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Sample records for diurnal spiny mice

  1. Diurnal-and sex-related difference of metallothionein expression in mice

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    Zhang Dan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metallothionein (MT is a small, cysteine-rich, metal-binding protein that plays an important role in protecting against toxicity of heavy metal and chemicals. This study was aimed to define diurnal and sex variation of MT in mice. Methods Adult mice were maintained in light- and temperature-controlled facilities for 2 weeks with light on at 8:00 and light off at 20:00. The blood, liver, and kidneys were collected every 4 h during the 24 h period. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis and MT protein was determined by western blot and the Cd/hemoglobin assay. Results The diurnal variations in mRNA levels of MT-1 and MT-2in liver were dramatic, up to a 40-foldpeak/trough ratio. MT mRNA levels in kidneys and blood also showed diurnal variation, up to 5-fold peak/trough ratio. The diurnal variation of MT mRNAs resembled the clock gene albumin site D-binding protein (Dbp, and was anti-phase to the clock gene Brain and Muscle ARNT-like Protein 1 (Bmal1 in liver and kidneys. The peaks of MT mRNA levels were higher in females than in males. Hepatic MT protein followed a similar pattern, with about a 3-fold difference. Conclusion MT mRNA levels and protein showed diurnal- and sex-variation in liver, kidney, and blood of mice, which could impact the body defense against toxic stimuli.

  2. Dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy: a study on the effects of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis and renal excretory function in spiny mice.

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    Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Kett, Michelle M; Della Gatta, Paul A; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence obtained from a rodent model of birth asphyxia shows that supplementation of the maternal diet with creatine during pregnancy protects the neonate from multi-organ damage. However, the effect of increasing creatine intake on creatine homeostasis and biosynthesis in females, particularly during pregnancy, is unknown. This study assessed the impact of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis, body composition, capacity for de novo creatine synthesis and renal excretory function in non-pregnant and pregnant spiny mice. Mid-gestation pregnant and virgin spiny mice were fed normal chow or chow supplemented with 5 % w/w creatine for 18 days. Weight gain, urinary creatine and electrolyte excretion were assessed during supplementation. At post mortem, body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or tissues were collected to assess creatine content and mRNA expression of the creatine synthesising enzymes arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) and the creatine transporter (CrT1). Protein expression of AGAT and GAMT was also assessed by Western blot. Key findings of this study include no changes in body weight or composition with creatine supplementation; increased urinary creatine excretion in supplemented spiny mice, with increased sodium (P < 0.001) and chloride (P < 0.05) excretion in pregnant dams after 3 days of supplementation; lowered renal AGAT mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein (P < 0.001) expressions, and lowered CrT1 mRNA expression in the kidney (P < 0.01) and brain (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation had minimal impact on creatine homeostasis in either non-pregnant or pregnant spiny mice. Increasing maternal dietary creatine consumption could be a useful treatment for birth asphyxia.

  3. Foraging Activity Pattern Is Shaped by Water Loss Rates in a Diurnal Desert Rodent.

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    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Porter, Warren P; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2016-08-01

    Although animals fine-tune their activity to avoid excess heat, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of such behaviors. As the global climate changes, such understanding is particularly important for projecting shifts in the activity patterns of populations and communities. We studied how foraging decisions vary with biotic and abiotic pressures. By tracking the foraging behavior of diurnal desert spiny mice in their natural habitat and estimating the energy and water costs and benefits of foraging, we asked how risk management and thermoregulatory requirements affect foraging decisions. We found that water requirements had the strongest effect on the observed foraging decisions. In their arid environment, mice often lose water while foraging for seeds and cease foraging even at high energetic returns when water loss is high. Mice also foraged more often when energy expenditure was high and for longer times under high seed densities and low predation risks. Gaining insight into both energy and water balance will be crucial to understanding the forces exerted by changing climatic conditions on animal energetics, behavior, and ecology.

  4. Source and specificity of chemical cues mediating shelter preference of Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus).

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    Horner, Amy J; Nickles, Scott P; Weissburg, Marc J; Derby, Charles D

    2006-10-01

    Caribbean spiny lobsters display a diversity of social behaviors, one of the most prevalent of which is gregarious diurnal sheltering. Previous research has demonstrated that shelter selection is chemically mediated, but the source of release and the identity of the aggregation signal are unknown. In this study, we investigated the source and specificity of the aggregation signal in Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. We developed a relatively rapid test of shelter choice in a 5000-l laboratory flume that simulated flow conditions in the spiny lobster's natural environment, and used it to examine the shelter preference of the animals in response to a variety of odorants. We found that both males and females associated preferentially with shelters emanating conspecific urine of either sex, but not with shelters emanating seawater, food odors, or the scent of a predatory octopus. These results demonstrate specificity in the cues mediating sheltering behavior and show that urine is at least one source of the aggregation signal.

  5. Prenatally administered HMB modifies the enamel surface roughness in spiny mice offspring: An atomic force microscopy study.

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    Świetlicka, Izabela; Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwaśniewska, Anita; Świetlicki, Michał; Skic, Anna; Gołacki, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to check the effect of the prenatally administered β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the development of enamel surface of the spiny mice offspring. The spiny mice dams were randomly assigned into three groups: control group (not supplemented with HMB) and two experimental groups in which powdered HMB was given at the daily dosage of 0.2g/kg of body weight (group I) and 0.02g/kg of body weight (group II) during the last period of gestation. Newborn pups were euthanized by CO 2 inhalation. The morphology of incisor teeth was analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in semi-contact mode in the height, magnitude and phase domains. Height images became a basis for determination of surface roughness parameters. Conducted study indicated that maternal HMB administration markedly influences enamel development. Enamel of offspring's teeth in both experimental groups was characterized by significantly smaller values of indices describing surface roughness and profile. HMB supplementation influenced the calculated parameters regardless of the diet type and offspring sex, however higher dose of HMB caused stronger changes in enamel surface's physical properties and could be observed in higher intensity in the male group. HMB administration caused reduction in the irregularities of enamel surface, thereby possibly reducing the probability of bacteria adhesion and caries development. These observations may serve to improve nutrition and supplementation of animals and could be a lead for further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Light exposure influences the diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota in mice.

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    Wu, Guangyan; Tang, Wenli; He, Yan; Hu, Jingjuan; Gong, Shenhai; He, Zhanke; Wei, Guoquan; Lv, Liyi; Jiang, Yong; Zhou, Hongwei; Chen, Peng

    2018-05-03

    The gut microbiota exhibit diurnal compositional and functional oscillations that influence the host homeostasis. However, the upstream factors that affect the microbial oscillations remain elusive. Here, we focused on the potential impact of light exposure, the main factor that affects the host circadian oscillation, on the diurnal oscillations of intestinal microflora to explore the upstream factor that governs the fluctuations of the gut microbes. The gut microbiota of the mice that were underwent regular light/dark (LD) cycles exhibited a robust rhythm at both compositional and functional level, in all parts of the intestine. Comparably, constant darkness (DD) led to the loss of the rhythmic oscillations in almost all parts of the intestine. Additionally, the abundance of Clostridia in DD conditions was dramatically enhanced in the small intestine. Our data indicated light exposure is the upstream factor that governs the regular diurnal fluctuations of gut microbiota in vivo. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Developmental alterations in motor coordination and medium spiny neuron markers in mice lacking pgc-1α.

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    Elizabeth K Lucas

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in the pathophysiology of Huntington Disease (HD. Adult PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit striatal neurodegeneration, and reductions in the expression of PGC-1α have been observed in striatum and muscle of HD patients as well as in animal models of the disease. However, it is unknown whether decreased expression of PGC-1α alone is sufficient to lead to the motor phenotype and striatal pathology characteristic of HD. For the first time, we show that young PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit severe rotarod deficits, decreased rearing behavior, and increased occurrence of tremor in addition to the previously described hindlimb clasping. Motor impairment and striatal vacuolation are apparent in PGC-1α (-/- mice by four weeks of age and do not improve or decline by twelve weeks of age. The behavioral and pathological phenotype of PGC-1α (-/- mice can be completely recapitulated by conditional nervous system deletion of PGC-1α, indicating that peripheral effects are not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Evaluation of the transcriptional profile of PGC-1α (-/- striatal neuron populations and comparison to striatal neuron profiles of R6/2 HD mice revealed that PGC-1α deficiency alone is not sufficient to cause the transcriptional changes observed in this HD mouse model. In contrast to R6/2 HD mice, PGC-1α (-/- mice show increases in the expression of medium spiny neuron (MSN markers with age, suggesting that the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities are not primarily due to MSN loss, the defining pathological feature of HD. These results indicate that PGC-1α is required for the proper development of motor circuitry and transcriptional homeostasis in MSNs and that developmental disruption of PGC-1α leads to long-term alterations in motor functioning.

  8. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

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    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Quantitative Golgi Study of Dendritic Morphology in the Mice Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

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    Ana Hladnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups. The average neuronal soma surface was between 160 μm2 and 180 μm2, and the cells had 5–6 primary dendrites with close to 40 segments per neuron. Sholl analysis confirmed regular pattern of dendritic branching. The total length of dendrites was around 2100 μm with the average length of individual branching (intermediate segment around 22 μm and for the terminal segment around 100 μm. Even though each experimental group underwent the same strictly defined protocol in tissue preparation and Golgi staining, we found inconsistency in dendritic volume and soma surface. These changes could be methodologically influenced during the Golgi procedure, although without affecting the dendritic length and tree complexity. Since the neuronal activity affects the dendritic thickness, it could not be excluded that observed volume inconsistency was related with functional states of neurons prior to animal sacrifice. Comprehensive analyses of tree complexity and dendritic length provided here could serve as an additional tool for understanding morphological variability in the most numerous neuronal population of the striatum. As reference values they could provide basic ground for comparisons with the results obtained in studies that use various models of genetically modified mice in explaining different pathological conditions that

  10. Autoradiographic investigations on the question of diurnal variations of cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herterich, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    In this work the question was investigated whether the proliferation activity of the crypt epithelia of the small intestine of mice is subject to diurnal variations. The results published so far to settle this question are contradictory. The flow rate at the beginning and end of the S phase was measured as a function of daytime for the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice following a double labelling with 3-H and 14-C-TdR. The quotient of the cell flow rate in and out of the S phase is supposed to be = 1 over the whole day if there are no diurnal variations. The method of measurements of the cell flow rate was chosen above all because the quotient is largely independent of the variation from animal to animal. The experiments provided dues as to the presence of deviations of the quotient of cell flow rate at the end and beginning of the S phase and of the mitotic index from the daily mean value. However, on account of the relatively large statistical variations of the values at the different daytimes it is not possible to state clearly whether the cell proliferation of the jejunal epithelium is subject to diurnal variations. Should there be such variations, then they are not large at any rate. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Feedforward and feedback inhibition in neostriatal GABAergic spiny neurons.

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    Tepper, James M; Wilson, Charles J; Koós, Tibor

    2008-08-01

    There are two distinct inhibitory GABAergic circuits in the neostriatum. The feedforward circuit consists of a relatively small population of GABAergic interneurons that receives excitatory input from the neocortex and exerts monosynaptic inhibition onto striatal spiny projection neurons. The feedback circuit comprises the numerous spiny projection neurons and their interconnections via local axon collaterals. This network has long been assumed to provide the majority of striatal GABAergic inhibition and to sharpen and shape striatal output through lateral inhibition, producing increased activity in the most strongly excited spiny cells at the expense of their less strongly excited neighbors. Recent results, mostly from recording experiments of synaptically connected pairs of neurons, have revealed that the two GABAergic circuits differ markedly in terms of the total number of synapses made by each, the strength of the postsynaptic response detected at the soma, the extent of presynaptic convergence and divergence and the net effect of the activation of each circuit on the postsynaptic activity of the spiny neuron. These data have revealed that the feedforward inhibition is powerful and widespread, with spiking in a single interneuron being capable of significantly delaying or even blocking the generation of spikes in a large number of postsynaptic spiny neurons. In contrast, the postsynaptic effects of spiking in a single presynaptic spiny neuron on postsynaptic spiny neurons are weak when measured at the soma, and unable to significantly affect spike timing or generation. Further, reciprocity of synaptic connections between spiny neurons is only rarely observed. These results suggest that the bulk of the fast inhibition that has the strongest effects on spiny neuron spike timing comes from the feedforward interneuronal system whereas the axon collateral feedback system acts principally at the dendrites to control local excitability as well as the overall level of

  12. Diseases of spiny lobsters: a review.

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    Shields, J D

    2011-01-01

    Spiny lobsters have few reported pathogens, parasites and symbionts. However, they do have a diverse fauna comprised of a pathogenic virus, several bacteria, protozoans, helminths and even symbiotic crustaceans. A few idiopathic syndromes have also been reported, but these appear correlated with lobsters held in poor conditions. Fungal and bacterial pathogens present significant threats for rearing spiny lobsters in aquaculture settings, but only one pathogen, Panulirus argus virus 1, is thought to have damaged a fishery for a spiny lobster. No doubt others will emerge as lobsters are brought into aquaculture setting and as fishing pressure intensifies with stocks become more susceptible to anthropogenic stressors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex-Specific Diurnal Immobility Induced by Forced Swim Test in Wild Type and Clock Gene Deficient Mice

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    Ningyue Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The link between alterations in circadian rhythms and depression are well established, but the underlying mechanisms are far less elucidated. We investigated the circadian characteristics of immobility behavior in wild type (WT mice and mice with mutations in core Clock genes. Methods: All mice were tested with forced swim test (FST at 4 h intervals. Results: These experiments revealed significant diurnal rhythms associated with immobility behavior in both male and female WT mice with sex-different circadian properties. In addition, male mice showed significantly less immobility during the night phase in comparison to female mice. Female Per1Brdm1 mice also showed significant rhythmicity. However, the timing of rhythmicity was very different from that observed in female wild type mice. Male Per1Brdm1 mice showed a pattern of rhythmicity similar to that of wild type mice. Furthermore, female Per1Brdm1 mice showed higher duration of immobility in comparison to male Per1Brdm1 mice in both daytime and early night phases. Neither Per2Brdm1 nor ClockΔ19 mice showed significant rhythmicity, but both female Per2Brdm1 and ClockΔ19 mice had lower levels of immobility, compared to males. Conclusions: This study highlights the differences in the circadian characteristics of immobility induced by FST in WT, ClockΔ19, Per1, and Per2 deficient mice.

  14. Maternal-fetal communication of circadian phase in a precocious rodent, the spiny mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, D.R.; Reppert, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The development of circadian rhythms was examined in a precocious rodent species, the spiny mouse. Spiny mouse pups born and reared in constant darkness expressed robust circadian rhythms in locomotor activity as early as day 5 of live. Free-running activity rhythms of pups born and reared in constant darkness were coordinated with the dam on the day of birth. Postnatal maternal influences on pup rhythmicity are minimal in this species, as pups fostered on the day of birth to dams whose circadian phases were opposite to the pups' original dams were coordinated with their original dams on the day of birth. Studies using 2-deoxy-D-[1- 14 C]-glucose authoradiography showed that there were synchronous (coordinated) rhythms in metabolic activity in the maternal and fetal suprachiasmatic nuclei, directly demonstrating prenatal coordination of maternal and fetal rhythmicity. Maternal-fetal coordination of circadian phase was not the result of direct entrainment of the fetuses to the environmental light-dark cycle. These results demonstrate that there is prenatal communication of circadian phase in this precocious species, without demonstrable postnatal maternal influences on pup circadian rhythmicity. Spiny mice therefore represent an important animal model in which circadian rhythms in the postnatal period can be used to precisely assess prenatal influences on circadian phase

  15. Macrophages are necessary for epimorphic regeneration in African spiny mice.

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    Simkin, Jennifer; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Gensel, John C; Seifert, Ashley W

    2017-05-16

    How the immune system affects tissue regeneration is not well understood. In this study, we used an emerging mammalian model of epimorphic regeneration, the African spiny mouse, to examine cell-based inflammation and tested the hypothesis that macrophages are necessary for regeneration. By directly comparing inflammatory cell activation in a 4 mm ear injury during regeneration ( Acomys cahirinus ) and scarring ( Mus musculus ), we found that both species exhibited an acute inflammatory response, with scarring characterized by stronger myeloperoxidase activity. In contrast, ROS production was stronger and more persistent during regeneration. By depleting macrophages during injury, we demonstrate a functional requirement for these cells to stimulate regeneration. Importantly, the spatial distribution of activated macrophage subtypes was unique during regeneration with pro-inflammatory macrophages failing to infiltrate the regeneration blastema. Together, our results demonstrate an essential role for inflammatory cells to regulate a regenerative response.

  16. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for... than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a spiny lobster with less than a 5...

  17. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the ornate spiny ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Southeast Asia, Australia and the West Pacific. Because of their high market value, lobsters are under severe fishing pressure and this ... help to evaluate ornate spiny lobster resources condi- tion and develop its artificial propagation techniques in future. A microsatellite-enriched genomic library of ornate spiny lobster was ...

  18. Spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor filogenetic and genetic in Lombok waters, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

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    Pranata B.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the phylogenetic spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor in Lombok waters, Indonesia and its association with P. versicolor spiny lobster from several regions of the Indian Ocean based on the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. The researchers collected tissue samples from 13 P. versicolor spiny lobster in Lombok waters. 9 haplotypes were identified with haplotype diversity values (Hd and nucleotides (Pi respectively Hd = 0.859 and Pi = 0.00509. Research results exhibit P. versicolor spiny lobster population from the waters of Lombok is closely related to the spiny lobster population in some regions of the Indian Ocean. In general, P. versicolor spiny lobster population formed a monophyletic clone with spiny lobsters from several regions of the Indian Ocean with genetic distance values (P-distance from 0.001 to 0.004. The reconstruction of the haplotype network exhibited no genetic structure, which means that each population is not genetically isolated from others.

  19. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits... States other than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a Caribbean spiny lobster...

  20. MODE OF INHERITANCE OF POD SPININESS IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

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    Adil Hassan Ahmed Abdelmageed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The mode of inheritance of spininess in okra was investigated. Two okra cultivars, namely ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ were used in this study. The two parents were self pollinated for three successive generations to fix the character under study. Crosses were made between ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and ‘Pusa Sawani’, and reciprocal F1’s, F2’s and all possible backcrosses were derived from the initial crosses. No reciprocal differences were found between F1 and F2 generation for pod spininess. Segregation in the crosses between the local cultivar ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ indicated that the presence of spines on pods was controlled by single gene, with incomplete dominance.

  1. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy on the composition and diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota related to the metabolic improvements.

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    Shao, Yikai; Shen, Qiwei; Hua, Rong; Evers, Simon S; He, Kai; Yao, Qiyuan

    2018-03-07

    Disruptions of the composition and diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota are involved in metabolic disorders. To identify alterations in both the composition and diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota after high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) related to host metabolic status. University laboratories. Twenty-one 6-week-old male C57 BL/6 J mice were randomized on an HFD (n = 14) or normal chow (NC, n = 7). After 14 weeks of feeding, HFD-induced obese mice were randomized to receive either SG or sham surgery (n = 7 in each group). Fecal samples were collected every 6 hours over a 24-hour period at 14 weeks of NC or HFD feeding and subsequently 8 weeks after surgery. The composition and diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota were characterized using next-generation Illumina sequencing of 16 S rDNA. HFD feeding led to adiposity, disrupted composition, and impaired diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota relative to NC. After surgery, SG mice had considerable weight loss, improved glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity compared with sham mice. SG restored the reduced richness and disruptions in the composition of gut microbiota. The diminished diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota was improved after SG. SG not only changed the disrupted composition of gut microbiota toward that of NC feeding, but also improved the dampened diurnal oscillation of gut microbiota due to HFD feeding. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distinct roles of presynaptic dopamine receptors in the differential modulation of the intrinsic synapses of medium-spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens

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    Schmauss Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In both schizophrenia and addiction, pathological changes in dopamine release appear to induce alterations in the circuitry of the nucleus accumbens that affect coordinated thought and motivation. Dopamine acts principally on medium-spiny GABA neurons, which comprise 95% of accumbens neurons and give rise to the majority of inhibitory synapses in the nucleus. To examine dopamine action at single medium-spiny neuron synapses, we imaged Ca2+ levels in their presynaptic varicosities in the acute brain slice using two-photon microscopy. Results Presynaptic Ca2+ rises were differentially modulated by dopamine. The D1/D5 selective agonist SKF81297 was exclusively facilitatory. The D2/D3 selective agonist quinpirole was predominantly inhibitory, but in some instances it was facilitatory. Studies using D2 and D3 receptor knockout mice revealed that quinpirole inhibition was either D2 or D3 receptor-mediated, while facilitation was mainly D3 receptor-mediated. Subsets of varicosities responded to both D1 and D2 agonists, showing that there was significant co-expression of these receptor families in single medium-spiny neurons. Neighboring presynaptic varicosities showed strikingly heterogeneous responses to DA agonists, suggesting that DA receptors may be differentially trafficked to individual varicosities on the same medium-spiny neuron axon. Conclusion Dopamine receptors are present on the presynaptic varicosities of medium-spiny neurons, where they potently control GABAergic synaptic transmission. While there is significant coexpression of D1 and D2 family dopamine receptors in individual neurons, at the subcellular level, these receptors appear to be heterogeneously distributed, potentially explaining the considerable controversy regarding dopamine action in the striatum, and in particular the degree of dopamine receptor segregation on these neurons. Assuming that post-receptor signaling is restricted to the microdomains of

  3. Modeling the dispersal of spiny lobster (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whomersley, P.; van der Molen, J.; Holt, D.; Trundle, C.; Clark, S.; Fletcher, D.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of larval dispersal, population dynamics and connectivity in relation to the management and conservation of commercially important species is vital if existing fisheries are to remain sustainable into the future. Larval dispersal of the commercially exploited spiny lobster, Palinurus

  4. Anhedonic behavior in cryptochrome 2-deficient mice is paralleled by altered diurnal patterns of amygdala gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Diao, Weifei; Berger, Stefanie; Ronovsky, Marianne; Partonen, Timo; Pollak, Daniela D

    2015-07-01

    Mood disorders are frequently paralleled by disturbances in circadian rhythm-related physiological and behavioral states and genetic variants of clock genes have been associated with depression. Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) is one of the core components of the molecular circadian machinery which has been linked to depression, both, in patients suffering from the disease and animal models of the disorder. Despite this circumstantial evidence, a direct causal relationship between Cry2 expression and depression has not been established. Here, a genetic mouse model of Cry2 deficiency (Cry2 (-/-) mice) was employed to test the direct relevance of Cry2 for depression-like behavior. Augmented anhedonic behavior in the sucrose preference test, without alterations in behavioral despair, was observed in Cry2 (-/-) mice. The novelty suppressed feeding paradigm revealed reduced hyponeophagia in Cry2 (-/-) mice compared to wild-type littermates. Given the importance of the amygdala in the regulation of emotion and their relevance for the pathophysiology of depression, potential alterations in diurnal patterns of basolateral amygdala gene expression in Cry2 (-/-) mice were investigated focusing on core clock genes and neurotrophic factor systems implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Differential expression of the clock gene Bhlhe40 and the neurotrophic factor Vegfb were found in the beginning of the active (dark) phase in Cry2 (-/-) compared to wild-type animals. Furthermore, amygdala tissue of Cry2 (-/-) mice contained lower levels of Bdnf-III. Collectively, these results indicate that Cry2 exerts a critical role in the control of depression-related emotional states and modulates the chronobiological gene expression profile in the mouse amygdala.

  5. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  6. The Striatal Balancing Act in Drug Addiction: Distinct Roles of Direct and Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neurons

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    Mary Kay eLobo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum plays a key role in mediating the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs, with drugs of abuse causing long-lasting molecular and cellular alterations in both dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum. Despite the wealth of research on the biological actions of abused drugs in striatum, until recently, the distinct roles of the striatum’s two major subtypes of medium spiny neuron (MSN in drug addiction remained elusive. Recent advances in cell-type specific technologies, including fluorescent reporter mice, transgenic or knockout mice, and viral-mediated gene transfer, have advanced the field toward a more comprehensive understanding of the two MSN subtypes in the long-term actions of drugs of abuse. Here we review progress in defining the distinct molecular and functional contributions of the two MSN subtypes in mediating addiction.

  7. Non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl indicator congeners in Northwest Atlantic spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Adam T; Aeppli, Christoph; Burnell, Craig A; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2017-07-15

    In the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWAO), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a promising commercial species following of collapse of traditional groundfish stocks. There are little available data assessing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in NWAO spiny dogfish. Here, six non-dioxin like PCB indicator congeners used in European Union regulations (EU NDL-PCB) were quantified via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 50 mature male spiny dogfish landed in southern New England. The average total concentration of EU NDL-PCBs was 58±43ng/g (mean±1 standard deviation). PCB values (corrected for co-elution) were below the 200ng/g EU regulatory limit. Results provide first recent regional insight into the PCB content of spiny dogfish in the NWAO. However, our study offers only a snapshot of one particular dogfish population, and might not be representative for the whole NWAO. This study underscores the need for further testing in this species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 77 FR 25116 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...-BB44 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf... (Councils) have submitted Amendment 11 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the... proposes to limit spiny lobster fishing using trap gear in certain areas in the exclusive economic zone off...

  9. Global population structure of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias, a temperate shark with an antitropical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, A; McDowell, J R; Graves, J E

    2010-04-01

    The spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a temperate, coastal squaloid shark with an antitropical distribution in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The global population structure of this species is poorly understood, although individuals are known to undergo extensive migrations within coastal waters and across ocean basins. In this study, an analysis of the global population structure of the spiny dogfish was conducted using eight polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers and a 566-bp fragment of the mitochondrial ND2 gene region. A low level of genetic divergence was found among collections from the Atlantic and South Pacific basins, whereas a high level of genetic divergence was found among Pacific Ocean collections. Two genetically distinct groups were recovered by both marker classes: one exclusive to North Pacific collections, and one including collections from the South Pacific and Atlantic locations. The strong genetic break across the equatorial Pacific coincides with major regional differences in the life-history characters of spiny dogfish, suggesting that spiny dogfish in areas on either side of the Pacific equator have been evolving independently for a considerable time. Phylogeographic analyses indicate that spiny dogfish populations had a Pacific origin, and that the North Atlantic was colonized as a result of a recent range expansion from the South American coast. Finally, the available data strongly argue for the taxonomic separation of the North Pacific spiny dogfish from S. acanthias and a re-evaluation of the specific status of S. acanthias is warranted.

  10. Skin lesions in the tail of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A D

    1982-01-01

    There are numerous reports of diseases and lesions of the major organs of a wide spectrum of bony fishes. By contrast, very few cases have been reported from elasmobranchs. This lack of information may reflect the fact that commercial exploitation of elasmobranch populations has been limited, although for several decades there have been fisheries for the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias L., in European waters. In both cases, many thousands of spiny dogfish have been sampled for population analysis. Further, the spiny dogfish has been dissected in senior biology courses in the UK for about 30 years and probably 5000 students take these courses annually. It is remarkable, with these numbers dissected, that so few lesions have been recorded. During the summer of 1980, whilst working at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Maine, researchers sampled a large spiny dogfish which had a prominently engorged tail with numerous skin lesions. The fish was a mature female 100 cm long, weighing 6.5 kg, which was carrying 16 embryos in their second year of development. The dogfish was also remarkable in that one of the embryos had a marked developmental abnormality, its spinal column being severely twisted. Developmental damage appears to be unusual in dogfish and the embryo was examined further to see whether the damage might be related to the lesion of the mother.

  11. Hollow spiny shell of porous Ni-Mn oxides: A facile synthesis route and their application as electrode in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Houzhao; Lv, Lin; Peng, Lu; Ruan, Yunjun; Liu, Jia; Ji, Xiao; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Jianjun

    2015-07-01

    Hollow spiny shell Ni-Mn precursors composed of one-dimensional nanoneedles were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method without any template. The hollow Spiny shell Ni-Mn oxides are obtained under thermal treatment at different temperatures. The BET surface areas of Ni-Mn oxides reach up to 112 and 133 m2 g-1 when calcination temperatures occur at 300 and 400 °C, respectively. The electrochemical performances of as-synthesized hollow spiny shell Ni-Mn oxides gradually die down with annealing temperatures increasing. The porous hollow spiny shell Ni-Mn oxide obtained at 300 °C delivers a maximum capacitance of 1140 F g-1 at a high current density of 1 A g-1 after 1000th cycles and the specific capacitance of Ni-Mn oxide will increase with cycling times increasing. So, porous hollow spiny shell Ni-Mn oxide obtained at low annealing temperature can form a competitive electrode material for supercapacitors.

  12. 75 FR 16716 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2010 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Assessment Committee (TRAC) conducted a benchmark stock assessment for spiny dogfish in early February 2010... 3, 1998, and added to the list of overfished stocks in the Report on the Status of the Fisheries of... measures to end overfishing and to rebuild the spiny dogfish stock. A joint FMP was developed by the MAFMC...

  13. 77 FR 50642 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    .... 110908576-2240-02] RIN 0648-BB44 Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment... the final rule to implement Amendment 11 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery..., 2012), incorrect latitudinal coordinates for Lobster Trap Gear Closed Areas 16 and 17, and longitudinal...

  14. Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Tanuja; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A; Quik, Maryka

    2016-12-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show that D2 dopamine receptors are critical to TD. However, the precise involvement of striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in TD is uncertain. To elucidate their role, we used optogenetics with a focus on the striatum because of its close links to TD. Optical stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons using cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP decreased haloperidol-induced VCMs (~50%), with no effect in control-eYFP mice. Activation of striatal D2 MSNs using Adora2a-Cre mice expressing channelrhodopsin2-eYFP also diminished antipsychotic-induced VCMs, with no change in control-eYFP mice. In both ChAT-Cre and Adora2a-Cre mice, stimulation or mecamylamine alone similarly decreased VCMs with no further decline with combined treatment, suggesting nAChRs are involved. Striatal D2 MSN activation in haloperidol-treated Adora2a-Cre mice increased c-Fos + D2 MSNs and decreased c-Fos + non-D2 MSNs, suggesting a role for c-Fos. These studies provide the first evidence that optogenetic stimulation of striatal cholinergic interneurons and GABAergic MSNs modulates VCMs, and thus possibly TD. Moreover, they suggest nicotinic receptor drugs may reduce antipsychotic-induced TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Observations on spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) captured in late spring in a North Carolina estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangley, Charles; Rulifson, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Five spiny dogfish were captured in early-mid May during gillnet and longline sampling targeting juvenile coastal sharks in inshore North Carolina waters.  Dogfish captures were made within Back Sound and Core Sound, North Carolina. All dogfish were females measuring 849-905 mm total length, well over the size at 50% maturity. Dogfish were caught at stations 1.8-2.7 m in depth, with temperatures 22.9-24.2 °C, 32.8-33.4 ppt salinity, and 6.9-8.0 mg/L dissolved oxygen. These observations are among the latest in the spring for spiny dogfish in the southeastern U.S. and occurred at higher temperatures than previously recorded for this species.  It is unclear whether late-occurring spiny dogfish in this area represent a cryptic late-migrating or resident segment of the Northwest Atlantic population.

  16. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy prevents acute and long-term deficits in skeletal muscle after birth asphyxia: a study of structure and function of hind limb muscle in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, Domenic A; Ellery, Stacey J; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-12-01

    Maternal antenatal creatine supplementation protects the brain, kidney, and diaphragm against the effects of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse. In this study, we examined creatine's potential to prevent damage to axial skeletal muscles. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or creatine-supplemented diet from mid-pregnancy, and 1 d before term (39 d), fetuses were delivered by c-section with or without 7.5 min of birth asphyxia. At 24 h or 33 ± 2 d after birth, gastrocnemius muscles were obtained for ex-vivo study of twitch-tension, muscle fatigue, and structural and histochemical analysis. Birth asphyxia significantly reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fiber types (P creatine treatment prevented all asphyxia-induced changes in the gastrocnemius, improved motor performance. This study demonstrates that creatine loading before birth protects the muscle from asphyxia-induced damage at birth.

  17. Deep-sea spiny lobster, Puerulus sewelli Ramadan: Its commercial potentialities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.V.; George, M.J.

    Recent exploratory cruises carried out along and outside the continental shelf off the west coast of India have brought to light the existence of spiny lobster in considerable numbers The trawling operations conducted in areas of depths between 200...

  18. 77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Currently, data on U.S. Caribbean spiny lobster life history are limited...

  19. Disposition of phenanthrene and octachlorostyrene in spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, after intragastric administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbakken, J.E.; Knap, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is a commercial crustacean in Bermuda. It was therefore of interest to study the fate of xenobiotics in the species as very little attention has been paid to toxicological studies with spiny lobsters. Earlier it was found that the temperate crustacean, Nephrops norveqicus (Norway lobster) had the ability to accumulate and eliminate phenanthrene. The aim of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the fate of xenobiotics in crustaceans under different environmental conditions, and to compare the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenenthrene, with the more environmentally persistent chlorinated compound octachlorostyrene, a by-product of magnesium metal production

  20. Different corticostriatal integration in spiny projection neurons from direct and indirect pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Flores-Barrera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the principal input structure of the basal ganglia (BG. Major glutamatergic afferents to the striatum come from the cerebral cortex and make monosynaptic contacts with medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs and interneurons. Despite differences in axonal projections, dopamine receptors expression and differences in excitability between MSNs from “direct” and “indirect” BG pathways, these neuronal classes have been thought as electrophysiologically very similar. Based on work with BAC transgenic mice, here it is shown that corticostriatal responses in D1- and D2-receptor expressing MSNs (D1- and D2-MSNs are radically different so as to establish an electrophysiological footprint that readily differentiates between them. Experiments in BAC mice allowed us to predict, with high probability (P>0.9, in rats or non-BAC mice, whether a recorded neuron, from rat or mouse, was going to be substance P or enkephalin immunoreactive. Responses are more prolonged and evoke more action potentials in D1-MSNs, while they are briefer and exhibit intrinsic autoregenerative responses in D2-MSNs. A main cause for these differences was the interaction of intrinsic properties with the inhibitory contribution in each response Inhibition always depressed corticostriatal depolarization in D2-MSNs, while it helped in sustaining prolonged depolarizations in D1-MSNs, in spite of depressing early discharge. Corticostriatal responses changed dramatically after striatal DA-depletion in 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA lesioned animals: a response reduction was seen in SP+ MSNs whereas an enhanced response was seen in ENK+ MSNs. The end result was that differences in the responses were greatly diminished after DA depletion.

  1. Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the northwestern Cape Verde Islands. R Freitas, A Medina, S Correira, M Castro. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Marine Science Vol.29(2) 2007: pp. 201-208. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. AFSC/ABL: NPRB project 1106 Improved aging estimates for spiny dogfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi, formerly Squalus acanthias, Ebert et al. 2010) is a small, long-lived and slow-growing shark, which is vulnerable to...

  3. 76 FR 59102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National... Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP), as... implemented, this rule would revise the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit...

  4. 76 FR 75488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 AGENCY: National... Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP), as prepared and... the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit; establishes an annual catch limit...

  5. 76 FR 54727 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... RIN 0648-AY72 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of...) have submitted Amendment 10 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of... actions to revise the lobster species contained within the fishery management unit; revise definitions of...

  6. Influence of conspecific and heterospecific aggregation cues and alarm odors on shelter choice by syntopic spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Ramírez-Zaldívar, Eunice; Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique

    2008-10-01

    In spiny lobsters, conspecific scents ("aggregation cues") may mediate gregarious diurnal sheltering, but scents from injured conspecifics ("alarm odors") may elicit avoidance behavior. In laboratory experiments, individuals of two coexisting species, Panulirus guttatus (a reef-obligate) and P. argus (a temporary reef-dweller), significantly chose shelters emanating conspecific aggregation cues and responded randomly to shelters emanating heterospecific aggregation cues. However, despite evidence that the two species perceived each other's alarm odors to a similar extent, P. guttatus responded randomly to shelters emanating either conspecific or heterospecific alarm odors, whereas P. argus significantly avoided both. This differential influence of alarm odors likely reflects interspecific differences in life history, sociality, and behavior. The less social, reef-obligate P. guttatus lobsters forage close to their reef dens, into which they retract deeply upon perception of risk. This cryptic behavior may offset the need to avoid conspecific (and heterospecific) alarm odors. In contrast, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors by P. argus is consistent with its ontogenetic habitat shifts and greater sociality. Furthermore, because reef-dwelling P. argus lobsters forage across open areas away from the reef, an ability to avoid alarm odors from P. guttatus upon returning to their reef dens may increase their fitness.

  7. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  8. Conservation and variation in the feeding mechanism of the spiny dogfish squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga; Motta

    1998-05-01

    Changes in the feeding mechanism with feeding behavior were investigated using high-speed video and electromyography to examine the kinematics and motor pattern of prey capture, manipulation and transport in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias (Squalidae: Squaliformes). In this study, Squalus acanthias used both suction and ram behaviors to capture and manipulate prey, while only suction was used to transport prey. The basic kinematic feeding sequence observed in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates is conserved in the spiny dogfish. Prey capture, bite manipulation and suction transport events are characterized by a common pattern of head movements and motor activity, but are distinguishable by differences in duration and relative timing. In general, capture events are longer in duration than manipulation and transport events, as found in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates. Numerous individual effects were found, indicating that individual sharks are capable of varying head movements and motor activity among successful feeding events. Upper jaw protrusion in the spiny dogfish is not restricted by its orbitostylic jaw suspension; rather, the upper jaw is protruded by 30 % of its head length, considerably more than in the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae: Carcharhiniformes) (18 %) with its hyostylic jaw suspension. One function of upper jaw protrusion is to assist in jaw closure by protruding the upper jaw as well as elevating the lower jaw to close the gape, thus decreasing the time to jaw closure. The mechanism of upper jaw protrusion was found to differ between squaliform and carcharhiniform sharks. Whereas the levator palatoquadrati muscle assists in retracting the upper jaw in the spiny dogfish, it assists in protruding the upper jaw in the lemon shark. This study represents the first comprehensive electromyographic and kinematic analysis of the feeding mechanism in a squaliform shark.

