect coral physiology with respect to coral respiration rates, chlorophyll a content, zooxanthellae abundance, or δ (15)N isotopic signatures. The bacterial community of A. hemprichii was rich and uneven, and diversity increased over time in all treatments. While distinct bacterial species were identified as a consequence of eutrophication, overfishing, or both, two bacterial species that could be classified to the genus Endozoicomonas were consistently abundant and constituted two thirds of bacteria in the coral. Several nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria were found in the coral specimens that were exposed to experimentally increased nutrients. However, no particular bacterial species was consistently associated with the coral under a given treatment and the single effects of manipulated eutrophication and overfishing could not predict the combined effect. Our data underlines the importance of conducting field studies in a holobiont framework, taking both, physiological and molecular measures into account.

  19. Development of a Combined In Vitro Physiologically Based Kinetic (PBK) and Monte Carlo Modelling Approach to Predict Interindividual Human Variation in Phenol-Induced Developmental Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikwold, Marije; Spenkelink, Bert; Woutersen, Ruud A; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Punt, Ans

    2017-06-01

    With our recently developed in vitro physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling approach, we could extrapolate in vitro toxicity data to human toxicity values applying PBK-based reverse dosimetry. Ideally information on kinetic differences among human individuals within a population should be considered. In the present study, we demonstrated a modelling approach that integrated in vitro toxicity data, PBK modelling and Monte Carlo simulations to obtain insight in interindividual human kinetic variation and derive chemical specific adjustment factors (CSAFs) for phenol-induced developmental toxicity. The present study revealed that UGT1A6 is the primary enzyme responsible for the glucuronidation of phenol in humans followed by UGT1A9. Monte Carlo simulations were performed taking into account interindividual variation in glucuronidation by these specific UGTs and in the oral absorption coefficient. Linking Monte Carlo simulations with PBK modelling, population variability in the maximum plasma concentration of phenol for the human population could be predicted. This approach provided a CSAF for interindividual variation of 2.0 which covers the 99th percentile of the population, which is lower than the default safety factor of 3.16 for interindividual human kinetic differences. Dividing the dose-response curve data obtained with in vitro PBK-based reverse dosimetry, with the CSAF provided a dose-response curve that reflects the consequences of the interindividual variability in phenol kinetics for the developmental toxicity of phenol. The strength of the presented approach is that it provides insight in the effect of interindividual variation in kinetics for phenol-induced developmental toxicity, based on only in vitro and in silico testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portraits In Courage Vol. VIII Portraits In Courage Vol. IX Portraits In Courage Vol. X AF Sites Social -Wide Initiative to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in the Federal Workforce Executive Order 13548 : Virtual Diversity Conference Air Force Diversity & Inclusion Air Force Diversity Graphic There is no

  1. Metagenomic insights into the uncultured diversity and physiology of microbes in four hypersaline soda lake brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dafni Vavourakis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes are salt lakes with a naturally alkaline pH due to evaporative concentration of sodium carbonates in the absence of major divalent cations. Hypersaline soda brines harbor microbial communities with a high species- and strain-level archaeal diversity and a large proportion of still uncultured poly-extremophiles compared to neutral brines of similar salinities. We present the first ‘metagenomic snapshots’ of microbial communities thriving in the brines of four shallow soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia covering a salinity range from 170 to 400 g/L. Both amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA fragments and direct metagenomic sequencing showed that the top-level taxa abundance was linked to the ambient salinity: Bacteroidetes, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant below a salinity of 250 g/L, Euryarchaeota at higher salinities. Within these taxa, amplicon sequences related to Halorubrum, Natrinema, Gracilimonas, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Rhizobiales, Rhodobacter and Rhodobaca and chemolithotrophic sulfur oxidizers (Thioalkalivibrio were highly abundant. Twenty-four draft population genomes from novel members and ecotypes within the Nanohaloarchaea, Halobacteria and Bacteroidetes were reconstructed to explore their metabolic features, environmental abundance and strategies for osmotic adaptation. The Halobacteria- and Bacteroidetes-related draft genomes belong to putative aerobic heterotrophs, likely with the capacity to ferment sugars in the absence of oxygen. Members from both taxonomic groups are likely involved in primary organic carbon degradation, since some of the reconstructed genomes encode the ability to hydrolyze recalcitrant substrates, such as cellulose and chitin. Putative sodium-pumping rhodopsins were found in both a Flavobacteriaceae- and a Chitinophagaceae-related draft genome. The predicted proteomes of both the latter and a Rhodothermaceae-related draft genome were indicative of a

  2. Public health approaches to safer cycling for children based on developmental and physiological readiness: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Simon; Finlay, Fiona Olwen

    2018-01-01

    Cyclists have a high mortality and morbidity per mile travelled compared with car occupants, a figure that is likely to increase if campaigns to increase active travel are successful. Concerns about safety is the leading factor limiting cycling for children. This review brings together a paediatric perspective based on the developmental readiness of children and young people and a public health approach to reducing injuries, to produce a practical agenda for improving the safety of cycling for children. Selective literature review. While most sports realise the importance of practice and training to create mastery of the game, similar thinking has not been consistently applied to cycling proficiency, so many children do not have an opportunity to master cycling before riding on the roads. The aim should be to minimise road traffic injuries involving children and young people in ways that create cobenefits for other members of society, increasing opportunities for active travel, reducing air pollution, creating more green space to play and reducing dependence on motor vehicles.Changes in legislation are required now to enable younger children to cycle on pavements while learning to ride and improvements in road design to separate cyclists from motor vehicles especially routes to school for older children.

  3. Developmental exposure to ethinylestradiol affects reproductive physiology, the GnRH neuroendocrine network and behaviors in female mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes eDerouiche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2, the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR or pharmacological (PHARMACO doses (0.1 and 1 µg/kg (body weight/day respectively, from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs.

  4. Variation in physiological and chemical characteristics at developmental stage in different disease-resistant varieties of camellia oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.; Dong, C.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important edible oil tree species from Southern China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), is responsible for more than 50% of C. oleifera production loss, and C. oleifera varieties differ in their resistance to anthracnose. The aim of this study was to assess resistance mechanisms by monitoring physiological and biochemical parameters of differentially resistant cultivars during the development of C. oleifera. C. oleifera fruit coats were analyzed between May and September for tannins, anthocyanins, soluble sugar content, pH, buffer capacity, activity of three enzyme (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; polyphenol oxidase; peroxidase) and free radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins, soluble contents and free radical scavenging capacity were related to anthracnose resistance, with anthocyanins and soluble sugar contents of the resistant varieties nearly twofold higher than those of susceptible varieties. The results of free radical scavenging capacity showed that extracts from highly resistant varieties of C. oleifera fruit coats performed more efficiently in the scavenging of free radicals than those from susceptible varieties. The three enzyme activities of highly resistant varieties rose rapidly and continuously, while those of medium resistant and highly susceptible varieties increased initially and then decreased. Tannins, pH and buffer capacity showed no significant differences between different cultivars. This study broadens the understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in C. oleifera. (author)

  5. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Van Der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.l.m.

    2009-01-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007–2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main sci...

  6. The AquaDEB project (phase I): Analysing the physiological flexibility of aquatic species and connecting physiological diversity to ecological and evolutionary processes by using Dynamic Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    The European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011, http://www.ifremer.fr/aquadeb/) is joining skills and expertise of some French and Dutch research institutes and universities to analyse the physiological flexibility of aquatic organisms and to link it to ecological and evolutionary processes within a common theoretical framework for quantitative bioenergetics [Kooijman, S.A.L.M., 2000. Dynamic energy and mass budgets in biological systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB are i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability of natural or human origin, and ii) to evaluate the related consequences at different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). At mid-term life, the AquaDEB collaboration has already yielded interesting results by quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species (e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) with a single mathematical framework. It has also allowed to federate scientists with different backgrounds, e.g. mathematics, microbiology, ecology, chemistry, and working in different fields, e.g. aquaculture, fisheries, ecology, agronomy, ecotoxicology, climate change. For the two coming years, the focus of the AquaDEB collaboration will be in priority: (i) to compare energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and to identify the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; and to compare dynamic (DEB) versus static (SEB) energy models to study the physiological performance of aquatic species; (ii) to consider different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) to scale up the models for a few species from

  7. Diversity of activity participation determines bone mineral content in the lower limbs of pre-pubertal children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, S S M; Vackova, D; Choi, A W M; Cheng, Y T Y; Yam, T T T; Guo, X

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between activity participation and bone mineralization in children with developmental coordination disorder. Limited participation in physical, recreational, social, and skill-based and self-improvement activities contributed to lower bone mineral content. For improved bone health, these children should participate in a variety of activities, not only physical activities. Limited activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may have a negative impact on bone mineral accrual. The objectives of this study were to compare bone mineralization and activity participation patterns of pre-pubertal children with DCD and those with typical development, and to determine the association between activity participation patterns and bone mineralization in children with DCD. Fifty-two children with DCD (mean age = 7.51 years) and 61 children with typical development (mean age = 7.22 years) participated in the study. Appendicular and total body (less head) bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated by a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Activity participation patterns were assessed using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) questionnaire. Children with DCD had lower appendicular and total body BMCs and BMDs than children with typical development overall (p accounting for the effects of age, sex, height, lean mass, and fat mass, the total activity diversity score remained independently associated with leg BMC in children with DCD, explaining 5.1% of the variance (p = 0.030). However, the physical activity diversity score was no longer associated with leg BMC (p = 0.090). Diversity of activity participation and bone mineralization were lower in pre-pubertal children with DCD. Decreased total activity participation diversity was a contributing factor to lower BMC in the legs of children with DCD.

  8. Performance of First-Year Health Sciences Students in a Large, Diverse, Multidisciplinary, First-Semester, Physiology Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Mark; Higgins-Opitz, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    Health Science students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal perform better in their professional modules compared with their physiology modules. The pass rates of physiology service modules have steadily declined over the years. While a system is in place to identify "at-risk" students, it is only activated after the first semester. As a…

  9. Genome analysis coupled with physiological studies reveals a diverse nitrogen metabolism in Methylocystis sp. strain SC2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba Dam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 can adapt to a wide range of methane concentrations. This is due to the presence of two isozymes of particulate methane monooxygenase exhibiting different methane oxidation kinetics. To gain insight into the underlying genetic information, its genome was sequenced and found to comprise a 3.77 Mb chromosome and two large plasmids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report important features of the strain SC2 genome. Its sequence is compared with those of seven other methanotroph genomes, comprising members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. While the pan-genome of all eight methanotroph genomes totals 19,358 CDS, only 154 CDS are shared. The number of core genes increased with phylogenetic relatedness: 328 CDS for proteobacterial methanotrophs and 1,853 CDS for the three alphaproteobacterial Methylocystaceae members, Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 and strain Rockwell, and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. The comparative study was coupled with physiological experiments to verify that strain SC2 has diverse nitrogen metabolism capabilities. In correspondence to a full complement of 34 genes involved in N2 fixation, strain SC2 was found to grow with atmospheric N2 as the sole nitrogen source, preferably at low oxygen concentrations. Denitrification-mediated accumulation of 0.7 nmol (30N2/hr/mg dry weight of cells under anoxic conditions was detected by tracer analysis. N2 production is related to the activities of plasmid-borne nitric oxide and nitrous oxide reductases. CONCLUSIONS/PERSPECTIVES: Presence of a complete denitrification pathway in strain SC2, including the plasmid-encoded nosRZDFYX operon, is unique among known methanotrophs. However, the exact ecophysiological role of this pathway still needs to be elucidated. Detoxification of toxic nitrogen compounds and energy conservation under oxygen-limiting conditions are among the possible roles. Relevant features that may stimulate

  10. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In-situ effects of eutrophication and overfishing on physiology and bacterial diversity of the red sea coral Acropora hemprichii.

    KAUST Repository

    Jessen, Christian; Lizcano, Javier; Bayer, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Aranda, Manuel; Wild, Christian; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2013-01-01

    pressures on these reefs, but there is no information available about their potential effects on the associated microbial community. Therefore, we compared holobiont physiology and 16S-based bacterial communities of tissue and mucus of the hard coral

  12. Performance of first-year health sciences students in a large, diverse, multidisciplinary, first-semester, physiology service module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins-Opitz, Susan B; Tufts, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Health Science students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal perform better in their professional modules compared with their physiology modules. The pass rates of physiology service modules have steadily declined over the years. While a system is in place to identify "at-risk" students, it is only activated after the first semester. As a result, it is only from the second semester of their first year studies onward that at-risk students can be formally assisted. The challenge is thus to devise an appropriate strategy to identify struggling students earlier in the semester. Using questionnaires, students were asked about attendance, financing of their studies, and relevance of physiology. After the first class test, failing students were invited to complete a second questionnaire. In addition, demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Correlation analyses were undertaken of performance indicators based on the demographical data collected. The 2011 class comprised mainly sport science students (57%). The pass rate of sport science students was lower than the pass rates of other students (42% vs. 70%, P physiology and recognized its relevance. Key issues identified were problems understanding concepts and terminology, poor study environment and skills, and lack of matriculation biology. The results of the first class test and final module marks correlated well. It is clear from this study that student performance in the first class test is a valuable tool to identify struggling students and that appropriate testing should be held as early as possible. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  13. A Simulated Heat Wave Has Diverse Effects on Immune Function and Oxidative Physiology in the Corn Snake (Pantherophis guttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Z R; French, S S; Ahn, A; Webb, A; Butler, M W

    Animals will continue to encounter increasingly warm environments, including more frequent and intense heat waves. Yet the physiological consequences of heat waves remain equivocal, potentially because of variation in adaptive plasticity (reversible acclimation) and/or aspects of experimental design. Thus, we measured a suite of physiological variables in the corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) after exposure to field-parameterized, fluctuating temperature regimes (moderate temperature and heat wave treatments) to address two hypotheses: (1) a heat wave causes physiological stress, and (2) thermal performance of immune function exhibits adaptive plasticity in response to a heat wave. We found little support for our first hypothesis because a simulated heat wave had a negative effect on body mass, but it also reduced oxidative damage and did not affect peak performance of three immune metrics. Likewise, we found only partial support for our second hypothesis. After exposure to a simulated heat wave, P. guttatus exhibited greater performance breadth and reduced temperature specialization (the standardized difference between peak performance and performance breadth) for only one of three immune metrics and did so in a sex-dependent manner. Further, a simulated heat wave did not elicit greater performance of any immune metric at higher temperatures. Yet a heat wave likely reduced innate immune function in P. guttatus because each metric of innate immune performance in this species (as in most vertebrates) was lower at elevated temperatures. Together with previous research, our study indicates that a heat wave may have complex, modest, and even positive physiological effects in some taxa.

  14. Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning in an Introductory Anatomy and Physiology Course with a Diverse Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), a pedagogical technique initially developed for college chemistry courses, has been implemented for 2 yr in a freshman-level anatomy and physiology course at a small private college. The course is populated with students with backgrounds ranging from no previous college-level science to junior and…

  15. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 2. Cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes, and coding sequence diversities correlated with long disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Slobodan; Xie, Hongbo; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2007-05-01

    Biologically active proteins without stable ordered structure (i.e., intrinsically disordered proteins) are attracting increased attention. Functional repertoires of ordered and disordered proteins are very different, and the ability to differentiate whether a given function is associated with intrinsic disorder or with a well-folded protein is crucial for modern protein science. However, there is a large gap between the number of proteins experimentally confirmed to be disordered and their actual number in nature. As a result, studies of functional properties of confirmed disordered proteins, while helpful in revealing the functional diversity of protein disorder, provide only a limited view. To overcome this problem, a bioinformatics approach for comprehensive study of functional roles of protein disorder was proposed in the first paper of this series (Xie, H.; Vucetic, S.; Iakoucheva, L. M.; Oldfield, C. J.; Dunker, A. K.; Obradovic, Z.; Uversky, V. N. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res. 2007, 5, 1882-1898). Applying this novel approach to Swiss-Prot sequences and functional keywords, we found over 238 and 302 keywords to be strongly positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with long intrinsically disordered regions. This paper describes approximately 90 Swiss-Prot keywords attributed to the cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes, and coding sequence diversities possessing strong positive and negative correlation with long disordered regions.

  16. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. II. Cellular Components, Domains, Technical Terms, Developmental Processes and Coding Sequence Diversities Correlated with Long Disordered Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Slobodan; Xie, Hongbo; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Biologically active proteins without stable ordered structure (i.e., intrinsically disordered proteins) are attracting increased attention. Functional repertoires of ordered and disordered proteins are very different, and the ability to differentiate whether a given function is associated with intrinsic disorder or with a well-folded protein is crucial for modern protein science. However, there is a large gap between the number of proteins experimentally confirmed to be disordered and their actual number in nature. As a result, studies of functional properties of confirmed disordered proteins, while helpful in revealing the functional diversity of protein disorder, provide only a limited view. To overcome this problem, a bioinformatics approach for comprehensive study of functional roles of protein disorder was proposed in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Applying this novel approach to Swiss-Prot sequences and functional keywords, we found over 238 and 302 keywords to be strongly positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with long intrinsically disordered regions. This paper describes ~90 Swiss-Prot keywords attributed to the cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes and coding sequence diversities possessing strong positive and negative correlation with long disordered regions. PMID:17391015

  17. Ecology of Exercise in Wild Fish: Integrating Concepts of Individual Physiological Capacity, Behavior, and Fitness Through Diverse Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Algera, Dirk A; Hanson, Kyle C; Eliason, Erika J; Burnett, Nicholas J; Danylchuk, Andy J; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Wild animals maximize fitness through certain behaviors (e.g., foraging, mating, predator avoidance) that incur metabolic costs and often require high levels of locomotor activity. Consequently, the ability of animals to achieve high fitness often relies on their physiological capacity for exercise (aerobic scope) and/or their ability to acquire and utilize energy judiciously. Here, we explore how environmental factors and physiological limitations influence exercise and metabolism in fish while foraging, migrating to spawning grounds, and providing parental care. We do so with three case studies that use a number of approaches to studying exercise in wild fish using biologging and biotelemetry platforms. Bonefish (Albula vulpes) selectively use shallow water tropical marine environments to forage when temperatures are near optimal for aerobic scope and exercise capacity. Bonefish energy expenditure at upper thermal extremes is maximal while activity levels diminish, likely caused by reduced aerobic scope. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) reproductive migrations frequently involve passage through hydraulically challenging areas, and their ability to successfully pass these regions is constrained by their physiological capacity for exercise. Aerobic scope and swim performance are correlated with migration difficulty among sockeye salmon (O. nerka) populations; however, depletion of endogenous energy stores can also limit migration success. In another example, male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) allocate a significant amount of energy to nest-guarding behaviors to protect their developing brood. Smallmouth bass body size, endogenous energy reserves, and physiological state influence nest-guarding behaviors and reproductive success. We suggest that in some scenarios (e.g., bonefish foraging, Pacific salmon dam passage) metabolic capacity for exercise may be the strongest determinant of biological fitness, while in others (e.g., long distance salmon migration

  18. Phytochrome Interacting Factors (PIFs in Solanum lycopersicum: Diversity, Evolutionary History and Expression Profiling during Different Developmental Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rosado

    Full Text Available Although the importance of light for tomato plant yield and edible fruit quality is well known, the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs, main components of phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction, have been studied almost exclusively in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the diversity, evolution and expression profile of PIF gene subfamily in Solanum lycopersicum was characterized. Eight tomato PIF loci were identified, named SlPIF1a, SlPIF1b, SlPIF3, SlPIF4, SlPIF7a, SlPIF7b, SlPIF8a and SlPIF8b. The duplication of SlPIF1, SlPIF7 and SlPIF8 genes were dated and temporally coincided with the whole-genome triplication event that preceded tomato and potato divergence. Different patterns of mRNA accumulation in response to light treatments were observed during seedling deetiolation, dark-induced senescence, diel cycle and fruit ripening. SlPIF4 showed similar expression profile as that reported for A. thaliana homologs, indicating an evolutionary conserved function of PIF4 clade. A comprehensive analysis of the evolutionary and transcriptional data allowed proposing that duplicated SlPIFs have undergone sub- and neofunctionalization at mRNA level, pinpointing the importance of transcriptional regulation for the maintenance of duplicated genes. Altogether, the results indicate that genome polyploidization and functional divergence have played a major role in diversification of the Solanum PIF gene subfamily.

  19. Hospitals with greater diversities of physiologically complex procedures do not achieve greater surgical growth in a market with stable numbers of such procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Lubarsky, David A

    2018-05-01

    Although having a large diversity of types of procedures has a substantial operational impact on the surgical suites of hospitals, the strategic importance is unknown. In the current study, we used longitudinal data for all hospitals and patient ages in the State of Florida to evaluate whether hospitals with greater diversity of types of physiologically complex major therapeutic procedures (PCMTP) also had greater rates of surgical growth. Observational cohort study. 1479 combinations of hospitals in the State of Florida and fiscal years, 2008-2015. The types of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedures studied were PCMT, defined as: a) major therapeutic procedure; b) >7 American Society of Anesthesiologists base units; and c) performed during a hospitalization with a Diagnosis Related Group with a mean length of stay ≥4.0days. The number of procedures of each type of PCMTP commonly performed at each hospital was calculated by taking 1/Herfindahl index (i.e., sum of the squares of the proportions of all procedures of each type of PCMTP). Over the 8 successive years studied, there was no change in the number of PCMTP being performed (Kendall's τ b =-0.014±0.017 [standard error], P=0.44; N=1479 hospital×years). Busier and larger hospitals commonly performed more types of PCMTP, respectively categorized based on performed PCMTP (τ=0.606±0.017, P<0.0001) or hospital beds (τ=0.524±0.017, P<0.0001). There was no association between greater diversity of types of PCMTP commonly performed and greater annual growth in numbers of PCMTP (τ=0.002±0.019, P=0.91; N=1295 hospital×years). Conclusions were the same with multiple sensitivity analyses. Post hoc, it was recognized that hospitals performing a greater diversity of PCMTP were more similar to the aggregate of other hospitals within the same health district (τ=0.550±0.017, P<0.0001). During a period with no overall growth in PCMTP, hospitals with

  20. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological sciences. Other websites ...

  1. Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: An assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, Margaret L.; Williams, Tony D.; Elliott, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as additive flame retardants, and BDE-99 is one of the most predominant congeners found in the environment. BDE-99 has been reported in avian samples worldwide, yet knowledge of its toxicity to birds is minimal. We assessed the short- and long-term effects of nestling exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 in a model passerine, the zebra finch. Early exposure to BDE-99 did not affect hematocrit, oxidative stress, or thyroid hormones in either the juvenile or adult stages, and there were no effects on chick growth or survival. BDE-99 exposure caused a dose-dependent delay in timing of reproduction, but there were no other effects on reproductive success. In zebra finches, endpoints related to reproductive behavior appear to be the most sensitive to BDE-99. However, passerines overall appear to be less sensitive than birds of prey or mammals to PBDE exposure. -- Highlights: •We exposed zebra finches nestlings to BDE-99 and raised them to sexual maturity. •Found no effects on physiology, chick growth, survival, or reproductive success. •As BDE-99 dose increased, laying interval increased. •Passerine birds possibly less sensitive to BDE-99 than mammals or other bird species. -- Nestling exposure to BDE-99 affects timing of breeding in zebra finches, but overall passerines appear to be less sensitive to PBDEs than mammals or other bird species

  2. Physiological and functional diversity of phenol degraders isolated from phenol-grown aerobic granules: Phenol degradation kinetics and trichloroethylene co-metabolic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-03-15

    Aerobic granule is a novel form of microbial aggregate capable of degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. Aerobic granules have been formed on phenol as the growth substrate, and used to co-metabolically degrade trichloroethylene (TCE), a synthetic solvent not supporting aerobic microbial growth. Granule formation process, rate limiting factors and the comprehensive toxic effects of phenol and TCE had been systematically studied. To further explore their potential at the level of microbial population and functions, phenol degraders were isolated and purified from mature granules in this study. Phenol and TCE degradation kinetics of 15 strains were determined, together with their TCE transformation capacities and other physiological characteristics. Isolation in the presence of phenol and TCE exerted stress on microbial populations, but the procedure was able to preserve their diversity. Wide variation was found with the isolates' kinetic behaviors, with the parameters often spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Haldane kinetics described phenol degradation well, and the isolates exhibited actual maximum phenol-dependent oxygen utilization rates of 9-449 mg DO g DW(-1) h(-1), in phenol concentration range of 4.8-406 mg L(-1). Both Michaelis-Menten and Haldane types were observed for TCE transformation, with the actual maximum rate of 1.04-21.1 mg TCE g DW(-1) h(-1) occurring between TCE concentrations of 0.42-4.90 mg L(-1). The TCE transformation capacities and growth yields on phenol ranged from 20-115 mg TCE g DW(-1) and 0.46-1.22 g DW g phenol(-1), respectively, resulting in TCE transformation yields of 10-70 mg TCE g phenol(-1). Contact angles of the isolates were between 34° and 82°, suggesting both hydrophobic and hydrophilic cell surface. The diversity in the isolates is a great advantage, as it enables granules to be versatile and adaptive under different operational conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  4. Microarrays for global expression constructed with a low redundancy set of 27,500 sequenced cDNAs representing an array of developmental stages and physiological conditions of the soybean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retzel Ernest

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an important tool with which to examine coordinated gene expression. Soybean (Glycine max is one of the most economically valuable crop species in the world food supply. In order to accelerate both gene discovery as well as hypothesis-driven research in soybean, global expression resources needed to be developed. The applications of microarray for determining patterns of expression in different tissues or during conditional treatments by dual labeling of the mRNAs are unlimited. In addition, discovery of the molecular basis of traits through examination of naturally occurring variation in hundreds of mutant lines could be enhanced by the construction and use of soybean cDNA microarrays. Results We report the construction and analysis of a low redundancy 'unigene' set of 27,513 clones that represent a variety of soybean cDNA libraries made from a wide array of source tissue and organ systems, developmental stages, and stress or pathogen-challenged plants. The set was assembled from the 5' sequence data of the cDNA clones using cluster analysis programs. The selected clones were then physically reracked and sequenced at the 3' end. In order to increase gene discovery from immature cotyledon libraries that contain abundant mRNAs representing storage protein gene families, we utilized a high density filter normalization approach to preferentially select more weakly expressed cDNAs. All 27,513 cDNA inserts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The amplified products, along with some repetitively spotted control or 'choice' clones, were used to produce three 9,728-element microarrays that have been used to examine tissue specific gene expression and global expression in mutant isolines. Conclusions Global expression studies will be greatly aided by the availability of the sequence-validated and low redundancy cDNA sets described in this report. These cDNAs and ESTs represent a wide array of developmental

  5. Human Diversity : Design for life: 9th International Congress of Physiological Anthropology: Proceedings, Delft, The Netherlands, 22-26 August 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louts, T.; Reitenbach, M.E.F.R.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    This book of full papers contains the proceedings of the ICPA (International Congress of Physiological Anthropology) conference, held at the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, TU Delft, from 22-26 August 2008.

  6. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  7. Summer investigations into the metabolic diversity of the microbial world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breznak, J.; Dworkin, M.

    1993-05-17

    The philosophy of the course described here is to underscore the essence of microbiology which is diversity>: diversity of morphology and cellular development, behavior, and metabolic and physiological functions. Emphasis is on microbes other than those customarily covered in conventional microbiology courses and includes: the archaebacteria, extremophiles, and array of obligate anaerobes, various phototrophs, and those microbes exhibiting complex developmental cycles. Also included are microbes carrying out a variety of transformations of organic and inorganic compounds, as well as those which normally occur in symbiotic association with other microbes or with higher forms of life.

  8. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  9. Active Physiology Learning in a Diverse Class: An Analysis of Medical Student Responses in Terms of Sex, Home Language, and Self-Reported Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins-Opitz, Susan B.; Tufts, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The student body at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine (NRMSM) is very diverse, representing many cultures, religions, and languages. Research has shown that weakness in English can impact student performance. Recent studies have also highlighted sex-based differences in students' learning and listening styles. These factors pose both…

  10. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences (Niger. J. Physiol. Sci.) is a biannual publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria. It covers diverse areas of research in physiological sciences, publishing reviews in current research areas and original laboratory and clinical research in physiological ...

  11. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  12. Durum wheat diversity for heat stress tolerance during inflorescence emergence is correlated to TdHSP101C expression in early developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bento

    Full Text Available The predicted world population increase along with climate changes threatens sustainable agricultural supply in the coming decades. It is therefore vital to understand crops diversity associated to abiotic stress response. Heat stress is considered one of the major constrains on crops productivity thus it is essential to develop new approaches for a precocious and rigorous evaluation of varietal diversity regarding heat tolerance. Plant cell membrane thermostability (CMS is a widely used method for wheat thermotolerance assessment although its limitations require complementary solutions. In this work we used CMS assay and explored TdHSP101C genes as an additional tool for durum wheat screening. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of TdHSP101C genes were performed in varieties with contrasting CMS results and further correlated with heat stress tolerance during fertilization and seed development. Although the durum wheat varieties studied presented a very high homology on TdHSP101C genes (>99% the transcriptomic assessment allowed the discrimination between varieties with good CMS results and its correlation with differential impacts of heat treatment during inflorescence emergence and seed development on grain yield. The evidences here reported indicate that TdHSP101C transcription levels induced by heat stress in fully expanded leaves may be a promising complementary screening tool to discriminate between durum wheat varieties identified as thermotolerant through CMS.

  13. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  14. Effect of Dursban 480 EC (chlorpyrifos) and Talstar 10 EC (bifenthrin) on the physiological and genetic diversity of microorganisms in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medo, Juraj; Maková, Jana; Kovácsová, Silvia; Majerčíková, Kamila; Javoreková, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the impact of the insecticides Dursban 480 EC (with organophosphate compound chlorpyrifos as the active ingredient) and Talstar 10 EC (with pyrethroid bifenthrin as the active ingredient) on the respiration activity and microbial diversity in a sandy loam luvisol soil. The insecticides were applied in two doses: the maximum recommended dose for field application (15 mg kg(-1) for Dursban 480 EC and 6 mg kg(-1) for Talstar 10 EC) and a 100-fold higher dose for extrapolation of their effect. Bacterial and fungal genetic diversity was analysed in soil samples using PCR DGGE and the functional diversity (catabolic potential) was studied using BIOLOG EcoPlates at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112 days after insecticide application. Five bacterial groups (α, β, γ proteobacteria, firmibacteria and actinomycetes) and five groups of fungi or fungus-like microorganisms (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Oomycota and Zygomycota) were analysed using specific primer sets. This approach provides high resolution of the analysis covering majority of microorganisms in the soil. Only the high-dose Dursban 480 EC significantly changed the community of microorganisms. We observed its negative effect on α- and γ-proteobacteria, as the number of OTUs (operational taxonomic units) decreased until the end of incubation. In the β-proteobacteria group, initial increase of OTUs was followed by strong decrease. Diversity in the firmibacteria, actinomycetes and Zygomycota groups was minimally disturbed by the insecticide application. Dursban 480 EC, however, both positively and negatively affected certain species. Among negatively affected species Sphingomonas, Flavobacterium or Penicillium were detected, but Achromobacter, Luteibacter or Aspergillus were supported by applied insecticide. The analysis of BIOLOG plates using AWCD values indicated a significant increase in metabolic potential of microorganisms in the soil after the high

  15. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  16. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  17. Adaptive Calibration of Children's Physiological Responses to Family Stress: The Utility of Evolutionary Developmental Theory--Comment on Del Giudice et al. (2012) and Sturge-Apple et al. (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2012-01-01

    Children's physiological reactions to stress are presented from the broader theoretical perspective of adaptive calibration to the environment, as rooted in life history theory. Del Giudice, Hinnant, Ellis, and El-Sheikh (2012) focus on children's physiological responses to a stressful task as a consequence of their history of family stress.…

  18. Novel phytoceramides containing fatty acids of diverse chain lengths are better than a single C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine to improve the physiological properties of human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh MJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Myoung Jin Oh,1 Young Hoon Cho,1 So Yoon Cha,1 Eun Ok Lee,2 Jin Wook Kim,2 Sun Ki Kim,2 Chang Seo Park1 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Chung-gu, Seoul, 2LCS Biotech, Gwonseon-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Ceramides in the human stratum corneum (SC are a mixture of diverse N-acylated fatty acids (FAs with different chain lengths. C24 is the major class of FAs of ceramides. However, there are also other classes of ceramides with diverse chain lengths of FAs, and these lengths generally range from C16 to C26. This study aimed to prepare several types of phytoceramide containing diverse chain lengths of N-acylated FAs and compare them with C18-ceramide N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (NP in terms of their effects on the physiological properties of the SC. We chose natural oils, such as horse fat oil, shea butter, sunflower oil, and a mixture of macadamia nut, shea butter, moringa, and meadowfoam seed oil, as sources of FAs and phytosphingosine as a sphingoid backbone to synthesize diverse phytoceramides. Each phytoceramide exhibited a distinctive formation of the lamellar structure, and their FA profiles were similar to those of their respective natural oil. The skin barrier properties, as analyzed in human skin, clearly demonstrated that all the phytoceramides improved the recovery rate of the damaged SC and enhanced hydration better than C18-ceramide NP did. In conclusion, natural oil-derived phytoceramides could represent a novel class of ceramides for cosmetic applications in the development of an ideal skin barrier moisturizer. Keywords: fatty acid, chain length, phytoceramide, skin barrier, natural oil

  19. Bioactive reagents used in mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation in vivo induce diverse physiological processes in human skin fibroblasts in vitro- a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Claudia; Brenner, Christiane; Habicht, Jüri; Wallich, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The promise of mesotherapy is maintenance and/or recovery of a youthful skin with a firm, bright and moisturized texture. Currently applied medications employ microinjections of hyaluronic acid, vitamins, minerals and amino acids into the superficial layer of the skin. However, the molecular and cellular processes underlying mesotherapy are still elusive. Here we analysed the effect of five distinct medication formulas on pivotal parameters involved in skin ageing, that is collagen expression, cell proliferation and morphological changes using normal human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Whereas in the presence of hyaluronic acid, NCTF135(®) and NCTF135HA(®) , cell proliferation was comparable to control cultures; however, with higher expression of collagen type-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, addition of Soluvit(®) N and Meso-BK led to apoptosis and/or necrosis of human fibroblasts. The data indicate that bioactive reagents currently applied for skin rejuvenation elicit strikingly divergent physiological processes in human skin fibroblast in vitro. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Production of glycolipidic bio surfactants by environment bacteria: diversity and physiological part; Production de biosurfactants glycolipidiques par les bacteries de l`environnement: diversite et role physiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arino, S

    1996-10-09

    About a hundred bacterial strains, isolated from soils, polluted or not by hydrocarbons, were tested for their capacity to excrete glycosides. The biggest productions were obtained for a soluble carbon source (glycerol) in a culture medium limited in the nitrogen source. In these conditions, 18 g/l of rhamnose lipids were produced by train Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1 in a 200 h culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1, Cellulomonas celulans SA43 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 43060 were studied in detail. The bio-surfactants produced were identified respectively as rhamnose lipids, oligosaccharide lipids and trehalose lipids, using various original analytical methods. Sugars and fatty acids composing these glycolipids had been shown to be usual components of the outer part of the cell wall in these microbial species. Moreover, cell hydrophobicity of the producing bacteria varied in time during culture. These results showed that both the cell wall and the extracellular glycolipids take part in the process of hydrocarbon uptake in the polluted environments. As other bacteria of the same species from different origins present the same characteristics, it may be concluded that glycolipid excretion does not constitute a specific response for hydrocarbon assimilation. In fact, a more general physiological role of glycolipids, concerning modifications of hydrophobic interfaces between the producing bacteria and their surrounding environment, could explain the production of glycolipids, and could also be utilized in hydrocarbon uptake. (author)

  1. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogenetic and Physiological Diversity of Subseafloor Microbial Communities at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge: Summary of Results From the New Millenium Observatory (NeMO), 1998-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baross, J. A.; Huber, J. A.; Mehta, M. P.; Opatkiewicz, A.; Bolton, S. A.; Butterfield, D. A.; Sogin, M. L.; Embley, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Axial Seamount (45 ° 58' N; 130 ° 00' W) is an active submarine volcano located on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, approximately 300 miles off the coast of Oregon. Lying at the intersection of a seamount chain and a spreading axis, Axial is a unique study site from both the geological and biological perspective. In January of 1998, Axial experienced a week-long series of earthquakes, and subsequent water column and seafloor observations on the southeast portion of the caldera found temperature and chemical anomalies, extensive new seafloor lava flows, large "snow blower" type vents, and other characteristics commonly associated with diking-eruptive events. Due to its high activity and close proximity to shore, Axial was chosen as a site for a multi-year observatory (New Millenium Observatory, NeMO) to document changes and interactions between geology, chemistry, and biology on the mid-ocean ridge system. From 1998 through 2004, we extensively sampled diffuse vents at Axial Seamount to determine the physiological and phylogenetic diversity of subseafloor microbial communities and their relationship to the geochemical environment. Here we present a summary of those studies, including molecular-based phylogenetic surveys of bacteria, archaea, and potential nitrogen-fixing organisms, culturing results of thermophiles and hyperthermophiles from over 20 sites, and the distribution of one particular group of hyperthermophiles at diffuse vents throughout the caldera and how that distribution may be linked to the geochemical habitat. Results indicate that Axial supports a diverse subseafloor microbial community, including hydrogen and sulfur oxidizers, hyperthermophilic methane producers and heterotrophs, and many organisms with the potential to fix nitrogen. In addition, we find that the species composition of the microbial community changes in response to changes in the physical and chemical conditions at each vent site. The extent of seawater mixing with hydrothermal fluids

  3. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  4. Diverse Pathways in Children's Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Beverley

    1996-01-01

    Used a Partially Ordered Scaling of Items method to analyze block construction play in a replication of Innes and King-Shaw's 1985 study. Found several developmental pathways for block play, illustrating the web-like nature of conceptual development. Results suggest a contextual developmental approach to better acknowledge individual diversity in…

  5. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  6. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  7. Physiological pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1990-08-01

    Objective refraction through plus fogging lenses and base-in prisms revealed that normally accommodation is not completely relaxed when the stimulus to accommodation is zero. The myopic shift in the refractive error due to this focus error of accommodation was defined as physiological pseudomyopia. Two previously established features of accommodation are responsible for this behavior: (1) accommodation acts as a proportional control system for steady-state responses; and (2) the rest focus of accommodation is nonzero. It is proposed that the hyperopic shift in refraction observed in cycloplegia is the result of elimination of physiological pseudomyopia.

  8. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  9. Developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical skills are essential in our everyday life, and impairments in the development of number processing and calculation have a negative impact on schooling and professional careers. Approximately 3 to 6 % of children are affected from specific disorders of numerical understanding (developmental dyscalculia (DD)). Impaired development of number processing skills in these children is characterized by problems in various aspects of numeracy as well as alterations of brain activation and brain structure. Moreover, DD is assumed to be a very heterogeneous disorder putting special challenges to define homogeneous diagnostic criteria. Finally, interdisciplinary perspectives from psychology, neuroscience and education can contribute to the design for interventions, and although results are still sparse, they are promising and have shown positive effects on behaviour as well as brain function. In the current review, we are going to give an overview about typical and atypical development of numerical abilities at the behavioural and neuronal level. Furthermore, current status and obstacles in the definition and diagnostics of DD are discussed, and finally, relevant points that should be considered to make an intervention as successful as possible are summarized.

  10. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  11. Summer investigations into the metabolic diversity of the microbial world. Progress report, May 5, 1992--April 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breznak, J.; Dworkin, M.

    1993-05-17

    The philosophy of the course described here is to underscore the essence of microbiology which is diversity>: diversity of morphology and cellular development, behavior, and metabolic and physiological functions. Emphasis is on microbes other than those customarily covered in conventional microbiology courses and includes: the archaebacteria, extremophiles, and array of obligate anaerobes, various phototrophs, and those microbes exhibiting complex developmental cycles. Also included are microbes carrying out a variety of transformations of organic and inorganic compounds, as well as those which normally occur in symbiotic association with other microbes or with higher forms of life.

  12. The diversification of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Language used in interaction during developmental science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenia-Tapper, Brianna

    The coordination of theory and evidence is an important part of scientific practice. Developmental approaches to instruction, which make the relationship between the abstract and the concrete a central focus of students' learning activity, provide educators with a unique opportunity to strengthen students' coordination of theory and evidence. Therefore, developmental approaches may be a useful instructional response to documented science achievement gaps for linguistically diverse students. However, if we are to leverage the potential of developmental instruction to improve the science achievement of linguistically diverse students, we need more information on the intersection of developmental science instruction and linguistically diverse learning contexts. This manuscript style dissertation uses discourse analysis to investigate the language used in interaction during developmental teaching-learning in three linguistically diverse third grade classrooms. The first manuscript asks how language was used to construct ascension from the abstract to the concrete. The second manuscript asks how students' non-English home languages were useful (or not) for meeting the learning goals of the developmental instructional program. The third manuscript asks how students' interlocutors may influence student choice to use an important discourse practice--justification--during the developmental teaching-learning activity. All three manuscripts report findings relevant to the instructional decisions that teachers need to make when implementing developmental instruction in linguistically diverse contexts.

  14. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  15. Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, A J

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  16. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  17. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  18. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  19. 20170312 - Computer Simulation of Developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic culture models, engineered microscale tissues and complex microphysiological systems (MPS), together with computational models and computer simulation of tissue dynamics, lend themselves to a integrated testing strategies for predictive toxicology. As these emergent methodologies continue to evolve, they must be integrally tied to maternal/fetal physiology and toxicity of the developing individual across early lifestage transitions, from fertilization to birth, through puberty and beyond. Scope: This symposium will focus on how the novel technology platforms can help now and in the future, with in vitro/in silico modeling of complex biological systems for developmental and reproductive toxicity issues, and translating systems models into integrative testing strategies. The symposium is based on three main organizing principles: (1) that novel in vitro platforms with human cells configured in nascent tissue architectures with a native microphysiological environments yield mechanistic understanding of developmental and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposures; (2) that novel in silico platforms with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, biologically-inspired computational models of

  20. Developmental programming: the role of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, Anita M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental programming of the fetus has consequences for physiologic responses in the offspring as an adult and, more recently, is implicated in the expression of altered phenotypes of future generations. Some phenotypes, such as fertility, bone strength, and adiposity are highly relevant to food animal production and in utero factors that impinge on those traits are vital to understand. A key systemic regulatory hormone is growth hormone (GH), which has a developmental role in virtually all tissues and organs. This review catalogs the impact of GH on tissue programming and how perturbations early in development influence GH function.

  1. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  2. Developmental biology of Streptomyces from the perspective of 100 actinobacterial genome sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Govind; Chater, Keith F

    2014-01-01

    To illuminate the evolution and mechanisms of actinobacterial complexity, we evaluate the distribution and origins of known Streptomyces developmental genes and the developmental significance of actinobacteria-specific genes. As an aid, we developed the Actinoblast database of reciprocal blastp best hits between the Streptomyces coelicolor genome and more than 100 other actinobacterial genomes (http://streptomyces.org.uk/actinoblast/). We suggest that the emergence of morphological complexity was underpinned by special features of early actinobacteria, such as polar growth and the coupled participation of regulatory Wbl proteins and the redox-protecting thiol mycothiol in transducing a transient nitric oxide signal generated during physiologically stressful growth transitions. It seems that some cell growth and division proteins of early actinobacteria have acquired greater importance for sporulation of complex actinobacteria than for mycelial growth, in which septa are infrequent and not associated with complete cell separation. The acquisition of extracellular proteins with structural roles, a highly regulated extracellular protease cascade, and additional regulatory genes allowed early actinobacterial stationary phase processes to be redeployed in the emergence of aerial hyphae from mycelial mats and in the formation of spore chains. These extracellular proteins may have contributed to speciation. Simpler members of morphologically diverse clades have lost some developmental genes. PMID:24164321

  3. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  4. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  5. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  6. Tibial and fibular developmental fields defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, N.J.; Haddad, M.C.; Hourani, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Malformations of the lower limbs are rare and heterogeneous anomalies. To explain the diversity and complexity of these abnormalities, authors introduced the concept of tibial and fibular developmental fields. Defects in these fields are responsible for different malformations, which have been described, to our knowledge, in only one report in the radiology literature. We present a case of a newborn with femoral bifurcation, absent fibulae and talar bones, ankle and foot malformations, and associated atrial septal defect. Our case is an example of defects in both fibular and tibial developmental fields. (orig.)

  7. Developmental plasticity: re-conceiving the genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sonia E

    2017-10-06

    In recent decades, the phenotype of an organism (i.e. its traits and behaviour) has been studied as the outcome of a developmental 'programme' coded in its genotype. This deterministic view is implicit in the Modern Synthesis approach to adaptive evolution as a sorting process among genetic variants. Studies of developmental pathways have revealed that genotypes are in fact differently expressed depending on environmental conditions. Accordingly, the genotype can be understood as a repertoire of potential developmental outcomes or norm of reaction. Reconceiving the genotype as an environmental response repertoire rather than a fixed developmental programme leads to three critical evolutionary insights. First, plastic responses to specific conditions often comprise functionally appropriate trait adjustments, resulting in an individual-level, developmental mode of adaptive variation. Second, because genotypes are differently expressed depending on the environment, the genetic diversity available to natural selection is itself environmentally contingent. Finally, environmental influences on development can extend across multiple generations via cytoplasmic and epigenetic factors transmitted to progeny individuals, altering their responses to their own, immediate environmental conditions and, in some cases, leading to inherited but non-genetic adaptations. Together, these insights suggest a more nuanced understanding of the genotype and its evolutionary role, as well as a shift in research focus to investigating the complex developmental interactions among genotypes, environments and previous environments.

  8. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  9. The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity: A Tool for Understanding Principals' Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Frank; Kose, Brad W.

    2012-01-01

    Principals' understanding and skills pertaining to diversity are important in leading diverse schools and preparing all students for a democratic and multicultural society. Although educational leadership scholars have theorized about exemplary leadership of and for diversity, a developmental perspective on principals' diversity or cultural…

  10. The carnegie protein trap library: a versatile tool for Drosophila developmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszczak, Michael; Paterno, Shelley; Lighthouse, Daniel; Bachman, Julia; Planck, Jamie; Owen, Stephenie; Skora, Andrew D; Nystul, Todd G; Ohlstein, Benjamin; Allen, Anna; Wilhelm, James E; Murphy, Terence D; Levis, Robert W; Matunis, Erika; Srivali, Nahathai; Hoskins, Roger A; Spradling, Allan C

    2007-03-01

    Metazoan physiology depends on intricate patterns of gene expression that remain poorly known. Using transposon mutagenesis in Drosophila, we constructed a library of 7404 protein trap and enhancer trap lines, the Carnegie collection, to facilitate gene expression mapping at single-cell resolution. By sequencing the genomic insertion sites, determining splicing patterns downstream of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) exon, and analyzing expression patterns in the ovary and salivary gland, we found that 600-900 different genes are trapped in our collection. A core set of 244 lines trapped different identifiable protein isoforms, while insertions likely to act as GFP-enhancer traps were found in 256 additional genes. At least 8 novel genes were also identified. Our results demonstrate that the Carnegie collection will be useful as a discovery tool in diverse areas of cell and developmental biology and suggest new strategies for greatly increasing the coverage of the Drosophila proteome with protein trap insertions.

  11. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study: examining developmental origins of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, Padmaja; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R; Denburg, Judah A; HayGlass, Kent T; Kobor, Michael S; Kollmann, Tobias R; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Lou, W Y Wendy; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Miller, Gregory E; Moraes, Theo J; Pare, Peter D; Scott, James A; Takaro, Tim K; Turvey, Stuart E; Duncan, Joanne M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-10-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study recruited 3624 pregnant women, most partners and 3542 eligible offspring. We hypothesise that early life physical and psychosocial environments, immunological, physiological, nutritional, hormonal and metabolic influences interact with genetics influencing allergic diseases, including asthma. Environmental and biological sampling, innate and adaptive immune responses, gene expression, DNA methylation, gut microbiome and nutrition studies complement repeated environmental and clinical assessments to age 5. This rich data set, linking prenatal and postnatal environments, diverse biological samples and rigorous phenotyping, will inform early developmental pathways to allergy, asthma and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  13. The Zebrafish Models to Explore Genetic and Epigenetic Impacts on Evolutionary Developmental Origins of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Can we reset, reprogram, rejuvenate or reverse the organismal aging process? Certain genetic manipulations could at least reset and reprogram epigenetic dynamics beyond phenotypic plasticity and elasticity in cells, which can be further manipulated into organisms. However, in a whole complex aging organism, how can we rejuvenate intrinsic resources and infrastructures in an intact/noninvasive manner? The incidence of diseases increases exponentially with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but essentially inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena to rejuvenate over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states based on diverse epigenotypes, in response to intrinsic or extrinsic environmental cues and genetic perturbations. We hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds and windows of plasticity and its robustness by molecular genetic and chemical epigenetic approaches, we have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during their embryonic and/or larval stages (“embryonic/larval senescence”). Subsequently, at least some of these mutant animals were found to show shortened lifespan, while some others would be expected to live longer in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other

  14. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  15. Effects of music on physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Zahra; Eskandari, Narges; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Eshagh Hossaini, Seyed Kamal; Sangi, Sareh

    2013-08-01

    Despite persuasive theories about the beneficial effects of music and singing in developmental care for premature infants, few small studies are available in this regard. We conducted this study to investigate the physiological and behavioral responses of premature infants to recorded lullaby music and silence. In a randomized controlled trial, 90 premature infants in the neonatal care unit of a hospital in Qom (Iran) were randomly allocated to intervention (lullaby and silence) or control groups. Lullaby music was played via headphones at a volume of 50-60 dB. In the silence group, headphones were placed on the infants' ears while no music was played. The three groups were surveyed for physiological responses including oxygen saturation, respiratory and heart rates, and behavioral states every five minutes before, during, and after the intervention. The three groups were not significantly different in terms of mean values of respiratory and heart rates, oxygen saturation, and behavioral states of infants. Similarly, no significant within group differences in respiratory and heart rates, oxygen saturation, and behavioral states were observed at different times. Our findings did not support the beneficial effects of music for premature infants. However, music is a noninvasive, non-pharmaceutical, and relatively low-cost intervention that can be implemented at infants' bedside. Thus further research is warranted to determine whether the effects noted in previous studies can be consistently replicated in diverse settings and with diverse groups of preterm infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversity management

    OpenAIRE

    Knákalová, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The key topic of the work is diversity management, i.e. management of em-ployees" diversity within organization. Opening part of the work identifies the position of diversity within society and related phenomena such as stereotypes, biases and various forms of discrimination. Then the work discusses the role of diversity management in organizations, its principles and basic areas of focus. Attention is paid to certain social groups that the diversity management concept should especially deal ...

  17. A developmental metatheory of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T B

    1994-01-01

    The author proposes an integrative model of psychopathology in light of the contemporary need to bridge diverse ideological frameworks. This model has its major foundations in drive, ego, object relations, and self psychoanalytic perspectives as they impact upon interactional patterns of infancy. The chronology of these theoretical orientations is presented as parallel to a changing focus upon different successive stages in the course of individual development. The longstanding controversy between conflict and deficit theories, which undergirds the various schools of thought, is addressed: a developmental orientation is offered as the overriding conceptual connection between them. Conflict and deficit phenomena are regarded as intertwined and not incompatible: Unconscious drives, desires and wishes, ego defenses, and compromise formations as well as object relationship deficiencies and structural voids and defects in the self are combined to encompass a broad spectrum of psychopathology and its sources: the above intrapsychic and interpersonal factors are interfaced with significant reciprocal dyadic (mother/child) and triadic (father/mother/child) influences upon ongoing maturational processes. For heuristic purposes, a fourfold matrix--dyadic deficit, dyadic conflict, triadic deficit, and triadic conflict--is delineated. Clinical characteristics and developmental precursors of each of the four prototypes, especially with regard to early relational events, are examined.

  18. Neuronal responses to physiological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John

    2012-01-01

    damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses......Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged...... by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner...

  19. Developmental programming and transgenerational transmission of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, M H

    2014-01-01

    The global obesity pandemic is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle, namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high-energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, far less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from environmental perturbations during the early-life period. Human and animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early-life environment and increased susceptibility to obesity and related metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, altered maternal nutrition, including both undernutrition and maternal obesity, has been shown to lead to transgenerational transmission of metabolic disorders. This association has been conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby the impact of environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the physiology of the offspring. Further, evidence to date suggests that this developmental programming is a transgenerational phenomenon, with a number of studies showing transmission of programming effects to subsequent generations, even in the absence of continued environmental stressors, thus perpetuating a cycle of obesity and metabolic disorders. The mechanisms responsible for these transgenerational effects remain poorly understood; evidence to date suggests a number of potential mechanisms underpinning the transgenerational transmission of the developmentally programmed phenotype through both the maternal and paternal lineage. Transgenerational phenotype transmission is often seen as a form of epigenetic inheritance with evidence showing both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications leading to phenotype changes across generations. However, there is also evidence for non-genomic components as well as an interaction between the developing fetus with the in utero

  20. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  1. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  2. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  3. A Comparison of the Developmental Experiences of Elite and Sub-Elite Swimmers: Similar Developmental Histories Can Lead to Differences in Performance Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Edmonds, William A.; Castillo, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    The current study fills a void in the literature that investigates the factors required for elite athlete development. Previous studies have (a) illustrated psychological and physiological differences between elites and non-elites; "or" (b) described the psychological and physiological developmental experiences of elite performers. The…

  4. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  5. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  6. Managing Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1990-01-01

    Demographic trends imply that organizations must learn to manage a diverse work force. Ways to change organizational systems, structures, and practices to eliminate subtle barriers are awareness training, attitude change, and valuing diversity. (SK)

  7. Physiological and molecular characterization of cowpea [Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diaga Diouf

    Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. presents phenotypical variabilities and in order to study the genetic diversity of cultivated Senegalese varieties, two experimental approaches were used. First, a physiological characterization based on nitrogen fixation was used to assess cowpea breeding lines. Inoculation with two ...

  8. Oscillation and chaos in physiological control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, M C; Glass, L

    1977-07-15

    First-order nonlinear differential-delay equations describing physiological control systems are studied. The equations display a broad diversity of dynamical behavior including limit cycle oscillations, with a variety of wave forms, and apparently aperiodic or "chaotic" solutions. These results are discussed in relation to dynamical respiratory and hematopoietic diseases.

  9. Electromyography physiology engineering and noninvasive applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Philip; John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Featuring contributions from key innovators working in the field today, Electromyography reveals the broad applications of EMG data in areas as diverse as neurology, ergonomics, exercise physiology, rehabilitation, movement analysis, biofeedback, and myoelectric control of prostheses." "Electromyography offers physiologists, medical professionals, and students in biomedical engineering a new window into the possibilities of this technology."--Jacket.

  10. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  11. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  12. Rethinking Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

  13. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  14. Physiology and immunology of mucosal barriers in catfish (Ictalurus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mucosal barriers of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) constitute the first line of defense against pathogen invasion while simultaneously carrying out a diverse array of other critical physiological processes, including nutrient adsorption, osmoregulation, waste excretion, and environmental sensing. Catf...

  15. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  16. Approaches to modeling the development of physiological stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Philbrook, Lauren E; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2018-05-01

    Influential biopsychosocial theories have proposed that some developmental periods in the lifespan are potential pivot points or opportunities for recalibration of stress response systems. To date, however, there have been few longitudinal studies of physiological stress responsivity and no studies comparing change in physiological stress responsivity across developmental periods. Our goals were to (a) address conceptual and methodological issues in studying the development of physiological stress responsivity within and between individuals, and (b) provide an exemplar for evaluating development of responsivity to stress in the parasympathetic nervous system, comparing respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responsivity from middle to late childhood with middle to late adolescence. We propose the use of latent growth modeling of stress responsivity that includes time-varying covariates to account for conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of physiological stress responsivity. Such models allow researchers to address key aspects of developmental sensitivity including within-individual variability, mean level change over time, and between-individual variability over time. In an empirical example, we found significant between-individual variability over time in RSA responsivity to stress during middle to late childhood but not during middle to late adolescence, suggesting that childhood may be a period of greater developmental sensitivity at the between-individual level. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Biomarkers of adult and developmental neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slikker, William; Bowyer, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Neurotoxicity may be defined as any adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system by a biological, chemical, or physical agent. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to assess adult and developmental neurotoxicity due to the complex and diverse functions of the nervous system. The overall strategy for understanding developmental neurotoxicity is based on two assumptions: (1) significant differences in the adult versus the developing nervous system susceptibility to neurotoxicity exist and they are often developmental stage dependent; (2) a multidisciplinary approach using neurobiological, including gene expression assays, neurophysiological, neuropathological, and behavioral function is necessary for a precise assessment of neurotoxicity. Application of genomic approaches to developmental studies must use the same criteria for evaluating microarray studies as those in adults including consideration of reproducibility, statistical analysis, homogenous cell populations, and confirmation with non-array methods. A study using amphetamine to induce neurotoxicity supports the following: (1) gene expression data can help define neurotoxic mechanism(s) (2) gene expression changes can be useful biomarkers of effect, and (3) the site-selective nature of gene expression in the nervous system may mandate assessment of selective cell populations

  18. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  19. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...... developmental possibilities, influence and responsibility, but also greater social responsibility for the firm. For firms, the DW promises increased competitiveness and better products. In this paper we present the concept of the DW as one which encourages the development of work, production and organisation...... of the firm and show that the DW is different from mainstream management concepts, as the DW...