  9. True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Larry C; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2003-01-02

    Animals are capable of true navigation if, after displacement to a location where they have never been, they can determine their position relative to a goal without relying on familiar surroundings, cues that emanate from the destination, or information collected during the outward journey. So far, only a few animals, all vertebrates, have been shown to possess true navigation. Those few invertebrates that have been carefully studied return to target areas using path integration, landmark recognition, compass orientation and other mechanisms that cannot compensate for displacements into unfamiliar territory. Here we report, however, that the spiny lobster Panulirus argus oriented reliably towards a capture site when displaced 12-37 km to unfamiliar locations, even when deprived of all known orientation cues en route. Little is known about how lobsters and other animals determine position during true navigation. To test the hypothesis that lobsters derive positional information from the Earth's magnetic field, lobsters were exposed to fields replicating those that exist at specific locations in their environment. Lobsters tested in a field north of the capture site oriented themselves southwards, whereas those tested in a field south of the capture site oriented themselves northwards. These results imply that true navigation in spiny lobsters, and perhaps in other animals, is based on a magnetic map sense.

  10. Genetic Diversity Approach to Fishery Management Spiny Lobster Southern Waters of Java Based on SWOT Analysis and AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florensius Eko Haryono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as an archipelagic and tropical country, and known as the centre of megabiodiversity. Tropical spiny lobster consists of several species and able to survive without water for a certain period and this excess used to be distributed life conditions.  Spiny lobster fisheries is become an important issue in Indonesia now, due to the catch condition decrease for some decade, and need a policy to manage. Spiny lobster management strategy based on biodiversity genetic of lobster in Southern of Central Java (SCJ and Special  Region of Jogjakarta (SRJ waters done by collecting the lobster randomly, and collecting the questioner to fisherman, lobster collector, government and NGO from February-August 2015.  Data analyzed by SWOT and AHP methods.   The management priorities based on highest score. The first priority management based on genetic of lobster is not carried out on an isolated by each districts. Second priority management based on genetic lobster was avoid of each district management. Third priority was  optimizing new fishingground.  Fourth priority optimized of habitat utilization, optimized  fishing time, and increased number of fishing trips . Key word : Spiny lobster, diversity genetic, SWOT, AHP.

  11. Mechanosensory Neurons With Bend- and Osmo-sensitivity in Mouthpart Setae From the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Derby, Charles D; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-01-01

    The mouthparts of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus hold primarily two types of setae--simple setae and cuspidate setae. Mechanosensory neurons from these setae were examined by electrophysiological recordings. The population of simple setae contained two types of mechanosensory neurons: displace......The mouthparts of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus hold primarily two types of setae--simple setae and cuspidate setae. Mechanosensory neurons from these setae were examined by electrophysiological recordings. The population of simple setae contained two types of mechanosensory neurons...

  12. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-12-15

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D 1 or D 2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D 2 than on D 1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine

  13. The deep-water spiny lobster Palinurus gilchristi is one of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The deep-water spiny lobster Palinurus gilchristi is one of five ... conditions because all features that can be used to determine the ... growth as a function of CL were calculated for each ..... (>85 mm CL) may bear eggs more than once per year.

  14. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP as neurotransmitters. PACAP is useful for the study of central ipRGC projections because, in the retina, it is found exclusively within melanopsin cells. Little is known about the central projections of ipRGCs in diurnal species. Here, we first characterized these cells in the retina of the diurnal Nile grass rat using immunohistochemistry (IHC. The same basic subtypes of melanopsin cells that have been described in other mammals were present, but nearly 25% of them were displaced, primarily in its superior region. PACAP was present in 87.7% of all melanopsin cells, while 97.4% of PACAP cells contained melanopsin. We then investigated central projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, pretectum and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed with injections of cholera toxin subunit β coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 in one eye and Alexa Flour 594 in the other, combined with IHC staining of PACAP. These studies also revealed that the ventral and dorsal LGN and the caudal olivary pretectal nucleus receive less innervation from ipRGCs than that reported in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical.

  15. Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-06-15

    The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth's magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how these lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e. toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e. toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal currents in the deep mid-Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Current meter records from two depths, approximately 1000 m, at three mooring in the deep mid-Arabian Sea were used to study tidal components. Tidal ellipses for the semi-diurnal (M2, S2 and K2) and the diurnal (K1 and P1) tidal constituents have...

  17. POSSIBILITIES OF CULTURING BIG SEA CRABS (LOBSTERS, SPINY LOBSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19 th century an experimental work on culturing big sea crabs began in Europe and North America. Great demand for their flesh as well as their high price urged many institutions to explore the possibilities of a commercial production in varios parts of the world. Lobsters (Homarus sp. were mainly used for experimenting, so that the most data available refer to them. Because of the complicated larva stage spiny lobster culturing is mainly being carried out in experimental circumstances. Despite the promissing results this aquacultural activity faces many problems (long time until they achieve a commercial size, loss of eggs due to stress sensitivity during the process of moulting, canibalism. In order to minimize these problems various researches are being carried out, like temperature influence, influence of light, way of feeding, hormonal regulation of moulting frequency. Although both lobster and spiny lobsters live in the Adriatic Sea, there are no data on their culturing in our contry. Concernig conditions in our sea there are realistic possibilities for crabs production development. In this way this delicacy would be more affordable to broader population and could be a highly rated export product.

  18. Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean-atmosphere GCM. Pt. 1: a diurnally forced OGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernie, D.J. [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science - Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, IPSL, Paris (France); Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, EX1 3PB (United Kingdom); Guilyardi, E. [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science - Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, IPSL, Paris (France); Madec, G. [Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, IPSL, Paris (France); Slingo, J.M.; Woolnough, S.J. [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science - Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    The diurnal cycle is a fundamental time scale in the climate system, at which the upper ocean and atmosphere are routinely observed to vary. Current climate models, however, are not configured to resolve the diurnal cycle in the upper ocean or the interaction of the ocean and atmosphere on these time scales. This study examines the diurnal cycle of the tropical upper ocean and its climate impacts. In the present paper, the first of two, a high vertical resolution ocean general circulation model (OGCM), with modified physics, is developed which is able to resolve the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) and current variability in the upper ocean. It is then validated against a satellite derived parameterization of diurnal SST variability and in-situ current observations. The model is then used to assess rectification of the intraseasonal SST response to the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) by the diurnal cycle of SST. Across the equatorial Indo-Pacific it is found that the diurnal cycle increases the intraseasonal SST response to the MJO by around 20%. In the Pacific, the diurnal cycle also modifies the exchange of momentum between equatorially divergent Ekman currents and the meridionally convergent geostrophic currents beneath, resulting in a 10% increase in the strength of the Ekman cells and equatorial upwelling. How the thermodynamic and dynamical impacts of the diurnal cycle effect the mean state, and variability, of the climate system cannot be fully investigated in the constrained design of ocean-only experiments presented here. The second part of this study, published separately, addresses the climate impacts of the diurnal cycle in the coupled system by coupling the OGCM developed here to an atmosphere general circulation model. (orig.)

  19. Copper toxicity in the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): urea loss contributes to the osmoregulatory disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, G; Hattink, J; Franklin, N M; Bucking, C P; Wood, S; Walsh, P J; Wood, C M

    2007-08-30

    Previous research showed that the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, is much more sensitive to silver exposure than typical marine teleosts. The aim of the present study was to investigate if spiny dogfish were equally sensitive to copper exposure and whether the toxic mechanisms were the same. We exposed cannulated and non-cannulated spiny dogfish to measured concentrations of Cu (nominally 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 microg L(-1) Cu) for 72-96 h. All Cu exposures induced acidosis and lactate accumulation of either a temporary (500 microg L(-1)) or more persistent nature (1000 and 1500 microg L(-1)). At the two highest Cu concentrations, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities were reduced by 45% (1000 microg L(-1)) and 62% (1500 microg L(-1)), and plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations increased by approximately 50 mM each. At the same time urea excretion doubled and plasma urea dropped by approximately 100 mM. Together with plasma urea, plasma TMAO levels dropped proportionally, indicating that the general impermeability of the gills was compromised. Overall plasma osmolarity did not change. Cu accumulation was limited with significant increases in plasma Cu and elevated gill and kidney Cu burdens at 1000 and 1500 microg L(-1). We conclude that Cu, like Ag, exerts toxic effect on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in the shark similar to those of teleosts, but there is an additional toxic action on elasmobranch urea retention capacities. With a 96 h LC(50) in the 800-1000 microg L(-1) range, overall sensitivity of spiny dogfish for Cu is, in contrast with its sensitivity to Ag, only slightly lower than in typical marine teleosts.

  20. Arvicanthis ansorgei, a Novel Model for the Study of Sleep and Waking in Diurnal Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey; Ruppert, Elisabeth; Calvel, Laurent; Robin-Choteau, Ludivine; Gropp, Claire-Marie; Allemann, Caroline; Reibel, Sophie; Sage-Ciocca, Dominique; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep neurobiology studies use nocturnal species, mainly rats and mice. However, because their daily sleep/wake organization is inverted as compared to humans, a diurnal model for sleep studies is needed. To fill this gap, we phenotyped sleep and waking in Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent widely used for the study of circadian rhythms. Design: Video-electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings. Setting: Rodent sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen male Arvicanthis ansorgei, aged 3 mo. Interventions: 12 h light (L):12 h dark (D) baseline condition, 24-h constant darkness, 6-h sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed similar electrophysiological characteristics as nocturnal rodents. On average, animals spent 12.9 h ± 0.4 awake per 24-h cycle, of which 6.88 h ± 0.3 was during the light period. NREM sleep accounted for 9.63 h ± 0.4, which of 5.13 h ± 0.2 during dark period, and REM sleep for 89.9 min ± 6.7, which of 52.8 min ± 4.4 during dark period. The time-course of sleep and waking across the 12 h light:12 h dark was overall inverted to that observed in rats or mice, though with larger amounts of crepuscular activity at light and dark transitions. A dominant crepuscular regulation of sleep and waking persisted under constant darkness, showing the lack of a strong circadian drive in the absence of clock reinforcement by external cues, such as a running wheel. Conservation of the homeostatic regulation was confirmed with the observation of higher delta power following sustained waking periods and a 6-h sleep deprivation, with subsequent decrease during recovery sleep. Conclusions: Arvicanthis ansorgei is a valid diurnal rodent model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of sleep and so represents a valuable tool for further understanding the nocturnality/diurnality switch. Citation: Hubbard J, Ruppert E, Calvel L, Robin-Choteau L, Gropp CM

  1. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorina...... Atlantic and Amazonian Forests and (2) the Northern uplift of the Andes....

  2. Ultraviolet light and heat source selection in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, H.C.; Fa, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three experimental manipulations were conducted to assess the influence of heat source selection and active thermoregulation on ultraviolet (UV) light exposure in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri) at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Four replicates per manipulation were conducted on six individual lizards. All animals were tested in a separate enclosure to which they were acclimated before observations. Data on choice of thermal sources were collected during the first 2 hr of light, when lizards were actively thermoregulating. Animals were allowed to choose between incandescent light, UV light and a non-light heat source (thermotube) in different combinations. Recorded temperatures close to the incandescent light (37°C) were always significantly higher than at the thermotube (33°C) and at the UV light (29°C). Manipulation 1 offered the animals a choice of an UV light and an incandescent light as thermal sources. Manipulation 2 presented animals with the thermal choices in Manipulation 1, but substrates under each source in Manipulation 1 were switched. In Manipulation 3, animals could choose between an incandescent light and the thermotube. All studied lizards were significantly more attracted to the incandescent light than to the UV light or thermotube. Incandescent light elicited a significantly higher proportion of basking behaviors in all individuals than the other sources. A high proportion of time basking was also spent in front of the thermotube but fewer individuals and less time were spent basking under the UV light. Heat source selection was generally found to be independent of substrate. Management applications of this preference are suggested for juvenile diurnal heliothermic iguanids. (author)

  3. Seasonality of Reproduction and Embryonic Growth of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2006-01-01

    The seasonality of reproduction and embryonic development of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) sampled from the Eastern Black Sea were studied. The gestation period of spiny dogfish, starting in August, September and October, takes around 23-24 months. Fertilized females were caught at a depth of 30-45 m in July and August. Females with full-term pups and empty uteri were found at 50-60 m depth, where the temperature was 10 °C. Lengths of pups at birth were around 28-29 cm, whereas their weig...

  4. Spiny lobsters use urine-borne olfactory signaling and physical aggressive behaviors to influence social status of conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

    2009-08-01

    Decapod crustaceans, like many other animals, engage in agonistic behaviors that enhance their ability to compete for resources with conspecifics. These agonistic behaviors include the release of chemical signals as well as physical aggressive and submissive behaviors. In this study, we report that Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, use both urine-borne chemical signaling and physical aggressive behaviors during interactions with conspecifics, and that these agonistic behaviors can influence the behavior and eventual social status of the interactants. Spiny lobsters that engaged primarily in physical aggressive behaviors became dominant, whereas spiny lobsters that received these physical aggressive behaviors responded with avoidance behaviors and became subordinates. Dominant animals frequently released urine during social interactions, more than when they were not in contact with subordinates and more than when they were not paired with another animal. Subordinates released urine significantly less often than dominants, and no more than when not paired. Preventing release of urine by catheterizing the animals resulted in an increase in the number and duration of physical interactions, and this increase was primarily driven by dominants initiating interactions through physical aggressive behaviors. Introducing urine from one of the catheterized animals into an aquarium reduced physical aggressive behavior by dominant animals to normal levels. Urine-borne signals alone were capable of inducing avoidance behaviors from solitary spiny lobsters in both laboratory and field conditions. We conclude that urine serves as a chemical signal that communicates social status to the interactants. Ablation experiments showed that that these urine signals are detected primarily by aesthetasc sensilla of the olfactory pathway.

  5. Potential production of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Decapoda, Palinura) fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Ortiz, Ernesto Aarón

    2009-01-01

    Spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) constitutes the most important fishery of the Caribbean; it accounts for nearly 42,000 tonnes. Evidence suggests that high fishing mortality (F) may have been overexploiting most stocks. An assessment was carried out providing the basis for a sustainable exploitation of the nine most important producing countries. Values were assessed and each fishery was simulated; age structure was reconstructed linking biological, economic, and social variabl...

  6. Diurnal blood pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  7. Diversity in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Inhibitory Synapses of Striatal Spiny Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Mendoza, Ernesto; Hernandez, Ricardo; Aceves, Jose J.; Ibanez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Procedural memories and habits are posited to be stored in the basal ganglia, whose intrinsic circuitries possess important inhibitory connections arising from striatal spiny neurons. However, no information about long-term plasticity at these synapses is available. Therefore, this work describes a novel postsynaptically dependent long-term…

  8. Perturbed rhythmic activation of signaling pathways in mice deficient for Sterol Carrier Protein 2-dependent diurnal lipid transport and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffe, Céline; Gobet, Cédric; Martin, Eva; Métairon, Sylviane; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan; Gachon, Frédéric

    2016-04-21

    Through evolution, most of the living species have acquired a time keeping system to anticipate daily changes caused by the rotation of the Earth. In all of the systems this pacemaker is based on a molecular transcriptional/translational negative feedback loop able to generate rhythmic gene expression with a period close to 24 hours. Recent evidences suggest that post-transcriptional regulations activated mostly by systemic cues play a fundamental role in the process, fine tuning the time keeping system and linking it to animal physiology. Among these signals, we consider the role of lipid transport and metabolism regulated by SCP2. Mice harboring a deletion of the Scp2 locus present a modulated diurnal accumulation of lipids in the liver and a perturbed activation of several signaling pathways including PPARα, SREBP, LRH-1, TORC1 and its upstream regulators. This defect in signaling pathways activation feedbacks upon the clock by lengthening the circadian period of animals through post-translational regulation of core clock regulators, showing that rhythmic lipid transport is a major player in the establishment of rhythmic mRNA and protein expression landscape.

  9. Bilirubin metabolism in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, and the small skate, Raja erinacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Arias, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    1. The main bilirubin conjugate in bile of spiny dogfish (Squalus Acanthias) and small skate (Raja Erinacea) is bilirubin monoglucuronide. 2. Microsomal preparations from dogfish and small skate liver have similar bilirubin UDPglucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activity and catalyze the conjugation of

  10. Continuous exposure to a novel stressor based on water aversion induces abnormal circadian locomotor rhythms and sleep-wake cycles in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyomi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Psychological stressors prominently affect diurnal rhythms, including locomotor activity, sleep, blood pressure, and body temperature, in humans. Here, we found that a novel continuous stress imposed by the perpetual avoidance of water on a wheel (PAWW affected several physiological diurnal rhythms in mice. One week of PAWW stress decayed robust circadian locomotor rhythmicity, while locomotor activity was evident even during the light period when the mice are normally asleep. Daytime activity was significantly upregulated, whereas nighttime activity was downregulated, resulting in a low amplitude of activity. Total daily activity gradually decreased with increasing exposure to PAWW stress. The mice could be exposed to PAWW stress for over 3 weeks without adaptation. Furthermore, continuous PAWW stress enhanced food intake, but decreased body weight and plasma leptin levels, indicating that sleep loss and PAWW stress altered the energy balance in these mice. The diurnal rhythm of corticosterone levels was not severely affected. The body temperature rhythm was diurnal in the stressed mice, but significantly dysregulated during the dark period. Plasma catecholamines were elevated in the stressed mice. Continuous PAWW stress reduced the duration of daytime sleep, especially during the first half of the light period, and increased nighttime sleepiness. Continuous PAWW stress also simultaneously obscured sleep/wake and locomotor activity rhythms compared with control mice. These sleep architecture phenotypes under stress are similar to those of patients with insomnia. The stressed mice could be entrained to the light/dark cycle, and when they were transferred to constant darkness, they exhibited a free-running circadian rhythm with a timing of activity onset predicted by the phase of their entrained rhythms. Circadian gene expression in the liver and muscle was unaltered, indicating that the peripheral clocks in these tissues remained intact.

  11. Diurnal variations of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  12. 77 FR 30224 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Final 2012 Spiny Dogfish Fishery Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... spawning stock biomass, declines in the average size of pups and mature females, skewed sex ratios, and... the status quo. The action is expected to maximize the short-term profitability for the spiny dogfish...

  13. Ecological observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 were undertaken in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India during the monsoons (July following quadrat sampling that was time-constrained. The study revealed that the area is one of the preferable habitats for the species. A population analysis showed that the relative abundance of the subadults was higher, followed by juveniles and adults during the study period. The beginning of activity of the lizards was found to vary over the study period depending on prevailing weather conditions. The activity pattern was bimodal, except across rain events. The study revealed two important ecological findings about these lizards; complete sealing of burrow during rains which differed from partial sealing on normal days and complete diurnal cycle of body colour changes during the monsoon. Feeding was the predominant activity of this lizard followed by basking, resting and chasing each other. The adult lizards were found to be strictly herbivorous, in spite of an abundance of insects available in the area during the period. Subadults and juveniles were found to eat both plant parts, as well as insects. Microhabitat use such as inside grass clumps was found to be higher followed by barren ground, under shade and on stones.

  14. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  15. Characterising the fate of nitrogenous waste from the sea-cage aquaculture of spiny lobsters using numerical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soxi; Hartstein, Neil D; Jeffs, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Although the aquaculture of spiny lobsters has been expanding since the 1970s, very little is known about the potential environmental impacts on water quality of this activity. This study quantified the production of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from Australasian red spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, in the laboratory, and these data were then used in a numerical model to predict the dispersal pattern of DIN from a hypothetical commercial spiny lobster farm for a coastal site where such a farm would typically be located. Modelling scenarios were set up with combinations of two different stocking densities (3 and 5 kg m(-3)), two different diets (mussels and moist artificial diet) and three different feed conversion ratios (FCR = 3, 5 and 28). DIN excretion rate from unfed lobsters in the laboratory on average was 1.10 ± 0.12 μg N g(-1) h(-1) while feeding lobsters on mussels and artificial diet increased DIN excretion significantly by around eightfold and twofold, respectively. Ammonia was consistently the dominant contributor to measured DIN output from lobsters. Modelling results indicated that the mean elevated DIN from a hypothetical farm where the lobsters were fed with mussels ranged from 7 up to 20 μg N L(-1) with increasing stocking density and FCR and was 30-150 % higher than the mean elevated DIN resulting from lobsters fed with artificial diet. Overall, the results indicated that DIN output from the hypothetical spiny lobster sea-cage farming is unlikely to be problematic using the FCR, stocking density, and the number of cages modelled at the coastal site in this study. Furthermore, feeding lobsters with artificial diet can help maintain a lower DIN output than seafood, such as mussels or trash fish.

  16. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  17. Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2013-11-01

    Stability and procured instability characterize two opposing types of swimming, steady and maneuvering, respectively. Fins can be used to manipulate flow to adjust stability during swimming maneuvers either actively using muscle control or passively by structural control. The function of the dorsal fins during turning maneuvering in two shark species with different swimming modes is investigated here using musculoskeletal anatomy and muscle function. White-spotted bamboo sharks are a benthic species that inhabits complex reef habitats and thus have high requirements for maneuverability. Spiny dogfish occupy a variety of coastal and continental shelf habitats and spend relatively more time cruising in open water. These species differ in dorsal fin morphology and fin position along the body. Bamboo sharks have a larger second dorsal fin area and proportionally more muscle insertion into both dorsal fins. The basal and radial pterygiophores are plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another. In contrast, bamboo sharks lack basal pterygiophores, while the radial pterygiophores form two rows of elongated rectangular elements that articulate with one another. The dorsal fin muscles are composed of a large muscle mass that extends over the ceratotrichia overlying the radials in spiny dogfish. However, in bamboo sharks, the muscle mass is divided into multiple distinct muscles that insert onto the ceratotrichia. During turning maneuvers, the dorsal fin muscles are active in both species with no differences in onset between fin sides. Spiny dogfish have longer burst durations on the outer fin side, which is consistent with opposing resistance to the medium. In bamboo sharks, bilateral activation of the dorsal in muscles could also be stiffening the fin throughout the turn. Thus, dogfish sharks passively stiffen the dorsal fin structurally and functionally, while bamboo sharks have more flexible dorsal fins, which result from a

  18. Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia Is Related to Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neuron Excitotoxicity: A Hypothesis Based on an Unexpected Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A serendipitous pharmacogenetic finding links the vulnerability to developing levodopa-induced dyskinesia to the age of onset of Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is caused by a polyglutamate expansion of the protein huntingtin. Aberrant huntingtin is less capable of binding to a member of membrane-associated guanylate kinase family (MAGUKs: postsynaptic density- (PSD- 95. This leaves more PSD-95 available to stabilize NR2B subunit carrying NMDA receptors in the synaptic membrane. This results in increased excitotoxicity for which particularly striatal medium spiny neurons from the indirect extrapyramidal pathway are sensitive. In Parkinson’s disease the sensitivity for excitotoxicity is related to increased oxidative stress due to genetically determined abnormal metabolism of dopamine or related products. This probably also increases the sensitivity of medium spiny neurons for exogenous levodopa. Particularly the combination of increased oxidative stress due to aberrant dopamine metabolism, increased vulnerability to NMDA induced excitotoxicity, and the particular sensitivity of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons for this excitotoxicity may explain the observed increased prevalence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

  19. Settlement and juvenile habitat of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Settlement characteristics, like timing, depth, microhabitat and density of European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas are described for the very first time. Regular SCUBA-diving surveys were conducted from July 1998 to January 2000 on rocky bottoms of three different geologic origins to assess substratum-dependent differences in recruitment density. Settlement of pueruli took place in June-July, a few weeks after sea surface temperature started to rise. The highest density of juveniles was found at 10-15 m depth. Most spiny lobsters settled in limestone rocks, into empty holes of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga, which provided daytime refuge. As they grew, individuals were increasingly found in larger holes and crevices of the rock surface. Sizes were estimated from photographs taken at night when the animals were actively foraging. The smallest observed individuals measured 7.5-8 mm carapace length (CL, but they reached 15-18 mm CL at the end of October. The consequences of our results for the management of the spiny lobster populations in the northwestern Mediterranean are summarily discussed.

  20. B cell receptor accessory molecule CD79α: characterisation and expression analysis in a cartilaginous fish, the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronggai; Wang, Tiehui; Bird, Steve; Zou, Jun; Dooley, Helen; Secombes, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    CD79α (also known as Igα) is a component of the B cell antigen receptor complex and plays an important role in B cell signalling. The CD79α protein is present on the surface of B cells throughout their life cycle, and is absent on all other healthy cells, making it a highly reliable marker for B cells in mammals. In this study the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) CD79α (SaCD79α) is described and its expression studied under constitutive and stimulated conditions. The spiny dogfish CD79α cDNA contains an open reading frame of 618 bp, encoding a protein of 205 amino acids. Comparison of the SaCD79α gene with that of other species shows that the gross structure (number of exons, exon/intron boundaries, etc.) is highly conserved across phylogeny. Additionally, analysis of the 5' flanking region shows SaCD79α lacks a TATA box and possesses binding sites for multiple transcription factors implicated in its B cell-specific gene transcription in other species. Spiny dogfish CD79α is most highly expressed in immune tissues, such as spleen, epigonal and Leydig organ, and its transcript level significantly correlates with those of spiny dogfish immunoglobulin heavy chains. Additionally, CD79α transcription is up-regulated, to a small but significant degree, in peripheral blood cells following stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. These results strongly indicate that, as in mammals, spiny dogfish CD79α is expressed by shark B cells where it associates with surface-bound immunoglobulin to form a fully functional BCR, and thus may serve as a pan-B cell marker in future shark immunological studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A revision of the Indo-West Pacific spiny Lobsters of the Panulirus Japonicus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.W.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1965-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As a result of separate investigations on Panulirus japonicus (sens, lat.), the present authors independently came to the conclusion that more than one species was included under that name. The first author (George), when in 1958 studying specimens of the Western Australian spiny

  2. Diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal structures due to O2, O3 and H2O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from World Meteorological Organization (WMO. 1986), while the Rayleigh scattering cross section was calculated using the formula of Nicolet (1984). ..... Figure 5(a) exhibits the exponential growth of diurnal amplitude with altitude, at low to mid lat- itudes. At high latitudes, the diurnal amplitude decreases with altitude due to ...

  3. Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean-atmosphere GCM. Pt. 2. A diurnally coupled CGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernie, D.J. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Numeriques, IPSL, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches, Paris (France); Guilyardi, E. [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Numeriques, IPSL, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches, Paris (France); Madec, G. [Numeriques, IPSL, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches, Paris (France); Slingo, J.M.; Woolnough, S.J.; Cole, J. [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (GCM) are typically coupled once every 24 h, excluding the diurnal cycle from the upper ocean. Previous studies attempting to examine the role of the diurnal cycle of the upper ocean and particularly of diurnal SST variability have used models unable to resolve the processes of interest. In part 1 of this study a high vertical resolution ocean GCM configuration with modified physics was developed that could resolve the diurnal cycle in the upper ocean. In this study it is coupled every 3 h to atmospheric GCM to examine the sensitivity of the mean climate simulation and aspects of its variability to the inclusion of diurnal ocean-atmosphere coupling. The inclusion of the diurnal cycle leads to a tropics wide increase in mean sea surface temperature (SST), with the strongest signal being across the equatorial Pacific where the warming increases from 0.2 C in the central and western Pacific to over 0.3 C in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Much of this warming is shown to be a direct consequence of the rectification of daily mean SST by the diurnal variability of SST. The warming of the equatorial Pacific leads to a redistribution of precipitation from the Inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) toward the equator. In the western Pacific there is an increase in precipitation between Papa new guinea and 170 E of up to 1.2 mm/day, improving the simulation compared to climatology. Pacific sub tropical cells are increased in strength by about 10%, in line with results of part 1 of this study, due to the modification of the exchange of momentum between the equatorially divergent Ekman currents and the geostropic convergence at depth, effectively increasing the dynamical response of the tropical Pacific to zonal wind stresses. During the spring relaxation of the Pacific trade winds, a large diurnal cycle of SST increases the seasonal warming of the equatorial Pacific. When the trade winds then re-intensify, the increase in

  4. Specific diurnal EMG activity pattern observed in occlusal collapse patients: relationship between diurnal bruxism and tooth loss progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehisa Kawakami

    Full Text Available AIM: The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group, six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group, and six young control subjects (YC group were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. RESULTS: Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (p<0.01. ROC curve analysis suggested that the number of diurnal phasic episodes might be used to predict bite collapsing tooth loss. CONCLUSION: Extensive bite loss might be related to diurnal masticatory muscle parafunction but not to parafunction during sleep. CLINICAL RELEVANCE SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR STUDY: Although mandibular parafunction has been implicated in stomatognathic system breakdown, a causal relationship has not been established because scientific modalities to evaluate parafunctional activity have been lacking. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used a newly developed EMG recording system that evaluates masseter muscle activity throughout the day. Our results challenge the stereotypical idea of nocturnal bruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for

  5. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark J; Behringer, Donald C; Dolan, Thomas W; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system.

  6. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Butler

    Full Text Available Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system.

  7. 40 CFR 1060.105 - What diurnal requirements apply for equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What diurnal requirements apply for... EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.105 What diurnal requirements apply for... for controlling diurnal emissions: (1) If you are subject to both running loss and diurnal emission...

  8. Long-term subregion-specific encoding of enhanced ethanol intake by D1DR medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical component of the mesocorticolimbic system and is involved in mediating the motivational and reinforcing aspects of ethanol consumption. Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure is a reliable model to induce ethanol dependence and increase volitional ethanol consumption in mice. Following a CIE-induced escalation of ethanol consumption, NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor)-dependent long-term depression in D1 dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons of the NAc shell was markedly altered with no changes in plasticity in D1 dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons from the NAc core. This disruption of plasticity persisted for up to 2 weeks after cessation of ethanol access. To determine if changes in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) composition contribute to this ethanol-induced neuroadaptation, we monitored the rectification of AMPAR excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). We observed a marked decrease in the rectification index in the NAc shell, suggesting the presence of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. There was no change in the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs), but there was a transient increase in sEPSC frequency in the NAc shell. Using the paired pulse ratio, we detected a similar transient increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release. With no change in sEPSC amplitude, the change in the rectification index suggests that GluA2-containing AMPARs are removed and replaced with GluA2-lacking AMPARs in the NAc shell. This CIE-induced alteration in AMPAR subunit composition may contribute to the loss of NMDAR-dependent long-term depression in the NAc shell and therefore may constitute a critical neuroadaptive response underlying the escalation of ethanol intake in the CIE model. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Organ-related distribution of phospholemman in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans Stekhoven, F M A H; Grell, E; Atsma, W; Flik, G; Wendelaar Bonga, S E

    2003-04-18

    The distribution of phospholemman among nine different organs of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) has been determined on the basis of Western blotting of microsomal material. Only rectal gland (100%), brain (43%), heart (18%), and kidney (19%) (abundancies as percent of the concentration in rectal gland) contained the protein, but not gill and colon. The relative abundance in the brain makes this organ a preferential test system for phospholemman in fishes that lack a rectal gland like teleosts.

  10. Effects of cattle and rabbit grazing on clonal expansion of spiny shrubs in wood-pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Apol, M. Emile F.; Olff, Han

    2010-01-01

    Spiny shrubs protect non-defended plants against herbivores. Therefore, they play a role for the diversity in grazed ecosystems. While the importance of these keystone nurse shrubs is presently recognized, little is known about the factors controlling them. This knowledge is required to understand

  11. Specific Diurnal EMG Activity Pattern Observed in Occlusal Collapse Patients: Relationship between Diurnal Bruxism and Tooth Loss Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kumazaki, Yohei; Manda, Yosuke; Oki, Kazuhiro; Minagi, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Aim The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. Materials and Methods Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group), six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group), and six young control subjects (YC group) were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG) of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. Results Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (pbruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. Practical implications The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for the prognostic evaluation of stomatognathic system stability. PMID:25010348

  12. Populations of striatal medium spiny neurons encode vibrotactile frequency in rats: modulation by slow wave oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Thomas G; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2013-01-01

    Dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is implicated in tactile perception and receives strong projections from somatosensory cortex. However, the sensory representations encoded by striatal projection neurons are not well understood. Here we characterized the contribution of DLS to the encoding of vibrotactile information in rats by assessing striatal responses to precise frequency stimuli delivered to a single vibrissa. We applied stimuli in a frequency range (45-90 Hz) that evokes discriminable percepts and carries most of the power of vibrissa vibration elicited by a range of complex fine textures. Both medium spiny neurons and evoked potentials showed tactile responses that were modulated by slow wave oscillations. Furthermore, medium spiny neuron population responses represented stimulus frequency on par with previously reported behavioral benchmarks. Our results suggest that striatum encodes frequency information of vibrotactile stimuli which is dynamically modulated by ongoing brain state.

  13. Levels of mercury in muscle and liver of star-spotted dogfish (Mustelus manazo) from the northern region of Japan: a comparison with spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Ohta, Chiho; Koga, Nobuyuki; Kato, Yoshihisa; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed mercury (Hg) concentrations in muscle and liver samples of star-spotted dogfish (Mustelus manazo) caught off the northern region of Japan and compared them with those of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) caught in the same region. The average body length of male star-spotted dogfish specimens was significantly smaller than that of female specimens, reflecting the slower growth rate of male fish. Hg concentrations in liver and muscle increased with increases in body length and estimated age of both male and female star-spotted dogfish specimens. However, the relationships between Hg concentration in liver or muscle and body length or estimated age of male specimens differed markedly from those of female specimens, reflecting differences in growth rate and cessation of growth on reaching maturity. Marked increases in Hg concentration in liver of male and female star-spotted dogfish specimens were observed slightly later than increases in Hg concentration in muscle of those specimens due to growth cessation. These marked increases in Hg in liver may reflect increases in Hg due to the formation of mercury selenide. Similar results were previously reported in spiny dogfish specimens, except spiny dogfish showed only trace levels of Hg in liver (Endo et al., Chemosphere 77:1333-1337, 2009). The greater lipid content in liver and the larger liver size in spiny dogfish may explain the much lower levels of Hg observed in liver of spiny dogfish compared with those in the star-spotted dogfish.

  14. Molecular evidence for the Southern Hemisphere origin and deep-sea diversification of spiny lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L M; Chan, T-Y; Cheung, M K; Chu, K H

    2009-05-01

    Spiny lobsters (family Palinuridae) are economically important marine animals that have been the subject of a considerable amount of research. However, the phylogeny of this group remains disputed. Morphological analyses have not been able to resolve the relationships of the various members of the group, and no agreement has yet been reached on its phylogeny as indicated by the different gene trees reported to date. In the present study, we attempt to reconstruct the phylogeny of Palinuridae and its allies using sequences from three nuclear protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, sodium-potassium ATPase alpha-subunit and histone 3). The inferred topology receives strong nodal support for most of the branches. The family Palinuridae is found to be paraphyletic with the polyphyletic Synaxidae nested within it. Stridentes forms a monophyletic assemblage, indicating that the stridulating sound producing organ evolved only once in the spiny lobsters. By contrast, Silentes is paraphyletic, as Palinurellus is more closely related to Stridentes than to other Silentes genera. The three genera restricted to the southern high latitudes (Jasus, Projasus and Sagmariasus) constitute the basal lineages in the spiny lobsters, suggesting a Southern Hemisphere origin for the group. Subsequent diversification appears to have been driven by the closure of the Tethys Sea and the formation of the Antarctic circumpolar current, which isolated the northern and southern taxa. Contrary to an earlier hypothesis that postulated evolution from a deep-sea ancestral stock, the shallow-water genus Panulirus is the basal taxon in Stridentes, while the deep-sea genera Puerulus and Linuparus are found to be derived. This indicates that the spiny lobsters invaded deep-sea habitats from the shallower water rocky reefs and then radiated. Our results suggest that Synaxidae is not a valid family, and should be considered to be synonymous with Palinuridae. We also found that the

  15. Chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus (Crustacea : Decapoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Shabani, Shkelzen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    We studied electrophysiological properties of single chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus to complement our growing understanding of the behavioral roles of mouthparts of decapod crustaceans. Food mixtures and 13 single compounds...

  16. Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

    2008-08-01

    When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans.

  17. A missing piece: the spiny mouse and the puzzle of menstruating species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofiore, Nadia; Cousins, Fiona; Temple-Smith, Peter; Dickinson, Hayley; Evans, Jemma

    2018-07-01

    We recently discovered the first known menstruating rodent. With the exception of four bats and the elephant shrew, the common spiny mouse ( Acomys cahirinus ) is the only species outside the primate order to exhibit menses. There are few widely accepted theories on why menstruation developed as the preferred reproductive strategy of these select mammals, all of which reference the evolution of spontaneous decidualisation prior to menstrual shedding. Though menstruating species share several reproductive traits, there has been no identifiable feature unique to menstruating species. Such a feature might suggest why spontaneous decidualisation, and thus menstruation, evolved in these species. We propose that a ≥3-fold increase in progesterone during the luteal phase of the reproductive cycle is a unique characteristic linking menstruating species. We discuss spontaneous decidualisation as a consequence of high progesterone, and the potential role of prolactin in screening for defective embryos in these species to aid in minimising implantation of abnormal embryos. We further explore the possible impact of nutrition in selecting species to undergo spontaneous decidualisation and subsequent menstruation. We summarise the current knowledge of menstruation, discuss current pre-clinical models of menstruation and how the spiny mouse may benefit advancing our understanding of this rare biological phenomenon. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. 77 FR 15991 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2012 Spiny Dogfish Fishery Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tobey Curtis, Fishery Policy Analyst, (978) 281-9273; fax... catch (ABC). This recommendation is then used as the basis for catch limits and other management... in SSB from 2014-2020. The SSC subsequently recommended an ABC for spiny dogfish for the 2012 fishing...

  19. 75 FR 36012 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; 2010 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Transboundary Resource Assessment Committee (TRAC) conducted a benchmark stock assessment for spiny dogfish in... the Transboundary Resource Assessment Committee (TRAC), which indicated the stock is rebuilt. DATES... (F) that would rebuild the stock (F rebuild ) after accounting for other sources of fishing mortality...

  20. Germination and seedling establishment of spiny hopsage in response to planting date and seedbed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Marshall R. Haferkamp; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    1994-01-01

    Reestablishment of spiny hopsrge (Grayia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) in the shrub steppe requires development of appropriate seeding technology. We examined the effect of planting date and seedbed environment on germination and seedling establishment of 2 seed sources at 2 southwestern Idaho sites. Seedbeds were prepared by rototilling. In 1987-88, seeds...

  1. Diurnal changes in ocean color sensed in satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermuelen, Ryan; Soto, Inia; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Yang, Haoping

    2017-07-01

    Measurements of diurnal changes in ocean color in turbid coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (aerosol robotic network-WaveCIS CSI-06) site that can provide 8 to 10 observations per day. Satellite capability to detect diurnal changes in ocean color was characterized using hourly overlapping afternoon orbits of the visual infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership ocean color sensor and validated with in situ observations. The monthly cycle of diurnal changes was investigated for different water masses using VIIRS overlaps. Results showed the capability of satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in coastal regions that can be impacted by vertical movement of optical layers, in response to tides, resuspension, and river plume dispersion. The spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes showed the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooming and decaying processes. The diurnal change in ocean color was above 20%, which represents a 30% change in chlorophyll-a. Seasonal changes in diurnal ocean color for different water masses suggest differences in summer and winter responses to surface processes. The diurnal changes observed using satellite ocean color can be used to define the following: surface processes associated with biological activity, vertical changes in optical depth, and advection of water masses.

  2. Sex Diversity Approach of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus spp) to Marine Oil Spill Pollution in Southern Waters of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, F. E. D.; Ambariyanto; Sulistyo, I.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal of southern Java waters is known as inhabit area of spiny lobster. Accumulation of hydrocarbon frequently occurs at the coastal waters as impact of oil pollution caused by oil leak from supplying ship of crude oil to Cilacap refinery. As shipping channel of oil, presence of oil spills is often detected at coastal areas of Cilacap. It can be indicated by range of sediment in the area which has risk levels in range of low to medium-low. It was, therefore, found that some locations suffered a greater impact on the ecological which giving high risk for marine organism life. Spiny lobster is one of many organism living at sea bed which threatened its life due to the presence of oil. Population of Spiny Lobster has to be protected because it has commercially valuable commodity for producing high nutrition. Considering the matters, it is therefore important to find a method for alleviating the problem. Investigation should be focused on biological aspect of spiny lobster in encountering extreme pollution at the coastal. For that purpose, a field research was conducted from January until July 2015. Using gillnet with 1 inch mesh size, the lobsters were randomly collected from southern Java districts waters. There were 1137 lobsters collected from six districts waters. Furthermore, the sample was morphologically identified and it was found that there were six species in the areas. In all area, P. homarus was found as dominant species, except in Gunung kidul district which was dominated by P. penicillatus. In term of sex diversity, there is statistically difference in number of female and male, each species no significant. Even though environment quality was very worse, there was found existence of ovigerous female in the research area as about 12% of the population. Those facts strongly indicated that the lobsters has a unique adaptation to survive in extremely low quality of environment due to marine oil spill.

  3. Comparative electron microscopy and image analysis of oxy- and deoxy-hemocyanin from the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Felix de; Breemen, Jan F.L. van; Boekema, Egbert J.; Keegstra, Wilko; Bruggen, Ernst F.J. van

    1993-01-01

    Structural differences between oxy-hemocyanin and deoxy-hemocyanin from the spiny lobster P. interruptus were studied by electron microscopy and image analysis of negatively stained preparations. Projections of the hexameric P. interruptus hemocyanin from electron microscopy were compared with

  4. Multiple origin of diurnality in geckos: evidence from eye lens crystallins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, Beate

    2001-05-01

    The large lizard family Gekkonidae comprises about 90 genera (1000 species). While most geckos are nocturnal, the members of about 15 genera are diurnal. All of these species are 'tertiarily' diurnal, i.e. they are descended from 'secondarily' nocturnal ancestors. They have adapted to a diurnal lifestyle in quite different ways, as can be deduced by the crystallin proteins in their lenses. Evaluation of the heterogeneous lens crystallin compositions of diurnal geckos reveals that there are at least three lineages that regained diurnality independently.

  5. Diurnal variation of tropospheric temperature at a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Revathy

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The vertical velocity in the troposphere-lower stratosphere region measured using MST radar has been utilized to evaluate the temperature profile in the region. The diurnal variation of the tropospheric temperature on one day in August 1998 at the tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E has been studied using the MST radar technique. The diurnal variation of the temperature revealed a prominent diurnal variation with the peak in the afternoon hours increasingly delayed in altitude. The tropopause temperature and altitude exhibited a clear diurnal cycle.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere - composition and chemistry; instruments and technique

  6. Circadian rhythm in QT interval is preserved in mice deficient of potassium channel interacting protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Lisa A; Lubberding, Anniek; Larsen, Anders Peter

    2017-01-01

    Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is suggested to be responsible for the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the hypothesis that there is no circadian rhythm in QT interval in the absence of KChIP2. Implanted...... cardiac deaths were observed. We find similar diurnal (light:dark) and circadian (darkness) rhythms of RR intervals in WT and KChIP2(-/-) mice. Circadian rhythms in QT100 intervals are present in both groups, but at physiological small amplitudes: 1.6 ± 0.2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 ms in WT and KChIP2......(-/-), respectively (p = 0.15). A diurnal rhythm in QT100 intervals was only found in WT mice. QTmean-RR intervals display clear diurnal and circadian rhythms in both WT and KChIP2(-/-). The amplitude of the circadian rhythm in QTmean-RR is 4.0 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 ms in WT and KChIP2(-/-), respectively (p = 0...

  7. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  8. Mercury concentrations in Northwest Atlantic winter-caught, male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): A geographic mercury comparison and risk-reward framework for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Gelais, Adam T; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) contamination testing was conducted on winter-caught male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in southern New England and results compared to available data on Hg concentrations for this species. A limited risk-reward assessment for EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) lipid concentrations of spiny dogfish was completed in comparison with other commonly consumed marine fish. Mean Hg concentrations were 0.19 ppm (±0.30) wet weight. In comparison, mean Hg concentrations in S. acanthias varied geographically ranging from 0.05 ppm (Celtic Sea) to 2.07 ppm (Crete, Mediterranean Sea). A risk-reward assessment for Hg and DHA+EPA placed S. acanthias in both "low-risk, high-reward" and "high-risk, high-reward" categories for consumption dependent on locations of the catch. Our results are limited and are not intended as consumption advisories but serve to illustrate the need for making more nuanced, geo-specific, consumption guidance for spiny dogfish that is inclusive of seafood traceability and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawriluk, Thomas R.; Simkin, Jennifer; Thompson, Katherine L.; Biswas, Shishir K.; Clare-Salzler, Zak; Kimani, John M.; Kiama, Stephen G.; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Seifert, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ ‘healer' mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size, and closure rate can be modelled with a cubic function. Cellular and genetic analyses reveal that injury induces blastema formation in Acomys cahirinus. Despite cell cycle re-entry in Mus musculus and A. cahirinus, efficient cell cycle progression and proliferation only occurs in spiny mice. Together, our data unite blastema-mediated regeneration in spiny mice with regeneration in other vertebrates such as salamanders, newts and zebrafish, where all healthy adults regenerate in response to injury. PMID:27109826

  10. Diurnal cortisol after early institutional care—Age matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Flannery

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that young children who have experienced early caregiving adversity (e.g. previously institutionalization (PI exhibit flattened diurnal cortisol slopes; however, less is known about how these patterns might differ between children and adolescents, since the transition between childhood and adolescence is a time of purported plasticity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. PI youth experience a massive improvement in caregiving environment once adopted into families; therefore we anticipated that a developmental increase in HPA axis plasticity during adolescence might additionally allow for an enhanced enrichment effect by the adoptive family. In a cross-sectional sample of 197 youths (PI and Comparison; 4–15 years old we observed age-related group differences in diurnal slope. First replicating previous findings, PI children exhibited flattened diurnal slope. This group difference, however, was not observed in adolescents. Moderation analyses showed that pubertal development, increased time with family, and early adoption contributed to the steeper diurnal cortisol slope in PI adolescents. These findings add support to existing theories positing that the transition between middle childhood and adolescence may mark an additional sensitive period for diurnal cortisol patterning, allowing PI youth to benefit from the enriched environment provided by adoptive parents during this period of development.

  11. COMPARATIVE ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY AND IMAGE-ANALYSIS OF OXY-HEMOCYANIN AND DEOXY-HEMOCYANIN FROM THE SPINY LOBSTER PANULIRUS-INTERRUPTUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAS, F; VANBREEMEN, JFL; BOEKEMA, EJ; KEEGSTRA, W; VANBRUGGEN, EFJ

    Structural differences between oxy-hemocyanin and deoxy-hemocyanin from the spiny lobster P. interruptus were studied by electron microscopy and image analysis of negatively stained preparations. Projections of the hexameric P. interruptus hemocyanin from electron microscopy were compared with

  12. Diurnal Variations of Airborne Pollen and Spores in Taipei City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Lin Yang

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation of airborne pollen and spores in Taipei City, Taiwan, was investigated during a two-year survey from 1993 to 1994. The pollen and spores were sampled using a Burkard seven-day volumetric pollen trap. The diurnal trends of the total amount of pollen and spores in 1993 and in 1994 were similar to each other, and peaked at 3 to 10 o’clock. The diurnal patterns of airborne pollen and spores of Broussonetia, Fraxinus, Cyathea and Gramineae in 1993 were similar to those in 1994. High concentrations of Broussonetia and Fraxinus were obtained from midnight to the next morning. Cyathea spores peaked from morning till noon, and Gramineae peaked in the afternoon. The diurnal patterns of airborne pollen of Bischofia, Juniperus, Mallotus, Morus, Trema and Urticaceae in 1993 were different to those in 1994. Regular diurnal patterns also associated with the taxa, which produce large pollen or spores, such as Gramineae and Cyathea. In contrast, Bischofia, Juniperus, Mallotus, Morus, Trema and Urticaceae produce relatively small pollen and the diurnal patterns of their airborne pollen were found irregular. The source plants Broussonetia and Fraxinus were close to the collection site so the diurnal patterns of their airborne pollen were regular, suggesting that the diurnal fluctuations of the pollen or spores in air might be affected by the source of plants and the sizes of pollen or spores. The transportation of the smaller pollen or spores in air is probably more easily affected by instability of air currents; they are therefore more likely to exhibit irregular diurnal patterns.

  13. Diurnal variations of tritium uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinger, M.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.

    1991-02-01

    The influence of the diurnal cycle is important for the behaviour of environmental tritium in the vegetation. A mathematical model has been used to calculate the deposition of tritium in plants as a function of diurnal variations of climatic parameters. The necessary physiological parameters (relationship of net photosynthesis and growth) were derived from growth experiments for tomatoes and maize. In chamber experiments, tomato and maize plants were exposed to tritium with natural diurnal variations of the climatic conditions. Within the range of standard deviations the measured concentrations of tritium in tissue free water of tomatoes correspond well to the estimated values. Furthermore, the incorporation into non-exchangeable organically bound tritium (OBT nx) can be sufficiently modelled and explained. There are deviations from the estimated concentrations in some parts of maize leaves. (orig.) [de

  14. The Role of Beta-Adrenergic Receptors in the Regulation of Circadian Intraocular Pressure Rhythm in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Shunsuke; Higashide, Tomomi; Toida, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether the elimination of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors alters the diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythm in mice. β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout and C57BL/6J mice were anesthetized intraperitoneally, with their IOPs measured via microneedle method. After entrainment to a 12-h light-dark (LD) cycle (light phase 6:00-18:00), IOPs were measured every 3 h from 9:00 to 24:00 (group 1, β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout mice, n = 11; C57BL/6J, n = 15). The IOP measurements at 15:00 and 24:00 under a 12-h LD cycle and in the constant darkness (1 day and 8 days after exposure to darkness, respectively) were performed in another group of β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout mice (group 2, n = 12). IOP variance throughout the day and mean IOP differences among time points were evaluated using a linear mixed model. β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout and C57BL/6J mice showed biphasic IOP curves, low during the light phase and high during the dark phase; the fluctuation was significant (P adrenergic receptor double-knockout mice group. IOP curves of β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout and C57BL/6J were nearly parallel, and the IOPs of β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor double-knockout mice were significantly higher than those of C57BL/6J mice (P adrenergic receptors did not disturb the biphasic diurnal IOP rhythm in mice.

  15. Atmospheric diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation, driven by solar forcing, is a fundamental mode in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate provide nearly uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal variations of temperature and refractivity from three-year (2007–2009 COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere between 30° S and 30° N. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity shows the minimum around 14 km and increases to a local maximum around 32 km in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from stratopause to the upper troposphere with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. At ~32 km the seasonal variation of the tidal amplitude maximizes at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. The vertical structure of tidal amplitude shows strong seasonal variations and becomes asymmetric along the equator and tilted toward the summer hemisphere in the solstice months. Such asymmetry becomes less prominent in equinox months.

  16. Observations on spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias captured in late spring in a North Carolina estuary [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4dj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bangley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five spiny dogfish were captured in early-mid May during gillnet and longline sampling targeting juvenile coastal sharks in inshore North Carolina waters.  Dogfish captures were made within Back Sound and Core Sound, North Carolina. All dogfish were females measuring 849-905 mm total length, well over the size at 50% maturity. Dogfish were caught at stations 1.8-2.7 m in depth, with temperatures 22.9-24.2 °C, 32.8-33.4 ppt salinity, and 6.9-8.0 mg/L dissolved oxygen. These observations are among the latest in the spring for spiny dogfish in the southeastern U.S. and occurred at higher temperatures than previously recorded for this species.  It is unclear whether late-occurring spiny dogfish in this area represent a cryptic late-migrating or resident segment of the Northwest Atlantic population.

  17. Susceptibility of spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus to Leishmania (Viannia panamensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BL Travi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Proechimys semispinosus as reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis on the Colombian Pacific coast was experimentally evaluated. The susceptibility to L. chagasi also was assessed to determine the utility of this rodent as a model for studying reservoir characteristics in the laboratory. Wild-caught animals were screened for natural trypanosomatid infections, and negative individuals were inoculated intradermally (ID in the snout or feet with 10(7 promastigotes of L. panamensis. L. chagasi was inoculated intracardially (10(7 promastigotes or ID in the ear (10(8 promastigotes. PCR-hybridization showed that 15% of 33 spiny rats were naturally infected with L. Viannia sp. Animals experimentally infected with L. panamensis developed non-ulcerated lesions that disappeared by the 7th week post-infection (p.i. and became more resistant upon reinfection. Infectivity to sand flies was low (1/20-1/48 infected/fed flies and transient, and both culture and PCR-hybridization showed that L. panamensis was cleared by the 13th week p.i. Animals inoculated with L. chagasi became subclinically infected and were non-infective to sand flies. Transient infectivity to vectors of spiny rats infected with L. panamensis, combined with population characteristics, e.g., abundance, exploitation of degraded habitats and high reproductive rates, could make them epidemiologically suitable reservoirs.

  18. Diurnal changes in ocean color in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Coastal processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid coastal region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) site that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic coastal regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the coastal zone.

  19. Characteristics of diurnal pattern of global photosynthetically-active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year data (September 1992 August 1994) on photosynhetically-active radiation (PAR) measured at Ilorin (Lat.: 832´N. Long.:434´E) using LI-190SA quantum sensor are analysed both on daily and monthly mean diurnal bases. This was done with the aim of characterizing the diurnal pattern of this radiation at this ...

  20. Specific diurnal EMG activity pattern observed in occlusal collapse patients: relationship between diurnal bruxism and tooth loss progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kumazaki, Yohei; Manda, Yosuke; Oki, Kazuhiro; Minagi, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group), six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group), and six young control subjects (YC group) were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG) of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (pstability.

  1. Model independent result on possible diurnal effect in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2014-03-15

    The results obtained in the search for possible diurnal effect in the single-hit low energy data collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 (total exposure 1.04 ton x year) deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN are presented. At the present level of sensitivity the presence of any significant diurnal variation and of diurnal time structures in the data can be excluded for both the cases of solar and sidereal time. In particular, the diurnal modulation amplitude expected, because of the Earth diurnal motion, on the basis of the DAMA dark matter annual modulation results is below the present sensitivity. (orig.)

  2. Model independent result on possible diurnal effect in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Belli, P.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D.; Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G.; Incicchitti, A.; Montecchia, F.; Ye, Z.P.

    2014-01-01

    The results obtained in the search for possible diurnal effect in the single-hit low energy data collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 (total exposure 1.04 ton x year) deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN are presented. At the present level of sensitivity the presence of any significant diurnal variation and of diurnal time structures in the data can be excluded for both the cases of solar and sidereal time. In particular, the diurnal modulation amplitude expected, because of the Earth diurnal motion, on the basis of the DAMA dark matter annual modulation results is below the present sensitivity. (orig.)

  3. Flow through the nasal cavity of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm-Davis, L. L.; Fish, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    The nasal cavity of spiny dogfish is a blind capsule with no internal connection to the oral cavity. Water is envisioned to flow through the cavity in a smooth, continuous flow pattern; however, this assumption is based on previous descriptions of the morphology of the olfactory cavity. No experimentation on the flow through the internal nasal cavity has been reported. Morphology of the head of the spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias) does not suggest a close external connection between the oral and nasal systems. However, dye visualization showed that there was flow through the nasal apparatus and from the excurrent nostril to the mouth when respiratory flows were simulated. The hydrodynamic flow through the nasal cavity was observed from flow tank experiments. The dorsum of the nasal cavity of shark heads from dead animals was exposed by dissection and a glass plate was glued over of the exposed cavity. When the head was placed in a flow, dye was observed to be drawn passively into the cavity showing a complex, three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow. Dye entered the incurrent nostril, flowed through the nasal lamellae, crossed over and under the nasal valve, and circulated around the nasal valve before exiting the excurrent nostril. When the nasal valve was removed, the dye became stagnant and back flowed out through the incurrent nostril. The single nasal valve has a hydrodynamic function that organizes a coherent flow of water through the cavity without disruption. The results suggest that the morphology of the nasal apparatus in concert with respiratory flow and ambient flows from active swimming can be used to draw water through the olfactory cavity of the shark.

  4. Diurnal Salivary Alpha-amylase Dynamics among Dementia Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Granger, Douglas A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Klein, Laura C.; Almeida, David M.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study examined diurnal regulation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in association with daily stressors, adult day services (ADS) use, and other caregiving characteristics. Methods A sample of 165 family caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) completed an 8-day diary study. Caregivers provided 5 saliva samples across the 8 days. On some days, caregivers provided all or most of the care. On other days, their relative attended ADS for part of the day. A 3-level unconditional linear spline model was fit to describe the typical sAA diurnal rhythms. Predictors were then added to the unconditional model to test the hypotheses on ADS use and daily stressors. Results Daily ADS use did not have an effect on diurnal sAA regulation. However, controlling for daily ADS use, greater ADS use over the 8 days was associated with a more prominent rise between 30 minutes after wake-up and before lunch, and a more prominent decline between before lunch and late afternoon. Fewer ADS days were associated with a more flattened sAA diurnal rhythm. Additionally, greater daily care-related stressor exposures had a within-person association with lower sAA levels in the late afternoon. Care-related stressor exposures had significant within- and between-person associations with sAA diurnal slopes. Furthermore, daily positive experiences had a significant between-person association with sAA diurnal slopes. Conclusions Caring for a disabled family member may heighten the vulnerability to potential physiological conditions. Respite from care stressors from ADS use may have some biobehavioral benefits on sAA regulations. PMID:27786517

  5. Adaptive gene regulation in the Striatum of RGS9-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Busse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RGS9-deficient mice show drug-induced dyskinesia but normal locomotor activity under unchallenged conditions. RESULTS: Genes related to Ca2+ signaling and their functions were regulated in RGS9-deficient mice. CONCLUSION: Changes in Ca2+ signaling that compensate for RGS9 loss-of-function can explain the normal locomotor activity in RGS9-deficient mice under unchallenged conditions. SIGNIFICANCE: Identified signaling components may represent novel targets in antidyskinetic therapy. The long splice variant of the regulator of G-protein signaling 9 (RGS9-2 is enriched in striatal medium spiny neurons and dampens dopamine D2 receptor signaling. Lack of RGS9-2 can promote while its overexpression prevents drug-induced dyskinesia. Other animal models of drug-induced dyskinesia rather pointed towards overactivity of dopamine receptor-mediated signaling. To evaluate changes in signaling pathways mRNA expression levels were determined and compared in wild-type and RGS9-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, expression levels of dopamine receptors were unchanged in RGS9-deficient mice, while several genes related to Ca2+ signaling and long-term depression were differentially expressed when compared to wild type animals. Detailed investigations at the protein level revealed hyperphosphorylation of DARPP32 at Thr34 and of ERK1/2 in striata of RGS9-deficient mice. Whole cell patch clamp recordings showed that spontaneous synaptic events are increased (frequency and size in RGS9-deficient mice while long-term depression is reduced in acute brain slices. These changes are compatible with a Ca2+-induced potentiation of dopamine receptor signaling which may contribute to the drug-induced dyskinesia in RGS9-deficient mice.

  6. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  7. Size-dependent avoidance of a strong magnetic anomaly in Caribbean spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2018-03-01

    On a global scale, the geomagnetic field varies predictably across the Earth's surface, providing animals that migrate long distances with a reliable source of directional and positional information that can be used to guide their movements. In some locations, however, magnetic minerals in the Earth's crust generate an additional field that enhances or diminishes the overall field, resulting in unusually steep gradients of field intensity within a limited area. How animals respond to such magnetic anomalies is unclear. The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus , is a benthic marine invertebrate that possesses a magnetic sense and is likely to encounter magnetic anomalies during migratory movements and homing. As a first step toward investigating whether such anomalies affect the behavior of lobsters, a two-choice preference experiment was conducted in which lobsters were allowed to select one of two artificial dens, one beneath a neodymium magnet and the other beneath a non-magnetic weight of similar size and mass (control). Significantly more lobsters selected the control den, demonstrating avoidance of the magnetic anomaly. In addition, lobster size was found to be a significant predictor of den choice: lobsters that selected the anomaly den were significantly smaller as a group than those that chose the control den. Taken together, these findings provide additional evidence for magnetoreception in spiny lobsters, raise the possibility of an ontogenetic shift in how lobsters respond to magnetic fields, and suggest that magnetic anomalies might influence lobster movement in the natural environment. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Long-term stability of diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; La Marca, Roberto; Gollwitzer, Mario; Müller, Andreas; Limm, Heribert; Marten-Mittag, Birgitt; Gündel, Harald; Angerer, Peter; Nater, Urs M

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate long-term stability and variability of diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase patterns. Diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns were assessed on a single workday with three waves of measurement across a total time period of 24months in 189 participants. Separate hierarchical linear models were analyzed, with and without a number of potential predictor variables (age, BMI, smoking, chronic stress, stress reactivity). While low long-term stability was found in diurnal cortisol, the stability of diurnal alpha-amylase was moderate across the time period of 24months. Several predictor variables had a positive impact on diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns averaged across waves. Our findings underpin the notion that long-term stability is not necessarily warranted in longitudinal studies. It is important to choose an appropriate study design when attempting to disentangle clinically and biologically relevant changes from naturally occurring variations in diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diurnal Change of Soil Carbon Flux of Binhai New District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. F.; Mao, T. Y.; Ye, W.

    2018-05-01

    In order to investigate the factors influencing diurnal change of soil carbon flux of Binhai New District. Field observation experiments were carried out by using LC pro-SD photosynthetic apparatus. The diurnal changes of soil carbon flux and its environmental factors such as atmosphere temperature and soil temperature were analysed. The results indicated that soil carbon flux appeared single diurnal pattern. The diurnal average of soil carbon flux ranked from 0.2761 to 2.3367μmo1/m2/s. Soil carbon flux varied significantly among different land use regimes(Pequations (Pquadratic correlations between soil carbon flux and soil temperature (10cm). And soil temperature could account for more than 32.27% of the soil carbon flux changes (P<0.05, R2=0.3227-0.7465).

  10. Characterisation and quantification of regional diurnal SST cycles from SEVIRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    seas. Six years of SST fields from SEVIRI are validated against the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) Reprocessed for Climate (ARC) data set. The overall SEVIRI–AATSR bias is −0.07 K, and the standard deviation is 0.51 K, based on more than 53×106 matchups. Identification of the diurnal...... in the tropics. Longer diurnal warming duration is identified in the high latitudes compared to the tropics. The maximum monthly mean diurnal signal can be up to 0.5K in specific regions....

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Thomas; Carter, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field. PMID:27442242

  12. Circadian rhythm in QT interval is preserved in mice deficient of potassium channel interacting protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Lisa A; Lubberding, Anniek; Larsen, Anders Peter; Thomsen, Morten B

    2017-01-01

    Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is suggested to be responsible for the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the hypothesis that there is no circadian rhythm in QT interval in the absence of KChIP2. Implanted telemetric devices recorded electrocardiogram continuously for 5 days in conscious wild-type mice (WT, n = 9) and KChIP2 -/- mice (n = 9) in light:dark periods and in complete darkness. QT intervals were determined from all RR intervals and corrected for heart rate (QT 100 = QT/(RR/100) 1/2 ). Moreover, QT intervals were determined from complexes within the RR range of mean-RR ± 1% in the individual mouse (QT mean-RR ). We find that RR intervals are 125 ± 5 ms in WT and 123 ± 4 ms in KChIP2 -/- (p = 0.81), and QT intervals are 52 ± 1 and 52 ± 1 ms, respectively(p = 0.89). No ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac deaths were observed. We find similar diurnal (light:dark) and circadian (darkness) rhythms of RR intervals in WT and KChIP2 -/- mice. Circadian rhythms in QT 100 intervals are present in both groups, but at physiological small amplitudes: 1.6 ± 0.2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 ms in WT and KChIP2 -/- , respectively (p = 0.15). A diurnal rhythm in QT 100 intervals was only found in WT mice. QT mean-RR intervals display clear diurnal and circadian rhythms in both WT and KChIP2 -/- . The amplitude of the circadian rhythm in QT mean-RR is 4.0 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 ms in WT and KChIP2 -/- , respectively (p = 0.16). In conclusion, KChIP2 expression does not appear to underlie the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration.

  13. 76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... lobster, and aquarium trade species identified by the Secretary as not undergoing overfishing; allocate... effect of the 2011 Caribbean ACL Amendment is prevent overfishing of reef fish, spiny lobster and... be subject to overfishing, ACLs must be established at a level that prevents overfishing and helps to...

  14. Ultrastructure and functional organization of mouthpart sensory setae of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus: new features of putative mechanoreceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Høeg, Jens T

    2006-01-01

    In comparison with other decapods, the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus has little diversity in the external morphology of the setae on the mouth apparatus. In mouthpart areas that frequently touch food items only two types of setae can be distinguished: simple setae and cuspidate setae...

  15. Physiological effects of waterborne lead exposure in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyckmans, Marleen; Lardon, Isabelle; Wood, Chris M; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-01-15

    To broaden our knowledge about the toxicity of metals in marine elasmobranchs, cannulated spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were exposed to 20 μM and 100 μM lead (Pb). Since we wanted to focus on sub lethal ion-osmoregulatory and respiratory disturbances, arterial blood samples were analysed for pH(a), PaO(2), haematocrit and total CO(2) values at several time points. Plasma was used to determine urea, TMAO, lactate and ion concentrations. After 96 h, Pb concentrations were determined in a number of tissues, such as gill, rectal gland, skin and liver. To further investigate ion and osmoregulation, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in gill and rectal gland were analysed as well as rates of ammonia and urea excretion. Additionally, we studied the energy reserves in muscle and liver. Pb strongly accumulated in gills and especially in skin. Lower accumulation rates occurred in gut, kidney and rectal gland. A clear disturbance in acid-base status was observed after one day of exposure indicating a transient period of hyperventilation. The increase in pH(a) was temporary at 20 μM, but persisted at 100 μM. After 2 days, plasma Na and Cl concentrations were reduced compared to controls at 100 μM Pb and urea excretion rates were elevated. Pb caused impaired Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in gills, but not in rectal gland. We conclude that spiny dogfish experienced relatively low ion-osmoregulatory and respiratory distress when exposed to lead, particularly when compared to effects of other metals such as silver. These elasmobranchs appear to be able to minimize the disturbance and maintain physiological homeostasis during an acute Pb exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Milky hemolymph syndrome (MHS) in spiny lobsters, penaeid shrimp and crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Linda M; Poulos, Bonnie T; Navarro, Solangel; Redman, Rita M; Lightner, Donald V

    2010-09-02

    Black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, European shore crab Carcinus maenas and spiny lobster Panulirus spp. can be affected by milky hemolymph syndrome (MHS). Four rickettsia-like bacteria (RLB) isolates of MHS originating from 5 geographical areas have been identified to date. The histopathology of the disease was characterized and a multiplex PCR assay was developed for detection of the 4 bacterial isolates. The 16S rRNA gene and 16-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were used to examine the phylogeny of the MHS isolates. Although the pathology of this disease appears similar in the various different hosts, sequencing and examination of the phylogenetic relationships reveal 4 distinct RLB involved in the infection process.

  17. Modeling the diurnal tide with dissipation derived from UARS/HRDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Geller

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses dissipation values derived from UARS/HRDI observations in a recently published diurnal-tide model. These model structures compare quite well with the UARS/HRDI observations with respect to the annual variation of the diurnal tidal amplitudes and the size of the amplitudes themselves. It is suggested that the annual variation of atmospheric dissipation in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere is a major controlling factor in determining the annual variation of the diurnal tide.

  18. Metabolic Effects of Cholecystectomy: Gallbladder Ablation Increases Basal Metabolic Rate through G-Protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1-Dependent Mechanisms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Víctor; Amigo, Ludwig; Zanlungo, Silvana; Galgani, José; Robledo, Fermín; Arrese, Marco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Bile acids (BAs) regulate energy expenditure by activating G-protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1/TGR5 by cAMP-dependent mechanisms. Cholecystectomy (XGB) increases BAs recirculation rates resulting in increased tissue exposure to BAs during the light phase of the diurnal cycle in mice. We aimed to determine: 1) the effects of XGB on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 2) the roles of TGR5 on XGB-dependent changes in BMR. Methods BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry in wild type and Tgr5 deficient (Tgr5-/-) male mice. Bile flow and BAs secretion rates were measured by surgical diversion of biliary duct. Biliary BAs and cholesterol were quantified by enzymatic methods. BAs serum concentration and specific composition was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis. Results XGB increased biliary BAs and cholesterol secretion rates, and elevated serum BAs concentration in wild type and Tgr5-/- mice during the light phase of the diurnal cycle. BMR was ~25% higher in cholecystectomized wild type mice (p <0.02), whereas no changes were detected in cholecystectomized Tgr5-/- mice compared to wild-type animals. Conclusion XGB increases BMR by TGR5-dependent mechanisms in mice. PMID:25738495

  19. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueqing

    2015-08-01

    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  20. Interannual and Intraseasonal Variability of the Diurnal Tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggin, D. M.; Ortland, D. A.; Lieberman, R. S.; Oberheide, J.; Murayama, Y.; Hocking, W. K.; Vincent, R. A.; Reid, I. M.; Kumar, G. K.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal variations in the amplitude of the diurnal tide (DT) have been observed by radars with a seasonal dependence that is typically semiannual in the tropics. During some years the wind variation departs from the normal seasonal behavior with anomalously large amplitudes compared to most other years. This anomaly often takes the form of a greatly enhanced boreal spring equinoctal maximum. The boreal spring of 2008 is a example of this behavior. Diurnal amplitudes in the meridional winds are shown in the figure below for the first 6 months of 2008. Note that the diurnal tide undergoes a sharp increase in amplitude up to 80 ms-1 during this event. The characteristics of this event are diagnosed in a variety of global data sets. These include our own physics-based assimilation of SABER temperatures, and gridded analyses from the national weather services (NCAR/NCEP and ECMWF). Tidal amplitude variations are sometimes attributed to nonlinear interaction. However, this type of interaction would be expected to produce non-migrating tides, e.g., westward-2 or standing. SABER data show that the amplitude anomaly is mainly in the migrating DT. The global data sets allow us to explore properties of the anomaly, such as its origin, evolution in time, and associated momentum flux. In addition to this case study, we also investigate the general characteristics of DT interannual variability during the years of the SABER mission (2002-present). Diurnal tide momentum deposition plays a significant role in controlling the zonal mean wind in the mesosphere, We demonstrate its importance in driving the mesospheric semiannual oscillation (MSAO). Diurnal tide wind amplitudes in the meridional component observed at two radar sites, Rarotonga, Cook Islands (22.1°S, 159.8°W), and at Guanacaste, Costa Rica (10.3°N, 85.6°W).

  1. Diurnal variations of summer precipitation over the regions east to Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Huang, Anning; Huang, Danqing; Chen, Fei; Yang, Ben; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Dexian; Zhang, Lujun; Wen, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    Based on the hourly gauge-satellite merged precipitation product with the horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude/longitude during 2008-2014, diurnal variations of the summer precipitation amount (PA), frequency (PF), and intensity (PI) with different duration time over the regions east to Tibetan Plateau have been systematically revealed in this study. Results indicate that the eight typical precipitation diurnal patterns identified by the cluster analysis display pronounced regional features among the plateaus, basins, plains, hilly and coastal areas. The precipitation diurnal cycles are significantly affected by the sub-grid terrain fluctuations. The PA, PF and PI of the total rainfall show much more pronounced double diurnal peaks with the sub-grid topography standard deviation (SD) decreased. Meanwhile, the diurnal peaks of PA and PF (PI) strengthen (weaken) with the sub-grid topography SD enhanced. Over the elevated mountain ranges, southeastern hilly and coastal regions, the PA and PF diurnal patterns of the total rainfall generally show predominant late-afternoon peaks, which are closely associated with the short-duration (≤slant 3 h) rainfall. Along the Tibetan Plateau to its downstream, the diurnal peaks of PA, PF and PI for the total rainfall all exhibit obvious eastward phase time delay mainly due to the diurnal evolutions of long-duration (> 6 h) rainfall. However, the 4-6 h rainfall leads to the eastward phase time delay of the total rainfall along the Taihang Mountains to its downstream. Further mechanism analysis suggests that the midnight to morning diurnal evolution of the long-duration rainfall is closely associated with the diurnal variations of the upward branches of thermally driven mountain-plain solenoids and the water vapor transport associated with the accelerated nocturnal southwesterly winds. The late-afternoon peak of the short-duration PA over the southeastern hilly and coastal regions is ascribed to the strong local thermal

  2. Biophysical information in asymmetric and symmetric diurnal bidirectional canopy reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Caldwell, William F.; Pettigrew, Rita E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Rousseau, Robert A.; Berger, Kevin M.; Ganapol, B. D.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Clark, Jenny A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a theory for partitioning the information content in diurnal bidirectional reflectance measurements in order to detect differences potentially related to biophysical variables. The theory, which divides the canopy reflectance into asymmetric and symmetric functions of solar azimuth angle, attributes asymmetric variation to diurnal changes in the canopy biphysical properties. The symmetric function is attributed to the effects of sunlight interacting with a hypothetical average canopy which would display the average diurnal properties of the actual canopy. The authors analyzed radiometer data collected diurnally in the Thematic Mapper wavelength bands from two walnut canopies that received differing irrigation treatments. The reflectance of the canopies varied with sun and view angles and across seven bands in the visible, near-infrared, and middle infrared wavelength regions. Although one of the canopies was permanently water stressed and the other was stressed in mid-afternoon each day, no water stress signature was unambiguously evident in the reflectance data.

  3. Delayed post-treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improves motor function after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Stella H; Alwakeel, Amr J; Goddard, Liping; Hobbs, Catherine E; Gowing, Emma K; Barnett, Elizabeth R; Kohe, Sarah E; Sizemore, Rachel J; Oorschot, Dorothy E

    2015-09-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of striatal injury and may lead to cerebral palsy. This study investigated whether delayed administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), at one week after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia, was neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improved motor function. The effect of a subcutaneous injection of a high-dose, or a low-dose, of MSCs was investigated in stereological studies. Postnatal day (PN) 7 pups were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. At PN14, pups received treatment with either MSCs or diluent. A subset of high-dose pups, and their diluent control pups, were also injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), every 24h, on PN15, PN16 and PN17. This permitted tracking of the migration and survival of neuroblasts originating from the subventricular zone into the adjacent injured striatum. Pups were euthanized on PN21 and the absolute number of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons was measured after immunostaining for DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32), double immunostaining for BrdU and DARPP-32, and after cresyl violet staining alone. The absolute number of striatal immunostained calretinin interneurons was also measured. There was a statistically significant increase in the absolute number of DARPP-32-positive, BrdU/DARPP-32-positive, and cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons, and fewer striatal calretinin interneurons, in the high-dose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) group compared to their diluent counterparts. A high-dose of MSCs restored the absolute number of these neurons to normal uninjured levels, when compared with previous stereological data on the absolute number of cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons in the normal uninjured brain. For the low-dose experiment, in which cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny neurons alone were measured, there was a lower statistically

  4. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear.