  20. Identity, Diversity and Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise; Villeseche, Florence

    2016-01-01

    – The work can encourage policy makers, diversity and HR managers to question their own practices and assumptions leading to more theoretical informed diversity management practices. Originality/value – The theoretical connections between identity and diversity literature have so far not been reviewed......The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the identity and diversity literatures and discuss how a better understanding of the theoretical connections between the two informs both diversity research and diversity management practices. Design/methodology/approach – Literature...... and limitations – is crucial for successful diversity management research and practice. Research limitations/implications – The authors argue for a better understanding of differences, overlaps and limits of different identity perspectives, and for a stronger engagement with practice. Practical implications...

  1. Evaluation of microbial diversity of different soil layers at a contaminated diesel site

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available with high TPH removal. Analysis of the microbial diversity in the different soil layers using functional diversity (community-level physiological profile, via Biolog) and genetic diversity using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel...

  2. Developmental Surveillance and Screening Practices by Pediatric Primary Care Providers: Implications for Early Intervention Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sallie; Qureshi, Rubab; Caldwell, Barbara Ann; Echevarria, Mercedes; Dubbs, William B.; Sullivan, Margaret W.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a survey approach to investigate current developmental surveillance and developmental screening practices by pediatric primary care providers in a diverse New Jersey county. A total of 217 providers were contacted with a final sample size of 57 pediatric primary care respondents from 13 different municipalities. Most providers…

  3. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  4. Developmental Education Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Miller, Mitzi; And Others

    A developmental education evaluation model designed to be used at a multi-unit urban community college is described. The purpose of the design was to determine the cost effectiveness/worth of programs in order to initiate self-improvement. A needs assessment was conducted by interviewing and taping the responses of students, faculty, staff, and…

  5. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  6. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  7. Developmental programming of auditory learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Puddu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic structures involved in the development of auditory function and consequently in language acquisition are directed by genetic code, but the expression of individual genes may be altered by exposure to environmental factors, which if favorable, orient it in the proper direction, leading its development towards normality, if unfavorable, they deviate it from its physiological course. Early sensorial experience during the foetal period (i.e. intrauterine noise floor, sounds coming from the outside and attenuated by the uterine filter, particularly mother’s voice and modifications induced by it at the cochlear level represent the first example of programming in one of the earliest critical periods in development of the auditory system. This review will examine the factors that influence the developmental programming of auditory learning from the womb to the infancy. In particular it focuses on the following points: the prenatal auditory experience and the plastic phenomena presumably induced by it in the auditory system from the basilar membrane to the cortex;the involvement of these phenomena on language acquisition and on the perception of language communicative intention after birth;the consequences of auditory deprivation in critical periods of auditory development (i.e. premature interruption of foetal life.

  8. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aceto, J.; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R.; Maree, R.; Dardenne, N.; Jeanray, N.; Wehenkel, L.; Alestrom, P.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Muller, M.

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to

  9. Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of diversity management which, in the context of organizations, consists in the strategic process of harnessing the potential of all employees to create an inclusive environment and, at the same time, contribute to meeting organizational goals. The entry first...... describes the complex construct of diversity that has been variously conceptualized in the literature, embracing multiple social and informational diversity dimensions such as gender, age, culture, values, and workstyle. This is followed by illustration of the historical development of diversity-management...... discourse and practice, and possible overarching approaches guiding organizations. It goes on to elucidate elements linked to the implementation of diversity management: positive and negative outcomes, most spread practices including communication, and contingency factors shaping the understanding...

  10. Computer Simulation of Developmental Processes and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic culture models, engineered microscale tissues and complex microphysiological systems (MPS), together with computational models and computer simulation of tissue dynamics, lend themselves to a integrated testing strategies for predictive toxicology. As these emergent methodologies continue to evolve, they must be integrally tied to maternal/fetal physiology and toxicity of the developing individual across early lifestage transitions, from fertilization to birth, through puberty and beyond. Scope: This symposium will focus on how the novel technology platforms can help now and in the future, with in vitro/in silico modeling of complex biological systems for developmental and reproductive toxicity issues, and translating systems models into integrative testing strategies. The symposium is based on three main organizing principles: (1) that novel in vitro platforms with human cells configured in nascent tissue architectures with a native microphysiological environments yield mechanistic understanding of developmental and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposures; (2) that novel in silico platforms with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, biologically-inspired computational models of

  11. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  12. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  13. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  14. Exposure to suboptimal temperatures during metamorphosis reveals a critical developmental window in the solitary bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metamorphosis is an important developmental stage for holometabolous insects, during which adult morphology and physiology are established. Proper development relies on optimal body temperatures, and natural ambient temperature (Ta) fluctuations, especially in spring or in northern latitudes, could ...

  15. NIDCAP and developmental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Haumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality in very low birth weight infants has dramatically decreased during the last decades. However, 15-25% of these infants will show neurodevelopmental impairment later on. The aim of implementing early developmental care (EDC, emerged as a new field in neonatology, is to create an intervention program designed to provide support for optimal neurobehavioral development during this highly vulnerable period of brain growth. The theoretical framework, which underlies the approach, is supported by research in different scientific fields, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine and nursing. EDC utilizes a range of medical and nursing interventions that aim to decrease the stress of preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Assessment Program (NIDCAP is an integrated and holistic form of family-centered developmental care. Changing the traditional NICU towards an EDC-NICU includes training nursing and medical staff, investing in their quality and most importantly keeping parents in proximity to the infants. The new challenge of modern neonatology is to restore the mother-infant dyad applying “couplet care” starting at birth until discharge. Most of the European NICUs apply some elements of EDC, but it is more consistent in northern Europe. The development of NIDCAP training centers in Europe demonstrates the evolution of care. It is likely that future research and intervention programs will optimize our practices. Developmental care could prove to be an important recent step in improving outcome in extremely preterm neonates. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  16. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  17. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  18. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin's son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin's work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  19. Understanding Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDaan van Knippenberg is Professor of Organizational Behavior at RSM Erasmus University, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. His research interests include work group performance, especially work group diversity and group decision making, leadership, in particular the roles of

  20. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Reduces Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Adults But Not in Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expressio...

  1. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  2. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  3. Developmental morphological diversity in caecilian amphibians : systematic and evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Caecilians, or Gymnophiona, constitute one of the three extant orders of the Recent Amphibia and are the least known, major living tetrapod clade. Compared to frogs and salamanders, caecilians have an unusual skull morphology. Earlier reports of an unusually high number of individual skull

  4. Biophysics and cell physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of physiology and low-temperature biology of mammalian embryos; effects of sub-zero temperatures on eggs and embryos of sea urchins; survival of frozen-thawed human red cells; effects of radiation on physiology of Escherichia coli; transfer of triplet electronic energy in dinucleotides; effects of x radiation on DNA degradation; energy deposition by neutrons; photosynthesis; excision repair of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA of plant cells

  5. Physiology of Ramadan fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoufeh Bonakdaran

    2016-01-01

    Considering the emphasis of Islam on the importance of fasting, Muslims attempt to fast from dawn until sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting is associated with several benefits for normal and healthy individuals. However, it could pose high risks to the health of diabetic patients due to certain physiological changes. This study aimed to compare the physiological changes associated with fasting in healthy individuals and diabetic patients during Ramadan. Furthermore, we reviewed t...

  6. Personalized physiological medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Can

    2017-12-28

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant changes in the pathophysiology and regulation of various organ systems and their cellular and subcellular constituents. I propose that personalized physiological medicine is composed of four pillars relevant to the critically ill patient. Pillar 1 is defined by the frailty and fitness of the patient and their physiological reserve to cope with the stress of critical illness and therapy. Pillar 2 involves monitoring of the key physiological variables of the different organ systems and their response to disease and therapy. Pillar 3 concerns the evaluation of the success of resuscitation by assessment of the hemodynamic coherence between the systemic and microcirculation and parenchyma of the organ systems. Finally, pillar 4 is defined by the integration of the physiological and clinical data into a time-learning adaptive model of the patient to provide feedback about the function of organ systems and to guide and assess the response to disease and therapy. I discuss each pillar and describe the challenges to research and development that will allow the realization of personalized physiological medicine to be practiced at the bedside for critically ill patients.

  7. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    deficit in visual processing or visual short-term memory. Interestingly, a classical dissociation could be demonstrated between impaired face memory and preserved topographic memory in two developmental prosopagnosics. We conclude that impairments in topographic memory tend to co-occur with developmental......Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing – that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants...

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Kostić; Milkica Nešić; Jasminka Marković; Miodrag Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to c...

  9. Involvement of microRNAs in physiological and pathological processes in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriegova Eva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, at least 900 different microRNA (miRNA genes have been discovered in the human genome. These short, single-stranded RNA molecules originate from larger precursor molecules that fold to produce hairpin structures, which are subsequently processed by ribonucleases Drosha/Pasha and Dicer to form mature miRNAs. MiRNAs play role in the posttranscriptional regulation of about one third of human genes, mainly via degradation of target mRNAs. Whereas the target mRNAs are often involved in the regulation of diverse physiological processes ranging from developmental timing to apoptosis, miRNAs have a strong potential to regulate fundamental biological processes also in the lung compartment. However, the knowledge of the role of miRNAs in physiological and pathological conditions in the lung is still limited. This review, therefore, summarizes current knowledge of the mechanism, function of miRNAs and their contribution to lung development and homeostasis. Besides the involvement of miRNAs in pulmonary physiological conditions, there is evidence that abnormal miRNA expression may lead to pathological processes and development of various pulmonary diseases. Next, the review describes current state-of-art on the miRNA expression profiles in smoking-related diseases including lung cancerogenesis, in immune system mediated pulmonary diseases and fibrotic processes in the lung. From the current research it is evident that miRNAs may play role in the posttranscriptional regulation of key genes in human pulmonary diseases. Further studies are, therefore, necessary to explore miRNA expression profiles and their association with target mRNAs in human pulmonary diseases.

  10. Developmental plasticity: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    Developmental plasticity - the concept that adaptation to changing and unfavorable environmental conditions are possible but may come at the price of compromised health potentials - has evolutionary grounding as it facilitates survival but dissents with fundamental evolutionary principles in that it may advance the lesser fit. It is an important cornerstone of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Unlike evolutionary adaptation developmental plasticity may be short-lived and restricted to one or few generations and inheritance is uncertain. Potential mechanisms include epigenetic modifications adopted in utero which may not transmit to the next generation; future insights may allow adjustments of the outcomes of developmental plasticity.

  11. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  12. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  14. Sex differences in the physiology of eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarian, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function fundamentally affects the physiology of eating. We review sex differences in the physiological and pathophysiological controls of amounts eaten in rats, mice, monkeys, and humans. These controls result from interactions among genetic effects, organizational effects of reproductive hormones (i.e., permanent early developmental effects), and activational effects of these hormones (i.e., effects dependent on hormone levels). Male-female sex differences in the physiology of eating involve both organizational and activational effects of androgens and estrogens. An activational effect of estrogens decreases eating 1) during the periovulatory period of the ovarian cycle in rats, mice, monkeys, and women and 2) tonically between puberty and reproductive senescence or ovariectomy in rats and monkeys, sometimes in mice, and possibly in women. Estrogens acting on estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in the caudal medial nucleus of the solitary tract appear to mediate these effects in rats. Androgens, prolactin, and other reproductive hormones also affect eating in rats. Sex differences in eating are mediated by alterations in orosensory capacity and hedonics, gastric mechanoreception, ghrelin, CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, amylin, apolipoprotein A-IV, fatty-acid oxidation, and leptin. The control of eating by central neurochemical signaling via serotonin, MSH, neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone, and dopamine is modulated by HPG function. Finally, sex differences in the physiology of eating may contribute to human obesity, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating. The variety and physiological importance of what has been learned so far warrant intensifying basic, translational, and clinical research on sex differences in eating. PMID:23904103

  15. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...

  16. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  17. PLANT DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  18. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  19. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  20. I. DEVELOPMENTAL METHODOLOGY AS A CENTRAL SUBDISCIPLINE OF DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Noel A

    2017-06-01

    This first chapter introduces the main goals of the monograph and previews the remaining chapters. The goals of this monograph are to provide summaries of our current understanding of advanced developmental methodologies, provide information that can advance our understanding of human development, identify shortcomings in our understanding of developmental methodology, and serve as a flagpost for organizing developmental methodology as a subdiscipline within the broader field of developmental science. The remaining chapters in this monograph address issues in design (sampling and big data), longitudinal data analysis, and issues of replication and research accumulation. The final chapter describes the history of developmental methodology, considers how the previous chapters in this monograph fit within this subdiscipline, and offers recommendations for further advancement. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  2. Bone Marrow Adipocyte Developmental Origin and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Joanna; Frazier, Trivia; Smith, Stanley; Brown, Theodore; Bender, Robert; McCarthy, Michelle; Wu, Xiying; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2018-06-01

    This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots. These include genetic tracking of adipose progenitors, viral vectors application, and sophisticated non-invasive imaging modalities. While constricted within the rigid bone cavity, BMAT vigorously contributes to local and systemic metabolic processes including hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and energy metabolism and undergoes dynamic changes as a function of age, diet, bone topography, or sex. These insights will impact future research and therapies relating to osteoporosis.

  3. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Developmentally Appropriate Peace Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewsader, Joellen; Myers-Walls, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Peace education has been offered to children for decades, but those curricula have been only minimally guided by children's developmental stages and needs. In this article, the authors apply their research on children's developmental understanding of peace along with peace education principles and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to present…

  5. Developmental Kindergarten Program Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, George T.; Cushing, Katherine S.

    The evaluation of the Developmental Kindergarten (DK) Program at the Harrison School District #2, Colorado Springs, Colorado, involved pre- and post-testing of student academic gains and interviewing of principals and teachers. The program aimed to provide developmentally appropriate activities for students believed to be "at risk" of…

  6. Developmental programming of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Developmental colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  8. Role of developmental factors in hypothalamic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob eBiran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a brain region which regulates homeostasis by mediating endocrine, autonomic and behavioral functions. It is comprised of several nuclei containing distinct neuronal populations producing neuropeptides and neurotransmitters that regulate fundamental body functions including temperature and metabolic rate, thirst and hunger, sexual behavior and reproduction, circadian rhythm, and emotional responses. The identity, number and connectivity of these neuronal populations are established during the organism’s development and are of crucial importance for normal hypothalamic function. Studies have suggested that developmental abnormalities in specific hypothalamic circuits can lead to obesity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and autism. At the molecular level, the development of the hypothalamus is regulated by transcription factors, secreted growth factors, neuropeptides and their receptors. Recent studies in zebrafish and mouse have demonstrated that some of these molecules maintain their expression in the adult brain and subsequently play a role in the physiological functions that are regulated by hypothalamic neurons. Here, we summarize the involvement of some of the key developmental factors in hypothalamic development and function by focusing on the mouse and zebrafish genetic model organisms.

  9. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Brewer, Rebecca; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one’s own emotion, underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood.

  11. [Neurotransmission in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a heterogeneous developmental disorder with an etiology that is not fully understood. AD/HD has been considered to occur due to a disturbance in cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, with particular emphasis on dopamine. The neurotransmission of dopamine in subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and limbic areas is synaptic; on the other hand, dopamine neurotransmission in the frontal cortex is quite different, because there are very few dopamine transporters (DAT) in the frontal cortex that allow dopamine to diffuse away from the dopamine synapse ("volume transmission"). It is now clear that noradrenergic neurons play a key regulatory role in dopaminergic function in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, serotonergic neurons exert an inhibitory effect on midbrain dopamine cell bodies, and they have an influence on dopamine release in terminal regions. There is accumulating neurobiological evidence pointing toward a role of the serotonin system in AD/HD. The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is still unclear, but information from genetics, neuropathology, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience has provided insights into the understanding of this developmental disorder. In addition to abnormal circuitry in specific limbic and neocortical areas of the cerebral cortex, impairments in brainstem, cerebellar, thalamic, and basal ganglia connections have been reported. Numerous studies have pointed to abnormalities in serotonin and glutamate neurotransmission. Three important aspects involved in the pathophysiology of ASD have been proposed. The first is cell migration, the second is unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory networks, and the third is synapse formation and pruning, the key factors being reelin, neurexin, and neuroligin. Serotonin is considered to play an important role in all of these aspects of the pathophysiology of ASD. Finally, I would like to emphasize that it is crucial in the field of child

  12. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  13. Success stories and emerging themes in conservation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madliger, Christine L; Cooke, Steven J; Crespi, Erica J; Funk, Jennifer L; Hultine, Kevin R; Hunt, Kathleen E; Rohr, Jason R; Sinclair, Brent J; Suski, Cory D; Willis, Craig K R; Love, Oliver P

    2016-01-01

    The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause-effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of 'conservation physiology', to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess whether physiological approaches contribute to downstream conservation outcomes and management decisions. Here, we present eight areas of conservation concern, ranging from chemical contamination to invasive species to ecotourism, where physiological approaches have led to beneficial changes in human behaviour, management or policy. We also discuss the shared characteristics of these successes, identifying emerging themes in the discipline. Specifically, we conclude that conservation physiology: (i) goes beyond documenting change to provide solutions; (ii) offers a diversity of physiological metrics beyond glucocorticoids (stress hormones); (iii) includes approaches that are transferable among species, locations and times; (iv) simultaneously allows for human use and benefits to wildlife; and (v) is characterized by successes that can be difficult to find in the primary literature. Overall, we submit that the field of conservation physiology has a strong foundation of achievements characterized by a diversity of conservation issues, taxa, physiological traits, ecosystem types and spatial scales. We hope that these concrete successes will encourage the continued evolution and use of physiological tools within conservation-based research and management

  14. Simulated Exercise Physiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Pivarnik, James M.

    This book consists of a lab manual and computer disks for either Apple or IBM hardware. The lab manual serves as "tour guide" for the learner going through the various lab experiences. The manual contains definitions, proper terminology, and other basic information about physiological principles. It is organized so a step-by-step procedure may be…

  15. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Personalized physiological medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, Can

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant

  17. Physiological responses to hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas; Thoresen, Marianne

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is the only treatment currently recommended for moderate or severe encephalopathy of hypoxic‒ischaemic origin in term neonates. Though the effects of hypothermia on human physiology have been explored for many decades, much of the data comes from animal or adult studies; the latter originally after accidental hypothermia, followed by application of controlled hypothermia after cardiac arrest or trauma, or during cardiopulmonary bypass. Though this work is informative, the effects of hypothermia on neonatal physiology after perinatal asphyxia must be considered in the context of a prolonged hypoxic insult that has already induced a number of significant physiological sequelae. This article reviews the effects of therapeutic hypothermia on respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters, including glycaemic control and feeding requirements. The potential pitfalls of blood‒gas analysis and overtreatment of physiological changes in cardiovascular parameters are also discussed. Finally, the effects of hypothermia on drug metabolism are covered, focusing on how the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and dosing requirements of drugs frequently used in neonatal intensive care may change during therapeutic hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  19. A generic organ based ontology system, applied to vertebrate heart anatomy, development and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertens Laura M.F.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach to modelling biological information using ontologies. The system interlinks three ontologies, comprising anatomical, developmental and taxonomical information, and includes instances of structures for different species. The framework is constructed for comparative analyses in the field of evolutionary development. We have applied the approach to the vertebrate heart and present four case studies of the functionality of the system, focusing on cross-species comparisons, developmental studies, physiological studies and 3D visualisation.

  20. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  1. Developmental Pathways Are Blueprints for Designing Successful Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Trevaskis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes controlling plant development have been studied in multiple plant systems. This has provided deep insights into conserved genetic pathways controlling core developmental processes including meristem identity, phase transitions, determinacy, stem elongation, and branching. These pathways control plant growth patterns and are fundamentally important to crop biology and agriculture. This review describes the conserved pathways that control plant development, using Arabidopsis as a model. Historical examples of how plant development has been altered through selection to improve crop performance are then presented. These examples, drawn from diverse crops, show how the genetic pathways controlling development have been modified to increase yield or tailor growth patterns to suit local growing environments or specialized crop management practices. Strategies to apply current progress in genomics and developmental biology to future crop improvement are then discussed within the broader context of emerging trends in plant breeding. The ways that knowledge of developmental processes and understanding of gene function can contribute to crop improvement, beyond what can be achieved by selection alone, are emphasized. These include using genome re-sequencing, mutagenesis, and gene editing to identify or generate novel variation in developmental genes. The expanding scope for comparative genomics, the possibility to engineer new developmental traits and new approaches to resolve gene–gene or gene–environment interactions are also discussed. Finally, opportunities to integrate fundamental research and crop breeding are highlighted.

  2. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  3. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, Sarit; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-07

    Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test-interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  4. Effect of thermal shock on developmental stages of estuarine fish. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.M.

    1978-12-01

    Physiological data and ecological data show that the few estuarine spawners have a higher thermal tolerance in the embryonic and larval stages than do the freshwater, coastal, or oceanic spawning species. However, since all three groups (freshwater, estuarine, and oceanic spawners) occupy the estuary and coastal waters at different times of the year, knowledge of their physiology and ecology at different developmental or life cycle stages is critical for estuarine management decisions

  5. Patterns of genome size diversity in bats (order Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jillian D L; Bickham, John W; Gregory, T Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Despite being a group of particular interest in considering relationships between genome size and metabolic parameters, bats have not been well studied from this perspective. This study presents new estimates for 121 "microbat" species from 12 families and complements a previous study on members of the family Pteropodidae ("megabats"). The results confirm that diversity in genome size in bats is very limited even compared with other mammals, varying approximately 2-fold from 1.63 pg in Lophostoma carrikeri to 3.17 pg in Rhinopoma hardwickii and averaging only 2.35 pg ± 0.02 SE (versus 3.5 pg overall for mammals). However, contrary to some other vertebrate groups, and perhaps owing to the narrow range observed, genome size correlations were not apparent with any chromosomal, physiological, flight-related, developmental, or ecological characteristics within the order Chiroptera. Genome size is positively correlated with measures of body size in bats, though the strength of the relationships differs between pteropodids ("megabats") and nonpteropodids ("microbats").

  6. Parental Stress in Families of Children With Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Lawson, Katharine; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Schechtman, Merryl; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2015-11-01

    The level of parental stress in families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities and its association with child comorbid symptoms was studied in an ethnically diverse population, in a cross-sectional study with structured interview. The sample included 50 families of children with autism and 50 families of children with other developmental disabilities, matched by age/gender. Interview included Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Gastrointestinal Questionnaire, Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In this ethnically diverse sample, parental stress was significantly higher for the autism group and for non-Hispanic and US-born mothers. In both study groups, parental stress was related to child irritability. Parental stress was also related to gastrointestinal problems in the autism group and to sleep difficulties in the developmental disabilities group. Targeting child irritability may be particularly important in reducing parental stress for families of children with autism and other developmental disabilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Diverse Multilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuthnow, Joel; Li, Xin; Qi, Lingling

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses Chinas multilateral diplomacy by identifying four distinct strategies: watching, engaging, circumventing, and shaping. The typology builds on two literatures: power transition theory, and the more recent “assertiveness” discourse in the West. Drawing from a range of cases...... in both the economic and security domains, the article argues that China’s multilateralism is diverse, and that it cannot be un-problematically characterized as either status-quo or revisionist in nature. However, the general trend appears to be towards engagement, but with an assertive tact as China...

  8. Doing Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Christiansen, Tanja Juul

    2012-01-01

    Questions of agency in text–audience relations are less studied than other aspects of rhetorical agency. We suggest conceptualizing and analyzing the relationship between texts and audiences from the perspective of performativity, as it has been developed by Judith Butler. Thus, we argue that texts...... invite audiences to take up subject positions, understood as combinations of identity and agency. Danish diversity management rhetoric functions as an illustrative example; in analyzing this type of rhetoric we show how subjects are called into restrained positions of similarity/difference and thereby...

  9. Success stories and emerging themes in conservation physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madliger, Christine L.; Cooke, Steven J.; Crespi, Erica J.; Funk, Jennifer L.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Hunt, Kathleen E.; Rohr, Jason R.; Sinclair, Brent J.; Suski, Cory D.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause–effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of ‘conservation physiology’, to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess whether physiological approaches contribute to downstream conservation outcomes and management decisions. Here, we present eight areas of conservation concern, ranging from chemical contamination to invasive species to ecotourism, where physiological approaches have led to beneficial changes in human behaviour, management or policy. We also discuss the shared characteristics of these successes, identifying emerging themes in the discipline. Specifically, we conclude that conservation physiology: (i) goes beyond documenting change to provide solutions; (ii) offers a diversity of physiological metrics beyond glucocorticoids (stress hormones); (iii) includes approaches that are transferable among species, locations and times; (iv) simultaneously allows for human use and benefits to wildlife; and (v) is characterized by successes that can be difficult to find in the primary literature. Overall, we submit that the field of conservation physiology has a strong foundation of achievements characterized by a diversity of conservation issues, taxa, physiological traits, ecosystem types and spatial scales. We hope that these concrete successes will encourage the continued evolution and use of physiological tools within conservation-based research and

  10. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  11. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Applied physiology of triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, M L; Douglas, P S

    1995-04-01

    The triathlon is a 3-event endurance sport in which athletes compete sequentially in swimming, cycling and running. The primary determinant of success is the ability to sustain a high rate of energy expenditure for prolonged periods of time. Exercise training-induced physiological adaptations in virtually all systems of the body allow the athlete to accomplish this. Aerobic capacity (measured as maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max), economy of motion (submaximal VO2) and fractional utilisation of maximal capacity (%VO2max) reflect the integrated responses of these physiological adaptations. Numerous studies have reported relatively high mean VO2max values for various groups of triathletes that are comparable to those reported for athletes in single-event endurance sports and clearly above those reported for untrained individuals. In shorter distance triathlons and in studies using recreational (rather than elite) triathletes, VO2max is related to performance in the corresponding event of the triathlon (e.g. tethered swimming VO2max with swim time). In longer events and with more elite triathletes, VO2max correlates less well with performance. The physiological adaptations that correspond to and facilitate improved VO2max occur centrally in the cardiovascular system, centred on increased maximal cardiac output, and peripherally in the metabolic systems, centred around increased arterio-venous O2 (a-v O2) difference. While a high VO2max in individuals is clearly of importance to triathlon performance, energy output must be sustained for long periods of time, making economy of motion also very important. Studies suggests that competitive swimmers have better swimming economy than triathletes. However, since many triathletes have previously been competitive swimmers this finding is questionable. The finding suggests that triathletes from nonswimming backgrounds would benefit from improving swimming technique rather than concentrating training workouts solely on distance. In

  13. Developmental model of static allometry in holometabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, Alexander W; Mirth, Christen K; Bates, Peter W

    2008-08-22

    The regulation of static allometry is a fundamental developmental process, yet little is understood of the mechanisms that ensure organs scale correctly across a range of body sizes. Recent studies have revealed the physiological and genetic mechanisms that control nutritional variation in the final body and organ size in holometabolous insects. The implications these mechanisms have for the regulation of static allometry is, however, unknown. Here, we formulate a mathematical description of the nutritional control of body and organ size in Drosophila melanogaster and use it to explore how the developmental regulators of size influence static allometry. The model suggests that the slope of nutritional static allometries, the 'allometric coefficient', is controlled by the relative sensitivity of an organ's growth rate to changes in nutrition, and the relative duration of development when nutrition affects an organ's final size. The model also predicts that, in order to maintain correct scaling, sensitivity to changes in nutrition varies among organs, and within organs through time. We present experimental data that support these predictions. By revealing how specific physiological and genetic regulators of size influence allometry, the model serves to identify developmental processes upon which evolution may act to alter scaling relationships.