  5. Redefining metamorphosis in spiny lobsters: molecular analysis of the phyllosoma to puerulus transition in Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Battaglene, Stephen C; Elizur, Abigail

    2015-08-27

    The molecular understanding of crustacean metamorphosis is hindered by small sized individuals and inability to accurately define molt stages. We used the spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi where the large, transparent larvae enable accurate tracing of the transition from a leaf-shaped phyllosoma to an intermediate larval-juvenile phase (puerulus). Transcriptomic analysis of larvae at well-defined stages prior to, during, and following this transition show that the phyllosoma-puerulus metamorphic transition is accompanied by vast transcriptomic changes exceeding 25% of the transcriptome. Notably, genes previously identified as regulating metamorphosis in other crustaceans do not fluctuate during this transition but in the later, morphologically-subtle puerulus-juvenile transition, indicating that the dramatic phyllosoma-puerulus morphological shift relies on a different, yet to be identified metamorphic mechanism. We examined the change in expression of domains and gene families, with focus on several key genes. Our research implies that the separation in molecular triggering systems between the phyllosoma-puerulus and puerulus-juvenile transitions might have enabled the extension of the oceanic phase in spiny lobsters. Study of similar transitions, where metamorphosis is uncoupled from the transition into the benthic juvenile form, in other commercially important crustacean groups might show common features to point on the evolutionary advantage of this two staged regulation.

  6. Potential virulence factors of bacteria associated with tail fan necrosis in the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, H; Jeffs, A; Dong, Y; Lewis, G

    2018-05-01

    Tail fan necrosis (TFN) is a common condition found in commercially exploited spiny lobsters that greatly diminishes their commercial value. Bacteria possessing proteolytic, chitinolytic and lipolytic capabilities were associated with TFN in spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii. In this study, 69 bacterial isolates exhibiting all the three enzymatic capabilities from the haemolymph and tail fans of J. edwardsii with and without TFN were further characterized and compared, including morphology, biofilm formation, antimicrobial activity, antimicrobial resistance, and production of siderophores, melanin and ammonia. The genomic patterns of the most common Vibrio crassostreae isolates were also compared between TFN-affected and unaffected lobsters. Biofilm formation was stronger in bacterial isolates from both haemolymph and tail fans of TFN-affected lobsters compared to those from the unaffected lobsters, while melanin production and siderophore production were stronger in the isolates from tail fans of lobsters with TFN. By contrast, the other characteristics of isolates were similar in lobsters with and without TFN. The Vib. crassostreae isolates from the affected lobsters had similar genomic patterns. Overall, the results indicate that in addition to proteolytic, chitinolytic and lipolytic activities, the bacteria associated with TFN commonly have enhanced activity of important virulence factors, including biofilm formation, melanin production and siderophore production. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Redefining metamorphosis in spiny lobsters: molecular analysis of the phyllosoma to puerulus transition in Sagmariasus verreauxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Tomer; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P.; Battaglene, Stephen C.; Elizur, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The molecular understanding of crustacean metamorphosis is hindered by small sized individuals and inability to accurately define molt stages. We used the spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi where the large, transparent larvae enable accurate tracing of the transition from a leaf-shaped phyllosoma to an intermediate larval-juvenile phase (puerulus). Transcriptomic analysis of larvae at well-defined stages prior to, during, and following this transition show that the phyllosoma-puerulus metamorphic transition is accompanied by vast transcriptomic changes exceeding 25% of the transcriptome. Notably, genes previously identified as regulating metamorphosis in other crustaceans do not fluctuate during this transition but in the later, morphologically-subtle puerulus-juvenile transition, indicating that the dramatic phyllosoma-puerulus morphological shift relies on a different, yet to be identified metamorphic mechanism. We examined the change in expression of domains and gene families, with focus on several key genes. Our research implies that the separation in molecular triggering systems between the phyllosoma-puerulus and puerulus-juvenile transitions might have enabled the extension of the oceanic phase in spiny lobsters. Study of similar transitions, where metamorphosis is uncoupled from the transition into the benthic juvenile form, in other commercially important crustacean groups might show common features to point on the evolutionary advantage of this two staged regulation. PMID:26311524

  8. Individual Differences in Diurnal Preference and Time-of-Exercise Interact to Predict Exercise Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisler, Garrett C; Phillips, Alison L; Krizan, Zlatan

    2017-06-01

    Diurnal preference (and chronotype more generally) has been implicated in exercise behavior, but this relation has not been examined using objective exercise measurements nor have potential psychosocial mediators been examined. Furthermore, time-of-day often moderates diurnal preference's influence on outcomes, and it is unknown whether time-of-exercise may influence the relation between chronotype and exercise frequency. The current study examined whether individual differences in diurnal preference ("morningness-eveningness") predict unique variance in exercise frequency and if commonly studied psychosocial variables mediate this relation (i.e., behavioral intentions, internal exercise control, external exercise control, and conscientiousness). Moreover, the study sought to test whether individuals' typical time-of-exercise moderated the impact of diurnal preference on exercise frequency. One hundred twelve healthy adults (mean age = 25.4; SD = 11.6 years) completed baseline demographics and then wore Fitbit Zips® for 4 weeks to objectively measure exercise frequency and typical time-of-exercise. At the end of the study, participants also self-reported recent exercise. Diurnal preference predicted both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency. When evaluating mediators, only conscientiousness emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between diurnal preference and self-reported exercise. In addition, time-of-exercise moderated diurnal preference's relation to both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency such that diurnal preference predicted higher exercise frequency when exercise occurred at a time that was congruent with one's diurnal preference. Based on these findings, diurnal preference is valuable, above and beyond other psychological constructs, in predicting exercise frequency and represents an important variable to incorporate into interventions seeking to increase exercise.

  9. Diurnal variation of the human adipose transcriptome and the link to metabolic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb John

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circadian (diurnal rhythm is an integral part of the physiology of the body; specifically, sleep, feeding behavior and metabolism are tightly linked to the light-dark cycle dictated by earth's rotation. Methods The present study examines the effect of diurnal rhythm on gene expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight to mildly obese, healthy individuals. In this well-controlled clinical study, adipose biopsies were taken in the morning, afternoon and evening from individuals in three study arms: treatment with the weight loss drug sibutramine/fasted, placebo/fed and placebo/fasted. Results The results indicated that diurnal rhythm was the most significant driver of gene expression variation in the human adipose tissue, with at least 25% of the genes having had significant changes in their expression levels during the course of the day. The mRNA expression levels of core clock genes at a specific time of day were consistent across multiple subjects on different days in all three arms, indicating robust diurnal regulation irrespective of potential confounding factors. The genes essential for energy metabolism and tissue physiology were part of the diurnal signature. We hypothesize that the diurnal transition of the expression of energy metabolism genes reflects the shift in the adipose tissue from an energy-expending state in the morning to an energy-storing state in the evening. Consistent with this hypothesis, the diurnal transition was delayed by fasting and treatment with sibutramine. Finally, an in silico comparison of the diurnal signature with data from the publicly-available Connectivity Map demonstrated a significant association with transcripts that were repressed by mTOR inhibitors, suggesting a possible link between mTOR signaling, diurnal gene expression and metabolic regulation. Conclusion Diurnal rhythm plays an important role in the physiology and regulation of energy metabolism in the adipose

  10. Changing On Diurnal Cycle Of Rainfall In Northern Coastal Of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulihastin, E.; Hadi, T. W.; Ningsih, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    The floods event in the north of Java was largely due to persistent of rainfall that occurred in the morning which indicated of deviation of diurnal pattern of rainfall. The shift of the phase of diurnal rainfall cycle using TRMM satellite hourly data of 3B41RT on the rainy period of 2000-2016 exhibits over land from Late Afternoon-Early Midnight (LA-EM) to morning. The peak of the cycle changes from diurnal to semidiurnal with a peak occurring in LA-EM and morning. Location of rainfall which usually occurs in the oceans shifted into near coastal area. The classification of diurnal rainfall cycles based on composite analysis shows four types: Normal (N) Type (45.6%) with one peak rainfall occurring in the afternoon until night, Diurnal (D) Type (26%) with one peak and phase opposite to normal type, Semidiurnal (SD) Type (6.5 %) with two peaks and the main peak occurring in the afternoon until night, Third Diurnal (TD) Type (21.7%) with three peaks and the main peak occurs in the morning. The classification was confirmed using the objective method of Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and obtained three IMFs representing three diurnal cycle modes of Type TD (67.8%) with the main rain peak taking place in the afternoon, Type D with rain peak occurring in the early hours (18.9%), and SD type (9.9%) with the first peak occurred in the afternoon. For D Type, the results also prove that the diurnal cycle with significant deviations in amplitude occurred in February 2002, 2004, 2008, 2014, wich is the maximum rainfall occurs in the EM. It also seems that in those years, rainfall intensity is concentrated on the northern coast of West Java while in the Java Sea rainfall was minimum.

  11. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  12. Assessment of Metabolic Flexibility of Old and Adult Mice Using Three Noninvasive, Indirect Calorimetry-Based Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry (InCa) can potentially be used to noninvasively assess metabolic and age-related flexibility. To assess the use of InCa for this purpose, we tested the sensitivity and response stability over time of three InCa-based treatments in old versus adult mice. Diurnal patterns of

  13. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.

    2012-05-01

    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  14. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Rioja; Arturo Carrillo-Reyes; Eduardo Espinoza-Medinilla; Sergio López-Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian veget...

  15. Distribution and function of splash, an achaete-scute homolog in the adult olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Schmidt, Manfred; Walthall, William W.; Tai, Phang C.; Derby, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    achaete-scute complex (ASC) genes, which encode basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, regulate embryonic and adult neurogenesis in many animals. In adult arthropods, including crustaceans, ASC homologs have been identified but rarely functionally characterized. We took advantage of the recently identified crustacean homolog, splash (spiny lobster achaete scute homolog), in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus to examine its role in adult neurogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that splash is associated with but not restricted to sensory neuron formation in the olfactory organ, the antennular lateral flagellum (LF), of adult spiny lobsters. We demonstrated splash labeling in epithelial cells across LF developmental zones (i.e., proliferation and mature zones), in auxiliary cells surrounding dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), and in immature and mature ORNs, but not in granulocytes or chromatophores. Since ORN proliferation varies with molt stage, we examined splash expression across molt stages and found that molt stage affected splash expression in the ORN mature zone but not in the proliferation zone. In vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) showed no correlation in the cellular pattern of splash expression and BrdU labeling. The intensity of splash labeling was dramatically enhanced in the proliferation zones following LF damage, suggesting enhanced splash expression during repair and/or regeneration. We conclude that splash is not closely associated with the formation of sensory neurons under normal physiological conditions, and we propose that splash is involved in repair and regeneration. We also propose that splash has additional roles other than neurogenesis in adult crustaceans. PMID:21394934

  16. Preeclampsia prediction in type 1 diabetes and diurnal blood pressure methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn

    2016-01-01

    of the papers with the best, validated methodology on BP measurements, which is by no way guaranteed in numerous recent publications. Inherent characteristics of the measurements to be considered are reproducibility, consistency, precision, and trend over scale of measurement. Studies on these issues suggest....... Preeclampsia is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate, reduced night/day ratio, and elevated diurnal blood pressure from first trimester and onwards. However, due to blunting of the diurnal variation, the night/day rhythm provides no good prediction of preeclampsia. Diurnal measurement is a valuable...

  17. Seasonal and diurnal variations of ocular pressure in ocular hypertensive subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, I A; Xiao, R X; Yang, B H; Zhang, J; Xiang, D W; Hui, J L

    1999-05-01

    Studies have been shown that intraocular pressure (IOP) shows a diurnal variation in ocular hypertensive subjects, but the amount of change differs from study to study. In recent years it has been noted that intraocular pressure is a dynamic function and is subjected to many influences both acutely and over the long term. The variability in the results may be due to negligence of factors that can affect IOP. Moreover, seasonal variations in the ocular hypertensive subjects have never been described. After placing control on those factors that can affect IOP, this study investigated seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects. IOP was measured each month over the course of 12 months with the Goldmann applanation tonometer in 91 ocular hypertensive male subjects. To see the diurnal changes, subjects were asked to stay in the hospital for 24 hours. The average IOP in the winter months was higher than those in spring, summer, and autumn. The IOP difference between winter and summer was (mean +/- sem) 2.9 +/- 0.9 mmHg (p < 0.001). The peak of mean IOP in diurnal variation curve (25.7 +/- 1.2 mmHg) appeared in the morning when the subjects had just awaken. The mean diurnal variation was found to be 4.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg (p < 0.001). This study confirms that seasons influence IOP and it shows diurnal variations. As compared to other nations, diurnal variations in ocular hypertensive subjects seem to be somewhat less in Pakistan. Knowledge of the seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP may help glaucoma screeners.

  18. Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Mark J.; España, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism for diurnal (i.e., light/dark) oscillations in extracellular dopamine tone in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems is unknown. This is because, unlike other neurotransmitter systems, variation in dopamine tone does not correlate with variation in dopamine cell firing. The current research pinpoints the dopamine transporter as a critical governor of diurnal variation in both extracellular dopamine tone and the intracellular availability of releasable dopamine. These data describe...

  19. Multi-tissue RNA-seq and transcriptome characterisation of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) provides a molecular tool for biological research and reveals new genes involved in osmoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chana Munoz, Andres; Jendroszek, Agnieszka; Sønnichsen, Malene

    2017-01-01

    The spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) is one of the most commonly used cartilaginous fishes in biological research, especially in the fields of nitrogen metabolism, ion transporters and osmoregulation. Nonetheless, transcriptomic data for this organism is scarce. In the present study, a multi......-tissue RNA-seq experiment and de novo transcriptome assembly was performed in four different spiny dogfish tissues (brain, liver, kidney and ovary), providing an annotated sequence resource. The characterization of the transcriptome greatly increases the scarce sequence information for shark species. Reads...... and provides a new molecular tool to assist biological research in cartilaginous fishes....

  20. AAV-dominant negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF gene transfer to the striatum does not rescue medium spiny neurons in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Taylor Alto

    Full Text Available CNS inflammation is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may contribute to neuronal demise. In particular, increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF signaling is implicated in the pathology of both Parkinson's disease (PD and Alzheimer's disease (AD. We have previously shown that localized gene delivery of dominant negative TNF to the degenerating brain region can limit pathology in animal models of PD and AD. TNF is upregulated in Huntington's disease (HD, like in PD and AD, but it is unknown whether TNF signaling contributes to neuronal degeneration in HD. We used in vivo gene delivery to test whether selective reduction of soluble TNF signaling could attenuate medium spiny neuron (MSN degeneration in the YAC128 transgenic (TG mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD. AAV vectors encoding cDNA for dominant-negative tumor necrosis factor (DN-TNF or GFP (control were injected into the striatum of young adult wild type WT and YAC128 TG mice and achieved 30-50% target coverage. Expression of dominant negative TNF protein was confirmed immunohistologically and biochemically and was maintained as mice aged to one year, but declined significantly over time. However, the extent of striatal DN-TNF gene transfer achieved in our studies was not sufficient to achieve robust effects on neuroinflammation, rescue degenerating MSNs or improve motor function in treated mice. Our findings suggest that alternative drug delivery strategies should be explored to determine whether greater target coverage by DN-TNF protein might afford some level of neuroprotection against HD-like pathology and/or that soluble TNF signaling may not be the primary driver of striatal neuroinflammation and MSN loss in YAC128 TG mice.

  1. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.

    2009-06-01

    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  2. Differences in ocular parameters between diurnal and nocturnal raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Horowitz, Igal; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Lublin, Avishai; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    To establish and compare normal ocular parameters between and within diurnal and nocturnal raptor groups. Eighty-eight ophthalmically normal raptors of six nocturnal and 11 diurnal species were studied. Tear production was measured using Schirmer tear test (STT) and phenol red thread test (PRTT), and applanation tonometry was conducted. Ultrasonographic measurements of axial length (AL), mediolateral axis (ML), vitreous body (VB), and pecten length (PL) were recorded, and conjunctival cultures were obtained. A weak correlation (R = 0.312, P = 0.006) was found between PRTT and STT. Tear production was significantly lower in nocturnal species (P raptors were positive for mycology or bacteriology, either on culture or PCR. The most common infectious agent isolated was Staphylococcus spp. Phenol red thread test and STT are both valid methods to measure tear production; however, a separate baseline must be determined for each species using these methods, as the results of one method cannot be extrapolated to the other. Due to significant differences observed within diurnal and nocturnal species, it appears that a more intricate division should be used when comparing these parameters for raptors, and the classification of diurnal or nocturnal holds little significance in the baseline of these data. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Satellite, climatological, and theoretical inputs for modeling of the diurnal cycle of fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.; Schmidt, C. C.; Giglio, L.; Prins, E.

    2009-12-01

    The diurnal cycle of fire activity is crucial for accurate simulation of atmospheric effects of fire emissions, especially at finer spatial and temporal scales. Estimating diurnal variability in emissions is also a critical problem for construction of emissions estimates from multiple sensors with variable coverage patterns. An optimal diurnal emissions estimate will use as much information as possible from satellite fire observations, compensate known biases in those observations, and use detailed theoretical models of the diurnal cycle to fill in missing information. As part of ongoing improvements to the Fire Location and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) fire monitoring system, we evaluated several different methods of integrating observations with different temporal sampling. We used geostationary fire detections from WF_ABBA, fire detection data from MODIS, empirical diurnal cycles from TRMM, and simple theoretical diurnal curves based on surface heating. Our experiments integrated these data in different combinations to estimate the diurnal cycles of emissions for each location and time. Hourly emissions estimates derived using these methods were tested using an aerosol transport model. We present results of this comparison, and discuss the implications of our results for the broader problem of multi-sensor data fusion in fire emissions modeling.

  4. SST diurnal variability in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2012-01-01

    (σ) between 0.4K and 0.9K. The 5year record with daytime temperature anomalies is used to derive robust statistical description of duration, spatial extent, proximity to coast and water depth of the diurnal warming events. Seasonal and inter-annual variations in the diurnal warming are also...... quantified. Daytime anomalies exceeding 2K are identified during the spring and summer months of every year, peaking at 1500 LT. Events with daily anomalies exceeding 5K are observed. Areas where diurnal variability is often observed coincide with areas of frequently observed low winds and turbid waters...

  5. GFAP-immunopositive structures in spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, and little skate, Raia erinacea, brains: differences have evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, M; Gould, R M

    2001-07-01

    GFAP expression patterns were compared between the brains of a spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and a little skate (Raia erinacea). After anesthesia, the animals were perfused with paraformaldehyde. Serial vibratome sections were immunostained against GFAP using the avidin-biotin method. Spiny dogfish brain contained mainly uniformly-distributed, radially arranged ependymoglia. From GFAP distribution, the layered organization in both the telencephalon and the tectum were visible. In the cerebellum, the molecular and granular layers displayed conspicuously different glial structures; in the former a Bergmann glia-like population was found. No true astrocytes (i.e., stellate-shaped cells) were found. Radial glial endfeet lined all meningeal surfaces. Radial fibers also seemed to form endfeet and en passant contacts on the vessels. Plexuses of fine perivascular glial fibers also contributed to the perivascular glia. Compared with spiny dogfish brain, GFAP expression in the little skate brain was confined. Radial glia were limited to a few areas, e.g., segments of the ventricular surface of the telencephalon, and the midline of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. Scarce astrocytes occurred in every brain part, but only the optic chiasm, and the junction of the tegmentum and optic tectum contained large numbers of astrocytes. Astrocytes formed the meningeal glia limitans and the perivascular glia. No GFAP-immunopositive Bergmann glia-like structure was found. Astrocytes seen in the little skate were clearly different from the mammalian and avian ones; they had a different process system - extra large forms were frequently seen, and the meningeal and perivascular cells were spread along the surface instead of forming endfeet by processes. The differences between Squalus and Raia astroglia were much like those found between reptiles versus mammals and birds. It suggests independent and parallel glial evolutionary processes in amniotes and chondrichthyans, seemingly

  6. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  7. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  8. Pollution biomarkers in the spiny lizard (Sceloporus spp.) from two suburban populations of Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Carlos; del Pliego, Pamela González; Alfaro, Roberto Mendoza; Lazcano, David; Cruz, Julio

    2012-11-01

    Environmental pollution may severely impact reptile species in urbanized areas. The magnitude of the impact is analyzed in the present study using lizard tail tips for the quantitative evaluation of enzymatic biomarkers of pollution. Spiny lizards (Sceloporus serrifer and S. torquatus) were collected from two suburban localities in the Monterrey metropolitan area, Mexico: Chipinque Ecological Park, a natural protected area, and El Carmen Industrial Park (IP), a highly polluted site. Different enzymes were used as biomarkers including: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). The levels of AChE, BChE and ACP activity were not significantly different between localities. AChE and BChE, commonly used as biomarkers of neurotoxic polluting agents (e.g. organophosphate pesticides) do not appear to be affecting the populations from the study locations. In contrast, the levels of CaE, GST, ALP and SOD were significantly different between the localities. These biomarkers are regularly associated with oxidative stress and processes of detoxification, and generally indicate pollution caused by heavy metals or hydrocarbons, which are common in industrial sites. The data resulting from the analysis of these biomarkers indicate that these polluting agents are affecting the populations of Sceloporus in IP. The present work validates the possibility of conducting additional ecotoxicological studies using biomarkers in combination with a nondestructive sampling technique in species of spiny lizards that are abundant in many North America areas.

  9. An anticholinergic reverses motor control and corticostriatal LTD deficits in Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai T; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C; Lu, Jun; Vo, Viet; Lovinger, David M; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-15

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder associated with mutations in DYT1 that codes for torsinA protein. The most common mutation seen in this gene is a trinucleotide deletion of GAG. We previously reported a motor control deficit on a beam-walking task in our Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in heterozygous mice. In this report we show the reversal of this motor deficit with the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl (THP), a drug commonly used to treat movement problems in dystonia patients. THP also restored the reduced corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) observed in these mice. Corticostriatal LTD has long been known to be dependent on D2 receptor activation. In this mouse model, striatal D2 receptors were expressed at lower quantities in comparison to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the mice were also partially resistant to FPL64176, an agonist of L-type calcium channels that have been previously reported to cause severe dystonic-like symptoms in wild-type mice. Our findings collectively suggest that altered communication between cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny neurons is responsible for the LTD deficit and that this synaptic plasticity modification may be involved in the striatal motor control abnormalities in our mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Heliospheric Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays; Diurnal Variability Abstract Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, D. F.; Okpala, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the variability of Cosmic rays flux during solar quiet days at mid and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. By using the five (5) quietest days for each month and the five disturbed days for each month, the monthly mean diurnal variation of cosmic ray anisotropy have been derived for the period 1999-2015, which covers part of cycles 23, and cycle 24. This study seeks to understand the heliospheric contribution to the variation of these Cosmic rays on quietest days, three stations (Inuvik, Moscow, Rome) Neutron Monitors were employed. This study seeks to understand the important features of the high latitude and mid latitude diurnal wave, and how solar and geomagnetic activity may be influencing the wave characteristics. Cosmic ray wave characteristics were obtained by discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The mean, diurnal amplitude, phase and dispersion for each month's diurnal wave were calculated and profiled. There was clear indication that the terrestrial effect on the variability of the monthly mean was more associated with geomagnetic activity rather than rigidity of the cosmic rays. Correlation of the time series of these wave characteristic with solar and geomagnetic activity index showed better association with solar activity.

  11. Maturity and Fecundity of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The maturity and fecundity of Squalus acanthias spiny dogfish sampled from the south-eastern Black Sea were studied. Age and length at 50% maturity were 10.49 years and 87.57 cm for males, and 11.99 years and 102.97 cm for females, respectively. Mean biennial fecundity was 19.4 eggs and 12.9 pups. A linear relationship between fecundities and length was found: Fe = 0.09 x TLp + 2.12 (r = 0.5) for pups and Fo = 0.27 x TLp - 21.59 (r = 0.7) for eggs.

  12. Nicotine Modifies Corticostriatal Plasticity and Amphetamine Rewarding Behaviors in Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Granville P.; Heimbigner, Lauren; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Bamford, Nigel S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Corticostriatal signaling participates in sensitized responses to drugs of abuse, where short-term increases in dopamine availability provoke persistent, yet reversible, changes in glutamate release. Prior studies in mice show that amphetamine withdrawal promotes a chronic presynaptic depression in glutamate release, whereas an amphetamine challenge reverses this depression by potentiating corticostriatal activity in direct pathway medium spiny neurons. This synaptic plasticity promotes corticostriatal activity and locomotor sensitization through upstream changes in the activity of tonically active cholinergic interneurons (ChIs). We used a model of operant drug-taking behaviors, in which mice self-administered amphetamine through an in-dwelling catheter. Mice acquired amphetamine self-administration under fixed and increasing schedules of reinforcement. Following a period of abstinence, we determined whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modified drug-seeking behavior and associated alterations in ChI firing and corticostriatal activity. Mice responding to conditioned reinforcement showed reduced ChI and corticostriatal activity ex vivo, which paradoxically increased following an amphetamine challenge. Nicotine, in a concentration that increases Ca2+ influx and desensitizes α4β2*-type nicotinic receptors, reduced amphetamine-seeking behaviors following abstinence and amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization. Nicotine blocked the depression of ChI firing and corticostriatal activity and the potentiating response to an amphetamine challenge. Together, these results demonstrate that nicotine reduces reward-associated behaviors following repeated amphetamine and modifies the changes in ChIs firing and corticostriatal activity. By returning glutamatergic activity in amphetamine self-administering mice to a more stable and normalized state, nicotine limits the depression of striatal activity in withdrawal and the increase in activity following

  13. Spectral and diurnal variations in clear sky planetary albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegleb, B.; Ramanathan, V.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and diurnal variations in the clear sky planetary albedo of the earth are calculated using a radiative transfer model to obtain January and July values for a 5 deg x 5 deg global grid. The model employs observed climatological values of temperatures, humidities, snow and sea-ice cover. The diurnal cycle of clear sky albedo is calculated in the following intervals: 0.2-0.5, 0.5-0.7, and 0.7-4 microns. Observed ozone distribution is specified as a function of latitude and season. The 0.2-0.5 micron spectral albedo is 10-20% higher than the total albedo for all latitudes because of Rayleigh scattering; the 0.5-0.7 micron albedo differs from the total albedo by 1-2% for most latitudes, while the 0.7-4 micron albedo is 5-10% lower than the total because of strong atmospheric absorption. Planetary albedo decreases from morning to local noon, with diurnal variations being particularly strong over water.

  14. Modelling of diurnal cycle under climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, A V; Bezmenov, K V; Demchenko, P F; Mokhov, I I; Petoukhov, V K [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1996-12-31

    The observed diurnal temperature range (DTR) displays remarkable change during last 30 years. Land air DTR generally decreases under global climate warming due to more significant night minimum temperature increase in comparison with day maximum temperature increase. Atmosphere hydrological cycle characteristics change under global warming and possible background aerosol atmosphere content change may cause essential errors in the estimation of DTR tendencies of change under global warming. The result of this study is the investigation of cloudiness effect on the DTR and blackbody radiative emissivity diurnal range. It is shown that in some cases (particularly in cold seasons) it results in opposite change in DTR and BD at doubled CO{sub 2} atmosphere content. The influence of background aerosol is the same as the cloudiness one

  15. Modelling of diurnal cycle under climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, A.V.; Bezmenov, K.V.; Demchenko, P.F.; Mokhov, I.I.; Petoukhov, V.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1995-12-31

    The observed diurnal temperature range (DTR) displays remarkable change during last 30 years. Land air DTR generally decreases under global climate warming due to more significant night minimum temperature increase in comparison with day maximum temperature increase. Atmosphere hydrological cycle characteristics change under global warming and possible background aerosol atmosphere content change may cause essential errors in the estimation of DTR tendencies of change under global warming. The result of this study is the investigation of cloudiness effect on the DTR and blackbody radiative emissivity diurnal range. It is shown that in some cases (particularly in cold seasons) it results in opposite change in DTR and BD at doubled CO{sub 2} atmosphere content. The influence of background aerosol is the same as the cloudiness one

  16. The use of satellite tags to redefine movement patterns of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias along the U.S. east coast: implications for fisheries management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Carlson

    Full Text Available Spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias are assumed to be a highly migratory species, making habitual north-south migrations throughout their northwestern Atlantic United States (U.S. range. Also assumed to be a benthic species, spiny dogfish stock structure is estimated through Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC bottom-trawl surveys. Recent anomalies in population trends, including a recent four-fold increase in estimated spawning stock biomass, suggest alternative movement patterns could exist for this shark species. To obtain a better understanding of the horizontal and vertical movement dynamics of this species, Microwave Telemetry pop-up satellite archival X-Tags were attached to forty adult spiny dogfish at the northern (Gulf of Maine and southern (North Carolina extents of their core U.S. geographic range. Reconstructed geolocation tracks ranging in lengths from two to 12 months suggest that the seasonal migration patterns appear to be local in nature to each respective northern and southern deployment site, differing from previously published migration paradigms. Differences in distance and direction traveled between seasonal geolocations possibly indicate separate migratory patterns between groups. Kernel utilization distribution models also suggest strong separate core home ranges. Significant differences in seasonal temperature and depths between the two regions further substantiate the possibility of separate regional movement patterns between the two groups. Vertical utilization also suggests distinct diel patterns and that this species may not utilize the benthos as previously thought, potentially decreasing availability to benthic gear.

  17. The use of satellite tags to redefine movement patterns of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) along the U.S. east coast: implications for fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Amy E; Hoffmayer, Eric R; Tribuzio, Cindy A; Sulikowski, James A

    2014-01-01

    Spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) are assumed to be a highly migratory species, making habitual north-south migrations throughout their northwestern Atlantic United States (U.S.) range. Also assumed to be a benthic species, spiny dogfish stock structure is estimated through Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) bottom-trawl surveys. Recent anomalies in population trends, including a recent four-fold increase in estimated spawning stock biomass, suggest alternative movement patterns could exist for this shark species. To obtain a better understanding of the horizontal and vertical movement dynamics of this species, Microwave Telemetry pop-up satellite archival X-Tags were attached to forty adult spiny dogfish at the northern (Gulf of Maine) and southern (North Carolina) extents of their core U.S. geographic range. Reconstructed geolocation tracks ranging in lengths from two to 12 months suggest that the seasonal migration patterns appear to be local in nature to each respective northern and southern deployment site, differing from previously published migration paradigms. Differences in distance and direction traveled between seasonal geolocations possibly indicate separate migratory patterns between groups. Kernel utilization distribution models also suggest strong separate core home ranges. Significant differences in seasonal temperature and depths between the two regions further substantiate the possibility of separate regional movement patterns between the two groups. Vertical utilization also suggests distinct diel patterns and that this species may not utilize the benthos as previously thought, potentially decreasing availability to benthic gear.

  18. 3-Methylcholanthrene does not induce in vitro xenobiotic metabolism in spiny lobster hepatopancreas, or affect in vivo disposition of benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, M O; Little, P J

    1984-01-01

    Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (10 mg/kg) i.m. to spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, did not cause induction of the cytochrome P-450 content of hepatopancreas microsomes. The rate of oxidation of benzo(a)pyrene or 7-ethoxyresorufin in reductase-fortified preparations of hepatopancreas microsomes was the same for corn oil-treated or 3-methylcholanthrene-treated lobsters. Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (10 mg/kg) i.m. to spiny lobsters one week prior to an i.v. dose of (/sup 14/C)benzo(a)pyrene (1 mg/kg) did not influence the disposition of the radiolabelled benzo(a)pyrene in lobsters. At one week after the dose of (/sup 14/C)benzo(a)pyrene, approximately 40% of the dose of (/sup 14/C)benzo(a)pyrene remained in the lobsters, regardless of treatment. The digestive tract (hepatopancreas, intestinal contents, stomach and intestine) contained most (86%) of the /sup 14/C remaining in the lobsters.

  19. Temporal variation in the prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in three Czech spiny-cheek crayfish populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matasová K.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available North American crayfish species are natural hosts of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci. The spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in Central Europe, is the main reservoir of A. astaci in Czech Republic. We tested if there are temporal changes in the prevalence of infected individuals (i.e., the proportion of individuals in which the pathogen is detected in spiny-cheek crayfish populations. Crayfish from three populations shown previously to be infected to different extents (high, intermediate and low, were repeatedly sampled in different years (2004–2010 and seasons. The presence of A. astaci in the soft abdominal crayfish cuticle was tested by specific amplification of the pathogen DNA. There was no substantial temporal variation in pathogen prevalence in the highly and very lowly infected populations. However, a significant long-term as well as seasonal decrease was found in the intermediately infected population. This decline could be related to a decrease in population density over the studied years, and to crayfish seasonal moulting, respectively. A reliable estimate of pathogen prevalence in American crayfish populations thus requires repeated monitoring over years, preferably during the same season before the main period of crayfish moulting.

  20. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  1. Diurnal variation of summer precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau. A cloud-resolving simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianyu; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Minghuan [China Meteorological Administration, Wuhan (China). Wuhan Inst. of Heavy Rain; Wang, Huijuan [Weather Modification Office of Hubei Province, Wuhan (China)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the diurnal variation in summer precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) at a cloudresolving scale. Compared with the TRMM, precipitation data shows that the model can well simulate the diurnal rainfall cycle with an overall late-afternoon maximum precipitation in the central TP and a nighttime maximum in the southern edge. The simulated diurnal variations in regional circulation and thermodynamics are in good correspondence with the precipitation diurnal cycles in the central and southern edge of TP, respectively. A possible mechanism responsible for the nocturnal precipitation maximum in the southern edge has been proposed, indicating the importance of the TP in regulating the regional circulation and precipitation. (orig.)

  2. Diurnal rhythm in serum levels of inhibin B in normal men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E; Olsson, C; Petersen, J H

    1999-01-01

    in the early morning hours and lower values in the late afternoon and evening. We did not find evidence for a role of FSH in this diurnal variation of inhibin B. However, covariation with serum levels of testosterone and estradiol suggested that these hormones might play a role in the diurnal rhythm of inhibin...

  3. Diurnal Reflectance Changes in Vegetation Observed with AVIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    Among the most important short-term dynamic biological processes are diurnal changes in canopy water relations. Plant regulation of water transport through stomatal openings affects other gaseous transport processes, often dramatically decreasing photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide during periods of water stress. Water stress reduces stomatal conductance of water vapor through the leaf surface and alters the diurnal timing of stomatal opening. Under non-water stressed conditions, stomates typically open soon after dawn and transpire water vapor throughout the daylight period. During stress periods, stomates may close for part of the day, generally near mid-day. Under prolonged stress conditions, stomatal closure shifts to earlier times during the day; stomates may close by mid-morning and remain closed until the following morning - or remain closed entirely. Under these conditions the relationship between canopy greenness (e.g., measured with a vegetation index or by spectral mixture analysis) and photosynthetic fixation of carbon is lost and the remotely sensed vegetation metric is a poor predictor of gas exchange. Prediction of stomatal regulation and exchange of water and trace gases is critical for ecosystem and climate models to correctly estimate budgets of these gases and understand or predict other processes like gross and net ecosystem primary production. Plant gas exchange has been extensively studied by physiologists at the leaf and whole plant level and by biometeorologists at somewhat larger scales. While these energy driven processes follow a predictable if somewhat asymmetric diurnal cycle dependent on soil water availability and the constraints imposed by the solar energy budget, they are nonetheless difficult to measure at the tree and stand levels using conventional methods. Ecologists have long been interested in the potential of remote sensing for monitoring physiological changes using multi-temporal images. Much of this research has

  4. Somatostatin receptor 1 and 5 double knockout mice mimic neurochemical changes of Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmesh S Rajput

    Full Text Available Selective degeneration of medium spiny neurons and preservation of medium sized aspiny interneurons in striatum has been implicated in excitotoxicity and pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD. However, the molecular mechanism for the selective sparing of medium sized aspiny neurons and vulnerability of projection neurons is still elusive. The pathological characteristic of HD is an extensive reduction of the striatal mass, affecting caudate putamen. Somatostatin (SST positive neurons are selectively spared in HD and Quinolinic acid/N-methyl-D-aspartic acid induced excitotoxicity, mimic the model of HD. SST plays neuroprotective role in excitotoxicity and the biological effects of SST are mediated by five somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5.To delineate subtype selective biological responses we have here investigated changes in SSTR1 and 5 double knockout mice brain and compared with HD transgenic mouse model (R6/2. Our study revealed significant loss of dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32 and comparable changes in SST, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors subtypes, calbindin and brain nitric oxide synthase expression as well as in key signaling proteins including calpain, phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases1/2, synapsin-IIa, protein kinase C-α and calcineurin in SSTR1/5(-/- and R6/2 mice. Conversely, the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes, enkephalin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases were strain specific. SSTR1/5 appears to be important in regulating NMDARs, DARPP-32 and signaling molecules in similar fashion as seen in HD transgenic mice.This is the first comprehensive description of disease related changes upon ablation of G- protein coupled receptor gene. Our results indicate that SST and SSTRs might play an important role in regulation of neurodegeneration and targeting this pathway can provide a novel insight in understanding the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease.

  5. Diurnal and stress-reactive dehydroepiandrosterone levels and telomere length in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, Andrew R; Meyer, Vanessa J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P; Esteves, Kyle C; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-05-01

    The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and telomere length (TL) in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C). TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05), while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging. © 2016 The authors.

  6. Diurnal and stress-reactive dehydroepiandrosterone levels and telomere length in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dismukes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and telomere length (TL in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C. TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05, while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging.