  14. Genetic diversity of maize genotypes on the basis of morpho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of maize genotypes on the basis of morpho-physiological and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Ashish Kumar, Arunita Rakshit, Naresh K Mangilipelli, Y Varalaxmi, T Vijayalakshmi, Jainender M Vanaja, SK Yadav, B Venkateswarlu, M Maheswari ...

  15. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas; Vue, Zer; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mó nica; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2010-01-01

    developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms

  16. PREVALENCE AND EFFECT OF DEVELOPMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    among children might even be higher, as medical and educational systems frequently fail to ... formally diagnosed, but rather described by their teachers as lazy or ..... Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire for Brazilian children.

  17. The Management of Developmental Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbay, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    Of 39 children (5-12 years old) with developmental apraxia and agnosia, who were assessed neurologically, 19 were also given simple standarized tests of motor ability. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author/SBH)

  18. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Jackson, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Study of air pollution indicates that minute particles may adversely interfere with pregnancy and fetal development. As engineering of nanoparticles have emerged, so has concern that these might interfere with reproductive and developmental functions. This is because nanotechnology may potentially...... increase the overall particle burden in air and introduce particles with novel characteristics and surface reactivity. To evaluate safety for pregnant women, we have studied developmental toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), following exposure of pregnant mice by inhalation (ENPs of titanium...

  19. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  20. Diversity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mentor Ademaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity measures are a type of non-criminal measures foreseen in the Chapter IV of the Code of Juvenile Justice, which may be imposed on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts. These measures can be applied in cases of minor offenses, for which is foreseen the criminal sanction with a fine or imprisonment up to three years or for criminal offenses committed by negligence for which is foreseen the sentence up to five years of imprisonment, except those cases that result in death. With the imposition of these measures is intended to prevent criminal proceedings against juveniles whenever is possible, rehabilitation and reintegration of juvenile in his/her community and the prevention of recidivist behaviour. Competent authority to impose them is the public prosecutor, the juvenile judge and juvenile court. And they are executed by the Kosovo Correctional Service.

  1. Developmental Science: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of developmental science is to describe, explain, and optimize intraindividual changes in adaptive developmental regulations and, as well, interindividual differences in such relations, across life. The history of developmental science is reviewed and its current foci, which are framed by relational developmental systems models that…

  2. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  3. Face cognition in humans: Psychophysiological, developmental, and cross-cultural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernorizov A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigators are finding increasing evidence for cross-cultural specificity in face cognition along with individual characteristics. The functions on which face cognition is based not only are types of general cognitive functions (perception, memory but are elements of specific mental processes. Face perception, memorization, correct recognition of faces, and understanding the information that faces provide are essential skills for humans as a social species and can be considered as facets of social (cultural intelligence. Face cognition is a difficult, multifaceted set of processes. The systems and processes involved in perceiving and recognizing faces are captured by several models focusing on the pertinent functions or including the presumably underlying neuroanatomical substrates. Thus, the study of face-cognition mechanisms is a cross-disciplinary topic. In Russia, Germany, and China there are plans to organize an interdisciplinary crosscultural study of face cognition. The first step of this scientific interaction is conducting psychological and psychophysiological studies of face cognition in multinational Russia within the frame of a grant supported by the Russian Science Foundation and devoted to “cross-cultural tolerance”. For that reason and in the presence of the huge diversity of data concerning face cognition, we suggest for discussion, specifically within the psychological scientific community, three aspects of face cognition: (1 psychophysiological (quantitative data, (2 developmental (qualitative data from developmental psychology, and (3 cross-cultural (qualitative data from cross-cultural studies. These three aspects reflect the different levels of investigations and constitute a comprehensive, multilateral approach to the problem. Unfortunately, as a rule, neuropsychological and psychological investigations are carried out independently of each other. However, for the purposes of our overview here, we assume that the

  4. Physiological blockage in plants in response to postharvest stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flowers have been designed primarily for cutting because of the diversity of shapes, colors and also durability. However, ornamental plants are used in floral arrangements in vases and have limited shelf-life. Thus, this study showed that one of the factors contributing to this limitation is the physiological blockage that occurs ...

  5. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  6. Associative bacteria influence maize (Zea mays L.) growth, physiology and root anatomy under different nitrogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzavara, Anderson Kikuchi; Paiva, Pedro Henrique Godoy; Gabriel, Lorrant Cavanha; de Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Milani, Karina; Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Bianchini, Edmilson; Pimenta, José Antonio; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Dias-Pereira, Jaqueline; Stolf-Moreira, Renata

    2018-05-15

    Despite the great diversity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with potential to partially replace the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture, few PGPB are explored for the production of commercial inoculants, reinforcing the importance of identifying positive plant-bacteria interactions. Aiming to better understand the influence of PGPB inoculation in plant development, two PGPB species with distant phylogenetic relationship were inoculated in maize. Maize seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. or Azospirillum brasilense. After germinating, the plants were subjected to two nitrogen treatments: full (N+) and limiting (N-) nitrogen supply. Then, anatomical, biometric and physiological analyses were performed. Both PGPB species modified the anatomical pattern of roots, as verified by the higher metaxylem vessel elements (MVE) number. Bacillus sp. also increased the MVE area in maize roots. Under N+ condition, both PGPB decreased the leaf protein content and led to the development of shorter roots; however, Bacillus sp. increased root and shoot dry weight, whereas A. brasilense increased photosynthesis rate and leaf nitrate content. In plants subjected to N limitation (N-), photosynthesis rate and photosystem II efficiency increased in those inoculated with Bacillus sp., whilst A. brasilense led to higher ammonium, amino acids and total soluble sugars contents in the leaves, compared to control. Plant developmental and metabolical patterns were switched by the inoculation, regardless the inoculant bacteria used, producing similar as well as distinct modifications on the parameters studied. These results indicatie that even non-diazotrophic inoculant strains can improve the plant N-status as result of the morpho-anatomical and physiological modifications produced by the PGPB. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  8. Physiology of bile secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller, Alejandro

    2008-10-07

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment, in different situations, results in the syndrome of cholestasis. The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed. Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane. This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation. The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bile-duct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts. The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed. In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled, cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves. A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included. The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  9. Independence among physiological traits suggests flexibility in the face of ecological demands on phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, D.M.; Vézina, F.; Goymann, W.; Schwabl, I.; Versteegh, M.; Tieleman, B.I.; Piersma, T.

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypic flexibility allows animals to adjust their physiology to diverse environmental conditions encountered over the year. Examining how these varying traits covary gives insights into potential constraints or freedoms that may shape evolutionary trajectories. In this study, we examined

  10. Diversity-based reasoning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, E; Hahn, U

    2001-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of inductive reasoning by adults is the diversity effect, namely that people draw stronger inferences from a diverse set of evidence than from a more homogenous set of evidence. However, past developmental work has not found consistent diversity effects with children age 9 and younger. We report robust sensitivity to diversity in children as young as 5, using everyday stimuli such as pictures of objects with people. Experiment 1 showed the basic diversity effect in 5- to 9-year-olds. Experiment 2 showed that, like adults, children restrict their use of diversity information when making inferences about remote categories. Experiment 3 used other stimulus sets to overcome an alternate explanation in terms of sample size rather than diversity effects. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that children more readily draw on diversity when reasoning about objects and their relations with people than when reasoning about objects' internal, hidden properties, thus partially explaining the negative findings of previous work. Relations to cross-cultural work and models of induction are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Teaching Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Young McChesney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is targeted to faculty teaching race and ethnicity, racism, diversity, and multicultural courses. Many students equate race with skin color. The premise of this article is that to teach students about the social construction of race, teachers must first know enough science to teach students that race is not biological. This article examines the biology of race by showing how advances in DNA sequencing led to genetics research that supports arguments that race is not biological. DNA comparisons show that all human populations living today are one species that came from Africa. The article explains the migration of humans out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and how they populated Australia, then Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The article shows how recent research maps the timing of the migration and admixture of specific population groups into Europe and India. The article shows how a mutation in one nucleotide can result in a trait like blue eyes, or Hemoglobin S (which confers resistance to malaria, which can be subject to evolution through natural selection. DNA comparisons show how natural selection shaped the genetics of human skin color to adapt to less UV light in the northern latitudes of Europe and Asia. The article shows that there is no relation between skin color or other “racial” characteristics and complex traits like intelligence. The science in this article will help teachers explain that as race is not biological, race is socially constructed and culturally enacted.

  12. Prohibitin( PHB) roles in granulosa cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Thompson, Winston E

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cells (GC) play an important role in the growth and development of the follicle in the process known as folliculogenesis. In the present review, we focus on recent developments in prohibitin (PHB) research in relation to GC physiological functions. PHB is a member of a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family containing the repressor of estrogen activity (REA)/stomatin/PHB/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain (also known as the PHB domain) found in diverse species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. PHB is ubiquitously expressed in a circulating free form or is present in multiple cellular compartments including mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. In mitochondria, PHB is anchored to the mitochondrial inner membrane and forms complexes with the ATPases associated with proteases having diverse cellular activities. PHB continuously shuttles between the mitochondria, cytosol and nucleus. In the nucleus, PHB interacts with various transcription factors and modulates transcriptional activity directly or through interactions with chromatin remodeling proteins. Many functions have been attributed to the mitochondrial and nuclear PHB complexes such as cellular differentiation, anti-proliferation, morphogenesis and maintenance of the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, to date, the regulation of PHB expression patterns and GC physiological functions are not completely understood.

  13. Integration of a Faculty's Ongoing Research into an Undergraduate Laboratory Teaching Class in Developmental Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sang-Chul

    2018-01-01

    Traditional developmental biology laboratory classes have utilized a number of different model organisms to allow students to be exposed to diverse biological phenomena in developing organisms. This traditional approach has mainly focused on the diverse morphological and anatomical descriptions of the developing organisms. However, modern…

  14. Developmental aspects of fear: Comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Reinhard, Julia; Reif, Andreas; Domschke, Katharina; Romanos, Marcel; Deckert, Jürgen; Pauli, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Most research on human fear conditioning and its generalization has focused on adults whereas only little is known about these processes in children. Direct comparisons between child and adult populations are needed to determine developmental risk markers of fear and anxiety. We compared 267 children and 285 adults in a differential fear conditioning paradigm and generalization test. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and ratings of valence and arousal were obtained to indicate fear learning. Both groups displayed robust and similar differential conditioning on subjective and physiological levels. However, children showed heightened fear generalization compared to adults as indexed by higher arousal ratings and SCR to the generalization stimuli. Results indicate overgeneralization of conditioned fear as a developmental correlate of fear learning. The developmental change from a shallow to a steeper generalization gradient is likely related to the maturation of brain structures that modulate efficient discrimination between danger and (ambiguous) safety cues. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Home geriatric physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-10-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the 'smart-house' project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society.

  16. Home geriatric physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Toshiyo

    2012-01-01

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the ‘smart-house’ project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society. (topical review)

  17. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  18. How Evolution May Work Through Curiosity-Driven Developmental Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Smith, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Infants' own activities create and actively select their learning experiences. Here we review recent models of embodied information seeking and curiosity-driven learning and show that these mechanisms have deep implications for development and evolution. We discuss how these mechanisms yield self-organized epigenesis with emergent ordered behavioral and cognitive developmental stages. We describe a robotic experiment that explored the hypothesis that progress in learning, in and for itself, generates intrinsic rewards: The robot learners probabilistically selected experiences according to their potential for reducing uncertainty. In these experiments, curiosity-driven learning led the robot learner to successively discover object affordances and vocal interaction with its peers. We explain how a learning curriculum adapted to the current constraints of the learning system automatically formed, constraining learning and shaping the developmental trajectory. The observed trajectories in the robot experiment share many properties with those in infant development, including a mixture of regularities and diversities in the developmental patterns. Finally, we argue that such emergent developmental structures can guide and constrain evolution, in particular with regard to the origins of language. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Developmental changes in the metabolic network of snapdragon flowers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle K Muhlemann

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and reproductive success of angiosperms, the most diverse group of land plants, relies on visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. Previous work has focused on elucidating the developmental regulation of pathways leading to the formation of pollinator-attracting secondary metabolites such as scent compounds and flower pigments. However, to date little is known about how flowers control their entire metabolic network to achieve the highly regulated production of metabolites attracting pollinators. Integrative analysis of transcripts and metabolites in snapdragon sepals and petals over flower development performed in this study revealed a profound developmental remodeling of gene expression and metabolite profiles in petals, but not in sepals. Genes up-regulated during petal development were enriched in functions related to secondary metabolism, fatty acid catabolism, and amino acid transport, whereas down-regulated genes were enriched in processes involved in cell growth, cell wall formation, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The levels of transcripts and metabolites in pathways leading to scent formation were coordinately up-regulated during petal development, implying transcriptional induction of metabolic pathways preceding scent formation. Developmental gene expression patterns in the pathways involved in scent production were different from those of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, highlighting distinct developmental regulation of secondary metabolism and primary metabolic pathways feeding into it.

  20. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2014-10-10

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.

  1. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among...... the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental...... chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new...

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to conduct disorder which have different causes and serve as the basis for the current typology of conduct disorders in the classification systems. Such a typology of conduct disorders in the diagnostic classification allows better understanding, prognosis and choice of treatment.

  3. Developmental analytic view on narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Matjan Štuhec

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Narcissistic pathology is connected to the pathology of the self. This article makes an overview of definitions of developmental analytic theories and stops with Kohut, Kernberg, Masterson, Auerbach and Mollon. The self is understood as a separate personality structure and has its own developmental line. Narcissism is a personality disorder that has its roots in preodipal developmental phases, mostly in the practicing and rapprochement subphase and in the oedipal phase as well. Recent research shows that the oedipal phase and the relation between the mother, the child's father (or her partner in general and the child is crucial for the maintenance of the pathological narcissism. Mothers who do not believe in a satisfying relationship with a man in general, keep the child in the dyadic position and do not support the development of the child's own identity.

  4. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyn, I B; Baker, L K

    1992-04-01

    Practicing cardiovascular nurses are aware that significant differences exist in the cardiac anatomy and physiology of children and adults. Generally, the younger the child the greater these differences are. The cellular anatomy and physiology are markedly different in the fetus, neonate, and infant. As development progresses, cardiac function begins to more closely approximate that of an adult. This article describes the anatomical and physiologic development of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent. The developmental differences in preload, afterload, contractility, and heart rate are summarized.

  5. CEREBELLUM: LINKS BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT, DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS AND MOTOR LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario U Manto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the links and interactions between development and motor learning has noticeable implications for the understanding and management of neurodevelopmental disorders. This is particularly relevant for the cerebellum which is critical for sensorimotor learning. The olivocerebellar pathway is a key pathway contributing to learning of motor skills. Its developmental maturation and remodelling are being unravelled. Advances in genetics have led to major improvements in our appraisal of the genes involved in cerebellar development, especially studies in mutant mice. Cerebellar neurogenesis is compartmentalized in relationship with neurotransmitter fate. The Engrailed-2 gene is a major actor of the specification of cerebellar cell types and late embryogenic morphogenesis. Math1, expressed by the rhombic lip (RL, is required for the genesis of glutamatergic neurons. Mutants deficient for the transcription factor Ptf1a display a lack of Purkinje cells and gabaergic interneurons. Rora gene contributes to the developmental signalling between granule cells and Purkinje neurons. The expression profile of SHH (Sonic hedgehog in postnatal stages determines the final size/shape of the cerebellum. Genes affecting the development impact upon the physiological properties of the cerebellar circuits. For instance, receptors are developmentally regulated and their action interferes directly with developmental processes. Another field of research which is expanding relates to very preterm neonates. They are at risk for cerebellar lesions, which may themselves impair the developmental events. Very preterm neonates often show sensori-motor deficits, highlighting another major link between impaired development and learning deficiencies. Pathways playing a critical role in cerebellar development are likely to become therapeutical targets for several neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Developmental orthopaedic diseases in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şİrİn, Özlem; Alkan, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases (DOD) is seen frequently in horses which completed their maturity. Osteochondrosis, physitis, angular limb deformities, flexural deformities, juvenil arthritis, cervical vertebral anomalies, cuboidal bone abnormalities are problems investigated under Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases title. This diseases can develop single or some together in fast growing, heavy animals (especially Arabian and English Thoroughbreds). Multifactorial causes of this diseases etiopathogenesis can be listed as genetic predisposition, trauma, nutrition, vitamins/minerals and endocrine disorders. But the exact causes of these diseases are not known. In this review detailed information are given about the diseases mentioned above

  8. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  9. Does staff diversity imply openness to diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Post-secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and hardly any has looked outside the USA. The purpose of this paper is to present a study of members of international...... university departments in Denmark. The authors set out to investigate the relationship between different types of staff diversity and openness to diversity in terms of linguistic, visible, value, and informational heterogeneity. Design/methodology/approach – This study uses responses from 489 staff members......, was unrelated or negatively associated with positive diversity attitudes. Originality/value – Few studies deal with the role of staff diversity and no prior studies the authors know of have examined the link between diversity types and openness to diversity....

  10. Participation Patterns of Preschool Children With Intellectual Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yafit; Fuchs, Reut

    2018-04-01

    We aim to examine the pattern of participation of children with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) or global developmental delay (GDD) in comparison with typically developing preschoolers. In addition, to identify environmental and personal factors associated with their participation, 20 children with mild to moderate GDD or IDD, and 24 age- and gender-matched controls, aged 3 to 6 years, were assessed using the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation and the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire. Significant differences were found between the groups, both for general scales of participation and for each activity area. For the IDD/GDD group, participation was significantly negatively correlated with environmental restrictions at home. For the control group, participation was correlated with demographic variables. Typically developing children participate at a higher frequency and in a more diverse range of activities compared with children with IDD/GDD. Associations between participation and contextual factors varied depending on the child's health condition.

  11. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  12. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  13. Clinical physiology grand rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeremy; Schwartzstein, Richard; Irish, Julie; Almeida, Jacqueline; Roberts, David

    2013-04-01

    Clinical Physiology Grand Rounds (CPGR) is an interactive, case-based conference for medical students designed to: (1) integrate preclinical and clinical learning; (2) promote inductive clinical reasoning; and (3) emphasise students as peer teachers. CPGR specifically encourages mixed learning level student interactions and emphasises the use of concept mapping. We describe the theoretical basis and logistical considerations for an interactive, integrative, mixed-learner environment such as CPGR. In addition, we report qualitative data regarding students' attitudes towards and perceptions of CPGR. Medical students from first to fourth year participate in a monthly, interactive conference. The CPGR was designed to bridge gaps and reinforce linkages between basic science and clinical concepts, and to incorporate interactive vertical integration between preclinical and clinical students. Medical education and content experts use Socratic, interactive teaching methods to develop real-time concept maps to emphasise the presence and importance of linkages across curricula. Student focus groups were held to assess attitudes towards and perceptions of the mixed-learner environment and concept maps in CPGR. Qualitative analyses of focus group transcripts were performed to develop themes and codes describing the students' impressions of CPGR. CPGR is a case-based, interactive conference designed to help students gain an increased appreciation of linkages between basic science and clinical medicine concepts, and an increased awareness of clinical reasoning thought processes. Success is dependent upon explicit attention being given to goals for students' integrated learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  14. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  15. Measuring Developmental Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted an item-level analysis of mathematics anxiety and examined the dimensionality of mathematics anxiety in a sample of developmental mathematics students (N = 162) by Multi-dimensional Random Coefficients Multinominal Logit Model (MRCMLM). The results indicate a moderately correlated factor structure of mathematics anxiety (r =…

  16. Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Ashkenazi, Simone Schwizer; Hänggi, Jürgen; Rotzer, Stephanie; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerical understanding is important for everyday life. For children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), numbers and magnitudes present profound problems which are thought to be based upon neuronal impairments of key regions for numerical understanding. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in white matter fibre integrity between children with DD and controls using diffusion tensor imaging. White matter integrity and behavioural measures were evaluated in 15 children with developmental dyscalculia aged around 10 years and 15 matched controls. The main finding, obtained by a whole brain group comparison, revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in children with developmental dyscalculia. In addition, a region of interest analysis exhibited prominent deficits in fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus, which is thought to be the core region for number processing. To conclude, our results outline deficient fibre projection between parietal, temporal and frontal regions in children with developmental dyscalculia, and therefore raise the question of whether dyscalculia can be seen as a dysconnection syndrome. Since the superior longitudinal fasciculus is involved in the integration and control of distributed brain processes, the present results highlight the importance of considering broader domain-general mechanisms in the diagnosis and therapy of dyscalculia.

  17. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  18. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  19. Developmental control of cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxem, M. (Mike)

    2002-01-01

    During development of multicellular organisms, cell divisions need to be coordinated with the developmental program of the entire organism. Although the mechanisms that drive cells through the division cycle are well understood, very little is known about the pathways that link extracellular signals

  20. Student Development and Developmental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaigne, John

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the nine-stage Perry Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development, detailing three major student orientations--dualism, multiplicity, and commitments in relativism. Suggests techniques developmental educators can use to communicate with, support, and challenge students to promote intellectual development. Underscores the importance of…

  1. What Is a Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social worker. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians work closely with parents, families, and schools. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians understand that children’s development and behavior happen first and foremost in the ...

  2. 29 CFR 1902.33 - Developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of developmental changes by OSHA. Generally, whenever a State completes a developmental step, it must submit the resulting plan change as a supplement to its plan to OSHA for approval. OSHA's approval...

  3. Ethiopia: A Democratic Developmental State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruling Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF in its notable second reform appraisal held in the aftermath of the 2005 national election concluded that the utmost priority of the government should be realizing fastest and sustainable economic growth that fairly benefits its citizens’ unless the very existence of the country wouldn’t be guaranteed. Given the history of poverty reduction in developing countries, particularly in Africa, EPRDF realized that it is unthinkable to eradicate poverty from Ethiopia adopting neo-liberalism. Above all, the miraculous economic transformation of the South East Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong has proved that there is another way to development, not just neo-liberalism. Accordingly, EPRDF, after examining South Korea’s and Taiwan’s history of economic development in particular where both countries have had a large section of rural population unlike Hong Kong and Singapore where both are urban, found ‘developmental state’ relevant to Ethiopia. However, unlike these countries which were originally under non-democratic regimes where their leaders fear the rural peasant and external aggression from their communist rivals, EPRDF has had a great support of rural and urban population with no imminent foreign threat(s, and decided to execute the ideology rather under the umbrella of democracy. Therefore, employing secondary sources, this desk study aims to analyze whether Ethiopia is a ‘democratic developmental state?’ And, concludes that given the practices of the government vis-a-vis the principles of democracy and developmental state, Ethiopia couldn’t be taken as best model for democratic developmental state, rather emerging developmental state.

  4. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Using Developmental Evaluation as a Design Thinking Tool for Curriculum Innovation in Professional Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Simon N.; Fitzgerald, Robert N.; Riordan, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues for the use of "developmental" evaluation as a design-based research tool for sustainable curriculum innovation in professional higher education. Professional education is multi-faceted and complex with diverse views from researchers, professional practitioners, employers and the world of politics leaving little…

  6. Between and within Ethnic Differences in Strategic Learning: A Study of Developmental Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Carlton J.; Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Yetkiner Ozel, Zeynep Ebrar; Phelps, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated developmental mathematics students' efficacy beliefs for motivational, self-regulated learning, resource management, and cognitive strategies and which of these beliefs most differentiated European American, African American and Hispanic students in terms of their mathematics achievement. The diverse sample consisted…

  7. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Flavonoids Using an Integrative Zebrafish System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugel, Sean M; Bonventre, Josephine A; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are a large, structurally diverse class of bioactive naturally occurring chemicals commonly detected in breast milk, soy based infant formulas, amniotic fluid, and fetal cord blood. The potential for pervasive early life stage exposures raises concerns for perturbation of embryogenesis, though developmental toxicity and bioactivity information is limited for many flavonoids. Therefore, we evaluated a suite of 24 flavonoid and flavonoid-like chemicals using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay-an alternative model for investigating developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant chemicals. Embryos were exposed to 1-50 µM of each chemical from 6 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and assessed for 26 adverse developmental endpoints at 24, 72, and 120 hpf. Behavioral changes were evaluated in morphologically normal animals at 24 and 72 hpf, at 120 hpf using a larval photomotor response (LPR) assay. Gene expression was comparatively evaluated for all compounds for effects on biomarker transcripts indicative of AHR (cyp1a) and ER (cyp19a1b, esr1, lhb, vtg) pathway bioactivity. Overall, 15 of 24 flavonoids elicited adverse effects on one or more of the developmental or behavioral endpoints. Hierarchical clustering and principle component analyses compared toxicity profiles and identified 3 distinct groups of bioactive flavonoids. Despite robust induction of multiple estrogen-responsive biomarkers, co-exposure with ER and GPER antagonists did not ameliorate toxicity, suggesting ER-independence and alternative modes of action. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that development is sensitive to perturbation by bioactive flavonoids in zebrafish that are not related to traditional estrogen receptor mode of action pathways. This integrative zebrafish platform provides a useful framework for evaluating flavonoid developmental toxicity and hazard prioritization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  8. Physiologic effects of bowel preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kristine Grubbe; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite the universal use of bowel preparation before colonoscopy and colorectal surgery, the physiologic effects have not been described in a standardized setting. This study was designed to investigate the physiologic effects of bowel preparation. METHODS: In a prospective study, 12...

  9. Diversity: A Philosophical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahotra Sarkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, diversity, whether it be ecological, biological, cultural, or linguistic diversity, has emerged as a major cultural value. This paper analyzes whether a single concept of diversity can underwrite discussions of diversity in different disciplines. More importantly, it analyzes the normative justification for the endorsement of diversity as a goal in all contexts. It concludes that no more than a relatively trivial concept of diversity as richness is common to all contexts. Moreover, there is no universal justification for the endorsement of diversity. Arguments to justify the protection of diversity must be tailored to individual contexts.

  10. Metabolic and functional characterization of effects of developmental temperature in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Pedersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    , and in particular, how physiological stress at extreme temperatures may counteract beneficial acclimation responses at benign temperatures. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to ten developmental temperatures covering their entire permissible temperature range. We obtained metabolic profiles and reaction norms...... for several functional traits: egg-to-adult viability, developmental time, and heat and cold tolerance. Females were more heat tolerant than males, whereas no sexual dimorphism was found in cold tolerance. A group of metabolites, mainly free amino acids, had linear reaction norms. Several energy carrying...

  11. SHP2 sails from physiology to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajan, Mylène; de Rocca Serra, Audrey; Valet, Philippe; Edouard, Thomas; Yart, Armelle

    2015-10-01

    Over the two past decades, mutations of the PTPN11 gene, encoding the ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2), have been identified as the causal factor of several developmental diseases (Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML), and metachondromatosis), and malignancies (juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia). SHP2 plays essential physiological functions in organism development and homeostasis maintenance by regulating fundamental intracellular signaling pathways in response to a wide range of growth factors and hormones, notably the pleiotropic Ras/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and the Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase (PI3K)/AKT cascades. Analysis of the biochemical impacts of PTPN11 mutations first identified both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, as well as more subtle defects, highlighting the major pathophysiological consequences of SHP2 dysregulation. Then, functional genetic studies provided insights into the molecular dysregulations that link SHP2 mutants to the development of specific traits of the diseases, paving the way for the design of specific therapies for affected patients. In this review, we first provide an overview of SHP2's structure and regulation, then describe its molecular roles, notably its functions in modulating the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, and its physiological roles in organism development and homeostasis. In the second part, we describe the different PTPN11 mutation-associated pathologies and their clinical manifestations, with particular focus on the biochemical and signaling outcomes of NS and NS-ML-associated mutations, and on the recent advances regarding the pathophysiology of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Aihie Sayer, A; Eendebak, R J; Clough, G F; Beard, J R

    2016-04-15

    We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  13. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  14. Diversity, Adaptability and Ecosystem Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keribin, Rozenn; Friend, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Our ability to predict climate change and anticipate its impacts depends on Earth System Models (ESMs) and their ability to account for the high number of interacting components of the Earth System and to gauge both their influence on the climate and the feedbacks they induce. The land carbon cycle is a component of ESMs that is still poorly constrained. Since the 1990s dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have become the main tool through which we understand the interactions between plant ecosystems and the climate. While DGVMs have made it clear the impacts of climate change on vegetation could be dramatic, predicting the dieback of rainforests and massive carbon losses from various ecosystems, they are highly variable both in their composition and their predictions. Their treatment of plant diversity and competition in particular vary widely and are based on highly-simplified relationships that do not account for the multiple levels of diversity and adaptability found in real plant ecosystems. The aim of this GREENCYCLES II project is to extend an individual-based DGVM to treat the diversity of physiologies found in plant communities and evaluate their effect if any on the ecosystem's transient dynamics and resilience. In the context of the InterSectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), an initiative coordinated by a team at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) that aims to provide fast-track global impact assessments for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, we compare 6 vegetation models including 4 DGVMs under different climate change scenarios and analyse how the very different treatments of plant diversity and interactions from one model to the next affect the models' results. We then investigate a new, more mechanistic method of incorporating plant diversity into the DGVM "Hybrid" based on ecological tradeoffs mediated by plant traits and individual-based competition for light.

  15. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  16. Developmental insights into mature cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C

    2015-02-01

    Three cases are described that illustrate new ways in which developmental research is informing the study of cognition in adults: statistical learning, neural substrates of cognition, and extended concepts. Developmental research has made clear the ubiquity of statistical learning while also revealing is limitations as a stand-alone way to acquire knowledge. With respect to neural substrates, development has uncovered links between executive processing and fronto-striatal circuits while also pointing to many aspects of high-level cognition that may not be neatly reducible to coherent neural descriptions. For extended concepts, children have made especially clear the weaknesses of intuitive theories in both children and adults while also illustrating other cognitive capacities that are used at all ages to navigate the socially distributed aspects of knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental language and speech disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A

    2001-09-01

    Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.

  18. Ecdysone Control of Developmental Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions. Recent new advances in our understanding of ecdysone action have relied heavily on the application of Drosophila melanogaster molecular genetic tools to study insect metamorphosis. In this review, we focus...... on three major aspects of Drosophila ecdysone biology: (a) factors that regulate the timing of ecdysone release, (b) molecular basis of stage- and tissue-specific responses to ecdysone, and (c) feedback regulation and coordination of ecdysone signaling....

  19. Gestational Hyperandrogenism in Developmental Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Androgen excess (hyperandrogenism) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The potential causes of androgen excess in women include polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), adrenal tumors, and racial disparity among many others. During pregnancy, luteoma, placental aromatase deficiency, and fetal CAH are additional causes of gestational hyperandrogenism. The present report reviews the various phenotypes of hyperandrogenism during pregnancy and its origin, pathophysiology, and the effect of hyperandrogenism on the fetal developmental trajectory and offspring consequences. PMID:27967205

  20. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsch, S.; Govaert, P.; Cowan, F.M.; Benders, M.J.N.L.; Groenendaal, F.; Vries, L.S. de; Lequin, M.H.; Saliou, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  1. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsch, S. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Neonatology, Berlin (Germany); Govaert, P. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cowan, F.M. [Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Benders, M.J.N.L.; Groenendaal, F.; Vries, L.S. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lequin, M.H. [Erasmus MC/Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Saliou, G. [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2014-07-15

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  2. Symbioses: a key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification, and impacts on humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.D. Klepzig; A.S. Adams; J. Handelsman; K.F. Raffa

    2009-01-01

    Symbiosis is receiving increased attention among all aspects of biology because of the unifying themes it helps construct across ecological,evolutionary, developmental, semiochemical, and pest management theory. Insects show a vast array of symbiotic relationships with a wide diversity of microorganisms. These relationships may confer a variety of benefits to the host...

  3. Managing Workplace Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Andrew Patrick; Vincent Raj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requ...

  4. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  5. Psychotherapy with people with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zafošnik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.

  6. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  7. Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration, and parasites and diseases; arctic mariene ecosystems and coasta marine zones; tropical forests; arctic tundra; western North American forests, etc.; indirect linkages and snyergisms among climate change, biodiversity, geosphere, and anthropogenic stresses.

  8. Forelimb-hindlimb developmental timing changes across tetrapod phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwood Lynne

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrapods exhibit great diversity in limb structures among species and also between forelimbs and hindlimbs within species, diversity which frequently correlates with locomotor modes and life history. We aim to examine the potential relation of changes in developmental timing (heterochrony to the origin of limb morphological diversity in an explicit comparative and quantitative framework. In particular, we studied the relative time sequence of development of the forelimbs versus the hindlimbs in 138 embryos of 14 tetrapod species spanning a diverse taxonomic, ecomorphological and life-history breadth. Whole-mounts and histological sections were used to code the appearance of 10 developmental events comprising landmarks of development from the early bud stage to late chondrogenesis in the forelimb and the corresponding serial homologues in the hindlimb. Results An overall pattern of change across tetrapods can be discerned and appears to be relatively clade-specific. In the primitive condition, as seen in Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, the forelimb/pectoral fin develops earlier than the hindlimb/pelvic fin. This pattern is either retained or re-evolved in eulipotyphlan insectivores (= shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and solenodons and taken to its extreme in marsupials. Although exceptions are known, the two anurans we examined reversed the pattern and displayed a significant advance in hindlimb development. All other species examined, including a bat with its greatly enlarged forelimbs modified as wings in the adult, showed near synchrony in the development of the fore and hindlimbs. Conclusion Major heterochronic changes in early limb development and chondrogenesis were absent within major clades except Lissamphibia, and their presence across vertebrate phylogeny are not easily correlated with adaptive phenomena related to morphological differences in the adult fore- and hindlimbs. The apparently conservative nature of this

  9. PTK7 marks the first human developmental EMT in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Chan

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs are thought to be essential to generate diversity of tissues during early fetal development, but these events are essentially impossible to study at the molecular level in vivo in humans. The first EMT event that has been described morphologically in human development occurs just prior to generation of the primitive streak. Because human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are thought to most closely resemble cells found in epiblast-stage embryos prior to formation of the primitive streak, we sought to determine whether this first human EMT could be modeled in vitro with pluripotent stem cells. The data presented here suggest that generating embryoid bodies from hESCs or hiPSCs drives a procession of EMT events that can be observed within 24-48 hours after EB generation. These structures possess the typical hallmarks of developmental EMTs, and portions also display evidence of primitive streak and mesendoderm. We identify PTK7 as a novel marker of this EMT population, which can also be used to purify these cells for subsequent analyses and identification of novel markers of human development. Gene expression analysis indicated an upregulation of EMT markers and ECM proteins in the PTK7+ population. We also find that cells that undergo this developmental EMT retain developmental plasticity as sorting, dissociation and re-plating reestablishes an epithelial phenotype.

  10. Developmental windows and environment as important factors in the expression of genetic information: a cardiovascular physiologist's view

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 5 (2006), s. 295-305 ISSN 0143-5221 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : developmental window * genetic determinants * environmental stimuli Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2006

  11. Adaptive developmental delay in Chagas disease vectors: an evolutionary ecology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Menu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The developmental time of vector insects is important in population dynamics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology and in their responses to global climatic change. In the triatomines (Triatominae, Reduviidae, vectors of Chagas disease, evolutionary ecology concepts, which may allow for a better understanding of their biology, have not been applied. Despite delay in the molting in some individuals observed in triatomines, no effort was made to explain this variability.We applied four methods: (1 an e-mail survey sent to 30 researchers with experience in triatomines, (2 a statistical description of the developmental time of eleven triatomine species, (3 a relationship between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability, (4 a mathematical optimization model of evolution of developmental delay (diapause.85.6% of responses informed on prolonged developmental times in 5(th instar nymphs, with 20 species identified with remarkable developmental delays. The developmental time analysis showed some degree of bi-modal pattern of the development time of the 5(th instars in nine out of eleven species but no trend between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability was observed. Our optimization model predicts that the developmental delays could be due to an adaptive risk-spreading diapause strategy, only if survival throughout the diapause period and the probability of random occurrence of "bad" environmental conditions are sufficiently high.Developmental delay may not be a simple non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity in development time, and could be a form of adaptive diapause associated to a physiological mechanism related to the postponement of the initiation of reproduction, as an adaptation to environmental stochasticity through a spreading of risk (bet-hedging strategy. We identify a series of parameters that can be measured in the field and laboratory to test this hypothesis. The importance of these findings is

  12. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  13. A Microbial Perspective on the Grand Challenges in Comparative Animal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interactions with microbial communities can have profound influences on animal physiology, thereby impacting animal performance and fitness. Therefore, it is important to understand the diversity and nature of host-microbe interactions in various animal groups (invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals). In this perspective, I discuss how the field of host-microbe interactions can be used to address topics that have been identified as grand challenges in comparative animal physiology: (i) horizontal integration of physiological processes across organisms, (ii) vertical integration of physiological processes across organizational levels within organisms, and (iii) temporal integration of physiological processes during evolutionary change. Addressing these challenges will require the use of a variety of animal models and the development of systems approaches that can integrate large, multiomic data sets from both microbial communities and animal hosts. Integrating host-microbe interactions into the established field of comparative physiology represents an exciting frontier for both fields. PMID:29556549

  14. CERN Diversity Newsletter - March 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Quarterly CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  15. CERN Diversity Newsletter - April 2017

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069427; Koutava, Ioanna; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  16. CERN Diversity Newsletter - November 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Quarterly CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  17. CERN Diversity Newsletter - September 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Guinot, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Quarterly CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  18. Salicylic acid-induced germination, biochemical and developmental alterations in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanik, Fatma; Aytürk, Özlem; Çetinbaş-Genç, Aslihan; Vardar, Filiz

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the endogenous plant growth regulators that modulate various metabolic and physiological events. To evaluate the exogenous SA-induced germination, biochemical and developmental alterations, different concentrations (10, 100, 500 and 1000 μM) of SA were applied to rye (Secale cereale L.) seeds in hydroponic culture conditions for 15 days. The observations revealed that seed germination and root elongation were stimulated in 10 μM SA treatment, however they were in...

  19. Music cognition: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2012-10-01

    Although music is universal, there is a great deal of cultural variability in music structures. Nevertheless, some aspects of music processing generalize across cultures, whereas others rely heavily on the listening environment. Here, we discuss the development of musical knowledge, focusing on four themes: (a) capabilities that are present early in development; (b) culture-general and culture-specific aspects of pitch and rhythm processing; (c) age-related changes in pitch perception; and (d) developmental changes in how listeners perceive emotion in music. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  1. Cyanobacterial diversity and halotolerance in a variable hypersaline environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Andrea E; Buchheim, Julie A; Buchheim, Mark A; Henley, William J

    2008-04-01

    The Great Salt Plains (GSP) in north-central Oklahoma, USA is an expansive salt flat (approximately 65 km(2)) that is part of the federally protected Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge. The GSP serves as an ideal environment to study the microbial diversity of a terrestrial, hypersaline system that experiences wide fluctuations in freshwater influx and diel temperature. Our study assessed cyanobacterial diversity at the GSP by focusing on the taxonomic and physiological diversity of GSP isolates, and the 16S rRNA phylogenetic diversity of isolates and environmental clones from three sites (north, central, and south). Taxonomic diversity of isolates was limited to a few genera (mostly Phormidium and Geitlerinema), but physiological diversity based on halotolerance ranges was strikingly more diverse, even between strains of the same phylotype. The phylogenetic tree revealed diversity that spanned a number of cyanobacterial lineages, although diversity at each site was dominated by only a few phylotypes. Unlike other hypersaline systems, a number of environmental clones from the GSP were members of the heterocystous lineage. Although a number of cyanobacterial isolates were close matches with prevalent environmental clones, it is not certain if these clones reflect the same halotolerance ranges of their matching isolates. This caveat is based on the notable disparities we found between strains of the same phylotype and their inherent halotolerance. Our findings support the hypothesis that variable or poikilotrophic environments promote diversification, and in particular, select for variation in ecotype more than phylotype.

  2. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang K L; Ma, Qianli D Y; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bartsch, Ronny P

    2015-01-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function. (paper)

  3. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  4. Managing Workplace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requirements, and incentives; perceived practices and organizational outcomes related to managing employee diversity; and several other issues. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.

  5. Teaching Culturally Diverse Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Vivian; Tulbert, Beth

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of culturally diverse students are discussed in terms of language, culture, and socioeconomic factors. Meeting the educational needs of culturally diverse students can involve interactive teaming of professionals; parent involvement; and providing appropriate services, assessment, curriculum, and instruction. (JDD)

  6. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient.

  7. Eco-Evo-Devo: developmental symbiosis and developmental plasticity as evolutionary agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F; Bosch, Thomas C G; Ledón-Rettig, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    The integration of research from developmental biology and ecology into evolutionary theory has given rise to a relatively new field, ecological evolutionary developmental biology (Eco-Evo-Devo). This field integrates and organizes concepts such as developmental symbiosis, developmental plasticity, genetic accommodation, extragenic inheritance and niche construction. This Review highlights the roles that developmental symbiosis and developmental plasticity have in evolution. Developmental symbiosis can generate particular organs, can produce selectable genetic variation for the entire animal, can provide mechanisms for reproductive isolation, and may have facilitated evolutionary transitions. Developmental plasticity is crucial for generating novel phenotypes, facilitating evolutionary transitions and altered ecosystem dynamics, and promoting adaptive variation through genetic accommodation and niche construction. In emphasizing such non-genomic mechanisms of selectable and heritable variation, Eco-Evo-Devo presents a new layer of evolutionary synthesis.

  8. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  9. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components.

  10. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive construct...

  11. Leadership and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

  12. Diversity cognition and climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Knippenberg, D.; Homan, A.C.; van Ginkel, W.; Roberson, Q.M.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic diversity at work can yield performance benefits but also invite psychological disengagement and be a source of interpersonal tension. In managing this double-edged sword of demographic diversity, the role of diversity cognition (beliefs, attitudes) and climates seems particularly

  13. Take action: influence diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Norma J

    2013-01-01

    Increased diversity brings strength to nursing and ANNA. Being a more diverse association will require all of us working together. There is an old proverb that says: "one hand cannot cover the sky; it takes many hands." ANNA needs every one of its members to be a part of the diversity initiative.

  14. Developmental and Evolutionary Perspectives on the Origin and Diversification of Arthropod Appendages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jockusch, Elizabeth L

    2017-09-01

    Jointed, segmented appendages are a key innovation of arthropods. The subsequent diversification of these appendages, both along the body axis and across taxa, has contributed to the evolutionary success of arthropods. Both developmental and fossil data are informative for understanding how these transitions occurred. Comparative analyses help to pinpoint the developmental novelties that distinguish arthropod appendages from the lobopodous appendages of other panarthropods, and that distinguish different appendage types. The fossil record of stem group arthropods is diverse and preserves intermediate steps in these evolutionary transitions, including some that cannot be directly inferred based on extant taxa. These lead to hypotheses that can be tested with comparative developmental data, as well as to reinterpretations of developmental results. One developmental novelty of arthropods is the reiterated deployment of the joint formation network, which divides the appendages into segments. The fossil record raises questions about how this joint formation network was first deployed, given the contrasting morphologies of appendages in stem group versus extant arthropods. The fossil record supports a character tree for appendage diversification showing progressive individuation of appendages in an anterior-to-posterior sequence. However, to date, developmental evidence provides at best limited support for this character tree. Recent interpretations of the fossil record suggest that the labrum of extant arthropods is a greatly reduced protocerebral appendage pair; this hypothesis is consistent with the extensive shared developmental patterning of the labrum and jointed appendages. Reciprocal illumination from fossils and developmental patterning in a phylogenetic context both makes sense of some results and helps motivates questions for future research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative

  15. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  16. From Physiology to Prevention: Further remarks on a physiological imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jouanjean

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiology, is the fundamental and functional expression of life. It is the study of all the representative functions of Man in all his capacities, and in particular, his capacity to work. It is very possible to establish a link between a physiological and physiopathological state, the capacity of work and the economy, which can be understood as the articulation between the physiological capacities of Man and the production of work. If these functions are innately acquired by Man they are likewise maintained by regulatory functions throughout life. The stability of these regulatory mechanisms represent the state of good health. The management of this state, constitutes Primary Prevention where both chronic and acute physiopathology defines an alteration in these regulatory mechanisms. We deduce from this reasoning that a tripartite management adapted to the physiological situation is viable and that by choosing parameters specific to individual and collective behavior, it is possible to inject, and combine, at each level and to each demand in order to budget a healthcare system in a more balanced and equitable way. 

  17. RNAi pathways in Mucor: A tale of proteins, small RNAs and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2016-05-01

    The existence of an RNA-mediated silencing mechanism in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides was first described in the early 2000. Since then, Mucor has reached an outstanding position within the fungal kingdom as a model system to achieve a deeper understanding of regulation of endogenous functions by the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery. M. circinelloides combines diverse components of its RNAi machinery to carry out functions not only limited to the defense against invasive nucleic acids, but also to regulate expression of its own genes by producing different classes of endogenous small RNA molecules (esRNAs). The recent discovery of a novel RNase that participates in a new RNA degradation pathway adds more elements to the gene silencing-mediated regulation. This review focuses on esRNAs in M. circinelloides, the different pathways involved in their biogenesis, and their roles in regulating specific physiological and developmental processes in response to environmental signals, highlighting the complexity of silencing-mediated regulation in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main theme of this paper concerns the persistent critique of Gilbert Gottlieb on developmental behavior genetics and my reactions to this critique, the latter changing from rejection to complete acceptation. Concise characterizations of developmental behavior genetics, developmental systems theory (to which Gottlieb made essential…

  19. The Limits of Exercise Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have...... been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how...

  20. Visualization and classification of physiological failure modes in ensemble hemorrhage simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Pruett, William Andrew; Hester, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In an emergency situation such as hemorrhage, doctors need to predict which patients need immediate treatment and care. This task is difficult because of the diverse response to hemorrhage in human population. Ensemble physiological simulations provide a means to sample a diverse range of subjects and may have a better chance of containing the correct solution. However, to reveal the patterns and trends from the ensemble simulation is a challenging task. We have developed a visualization framework for ensemble physiological simulations. The visualization helps users identify trends among ensemble members, classify ensemble member into subpopulations for analysis, and provide prediction to future events by matching a new patient's data to existing ensembles. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the visualization on simulated physiological data. The lessons learned here can be applied to clinically-collected physiological data in the future.

  1. Developmental Plasticity and Language: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Ulrike; Pepperberg, Irene M; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2016-04-01

    The growing field of evo-devo is increasingly demonstrating the complexity of steps involved in genetic, intracellular regulatory, and extracellular environmental control of the development of phenotypes. A key result of such work is an account for the remarkable plasticity of organismal form in many species based on relatively minor changes in regulation of highly conserved genes and genetic processes. Accounting for behavioral plasticity is of similar potential interest but has received far less attention. Of particular interest is plasticity in communication systems, where human language represents an ultimate target for research. The present paper considers plasticity of language capabilities in a comparative framework, focusing attention on examples of a remarkable fact: Whereas there exist design features of mature human language that have never been observed to occur in non-humans in the wild, many of these features can be developed to notable extents when non-humans are enculturated through human training (especially with intensive social interaction). These examples of enculturated developmental plasticity across extremely diverse taxa suggest, consistent with the evo-devo theme of highly conserved processes in evolution, that human language is founded in part on cognitive capabilities that are indeed ancient and that even modern humans show self-organized emergence of many language capabilities in the context of rich enculturation, built on the special social/ecological history of the hominin line. Human culture can thus be seen as a regulatory system encouraging language development in the context of a cognitive background with many highly conserved features. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Makoto, E-mail: ema-makoto@aist.go.jp; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-15

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs. - Highlights: • We review the developmental toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). • Various developmental endpoints have been

  3. Cardiorespiratory physiological phenotypic plasticity in developing air-breathing anabantid fishes (Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Sanchez, Jose F; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-08-01

    Developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology in response to chronic hypoxia is poorly understood in larval fishes, especially larval air-breathing fishes, which eventually in their development can at least partially "escape" hypoxia through air breathing. Whether the development air breathing makes these larval fishes less or more developmentally plastic than strictly water breathing larval fishes remains unknown. Consequently, developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology was determined in two air-breathing anabantid fishes ( Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus ). Larvae of both species experienced an hypoxic exposure that mimicked their natural environmental conditions, namely chronic nocturnal hypoxia (12 h at 17 kPa or 14 kPa), with a daily return to diurnal normoxia. Chronic hypoxic exposures were made from hatching through 35 days postfertilization, and opercular and heart rates measured as development progressed. Opercular and heart rates in normoxia were not affected by chronic nocturnal hypoxic. However, routine oxygen consumption M˙O2 (~4  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour in normoxia in larval Betta ) was significantly elevated by chronic nocturnal hypoxia at 17 kPa but not by more severe (14 kPa) nocturnal hypoxia. Routine M˙O2 in Trichopodus (6-7  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour), significantly higher than in Betta , was unaffected by either level of chronic hypoxia. P Crit , the PO 2 at which M˙O2 decreases as ambient PO 2 falls, was measured at 35 dpf, and decreased with increasing chronic hypoxia in Betta , indicating a large, relatively plastic hypoxic tolerance. However, in contrast, P Crit in Trichopodus increased as rearing conditions grew more hypoxic, suggesting that hypoxic acclimation led to lowered hypoxic resistance. Species-specific differences in larval physiological developmental plasticity thus emerge between the relatively closely related Betta and Trichopodus Hypoxic rearing increased hypoxic tolerance in

  4. Behavioral effects of developmental methylmercury drinking water exposure in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B; Farina, Marcelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Rocha, Joao B T; Aschner, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Early methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can have long-lasting consequences likely arising from impaired developmental processes, the outcome of which has been exposed in several longitudinal studies of affected populations. Given the large number of newborns at an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with in utero MeHg exposure, it is important to study neurobehavioral alterations using ecologically valid and physiologically relevant models. This review highlights the benefits of using the MeHg drinking water exposure paradigm and outlines behavioral outcomes arising from this procedure in rodents. Combination treatments that exacerbate or ameliorate MeHg-induced effects, and possible molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral impairment are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Linking Diversity and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rolf Gregorius

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the term differentiation refers to differences between collections for the distribution of specified traits of their members, while diversity deals with (effective numbers of trait states (types. Counting numbers of types implies discrete traits such as alleles and genotypes in population genetics or species and taxa in ecology. Comparisons between the concepts of differentiation and diversity therefore primarily refer to discrete traits. Diversity is related to differentiation through the idea that the total diversity of a subdivided collection should be composed of the diversity within the subcollections and a complement called “diversity between subcollections”. The idea goes back to the perception that the mixing of differentiated collections increases diversity. Several existing concepts of “diversity between subcollections” are based on this idea. Among them, β-diversity and fixation (inadvertently called differentiation are the most prominent in ecology and in population genetics, respectively. The pertaining measures are shown to quantify the effect of differentiation in terms of diversity components, though from a dual perspective: the classical perspective of differentiation between collections for their type compositions, and the reverse perspective of differentiation between types for their collection affiliations. A series of measures of diversity-oriented differentiation is presented that consider this dual perspective at two levels of diversity partitioning: the overall type or subcollection diversity and the joint type-subcollection diversity. It turns out that, in contrast with common notions, the measures of fixation (such as FST or GST refer to the perspective of type rather than subcollection differentiation. This unexpected observation strongly suggests that the popular interpretations of fixation measures must be reconsidered.

  6. FROM PHYSIOLOGICAL TO PATHOLOGICAL METEOSENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Yabluchanskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the problem of physiological and pathological meteosensitivity (meteodependency or meteopathy.We introduce and discuss the definition for individual meteodependency, define factors, mechanisms, clinical signs, diagnosis, and approaches to prophylaxy and treatment of individual pathological meteosensitivity.

  7. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  8. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  9. Electronic Textbook in Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Naomi C.; Lilienfield, Lawrence S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of an electronic textbook in human physiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center Library that was designed to enhance learning and visualization through a prototype knowledge base of core instructional materials stored in digital format on Macintosh computers. The use of computers in the medical curriculum is…

  10. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  11. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  12. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  13. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  14. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, P.; Christiansen, S.

    2007-01-01

    early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on the offspring. This has led to increased concern about thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in our environment. We have studied how developmental exposure to the known antithyroid agent propylthiouracil (PTU) affects the development of rat pups...... behaviour and hearing function. This supports that exposure to TDC's in general may cause long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity....

  15. Are Students with Developmental Dyslexia Neurologically Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith-Phillips, Josephine

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the controversy over a biological basis for developmental dyslexia and illustrates it with two case studies of junior high school students. Reviews neurological evidence for developmental dyslexia, and proposes seven signs characteristic of reading disability that may qualify as dyslexia. (SR)

  16. Essential Role of Culture in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.

  17. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  18. Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems Methodology and MCDA tools. L Scott. Abstract. This paper presents two different analytical approaches that may be useful in developing an understanding of developmental local government (DLG). DLG implies a significant commitment with respect to ...

  19. Desiccation stress induces developmental heterochrony in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as astressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In thisstudy, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic ...

  20. Psychological Resources of Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial…

  1. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of developmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth order and household size also had significant association with delay in various domains. There was no significant association between socioeconomic class and developmental delay in any of the domains. Conclusion: The study showed that developmental delay was relatively common among under-five children in ...

  2. Introducing Newspapers in Developmental Reading Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstadt, Roberta; Rey, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers are an effective educational and motivational tool in developmental reading classes. However, many students are unfamiliar with newspapers and read them infrequently. In order to foster newspaper reading and familiarize the college freshmen enrolled in their developmental reading classes with newspapers, the writers of this article…

  3. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  4. Endocrine disruptors: from Wingspread to environmental developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Caroline M; Rubin, Beverly S; Soto, Ana M; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2002-12-01

    The production and release of synthetic chemicals into the environment has been a hallmark of the "Second Industrial Revolution" and the "Green Revolution." Soon after the inception of these chemicals, anecdotal evidence began to emerge linking environmental contamination of rivers and lakes with a variety of developmental and reproductive abnormalities in wildlife species. The accumulation of evidence suggesting that these synthetic chemicals were detrimental to wildlife, and potentially humans, as a result of their hormonal activity, led to the proposal of the endocrine disruptor hypothesis at the 1991 Wingspread Conference. Since that time, experimental and epidemiological data have shown that exposure of the developing fetus or neonate to environmentally-relevant concentrations of certain synthetic chemicals causes morphological, biochemical, physiological and behavioral anomalies in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The ubiquitous use, and subsequent human exposure, of one particular chemical, the estrogen mimic bisphenol A (BPA), is the subject of this present review. We have highlighted this chemical since it provides an arresting model of how chemical exposure impacts developmental processes involved in the morphogenesis of tissues and organs, including those of the male and female reproductive systems, the mammary glands and the brain.

  5. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  6. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  7. The Influence of Pathologies upon Sensory Perception and Sensory Coordination in Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Learning Disorders: A Unified Theory of Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Graham Wilfred; Parvez, Syed Hasan

    2012-03-01

    This case is presented to explain that developmental dyslexia and related autistic spectrum disorders have solely pathological origins. There is a general consensus of opinion which supports the phonological theory. However, this largely ignores the biological basis for all aspects of the brain's development and function, and hence, for its dysfunction. A unified explanation must take into account all salient features including cognitive dysfunction, encephalograph (EEG) frequencies, neural networks, physiological systems, autonomic nervous system and the function of the cerebellum. It must explain the significance of the brain waves and neurons and their normally synchronized or coherent function. This article builds upon an earlier article by the authors, which incorporates a review and discussion of the prevailing theories or models for developmental dyslexia. It looks at the issues from a top-down 'systems biology' perspective. It concludes that it may be only the body's biochemistry and, in particular, the onset of pathologies that explain the phenomena which we recognize as developmental dyslexia. Pathologies experienced in the early prepubescent years influence neural development. They influence the speed and coherent transmission of data between the senses and neural centers. It is proposed that this explains the nature and occurrence of what we recognize as developmental dyslexia.

  8. Evolution and developmental genetics of floral display-A review of progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ma; Wenheng Zhang; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Angiosperms evolved a great diversity of ways to display their flowers for reproductive success by variation in floral color,size,shape,scent,arrangements,and flowering time.The various innovations in floral forms and the aggregation of flowers into different kinds of inflorescences can drive new ecological adaptations,speciation,and angiosperm diversification.Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) seeks to uncover the developmental and genetic basis underlying morphological diversification.Advances in the developmental genetics of floral display have provided a foundation for insights into the genetic basis of floral and inflorescence evolution.A number of regulatory genes controlling floral and inflorescence development have been identified in model plants (e.g.,Arabidopsis thaliana,Antirrhinum majus) using forward genetics and conserved functions of many of these genes across diverse non-model species have been revealed by reverse genetics.Gene-regulatory networks that mediated the developmental progresses of floral and inflorescence development have also been established in some plant species.Meanwhile,phylogeny-based comparative analysis of morphological and genetic character has enabled the identification of key evolutionary events that lead to morphological complexity and diversification.Here we review the recent progress on evo-devo studies of floral display including floral symmetry,petal fusion,floral color,floral scent,and inflorescences.We also review the molecular genetic approaches applied to plant evo-devo studies and highlight the future directions of evo-devo.