  7. The diurnal pattern of microwave backscattering by wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisco, B.; Brown, R.J.; Koehler, J.A.; Sofko, G.J.; McKibben, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A truck-mounted Ku-, C-, and L-band scatterometer system was used to obtain diurnal multiparameter radar backscatter measurements of wheat in August 1987 and June and July 1988. Concurrent field measurements of plant and soil moisture content were made in support of the radar data. Analyses of these data demonstrate the sensitivity of the microwave signals to the daily movement of water in the soil/plant system. The dependence of frequency, incidence angle, and polarization are discussed in relationship to the diurnal and seasonal changes in the soil and plant water content. The results are used to identify potential agronomic applications and future research requirements. (author)

  8. Detection of Panulirus argus Virus 1 in Caribbean spiny lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery-Fullerton, Megan M; Cooper, Roland A; Kauffman, Kathryn M; Shields, Jeffrey D; Ratzlaff, Robert E

    2007-06-07

    Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) is a pathogenic virus that infects Caribbean spiny lobsters P. argus in the Florida Keys. We have developed a PCR detection assay for PaV1 for the purpose of studying the natural history of the virus and for monitoring the prevalence of infection. The detection of the virus in hemolymph and other tissues is based on the PCR amplification of a 499 bp product using specific primers designed from a cloned fragment of the PaV1 genome. The sensitivity limit for the assay was 1.2 fg of purified viral DNA. The PaV1 primers did not react with lobster DNA, oyster DNA, Ostreid Herpesvirus 1, or murine cytomegalovirus. Using this assay, we successfully followed the course of infection in lobsters inoculated with PaV1 and we detected infections in wild-caught lobsters from the Florida Keys. We have also established guidelines for interpreting infection results from the PCR assay for PaV1.

  9. Latitudinal and longitudinal dependence of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy during 2001-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezari, Anastasia; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Katsinis, Dimitrios; Kanellakopoulos, Anastasios; Kolovi, Sofia; Plainaki, Christina; National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens; Andriopoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity for the time period 2001 to 2014 is studied, covering the maximum and the descending phase of solar cycle 23, the minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24, and the ascending phase and maximum of solar cycle 24. Cosmic ray intensity data from 11 neutron monitor stations located at different places around the Northern Hemisphere obtained from the high-resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) were used. Special software was developed for the calculations of the amplitude and the phase of the diurnal anisotropy vectors on annual and monthly basis using Fourier analysis and for the creation of the harmonic dial diagrams. The geomagnetic bending for each station was taken into account in our calculations determined from the asymptotic cones of each station via the Tsyganenko96 (Tsyganenko and Stern, 1996) magnetospheric model. From our analysis, it was resulted that there is a different behavior of the diurnal anisotropy vectors during the different phases of the solar cycles depending on the solar magnetic field polarity. The latitudinal and longitudinal distribution of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy was also examined by grouping the stations according to their geographic coordinates, and it was shown that diurnal variation is modulated not only by the latitude but also by the longitude of the stations. The diurnal anisotropy during strong events of solar and/or cosmic ray activity is discussed.

  10. Latitudinal and longitudinal dependence of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy during 2001-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezari, Anastasia; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Katsinis, Dimitrios; Kanellakopoulos, Anastasios; Kolovi, Sofia [National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens (Greece). Nuclear and Particle Physics Dept.; Plainaki, Christina [INAF-IAPS, Rome (Italy); National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens (Greece). Nuclear and Particle Physics Dept.; Andriopoulou, Maria [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria). Space Research Inst.

    2016-07-01

    The diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity for the time period 2001 to 2014 is studied, covering the maximum and the descending phase of solar cycle 23, the minimum between solar cycles 23 and 24, and the ascending phase and maximum of solar cycle 24. Cosmic ray intensity data from 11 neutron monitor stations located at different places around the Northern Hemisphere obtained from the high-resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) were used. Special software was developed for the calculations of the amplitude and the phase of the diurnal anisotropy vectors on annual and monthly basis using Fourier analysis and for the creation of the harmonic dial diagrams. The geomagnetic bending for each station was taken into account in our calculations determined from the asymptotic cones of each station via the Tsyganenko96 (Tsyganenko and Stern, 1996) magnetospheric model. From our analysis, it was resulted that there is a different behavior of the diurnal anisotropy vectors during the different phases of the solar cycles depending on the solar magnetic field polarity. The latitudinal and longitudinal distribution of the cosmic ray diurnal anisotropy was also examined by grouping the stations according to their geographic coordinates, and it was shown that diurnal variation is modulated not only by the latitude but also by the longitude of the stations. The diurnal anisotropy during strong events of solar and/or cosmic ray activity is discussed.

  11. Using a 1-D model to reproduce diurnal SST signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    The diurnal variability of SST has been extensively studied as it poses challenges for validating and calibrating satellite sensors, merging SST time series, oceanic and atmospheric modelling. As heat is significantly trapped close to the surface, the diurnal signal’s maximum amplitude is best...... captured by radiometers. The availability of infra-red retrievals from a geostationary orbit allows the hourly monitoring of the diurnal SST evolution. When infra-red SSTs are validated with in situ measurements a general mismatch is found, associated with the different reference depth of each type...... of measurement. A generally preferred approach to bridge the gap between in situ and remotely obtained measurements is through modelling of the upper ocean temperature. This ESA supported study focuses on the implementation of the 1 dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), in order to resolve...

  12. Reproducibility of summertime diurnal precipitation over northern Eurasia simulated by CMIP5 climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, N.; Takayabu, Y. N.

    2015-12-01

    Reproducibility of diurnal precipitation over northern Eurasia simulated by CMIP5 climate models in their historical runs were evaluated, in comparison with station data (NCDC-9813) and satellite data (GSMaP-V5). We first calculated diurnal cycles by averaging precipitation at each local solar time (LST) in June-July-August during 1981-2000 over the continent of northern Eurasia (0-180E, 45-90N). Then we examined occurrence time of maximum precipitation and a contribution of diurnally varying precipitation to the total precipitation.The contribution of diurnal precipitation was about 21% in both NCDC-9813 and GSMaP-V5. The maximum precipitation occurred at 18LST in NCDC-9813 but 16LST in GSMaP-V5, indicating some uncertainties even in the observational datasets. The diurnal contribution of the CMIP5 models varied largely from 11% to 62%, and their timing of the precipitation maximum ranged from 11LST to 20LST. Interestingly, the contribution and the timing had strong negative correlation of -0.65. The models with larger diurnal precipitation showed precipitation maximum earlier around noon. Next, we compared sensitivity of precipitation to surface temperature and tropospheric humidity between 5 models with large diurnal precipitation (LDMs) and 5 models with small diurnal precipitation (SDMs). Precipitation in LDMs showed high sensitivity to surface temperature, indicating its close relationship with local instability. On the other hand, synoptic disturbances were more active in SDMs with a dominant role of the large scale condensation, and precipitation in SDMs was more related with tropospheric moisture. Therefore, the relative importance of the local instability and the synoptic disturbances was suggested to be an important factor in determining the contribution and timing of the diurnal precipitation. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

  13. DIURNAL CHANGES IN LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATIVE WATER CONTENT OF GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in light intensity, air temperature and relative air humidity leads to diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and leaf relative water content. In order to determine the diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate of vine plants and influence of the main environmental factors, gas exchange in the vine leaves were measure using a portable plant CO2 analysis package. The results show that diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate could be interpreted as single-peak curve, with a maximum at noon (10.794 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Leaf relative water content has maximum value in the morning; the values may slightly decrease during the day (day of June, with normal temperature, no rain, no water restriction in soil.

  14. Diurnal variation of zooplankton off Versova (Bombay)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    Physicochemical parameters and diurnal variaion of zooplankton were studied off Versova on 17/18 February 1981. Salinity and dissolved oxygen showed limited variation during the period of study. Nutrient values followed the tidal rhythm and high...

  15. Grow-out of spiny lobster Panulirus sp. with high stocking density in controlled tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Yusufi Subhan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this research was to determine optimum stocking density for growing-out of spiny lobster Panulirus sp. in controlled tanks that conducted for 30 days. The experimental spiny lobsters have the initial average weight of 130.39 ± 0.32 g and initial average total length of 140.70 ± 0.06 mm. This study used completely randomized design with three different stocking densities (KT10: 10 ind/m3; KT18: 18 ind/m3; and KT26: 26 ind/m3 and two replications. The parameters observed in this study included water quality (temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and total ammonia nitrogen, physiological responses (total haemocyte count, haemolymph glucose, and frequency of molt, and production performances, such as growth, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The results showed that the spiny lobster could be reared in high stocking density in controlled tanks. Water quality during the study in each treatment was; temperature 26.56–28.65oC, salinity 29.7–33.6 g/L, pH 7.5–8.5, dissolved oxygen 6.15–6.58 mg/L, and total ammonia nitrogen 0.11–0.34 mg/L. The best stocking densities for spiny lobster was 18 ind/m3 (KT18 with 2.5‒3.5×106cells/mL total haemocyte counts, 24.6‒28.3 mg/dL haemolymph glucose, and 38.37 ± 3.20% frequency of molt. The final average body weight and length were 145.06 ± 0.42 g and 142.77 ± 0.19 mm, respectively. The survival rate reached 86.11 ± 3.92% with a specific growth rate 0.35 ± 0.01%/day, and feed conversion ratio 7.87 ± 0.31.Keywords: high stocking density, Panulirus sp., physiological responses, productivity.  ABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan kepadatan terbaik dalam pembesaran lobster laut Panulirus sp. yang dipelihara dalam bak terkontrol selama 30 hari. Lobster laut yang digunakan pada awal penelitian memiliki bobot 130,39 ± 0,32 g dan panjang total 140,70 ± 0,06 mm. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan

  16. Diurnal and Nocturnal Pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAR, SALEEM; ARIZMENDI, Ma. del CORO; VALIENTE-BANUET, ALFONSO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Chiropterophillous and ornithophillous characteristics can form part of a single reproductive strategy in plants that have flowers with diurnal and nocturnal anthesis. This broader pollination strategy can ensure seed set when pollinators are scarce or unpredictable. This appears to be true of hummingbirds, which presumably pollinate Marginatocereus marginatus, a columnar cactus with red nocturnal and diurnal flowers growing as part of dense bat-pollinated columnar cacti forests in arid regions of central Mexico. The aim of this study was to study the floral biology of M. marginatus, and evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators and the contribution of each pollinator group to overall plant fitness. • Methods Individual flower buds were marked and followed to evaluate flower phenology and anthesis time. Flowers and nectar production were measured. An exclusion experiment was conducted to measure the relative contribution of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators to seed set. • Key Results Marginatocereus marginatus has red hermaphroditic flowers with nocturnal and diurnal anthesis. The plant cannot produce seeds by selfing and was pollinated during the day by hummingbirds and during the night by bats, demonstrating that both pollinator groups were important for plant reproduction. Strong pollen limitation was found in the absence of one of the pollinator guilds. • Conclusions Marginatocereus marginatus has an open pollination system in which both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators are needed to set seeds. This represents a fail-safe pollination system that can ensure both pollination, in a situation of low abundance of one of the pollinator groups (hummingbirds), and high competition for nocturnal pollinators with other columnar cacti that bloom synchronously with M. marginatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. PMID:16394025

  17. Diurnal cortisol slopes and mental and physical health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K; Quinn, Meghan E; Tavernier, Royette; McQuillan, Mollie T; Dahlke, Katie A; Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2017-09-01

    Changes in levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol from morning to evening are referred to as diurnal cortisol slopes. Flatter diurnal cortisol slopes have been proposed as a mediator between chronic psychosocial stress and poor mental and physical health outcomes in past theory and research. Surprisingly, neither a systematic nor a meta-analytic review of associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and health has been conducted to date, despite extensive literature on the topic. The current systematic review and meta-analysis examined associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and physical and mental health outcomes. Analyses were based on 179 associations from 80 studies for the time period up to January 31, 2015. Results indicated a significant association between flatter diurnal cortisol slopes and poorer health across all studies (average effect size, r=0.147). Further, flatter diurnal cortisol slopes were associated with poorer health in 10 out of 12 subtypes of emotional and physical health outcomes examined. Among these subtypes, the effect size was largest for immune/inflammation outcomes (r=0.288). Potential moderators of the associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and health outcomes were examined, including type of slope measure and study quality indices. The possible roles of flatter slopes as either a marker or a mechanism for disease etiology are discussed. We argue that flatter diurnal cortisol slopes may both reflect and contribute to stress-related dysregulation of central and peripheral circadian mechanisms, with corresponding downstream effects on multiple aspects of biology, behavior, and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land uses on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qihong; Chang, Jianguo; Hou, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming.

  19. Diurnal variations of indoor radon progeny for Bangalore metropolitan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagesh, V.; Sathish, L.A.; Nagaraja, K.; Sundareshan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Radon progenies are identified as major causes of the lung cancer if the activity is above its normal. It has not been clear whether radon poses a similar risk of causing lung cancer in humans exposed at generally lower levels found in homes, but a number of indoor radon survey have been carried out in recent years around the world. In view of this an attempt has been made for the measurement of diurnal variation of indoor radon levels for the environment of Bangalore metropolitan, India. The Radon progeny concentrations in terms of working level were measured using Kusnetz's method. The patterns of daily and annual changes in indoor Radon concentration have been observed in a general way for many years. However, understanding of the physical basis for these changes had to await the development of continuous monitors and a more complete knowledge of transport processes in the atmosphere. Over a continent, heating of the ground surface by the Sun during the day and cooling by radiation during the night causes a marked diurnal change in temperature near the surface. As a result cool air near the ground will accumulate radon isotopes from surface flux during the night; while during the day the warm air will be transported upward carrying radon with it. Many buildings show diurnal radon variations. Concentrations are relatively higher during night than daytime. This is influenced by the outdoor-indoor temperature contrast. This effect can be enhanced in buildings with strong diurnal use patterns. Buildings that have high average radon concentrations, but are only occupied for part of the day, may need to be measured during occupied periods to determine if there is significant diurnal radon variation. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  20. Global distributions of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides: observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Interferometer-UARS winds data have been analyzed in 4° latitude by 10° longitude cells at 96 km to obtain global contour maps of solar-tidal amplitudes and phases, and also mean winds. The solstices June–July (1993, December–January (1993–1994, and one equinox September–October (1994 are shown.  The 24-h diurnal tide that maximizes near the 20–25° latitude has significant seasonal changes with equinoctial maxima, and very clear longitudinal variability. Maxima are very clear over the oceans. In contrast, the 12-h semi-diurnal tides that maximize near the 40–55° latitude have very strong seasonal changes with winter maxima, and more modest longitudinal changes. The similarities with MLT (mesosphere-lower thermosphere radar observations (90 km and the GSWM (Global Scale Wave Model are very satisfactory. The mean winds are consistent with expectations and show clear poleward flow from summer to winter hemispheres in the solstices.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides Radio science (remote sensing

  1. Monthly variations of diurnal rainfall in north coast of West Java Indonesia during boreal winter periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulihastin, E.; Trismidianto

    2018-05-01

    Diurnal rainfall during the active monsoon period is usually associated with the highest convective activity that often triggers extreme rainfall. Investigating diurnal rainfall behavior in the north coast of West Java is important to recognize the behavioral trends of data leading to such extreme events in strategic West Java because the city of Jakarta is located in this region. Variability of diurnal rainfall during the period of active monsoon on December-January-February (DJF) composite during the 2000-2016 period was investigated using hourly rainfall data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B41RT dataset. Through the Empirical Mode Decomposition method was appears that the diurnal rain cycle during February has increased significantly in its amplitude and frequency. It is simultaneously shows that the indication of extreme rainfall events is related to diurnal rain divergences during February shown through phase shifts. The diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal cycles appear on the characteristics of the DJF composite rainfall data during the 2000-2016 period.The significant increases in amplitude occurred during February are the diurnal (IMF 3) and terdiurnal (IMF 1) of rainfall cycles.

  2. Diurnal periodicity in the activity of the common sole, solea vulgaris quensel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruuk, H.

    1963-01-01

    1. 1. The diurnal rhythm in the trawl catch of Solea vulgaris Quensel gave rise to this investigation into the diurnal activity rhythm of the fish. 2. 2. Periodicity in the food intake of the Sole in its natural habitat was studied by analyses of the contents of the intestines. Food intake

  3. Loss of Mitochondrial Ndufs4 in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons Mediates Progressive Motor Impairment in a Mouse Model of Leigh Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inability of mitochondria to generate energy leads to severe and often fatal myoencephalopathies. Among these, Leigh syndrome (LS is one of the most common childhood mitochondrial diseases; it is characterized by hypotonia, failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency and progressive mental and motor dysfunction, leading to early death. Basal ganglia nuclei, including the striatum, are affected in LS patients. However, neither the identity of the affected cell types in the striatum nor their contribution to the disease has been established. Here, we used a mouse model of LS lacking Ndufs4, a mitochondrial complex I subunit, to confirm that loss of complex I, but not complex II, alters respiration in the striatum. To assess the role of striatal dysfunction in the pathology, we selectively inactivated Ndufs4 in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs, which account for over 95% of striatal neurons. Our results show that lack of Ndufs4 in MSNs causes a non-fatal progressive motor impairment without affecting the cognitive function of mice. Furthermore, no inflammatory responses or neuronal loss were observed up to 6 months of age. Hence, complex I deficiency in MSNs contributes to the motor deficits observed in LS, but not to the neural degeneration, suggesting that other neuronal populations drive the plethora of clinical signs in LS.

  4. Scale interactions on diurnal toseasonal timescales and their relevanceto model systematic errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Examples of current research into systematic errors in climate models are used to demonstrate the importance of scale interactions on diurnal,intraseasonal and seasonal timescales for the mean and variability of the tropical climate system. It has enabled some conclusions to be drawn about possible processes that may need to be represented, and some recommendations to be made regarding model improvements. It has been shown that the Maritime Continent heat source is a major driver of the global circulation but yet is poorly represented in GCMs. A new climatology of the diurnal cycle has been used to provide compelling evidence of important land-sea breeze and gravity wave effects, which may play a crucial role in the heat and moisture budget of this key region for the tropical and global circulation. The role of the diurnal cycle has also been emphasized for intraseasonal variability associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO. It is suggested that the diurnal cycle in Sea Surface Temperature (SST during the suppressed phase of the MJO leads to a triggering of cumulus congestus clouds, which serve to moisten the free troposphere and hence precondition the atmosphere for the next active phase. It has been further shown that coupling between the ocean and atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales leads to a more realistic simulation of the MJO. These results stress the need for models to be able to simulate firstly, the observed tri-modal distribution of convection, and secondly, the coupling between the ocean and atmosphere on diurnal to intraseasonal timescales. It is argued, however, that the current representation of the ocean mixed layer in coupled models is not adequate to represent the complex structure of the observed mixed layer, in particular the formation of salinity barrier layers which can potentially provide much stronger local coupling between the atmosphere and ocean on diurnal to intraseasonal timescales.

  5. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N=147 were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (<0.05 and work experience (<0.05 were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR] =5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3 was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR=0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43 than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city.

  6. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalf, J.G.; Munneke, M.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  7. Chronic Powder Diet After Weaning Induces Sleep, Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Neurophysiological Changes in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Anegawa

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of chronic powder diet feeding on sleep patterns and other physiological/anatomical changes in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups from weaning: a group fed with solid food (SD and a group fed with powder food (PD, and sleep and physiological and anatomical changes were compared between the groups. PD exhibited less cranial bone structure development and a significant weight gain. Furthermore, these PD mice showed reduced number of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Sleep analysis showed that PD induced attenuated diurnal sleep/wake rhythm, characterized by increased sleep during active period and decreased sleep during rest period. With food deprivation (FD, PD showed less enhancement of wake/locomotor activity compared to SD, indicating reduced food-seeking behavior during FD. These results suggest that powder feeding in mice results in a cluster of detrimental symptoms caused by abnormal energy metabolism and anatomical/neurological changes.

  8. Global distributions of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides: observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    Full Text Available HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Interferometer-UARS winds data have been analyzed in 4° latitude by 10° longitude cells at 96 km to obtain global contour maps of solar-tidal amplitudes and phases, and also mean winds. The solstices June–July (1993, December–January (1993–1994, and one equinox September–October (1994 are shown. 

    The 24-h diurnal tide that maximizes near the 20–25° latitude has significant seasonal changes with equinoctial maxima, and very clear longitudinal variability. Maxima are very clear over the oceans. In contrast, the 12-h semi-diurnal tides that maximize near the 40–55° latitude have very strong seasonal changes with winter maxima, and more modest longitudinal changes. The similarities with MLT (mesosphere-lower thermosphere radar observations (90 km and the GSWM (Global Scale Wave Model are very satisfactory. The mean winds are consistent with expectations and show clear poleward flow from summer to winter hemispheres in the solstices.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides Radio science (remote sensing

  9. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available for a pixel concerned. Robust fitting of observed Diurnal Temperature Cycle (DTC) taken over a day of a given pixel without cloud cover and other abnormally conditions such as fire can give a data based brightness temperature model for a given pixel...

  10. Diurnal cortisol rhythms, fatigue and psychosocial factors in five-year survivors of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Michaela G; Schrepf, Andrew; Slavich, George M; Thaker, Premal H; Goodheart, Michael; Bender, David; Cole, Steve W; Sood, Anil K; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a challenge in ovarian cancer survivorship and greatly impacts quality of life. In other cancer populations, fatigue has been associated with abnormal diurnal cortisol patterns. However, little is known about biological and behavioral factors in 5+-year ovarian cancer survivors and potential mechanisms underlying persistent fatigue have not been investigated in this population. Moreover, relationships between neuroendocrine and psychosocial factors in 5+-year ovarian cancer survivors have not been studied. We addressed these issues by examining relationships between diurnal cortisol rhythms, fatigue, life stress, and social support in 30 survivors of ovarian cancer who were assessed at least 5 years (mean=6.20years) following their primary diagnosis. Flatter diurnal cortisol slopes were associated with higher levels of fatigue, suggesting a role for HPA-axis dysregulation in sustained fatigue experienced by survivors. Moreover, greater cumulative lifetime stressor exposure (p=0.023) and stressor severity (p=0.004) were associated with flatter diurnal cortisol slopes, while higher social attachment (p=0.001) was associated with steeper diurnal cortisol slopes. These findings suggest that ovarian cancer survivors with greater lifetime stress exposure or lower social attachment may be at increased risk for circadian rhythm disruption, which in turn is associated with fatigue. Future research should examine relationships of clinical stage and inflammatory cytokines to cortisol rhythms and fatigue in long-term ovarian cancer survivors, as well as investigating the clinical significance of abnormal diurnal cortisol profiles in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facilitation by a Spiny Shrub on a Rhizomatous Clonal Herbaceous in Thicketization-Grassland in Northern China: Increased Soil Resources or Shelter from Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saixiyala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of fertility islands by shrubs increases soil resources heterogeneity in thicketization-grasslands. Clonal plants, especially rhizomatous or stoloniferous clonal plants, can form large clonal networks and use heterogeneously distributed resources effectively. In addition, shrubs, especially spiny shrubs, may also provide herbaceous plants with protection from herbivores, acting as ‘shelters’. The interaction between pre-dominated clonal herbaceous plants and encroaching shrubs remains unclear in thicketization-grassland under grazing pressure. We hypothesized that clonal herbaceous plants can be facilitated by encroached shrubs as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ and/or as an ‘increased soil resources’ under grazing pressure. To test this hypothesis, a total of 60 quadrats were chosen in a thicket-grassland in northern China that was previously dominated by Leymus chinensis and was encroached upon by the spiny leguminous plant Caragana intermedia. The soil and plant traits beneath and outside the shrub canopies were sampled, investigated and contrasted with an enclosure. The soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen and soil water content were significantly higher in the soil beneath the shrub canopies than in the soil outside the canopies. L. chinensis beneath the shrub canopies had significantly higher plant height, single shoot biomass, leaf length and width than outside the shrub canopies. There were no significantly differences between plant growth in enclosure and outside the shrub canopies. These results suggested that under grazing pressure in a grassland undergoing thicketization, the growth of the rhizomatous clonal herbaceous plant L. chinensis was facilitated by the spiny shrub C. intermedia as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ more than through ‘increased soil resources’. We propose that future studies should focus on the community- and ecosystem-level impacts of plant clonality.

  12. Effects of Fruit Toxins on Intestinal and Microbial β-Glucosidase Activities of Seed-Predating and Seed-Dispersing Rodents (Acomys spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Kevin D; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Lymberakis, Petros; Kurnath, Patrice; Izhaki, Ido; Arad, Zeev; Karasov, William H; Dearing, M Denise

    2016-01-01

    Plant secondary compounds (PSCs) have profound influence on the ecological interaction between plants and their consumers. Glycosides, a class of PSC, are inert in their intact form and become toxic on activation by either plant β-glucosidase enzymes or endogenous β-glucosidases produced by the intestine of the plant-predator or its microbiota. Many insect herbivores decrease activities of endogenous β-glucosidases to limit toxin exposure. However, such an adaptation has never been investigated in nonmodel mammals. We studied three species of spiny mice (Acomys spp.) that vary in their feeding behavior of the glycoside-rich fruit of Ochradenus baccatus. Two species, the common (Acomys cahirinus) and Crete (Acomys minous) spiny mice, behaviorally avoid activating glycosides, while the golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) regularly consumes activated glycosides. We fed each species a nontoxic diet of inert glycosides or a toxic diet of activated fruit toxins and investigated the responses of intestinal and microbial β-glucosidase activities. We found that individuals feeding on activated toxins had lower intestinal β-glucosidase activity and that the species that behaviorally avoid activating glycosides also had lower intestinal β-glucosidase activity regardless of treatment. The microbiota represented a larger source of toxin liberation, and the toxin-adapted species (golden spiny mouse) exhibited almost a fivefold increase in microbial β-glucosidase when fed activated toxins, while other species showed slight decreases. These results are contrary to those in insects, where glycoside-adapted species have lower β-glucosidase activity. The glycoside-adapted golden spiny mouse may have evolved tolerance mechanisms such as enhanced detoxification rather than avoidance mechanisms.

  13. Studying Diurnal Variations of Aerosols with NASA MERRA-2 Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Zeng, Jian; Vollmer, Bruce E.

    2018-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in atmospheric dynamics, climate variations, and Earth's energy cycle by altering the radiation balance in the atmosphere through interaction with clouds, providing fertilizer for forests and canopy, and as a supply of iron to the ocean over long time periods. Studies suggest that much of the feedback between dust aerosols and dynamics is associated with diurnal and synoptic scale variability. However, the lack of sub-daily resolution of aerosols from satellite observations makes it difficult to study the diurnal characteristics, especially over tropical and subtropical regions. Investigation of this topic utilizes over 37 years of simulated global aerosol products from NASA atmospheric reanalysis, in the second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) data set, available from NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). MERRA-2 covers the period 1980-present, and is continuing as an ongoing climate analysis. Aerosol assimilation is included throughout the period, using data from MODIS, MISR, AERONET, and AVHRR (in the pre-EOS period). The aerosols are assimilated using the MERRA-2 aerosol model, which interacts directly with radiation parameterization, and is radiatively coupled with atmospheric model dynamics in the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5). Hourly, monthly, and monthly diurnal data are available at spatial resolution of 0.5o x 0.625o (latitude x longitude). By using MERRA-2 hourly and monthly diurnal products, different aerosol diurnal variabilities are observed over North America, Africa, Asia, and Australia, that may be due to different meteorological conditions and aerosol sources. The presentation will also provide an overview of MERRA-2 data services at GES DISC, such as how to find and download data, and how to quickly visualize and analyze data online with Giovanni.

  14. The impact of negative family-work spillover on diurnal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Imami, Ledina; Slatcher, Richard B

    2016-10-01

    Both dimensions of the work-family interface, work-to-family and family-to-work spillover, have important implications for health and well-being. Despite the importance of these associations, very little is known about the physiological mechanisms through which the interplay between family and work experiences are translated into long-lasting consequences for health. This study investigated both positive and negative aspects of each spillover dimension on diurnal cortisol secretion patterns in a large panel study of working adults between the ages of 33 and 80. Greater negative family-to-work (NFW) spillover predicted lower wake-up cortisol values and a flatter (less "healthy") diurnal cortisol slope. This effect was evident even after controlling for the effects of the other spillover dimensions. These findings indicate that not all aspects of the work-family interface might impact stress physiology to the same extent and suggest that diurnal cortisol may be an important pathway through which negative aspects of the work-family interface leave their mark on health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. natalensis) and diurn'al (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermo neutral zone for both speCies was found to be at T. = 32 ± 1 °e. Below the lower critical point. Vo. for the diurnal species (R. pumilio) was significantly higher. (p

  16. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  17. Impact of assimilation window length on diurnal features in a Mars atmospheric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective simulation of diurnal variability is an important aspect of many geophysical data assimilation systems. For the Martian atmosphere, thermal tides are particularly prominent and contribute much to the Martian atmospheric circulation, dynamics and dust transport. To study the Mars diurnal variability and Mars thermal tides, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars Global Climate Model with the 4D-local ensemble transform Kalman filter (4D-LETKF is used to perform an analysis assimilating spacecraft temperature retrievals. We find that the use of a ‘traditional’ 6-hr assimilation cycle induces spurious forcing of a resonantly enhanced semi-diurnal Kelvin waves represented in both surface pressure and mid-level temperature by forming a wave 4 pattern in the diurnal averaged analysis increment that acts as a ‘topographic’ stationary forcing. Different assimilation window lengths in the 4D-LETKF are introduced to remove the artificially induced resonance. It is found that short assimilation window lengths not only remove the spurious resonance, but also push the migrating semi-diurnal temperature variation at 50 Pa closer to the estimated ‘true’ tides even in the absence of a radiatively active water ice cloud parameterisation. In order to compare the performance of different assimilation window lengths, short-term to mid-range forecasts based on the hour 00 and 12 assimilation are evaluated and compared. Results show that during Northern Hemisphere summer, it is not the assimilation window length, but the radiatively active water ice clouds that influence the model prediction. A ‘diurnal bias correction’ that includes bias correction fields dependent on the local time is shown to effectively reduce the forecast root mean square differences between forecasts and observations, compensate for the absence of water ice cloud parameterisation and enhance Martian atmosphere prediction. The implications of these results for

  18. Simulation of the Universal-Time Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Charging Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackerras, D.; Darvenzia, M.; Orville, R. E.; Williams, E. R.; Goodman, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    A global lightning model that includes diurnal and annual lightning variation, and total flash density versus latitude for each major land and ocean, has been used as the basis for simulating the global electric circuit charging rate. A particular objective has been to reconcile the difference in amplitude ratios [AR=(max-min)/mean] between global lightning diurnal variation (AR approx. = 0.8) and the diurnal variation of typical atmospheric potential gradient curves (AR approx. = 0.35). A constraint on the simulation is that the annual mean charging current should be about 1000 A. The global lightning model shows that negative ground flashes can contribute, at most, about 10-15% of the required current. For the purpose of the charging rate simulation, it was assumed that each ground flash contributes 5 C to the charging process. It was necessary to assume that all electrified clouds contribute to charging by means other than lightning, that the total flash rate can serve as an indirect indicator of the rate of charge transfer, and that oceanic electrified clouds contribute to charging even though they are relatively inefficient in producing lightning. It was also found necessary to add a diurnally invariant charging current component. By trial and error it was found that charging rate diurnal variation curves in Universal time (UT) could be produced with amplitude ratios and general shapes similar to those of the potential gradient diurnal variation curves measured over ocean and arctic regions during voyages of the Carnegie Institute research vessels.

  19. Diurnal tides in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D numerical model with a space grid of about 14 km is applied to calculate diurnal tidal constituents K(1) and O(1) in the Arctic Ocean. Calculated corange and cotidal charts show that along the continental slope, local regions of increased sea level amplitude, highly variable phase and enhanced currents occur. It is shown that in these local regions, shelf waves (topographic waves) of tidal origin are generated. In the Arctic Ocean and Northern Atlantic Ocean more than 30 regions of enhanced currents are identified. To prove the near-resonant interaction of the diurnal tides with the local bottom topography, the natural periods of oscillations for all regions have been calculated. The flux of energy averaged over the tidal period depicts the gyres of semitrapped energy, suggesting that the shelf waves are partially trapped over the irregularities of the bottom topography. It is shown that the occurrence of near-resonance phenomenon changes the energy flow in the tidal waves. First, the flux of energy from the astronomical sources is amplified in the shelf wave regions, and afterwards the tidal energy is strongly dissipated in the same regions.

  20. Diurnal and circadian expression profiles of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Andrés, Fernando; Kanehara, Kazue; Liu, Yu-chi; Coupland, George; Dörmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Glycerolipid composition in plant membranes oscillates in response to diurnal change. However, its functional significance remained unclear. A recent discovery that Arabidopsis florigen FT binds diurnally oscillating phosphatidylcholine molecules to promote flowering suggests that diurnal oscillation of glycerolipid composition is an important input in flowering time control. Taking advantage of public microarray data, we globally analyzed the expression pattern of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis under long-day, short-day, and continuous light conditions. The results revealed that 12 genes associated with glycerolipid metabolism showed significant oscillatory profiles. Interestingly, expression of most of these genes followed circadian profiles, suggesting that glycerolipid biosynthesis is partially under clock regulation. The oscillating expression profile of one representative gene, PECT1, was analyzed in detail. Expression of PECT1 showed a circadian pattern highly correlated with that of the clock-regulated gene GIGANTEA. Thus, our study suggests that a considerable number of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes are under circadian control.

  1. Cell and molecular biology of SAE, a cell line from the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Angela; Forest, David; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Dowell, Lori; Bayne, Christopher; Barnes, David

    2007-02-01

    Cartilaginous fish, primarily sharks, rays and skates (elasmobranchs), appeared 450 million years ago. They are the most primitive vertebrates, exhibiting jaws and teeth, adaptive immunity, a pressurized circulatory system, thymus, spleen, and a liver comparable to that of humans. The most used elasmobranch in biomedical research is the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias. Comparative genomic analysis of the dogfish shark, the little skate (Leucoraja erincea), and other elasmobranchs have yielded insights into conserved functional domains of genes associated with human liver function, multidrug resistance, cystic fibrosis, and other biomedically relevant processes. While genomic information from these animals is informative in an evolutionary framework, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. We have derived the first multipassage, continuously proliferating cell line of a cartilaginous fish. The line was initiated from embryos of the spiny dogfish shark. The cells were maintained in a medium modified for fish species and supplemented with cell type-specific hormones, other proteins and sera, and plated on a collagen substrate. SAE cells have been cultured continuously for three years. These cells can be transfected by plasmids and have been cryopreserved. Expressed Sequence Tags generated from a normalized SAE cDNA library included a number of markers for cartilage and muscle, as well as proteins influencing tissue differentiation and development, suggesting that SAE cells may be of mesenchymal stem cell origin. Examination of SAE EST sequences also revealed a cartilaginous fish-specific repetitive sequence that may be evidence of an ancient mobile genetic element that most likely was introduced into the cartilaginous fish lineage after divergence from the lineage leading to teleosts.

  2. Stock assessment of the red spiny lobster (Panulirus argus caught in the tropical southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humber A Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The stocks of the red spiny lobster (Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 in the Caribbean and in the Brazilian coast are of considerable economic importance. There are important genetic differences between the Brazilian and Caribbean populations, which support separated stock assessment. The present study provides an assessment of the Brazilian stock of P. argus using a biomass dynamic model based on a Bayesian approach. Assuming that the catch per unit effort is a valid index of relative abundance, the results of the analysis indicate that stocks have been heavily overexploited since the 1980s. The present-day scenario is pessimistic, and there is evidence that the stock may be close to collapse.

  3. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the Amazonian diurnal cycle to convective intensity in reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itterly, Kyle F.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2017-02-01

    Model parameterizations of tropical deep convection are unable to reproduce the observed diurnal and spatial variability of convection in the Amazon, which contributes to climatological biases in the water cycle and energy budget. Convective intensity regimes are defined using percentiles of daily minimum 3-hourly averaged outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This study compares the observed spatial variability of convective diurnal cycle statistics for each regime to MERRA-2 and ERA-Interim (ERA) reanalysis data sets. Composite diurnal cycle statistics are computed for daytime hours (06:00-21:00 local time) in the wet season (December-January-February). MERRA-2 matches observations more closely than ERA for domain averaged composite diurnal statistics—specifically precipitation. However, ERA reproduces mesoscale features of OLR and precipitation phase associated with topography and the propagation of the coastal squall line. Both reanalysis models are shown to underestimate extreme convection.

  4. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Atmospheric Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfeng Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high ambient ozone concentrations have become one of the major regional air quality issues in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, as key precursors of ozone, were found to be the limiting factor in photochemical ozone formation for large areas in the PRD. For source apportioning of NMHCs as well as ozone pollution control strategies, it is necessary to obtain typical seasonal and diurnal patterns of NMHCs with a large pool of field data. To date, few studies have focused on seasonal and diurnal variations of NMHCs in urban areas of Guangzhou. This study explored the seasonal variations of most hydrocarbons concentrations with autumn maximum and spring minimum in Guangzhou. The diurnal variations of most anthropogenic NMHCs typically showed two-peak pattern with one at 8:00 in the morning and another at 20:00 in the evening, both corresponding to traffic rush hours in Guangzhou, whereas isoprene displayed a different bimodal diurnal curve. Propene, ethene, m, p-xylene and toluene were the four largest contributors to ozone formation in Guangzhou, based on the evaluation of individual NMHCs’ photochemical reactivity. Therefore, an effective strategy for controlling ozone pollution may be achieved by the reduction of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou.