  9. Molecular and Chemical Genetic Approaches to Developmental Origins of Aging and Disease in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kishi, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of diseases increases rapidly with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but mostly inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states in response to different environmental or genetic perturbations. On the one hand, we hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds of adaptive plasticity by chemical genetic approaches, we have been investigating whether any relationship exists between the regulatory mechanisms that function in early development and in senescence using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish and a useful model animal for genetic studies. We have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during embryogenesis (“embryonic senescence”), subsequently showing shortened lifespan in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other hand, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and regulation. The ease of manipulation using the zebrafish system allows us to conduct an exhaustive exploration of novel genes and small molecular compounds that can be linked to the senescence phenotype, and thereby facilitates searching for the evolutionary and developmental origins

  10. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes...... broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however......, that the paradigm is not universal, so further research is required on a wide diversity of species. Fish physiologists should interact closely with researchers developing ecological models, in order to investigate how integrating physiological information improves confidence in projecting effects of global change...

  11. Diversity as Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trittin, Hannah; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    of organizational members in terms of individual-bound criteria (e.g., gender, age, or ethnicity). By drawing on Bakhtin's notion of polyphony as well as the 'communicative constitution of organizations' (CCO) perspective, we suggest reconsidering diversity as the plurality of 'voices' which can be understood......In this paper, we propose reconceptualizing diversity management from a communication-centered perspective. We base our proposal on the observation that the literature on diversity management, both in the instrumental and critical traditions, is primarily concerned with fostering the diversity...... as the range of individual opinions and societal discourses that get expressed and can find resonance in organizational settings. We contribute to the literature on diversity management by moving away from a focus on individual-bound and inalterable criteria of diversity and toward a reconceptualization...

  12. Diversity does not travel!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Meriläinen, Susan; Tienari, Janne

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we offer insights into the social construction of diversity in Finnish organizations and society. In Finnish organizations, gender is highlighted while other markers of diversity are blotted out. 'Non-Finns' become subject to cultural assimilation. The US-based concept of Diversit...... Management becomes adopted and adapted in particular ways. Standardized concepts of diversity and its management do not travel, rather they become translated locally. In organizational practice, globalization is slow and laborious....

  13. Diversity in marketing practice

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Theory development in marketing has received periodic debate. In the spirit of reappraisal, this thesis endeavours to explain the nature of diversity in marketing practice found among firms and the manner in which marketing practice is related to organisational performance. The specific research goals are to explore: the nature of diversity in marketing practice, as linked to strategic archetypes; whether there is evidence of order in the diversity of marketing practice that can be linked to ...

  14. Using Cluster Ensemble and Validation to Identify Subtypes of Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jess J.; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Holden, Jeanette J.A.; Shatkay, Hagit

    2007-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication and behavior.1 Given the diversity and varying severity of PDD, diagnostic tools attempt to identify homogeneous subtypes within PDD. Identifying subtypes can lead to targeted etiology studies and to effective type-specific intervention. Cluster analysis can suggest coherent subsets in data; however, different methods and assumptions lead to different resu...

  15. Developing the Immunology Book for Animal and Human Physiology Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuni Mitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available he objective of the study was to develop an immunology book for Animal and Human Physiology subject. This book was developed based on the Thiagarajan development model which was modified of: Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate (4D. The data expert validation instrument was questionnaire using Likert scales, comments, and recommendation sheets. Expert appraisal was done by material expert and media and design learning expert. The developmental testing was conducted using questionnaire to test the readibility. The expert validation was conducted by material expert as well as design and media learning expert validator; meanwhile, the field test was done to measure the readability. The validity test results were: the material expert state that the material is valid (97.14%, as well as the design and learning media expert (84.88% and field test by students (88.17%.

  16. Sleep in adolescence: physiology, cognition and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Leila; Saletin, Jared M.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a core behavior of adolescents, consuming up to a third or more of each day. As part of this special issue on the adolescent brain, we review changes to sleep behaviors and sleep physiology during adolescence with a particular focus on the sleeping brain. We posit that brain activity during sleep may provide a unique window onto adolescent cortical maturation and compliment waking measures. In addition, we review how sleep actively supports waking cognitive functioning in adolescence. Though this review is focused on sleep in healthy adolescents, the striking comorbidity of sleep disruption with nearly all psychiatric and developmental disorders (for reviews see 1,2) further highlights the importance of understanding the determinants and consequences of adolescent sleep for the developing brain. Figure 1 illustrates the overarching themes of our review, linking brain development, sleep development, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:27531236

  17. Bacillus subtilis genome diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Ashlee M; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2007-02-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (M-CGH) is a powerful method for rapidly identifying regions of genome diversity among closely related organisms. We used M-CGH to examine the genome diversity of 17 strains belonging to the nonpathogenic species Bacillus subtilis. Our M-CGH results indicate that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity among members of this species; nearly one-third of Bsu168-specific genes exhibited variability, as measured by the microarray hybridization intensities. The variable loci include those encoding proteins involved in antibiotic production, cell wall synthesis, sporulation, and germination. The diversity in these genes may reflect this organism's ability to survive in diverse natural settings.

  18. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  19. PHYSIOLOGY OF ACID BASE BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base, electrolyte, and metabolic disturbances are common in the intensive care unit. Almost all critically ill patients often suffer from compound acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Successful evaluation and management of such patients requires recognition of common patterns (e.g., metabolic acidosis and the ability to dissect one disorder from another. The intensivists needs to identify and correct these condition with the easiest available tools as they are the associated with multiorgan failure. Understanding the elements of normal physiology in these areas is very important so as to diagnose the pathological condition and take adequate measures as early as possible. Arterial blood gas analysis is one such tool for early detection of acid base disorder. Physiology of acid base is complex and here is the attempt to simplify it in our day to day application for the benefit of critically ill patients.

  20. Evidence for a conserved microbiota across the different developmental stages of Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereghetti, Valeria; Chouaia, Bessem; Limonta, Lidia; Locatelli, Daria Patrizia; Montagna, Matteo

    2017-11-01

    Diversity and composition of lepidopteran microbiotas are poorly investigated, especially across the different developmental stages. To improve this knowledge, we characterize the microbiota among different developmental stages of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, which is considered one of the major pest of commodities worldwide. Using culture-independent approach based on Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing we characterized the microbiota of four developmental stages: eggs, first-, and last-instar larvae, and adult. A total of 1022 bacterial OTUs were obtained, showing a quite diversified microbiota associated to all the analyzed stages. The microbiotas associated with P. interpunctella resulted almost constant throughout the developmental stages, with approximately 77% of bacterial OTUs belonging to the phylum of Proteobacteria. The dominant bacterial genus is represented by Burkholderia (∼64%), followed by Propionibacterium, Delftia, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas. A core bacterial community, composed of 139 OTUs, was detected in all the developmental stages, among which 112 OTUs were assigned to the genus Burkholderia. A phylogenetic reconstruction, based on the 16S rRNA, revealed that our Burkholderia OTUs clustered with Burkholderia cepacia complex, in the same group of those isolated from the hemipterans Gossyparia spuria and Acanthococcus aceris. The functional profiling, predicted on the base of the bacterial 16S rRNA, indicates differences in the metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids between preimaginal and adult stages. We can hypothesize that bacteria may support the insect host during preimaginal stages. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Developmental pathways in infants from 4 to 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valla, L; Birkeland, M S; Hofoss, D; Slinning, K

    2017-07-01

    There has been limited epidemiological research describing population-based samples regarding developmental pathways throughout infancy, and the research that exists has revealed substantial diversity. Identifying predictors for developmental pathways can inform early intervention services. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire was used to measure communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem-solving and personal-social skills longitudinally in a large, population-based sample of 1555 infants recruited from well-baby clinics in five municipalities in southeast Norway. We conducted latent class analyses to identify common pathways within the five developmental areas. Our results indicated that most classes of infants showed generally positive and stable normative developmental pathways. However, for communication and gross motor areas, more heterogeneity was found. For gross motor development, a class of 10% followed a U-shaped curve. A class of 8% had a declining communication pathway and did not reach the level of the high stable communication class at 24 months. Low gestational age, low Apgar score, male sex, maternal depression symptoms, non-Scandinavian maternal ethnicity and high maternal education significantly predict less beneficial communication pathways. The results suggest that infants with low gestational age, low Apgar score, male sex and a mother with depression symptoms or non-Scandinavian ethnicity may be at risk of developing less beneficial developmental pathways, especially within the communication area. Targeting these infants for surveillance and support might be protective against delayed development in several areas during a critical window of development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Why developmental niche construction is not selective niche construction: and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotz, Karola

    2017-10-06

    In the last decade, niche construction has been heralded as the neglected process in evolution. But niche construction is just one way in which the organism's interaction with and construction of the environment can have potential evolutionary significance. The constructed environment does not just select for , it also produces new variation. Nearly 3 decades ago, and in parallel with Odling-Smee's article 'Niche-constructing phenotypes', West and King introduced the 'ontogenetic niche' to give the phenomena of exo genetic inheritance a formal name. Since then, a range of fields in the life sciences and medicine has amassed evidence that parents influence their offspring by means other than DNA (parental effects), and proposed mechanisms for how heritable variation can be environmentally induced and developmentally regulated. The concept of 'developmental niche construction' (DNC) elucidates how a diverse range of mechanisms contributes to the transgenerational transfer of developmental resources. My most central of claims is that whereas the selective niche of niche construction theory is primarily used to explain the active role of the organism in its selective environment, DNC is meant to indicate the active role of the organism in its developmental environment. The paper highlights the differences between the construction of the selective and the developmental niche, and explores the overall significance of DNC for evolutionary theory.

  3. Physiological Studies of Arctic Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    All transmitters were maintained in a cold sterilant ( benzalkonium chloride ) until implanted in a bear. Radio-transmitters for monitoring temperature...body was unknown, particularly during the winter when bears are in dens and there is a generalized reduction in metabolism and other physiological... reduction in core body temperature from summer to winter closely agrees with those reported earlier for bears maintained in captivity under simulated

  4. System Theory and Physiological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R W

    1963-05-03

    Engineers and physiologists working together in experimental and theoretical studies predict that the application of system analysis to biological processes will increase understanding of these processes and broaden the base of system theory. Richard W. Jones, professor of electrical engineering at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, and John S. Gray, professor of physiology at Northwestern's Medical School, discuss these developments. Their articles are adapted from addresses delivered in Chicago in November 1962 at the 15th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology.

  5. The conservative physiology of the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Vaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Current immunological opinion disdains the necessity to define global interconnections between lymphocytes and regards natural autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells as intrinsically pathogenic. Immunological theories address the recognition of foreignness by independent clones of lymphocytes, not the relations among lymphocytes or between lymphocytes and the organism. However, although extremely variable in cellular/molecular composition, the immune system preserves as invariant a set of essential relations among its components and constantly enacts contacts with the organism of which it is a component. These invariant relations are reflected, for example, in the life-long stability of profiles of reactivity of immunoglobulins formed by normal organisms (natural antibodies. Oral contacts with dietary proteins and the intestinal microbiota also result in steady states that lack the progressive quality of secondary-type reactivity. Autoreactivity (natural autoantibody and autoreactive T cell formation is also stable and lacks the progressive quality of clonal expansion. Specific immune responses, currently regarded as the fundament of the operation of the immune system, may actually result from transient interruptions in this stable connectivity among lymphocytes. More permanent deficits in interconnectivity result in oligoclonal expansions of T lymphocytes, as seen in Omenn's syndrome and in the experimental transplantation of a suboptimal diversity of syngeneic T cells to immunodeficient hosts, which also have pathogenic consequences. Contrary to theories that forbid autoreactivity as potentially pathogenic, the physiology of the immune system is conservative and autoreactive. Pathology derives from failures of these conservative mechanisms.

  6. The Virtual Physiological Human ToolKit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cervenansky, Frederic; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Fenner, John; Friboulet, Denis; Giorgino, Toni; Manos, Steven; Martelli, Yves; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Zasada, Stefan; Lloyd, Sharon; McCormack, Keith; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-08-28

    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is a major European e-Science initiative intended to support the development of patient-specific computer models and their application in personalized and predictive healthcare. The VPH Network of Excellence (VPH-NoE) project is tasked with facilitating interaction between the various VPH projects and addressing issues of common concern. A key deliverable is the 'VPH ToolKit'--a collection of tools, methodologies and services to support and enable VPH research, integrating and extending existing work across Europe towards greater interoperability and sustainability. Owing to the diverse nature of the field, a single monolithic 'toolkit' is incapable of addressing the needs of the VPH. Rather, the VPH ToolKit should be considered more as a 'toolbox' of relevant technologies, interacting around a common set of standards. The latter apply to the information used by tools, including any data and the VPH models themselves, and also to the naming and categorizing of entities and concepts involved. Furthermore, the technologies and methodologies available need to be widely disseminated, and relevant tools and services easily found by researchers. The VPH-NoE has thus created an online resource for the VPH community to meet this need. It consists of a database of tools, methods and services for VPH research, with a Web front-end. This has facilities for searching the database, for adding or updating entries, and for providing user feedback on entries. Anyone is welcome to contribute.

  7. The interplay of diversity training and diversity beliefs on team creativity in nationality diverse teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, A.C.; Buengeler, C.; Eckhoff, R.A.; van Ginkel, W.P.; Voelpel, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Attaining value from nationality diversity requires active diversity management, which organizations often employ in the form of diversity training programs. Interestingly, however, the previously reported effects of diversity training are often weak and, sometimes, even negative. This situation

  8. Root bacterial endophytes alter plant phenotype, but not physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Jeremiah A.; Weston, David J.; Pelletier, Dale A.

    2016-01-01

    (root:shoot, biomass production, root and leaf growth rates) and physiological traits (chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, net photosynthesis at saturating light-Asat, and saturating CO2-Amax). Overall, we found that bacterial root endophyte infection increased root growth rate up to 184% and leaf...... growth rate up to 137% relative to non-inoculated control plants, evidence that plants respond to bacteria by modifying morphology. However, endophyte inoculation had no influence on total plant biomass and photosynthetic traits (net photosynthesis, chlorophyll content). In sum, bacterial inoculation did......Plant traits, such as root and leaf area, influence how plants interact with their environment and the diverse microbiota living within plants can influence plant morphology and physiology. Here, we explored how three bacterial strains isolated from the Populus root microbiome, influenced plant...

  9. 14-3-3 proteins in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Fiona C; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Zupanska, Agata K; Ferl, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Plant 14-3-3 isoforms, like their highly conserved homologues in mammals, function by binding to phosphorylated client proteins to modulate their function. Through the regulation of a diverse range of proteins including kinases, transcription factors, structural proteins, ion channels and pathogen defense-related proteins, they are being implicated in an expanding catalogue of physiological functions in plants. 14-3-3s themselves are affected, both transcriptionally and functionally, by the extracellular and intracellular environment of the plant. They can modulate signaling pathways that transduce inputs from the environment and also the downstream proteins that elicit the physiological response. This review covers some of the key emerging roles for plant 14-3-3s including their role in the response to the plant extracellular environment, particularly environmental stress, pathogens and light conditions. We also address potential key roles in primary metabolism, hormone signaling, growth and cell division. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human physiological models of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gary S

    2007-12-01

    Despite the wide prevalence and important consequences of insomnia, remarkably little is known about its pathophysiology. Available models exist primarily in the psychological domain and derive from the demonstrated efficacy of behavioral treatment approaches to insomnia management. However, these models offer little specific prediction about the anatomic or physiological foundation of chronic primary insomnia. On the other hand, a growing body of data on the physiology of sleep supports a reasonably circumscribed overview of possible pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as the development of physiological models of insomnia to guide future research. As a pragmatic step, these models focus on primary insomnia, as opposed to comorbid insomnias, because the latter is by its nature a much more heterogeneous presentation, reflecting the effects of the distinct comorbid condition. Current understanding of the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in mammalian brain supports four broad candidate areas: 1) disruption of the sleep homeostat; 2) disruption of the circadian clock; 3) disruption of intrinsic systems responsible for the expression of sleep states; or 4) disruption (hyperactivity) of extrinsic systems capable of over-riding normal sleep-wake regulation. This review examines each of the four candidate pathophysiological mechanisms and the available data in support of each. While studies that directly test the viability of each model are not yet available, descriptive data on primary insomnia favor the involvement of dysfunctional extrinsic stress-response systems in the pathology of primary chronic insomnia.

  11. Klismaphilia--a physiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J

    1982-10-01

    Dr. Joanne Denko coined the work klismaphilia to describe the practices of some of her patients who enjoyed the use of enemas as a sexual stimulant. Since then questions occasionally appear in the professional literature asking about the relationship between enemas and sexual pleasure. This paper considers some of the physiological aspects of the human sexual apparatus that relate to anal sensitivity and explores why klismaphilia can be sexually grafifying. The paper starts with a discussion of the physiological basis for anal sensitivity and anal masturbation in both the human male and the human female. The paper then goes on to relate all this to the sexual sensations received from an enema, and discusses the similarities and differences between all these types of stimulation. Some of the psychological aspects of klismaphilia are also considered in relationship to the physiology involved. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of masked anal masturbation among the population at large. A comprehensive list of references from the literature is given to support these findings.

  12. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  13. Adamts18 deletion results in distinct developmental defects and provides a model for congenital disorders of lens, lung, and female reproductive tract development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataca, Dalya; Caikovski, Marian; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Moulin, Alexandre; Benarafa, Charaf; Earp, Sarah E; Guri, Yakir; Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Soininen, Raija; Apte, Suneel S; Brisken, Cathrin

    2016-11-15

    The ADAMTS family comprises 19 secreted metalloproteinases that cleave extracellular matrix components and have diverse functions in numerous disease and physiological contexts. A number of them remain 'orphan' proteases and among them is ADAMTS18, which has been implicated in developmental eye disorders, platelet function and various malignancies. To assess in vivo function of ADAMTS18, we generated a mouse strain with inactivated Adamts18 alleles. In the C57Bl6/Ola background, Adamts18-deficient mice are born in a normal Mendelian ratio, and are viable but show a transient growth delay. Histological examination revealed a 100% penetrant eye defect resulting from leakage of lens material through the lens capsule occurring at embryonic day (E)13.5, when the lens grows rapidly. Adamts18-deficient lungs showed altered bronchiolar branching. Fifty percent of mutant females are infertile because of vaginal obstruction due to either a dorsoventral vaginal septum or imperforate vagina. The incidence of ovarian rete is increased in the mutant mouse strain. Thus, Adamts18 is essential in the development of distinct tissues and the new mouse strain is likely to be useful for investigating ADAMTS18 function in human disease, particularly in the contexts of infertility and carcinogenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Adamts18 deletion results in distinct developmental defects and provides a model for congenital disorders of lens, lung, and female reproductive tract development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalya Ataca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ADAMTS family comprises 19 secreted metalloproteinases that cleave extracellular matrix components and have diverse functions in numerous disease and physiological contexts. A number of them remain ‘orphan’ proteases and among them is ADAMTS18, which has been implicated in developmental eye disorders, platelet function and various malignancies. To assess in vivo function of ADAMTS18, we generated a mouse strain with inactivated Adamts18 alleles. In the C57Bl6/Ola background, Adamts18-deficient mice are born in a normal Mendelian ratio, and are viable but show a transient growth delay. Histological examination revealed a 100% penetrant eye defect resulting from leakage of lens material through the lens capsule occurring at embryonic day (E13.5, when the lens grows rapidly. Adamts18-deficient lungs showed altered bronchiolar branching. Fifty percent of mutant females are infertile because of vaginal obstruction due to either a dorsoventral vaginal septum or imperforate vagina. The incidence of ovarian rete is increased in the mutant mouse strain. Thus, Adamts18 is essential in the development of distinct tissues and the new mouse strain is likely to be useful for investigating ADAMTS18 function in human disease, particularly in the contexts of infertility and carcinogenesis.

  15. [Physiology and physiopathology of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzin, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    From desire to orgasm, sexuality, in women and men, is underpinned by a complex organic, psychological and emotional function. Sexual dysfunction encompasses diverse aetiologies, including chronic diseases and iatrogenesis resulting from medication or surgery. The effects of a chronic disease can have an impact on all phases of the sexual response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Isolation and physiological characteristics of endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huijing; Su, Jing; Yu, Liyan; Zhang, Yuqin

    2013-01-04

    To isolate, incubate and characterize cultivable endophytic antinobacteria from medicinal plants, and analyze the diversity of the endophytic antinobacteria, then explore the novel microbial resources. Ten media were used to isolate endophytic antinobacteria from 37 fresh medicinal plant tissue samples. The optimal cultivation conditions for endophytic antinobacteria were determined by comparison. Based on the morphology of the colonies and cells of the new isolates, we chose 174 isolates to analyze their 16S rRNA gene sequences and the diversity of the medicinal plant endophytic antinobacteria. The physiological characteristics of 27 representative strains were studied using Biolog GEN III MicroPlates, API 50CH and API ZYM kits. In total 940 endophytics affiliated to 47 genera of 30 families were isolated, among which more than 600 actinobacteria belonged to 34 genera and 7 unknown taxa. Good growth of the endophytic antinobacteria on PYG (peptone-yeast-glycerol) medium with pH 7.2 at 28-32 degrees C was observed. Physiological characteristics differences of these isolates related to their phylogenetic relationships. Greater differences were shown among the strains from the same host plants than those from differ,ent plants grown in the same area. There are great diverse endophytic actinobacteria inside the medicinal plants. No direct relationship of the endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants with the host plants in the sole carbon source utilization, fermentation of carbon sources to produce acid and the enzyme activities was found, while it seemed that the physiological characteristics of the isolates related to the geographical distribution of their host.

  17. Age cohort differences in the developmental milestones of gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasin, Harry; Beals, Kristin P; Elliott, Marc N; Lever, Janet; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades. A large and diverse sample of 2,402 gay men who responded to a 1994 survey published in a national magazine provided retrospective information on the age at which they reached individual psychological, social, and sexual behavior developmental milestones. We found evidence that individual psychological and sexual behavior milestones (e.g., awareness of attraction to males, having an orgasm with other male) are slowly moving toward earlier chronological ages (by 1 year of age every 8-25 years, p coming out) are moving more rapidly in a similar direction (by 1 year of age every 2-5 years, p < 0.001). The authors perform an innovative sensitivity test to demonstrate the persistence of the finding after correcting for the bias attributable to underrepresentation of those who have not yet self-identified as gay in such samples.

  18. Evolutionary Developmental Robotics: Improving Morphology and Control of Physical Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujovic, Vuk; Rosendo, Andre; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms have previously been applied to the design of morphology and control of robots. The design space for such tasks can be very complex, which can prevent evolution from efficiently discovering fit solutions. In this article we introduce an evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) experiment with real-world robots. It allows robots to grow their leg size to simulate ontogenetic morphological changes, and this is the first time that such an experiment has been performed in the physical world. To test diverse robot morphologies, robot legs of variable shapes were generated during the evolutionary process and autonomously built using additive fabrication. We present two cases with evo-devo experiments and one with evolution, and we hypothesize that the addition of a developmental stage can be used within robotics to improve performance. Moreover, our results show that a nonlinear system-environment interaction exists, which explains the nontrivial locomotion patterns observed. In the future, robots will be present in our daily lives, and this work introduces for the first time physical robots that evolve and grow while interacting with the environment.

  19. Characterization of Gladiolus Germplasm Using Morphological, Physiological, and Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj; Pal, Ashish K; Roy, R K; Tewari, S K; Tamta, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2018-04-01

    Estimation of variability and genetic relationships among breeding materials is one of the important strategies in crop improvement programs. Morphological (plant height, spike length, a number of florets/spike), physiological (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and rapid light curve parameters) and Directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD) markers were used to investigate the relationships among 50 Gladiolus cultivars. Cluster analysis based on morphological data, physiological characteristics, molecular markers, and cumulative data discriminated all cultivars into seven, five, seven, and six clusters in the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, respectively. The results of the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) also supported UPGMA clustering. Variations among the Gladiolus cultivars at phenotypic level could be due to the changes in physiology, environmental conditions, and genetic variability. DAMD analysis using 10 primers produced 120 polymorphic bands with 80% polymorphism showing polymorphic information content (PIC = 0.28), Marker index (MI = 3.37), Nei's gene diversity (h = 0.267), and Shannon's information index (I = 0.407). Plant height showed a positive significant correlation with Spike length and Number of florets/spike (r = 0.729, p < 0.001 and r = 0.448, p = 0.001 respectively). Whereas, Spike length showed positive significant correlation with Number of florets/spike (r = 0.688, p < 0.001) and Chlorophyll content showed positive significant correlation with Electron transport rate (r = 0.863, p < 0.001). Based on significant morphological variations, high physiological performance, high genetic variability, and genetic distances between cultivars, we have been able to identify diverse cultivars of Gladiolus that could be the potential source as breeding material for further genetic improvement in this ornamental crop.

  20. Executive Functions in Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVarvara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating different aspects of Executive Functions (EF in children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD.A neuropsychological battery tapping verbal fluency, spoonerism, attention, verbal shifting, short-term and working memory was used to assess 60 children with DD and 65 with typical reading abilities.Compared to their controls, children with DD showed deficits in several EF domains such as verbal categorical and phonological fluency, visual-spatial and auditory attention, spoonerism, verbal and visual short-term memory, and verbal working memory. Moreover, exploring predictive relationships between EF measures and reading, we found that spoonerism abilities better explained word and non-word reading deficits. Although to a lesser extent, auditory and visual-spatial attention also explained the increased percentage of variance related to reading deficit.EF deficits found in DD are interpreted as an expression of a deficient functioning of the Central Executive System and are discussed in the context of the recent temporal sampling theory.

  1. Pervasive Developmental Disorder with Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balfe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (HFPDD in a community sample of teenagers and adults aged 13 and above in the city of Sheffield, UK. 112 possible and definite cases were found, of whom 65 (57% had a previous diagnosis. The detected prevalence of possible or definite HFPDD was found to be 0.24 per 1000 of the population of Sheffield city aged 13 or over, but the prevalence by year of age fell from a maximum of 1.1 per 1000 in the group aged 13 to 14 years old (1 young adult in every 900 in this age group to 0.03 per 1000 in the over 60s (1 person in every 38500 in this age group. The results of this study are preliminary and need follow-up investigation in larger studies. We suggest several explanations for the findings, including reduced willingness to participate in a study as people get older, increased ascertainment in younger people, and increased mortality. Another contributory factor might be that the prevalence of high-functioning pervasive development disorder may decline with age. This raises the possibility that AS symptoms might become subclinical in adulthood in a proportion of people with HFPDD.

  2. The Scientific Development of the Physiology of Plants in the American Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco V. Gutiérrez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a research and journalistic work that summarizes and synthesizes the scientific development of the physiology of plants in the American tropics, also known as the Neotropics. It contains the contributions of numerous biologists interested in the physiology of tropical plants. The fabulous structural and functional diversity of tropical forests is still the major driver of research in this field. Classical physiological work involving tropical plants, such as the discovery of C4 photosynthesis in sugarcane, is invoked to exemplify the historical and current importance of physiological research in the tropics, and its applications in agriculture, forestry and conservation. An historical background describing the early and more recent development of a tradition on the physiological study of tropical plants is followed by a summary of the research conducted on the physiology of tropical crops. Common areas of interest and influence between the fields of crop physiology and plant ecophysiology are identified and exemplified with problems on the environmental physiology of crops like coffee and cassava. The physiology of tropical forest plants is discussed in terms of its contributions to general plant physiological knowledge in areas such as photosynthetic metabolism and plant water relations. Despite the impressive technical advances achieved during the past decade, the importance of continuous development of appropriate instrumentation to study and measure the physiology of plants in situ is stressed. Although the basic metabolic processes that underlie the mechanisms of plant responses to the environment are probably highly conserved and qualitatively similar among tropical and temperate plants, it is also apparent that tropical plants exhibit metabolic peculiarities. These include aspects of photosynthetic metabolism, phloem transport physiology, sensitivity to low temperatures, reproduction, responses to climatic seasonality, and a

  3. Continuity and change in the development of category-based induction: The test case of diversity-based reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Liebenson, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The present research examined the extent to which the cognitive mechanisms available to support inductive inference stay constant across development or undergo fundamental change. Four studies tested how children (ages 5-10) incorporate information about sample composition into their category-based generalizations. Children's use of sample composition varied across age and type of category. For familiar natural kinds, children ages 5-8 generalized similarly from diverse and non-diverse samples of evidence, whereas older children generalized more broadly from more diverse sets. In contrast, for novel categories, children of each age made broader generalizations from diverse than non-diverse samples. These studies provide the first clear evidence that young children are able to incorporate sample diversity into their inductive reasoning. These findings suggest developmental continuity in the cognitive mechanisms available for inductive inference, but developmental changes in the role that prior knowledge plays in shaping these processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diversity in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a lecture given at the 17th Annual Lecture of the Association of University Administrators (AUA). The subject of the lecture is equality and diversity in higher education (HE) leadership, or possibly the absence of equality and diversity. The author focuses on what can be done to ensure that capable women enter HE leadership…

  5. Diversity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines…

  6. Diversity at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    2000-01-01

    Diversity in the workplace goes beyond racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It extends to those with disabilities of all types and older workers. Students must be able to acknowledge and appreciate peoples' differences and educators must integrate diversity into the classroom. (JOW)

  7. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  8. Species diversity modulates predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratina, P.; Vos, M.; Anholt, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Predation occurs in a context defined by both prey and non-prey species. At present it is largely unknown how species diversity in general, and species that are not included in a predator's diet in particular, modify predator–prey interactions.Therefore we studied how both the density and diversity

  9. The human cerebellum: a review of physiologic neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Minagar, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    The cerebellum resides in the posterior cranial fossa dorsal to the brainstem and has diverse connections to the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. It is anatomically and physiologically divided into distinct functional compartments and is composed of highly regular arrays of neuronal units, each sharing the same basic cerebellar microcircuitry. Its circuitry is critically involved in motor control and motor learning, and its role in nonmotor cognitive and affective functions is becoming increasingly recognized. This article describes the cerebellar gross and histologic neuroanatomy in relation to its function, and the relevance of cerebellar circuitry and firing patterns to motor learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiology of excitable membranes: proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Budapest, 1980

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salánki, J; Meves, H

    1981-01-01

    ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Principles of Motion and Organization Regulatory Functions of the CNS. Subsystems Physiology of Non-excitable Cells Physiology...

  11. Transcriptome Characterization of Dendrolimus punctatus and Expression Profiles at Different Developmental Stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Hui Yang

    Full Text Available The pine moth Dendrolimus punctatus (Walker is a common insect pest that confers serious damage to conifer forests in south of China. Extensive physiology and ecology studies on D. punctatus have been carried out, but the lack of genetic information has limited our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind its development and resistance. Using RNA-seq approach, we characterized the transcriptome of this pine moth and investigated its developmental expression profiles during egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages. A total of 107.6 million raw reads were generated that were assembled into 70,664 unigenes. More than 30% unigenes were annotated by searching for homology in protein databases. To better understand the process of metamorphosis, we pairwise compared four developmental phases and obtained 17,624 differential expression genes. Functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes showed positive correlation with specific physiological activities of each stage, and these results were confirmed by qRT-PCR experiments. This study provides a valuable genomic resource of D. punctatus covering all its developmental stages, and will promote future studies on biological processes at the molecular level.

  12. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Betty K

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We previously indicated the presence of up-regulated transcription factors in ripening tomato fruit by data mining in TIGR Tomato Gene Index. In our in-vitro system, green tomato sepals cultured at 16 to 22°C turn red and swell like ripening tomato fruit while those at 28°C remain green. Results Here, we have further examined regulation of putative developmental genes possibly involved in tomato fruit ripening and development. Using molecular biological methods, we have determined the relative abundance of various transcripts of genes during in vitro sepal ripening and in tomato fruit pericarp at three stages of development. A number of transcripts show similar expression in fruits to RIN and PSY1, ripening-associated genes, and others show quite different expression. Conclusions Our investigation has resulted in confirmation of some of our previous database mining results and has revealed differences in gene expression that may be important for tomato cultivar variation. We present new and intriguing information on genes that should now be studied in a more focused fashion.

  13. The marine diversity spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuman, Daniel C.; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts...... the form of the diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum...... is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0 center dot 5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0 center...

  14. Putting Diversity to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to critically explore why a diversity agenda in favor of equal opportunities failed despite apparent organizational support and commitment to diversity. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on data from a municipal center, this study inquires into how...... organizational dynamics of power and hierarchy influence change efforts to alter practices of inequality. The study is positioned within critical diversity research and structured around an analysis of the researcher’s fieldwork experiences. Findings: The analysis examines into why change efforts failed despite...... organizational approval of a diversity agenda, open-mindedness towards change and legitimacy in regard to diversity. Paradoxically, change efforts designed to alter the status quo were, in practice, derailed and circumvented through power dynamics reproducing organizational inequality. Research limitations...

  15. Managing Protean Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz; Muhr, Sara Louise

    2016-01-01

    Recently, global workforce diversity and its management have received criticism for not paying attention to the contextual influence stemming from socially constructed dialectics of power and politics. These contextual dynamics, however, tend to be viewed as external to the organization....... In this article, we follow the call for critically investigating the contexts influencing diversity management by analyzing the development of a global human resource management project initiated to promote a culturally diverse workforce. We find that despite good intentions, as well as support from the top...... management, the project dissolves through micropolitics and power dynamics. We contribute to the critical literature on workforce diversity by identifying how organizational contextual dynamics influence the way the concept of workforce diversity is constructed and understood at work. Based on these findings...

  16. Etiology and Treatment of Developmental Stammering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and treatment of developmental stammering in childhood (DS, also called idiopathic stammering or stuttering are reviewed by a speech pathologist and psychologist at the University of Reading, UK.

  17. Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developmental local government, soft systems methodology, multiple criteria ..... land and property), 26 (adequate housing), 27 (access to health care, food, water .... It is important to articulate that any decision making or resource allocation.

  18. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  19. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  20. Characteristics of children with pervasive developmental disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of children presenting with features of ASD to a developmental clinic in Johannesburg over ... social interaction deficits without meeting the full criteria for PDD were excluded, as were those ..... Recurrent otitis media. 7 (12.1). Myringotomies.

  1. Current status of developmental neurotoxicity: regulatory view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    in the testing strategy for new and existing substances, and biocides. Hopefully, this will lead to an improved database for risk assessment of potential developmental neurotoxicants. However, the regulatory authorities and toxicologists will also be faced with the challenge that decisions have to be made......The need for developmental neurotoxicity testing has been recognized for decades and guidelines are available, as the USEPA guideline and the OECD draft TG 426. Regulatory testing of industrial chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity is required to some extent, especially for pesticides in the US....... Until recently, however, developmental neurotoxicity testing of industrial chemicals has not been a clear regulatory requirement in EU, probably due to the lack of an accepted OECD TG. The revised EU Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment (EU-TGD) has now included the OECD draft TG 426...

  2. Towards Individualized Physiology Lecturing in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    1 (1): 13 - 16. Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences ... import from validated text format question series and seamless use of any computer program or internet .... Silverthorn D U, Human Physiology, an Integrated. Approach ...

  3. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educational - Medicine Prize Related The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to people and ... this page MLA style: "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – Educational". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media ...

  4. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  5. Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 19 of 19 ... Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sonam Chawla1 Shweta Saxena2. Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi; Experimental Biology Division Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences Defence Research and Development Organisation Lucknow Road, Timarpur Delhi 110054 ...

  7. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  8. Chamaedorea: diverse species in diverse habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available DIVERSES ESPÈCES DANS DIVERS HABITATS. Des espèces extraordinairement diverses se trouvant dans des habitats également divers caractérisent Chamaedorea, un genre qui compte environ 90 espèces dioïques limitées aux sous-bois des forêts néo-tropicales constamment dans la pluie et les nuages du Mexique à la Bolivie et à l’Équateur. Une vaste gamme de formes biologiques, de tiges, de feuilles, d’inflorescences, de fleurs, et de fruits reflète la diversité des espèces. Bien que le genre soit plus riche en espèces dans les forêts denses et humides situées entre 800-1,500 mètres d’altitude, quelques espèces exceptionnelles se trouvent dans des forêts moins denses et/ou occasionnellement sèches, sur des substances dures ou dans d’autres habitats inhabituels. DIVERSAS ESPECIES EN DIVERSOS HÁBITATS. Especies notablemente diversas presentes en habitats igualmente diversos caracterizan a Chamaedorea, un genero de aproximadamente 90 especies dioicas limitadas al sotobosque de los bosques lluviosos y nubosos neotropicales desde Mexico hasta Bolivia y Ecuador. Una amplia gama de formas biológicas, tallos, hojas, inflorescencias, flores, y frutos refleja la diversidad de las especies. Aunque el género es más rico en especies en los bosques densos y húmedos de 800-1,500 metros de altura, unas pocas especies excepcionales ocurren en bosques abiertos o ocasionalmente secos, en substrato severo o en otros habitats extraordinarios. Remarkably diverse species occurring in equally diverse habitats characterize Chamaedorea, a genus of about 90, dioecious species restricted to the understory of neotropical rain and cloud forests from Mexico to Bolivia and Ecuador. A vast array of habits, stems, leaves, inflorescences, flowers, and fruits reflect the diversity of species. Although the genus is most species-rich in dense, moist or wet, diverse forests from 800-1,500 meters elevation, a few exceptional species occur in open and/or seasonally

  9. Fitness consequences of maternal and embryonic responses to environmental variation: using reptiles as models for studies of developmental plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Environmental factors strongly influence phenotypic variation within populations. The environment contributes to this variation in two ways: (1) by acting as a determinant of phenotypic variation (i.e., plastic responses) and (2) as an agent of selection that "chooses" among existing phenotypes. Understanding how these two environmental forces contribute to phenotypic variation is a major goal in the field of evolutionary biology and a primary objective of my research program. The objective of this article is to provide a framework to guide studies of environmental sources of phenotypic variation (specifically, developmental plasticity and maternal effects, and their adaptive significance). Two case studies from my research on reptiles are used to illustrate the general approaches I have taken to address these conceptual topics. Some key points for advancing our understanding of environmental influences on phenotypic variation include (1) merging laboratory-based research that identifies specific environmental effects with field studies to validate ecological relevance; (2) using controlled experimental approaches that mimic complex environments found in nature; (3) integrating data across biological fields (e.g., genetics, morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecology) under an evolutionary framework to provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that generate phenotypic variation; (4) assessing fitness consequences using measurements of survival and/or reproductive success across ontogeny (from embryos to adults) and under multiple ecologically-meaningful contexts; and (5) quantifying the strength and form of natural selection in multiple populations over multiple periods of time to understand the spatial and temporal consistency of phenotypic selection. Research programs that focus on organisms that are amenable to these approaches will provide the most promise for advancing our understanding of the environmental factors that generate the remarkable

  10. Diverse crowds using diverse methods improves the scientific dialectic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Matt; Iyer, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    In science, diversity is vital to the development of new knowledge. We agree with Duarte et al. that we need more political diversity in social psychology, but contend that we need more religious diversity and methodological diversity as well. If some diversity is good, more is better (especially in science).

  11. Beyond the Diversity Crisis Model: Decentralized Diversity Planning and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Damon A.

    2008-01-01

    This article critiques the diversity crises model of diversity planning in higher education and presents a decentralized diversity planning model. The model is based on interviews with the nation's leading diversity officers, a review of the literature and the authors own experiences leading diversity change initiatives in higher education. The…

  12. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  13. [Contemporary cognitive theories about developmental dyscalculia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Cañizares, D; Estévez-Pérez, N; Reigosa-Crespo, V

    To analyze the current theories describing the cognitive mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia. The four most researched hypotheses concerning the cognitive deficits related to developmental dyscalculia, as well as experimental evidences supporting or refusing them are presented. The first hypothesis states that developmental dyscalculia is consequence of domain general cognitive deficits. The second hypothesis suggests that it is due to a failure in the development of specialized brain systems dedicated to numerosity processing. The third hypothesis asserts the disorder is caused by a deficit in accessing quantity representation through numerical symbols. The last hypothesis states developmental dyscalculia appears as a consequence of impairments in a generalized magnitude system dedicated to the processing of continuous and discrete magnitudes. None of the hypotheses has been proven more plausible than the rest. Relevant issues rose by them need to be revisited and answered in the light of new experimental designs. In the last years the understanding of cognitive disorders involved in developmental dyscalculia has remarkably increased, but it is nonetheless insufficient. Additional research is required in order to achieve a comprehensive cognitive model of numerical processing development and its disorders. This will improve the diagnostic precision and the effectiveness of developmental dyscalculia intervention strategies.

  14. Developmental immunotoxicity testing of 4-methyl anisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Elisa C M; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R; van Loveren, Henk; Piersma, Aldert H

    2015-07-01

    The developmental immunotoxicity of 4-methyl anisole (4MA) was investigated in the rat. Four study designs were used, with either premating or post-weaning onset of exposure, continued to postnatal day 50, and with or without additional oral gavage of pups from postnatal day 10 onward. Reduced litter size (benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 80mg/kg bw/day) was the most sensitive developmental parameter, with pup relative organ weight effects observed at similar BMDLs, in the absence of maternal toxicity. Eosinophil numbers were reduced at lower doses (BMDL 16mg/kg bw/day). KLH challenge resulted in increased IL-13 and TNF-α responses, and variably reduced IgG production (BMDL 27mg/kg bw/day). T4 levels were reduced by 11% at maximum with a BMDL of 73mg/kg bw/day. Differences between exposure cohorts were limited and were considered to be without biological significance. This study shows that 4MA induces developmental immunotoxicity at doses below those inducing developmental and general toxicity. These observations being independent of the study designs applied suggest that the post-weaning period, included in all designs, is the most relevant sensitive period for inducing 4MA mediated developmental immunotoxicity. Moreover, this study stresses the importance of including developmental immunotoxicity testing by default in regulatory toxicology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Architecture of Flooding Tolerance in the Dry Bean Middle-American Diversity Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a devastating abiotic stress that endangers crop production in the twenty-first century. Because of the severe susceptibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to flooding, an understanding of the genetic architecture and physiological responses of this crop will set the stage for further improvement. However, challenging phenotyping methods hinder a large-scale genetic study of flooding tolerance in common bean and other economically important crops. A greenhouse phenotyping protocol was developed to evaluate the flooding conditions at early stages. The Middle-American diversity panel (n = 272 of common bean was developed to capture most of the diversity exits in North American germplasm. This panel was evaluated for seven traits under both flooded and non-flooded conditions at two early developmental stages. A subset of contrasting genotypes was further evaluated in the field to assess the relationship between greenhouse and field data under flooding condition. A genome-wide association study using ~150 K SNPs was performed to discover genomic regions associated with multiple physiological responses. The results indicate a significant strong correlation (r > 0.77 between greenhouse and field data, highlighting the reliability of greenhouse phenotyping method. Black and small red beans were the least affected by excess water at germination stage. At the seedling stage, pinto and great northern genotypes were the most tolerant. Root weight reduction due to flooding was greatest in pink and small red cultivars. Flooding reduced the chlorophyll content to the greatest extent in the navy bean cultivars compared with other market classes. Races of Durango/Jalisco and Mesoamerica were separated by both genotypic and phenotypic data indicating the potential effect of eco-geographical variations. Furthermore, several loci were identified that potentially represent the antagonistic pleiotropy. The GWAS analysis revealed peaks at Pv08

  16. Variation in growth, physiology, and yield of six sugarcane cultivars from across the globe in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars with diverse genetic background under similar location can help in better understanding cultivar response to environment and in identifying various physiological traits that could lead to improved yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, yield...

  17. Bengt Saltin and exercise physiology: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This perspective highlights some of the key contributions of Professor Bengt Saltin (1935-2014) to exercise physiology. The emergence of exercise physiology from work physiology as his career began is discussed as are his contributions in a number of areas. Saltin's open and question-based style of leadership is a model for the future of our field.

  18. Lacrimal system physiology: radioisotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rossi, G.; Salvatori, M.; Focosi, F.; Dickmann, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lacrimal scintigraphy was used to illustrate the physiology of the lacrimal drainage system in 37 normal patients. Sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate was dropped on to the conjunctive near the lateral chantus and serial images were displayed dynamically on a video display. It was concluded that this technique provides a very sensitive and reproducible test of the functional status of nasolacrimal drainage along with a graphic documentation at any given time and thus could be extremely useful in the diagnosis of lacrimal pathology. (U.K.)

  19. Chemostat Culture for Yeast Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Emily O; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2017-07-05

    The use of chemostat culture facilitates the careful comparison of different yeast strains growing in well-defined conditions. Variations in physiology can be measured by examining gene expression, metabolite levels, protein content, and cell morphology. In this protocol, we show how a combination of sample types can be collected during harvest from a single 20-mL chemostat in a ministat array, with special attention to coordinating the handling of the most time-sensitive sample types. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. The Diversity of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKubota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.

  1. Mammalian diversity: gametes, embryos and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Richard R; Eakin, Guy S; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2006-01-01

    The class Mammalia is composed of approximately 4800 extant species. These mammalian species are divided into three subclasses that include the monotremes, marsupials and eutherians. Monotremes are remarkable because these mammals are born from eggs laid outside of the mother's body. Marsupial mammals have relatively short gestation periods and give birth to highly altricial young that continue a significant amount of 'fetal' development after birth, supported by a highly sophisticated lactation. Less than 10% of mammalian species are monotremes or marsupials, so the great majority of mammals are grouped into the subclass Eutheria, including mouse and human. Mammals exhibit great variety in morphology, physiology and reproduction. In the present article, we highlight some of this remarkable diversity relative to the mouse, one of the most widely used mammalian model organisms, and human. This diversity creates challenges and opportunities for gamete and embryo collection, culture and transfer technologies.

  2. Life-Stage Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses methods used to extrapolate from in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) toxicity data for an endocrine pathway to in vivo for early life stages in humans, and the use of a life stage PBPK model to address rapidly changing physiological parameters. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs), in this case endocrine disruption during development, provide a biologically-based framework for linking molecular initiating events triggered by chemical exposures to key events leading to adverse outcomes. The application of AOPs to human health risk assessment requires extrapolation of in vitro HTS toxicity data to in vivo exposures (IVIVE) in humans, which can be achieved through the use of a PBPK/PD model. Exposure scenarios for chemicals in the PBPK/PD model will consider both placental and lactational transfer of chemicals, with a focus on age dependent dosimetry during fetal development and after birth for a nursing infant. This talk proposes a universal life-stage computational model that incorporates changing physiological parameters to link environmental exposures to in vitro levels of HTS assays related to a developmental toxicological AOP for vascular disruption. In vitro toxicity endpoints discussed are based on two mechanisms: 1) Fetal vascular disruption, and 2) Neurodevelopmental toxicity induced by altering thyroid hormone levels in neonates via inhibition of thyroperoxidase in the thyroid gland. Application of our Life-stage computati

  3. Physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Melissa D; Cook, Nina; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Kettle, Jonathan W L; Schwartz, Orli; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have examined physiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation in adolescents, despite the occurrence in this group of significant developmental changes in emotional functioning. The current study employed multiple physiological measures (i.e., startle-elicited eyeblink and ERP, skin conductance, facial EMG) to assess the emotional reactivity and regulation of 113 early adolescents in response to valenced images. Reactivity was measured while participants viewed images, and regulation was measured when they were asked to discontinue or maintain their emotional reactions to the images. Adolescent participants did not exhibit fear-potentiated startle blink. However, they did display affect-consistent zygomatic and corrugator activity during reactivity, as well as inhibition of some of these facial patterns during regulation. Skin conductance demonstrated arousal dependent activity during reactivity, and overall decreases during regulation. These findings suggest that early adolescents display reactivity to valenced pictures, but not to startle probes. Psychophysiological patterns during emotion regulation indicate additional effort and/or attention during the regulation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anatomy and physiology of binaural hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D R

    1991-01-01

    of the thalamus and the auditory cortex. Neonatal, unilateral hearing loss leads to a rearrangement of binaural connections in the auditory brain stem, to changes in the physiology of IC neurones in response to stimulation of the normal ear and to compensatory alterations in the auditory space map in the SC. The same hearing losses in adulthood do not produce these changes. The evidence from this and other work suggests that binaural mechanisms are more sensitive to hearing loss, over a longer developmental period, than mechanisms subserving monaural processing.

  5. Integration of multi-omics techniques and physiological phenotyping within a holistic phenomics approach to study senescence in model and crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großkinsky, Dominik K; Syaifullah, Syahnada Jaya; Roitsch, Thomas

    2018-02-12

    The study of senescence in plants is complicated by diverse levels of temporal and spatial dynamics as well as the impact of external biotic and abiotic factors and crop plant management. Whereas the molecular mechanisms involved in developmentally regulated leaf senescence are very well understood, in particular in the annual model plant species Arabidopsis, senescence of other organs such as the flower, fruit, and root is much less studied as well as senescence in perennials such as trees. This review addresses the need for the integration of multi-omics techniques and physiological phenotyping into holistic phenomics approaches to dissect the complex phenomenon of senescence. That became feasible through major advances in the establishment of various, complementary 'omics' technologies. Such an interdisciplinary approach will also need to consider knowledge from the animal field, in particular in relation to novel regulators such as small, non-coding RNAs, epigenetic control and telomere length. Such a characterization of phenotypes via the acquisition of high-dimensional datasets within a systems biology approach will allow us to systematically characterize the various programmes governing senescence beyond leaf senescence in Arabidopsis and to elucidate the underlying molecular processes. Such a multi-omics approach is expected to also spur the application of results from model plants to agriculture and their verification for sustainable and environmentally friendly improvement of crop plant stress resilience and productivity and contribute to improvements based on postharvest physiology for the food industry and the benefit of its customers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Changes in Psychosocial Factors and Physical Activity Frequency among Third- to Eighth-Grade Girls Who Participated in a Developmentally Focused Youth Sport Program: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Zwald, Marissa; Huberty, Jennifer; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous physiological, psychological, and academic benefits of physical activity (PA), declines in PA levels among girls have been observed over the last decade. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the short-term changes pertaining to Girls on the Run and Girls on Track developmentally focused youth sport…

  7. How diversity gets lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article...... describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an “other,” and consequently their input was neglected...

  8. Establishment of post-harvest early-developmental categories for viability maintenance of Araucaria angustifolia seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia seeds are recalcitrant, and their metabolism remains high during storage. This research aimed to describe the initiation of germination in A. angustifolia seeds during storage in order to standardize the assessment of physiological quality and to promote seed conservation. Seeds were collected from two populations and stored for 270 days in the natural laboratory environment and cold chamber. Seeds were classified according to four early developmental stages: I - mature seeds; II - seeds with elongation along the embryonic axis; III - beginning of root protrusion; IV - advanced germination stage, with seedling shoots. After categorization, physical and physiological quality was assessed. In freshly collected seeds, only category I was observed. At 270 days, approximately 40% of seeds were in category III in laboratory conditions, while the maintenance in a cold chamber delayed germinative metabolism. Viability tests showed that seeds in categories III and IV were more susceptible to damage caused by storage. In conclusion, the percentage of viable A. angustifolia seeds depends on the development stage after collection. Seeds that have reached early developmental category III should be prioritized for propagation, while those remaining in categories I and II should be longer stored with periodic assessment for reduction in physiological quality.

  9. Focus on the emerging new fields of network physiology and network medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

    2016-10-01

    Despite the vast progress and achievements in systems biology and integrative physiology in the last decades, there is still a significant gap in understanding the mechanisms through which (i) genomic, proteomic and metabolic factors and signaling pathways impact vertical processes across cells, tissues and organs leading to the expression of different disease phenotypes and influence the functional and clinical associations between diseases, and (ii) how diverse physiological systems and organs coordinate their functions over a broad range of space and time scales and horizontally integrate to generate distinct physiologic states at the organism level. Two emerging fields, network medicine and network physiology, aim to address these fundamental questions. Novel concepts and approaches derived from recent advances in network theory, coupled dynamical systems, statistical and computational physics show promise to provide new insights into the complexity of physiological structure and function in health and disease, bridging the genetic and sub-cellular level with inter-cellular interactions and communications among integrated organ systems and sub-systems. These advances form first building blocks in the methodological formalism and theoretical framework necessary to address fundamental problems and challenges in physiology and medicine. This ‘focus on’ issue contains 26 articles representing state-of-the-art contributions covering diverse systems from the sub-cellular to the organism level where physicists have key role in laying the foundations of these new fields.

  10. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  11. Physiological aspects of forest disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, H.

    1986-01-01

    Many kinds of forest disease having the most varied causes are currently classified as 'forest die-back'. These include for one part diseases of obvious etiology: infectious diseases, damage from frost and drought, as well as harmful effects of defined air pollutants from known sources. But apart from this, a fast growing tendency is noted for extensive damage to appear whose origin is not yet clearly elucidated and which are probably the result of many factors, in other words, which can be termed as 'chain disease'. A striking fact is that any scientist who has so far attributed that last-mentioned disease condition of forests to any single decisive cause, has chosen one from his own specific scientific field. Physiologic-biochemical analysis of the damage symptoms is impaired by the fact that trees are, for obvious biological reasons, difficult objects for providing precise data. Yet reliable statements can be made on the paths by which wet and dry depositions penetrate into the plant organs, the penetration of pollutants into the cell, their points of attack in cells and tissue (above all photosynthesis, material transport, and hormone balance), and their influence on the correlations between the individual organs. Particular attention should be paid to possible or indirect effects on the mycorrhiza of forest trees, i.e. on the symbiosis between roots and fungi. The physiologic-biochemical investigations and considerations reported provide circumstantial evidence, but no proof regarding the causes hitherto unexplained. (orig.) [de

  12. Environmental Physiology and Diving Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bosco

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Man’s experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival. This summary will illustrate briefly the physiological changes induced by immersion, swimming, breath-hold diving and exploring while using special equipment in the water. Cardiac, circulatory and pulmonary vascular adaptation and the pathophysiology of novel syndromes have been demonstrated, which will allow selection of individual characteristics in order to succeed in various environments. Training and treatment for these new microenvironments will be suggested with description of successful pioneers in this field. This is a summary of the physiology and the present status of pathology and therapy for the field.