  5. Moderation of genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference by age in adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Watson, Nathaniel F; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Diurnal preference changes across the lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying this age-related shift are poorly understood. The aim of this twin study was to determine the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference are moderated by age. Seven hundred and sixty-eight monozygotic and 674 dizygotic adult twin pairs participating in the University of Washington Twin Registry completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire as a measure of diurnal preference. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 93 years (mean = 36.23, SD = 15.54) and were categorized on the basis of age into three groups: younger adulthood (19-35 years, n = 1715 individuals), middle adulthood (36-64 years, n = 1003 individuals) and older adulthood (65+ years, n = 168 individuals). Increasing age was associated with an increasing tendency towards morningness (r = 0.42, p influences for the total sample as well as for each age group separately. Additive genetic influences accounted for 52%[46-57%], and non-shared environmental influences 48%[43-54%], of the total variance in diurnal preference. In comparing univariate genetic models between age groups, the best-fitting model was one in which the parameter estimates for younger adults and older adults were equated, in comparison with middle adulthood. For younger and older adulthood, additive genetic influences accounted for 44%[31-49%] and non-shared environmental influences 56%[49-64%] of variance in diurnal preference, whereas for middle adulthood these estimates were 34%[21-45%] and 66%[55-79%], respectively. Therefore, genetic influences on diurnal preference are attenuated in middle adulthood. Attenuation is likely driven by the increased importance of work and family responsibilities during this life stage, in comparison with younger and older adulthood when these factors may be less influential in determining sleep-wake timing. These findings have implications for studies

  6. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US. Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. The GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited diurnal fluctuations in summertime. The summertime PBM diurnal pattern displayed daily maxima in the early afternoon and lower mixing ratios at night, implying photochemical production of PBM in summer.

  7. Analysis of the Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Obtained From Different Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánský, Jaroslav; Lucas, Greg M.; Kalb, Christina; Bayona, Victor; Peterson, Michael J.; Deierling, Wiebke; Flyer, Natasha; Pasko, Victor P.

    2017-12-01

    This work analyzes different current source and conductivity parameterizations and their influence on the diurnal variation of the global electric circuit (GEC). The diurnal variations of the current source parameterizations obtained using electric field and conductivity measurements from plane overflights combined with global Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite data give generally good agreement with measured diurnal variation of the electric field at Vostok, Antarctica, where reference experimental measurements are performed. An approach employing 85 GHz passive microwave observations to infer currents within the GEC is compared and shows the best agreement in amplitude and phase with experimental measurements. To study the conductivity influence, GEC models solving the continuity equation in 3-D are used to calculate atmospheric resistance using yearly averaged conductivity obtained from the global circulation model Community Earth System Model (CESM). Then, using current source parameterization combining mean currents and global counts of electrified clouds, if the exponential conductivity is substituted by the conductivity from CESM, the peak to peak diurnal variation of the ionospheric potential of the GEC decreases from 24% to 20%. The main reason for the change is the presence of clouds while effects of 222Rn ionization, aerosols, and topography are less pronounced. The simulated peak to peak diurnal variation of the electric field at Vostok is increased from 15% to 18% from the diurnal variation of the global current in the GEC if conductivity from CESM is used.

  8. Variability of Diurnal Temperature Range During Winter Over Western Himalaya: Range- and Altitude-Wise Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M. S.; Devi, Usha; Dash, S. K.; Singh, G. P.; Singh, Amreek

    2018-04-01

    The current trends in diurnal temperature range, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, and sun shine hours over different ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya during winter have been studied. Analysis of 25 years of data shows an increasing trend in diurnal temperature range over all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya during winter, thereby confirming regional warming of the region due to present climate change and global warming. Statistical studies show significant increasing trend in maximum temperature over all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya. Minimum temperature shows significant decreasing trend over Pir Panjal and Shamshawari range and significant increasing trend over higher altitude of Western Himalaya. Similarly, sunshine hours show significant decreasing trend over Karakoram range. There exists strong positive correlation between diurnal temperature range and maximum temperature for all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya. Strong negative correlation exists between diurnal temperature range and minimum temperature over Shamshawari and Great Himalaya range and lower altitude of Western Himalaya. Sunshine hours show strong positive correlation with diurnal temperature range over Pir Panjal and Great Himalaya range and lower and higher altitudes.

  9. Psychosocial determinants of diurnal alpha-amylase among healthy Quebec workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J; Durand, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a stress-sensitive biomarker the shows promise as an indirect proxy of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis activities that are otherwise difficult to discern non-invasively. This comprehensive study investigated diurnal sAA in association with numerous psychosocial characteristics related to mental health, work stress, and non-work stress. Participants included 395 workers (56.1% women, age: M=41.3, SD=10.81) from across 34 distinct workplaces. Diurnal sAA was sampled over two non-consecutive work days at awakening, 30 min after awakening, 14h00, 16h00, and bedtime. Well-validated psychometrics and survey items were used to measure mental health (psychological distress, depression, burnout, work characteristics) (task design, demands, social relations, gratifications), and non-work characteristics (marital/parental status, economic statuses, marital and parental stress, work-family conflicts). Preliminary results revealed that men showed occasionally higher sAA concentrations than women. Multilevel regressions were used to analyze sAA concentrations nested according to levels (i) for each time-point, (ii) between workers, and (iii) across workplaces while covarying for time of awakening, sex, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, psychotropic drug use, and body mass index. Main results revealed that psychological demands, support from colleagues, interpersonal conflicts, job recognition and job insecurity appear to be associated with diurnal sAA, while non-work factors did not. Our findings showing a distinct diurnal profile for sAA replicate and expand those of Nater et al. (2007, Psychoneuroendocrinology 32, 392-401), providing further evidence that sAA is associated to subjective psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mystacial Whisker Layout and Musculature in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus): A Social, Diurnal Mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Robyn A; Delaunay, Mariane G; Haidarliu, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared with terrestrial, diurnal mammals. The guinea pig diverged early from murid rodents (around 75 million years ago), and are ground-dwelling, diurnal animals. It would be predicted that, as a terrestrial mammal, they may have less whiskers and a reduced muscle architecture compared to arboreal, nocturnal rodents. We examined the mystacial whisker layout, musculature and movement capacity of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) whiskers and found that they did indeed have a disorganized whisker layout, with a fortification around the eye area. In addition, there was a reduction in musculature, especially in the intrinsic muscles. Despite guinea pigs not cyclically moving their whiskers, the mystacial musculature was still very similar to that of murid rodents. We suggest that the conserved presence of whisker layout and musculature, even in visual mammals such as primates and guinea pigs, may indicate that whiskers still play an important role in these animals, including protecting the eyes and being involved in tactile social behaviors. Anat Rec, 300:527-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenie van den Engel-Hoek; Johanna Kalf; Bastiaan Bloem; George Borm; Machiel Zwarts; Bert de Swart; Marten Munneke

    2011-01-01

    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  12. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy: energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, V.; Gorter, J.A.; Riede, S.J.; Hut, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The

  13. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy : energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Gorter, Jenke A; Riede, Sjaak J; Hut, Roelof A

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The

  14. Melatonin-induced CBF/DREB1s are essential for diurnal change of disease resistance and CCA1 expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Wei, Yunxie; He, Chaozu

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an important regulator of circadian rhythms and immunity in animals. However, the diurnal changes of endogenous melatonin and melatonin-mediated diurnal change of downstream responses remain unclear in Arabidopsis. Using the publicly available microarray data, we found that the transcript levels of two melatonin synthesis genes (serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT)) and endogenous melatonin level were regulated by diurnal cycles, with different magnitudes of change. Moreover, the transcripts of C-repeat-binding factors (CBFs)/Drought response element Binding 1 factors (DREB1s) were co-regulated by exogenous melatonin and diurnal changes, indicating the possible correlation among clock, endogenous melatonin level and AtCBFs expressions. Interestingly, diurnal change of plant immunity against Pst DC3000 and CIRCADIANCLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1) expression were largely lost in AtCBFs knockdown line-amiR-1. Taken together, this study identifies the molecular pathway underlying the diurnal changes of immunity in Arabidopsis. Notably, the diurnal changes of endogenous melatonin may regulate corresponding changes of AtCBF/DREB1s expression and their underlying diurnal cycle of plant immunity and AtCCA1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the immunoglobulin repertoire of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren E; Crouch, Kathryn; Cao, Wei; Müller, Mischa R; Wu, Leeying; Steven, John; Lee, Michael; Liang, Musen; Flajnik, Martin F; Shih, Heather H; Barelle, Caroline J; Paulsen, Janet; Gill, Davinder S; Dooley, Helen

    2012-04-01

    The cartilaginous fish (chimeras, sharks, skates and rays) are the oldest group relative to mammals in which an adaptive immune system founded upon immunoglobulins has been found. In this manuscript we characterize the immunoglobulins of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) at both the molecular and expressed protein levels. Despite the presence of hundreds of IgM clusters in this species the serum levels of this isotype are comparatively low. However, analysis of cDNA sequences and serum protein suggests microheterogeneity in the IgM heavy chains and supports the proposal that different clusters are preferentially used in the two forms (monomer or pentamer) of this isotype. We also found that the IgNAR isotype in this species exists in a previously unknown multimeric format in serum. Finally, we identified a new form of the IgW isotype (the shark IgD orthologue), in which the leader is spliced directly to the first constant domain, resulting in a molecule lacking an antigen-binding domain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concurrent and longitudinal associations between diurnal cortisol and body mass index across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Javaras, Kristin N; Klein, Marjorie H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Burk, Linnea R; Essex, Marilyn J

    2013-06-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels; however, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings of obesity in youth and whether these differ from the mechanisms identified in adults. The current study examines concurrent (i.e., measured at the same point in time) and longitudinal (i.e., using earlier cortisol measures to predict later body mass index [BMI]) associations between diurnal cortisol and BMI across adolescence. Adolescent diurnal cortisol was measured over 3 days at each 11, 13, and 15 years. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to extract average measures of predicted morning, afternoon, evening levels of cortisol and the diurnal slope at each assessment. Adolescent BMI (kg/m(2)) was measured at 11, 13, 15, and 18 years. Sex, family socioeconomic status, mother's BMI, pubertal status, and adolescent mental health were examined as possible confounding variables. Linear regressions revealed that blunted patterns of adolescent cortisol were associated with increased measures of BMI across adolescence both concurrently and longitudinally, particularly when examining measures of cortisol in early adolescence. Multinomial logistic regressions extended the linear regression findings beyond BMI scores to encompass categories of obesity. The current study builds on previous research documenting diurnal cortisol-obesity findings in adults by demonstrating similar findings exist both concurrently and longitudinally in adolescents. Findings suggest the association between cortisol and BMI is developmentally influenced and that blunted diurnal cortisol patterns can be identified in overweight individuals at a younger age than previously thought. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity I. Two approaches to the study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, J.W.; Venkatesan, D.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Maclennan, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation has been carried out over the past two decades by either of two approaches: the traditional Fourier series method and the more recently introduced power spectral method. A comparison of the two approaches is essential to the proper understanding of the results derived from them. The present study, for the first time, adopts both approaches for investigating the data from the Sulfur Mountain super neutron monitor for the period of mid-December 1965 to April 1966 (extending over five solar rotations), when interplanetary magnetic field data from Pioneer 6 were also available. Problems relating to the analyses of both data sets on a day-to-day basis and on a statistical basis over a number of days are discussed. The power spectral analysis method cannot provide information on the phase of the diurnal variation or information on the diurnal amplitude on a day-to-day basis. This method provides excellent estimates of the diurnal anisotropy amplitude provides a measure of the ambient anisotropy amplitude. The Fourier series method can yield reliable measures of the amplitude and phase on a day-to-day basis, provided the time series is reasonably stationary. This method cannot estimate the ambient anisotropy amplitude which, for small amplitudes, contributes to large uncertainties in the Fourier coefficients. We find that there is a general agreement between the observed diurnal variation and that predicted theoretically. However, for most of the periods examined the ratio of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient to the parallel diffusion coefficient is rather small (K 1 /K < or approx. =0.1). As such the diurnal variation amplitude is generally most sensitive to the interplanetary field direction and the solar wind velocity and not to the calculated values of the diffusion coefficients. Further tests of the theory are discussed

  18. Mercury in fish and shellfish of the northeast Pacific. III. Spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A.S.; Teeny, F.M.; Gauglitz, E.J. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in commercial exploitation of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, in Puget Sound, primarily because of the export demand and increased price for frozen dogfish fillets and bellyflaps in Europe. In 1975 only 0.43 million lb of dogfish were landed in the State of Washington for both food and reduction purposes, in contrast to 4.9 million lb landed during 1976 in Puget Sound ports and processed for export to Great Britain and West Germany. As a result of the current interest in the use of Puget Sound dogfish as food and the mercury levels in relation to import regulations of various countries, an investigation was undertaken to determine the mercury levels in dogfish from inland waters of the State of Washington. This report summarizes the findings.

  19. Diurnal gene expression of lipolytic natriuretic peptide receptors in white adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to obesity and cardiovascular disease. In white adipose tissue, activation of the natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) stimulates lipolysis. We have previously shown that natriuretic peptides are expressed in a circadian manner in the heart, but the tem......Disruption of the circadian rhythm can lead to obesity and cardiovascular disease. In white adipose tissue, activation of the natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs) stimulates lipolysis. We have previously shown that natriuretic peptides are expressed in a circadian manner in the heart......, but the temporal expression profile of their cognate receptors has not been examined in white adipose tissue. We therefore collected peri-renal white adipose tissue and serum from WT mice. Tissue mRNA contents of NPRs - NPR-A and NPR-C, the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1, and transcripts involved in lipid metabolism...... in serum peaked in the active dark period (P=0.003). In conclusion, NPR-A and NPR-C gene expression is associated with the expression of clock genes in white adipose tissue. The reciprocal expression may thus contribute to regulate lipolysis and energy homeostasis in a diurnal manner....

  20. Habitat selection and diurnal refugia of gray foxes in southwestern Georgia, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Deuel

    Full Text Available Understanding habitat selection of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus is essential to evaluate their potential response to changes in land use and predator communities. Few studies have evaluated temporal habitat selection or explicitly identified habitats used by gray foxes for diurnal refugia. We used GPS collars to obtain location data for 34 gray foxes (20 males and 14 females from February 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate temporal (seasonal and diel habitat selection and selection of diurnal refugia in southwestern Georgia, USA. We analyzed habitat selection at 2 levels, selection of a core area within the home range and selection of locations within the home range. Habitat selection was non-random (P 0.05. Hardwoods, human use (i.e., areas associated with regular human activity such as buildings, lawns, parking areas, etc., and roads were selected (P 0.05. Selection of habitats for diurnal refugia did not vary seasonally or by sex (P > 0.05, with foxes selecting (P < 0.05 areas near hardwood forests, roads, agriculture, human use, pastures/food plots, and shrub scrub habitats. Gray foxes were observed on the ground while resting, and we found no evidence of gray foxes diurnally resting in trees. Our results suggest that on our study area, gray foxes are an edge species that prefer forests with a hardwood component in areas near human use and roads.

  1. Bats as prey of diurnal birds: a global perspective.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Morelli, Federico; Lučan, R. K.; Jones, D. N.; Tryjanowski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2016), s. 160-174 ISSN 0305-1838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : avian predation hypothesis * bats * diurnal birds * nocturnality * predation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.286, year: 2016

  2. Sleep duration partially accounts for race differences in diurnal cortisol dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurel M; Miller, Karissa G; Wong, Patricia M; Anderson, Barbara P; Kamarck, Thomas W; Matthews, Karen A; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Manuck, Stephen B

    2017-05-01

    Emerging research demonstrates race differences in diurnal cortisol slope, an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis functioning associated with morbidity and mortality, with African Americans showing flatter diurnal slopes than their White counterparts. Sleep characteristics are associated with both race and with HPA-axis functioning. The present report examines whether sleep duration may account for race differences in cortisol dynamics. Participants were 424 employed African American and White adults (mean age = 42.8 years, 84.2% White, 53.6% female) with no cardiovascular disease (Adult Health and Behavior Project-Phase 2 [AHAB-II] cohort, University of Pittsburgh). Cortisol slope was calculated using 4 salivary cortisol readings, averaged over each of 4 days. Demographic (age, sex), psychosocial (socioeconomic status [SES], affect, discrimination), and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity) variables were used as covariates, and sleep (self-report and accelerometry) was also assessed. African Americans had flatter slopes than Whites (F(1, 411) = 10.45, B = .02, p = .001) in models adjusting for demographic, psychosocial, and health behavior covariates. Shorter actigraphy-assessed total sleep time was a second significant predictor of flatter cortisol slopes (F(1, 411) = 25.27, B = -.0002, p race and diurnal slope [confidence interval = .05 (lower = .014, upper .04)]. African Americans have flatter diurnal cortisol slopes than their White counterparts, an effect that may be partially attributable to race differences in nightly sleep duration. Sleep parameters should be considered in further research on race and cortisol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Evaluation of NASA GEOS-ADAS Modeled Diurnal Warming Through Comparisons to SEVIRI and AMSR2 SST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentemann, C. L.; Akella, S.

    2018-02-01

    An analysis of the ocean skin Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has been included in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) - Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS), Version 5 (GEOS-ADAS). This analysis is based on the GEOS atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) that simulates near-surface diurnal warming and cool skin effects. Analysis for the skin SST is performed along with the atmospheric state, including Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite radiance observations as part of the data assimilation system. One month (September, 2015) of GEOS-ADAS SSTs were compared to collocated satellite Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) SSTs to examine how the GEOS-ADAS diurnal warming compares to the satellite measured warming. The spatial distribution of warming compares well to the satellite observed distributions. Specific diurnal events are analyzed to examine variability within a single day. The dependence of diurnal warming on wind speed, time of day, and daily average insolation is also examined. Overall the magnitude of GEOS-ADAS warming is similar to the warming inferred from satellite retrievals, but several weaknesses in the GEOS-AGCM simulated diurnal warming are identified and directly related back to specific features in the formulation of the diurnal warming model.

  4. Radial frequency diagram (sunflower) for the analysis of diurnal cycle parameters: Solar energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Božnar, Marija Zlata; Grašič, Boštjan; Mlakar, Primož; Soares, Jacyra; Pereira de Oliveira, Amauri; Costa, Tássio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new type of graphical presentation showing diurnal cycle of solar energy forecast. The application is possible for other parameters related to weather and green energy production. - Highlights: • The diurnal cycle of solar energy is important for the management of the electrical grid. • A solar plant’s average production depends on the statistical features of solar radiation. • The new tool – the “sunflower”, is proposed for solar energy availability representation. • The sunflower identifies and quantifies information with a clear diurnal cycle. • The sunflower diagram has been developed from the “wind rose” diagram. - Abstract: Many meteorological parameters present a natural diurnal cycle because they are directly or indirectly dependent on sunshine exposure. The solar radiation diurnal pattern is important to energy production, agriculture, prognostic models, health and general climatology. This article aims at introducing a new type of radial frequency diagram – hereafter called sunflower – for the analysis of solar radiation data in connection with energy production and also for climatological studies. The diagram is based on two-dimensional data sorting. Firstly data are sorted into classes representing hours in a day. Then the data in each hourly class is sorted into classes of the observed variable values. The relative frequencies of the value classes are shown as sections on each hour’s segment in a radial diagram. The radial diagram forms a unique pattern for each analysed dataset. Therefore it enables the quick detection of features and the comparison of several such patterns belonging to the different datasets being analysed. The sunflower diagram enables a quick and comprehensive understanding of the information about diurnal cycle of the solar radiation data. It enables in a graphical form, quick screening and long-term statistics of huge data quantities when searching for their diurnal features and

  5. Maize global transcriptomics reveals pervasive leaf diurnal rhythms but rhythms in developing ears are largely limited to the core oscillator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant diurnal rhythms are vital environmental adaptations to coordinate internal physiological responses to alternating day-night cycles. A comprehensive view of diurnal biology has been lacking for maize (Zea mays, a major world crop. METHODOLOGY: A photosynthetic tissue, the leaf, and a non-photosynthetic tissue, the developing ear, were sampled under natural field conditions. Genome-wide transcript profiling was conducted on a high-density 105 K Agilent microarray to investigate diurnal rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: In both leaves and ears, the core oscillators were intact and diurnally cycling. Maize core oscillator genes are found to be largely conserved with their Arabidopsis counterparts. Diurnal gene regulation occurs in leaves, with some 23% of expressed transcripts exhibiting a diurnal cycling pattern. These transcripts can be assigned to over 1700 gene ontology functional terms, underscoring the pervasive impact of diurnal rhythms on plant biology. Considering the peak expression time for each diurnally regulated gene, and its corresponding functional assignment, most gene functions display temporal enrichment in the day, often with distinct patterns, such as dawn or midday preferred, indicating that there is a staged procession of biological events undulating with the diurnal cycle. Notably, many gene functions display a bimodal enrichment flanking the midday photosynthetic maximum, with an initial peak in mid-morning followed by another peak during the afternoon/evening. In contrast to leaves, in developing ears as few as 47 gene transcripts are diurnally regulated, and this set of transcripts includes primarily the core oscillators. In developing ears, which are largely shielded from light, the core oscillator therefore is intact with little outward effect on transcription.

  6. Generation of diurnal variation for influent data for dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, G; Alex, J; Weissenbacher, N; Woerner, D; Ahnert, M; Frehmann, T; Halft, N; Hobus, I; Plattes, M; Spering, V; Winkler, S

    2008-01-01

    When using dynamic simulation for fine tuning of the design of activated sludge (AS) plants diurnal variations of influent data are required. For this application usually only data from the design process and no measured data are available. In this paper a simple method to generate diurnal variations of wastewater flow and concentrations is described. The aim is to generate realistic influent data in terms of flow, concentrations and TKN/COD ratios and not to predict the influent of the AS plant in detail. The work has been prepared within the framework of HSG-Sim (Hochschulgruppe Simulation, http://www.hsgsim.org), a group of researchers from Germany, Austria, Luxembourg, Poland, the Netherlands and Switzerland. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Concentrating carbohydrates before sleep improves feeding regulation and metabolic and inflammatory parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Madar, Zecharia; Froy, Oren

    2015-10-15

    New evidance highlights the importance of food timing. Recently, we showed that a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner changed diurnal hormone secretion and led to greater weight loss and improved metabolic status in obese people. Herein, we set out to test whether concentrated-carbohydrates diet (CCD), in which carbohydrates are fed only before sleep, leads to an improved metabolic status in mouse hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Diet-induced obese mice were given concentrated or distributed carbohydrate diet for 6 weeks. Obese mice fed CCD ate 8.3% less, were 9.3% leaner and had 39.7% less fat mass. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin displayed altered secretion. In addition, these mice exhibited an improved biochemical and inflammatory status. In the hypothalamus, anorexigenic signals were up-regulated and orexigenic signals were down-regulated. In peripheral tissues, CCD promoted adiponectin signaling, repressed gluconeogenesis, enhanced lipid oxidation and lowered inflammation, thus ameliorating the major risk factors of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  9. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  10. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  11. Familial circadian rhythm disorder in the diurnal primate, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Zhdanova

    Full Text Available In view of the inverse temporal relationship of central clock activity to physiological or behavioral outputs in diurnal and nocturnal species, understanding the mechanisms and physiological consequences of circadian disorders in humans would benefit from studies in a diurnal animal model, phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report the discovery of the first intrinsic circadian disorder in a family of diurnal non-human primates, the rhesus monkey. The disorder is characterized by a combination of delayed sleep phase, relative to light-dark cycle, mutual desynchrony of intrinsic rhythms of activity, food intake and cognitive performance, enhanced nighttime feeding or, in the extreme case, intrinsic asynchrony. The phenotype is associated with normal length of intrinsic circadian period and requires an intact central clock, as demonstrated by an SCN lesion. Entrainment to different photoperiods or melatonin administration does not eliminate internal desynchrony, though melatonin can temporarily reinstate intrinsic activity rhythms in the animal with intrinsic asynchrony. Entrainment to restricted feeding is highly effective in animals with intrinsic or SCN lesion-induced asynchrony. The large isolated family of rhesus macaques harboring the disorder provides a powerful new tool for translational research of regulatory circuits underlying circadian disorders and their effective treatment.

  12. No diurnal variation in rate or carbon isotope composition of soil respiration in a boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betson, N.R.; Gottlicher, S.G.; Hogberg, P.; Hall, M.; Wallin, G.; Richter, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the diurnal variability in the rate and stable carbon isotope ratio ((delta) 13 C) of soil respiration in a northern boreal forest, measured with opaque chambers after the removal of understory vegetation. The experiment was conducted in June and August 2004 at the Picea abies L. Karst-dominated Flakaliden Research Forest in northern Sweden, using unfertilized girdled-tree plots and unfertilized non-girdled tree plots. Soil respiration and (delta) 13 C of soil-respired carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) were measured every 4 hours on 6 plots, with a total of 11 sampling times over each 48 hour period. The purpose was to clarify an earlier study regarding the origin of diurnal patterns of soil CO 2 flux. This study explored whether the diurnal patterns were the result of photosynthetic CO 2 uptake during the day by the understory or whether there were underlying trends in soil respiration driven by plant root allocation. The sampling campaigns undertaken in this study investigated whether diurnal variations in soil respiration rate and (delta) 13 C exist in this ecosystem when no understory vegetation is present. Shoot photosynthesis and environmental parameters were measured simultaneously. Despite significant variations in climatic conditions and shoot photosynthetic rates in non-girdled trees, no diurnal patterns in soil respiration rates and (delta) 13 C were noted in either treatment. The lack of detectable diurnal changes in both treatments indicates that modeling of daily boreal forest carbon balances based on single instantaneous measurements are unlikely to be misconstrued by substantial diurnal trends. However, it was suggested that spatial variable should be accounted for, given the large standard errors. The impact of tree girdling on soil respiration rates also emphasized the significance of canopy photosynthesis in driving soil processes. 37 refs., 2 figs

  13. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    .9×10-7) and sodium (p = 8.7×10-16). Only TSH and albumin were clinically significantly influenced by diurnal variation. Resting time had no clinically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found no need for resting 15 minutes prior to blood sampling. However, diurnal variation was found to have a significant......BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate...... the impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening...

  14. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.

    2013-09-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.; Farrar, J. T.; Weller, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Diurnal variability of Synechococcus abundance in Sagami Bay, Japan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Saino, T.

    Synechococcus, the most dominant picophytoplankton in coastal regions, exhibits diurnal variations in the open ocean. The aim of this study was to assess its short-term population dynamics and cell cycle phases through DNA analysis in a coastal...

  17. Diurnal levels of immunoreactive erythropoietin in normal subjects and subjects with chronic lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.E.; Garcia, J.F.; Cohen, R.A.; Cronkite, E.P.; Moccia, G.; Acevedo, J.

    1981-10-01

    Serum levels of immunoreactive erythropoietin (Ep) were measured in 48 normal male and female volunteers, ages 20-60 years, to establish a control value for Ep of 18.5 +/- 5.0 (mean +/- SD) mU/ml. Levels of the hormone were also measured sequentially over a 24 h period of time in an additional 17 normal volunteers with no diurnal variation. Diurnal levels of immunoreactive Ep were also measured in 30 subjects, with chronic lung disease. These patients, in contrast to normal subjects exhibited a diurnal variation in the level of immunoreactive Ep with peak levels occurring at midnight. The only variable measured which correlated with the serum immunoreactive Ep level in subjects with chronic lung disease was the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (P less than 0.02).

  18. Cortical Regulation of Striatal Medium Spiny Neuron Dendritic Remodeling in Parkinsonism: Modulation of Glutamate Release Reverses Dopamine Depletion–Induced Dendritic Spine Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Bonnie G.; Neely, M. Diana; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2010-01-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) receive glutamatergic afferents from the cerebral cortex and dopaminergic inputs from the substantia nigra (SN). Striatal dopamine loss decreases the number of MSN dendritic spines. This loss of spines has been suggested to reflect the removal of tonic dopamine inhibitory control over corticostriatal glutamatergic drive, with increased glutamate release culminating in MSN spine loss. We tested this hypothesis in two ways. We first determined in vivo if dec...

  19. Deregulated power prices: comparison of diurnal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Li; Flynn, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine electrical power price, and in particular its daily and average weekday vs. weekend pattern of change, for 14 deregulated markets. Power price in deregulated markets shows fundamentally different patterns. North American markets show a monotonic diurnal weekday price pattern, while all other markets studied show more than one price peak. Deregulated power markets differ in maximum vs. minimum daily average price and in average weekday to weekend price, in turn creating a different incentive for a consumer to time shift power consuming activities. Markets differ in the extent to which a small fraction of the days shapes the average diurnal pattern and value of price. Deregulated markets show a wide variation in the correlation between load and price. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent, and hence that can encourage a customer to shape consumption behaviors. Other markets, for example South Australia, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to escape risk through hedging mechanisms. (Author)

  20. Deregulated power prices: comparison of diurnal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Flynn, Peter C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine electrical power price, and in particular its daily and average weekday vs. weekend pattern of change, for 14 deregulated markets. Power price in deregulated markets shows fundamentally different patterns. North American markets show a monotonic diurnal weekday price pattern, while all other markets studied show more than one price peak. Deregulated power markets differ in maximum vs. minimum daily average price and in average weekday to weekend price, in turn creating a different incentive for a consumer to time shift power consuming activities. Markets differ in the extent to which a small fraction of the days shapes the average diurnal pattern and value of price. Deregulated markets show a wide variation in the correlation between load and price. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent, and hence that can encourage a customer to shape consumption behaviors. Other markets, for example South Australia, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to escape risk through hedging mechanisms

  1. Developing a Data Record of Lower Troposphere Temperature Profiles for Diurnal Land-Atmosphere Coupling Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Li, D.

    2017-12-01

    The lower troposphere, including the planetary boundary layer, is strongly influenced by the land surface at diurnal scales. However, investigations of diurnal land-atmosphere coupling are significantly hindered by the lack of profile measurements that resolve the diurnal cycle. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing a decade-long (from 2007 to 2016) data record of diurnal temperature profiles in the lower troposphere (from the surface to about 4 km above the surface), which is based on the Aircrafts Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) meteorological observations. We first identify the number of profiles within an hour for each airport over the CONUS. At each airport, only data that passed at least level-1 quality check are retained. 40 airports out of 275 are then selected, which have data for more than 12 hours per day. These selected airports are mainly located along the east and west coasts, as expected. Because the data are recorded at irregular heights, we resample each profile in the lowest 4 km or so to pre-defined vertical coordinates. These temperature profiles are further bias-corrected by comparing to collocated radiosonde observations. This consistent data record of diurnal temperature profiles in the lower troposphere can be also used for regional climatology research, short-term weather forecasts, and numerical model evaluation.

  2. Diurnal rhythms in neurexins transcripts and inhibitory/excitatory synapse scaffold proteins in the biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Shapiro-Reznik

    Full Text Available The neurexin genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode two families (α and β of highly polymorphic presynaptic proteins that are involved in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance. Recent studies indicate that neuronal activation and memory formation affect NRXN1/2/3α expression and alternative splicing at splice sites 3 and 4 (SS#3/SS#4. Neurons in the biological clock residing in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN act as self-sustained oscillators, generating rhythms in gene expression and electrical activity, to entrain circadian bodily rhythms to the 24 hours day/night cycles. Cell autonomous oscillations in NRXN1/2/3α expression and SS#3/SS#4 exons splicing and their links to rhythms in excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the circadian clock were explored. NRXN1/2/3α expression and SS#3/SS#4 splicing, levels of neurexin-2α and the synaptic scaffolding proteins PSD-95 and gephyrin (representing excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively were studied in mRNA and protein extracts obtained from SCN of C3H/J mice at different times of the 24 hours day/night cycle. Further studies explored the circadian oscillations in these components and causality relationships in immortalized rat SCN2.2 cells. Diurnal rhythms in mNRXN1α and mNRXN2α transcription, SS#3/SS#4 exon-inclusion and PSD-95 gephyrin and neurexin-2α levels were found in the SCN in vivo. No such rhythms were found with mNRXN3α. SCN2.2 cells also exhibited autonomous circadian rhythms in rNRXN1/2 expression SS#3/SS#4 exon inclusion and PSD-95, gephyrin and neurexin-2α levels. rNRXN3α and rNRXN1/2β were not expressed. Causal relationships were demonstrated, by use of specific siRNAs, between rNRXN2α SS#3 exon included transcripts and gephyrin levels in the SCN2.2 cells. These results show for the first time dynamic, cell autonomous, diurnal rhythms in expression and splicing of NRXN1/2 and subsequent effects on the expression of neurexin-2α and postsynaptic

  3. Development and evaluation of an empirical diurnal sea surface temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, R. R.; Bourassa, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    An innovative method is developed to determine the diurnal heating amplitude of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) using observations of high-quality satellite SST measurements and NWP atmospheric meteorological data. The diurnal cycle results from heating that develops at the surface of the ocean from low mechanical or shear produced turbulence and large solar radiation absorption. During these typically calm weather conditions, the absorption of solar radiation causes heating of the upper few meters of the ocean, which become buoyantly stable; this heating causes a temperature differential between the surface and the mixed [or bulk] layer on the order of a few degrees. It has been shown that capturing the diurnal cycle is important for a variety of applications, including surface heat flux estimates, which have been shown to be underestimated when neglecting diurnal warming, and satellite and buoy calibrations, which can be complicated because of the heating differential. An empirical algorithm using a pre-dawn sea surface temperature, peak solar radiation, and accumulated wind stress is used to estimate the cycle. The empirical algorithm is derived from a multistep process in which SSTs from MTG's SEVIRI SST experimental hourly data set are combined with hourly wind stress fields derived from a bulk flux algorithm. Inputs for the flux model are taken from NASA's MERRA reanalysis product. NWP inputs are necessary because the inputs need to incorporate diurnal and air-sea interactive processes, which are vital to the ocean surface dynamics, with a high enough temporal resolution. The MERRA winds are adjusted with CCMP winds to obtain more realistic spatial and variance characteristics and the other atmospheric inputs (air temperature, specific humidity) are further corrected on the basis of in situ comparisons. The SSTs are fitted to a Gaussian curve (using one or two peaks), forming a set of coefficients used to fit the data. The coefficient data are combined with

  4. Diurnal sampling reveals significant variation in CO2 emission from a tropical productive lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P C J; Barbosa, F A R

    2014-08-01

    It is well accepted in the literature that lakes are generally net heterotrophic and supersaturated with CO2 because they receive allochthonous carbon inputs. However, autotrophy and CO2 undersaturation may happen for at least part of the time, especially in productive lakes. Since diurnal scale is particularly important to tropical lakes dynamics, we evaluated diurnal changes in pCO2 and CO2 flux across the air-water interface in a tropical productive lake in southeastern Brazil (Lake Carioca) over two consecutive days. Both pCO2 and CO2 flux were significantly different between day (9:00 to 17:00) and night (21:00 to 5:00) confirming the importance of this scale for CO2 dynamics in tropical lakes. Net heterotrophy and CO2 outgassing from the lake were registered only at night, while significant CO2 emission did not happen during the day. Dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature trends over the diurnal cycle indicated the dependence of CO2 dynamics on lake metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis). This study indicates the importance of considering the diurnal scale when examining CO2 emissions from tropical lakes.

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, P; Bretherton, C

    2008-03-03

    This paper describes a series of 6 day large eddy simulations of a deep, sometimes drizzling stratocumulus-topped boundary layer based on forcings from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 field campaign. The base simulation was found to reproduce the observed mean boundary layer properties quite well. The diurnal cycle of liquid water path was also well captured, although good agreement appears to result partially from compensating errors in the diurnal cycles of cloud base and cloud top due to overentrainment around midday. At other times of the day, entrainment is found to be proportional to the vertically-integrated buoyancy flux. Model stratification matches observations well; turbulence profiles suggest that the boundary layer is always at least somewhat decoupled. Model drizzle appears to be too sensitive to liquid water path and subcloud evaporation appears to be too weak. Removing the diurnal cycle of subsidence had little effect on simulated cloud albedo. Simulations with changed droplet concentration and drizzle susceptibility showed large liquid water path differences at night, but differences were quite small at midday. Droplet concentration also had a significant impact on entrainment, primarily through droplet sedimentation feedback rather than through drizzle processes.

  6. Diurnal Cycle of Clouds and Precipitation at the ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Marchand, R.; Fu, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR) data from Dec. 1996 to Dec. 2010, collected at the U. S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program site in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP), are categorized into clouds (-40dBZe≤reflectivityCRM). Observational and simulated radar reflectivity are compared and further sorted into different atmospheric states identified by Evans (2014). Evans used a neutral network to take ERA-Interim state variables (i.e. horizontal winds, relative humidity, temperature at seven predetermined pressure level and surface pressure) on an 8×8 grid with 1.5º×1.5º spatial resolution centered on the SGP site and found twenty-one atmospheric states which represent specific synoptic conditions. We use these states to study the differences in the diurnal cycle between observations and simulations. Differences in the (mean) annual diurnal cycle between the observations and model are decomposed into errors in the daily mean, errors in the diurnal variation in each state, and errors due to difference in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric states between ERA and the MMF. The magnitude of various error sources is assessed.