  13. CERN Diversity Newsletter - July 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin; CERN. Geneva. HR Department

    2015-01-01

    The first official edition of the CERN Diversity Newsletter, informing on recent and ongoing diversity activities, and interesting reads, videos and other links related to diversity. Subscribe here: https://diversity.web.cern.ch/2015/07/subscribe-diversity-newsletter

  14. Molecular Physiology of Root System Architecture in Model Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, K.; Ahkami, A. H.; Anderton, C.; Veličković, D.; Myers, G. L.; Chrisler, W.; Lindenmaier, R.; Fang, Y.; Yabusaki, S.; Rosnow, J. J.; Farris, Y.; Khan, N. E.; Bernstein, H. C.; Jansson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in responses of Root System Architecture (RSA) to abiotic stresses and shifts in microbiome structure is critical to understand and engineer plant-microbe-soil interactions in the rhizosphere. In this study, accessions of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21 (C3 model grass) and Setaria viridis A10.1 (C4 model grass) were grown in phytotron chambers under current and elevated CO2 levels. Detailed growth stage-based phenotypic analysis revealed different above- and below-ground morphological and physiological responses in C3 and C4 grasses to enhanced CO2 levels. Based on our preliminary results and by screening values of total biomass, water use efficiency, root to shoot ratio, RSA parameters and net assimilation rates, we postulated a three-phase physiological mechanism, i.e. RootPlus, BiomassPlus and YieldPlus phases, for grass growth under elevated CO2 conditions. Moreover, this comprehensive set of morphological and process-based observations are currently in use to develop, test, and calibrate biophysical whole-plant models and in particular to simulate leaf-level photosynthesis at various developmental stages of C3 and C4 using the model BioCro. To further link the observed phenotypic traits at the organismal level to tissue and molecular levels, and to spatially resolve the origin and fate of key metabolites involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism in different root sections, we complement root phenotypic observations with spatial metabolomics data using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods. Focusing on plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, six bacterial strains with plant growth promoting features are currently in use in both gel-based and soil systems to screen root growth and development in Brachypodium. Using confocal microscopy, GFP-tagged bacterial systems are utilized to study the initiation of different root types of RSA, including primary root (PR), coleoptile node axile root (CNR

  15. Light-regulated leaf expansion in two Populus species: dependence on developmentally controlled ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Kari A; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    2002-07-01

    Leaf growth responses to light have been compared in two species of Populus, P. deltoides and P. trichocarpa. These species differ markedly in morphology, anatomy, and dependence on light during leaf expansion. Light stimulates the growth rate and acidification of cell walls in P. trichocarpa but not in P. deltoides, whereas leaves of P. deltoides maintain growth in the dark. Light-induced growth is promoted in P. deltoides when cells are provided 50-100 mM KCl. In both species, light initially depolarizes, then hyperpolarizes mesophyll plasma membranes. However, in the dark, the resting E(m) of mesophyll cells in P. deltoides, but not in P. trichocarpa, is relatively insensitive to decade changes in external [K+]. Results suggest that light-stimulated leaf growth depends on developmentally regulated cellular mechanisms controlling ion fluxes across the plasma membrane. These developmental differences underlie species-level differences in growth and physiological responses to the photoenvironment.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two races of Heterodera glycines at different developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng Wang

    Full Text Available The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is an important pest of soybeans. Although resistance is available against this nematode, selection for virulent races can occur, allowing the nematode to overcome the resistance of cultivars. There are abundant field populations, however, little is known about their genetic diversity. In order to elucidate the differences between races, we investigated the transcriptional diversity within race 3 and race 4 inbred lines during their compatible interactions with the soybean host Zhonghuang 13. Six different race-enriched cDNA libraries were constructed with limited nematode samples collected from the three sedentary stages, parasitic J2, J3 and J4 female, respectively. Among 689 putative race-enriched genes isolated from the six libraries with functional annotations, 92 were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, including eight putative effector encoding genes. Further race-enriched genes were validated within race 3 and race 4 during development in soybean roots. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of all the race-enriched genes at J3 and J4 female stages showed that most of them functioned in metabolic processes. Relative transcript level analysis of 13 selected race-enriched genes at four developmental stages showed that the differences in their expression abundance took place at either one or more developmental stages. This is the first investigation into the transcript diversity of H. glycines races throughout their sedentary stages, increasing the understanding of the genetic diversity of H. glycines.

  17. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Diana

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F 1 generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F 1 male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from heritable

  18. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  19. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  20. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ... into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

  1. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinual increase in the diversity of life over evolutionary time. Ways of ... Centre for Ecological. Scienc'es .... plants evolved flowers to attract pollinators and reward them with .... with the evolving complexity of their interactions in communi- ties.

  2. Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Diversity, discrimination, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Jonathan S.; Levine, David I.

    2003-01-01

    Employee diversity may affect business performance both as a result of customer discrimination and as a result of how members of a group work with each other in teams. We test for both channels with data from more than 800 retail stores employing over 70,000 individuals matched to Census data on the demographics of the community. We find little payoff to matching employee demographics to those of potential customers except when the customers do not speak English. Although age diversity doe...

  4. Heterogeneity and Developmental Connections between Cell Types Inhabiting Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krivanek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every tissue is composed of multiple cell types that are developmentally, evolutionary and functionally integrated into the unit we call an organ. Teeth, our organs for biting and mastication, are complex and made of many different cell types connected or disconnected in terms of their ontogeny. In general, epithelial and mesenchymal compartments represent the major framework of tooth formation. Thus, they give rise to the two most important matrix–producing populations: ameloblasts generating enamel and odontoblasts producing dentin. However, the real picture is far from this quite simplified view. Diverse pulp cells, the immune system, the vascular system, the innervation and cells organizing the dental follicle all interact, and jointly participate in transforming lifeless matrix into a functional organ that can sense and protect itself. Here we outline the heterogeneity of cell types that inhabit the tooth, and also provide a life history of the major populations. The mouse model system has been indispensable not only for the studies of cell lineages and heterogeneity, but also for the investigation of dental stem cells and tooth patterning during development. Finally, we briefly discuss the evolutionary aspects of cell type diversity and dental tissue integration.

  5. Communication-Based Assessment of Developmental Age for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVeney, Shari L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Cress, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared a multiple-domain strategy for assessing developmental age of young children with developmental disabilities who were at risk for long-term reliance on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) with a communication-based strategy composed of receptive language and communication indices that may…

  6. Leadership in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, P L

    1994-12-01

    As principal change agents, healthcare leaders are well positioned to integrate diversity into their institutions' organizational structure. Thus healthcare leaders must be competent in handling diversity issues. Diversity refers to any characteristic that helps shape a person's attitudes, behaviors, perspective, and interpretation of what is "normal." In the healthcare ministry, diversity encompasses the cultural differences that can be found across functions or among organizations when they merge or partner. Managers and supervisors will have to be familiar with the nuances of diversity if they are to be effective. Those managers who are not adept at incorporating diversity into human resource management may incorrectly evaluate subordinates' capabilities and provide inappropriate training or supervision. As a result, some employees may be underutilized. Others may resist needed direction, overlook instructions, or hide problems such as a language barrier. If executives, marketers, and strategic planners are to develop relevant healthcare services that take into account the needs of their constituencies, they will need to determine how different groups understand and access healthcare. Healthcare leaders who know how to uncover cultural dynamics and challenge cultural assumptions will go far in enabling their staff and managers to confront personal attitudes about community residents. Ultimately, quality of service delivery will be improved.

  7. Does Labor Diversity Promote Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services....

  8. The Gravity of Giraffe Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    By virtue of its tallness and terrestrial environment, the giraffe is a uniquely sensitive African animal to investigate tissue adaptations to gravitational stress. One decade ago, we studied transcapillary fluid balance and local tissue adaptations to high cardiovascular and musculoskeletal loads in adult and fetal giraffes. Previous studies by Goetz, Pattersson, Van Citters, Warren and their colleagues revealed that arterial pressure near the giraffe heart is about twice that in humans, to provide more normal blood pressure and perfusion to the brain. Another important question is how giraffes avoid pooling of blood and tissue fluid (edema) in dependent tissue of the extremities. As monitored by radiotelemetry, the blood and tissue fluid pressures that govern transcapillary exchange vary greatly with exercise. These pressures, combined with a tight skin layer, move fluid upward against gravity. Other mechanisms that prevent edema include precapillary vasoconstriction and low permeability of capillaries to plasma proteins. Other anatomical adaptations in dependent tissues of giraffes represent developmental adjustments to high and variable gravitational forces. These include vascular wall hypertrophy, thickened capillary basement membrane and other connective tissue adaptations. Our results in giraffe suggest avenues of future gravitational research in other animals including humans.

  9. Stress Physiology of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Alegría, Ángel; Bron, Peter A.; de Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Lemos, José A.; Linares, Daniel M.; Ross, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Varmanen, Pekka; Ventura, Marco; Zúñiga, Manuel; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important starter, commensal, or pathogenic microorganisms. The stress physiology of LAB has been studied in depth for over 2 decades, fueled mostly by the technological implications of LAB robustness in the food industry. Survival of probiotic LAB in the host and the potential relatedness of LAB virulence to their stress resilience have intensified interest in the field. Thus, a wealth of information concerning stress responses exists today for strains as diverse as starter (e.g., Lactococcus lactis), probiotic (e.g., several Lactobacillus spp.), and pathogenic (e.g., Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp.) LAB. Here we present the state of the art for LAB stress behavior. We describe the multitude of stresses that LAB are confronted with, and we present the experimental context used to study the stress responses of LAB, focusing on adaptation, habituation, and cross-protection as well as on self-induced multistress resistance in stationary phase, biofilms, and dormancy. We also consider stress responses at the population and single-cell levels. Subsequently, we concentrate on the stress defense mechanisms that have been reported to date, grouping them according to their direct participation in preserving cell energy, defending macromolecules, and protecting the cell envelope. Stress-induced responses of probiotic LAB and commensal/pathogenic LAB are highlighted separately due to the complexity of the peculiar multistress conditions to which these bacteria are subjected in their hosts. Induction of prophages under environmental stresses is then discussed. Finally, we present systems-based strategies to characterize the “stressome” of LAB and to engineer new food-related and probiotic LAB with improved stress tolerance. PMID:27466284

  10. Developmental toxicology: adequacy of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P W

    1998-01-01

    Toxicology embraces several disciplines such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. Reproductive toxicology is concerned with possible effects of substances on the reproductive process, i.e. on sexual organs and their functions, endocrine regulation, fertilization, transport of the fertilized ovum, implantation, and embryonic, fetal and postnatal development, until the end-differentiation of the organs is achieved. Reproductive toxicology is divided into areas related to male and female fertility, and developmental toxicology. Developmental toxicology can be further broken down into prenatal and postnatal toxicology. Today, much new information is available about the origins of developmental disorders resulting from chemical exposure. While these findings seem to promise important new developments in methodology and research, there is a danger of losing sight of the precepts and principles established in the light of existing knowledge. There is also a danger that we may fail to correct shortcomings in our existing procedures and practice. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of testing substances for their impact in advance of their use and to underline that we must use the best existing tools for carrying out risk assessments. Moreover, it needs to be stressed that there are many substances that are never assessed with respect to reproductive and developmental toxicity. Similarly, our programmes for post-marketing surveillance with respect to developmental toxicology are grossly inadequate. Our ability to identify risks to normal development and reproduction would be much improved, first if a number of straightforward precepts were always followed and second, if we had a clearer understanding of what we mean by risk and acceptable levels of risk in the context of development. Other aims of this paper are: to stress the complexity of the different stages of normal prenatal development; to note the principles that are

  11. CH2 - Lighting and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Altomonte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the designed performances of the new CH2 building in Melbourne, Australia. CH2 is an environmentally significant project that involves biomimicry of natural systems to produce indoor conditions that are conducive to user comfort, health and productivity. This paper focuses on lighting and physiology and examines the solutions chosen for artificial and natural lighting and the likely effects these will have on building occupants. The purpose of the paper is to critically comment on the adopted strategy and, cognisance of contemporary thinking in lighting design, to judge the effectiveness of this aspect of the project with a view to later verification and post-occupancy review. The paper concludes that CH2 is an exemplar of lighting innovation that provides valuable lessons to designers of office buildings, particularly in the Melbourne CSD.

  12. Divergence Measures as Diversity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Moustafa, Karim T.

    2014-01-01

    Entropy measures of probability distributions are widely used measures in ecology, biology, genetics, and in other fields, to quantify species diversity of a community. Unfortunately, entropy-based diversity indices, or diversity indices for short, suffer from three problems. First, when computing the diversity for samples withdrawn from communities with different structures, diversity indices can easily yield non-comparable and hard to interpret results. Second, diversity indices impose weig...

  13. [Media use with developmental benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipeli, E; Süss, D

    2012-08-01

    For children of school age television is still the dominant medium. TV consumption isn't only limited on the TV set, but also happens on the computer with internet access and mobile devices. Computer games take a high priority for boys. For girls reading is still an important experience space. Parents influence the media use of their children by their role model, and the rates for shared non-media experiences. Neighborhoods which aren't child-friendly can cause children's withdraw into home media spaces. Restrictions and controls are less important than the conversations that are conducted around media interests of the child and parents attention to early signs of problematic media use. Potentially irritating media content for children (such as violence or sex) can have strong effects when there's no open debate taking place in the family around these issues. Today's media diversity leads to parallel surfing and multi-tasking. In order that this doesn't influence children's cognitive development and learning negatively a culture of regular restriction to one activity, to which they devote their full attention, is required.

  14. Developmentalism: An Obscure but Pervasive Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuing criticism of public education, experimentally demonstrated and field tested teaching methods have been ignored, rejected, and abandoned. Instead of a stable consensus regarding best teaching practices, there seems only an unending succession of innovations. A longstanding educational doctrine appears to underlie this anomalous state of affairs. Termed developmentalism, it presumes "natural" ontogenesis to be optimal and it requires experimentally demonstrated teaching practices to overcome a presumption that they interfere with an optimal developmental trajectory. It also discourages teachers and parents from asserting themselves with children. Instead of effective interventions, it seeks the preservation of a postulated natural perfection. Developmentalism's rich history is expressed in a literature extending over 400 years. Its notable exponents include Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget; and its most recent expressions include "developmentally appropriate practice" and "constructivism." In the years during which it gained ascendance, developmentalism served as a basis for rejecting harsh and inhumane teaching methods. Today it impedes efforts to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement.

  15. Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay, Waalkes, M., Hunter, D.L., Jarema, K., Mundy, W., and S. Padilla. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize organophosphorus pesticides for developmental neurotoxicity. As such, we are exploring a behavioral testing paradigm that can assess the effects of sublethal and subteratogenic concentrations of developmental neurotoxicants on zebrafish (Danio rerio). This in vivo assay quantifies the locomotor response to light stimuli under tandem light and dark conditions in a 96-well plate using a video tracking system on 6 day post fertilization zebrafish larvae. Each of twenty-seven organophosphorus pesticides was tested for their developmental neurotoxic potential by exposing zebrafish embryos/larvae to the pesticide at several concentrations (≤ 100 μM nominal concentration) during the first five days of development, followed by 24 hours of depuration and then behavioral testing. Approximately 22% of the chemicals (Acephate, Dichlorvos, Diazoxon, Bensulide,Tribufos, Tebupirimfos) did not produce any behavioral changes after developmental exposure, while many (Malaoxon Fosthiazate, Dimethoate, Dicrotophos, Ethoprop, Malathion, Naled, Diazinon, Methamidophos, Terbufos, Trichlorfon, Phorate, Pirimiphos-methyl, Profenofos, Z-Tetrachlorvinphos, Chlorpyrifos, Coumaphos, Phosmet, Omethoate) produced changes in swi

  16. Replication and robustness in developmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J

    2014-11-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key results are robust across estimation methods, data sets, and demographic subgroups. This article makes the case for prioritizing both explicit replications and, especially, within-study robustness checks in developmental psychology. It provides evidence on variation in effect sizes in developmental studies and documents strikingly different replication and robustness-checking practices in a sample of journals in developmental psychology and a sister behavioral science-applied economics. Our goal is not to show that any one behavioral science has a monopoly on best practices, but rather to show how journals from a related discipline address vital concerns of replication and generalizability shared by all social and behavioral sciences. We provide recommendations for promoting graduate training in replication and robustness-checking methods and for editorial policies that encourage these practices. Although some of our recommendations may shift the form and substance of developmental research articles, we argue that they would generate considerable scientific benefits for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The Comet Cometh: Evolving Developmental Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Johannes; Laubichler, Manfred; Callebaut, Werner

    In a recent opinion piece, Denis Duboule has claimed that the increasing shift towards systems biology is driving evolutionary and developmental biology apart, and that a true reunification of these two disciplines within the framework of evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo) may easily take another 100 years. He identifies methodological, epistemological, and social differences as causes for this supposed separation. Our article provides a contrasting view. We argue that Duboule's prediction is based on a one-sided understanding of systems biology as a science that is only interested in functional, not evolutionary, aspects of biological processes. Instead, we propose a research program for an evolutionary systems biology, which is based on local exploration of the configuration space in evolving developmental systems. We call this approach-which is based on reverse engineering, simulation, and mathematical analysis-the natural history of configuration space. We discuss a number of illustrative examples that demonstrate the past success of local exploration, as opposed to global mapping, in different biological contexts. We argue that this pragmatic mode of inquiry can be extended and applied to the mathematical analysis of the developmental repertoire and evolutionary potential of evolving developmental mechanisms and that evolutionary systems biology so conceived provides a pragmatic epistemological framework for the EvoDevo synthesis.

  18. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Mário J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i present two testing points; (ii on swimming physiology; (iii using adult elite swimmers; (iv no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7, endocrine secretion (n=11, muscle biochemistry (n=7, cardiovascular response (n=8 and the energetic profile (n=14. The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93. It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience.

  20. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps: mechanisms, physiology and pharmacological exploitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Deng, Ziqing; Yan, Aixin

    2014-10-17

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) refers to the capability of bacterial pathogens to withstand lethal doses of structurally diverse drugs which are capable of eradicating non-resistant strains. MDR has been identified as a major threat to the public health of human being by the World Health Organization (WHO). Among the four general mechanisms that cause antibiotic resistance including target alteration, drug inactivation, decreased permeability and increased efflux, drug extrusion by the multidrug efflux pumps serves as an important mechanism of MDR. Efflux pumps not only can expel a broad range of antibiotics owing to their poly-substrate specificity, but also drive the acquisition of additional resistance mechanisms by lowering intracellular antibiotic concentration and promoting mutation accumulation. Over-expression of multidrug efflux pumps have been increasingly found to be associated with clinically relevant drug resistance. On the other hand, accumulating evidence has suggested that efflux pumps also have physiological functions in bacteria and their expression is subject tight regulation in response to various of environmental and physiological signals. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of drug extrusion, and regulation and physiological functions of efflux pumps is essential for the development of anti-resistance interventions. In this review, we summarize the development of these research areas in the recent decades and present the pharmacological exploitation of efflux pump inhibitors as a promising anti-drug resistance intervention. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cesium-137: A physiological disruptor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, Maamar; Grison, Stephane; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Today, radiation protection is a major issue for the nuclear industry throughout the world, particularly in France. The 2011 disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi has brought back to public attention questions about the risks associated with nuclear power for civilian purposes. The risk of accidental release of radioactive molecules, including cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), from these facilities cannot be completely eliminated. The non-cancer-related health consequences of chronic exposure to this radionuclide remain poorly understood. After absorption, cesium is distributed throughout the body. The toxicity of 137 Cs is due mainly to its radiological properties. Studies in humans report that 137 Cs impairs the immune system and induces neurological disorders. Children appear more susceptible than adults to its toxic effects. In animals, and most particularly in rodents, low-dose internal contamination disrupts the sleep-wake cycle, but without behavioural disorders. Impairment of the cardiovascular system has also been observed. Physiologic systems such as the metabolism of vitamin D, cholesterol and steroid hormones are altered, although without leading to the emergence of diseases with clinical symptoms. Recently, a metabolomics study based on contamination levels comparable to those around Chernobyl after the accident showed that it is possible to identify individual rats chronically exposed to low doses of 137 Cs, even though the exposure was too low to affect the standard clinical markers. In conclusion, the scientific evidence currently available, particularly that from experimental animal models exposed to chronic contamination, suggests that 137 Cs is likely to affect many physiologic and metabolic functions. Thus, it could contribute, with other artificial substances in the environment, to increasing the risk of developing non-cancer diseases in some regions. (authors)

  2. The physiology of mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Marcora, Samuele M

    2007-01-01

    Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity and an Olympic sport. Cross-country circuit races have a winning time of approximately equal 120 minutes and are performed at an average heart rate close to 90% of the maximum, corresponding to 84% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). More than 80% of race time is spent above the lactate threshold. This very high exercise intensity is related to the fast starting phase of the race; the several climbs, forcing off-road cyclists to expend most of their effort going against gravity; greater rolling resistance; and the isometric contractions of arm and leg muscles necessary for bike handling and stabilisation. Because of the high power output (up to 500W) required during steep climbing and at the start of the race, anaerobic energy metabolism is also likely to be a factor of off-road cycling and deserves further investigation. Mountain bikers' physiological characteristics indicate that aerobic power (VO2max >70 mL/kg/min) and the ability to sustain high work rates for prolonged periods of time are prerequisites for competing at a high level in off-road cycling events. The anthropometric characteristics of mountain bikers are similar to climbers and all-terrain road cyclists. Various parameters of aerobic fitness are correlated to cross-country performance, suggesting that these tests are valid for the physiological assessment of competitive mountain bikers, especially when normalised to body mass. Factors other than aerobic power and capacity might influence off-road cycling performance and require further investigation. These include off-road cycling economy, anaerobic power and capacity, technical ability and pre-exercise nutritional strategies.

  3. Developmental Localization and Methylesterification of Pectin Epitopes during Somatic Embryogenesis of Banana (Musa spp. AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxiang; Zhao, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Šamaj, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Background The plant cell walls play an important role in somatic embryogenesis and plant development. Pectins are major chemical components of primary cell walls while homogalacturonan (HG) is the most abundant pectin polysaccharide. Developmental regulation of HG methyl-esterification degree is important for cell adhesion, division and expansion, and in general for proper organ and plant development. Methodology/Principal Findings Developmental localization of pectic homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes and the (1→4)-β-D-galactan epitope of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DM) were studied during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA). Histological analysis documented all major developmental stages including embryogenic cells (ECs), pre-globular, globular, pear-shaped and cotyledonary somatic embryos. Histochemical staining of extracellularly secreted pectins with ruthenium red showed the most intense staining at the surface of pre-globular, globular and pear-shaped somatic embryos. Biochemical analysis revealed developmental regulation of galacturonic acid content and DM in diverse embryogenic stages. Immunodots and immunolabeling on tissue sections revealed developmental regulation of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes recognized by JIM7 and LM20 antibodies during somatic embryogenesis. Cell walls of pre-globular/globular and late-stage embryos contained both low methyl-esterified HG epitopes as well as partially and highly methyl-esterified ones. Extracellular matrix which covered surface of early developing embryos contained pectin epitopes recognized by 2F4, LM18, JIM5, JIM7 and LM5 antibodies. De-esterification of cell wall pectins by NaOH caused a decrease or an elimination of immunolabeling in the case of highly methyl-esterified HG epitopes. However, immunolabeling of some low methyl-esterified epitopes appeared stronger after this base treatment. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that both low

  4. Turtle carapace anomalies: the roles of genetic diversity and environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Velo-Antón

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic anomalies are common in wild populations and multiple genetic, biotic and abiotic factors might contribute to their formation. Turtles are excellent models for the study of developmental instability because anomalies are easily detected in the form of malformations, additions, or reductions in the number of scutes or scales.In this study, we integrated field observations, manipulative experiments, and climatic and genetic approaches to investigate the origin of carapace scute anomalies across Iberian populations of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The proportion of anomalous individuals varied from 3% to 69% in local populations, with increasing frequency of anomalies in northern regions. We found no significant effect of climatic and soil moisture, or climatic temperature on the occurrence of anomalies. However, lower genetic diversity and inbreeding were good predictors of the prevalence of scute anomalies among populations. Both decreasing genetic diversity and increasing proportion of anomalous individuals in northern parts of the Iberian distribution may be linked to recolonization events from the Southern Pleistocene refugium.Overall, our results suggest that developmental instability in turtle carapace formation might be caused, at least in part, by genetic factors, although the influence of environmental factors affecting the developmental stability of turtle carapace cannot be ruled out. Further studies of the effects of environmental factors, pollutants and heritability of anomalies would be useful to better understand the complex origin of anomalies in natural populations.

  5. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-07-15

    The term 'translational research' was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by 'reverse translation' in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise.

  7. Developmental differences in the structure of executive function in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Xu

    Full Text Available Although it has been argued that the structure of executive function (EF may change developmentally, there is little empirical research to examine this view in middle childhood and adolescence. The main objective of this study was to examine developmental changes in the component structure of EF in a large sample (N = 457 of 7-15 year olds. Participants completed batteries of tasks that measured three components of EF: updating working memory (UWM, inhibition, and shifting. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test five alternative models in 7-9 year olds, 10-12 year olds, and 13-15 year olds. The results of CFA showed that a single-factor EF model best explained EF performance in 7-9-year-old and 10-12-year-old groups, namely unitary EF, though this single factor explained different amounts of variance at these two ages. In contrast, a three-factor model that included UWM, inhibition, and shifting best accounted for the data from 13-15 year olds, namely diverse EF. In sum, during middle childhood, putative measures of UWM, inhibition, and shifting may rely on similar underlying cognitive processes. Importantly, our findings suggest that developmental dissociations in these three EF components do not emerge until children transition into adolescence. These findings provided empirical evidence for the development of EF structure which progressed from unity to diversity during middle childhood and adolescence.

  8. Intracranial developmental venous anomaly: is it asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, A Bolívar; de Asís Bravo Rodríguez, F; Bravo Rey, I; Romero, E Roldán

    2018-03-16

    Intracranial developmental venous anomalies are the most common vascular malformation. In the immense majority of cases, these anomalies are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, and they are considered benign. Very exceptionally, however, they can cause neurological symptoms. In this article, we present three cases of patients with developmental venous anomalies that presented with different symptoms owing to complications derived from altered venous drainage. These anomalies were located in the left insula, right temporal lobe, and cerebellum. The exceptionality of the cases presented as well as of the images associated, which show the mechanism through which the symptoms developed, lies in the low incidence of symptomatic developmental venous anomalies reported in the literature. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQwere analysed bymultiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant......Background: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. Aims......: To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity,mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association...

  10. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Julie G; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human 'mini-guts' has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5 + intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt-villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host-pathogen interactions.

  11. Normal composite face effects in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotti, Federica; Wu, Esther; Yang, Hua; Jiahui, Guo; Duchaine, Bradley; Cook, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Upright face perception is thought to involve holistic processing, whereby local features are integrated into a unified whole. Consistent with this view, the top half of one face appears to fuse perceptually with the bottom half of another, when aligned spatially and presented upright. This 'composite face effect' reveals a tendency to integrate information from disparate regions when faces are presented canonically. In recent years, the relationship between susceptibility to the composite effect and face recognition ability has received extensive attention both in participants with normal face recognition and participants with developmental prosopagnosia. Previous results suggest that individuals with developmental prosopagnosia may show reduced susceptibility to the effect suggestive of diminished holistic face processing. Here we describe two studies that examine whether developmental prosopagnosia is associated with reduced composite face effects. Despite using independent samples of developmental prosopagnosics and different composite procedures, we find no evidence for reduced composite face effects. The experiments yielded similar results; highly significant composite effects in both prosopagnosic groups that were similar in magnitude to the effects found in participants with normal face processing. The composite face effects exhibited by both samples and the controls were greatly diminished when stimulus arrangements were inverted. Our finding that the whole-face binding process indexed by the composite effect is intact in developmental prosopagnosia indicates that other factors are responsible for developmental prosopagnosia. These results are also inconsistent with suggestions that susceptibility to the composite face effect and face recognition ability are tightly linked. While the holistic process revealed by the composite face effect may be necessary for typical face perception, it is not sufficient; individual differences in face recognition ability

  12. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  13. NASFAA Diversity and Inclusion: Recommendations of the Professional Diversity Caucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2015

    2015-01-01

    NASFAA's Diversity and Inclusion Report emphasizes the importance of diversity and inclusivity to NASFAA. Included in this report is a diversity statement developed by NASFAA's Professional Diversity Caucus, and approved by NASFAA's Board in March of 2015. The Caucus convened in the summer of 2014 to better understand issues related to diversity…

  14. Division-Based, Growth Rate Diversity in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Y. Gangwe Nana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the nature and origins of growth rate diversity in bacteria, we grew Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis in liquid minimal media and, after different periods of 15N-labeling, analyzed and imaged isotope distributions in individual cells with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We find a striking inter- and intra-cellular diversity, even in steady state growth. This is consistent with the strand-dependent, hyperstructure-based hypothesis that a major function of the cell cycle is to generate coherent, growth rate diversity via the semi-conservative pattern of inheritance of strands of DNA and associated macromolecular assemblies. We also propose quantitative, general, measures of growth rate diversity for studies of cell physiology that include antibiotic resistance.

  15. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  16. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion-communicative expression and physiological state-to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  17. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  18. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall-Ngai, M J; Ruby, E G

    2000-12-01

    Associations between marine invertebrates and their cooperative bacterial symbionts offer access to an understanding of the roots of host-microbe interaction; for example, several symbioses like the squid-vibrio light organ association serve as models for investigating how each partner affects the developmental biology of the other. Previous results have identified a program of specific developmental events that unfolds as the association is initiated. In the past year, published studies have focused primarily on describing the mechanisms underlying the signaling processes that occur between the juvenile squid and the luminous bacteria that colonize it.

  19. Diversity of Poissonian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Sokolov, Igor M

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations-Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson's index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon's entropy and Rényi's entropy, and Gini's index.

  20. Diversity and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jean Lau; Sanchez-Hucles, Janis

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors express concern that the special issue failed to include attention to issues of diversity and intersecting identities as they pertain to leadership. A Special Issue Part II on Diversity and Leadership is being proposed to (a) advance new models of leadership, (b) expand on existing leadership theories, and (c) incorporate diversity and multiple identities in the formulation of more inclusive leadership research and theory. The goal of this special issue will be to revise our theories of leadership and our understanding of effective leadership to include gender, racial/ethnic minority status, sexual orientation, and disability status.