  7. Children's diurnal cortisol responses to negative events at school and home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sunhye; Robles, Theodore F; Reynolds, Bridget M; Repetti, Rena L

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the within-and between-person associations between daily negative events - peer problems, academic problems and interparental conflict - and diurnal cortisol in school-age children. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed four times per day (at wakeup, 30min later, just before dinner and at bedtime) on eight days in 47 youths ages 8-13 years old (60% female; M age=11.28, SD=1.50). The relative contributions of within- and between-person variances in each stressor were estimated in models predicting same-day diurnal cortisol slope, same-day bedtime cortisol, and next morning wakeup cortisol. Children who reported more peer problems on average showed flatter slopes of cortisol decline from wakeup to bedtime. However, children secreted more cortisol at wakeup following days when they had reported more peer or academic problems than usual. Interparental conflict was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol. Findings from this study extend our understanding of short-term cortisol responses to naturally occurring problems in daily life, and help to differentiate these daily processes from the cumulative effects of chronic stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  9. Daily positive events and diurnal cortisol rhythms: Examination of between-person differences and within-person variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Ong, Anthony D; Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M

    2017-09-01

    Growing evidence from field studies has linked daily stressors to dysregulated patterns of diurnal cortisol. Less is known about whether naturally-occurring positive events in everyday life are associated with diurnal cortisol. The objectives of this study were to evaluate daily positive events as predictors of between-person differences and within-person (day-to-day) variations in diurnal cortisol parameters, in addition to daily positive events as buffers against the associations between daily stressors and cortisol. In the National Study of Daily Experiences, 1657 adults ages 33-84 (57% female) reported daily experiences during telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings. Saliva samples were collected 4 times per day on 4 interview days and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models were used to estimate associations of daily positive events with cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal cortisol slope, and area under the curve (AUC). At the between-person level, people who experienced more frequent positive events exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope, controlling for daily stressors, daily affect, and other covariates. At the within-person level, positive events in the morning (but not prior-night or afternoon/evening events) predicted steeper decline in cortisol across that day; positive events were also marginally associated with lower same-day AUC. Associations were not mediated by daily positive affect, and positive events did not buffer against stressor-related cortisol alterations. These findings indicate that individual differences and day-to-day variations in daily positive events are associated with diurnal cortisol patterns, independent of stressors and affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aging, health behaviors, and the Diurnal rhythm and awakening response of salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the awakening response and diurnal rhythm of cortisol in young versus older adults in relation to health behaviours. Older adults displayed significantly reduced cortisol upon awakening, a lower cortisol awakening response and a flatter diurnal profile represented by a reduced area under the curve and cortisol slope. There was also a significant interaction of age, cortisol and diet; younger adults with a higher fat and lower fruit and vegetable intake exhibited the flatte...

  11. Mice Lacking EGR1 Have Impaired Clock Gene (BMAL1) Oscillation, Locomotor Activity, and Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Casper Schwartz; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice. In addition, we evaluated the circadian running wheel activity, telemetric locomotor activity, and core body temperature of the mice. Loss of EGR1 neither altered light-induced phase shifts at subjective night nor affected negative masking. Overall, circadian light entrainment was found in EGR1-deficient mice but they displayed a reduced locomotor activity and an altered temperature regulation compared to wild type mice. When placed in running wheels, a subpopulation of EGR1-deficient mice displayed a more disrupted activity rhythm with no measurable endogenous period length (tau). In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that the circadian clock in the SCN is disturbed in mice deficient of EGR1.

  12. Mefloquine in the nucleus accumbens promotes social avoidance and anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Mitra; Golden, Sam A; Pfau, Madeline L; Christoffel, Daniel J; Seeley, Elena L; Cahill, Michael E; Khibnik, Lena A; Russo, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    Mefloquine continues to be a key drug used for malaria chemoprophylaxis and treatment, despite reports of adverse events like depression and anxiety. It is unknown how mefloquine acts within the central nervous system to cause depression and anxiety or why some individuals are more vulnerable. We show that intraperitoneal injection of mefloquine in mice, when coupled to subthreshold social defeat stress, is sufficient to produce depression-like social avoidance behavior. Direct infusion of mefloquine into the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region, increased stress-induced social avoidance and anxiety behavior. In contrast, infusion into the ventral hippocampus had no effect. Whole cell recordings from NAc medium spiny neurons indicated that mefloquine application increases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, a synaptic adaptation that we have previously shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to social defeat stress. Together, these data demonstrate a role for the NAc in mefloquine-induced depression and anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Separating selection by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in Gymnadenia conopsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Trunschke, Judith; Wimmergren, Carolina; Agren, Jon

    2012-08-01

    Most plants attract multiple flower visitors that may vary widely in their effectiveness as pollinators. Floral evolution is expected to reflect interactions with the most important pollinators, but few studies have quantified the contribution of different pollinators to current selection on floral traits. To compare selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators on floral display and spur length in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the environment by conducting supplemental hand-pollinations and selective pollinator exclusions in two populations in central Norway. In both populations, the exclusion of diurnal pollinators significantly reduced seed production compared to open pollination, whereas the exclusion of nocturnal pollinators did not. There was significant selection on traits expected to influence pollinator attraction and pollination efficiency in both the diurnal and nocturnal pollination treatment. The relative strength of selection among plants exposed to diurnal and nocturnal visitors varied among traits and populations, but the direction of selection was consistent. The results suggest that diurnal pollinators are more important than nocturnal pollinators for seed production in the study populations, but that both categories contribute to selection on floral morphology. The study illustrates how experimental manipulations can link specific categories of pollinators to observed selection on floral traits, and thus improve our understanding of how species interactions shape patterns of selection.

  14. Diurnal variations in personal care products in seawater and mussels at three Mediterranean coastal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot-Groz, Marina; Fenet, Hélène; Martinez Bueno, Maria Jesus; Rosain, David; Gomez, Elena

    2018-03-01

    The presence of personal care products (PCPs) in the marine environment is of major concern. PCPs, UV filters, and musks can enter the marine environment indirectly through wastewater or directly via recreational activities. We conducted this study to document patterns in the occurrence of seven PCPs at three coastal sites impacted by recreational activities during 1 day. The study focused on diurnal variations in these seven PCPs in seawater and indigenous mussels. In seawater, UV filters showed diurnal variations that mirrored variations in recreational activities at the sites. Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) water concentrations increased from under the limit of quantification in the morning to 106 and 369 ng/L, respectively, when recreational activities were the highest. In mussels, diurnal variations in OC were observed, with the lowest concentrations recorded in the morning and then increasing throughout the day. As Mytilus spp. are widely used as sentinels in coastal pollution monitoring programs (mussel watch), our findings on diurnal variations could enhance sampling recommendations for recreational sites impacted by PCPs.

  15. Inflammation alters AMPA-stimulated calcium responses in dorsal striatal D2 but not D1 spiny projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winland, Carissa D; Welsh, Nora; Sepulveda-Rodriguez, Alberto; Vicini, Stefano; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A

    2017-11-01

    Neuroinflammation precedes neuronal loss in striatal neurodegenerative diseases and can be exacerbated by the release of proinflammatory molecules by microglia. These molecules can affect trafficking of AMPARs. The preferential trafficking of calcium-permeable versus impermeable AMPARs can result in disruptions of [Ca 2+ ] i and alter cellular functions. In striatal neurodegenerative diseases, changes in [Ca 2+ ] i and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) have been reported. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether a proinflammatory environment alters AMPA-stimulated [Ca 2+ ] i through calcium-permeable AMPARs and/or L-type VGCCs in dopamine-2- and dopamine-1-expressing striatal spiny projection neurons (D2 and D1 SPNs) in the dorsal striatum. Mice expressing the calcium indicator protein, GCaMP in D2 or D1 SPNs, were utilized for calcium imaging. Microglial activation was assessed by morphology analyses. To induce inflammation, acute mouse striatal slices were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we report that LPS treatment potentiated AMPA responses only in D2 SPNs. When a nonspecific VGCC blocker was included, we observed a decrease of AMPA-stimulated calcium fluorescence in D2 but not D1 SPNs. The remaining agonist-induced [Ca 2+ ] i was mediated by calcium-permeable AMPARs because the responses were completely blocked by a selective calcium-permeable AMPAR antagonist. We used isradipine, the highly selective L-type VGCC antagonist to determine the role of L-type VGCCs in SPNs treated with LPS. Isradipine decreased AMPA-stimulated responses selectively in D2 SPNs after LPS treatment. Our findings suggest that dorsal striatal D2 SPNs are specifically targeted in proinflammatory conditions and that L-type VGCCs and calcium-permeable AMPARs are important mediators of this effect. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Loss of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone markedly reduces anxiety behaviors in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Asai, Masato; Mahoney, Carrie E; Joachim, Maria; Shen, Yuan; Gunner, Georgia; Majzoub, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing paradigm posits that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates neuroendocrine functions such as adrenal glucocorticoid release, while extra-hypothalamic CRH plays a key role in stressor-triggered behaviors. Here we report that hypothalamus-specific Crh knockout mice (Sim1CrhKO mice, created by crossing Crhflox with Sim1Cre mice) have absent Crh mRNA and peptide mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) but preserved Crh expression in other brain regions including amygdala and cerebral cortex. As expected, Sim1CrhKO mice exhibit adrenal atrophy as well as decreased basal, diurnal and stressor-stimulated plasma corticosterone secretion and basal plasma ACTH, but surprisingly, have a profound anxiolytic phenotype when evaluated using multiple stressors including open field, elevated plus maze, holeboard, light-dark box, and novel object recognition task. Restoring plasma corticosterone did not reverse the anxiolytic phenotype of Sim1CrhKO mice. Crh-Cre driver mice revealed that PVHCrh fibers project abundantly to cingulate cortex and the nucleus accumbens shell, and moderately to medial amygdala, locus coeruleus, and solitary tract, consistent with the existence of PVHCrh-dependent behavioral pathways. Although previous, nonselective attenuation of CRH production or action, genetically in mice and pharmacologically in humans, respectively, has not produced the anticipated anxiolytic effects, our data show that targeted interference specifically with hypothalamic Crh expression results in anxiolysis. Our data identify neurons that express both Sim1 and Crh as a cellular entry point into the study of CRH-mediated, anxiety-like behaviors and their therapeutic attenuation. PMID:27595593

  17. Timing the tides: genetic control of diurnal and lunar emergence times is correlated in the marine midge Clunio marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Neumann, Dietrich; Heckel, David G

    2011-05-20

    The intertidal zone of seacoasts, being affected by the superimposed tidal, diurnal and lunar cycles, is temporally the most complex environment on earth. Many marine organisms exhibit lunar rhythms in reproductive behaviour and some show experimental evidence of endogenous control by a circalunar clock, the molecular and genetic basis of which is unexplored. We examined the genetic control of lunar and diurnal rhythmicity in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), a species for which the correct timing of adult emergence is critical in natural populations. We crossed two strains of Clunio marinus that differ in the timing of the diurnal and lunar rhythms of emergence. The phenotype distribution of the segregating backcross progeny indicates polygenic control of the lunar emergence rhythm. Diurnal timing of emergence is also under genetic control, and is influenced by two unlinked genes with major effects. Furthermore, the lunar and diurnal timing of emergence is correlated in the backcross generation. We show that both the lunar emergence time and its correlation to the diurnal emergence time are adaptive for the species in its natural environment. The correlation implies that the unlinked genes affecting lunar timing and the two unlinked genes affecting diurnal timing could be the same, providing an unexpectedly close interaction of the two clocks. Alternatively, the genes could be genetically linked in a two-by-two fashion, suggesting that evolution has shaped the genetic architecture to stabilize adaptive combinations of lunar and diurnal emergence times by tightening linkage. Our results, the first on genetic control of lunar rhythms, offer a new perspective to explore their molecular clockwork.

  18. Diurnal temperature asymmetries and fog at Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, William A.; He, Dianze

    2015-07-01

    A variety of methods are available to calculate daily mean temperature. We explore how the difference between two commonly used methods provides insight into the local climate of Churchill, Manitoba. In particular, we found that these differences related closely to seasonal fog. A strong statistically significant correlation was found between the fog frequency (hours per day) and the diurnal temperature asymmetries of the surface temperature using the difference between the min/max and 24-h methods of daily temperature calculation. The relationship was particularly strong for winter, spring and summer. Autumn appears to experience the joint effect of fog formation and the radiative effect of snow cover. The results of this study suggests that subtle variations of diurnality of temperature, as measured in the difference of the two mean temperature methods of calculation, may be used as a proxy for fog detection in the Hudson Bay region. These results also provide a cautionary note for the spatial analysis of mean temperatures using data derived from the two different methods particularly in areas that are fog prone.

  19. Disease-toxicant interactions in manganese exposed Huntington disease mice: early changes in striatal neuron morphology and dopamine metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Madison

    Full Text Available YAC128 Huntington's disease (HD transgenic mice accumulate less manganese (Mn in the striatum relative to wild-type (WT littermates. We hypothesized that Mn and mutant Huntingtin (HTT would exhibit gene-environment interactions at the level of neurochemistry and neuronal morphology. Twelve-week-old WT and YAC128 mice were exposed to MnCl(2-4H(2O (50 mg/kg on days 0, 3 and 6. Striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN morphology, as well as levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites (which are known to be sensitive to Mn-exposure, were analyzed at 13 weeks (7 days from initial exposure and 16 weeks (28 days from initial exposure. No genotype-dependent differences in MSN morphology were apparent at 13 weeks. But at 16 weeks, a genotype effect was observed in YAC128 mice, manifested by an absence of the wild-type age-dependent increase in dendritic length and branching complexity. In addition, genotype-exposure interaction effects were observed for dendritic complexity measures as a function of distance from the soma, where only YAC128 mice were sensitive to Mn exposure. Furthermore, striatal DA levels were unaltered at 13 weeks by genotype or Mn exposure, but at 16 weeks, both Mn exposure and the HD genotype were associated with quantitatively similar reductions in DA and its metabolites. Interestingly, Mn exposure of YAC128 mice did not further decrease DA or its metabolites versus YAC128 vehicle exposed or Mn exposed WT mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate Mn-HD disease-toxicant interactions at the onset of striatal dendritic neuropathology in YAC128 mice. Our results identify the earliest pathological change in striatum of YAC128 mice as being between 13 to 16 weeks. Finally, we show that mutant HTT suppresses some Mn-dependent changes, such as decreased DA levels, while it exacerbates others, such as dendritic pathology.

  20. Diurnal variations in iron concentrations and expression of genes involved in iron absorption and metabolism in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiming; Wan, Dan; Zhou, Xihong; Long, Ciming; Wu, Xin; Li, Lan; He, Liuqin; Huang, Pan; Chen, Shuai; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-09-02

    Diurnal variations in serum iron levels have been well documented in clinical studies, and serum iron is an important diagnostic index for iron-deficiency anemia. However, the underlying mechanism of dynamic iron regulation in response to the circadian rhythm is still unclear. In this study, we investigated daily variations in iron status in the plasma and liver of pigs. The transcripts encoding key factors involved in iron uptake and homeostasis were evaluated. The results showed that iron levels in the plasma and liver exhibited diurnal rhythms. Diurnal variations were also observed in transcript levels of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), membrane-associated ferric reductase 1 (DCYTB), and transferrin receptor (TfR) in the duodenum and jejunum, as well as hepcidin (HAMP) and TfR in the liver. Moreover, the results showed a network in which diurnal variations in systemic iron levels were tightly regulated by hepcidin and Tf/TfR via DCYTB and DMT1. These findings provide new insights into circadian iron homeostasis regulation. The diurnal variations in serum iron levels may also have pathophysiological implications for clinical diagnostics related to iron deficiency anemia in pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diurnal Cycle of ITCZ Convection during the MJO Suppressed Phase in DYNAMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Schubert, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    During the special observing period of the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) experiment, conducted over the Indian Ocean from 1 October to 30 November 2011, two sounding arrays - one north and one south of the equator, referred to here as the NSA and SSA, respectively - took 4-8 soundings/day. We augment this 3-h dataset with observations of radiation and rainfall to investigate the diurnal cycle of convection during the suppressed phase of the October MJO. During this 14-day period when convection was suppressed over the NSA but prominent over the SSA, the circulation over the sounding arrays could be characterized as a local Hadley cell embedded within a monsoonal flow. Strong rising motion was present within the ITCZ and compensating subsidence over the NSA. A prominent diurnal pulsing of this cell was observed, impacting conditions on both sides of the equator, with the cell running strongest in the early morning hours (05-08 LT) and notably weakening later in the day (17-20LT). The reduction in evening subsidence over the NSA may have assisted the moistening of the low to mid-troposphere there during the pre-onset stage of the MJO. Apparent heating Q1 within the ITCZ exhibits a diurnal evolution from early morning bottom-heavy profiles to weaker daytime top-heavy profiles. Making use of the weak temperature gradient approximation, results suggest that direct radiative effects played a dominant role in controlling diurnal variations of vertical motion and convection within the ITCZ while non-radiative processes were more prominent over the NSA.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a novel agarase-producing Pseudoalteromonas spp. bacterium from the guts of spiny turban shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Hoon; Jung, Changkyou; Lee, Jinwon

    2011-08-01

    An agar-degrading bacterium was isolated from the guts of spiny turban shells. It was identified as a Pseudoalteromonas species and named Pseudoalteromonas sp. JYBCL 1. The viscosity of the inoculated agar medium decreased by more than 60% after 20 h cultivation. The agarase produced by the isolate had optimal activities at 35 degrees C and pH 7. The enzyme had extremely strong resistance to ionic stress compared with other known agarases. Its molecular mass was estimated at about 60 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The agarase could saccharify Gelidium amansii directly, with an efficiency about half that compared with agar saccharification.

  3. Diurnal rhythms in psychological reward functioning in healthy young men: 'Wanting', liking, and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie E M; Murray, Greg

    2017-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that human reward functioning is partly driven by the endogenous circadian system, generating 24-hour rhythms in behavioural measures of reward activation. Reward functioning is multifaceted but literature to date is largely limited to measures of self-reported positive mood states. The aim of this study was to advance the field by testing for hypothesised diurnal variation in previously unexplored components of psychological reward: 'wanting', liking, and learning using subjective and behavioural measures. Risky decision making (automatic Balloon Analogue Risk Task), affective responsivity to positive images (International Affective Pictures System), uncued self-reported discrete emotions, and learning-contingent reward (Iowa Gambling Task) were measured at 10.00 hours, 14.00 hours, and 19.00 hours in a counterbalanced repeated measures design with 50 healthy male participants (aged 18-30). As hypothesised, risky decision making (unconscious 'wanting') and ratings of arousal towards positive images (conscious wanting) exhibited a diurnal waveform with indices highest at 14.00 hours. No diurnal rhythm was observed for liking (pleasure ratings to positive images, discrete uncued positive emotions) or in a learning-contingent reward task. Findings reaffirm that diurnal variation in human reward functioning is most pronounced in the motivational 'wanting' components of reward.

  4. Insights into the diurnal cycle of global Earth outgoing radiation using a numerical weather prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristey, Jake J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Gurney, Robert J.; Morcrette, Cyril J.; Hill, Peter G.; Russell, Jacqueline E.; Brindley, Helen E.

    2018-04-01

    A globally complete, high temporal resolution and multiple-variable approach is employed to analyse the diurnal cycle of Earth's outgoing energy flows. This is made possible via the use of Met Office model output for September 2010 that is assessed alongside regional satellite observations throughout. Principal component analysis applied to the long-wave component of modelled outgoing radiation reveals dominant diurnal patterns related to land surface heating and convective cloud development, respectively explaining 68.5 and 16.0 % of the variance at the global scale. The total variance explained by these first two patterns is markedly less than previous regional estimates from observations, and this analysis suggests that around half of the difference relates to the lack of global coverage in the observations. The first pattern is strongly and simultaneously coupled to the land surface temperature diurnal variations. The second pattern is strongly coupled to the cloud water content and height diurnal variations, but lags the cloud variations by several hours. We suggest that the mechanism controlling the delay is a moistening of the upper troposphere due to the evaporation of anvil cloud. The short-wave component of modelled outgoing radiation, analysed in terms of albedo, exhibits a very dominant pattern explaining 88.4 % of the variance that is related to the angle of incoming solar radiation, and a second pattern explaining 6.7 % of the variance that is related to compensating effects from convective cloud development and marine stratocumulus cloud dissipation. Similar patterns are found in regional satellite observations, but with slightly different timings due to known model biases. The first pattern is controlled by changes in surface and cloud albedo, and Rayleigh and aerosol scattering. The second pattern is strongly coupled to the diurnal variations in both cloud water content and height in convective regions but only cloud water content in marine

  5. Diurnal Periodicity in the Supply of Cell Wall Components during Wood Cell Wall Formation

    OpenAIRE

    細尾, 佳宏

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes recent studies on the diurnal periodicity in wood cell wall formation, with a major focus on those that we have conducted. Differences in the innermost surface of developing secondary walls of differentiating conifer tracheids can be seen from day to night Cellulose microfibrils are clearly evident during the day, and amorphous material containing abundant hemicelluloses is prevalent at night. These findings suggest a diurnal periodicity in the supply of cell wall compo...

  6. Tracking the MJO Convection and its Impact on the Diurnal Cycle over the Maritime Continent Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, B. W.; Chen, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent (MC) is the most active convection center in the tropics, and the most important modes of variability are the diurnal cycle and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Previous studies have shown that the MC has strong diurnal variability compared with the rest of the tropics, and the diurnal cycle of convection over the MC is amplified during the passage of an MJO. One outstanding science question is how the passage of the active MJO affects the diurnal cycle. The atmospheric, upper ocean, and land surface forcing factors contributing to the diurnal cycle need to be clarified. In order to address this, large scale precipitation tracking (LPT) is used to identify MJO active and suppressed periods for 2000-2015. To document the diurnal cycle of convection during the active and suppressed periods, TRMM/GPM and mesoscale cloud cluster tracking are used. Finally, the LPT tracking is used to composite the satellite-estimated surface wind, humidity, temperature, cloud cover, and soil moisture over the islands for active versus suppressed MJO periods. In active MJO periods, the diurnal convection in the surrounding marginal seas is enhanced and the diurnal convection over land is decreased. The islands of the MC have greater soil moisture, more cloud cover, and do not warm up as much during the day, leading to a weaker afternoon maximum over land. But how is nocturnal convection over the sea increased? The largest, most mature convective cloud systems are found over the marginal seas in the early morning. This is hypothesized to mainly be a consequence of the longer life cycle of convective systems in the favorable large-scale active MJO. The propagation of the MJO across the MC is facilitated by the enhanced nocturnal deep convection over the sea. In contrast, In the suppressed period the convection is mostly daytime forced convection over land which is locked to the terrain.

  7. Resistance to starvation of first-stage juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Espinosa-Magaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-feeding postlarva (puerulus of spiny lobsters actively swims from the open ocean to the coastal habitats where it settles and molts to the first-stage juvenile (JI. Because pueruli use much of their energy reserves swimming and preparing for the post-settlement molt, the survival of JIs presumably depends on resuming feeding as soon as possible. To test this hypothesis, the resistance to starvation of JIs of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was evaluated by measuring their point-of-no-return (PNR, minimum time of initial starvation preventing recovery after later feeding and point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS, minimum time of initial feeding allowing for food-independent development through the rest of the molting cycle in a warm and a cold season. Each experiment consisted of eight groups: a continuously fed control (FC group, a continuously starved control (SC group, and six groups subjected to differential periods of either initial starvation and subsequent feeding (PNR experiments or initial feeding and subsequent starvation (PSR experiments. No JIs molted under continuous absence of food (SC. In both PNR experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.79 ± 0.07°C, mean ± 95% CI; in cold season: 25.63 ± 0.12°C mortality increased sharply after 9 d of initial starvation and intermolt periods increased with period of initial starvation, but were longer in the cold season. The PNR50 was longer in the warm season (12.1 ± 1.2 d, mean ± 95% CI than in the cold season (9.5 ± 2.1 d. In PRS experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.54 ± 0.07 °C; in cold season: 26.20 ± 0.12 °C, JIs that molted did so near the end of the feeding period; all JIs initially fed for up to 6 d succumbed, and no JIs molted after 13 d of starvation despite having fed previously. The PRS50 did not differ between the cold (13.1 ± 0.7 d and warm seasons (12.1 ± 1.1 d. JIs of P. argus exhibit a remarkable resistance to

  8. Absence of diurnal variation of C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Ewert, H. K.; Ridker, P. M.; Rifai, N.; Price, N.; Dinges, D. F.; Mullington, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in otherwise healthy subjects has been shown to predict future risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. CRP is synthesized by the liver in response to interleukin-6, the serum concentration of which is subject to diurnal variation. METHODS: To examine the existence of a time-of-day effect for baseline CRP values, we determined CRP concentrations in hourly blood samples drawn from healthy subjects (10 males, 3 females; age range, 21-35 years) during a baseline day in a controlled environment (8 h of nighttime sleep). RESULTS: Overall CRP concentrations were low, with only three subjects having CRP concentrations >2 mg/L. Comparison of raw data showed stability of CRP concentrations throughout the 24 h studied. When compared with cutoff values of CRP quintile derived from population-based studies, misclassification of greater than one quintile did not occur as a result of diurnal variation in any of the subjects studied. Nonparametric ANOVA comparing different time points showed no significant differences for both raw and z-transformed data. Analysis for rhythmic diurnal variation using a method fitting a cosine curve to the group data was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that baseline CRP concentrations are not subject to time-of-day variation and thus help to explain why CRP concentrations are a better predictor of vascular risk than interleukin-6. Determination of CRP for cardiovascular risk prediction may be performed without concern for diurnal variation.

  9. Reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii (Cactaceae): the role of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Baes, P; Saravia, M; Sühring, S; Godínez-Alvarez, H; Zamar, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii, a species endemic to northwest Argentina that has nocturnal flowers. We expected that this species had a generalised pollination system, with moths and diurnal visitors as the primary pollinators. To test this, we studied the floral biology, breeding system and floral visitors of this species and the effectiveness of nocturnal and diurnal visitors. Floral biology was defined based on floral morphology, floral cycle and nectar production of the flowers. The breeding system and relative contributions of diurnal and nocturnal visitors to fruit and seed set were analysed through field experiments. E. terscheckii flowers opened at sunset and closed the following day. The peak of nectar production occurred at midnight. Flowers were determined to be self-incompatible. Moths, bees and birds were identified as floral visitors. Moths were the most frequent visitors at night, whereas bees were the most frequent visitors during the day. Fruit production by diurnal pollinators was less than that by nocturnal pollinators; among all floral visitors, moths were the most effective pollinators. We have demonstrated for the first time that moths are the primary pollinators of columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis. Our results suggest that moths might be important pollinators of columnar cactus species with nocturnal flowers in the extra-tropical deserts of South America. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Msh2 acts in medium-spiny striatal neurons as an enhancer of CAG instability and mutant huntingtin phenotypes in Huntington's disease knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kovalenko

    Full Text Available The CAG trinucleotide repeat mutation in the Huntington's disease gene (HTT exhibits age-dependent tissue-specific expansion that correlates with disease onset in patients, implicating somatic expansion as a disease modifier and potential therapeutic target. Somatic HTT CAG expansion is critically dependent on proteins in the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. To gain further insight into mechanisms of somatic expansion and the relationship of somatic expansion to the disease process in selectively vulnerable MSNs we have crossed HTT CAG knock-in mice (HdhQ111 with mice carrying a conditional (floxed Msh2 allele and D9-Cre transgenic mice, in which Cre recombinase is expressed specifically in MSNs within the striatum. Deletion of Msh2 in MSNs eliminated Msh2 protein in those neurons. We demonstrate that MSN-specific deletion of Msh2 was sufficient to eliminate the vast majority of striatal HTT CAG expansions in HdhQ111 mice. Furthermore, MSN-specific deletion of Msh2 modified two mutant huntingtin phenotypes: the early nuclear localization of diffusely immunostaining mutant huntingtin was slowed; and the later development of intranuclear huntingtin inclusions was dramatically inhibited. Therefore, Msh2 acts within MSNs as a genetic enhancer both of somatic HTT CAG expansions and of HTT CAG-dependent phenotypes in mice. These data suggest that the selective vulnerability of MSNs may be at least in part contributed by the propensity for somatic expansion in these neurons, and imply that intervening in the expansion process is likely to have therapeutic benefit.

  11. Diurnal Patterns of Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Soil Respiration in Maize and Switchgrass Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haden, A.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Jackson, R. D.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    A high proportion of carbon lost from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via soil CO2 respiration. Soil respiration is comprised of two contrasting sources: heterotrophic respiration (RH) from the decomposition of organic matter and autotrophic respiration (RA) from plant root metabolism. Since the two sources of soil respiration vary widely in their origin, the controls of each source are also likely to differ. However, the challenge of partitioning soil respiration sources in situ has limited our mechanistic understanding of RH and RA. Our objective was to evaluate the in situ diurnal controls of RH and RA in maize (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) bioenergy cropping systems. We hypothesized that both RH and RA would follow diurnal soil temperature trends, but that RA would also respond to diel patterns of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We also expected that diurnal soil respiration patterns would vary significantly within the growing season. We evaluated our hypothesis with six diurnal soil respiration campaigns during the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons at Arlington, WI, USA. RH showed clear oscillating diel trends, typically peaking in the mid-afternoon when near-surface soil temperatures were highest. Diurnal RA patterns were more nuanced than RH, but were generally highest in the late afternoon and showed the most pronounced diel trends during peak growing season in July. RA also tended to spike in concert with PAR, but this effect was much more prominent in maize than switchgrass. Continuing efforts will attempt to quantitatively separate the effects of soil temperature and PAR on RA.

  12. Prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature variation and early childhood pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong

    2017-04-01

    Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    State Climate Office of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC 27695-8208, USA. ∗ e-mail: ... of the weather forecast models experience problems in accounting for the ... effect of vegetation and soil contrasts on thermally induced flow is ... Sandhills; diurnal convection; heat flux gradients; cloud–radiation interaction. J. Earth Syst. Sci.

  14. Sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns in a cohort of U.S. young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A; Roberts, Andrea L; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18-32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual

  15. Diurnal Patterns and Correlates of Older Adults' Sedentary Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Van Cauwenberg

    Full Text Available Insights into the diurnal patterns of sedentary behavior and the identification of subgroups that are at increased risk for engaging in high levels of sedentary behavior are needed to inform potential interventions for reducing older adults' sedentary time. Therefore, we examined the diurnal patterns and sociodemographic correlates of older adults' sedentary behavior(s.Stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit 508 non-institutionalized Belgian older adults (≥ 65 years. Morning, afternoon, evening and total sedentary time was assessed objectively using accelerometers. Specific sedentary behaviors, total sitting time and sociodemographic attributes were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire.Participants self-reported a median of 475 (Q1-Q3 = 383-599 minutes/day of total sitting time and they accumulated a mean of 580 ± 98 minutes/day of accelerometer-derived sedentary time. Sedentary time was lowest during the morning and highest during the evening. Older participants were as sedentary as younger participants during the evening, but they were more sedentary during daytime. Compared to married participants, widowers were more sedentary during daytime. Younger participants (< 75 years, men and the higher educated were more likely to engage in (high levels of sitting while driving a car and using the computer. Those with tertiary education viewed 29% and 22% minutes/day less television compared to those with primary or secondary education, respectively. Older participants accumulated 35 sedentary minutes/day more than did younger participants and men accumulated 32 sedentary minutes/day more than did women.These findings highlight diurnal variations and potential opportunities to tailor approaches to reducing sedentary time for subgroups of the older adult population.

  16. Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Meinander

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of snow for climate studies is based on its physical properties, such as high surface reflectivity. Surface ultraviolet (UV albedo is an essential parameter for various applications based on radiative transfer modeling. Here, new continuous measurements of the local UV albedo of natural Arctic snow were made at Sodankylä (67°22'N, 26°39'E, 179 m a.s.l. during the spring of 2007. The data were logged at 1-min intervals. The accumulation of snow was up to 68 cm. The surface layer thickness varied from 0.5 to 35 cm with the snow grain size between 0.2 and 2.5 mm. The midday erythemally weighted UV albedo ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 in the accumulation period, and from 0.5 to 0.7 during melting. During the snow melt period, under cases of an almost clear sky and variable cloudiness, an unexpected diurnal decrease of 0.05 in albedo soon after midday, and recovery thereafter, was detected. This diurnal decrease in albedo was found to be asymmetric with respect to solar midday, thus indicating a change in the properties of the snow. Independent UV albedo results with two different types of instruments confirm these findings. The measured temperature of the snow surface was below 0°C on the following mornings. Hence, the reversible diurnal change, evident for ~1–2 h, could be explained by the daily metamorphosis of the surface of the snowpack, in which the temperature of the surface increases, melting some of the snow to liquid water, after which the surface freezes again.

  17. Daily variation in radiosensitivity of circulating blood cells and bone marrow cell density in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabai, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Mice on a 12/12 light/dark cycle were bled during a twenty-four hour period each week for eight weeks to establish daily values of circulating blood cells. No significant daily variation was found in total red blood cells, hematocrit, or percentage of reticulocytes. A significant (P < 0.001) daily variation was found in total white blood cells, with the minimum occurring at 8 PM and the maximum occurring during the daylight hours from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mice were then exposed to 0 R, 20 R, 50 R, or 100 R of x-radiation to determine what dose significantly reduces the total white cell count in circulating blood. It was found that 100 R significantly (P < .05) reduces the total white cell count over a four week period post-exposure. To determine if circulating blood cells and bone marrow cells show a diurnal radiosensitivity, mice were exposed to 100 R or 200 R of x-radiation at noon or midnight. Hematocrits, reticulocyte and white blood cell counts, daily white blood cell rhythm, and bone marrow cell density indicate that these mice were more radiosensitive at night

  18. Uncovering the mystery of opposite circadian rhythms between mouse and human leukocytes in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Fan, Yong; Loh, Eva; Chang, Kenneth Tou En; Tan, Thiam Chye; Chen, Qingfeng

    2017-11-02

    Many immune parameters show circadian rhythms during the 24-hour day in mammals. The most striking circadian oscillation is the number of circulating immune cells that display an opposite rhythm between humans and mice. The physiological roles and mechanisms of circadian variations in mouse leukocytes are well studied, whereas for humans they remain unclear because of the lack of a proper model. In this study, we found that consistent with their natural host species, mouse and human circulating leukocytes exhibited opposite circadian oscillations in humanized mice. This cyclic pattern of trafficking correlated well with the diurnal expression levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4, which were controlled by the intracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like heterodimer. Furthermore, we also discovered that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases/mitogen-activated 2 had opposite effects between mice and humans in generating intracellular reactive oxygen species, which subsequently regulated HIF-1α expression. In conclusion, we propose humanized mice as a robust model for human circadian studies and reveal insights on a novel molecular clock network in the human circadian rhythm. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. The effects of the diurnal atmospheric variability on entry, descent and landing on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landing on Mars is extremely challenging task due to the fact that the Martian atmosphere is the most hostile environment in the Solar system to perform the entry, descent and landing (EDL process, because it is thick enough to create substantial heating of the entry vehicle but not thick enough to reduce its velocity to the one necessary for safe landing. Beside this, the atmosphere is very dynamic mainly due to high eccentricity of the Martian orbit, obliquity of the orbital to the equatorial plane and close alignment of the winter solstice and the orbital perihelion. Although seasonal variations of atmospheric parameters are significantly larger than the diurnal, it is very important to analyze diurnal cycles as they can significantly change vertical and horizontal atmospheric profiles in very short time intervals. This can present a serious threat to missions which have very precise timings and specific requirements such as the requirement for the daytime landing to enable ground images acquisition during the descent and landing phase. A 3-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integration routine was combined with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM to identify the dependence of the EDL profiles on the diurnal cycles of atmospheric parameters throughout the Martian year. The obtained results show that the influence of the diurnal cycles is the largest at the equator and decreases relatively symmetrically towards the poles with a slightly stronger influence in the northern hemisphere. Also, there is a significant influence of the orbital position of Mars on the effect of diurnal atmospheric variations which causes that, around the orbital perihelion and winter solstice, there is some kind of inversion of the dependance of optimal entry timing on latitude of the landing site comparing to the rest of the Martian year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002

  20. Diurnal variability of inner-shelf circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, L.; Peliz, A.; Dias, J.; Oliveira, P. B.; Angélico, M. M.; Castro, J. J.; Fernandes, J. N.; Trindade, A.; Cruz, T.

    2017-07-01

    The nearshore circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions was studied using in-situ data from 3 consecutive summers (2006-2008). Focus was given to a period between 20 July and 04 August 2006 to study the diurnal variability of the cross-shelf circulation. This period was chosen because it had a steady upwelling-favourable wind condition modulated by a diurnal cycle much similar to sea breeze. The daily variability of the observed cross-shelf circulation consisted of three distinct periods: a morning period with a 3-layer vertical structure with onshore velocities at mid-depth, a mid-day period where the flow is reversed and has a 2-layer structure with onshore velocities at the surface and offshore flow below, and, lastly, in the evening, a 2-layer period with intensified offshore velocities at the surface and onshore flow at the bottom. The observed cross-shelf circulation showed a peculiar vertical shape and diurnal variability different from several other systems described in literature. We hypothesize that the flow reversal of the cross-shelf circulation results as a response to the rapid change of the wind magnitude and direction at mid-day with the presence of the cape north of the mooring site influencing this response. A numerical modelling experiment exclusively forced by winds simulated successfully most of the circulation at the ADCP site, especially the mid-day reversal and the evening's upwelling-type structure. This supports the hypothesis that the cross-shelf circulation at diurnal timescales is mostly wind-driven. By analysing the 3D circulation in the vicinity of Cape Sines we came to the conclusion that the diurnal variability of the wind and the flow interaction with topography are responsible for the circulation variability at the ADCP site, though only a small region in the south of the cape showed a similar diurnal variability. The fact that the wind diurnally undergoes relaxation and intensification strongly affects the

  1. Diurnal Variation in the Basal Emission Rate of Isoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Funk; Clive G. Jones; Christine J. Baker; Heather M. Fuller; Christian P. Giardina; Manuel T. Lerdua

    2003-01-01

    Isoprene is emitted from numerous plant species and profoundly influences tropospheric chemistry. Due to the short lifetime of isoprene in the atmosphere, developing an understanding of emission patterns at small time scales is essential for modeling regional atmospheric chemistry processes. Previous studies suggest that diurnal fluctuations in isoprene emission may be...

  2. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Truelove

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%. These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus.

  3. observ ations on the life histories and behaviour of some small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The species: Four spiny mice have been recorded from Tanzania and these with two· ... their eyes opened and soon after two weeks they were able to fend for themselves. ...... Moreover, neither burrows nor nests were ever seen in the field.

  4. Simulated precipitation diurnal cycles over East Asia using different CAPE-based convective closure schemes in WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ben; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Yaocun; Huang, Anning; Qian, Yun; Zhang, Lujun

    2018-03-01

    Closure assumption in convection parameterization is critical for reasonably modeling the precipitation diurnal variation in climate models. This study evaluates the precipitation diurnal cycles over East Asia during the summer of 2008 simulated with three convective available potential energy (CAPE) based closure assumptions, i.e. CAPE-relaxing (CR), quasi-equilibrium (QE), and free-troposphere QE (FTQE) and investigates the impacts of planetary boundary layer (PBL) mixing, advection, and radiation on the simulation by using the weather research and forecasting model. The sensitivity of precipitation diurnal cycle to PBL vertical resolution is also examined. Results show that the precipitation diurnal cycles simulated with different closures all exhibit large biases over land and the simulation with FTQE closure agrees best with observation. In the simulation with QE closure, the intensified PBL mixing after sunrise is responsible for the late-morning peak of convective precipitation, while in the simulation with FTQE closure, convective precipitation is mainly controlled by advection cooling. The relative contributions of different processes to precipitation formation are functions of rainfall intensity. In the simulation with CR closure, the dynamical equilibrium in the free troposphere still can be reached, implying the complex cause-effect relationship between atmospheric motion and convection. For simulations in which total CAPE is consumed for the closures, daytime precipitation decreases with increased PBL resolution because thinner model layer produces lower convection starting layer, leading to stronger downdraft cooling and CAPE consumption. The sensitivity of the diurnal peak time of precipitation to closure assumption can also be modulated by changes in PBL vertical resolution. The results of this study help us better understand the impacts of various processes on the precipitation diurnal cycle simulation.

  5. Diurnal changes in flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veit, M.; Bilger, W.; Mühlbauer, T.; Brummet, W.; Winter, K.

    1996-01-01

    Field studies of a tropical tree, Anacardium excelsum, and a northern hemisphere high altitude fern, Cryptogramma crispa, revealed marked diurnal changes in soluble flavonoid content of leaves and fronds, respectively. The flavonoid content increased during the morning and decreased during the afternoon. In plants of C. crispa covered with UV-B absorbing filters, the flavonoid content remained at a constant level throughout the day/night cycle. Upon removal of UV-B absorbing filters (at night), the flavonoid content increased the next morning in a fashion similar to that observed in control plants maintained without filters. Decreases in photosystem II photochemical efficiency upon exposure of C. crispa to natural daylight were similar in plants previously covered with UV-B absorbing filters and in control plants, probably owing to the observed ability of plants to rapidly accumulate UV-B protective flavonoids. (author)

  6. Characterization of chitinolytic bacteria and histological aspects of Shell Disease Syndrome in European spiny lobsters (Palinurus elephas) (Fabricius 1787).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M; Costanzo, M T; Maricchiolo, G; Gristina, M; Zaccone, R; Cuccu, D; Genovese, L

    2010-07-01

    The present research reports the first description of Shell Disease Syndrome in European spiny lobsters Palinurus elephas (Fabricius 1787), which occurred in an experimental aquaculture facility in Sicily (Italy). Both bacterial characterization and histopathological examination of the exoskeleton at site of lesions was carried out. Infected specimens showed tail fan erosions, and in one case uropod ulceration and complete loss of periods. Identified species included: Listonella anguillarum 50.5%, Vibrio parahaemolyticus 27.5% and Vibrio alginolyticus 22%. Microscopic evaluation of lesions indicate the presence of inflammatory responses, which include melanization and pseudomembrane formation, similar to those described for other crustaceans affected by SDS. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of predation risk through conspecific alarm odors by spiny lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Strong “alarm odors” emanating from lethally injured conspecifics may indicate an imminent risk of predation to spiny lobsters. In laboratory trials,1 strong conspecific alarm odors elicited avoidance in Panulirus argus, a highly gregarious species that displays collective defense behavior, but not in Panulirus guttatus, a species that tends to aggregate when reproductive activity is high (spring) but not when it is low (late summer) and does not display collective defensive behavior. To reduce predation risk, however, lobsters may autotomize limbs, thus sustaining nonlethal injuries. I tested the response of these lobsters to scents emanating from intact, lethally-injured and non-lethally injured conspecifics. In P. argus, these scents elicited, respectively, attraction, avoidance and a random response, suggesting that, in P. argus, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors depends on their strength. In contrast, P. guttatus lobsters responded at random to scents of lethally injured conspecifics and showed a similar response to scents of intact and non-lethally injured conspecifics in the spring (attraction) and in the summer (random), reflecting the more cryptic defensive behavior of this species. Therefore, both species use conspecific alarm odors for risk-assessment, but each responds to these cues in the most effective way to reduce its risk of predation. PMID:19721871

  8. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation

  9. Combined diurnal variations of discharge and hydrochemistry of the Isunnguata Sermia outlet, Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graly, Joseph; Harrington, Joel; Humphrey, Neil

    2017-05-01

    In order to examine daily cycles in meltwater routing and storage in the Isunnguata Sermia outlet of the Greenland Ice Sheet, variations in outlet stream discharge and in major element hydrochemistry were assessed over a 6-day period in July 2013. Over 4 days, discharge was assessed from hourly photography of the outlet from multiple vantages, including where midstream naled ice provided a natural gauge. pH, electrical conductivity, suspended sediment, and major element and anion chemistry were measured in samples of stream water collected every 3 h.Photography and stream observations reveal that although river width and stage have only slight diurnal variation, there are large diurnal changes in discharge shown by the doubling in width of what we term the active channel, which is characterized by large standing waves and fast flow. The concentration of dissolved solutes follows a sinusoidal diurnal cycle, except for large and variable increases in dissolved solutes during the stream's waning flow. Solute concentrations vary by ˜ 30 % between diurnal minima and maxima. Discharge maxima and minima lag temperature and surface melt by 3-7 h; diurnal solute concentration minima and maxima lag discharge by 3-6 h.This phase shift between discharge and solute concentration suggests that during high flow, water is either encountering more rock material or is stored in longer contact with rock material. We suggest that expansion of a distributed subglacial hydrologic network into seldom accessed regions during high flow could account for these phenomena, and for a spike of partial silicate reaction products during waning flow, which itself suggests a pressure threshold-triggered release of stored water.

  10. Differential arousal regulation by prokineticin 2 signaling in the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun-Yong; Burton, Katherine J; Neal, Matthew L; Qiao, Yu; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Sun, Yanjun; Xu, Xiangmin; Ma, Yuanye; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-08-18

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the active phase to either day or night period for the diurnal and the nocturnal mammals are unclear. Here we report that prokineticin 2, previously shown as a circadian clock output molecule, is expressed in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and the expression of prokineticin 2 in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is oscillatory in a clock-dependent manner. We further show that the prokineticin 2 signaling is required for the activity and arousal suppression by light in the mouse. Between the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey, a signaling receptor for prokineticin 2 is differentially expressed in the retinorecipient suprachiasmatic nucleus and the superior colliculus, brain projection targets of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Blockade with a selective antagonist reveals the respectively inhibitory and stimulatory effect of prokineticin 2 signaling on the arousal levels for the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey. Thus, the mammalian diurnality or nocturnality is likely determined by the differential signaling of prokineticin 2 from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells onto their retinorecipient brain targets.

  11. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  12. Study of a Functional Polymorphism in the PER3 Gene and Diurnal Preference in a Colombian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Claudia S; Niño, Carmen L; López-León, Sandra; Gutiérrez, Rafael; Ojeda, Diego; Arboleda, Humberto; Camargo, Andrés; Adan, Ana; Forero, Diego A

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in human clock genes have been evaluated as potential factors influencing circadian phenotypes in several populations. There are conflicting results for the association of a VNTR in the PER3 gene and diurnal preference in different studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between diurnal preference and daytime somnolence with the PER3 VNTR polymorphism (rs57875989) in healthy subjects from Colombia, a Latin American population.A total of 294 undergraduate university students from Bogotá, Colombia participated in this study. Two validated self-report questionnaires, the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) and the Epworth Sleep Scale (ESS) were used to assess diurnal preference and daytime somnolence, respectively. Individuals were genotyped for the PER3 VNTR using conventional PCR. Statistical comparisons were carried out with PLINK and SNPStats programs. The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with either diurnal preference or daytime somnolence in this population. No significant differences in mean scores for those scales were found between PER3 VNTR genotypes. In addition, there were no differences in allelic or genotypic frequencies between chronotype categories. This is consistent with several negative findings in other populations, indicating that the proposed influence of this polymorphism in diurnal preference, and related endophenotypes of neuropsychiatric importance, needs further clarification. This is the first report of molecular genetics of human circadian phenotypes in a Spanish-speaking population. PMID:24860629

  13. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the arctic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteors are an important source for (a the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere. We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out. Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon but all three radiants were detected.

  14. Diurnal Transcriptome and Gene Network Represented through Sparse Modeling in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Koda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the comprehensive identification of periodic genes and their network inference, based on a gene co-expression analysis and an Auto-Regressive eXogenous (ARX model with a group smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD method using a time-series transcriptome dataset in a model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. To reveal the diurnal changes in the transcriptome in B. distachyon, we performed RNA-seq analysis of its leaves sampled through a diurnal cycle of over 48 h at 4 h intervals using three biological replications, and identified 3,621 periodic genes through our wavelet analysis. The expression data are feasible to infer network sparsity based on ARX models. We found that genes involved in biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, and post-transcriptional modification and photosynthesis are significantly enriched in the periodic genes, suggesting that these processes might be regulated by circadian rhythm in B. distachyon. On the basis of the time-series expression patterns of the periodic genes, we constructed a chronological gene co-expression network and identified putative transcription factors encoding genes that might be involved in the time-specific regulatory transcriptional network. Moreover, we inferred a transcriptional network composed of the periodic genes in B. distachyon, aiming to identify genes associated with other genes through variable selection by grouping time points for each gene. Based on the ARX model with the group SCAD regularization using our time-series expression datasets of the periodic genes, we constructed gene networks and found that the networks represent typical scale-free structure. Our findings demonstrate that the diurnal changes in the transcriptome in B. distachyon leaves have a sparse network structure, demonstrating the spatiotemporal gene regulatory network over the cyclic phase transitions in B. distachyon diurnal growth.

  15. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of diurnal variations in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, R.S.

    2000-09-01

    This thesis describes work that uses high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to give an insight into the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with particular reference to characterising diurnal changes in joint stiffness in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints. The study was performed on a targeted 1.1 T MRI scanner using specialised sequences, including 3-dimensional gradient-echo, magnetisation transfer (MT) and multiple gradient-echo. These enabled tissue-dependent parameters such as MT ratio, effective transverse relaxation time (T 2 *) and proton density (ρ) to be made. Preliminary reproducibility studies of the MRI measurements showed that MT ratio could be measured in vivo to an accuracy of better than 8%. This variation is due to repositioning errors and physiological changes. Equivalent variations in T 2 * and p were 23% and 16% respectively; these poorer figures were contributed to errors in fitting the data to an exponential curve. An MRI study monitoring the diurnal variation of stiffness in RA demonstrated better characterisation of the disease state using MT and T 2 * maps compared to standard gradient-echo imaging. Features associated with arthritis such as bone erosions and cysts were found in the control group and an MT age dependence was measured in the soft tissue on the superior margin of the joint. This region also exhibited a diurnal variation in MT ratio for the patient group. The interaction between this region of tissue and other structures (e.g. the sheath of extensor tendon) within the joint could be a possible cause of joint stiffness. An incidental finding of this study was that Ritchie joint score also showed a diurnal variation. This study has demonstrated that MRI can be used to make reproducible measurements of the diurnal variations in RA. The indication is that the soft tissues in the superior aspect of the joint may be responsible for the symptom of joint stiffness in the MCP joints and future studies should be

  16. diurnal climatic pressure on haematology and blood biochemistry of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve 2.5-year-old West African Dward (WAD) sheep consisting of eight (8) ewes and four (4) rams with mean body weight 19.4kg were used to study the effects of diurnal (morning and afternoon) climatic variations on the haematological and biochemical responses in WAD sheep. The animals were randomly assigned to ...

  17. Diurnal modulation and sources of variation affecting ventricular repolarization in Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Moeller, Sine B.; Madsen, Mette Flethøj

    2014-01-01

    Te) are used as repolarization markers. To support the use of these markers in horses, we sought to describe the possible influence of the environment, time of day, day-to-day effects, T wave conformation, age, body weight (BW), and horse-to-horse variation on repolarization measurements. ANIMALS: 12 Warmblood...... affecting these intervals. RESULTS: Differences between individual horses were the largest source of repolarization variability although the environment had a significant effect on repolarization as well. Diurnal variation affected both the RR interval and the repolarization markers. The QT, QTc and Tp......, diurnal variation, the environment, and T wave conformation. These factors must be considered if markers of equine repolarization are used diagnostically....

  18. An evaluation of the effects of epidermal growth factor on irradiation lip mucosa damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan

    1994-01-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on lip mucosa damage by irradiation was explored in mice. EGF was administered in doses of 100 μg/kg/day using different schedules. Mucosal damage was assessed. The metaphase arrest method with vinblastine was used to evaluate the diurnal rhythm of mitosis. EGF in regimens employed did not protect the mouse lip epithelial cells from irradiation induced damage, but it has a demonstrable stimulatory effect on cell proliferation in lip mucosa which is dependent on the schedules of administration. The reasons and mechanisms are discussed

  19. Seasonal and diurnal variability of N{sub 2}O emissions from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daelman, Matthijs R.J., E-mail: m.r.j.daelman@tudelft.nl [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Department of Biosystems engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Voorthuizen, Ellen M. van [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 151, 6500AD Nijmegen (Netherlands); Dongen, Udo G.J.M. van [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Volcke, Eveline I.P. [Department of Biosystems engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-12-01

    During nitrogen removal in conventional activated sludge processes, nitrous oxide can be emitted. With a global warming potential of 298 CO{sub 2}-equivalents it is an important greenhouse gas that affects the sustainability of wastewater treatment. The present study reports nitrous oxide emission data from a 16 month monitoring campaign on a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment. The emission demonstrated a pronounced diurnal and seasonal variability. This variability was compared with the variability of a number of process variables that are commonly available on a municipal wastewater treatment plant. On a seasonal timescale, the occurrence of peaks in the nitrite concentration correlated strongly with the emission. The diurnal trend of the emission coincided with the diurnal trend of the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the tank, suggesting that suboptimal oxygen concentrations may induce the production of nitrous oxide during both nitrification and denitrification. This study documents an unprecedented dataset that could serve as a reference for further research. - Highlights: • Unique dataset of long-term nitrous oxide emission from activated sludge tanks • Emission exhibited pronounced diurnal variability, superimposed on seasonal trend • Seasonal nitrous oxide emission trend correlated with daily nitrite peaks • Emission’s diurnal trend suggests suboptimal oxygen concentrations as cause.

  20. The Role of Nitric Oxide in Memory is Modulated by Diurnal Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Gage

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important neuromodulatory role in the olfactory system. This modulation has been suggested to be particularly important for olfactory learning and memory in the antennal lobe (the primary olfactory network in invertebrates. We are using the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to further investigate the role of NO in olfactory memory. Recent findings suggest that NO affects short-term memory traces and that NO concentration fluctuates with the light cycle. This gives rise to the hypothesis that NO may be involved in the connection between memory and circadian rhythms. In this study, we explore the role of diurnal time and NO in memory by altering the time of day when associative-olfactory conditioning is performed. We find a strong effect of NO on short-term memory, and two surprising effects of diurnal time. We find that (1 at certain time points, NO affects longer traces of memory in addition to short-term memory, and (2 when conditioning is performed close to the light cycle switches—both from light to dark and dark to light—NO does not significantly affect memory at all. These findings suggest an intriguing functional role for NO in olfactory conditioning that is modulated as a function of diurnal time.

  1. Diurnal variations of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau in relation to orographically-induced regional circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Bai Aijuan; Liu Changhai

    2009-01-01

    The diurnal patterns of variation of summertime precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau were first investigated using the TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis product for five summer seasons (i.e. June to August for 2002-2006). Both hourly precipitation amount and precipitation frequency exhibit pronounced daily variability with an overall late-afternoon-evening maximum and a dominant morning minimum. A notable exception is the prevalent nocturnal maximum around the periphery of the Plateau. In terms of the normalized harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the central Plateau and the weakest near the periphery. This remarkable spatial dependence in daily rainfall cycles is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Using six-hourly NCEP FNL data, we then examined the diurnal variability in the atmospheric circulation and thermodynamics in this region. The results show that the Plateau heats (cools) the overlying atmosphere during the day (night) more than the surrounding areas, and as a consequence a relatively stronger confluent circulation in this region occurs during the day than during the night, consistent with the diurnal rainfall cycles. Moreover, the regions with large low-level convergence and upper-level divergence correspond to the strong diurnal rainfall variations. The reversed daily alterations of convergence-divergence patterns in the vicinity of the Plateau edges are in agreement with the observed nighttime rainfall peak therein. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Tibetan Plateau in regulating regional circulation and precipitation.

  2. Solar flare location effect on the spectral characteristics of the diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, R S; Kumar, S; Naqvi, T N [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India)

    1977-01-01

    The spectral parameters of the diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity are studied separately for days where the solar flares have occurred on the western limb as well as on the eastern limb of the solar disc for both nucleonic as well as mesonic components of the cosmic rays. It is observed that the diurnal amplitude of the cosmic ray intensity in space is larger for days where solar flares have occurred on the western limb of the solar disc as compared to the days where solar flares have occurred on the eartern limb of the solar disc. This is true in both nucleonic as well as mesonic components of the cosmic ray intensity. The average value of the direction in space of diurnal anisotropy in local asymptotic time for various stations is almost same and is observed at around the same hours for flares which occur on the western as well as eastern limb of the solar disc. When these results are compared with the direction of the diurnal anisotropy in space on quiet days, it is found that the direction of the diurnal anisotropy on days where solar flares have occurred on the western limb as well as eastern limb of the solar disc is earlier in comparison to quiet days. This phase shift towards earlier hours is about three hours for nucleonic as well as mesonic components of the cosmic rays intensity. The variation of the rigidity exponent observed on different types of days for the nucleonic component has also been discussed.

  3. Factors affecting diurnal stem contraction in young Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Constance Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Diurnal fluctuation in a tree's stem diameter is a function of daily growth and of the tree's water balance, as water is temporarily stored in the relatively elastic outer cambial and phloem tissues. On a very productive site in southwestern Washington, U.S.A we used recording dendrometers to monitor stem diameter fluctuations of Douglas-fir at plantation...

  4. The Influence of Roof Material on Diurnal Urban Canyon Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhegazy, Mohamed; Yaghoobian, Neda

    2017-11-01

    Improvements in building energy use, air quality in urban canyons and in general urban microclimates require understanding the complex interaction between urban morphology, materials, climate, and inflow conditions. Review of the literature indicates that despite a long history of valuable urban microclimate studies, more comprehensive approaches are needed to address energy, and heat and flow transport in urban areas. In this study, a more comprehensive simulation of the diurnally varying street canyon flow and associated heat transport is numerically investigated, using Large-eddy Simulation (LES). We use computational modeling to examine the impact of diurnal variation of the heat fluxes from urban surfaces on the air flow and temperature distribution in street canyons with a focus on the role of roof materials and their temperature footprints. A detailed building energy model with a three-dimensional raster-type geometry provides urban surface heat fluxes as thermal boundary conditions for the LES to determine the key aero-thermodynamic factors that affect urban street ventilation.

  5. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    in 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate. After 64 h at altitude, six of the nine subjects had down-regulated their serum-EPO concentrations so that median values were three times above those at sea level. These six subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration at sea level; the nadir......This study tested the hypothesis that the diurnal variations of serum-erythropoietin concentration (serum-EPO) observed in normoxia also exist in hypoxia. The study also attempted to investigate the regulation of EPO production during sustained hypoxia. Nine subjects were investigated at sea level...... and during 4 days at an altitude of 4350 m. Median sea level serum-EPO concentration was 6 (range 6-13) U.l-1. Serum-EPO concentration increased after 18 and 42 h at altitude, [58 (range 39-240) and 54 (range 36-340) U.l-1, respectively], and then decreased after 64 and 88 h at altitude [34 (range 18...

  6. SMLTM simulations of the diurnal tide: comparison with UARS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Akmaev

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind and temperature observations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS reveal strong seasonal variations of tides, a dominant component of the MLT dynamics. Simulations with the Spectral mesosphere/lower thermosphere model (SMLTM for equinox and solstice conditions are presented and compared with the observations. The diurnal tide is generated by forcing specified at the model lower boundary and by in situ absorption of solar radiation. The model incorporates realistic parameterizations of physical processes including various dissipation processes important for propagation of tidal waves in the MLT. A discrete multi-component gravity-wave parameterization has been modified to account for seasonal variations of the background temperature. Eddy diffusion is calculated depending on the gravity-wave energy deposition rate and stability of the background flow. It is shown that seasonal variations of the diurnal-tide amplitudes are consistent with observed variations of gravity-wave sources in the lower atmosphere.

  7. Diurnal variation in rates of calcification and carbonate sediment dissolution in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Halley, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Water quality and circulation in Florida Bay (a shallow, subtropical estuary in south Florida) are highly dependent upon the development and evolution of carbonate mud banks distributed throughout the Bay. Predicting the effect of natural and anthropogenic perturbations on carbonate sedimentation requires an understanding of annual, seasonal, and daily variations in the biogenic and inorganic processes affecting carbonate sediment precipitation and dissolution. In this study, net calcification rates were measured over diurnal cycles on 27 d during summer and winter from 1999 to 2003 on mud banks and four representative substrate types located within basins between mud banks. Substrate types that were measured in basins include seagrass beds of sparse and intermediate density Thalassia sp., mud bottom, and hard bottom communities. Changes in total alkalinity were used as a proxy for calcification and dissolution. On 22 d (81%), diurnal variation in rates of net calcification was observed. The highest rates of net carbonate sediment production (or lowest rates of net dissolution) generally occurred during daylight hours and ranged from 2.900 to -0.410 g CaCO3 m-2 d-1. The lowest rates of carbonate sediment production (or net sediment dissolution) occurred at night and ranged from 0.210 to -1.900 g CaCO3 m -2 night-1. During typical diurnal cycles, dissolution during the night consumed an average of 29% of sediment produced during the day on banks and 68% of sediment produced during the day in basins. Net sediment dissolution also occurred during daylight, but only when there was total cloud cover, high turbidity, or hypersalinity. Diurnal variation in calcification and dissolution in surface waters and surface sediments of Florida Bay is linked to cycling of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis and respiration. Estimation of long-term sediment accumulation rates from diurnal rates of carbonate sediment production measured in this study indicates an overall average

  8. Does the diurnal pattern of enteric methane emissions from dairy cows change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M J; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C

    2018-02-22

    Diet manipulation and genetic selection are two important mitigation strategies for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock. The aim of this study was to assess whether the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from individual dairy cows changes over time when cows are fed on diets varying in forage composition. Emissions of CH4 from 36 cows were measured during milking in an automatic (robotic) milking station in three consecutive feeding periods, for a total of 84 days. In Periods 1 and 2, the 36 cows were fed a high-forage partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content. In Period 3, cows were fed a commercial PMR containing 69% forage. Cows were offered PMR ad libitum plus concentrates during milking and CH4 emitted by individual cows was sampled during 8662 milkings. A linear mixed model was used to assess differences among cows, feeding periods and time of day. Considerable variation was observed among cows in daily mean and diurnal patterns of CH4 emissions. On average, cows produced less CH4 when fed on the commercial PMR in feeding Period 3 than when the same cows were fed on high-forage diets in feeding Periods 1 and 2. The average diurnal pattern for CH4 emissions did not significantly change between feeding periods and as lactation progressed. Emissions of CH4 were positively associated with dry matter (DM) intake and forage DM intake. It is concluded that if the management of feed allocation remains constant then the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions from dairy cows will not necessarily alter over time. A change in diet composition may bring about an increase or decrease in absolute emissions over a 24-h period without significantly changing the diurnal pattern unless management of feed allocation changes. These findings are important for CH4 monitoring techniques that involve taking measurements over short periods within a day rather than complete 24-h observations.

  9. Shift work parameters and disruption of diurnal cortisol production in female hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Eleanor Wai Man; Aronson, Kristan J; Leung, Michael; Day, Andrew; Tranmer, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Disruption of cortisol production is a potential underlying mechanism. This study explored the associations of diurnal quantity and pattern of cortisol production in relation to (1) current shift work status (exclusive day versus rotating days and nights), (2) years of past shift work and (3) parameters of rotating shift work (timing, length and intensity). Female hospital employees (160 day workers and 168 rotating shift workers) from southeastern Ontario, Canada, participated in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and measures of body height, weight, and waist circumference were taken. Midstream urine samples were collected over two separate 24-hour periods to measure creatinine-adjusted cortisol. Total diurnal cortisol production and pattern were described with two measures of the area under the curve. The effect of shift work on cortisol was modeled using multivariable linear regression analyses. Cortisol production in day workers and shift workers on their day shift were similar; however, shift workers on the night shift had flatter diurnal cortisol curves and produced less cortisol. This suggests that night work is associated with an acute attenuation of cortisol production.

  10. Diurnal cycle of the dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, Sergey

    2015-08-27

    In this study we attempted to better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula and their dependence on input parameters. For this purpose we have developed a stand-alone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie, T-matrix and geometric optics calculations and driven by reanalysis meteorological fields and atmospheric composition. Numerical experiments were carried out for a wide range of aerosol optical depths, including extreme values developed during the dust storm on 18–20 March 2012. Comprehensive ground-based observations and satellite retrievals were used to estimate aerosol optical properties, validate calculations and carry out radiation closure. The broadband surface albedo, fluxes at the bottom and top of the atmosphere as well as instantaneous dust radiative forcing were estimated both from the model and observations. Diurnal cycle of the shortwave instantaneous dust direct radiative forcing was studied for a range of aerosol and surface characteristics representative of the Arabian Peninsula. Mechanisms and parameters responsible for diurnal variability of the radiative forcing were evaluated. We found that intrinsic variability of the surface albedo and its dependence on atmospheric conditions, along with anisotropic aerosol scattering, are mostly responsible for diurnal effects.

  11. The diurnal order of the image in Dracula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vescia Zanini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available the article analyses images from Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula having as a main theoretical frame the Diurnal regime of the Image, proposed by Gilbert Durand in The Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary and presented by Durand himself as the “order of antithesis”. By presenting the main kinds of images proposed by Durand in binary pairs (theriomorphic and diæretic, nyctomorphic and spectacular, catamorphic and ascensional, the analysis proposed here aims at staying in tune with both the theoretical approach and the context of production of the novel. Victorian England at the end of the nineteenth century was a time of anxieties, fears and doubts, recurrent in the Victorian cultural production as a whole and well-depicted in Dracula, a work where binary oppositions also seem to be recurrent: life and death, good and evil, moral and desire, among others. The focus is on how the main character is perceived by the other characters, which ultimately affects our perception as readers. Images related to animals, colors, weapons and movements are also included in the analysis. The conclusion points out that the Diurnal Order is a prolific and coherent approach towards an understanding of Bram Stoker’s vampire novel.

  12. Termite mounds harness diurnal temperature oscillations for ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hunter; Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L

    2015-09-15

    Many species of millimetric fungus-harvesting termites collectively build uninhabited, massive mound structures enclosing a network of broad tunnels that protrude from the ground meters above their subterranean nests. It is widely accepted that the purpose of these mounds is to give the colony a controlled microclimate in which to raise fungus and brood by managing heat, humidity, and respiratory gas exchange. Although different hypotheses such as steady and fluctuating external wind and internal metabolic heating have been proposed for ventilating the mound, the absence of direct in situ measurement of internal air flows has precluded a definitive mechanism for this critical physiological function. By measuring diurnal variations in flow through the surface conduits of the mounds of the species Odontotermes obesus, we show that a simple combination of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity allows the mounds to use diurnal ambient temperature oscillations for ventilation. In particular, the thin outer flutelike conduits heat up rapidly during the day relative to the deeper chimneys, pushing air up the flutes and down the chimney in a closed convection cell, with the converse situation at night. These cyclic flows in the mound flush out CO2 from the nest and ventilate the colony, in an unusual example of deriving useful work from thermal oscillations.

  13. Using diurnal temperature signals to infer vertical groundwater-surface water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Dylan J.; Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Gordon, Ryan P.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Heat is a powerful tracer to quantify fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater. Temperature time series can be used to estimate pore water fluid flux, and techniques can be employed to extend these estimates to produce detailed plan-view flux maps. Key advantages of heat tracing include cost-effective sensors and ease of data collection and interpretation, without the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory analyses or induced tracers. While the collection of temperature data in saturated sediments is relatively straightforward, several factors influence the reliability of flux estimates that are based on time series analysis (diurnal signals) of recorded temperatures. Sensor resolution and deployment are particularly important in obtaining robust flux estimates in upwelling conditions. Also, processing temperature time series data involves a sequence of complex steps, including filtering temperature signals, selection of appropriate thermal parameters, and selection of the optimal analytical solution for modeling. This review provides a synthesis of heat tracing using diurnal temperature oscillations, including details on optimal sensor selection and deployment, data processing, model parameterization, and an overview of computing tools available. Recent advances in diurnal temperature methods also provide the opportunity to determine local saturated thermal diffusivity, which can improve the accuracy of fluid flux modeling and sensor spacing, which is related to streambed scour and deposition. These parameters can also be used to determine the reliability of flux estimates from the use of heat as a tracer.

  14. Daytime passerine migrants over the Sahara — are these diurnal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The landing tendency (sink rate) correlated negatively with the tail wind component. Transect counts on the ground revealed very low proportions of diurnal migrants, not matching the relatively high densities of passerine migration during the day, and a high correlation between transect density of nocturnal migrants and ...

  15. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    in 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate. After 64 h at altitude, six of the nine subjects had down-regulated their serum-EPO concentrations so that median values were three times above those at sea level. These six subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration at sea level; the nadir...

  16. Effects of light on NO3 uptake in small forested streams: diurnal and day-to-day variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the effects of autotrophy on short-term variations in nutrient dynamics by measuring diurnal and day-to-day variations in light level, primary productivity, and NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake during early and late spring in 2 forested streams, the East and West Forks of Walker Branch in eastern Tennessee, USA. We predicted that diurnal and day-to-day variations in NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake rate would be larger in the West Fork than in the East Fork in early spring because of higher rates of primary productivity resulting from a more stable substratum in the West Fork. We also predicted minimal diurnal variations in both streams in late spring after forest leaf emergence when light levels and primary productivity are uniformly low. Reach-scale rates of gross primary production (GPP) were determined using the diurnal dissolved O{sub 2} change technique, and reach-scale rates of NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake were determined by tracer {sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} additions. In the West Fork, significant diurnal and day-to-day variations in NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake were related to variations in light level and primary productivity in early spring but not in late spring, consistent with our predictions. In early spring, West Fork NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake rates were 2 to 3x higher at midday than during predawn hours and 50% higher on 2 clear days than on an overcast day several days earlier. In the East Fork, early spring rates of GPP were 4 to 5x lower than in the West Fork and diurnal and day-to-day variations in NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake rates were <30%, considerably lower than in the West Fork. However, diurnal variations in NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake rates were greater in late spring in the East Fork, possibly because of diurnal variation in water temperature. Our results indicate the important role of autotrophs in nutrient uptake in some forested streams, particularly during seasons when forest vegetation is dormant and light levels are relatively high. Our results also

  17. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms

  18. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-05-15

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms.

  19. Diurnal and seasonal occurrence of polar patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the diurnal and seasonal variation of polar patches, as identified in two years of HF-radar data from Halley, Antarctica during a period near sunspot maximum, shows that there is a broad maximum in occurrence centred about magnetic noon, not local noon. There are minima in occurrence near midsummer and midwinter, with maxima in occurrence between equinox and winter. There are no significant correlations between the occurrence of polar patches and the corresponding hourly averages of the solar wind and IMF parameters, except that patches usually occur when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. The results can be understood in terms of UT and seasonal differences in the plasma concentration being convected from the dayside ionosphere into the polar cap. In summer and winter the electron concentrations in the polar cap are high and low, respectively, but relatively unstructured. About equinox, a tongue of enhanced ionisation is convected into the polar cap; this tongue is then structured by the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field, but these Halley data cannot be used to separate the various competing mechanisms for patch formation. The observed diurnal and seasonal variation in the occurrence of polar patches are largely consistent with predictions of Sojka et al. (1994 when their results are translated into the southern hemisphere. However, the ionospheric effects of flux transfer events are still considered essential in their formation, a feature not yet included in the Sojka et al. model.

  20. Global Electric Circuit Diurnal Variation Derived from Storm Overflight and Satellite Optical Lightning Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bateman, M. J.; Bailey, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have combined analyses of over 1000 high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds with diurnal lightning statistics from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to produce an estimate of the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location, and the global electric circuit, our estimate of the current in the global electric circuit matches the Carnegie curve diurnal variation to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Mean contributions to the global electric circuit from land and ocean thunderstorms are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean). Contributions to the global electric circuit from ESCs are 0.22 kA for ocean storms and 0.04 kA for land storms. Using our analysis, the mean total conduction current for the global electric circuit is 2.0 kA.

  1. Chronotype, sleep loss, and diurnal pattern of salivary cortisol in a simulated daylong driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginska, Halszka; Fafrowicz, Magdalena; Golonka, Krystyna; Marek, Tadeusz; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Tucholska, Kinga

    2010-07-01

    The study focused on chronotype-related differences in subjective load assessment, sleepiness, and salivary cortisol pattern in subjects performing daylong simulated driving. Individual differences in work stress appraisal and psychobiological cost of prolonged load seem to be of importance in view of expanding compressed working time schedules. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers (mean +/- SD: 27.9 +/- 4.9 yrs) were required to stay in semiconstant routine conditions. They performed four sessions (each lasting approximately 2.5 h) of simulated driving, i.e., completed chosen tasks from computer driving games. Saliva samples were collected after each driving session, i.e., at 10:00-11:00, 14:00-15:00, 18:00-19:00, and 22:00-23:00 h as well as 10-30 min after waking (between 05:00 and 06:00 h) and at bedtime (after 00:00 h). Two subgroups of subjects were distinguished on the basis of the Chronotype Questionnaire: morning (M)- and evening (E)-oriented types. Subjective data on sleep need, sleeping time preferences, sleeping problems, and the details of the preceding night were investigated by questionnaire. Subjective measures of task load (NASA Task Load Index [NASA-TLX]), activation (Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List [AD ACL]), and sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) were applied at times of saliva samples collection. M- and E-oriented types differed significantly as to their ideal sleep length (6 h 54 min +/- 44 versus 8 h 13 min +/- 50 min), preferred sleep timing (midpoint at 03:19 versus 04:26), and sleep index, i.e., 'real-to-ideal' sleep ratio, before the experimental day (0.88 versus 0.67). Sleep deficit proved to be integrated with eveningness. M and E types exhibited similar diurnal profiles of energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness assessed by AD ACL, but E types estimated higher their workload (NASA-TLX) and sleepiness (KSS). M types exhibited a trend of higher mean cortisol levels than E types (F = 4.192, p < .056) and

  2. Viscosity changes of riparian water controls diurnal fluctuations of stream-flow and DOC concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Diurnal fluctuations in stream-flow are commonly explained as being triggered by the daily evapotranspiration cycle in the riparian zone, leading to stream flow minima in the afternoon. While this trigger effect must necessarily be constrained by the extent of the growing season of vegetation, we here show evidence of daily stream flow maxima in the afternoon in a small headwater stream during the dormant season. We hypothesize that the afternoon maxima in stream flow are induced by viscosity changes of riparian water that is caused by diurnal temperature variations of the near surface groundwater in the riparian zone. The patterns were observed in the Weierbach headwater catchment in Luxembourg. The catchment is covering an area of 0.45 km2, is entirely covered by forest and is dominated by a schistous substratum. DOC concentration at the outlet of the catchment was measured with the field deployable UV-Vis spectrometer spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH) with a high frequency of 15 minutes over several months. Discharge was measured with an ISCO 4120 Flow Logger. During the growing season, stream flow shows a frequently observed diurnal pattern with discharge minima in the afternoon. During the dormant season, a long dry period with daily air temperature amplitudes of around 10 ° C occurred in March and April 2014, with discharge maxima in the afternoon. The daily air temperature amplitude led to diurnal variations in the water temperature of the upper 10 cm of the riparian zone. Higher riparian water temperatures cause a decrease in water viscosity and according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, the volumetric flow rate is inversely proportional to viscosity. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the viscosity changes of water, we calculated higher flow rates of near surface groundwater through the riparian zone into the stream in the afternoon which explains the stream flow maxima in the afternoon. With the start of the growing season, the viscosity

  3. Effects of diurnal adjustment on biases and trends derived from inter-sensor calibrated AMSU-A data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Zou, X.; Qin, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Measurements of brightness temperatures from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) temperature sounding instruments onboard NOAA Polarorbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) have been extensively used for studying atmospheric temperature trends over the past several decades. Intersensor biases, orbital drifts and diurnal variations of atmospheric and surface temperatures must be considered before using a merged long-term time series of AMSU-A measurements from NOAA-15, -18, -19 and MetOp-A.We study the impacts of the orbital drift and orbital differences of local equator crossing times (LECTs) on temperature trends derivable from AMSU-A using near-nadir observations from NOAA-15, NOAA-18, NOAA-19, and MetOp-A during 1998-2014 over the Amazon rainforest. The double difference method is firstly applied to estimation of inter-sensor biases between any two satellites during their overlapping time period. The inter-calibrated observations are then used to generate a monthly mean diurnal cycle of brightness temperature for each AMSU-A channel. A diurnal correction is finally applied each channel to obtain AMSU-A data valid at the same local time. Impacts of the inter-sensor bias correction and diurnal correction on the AMSU-A derived long-term atmospheric temperature trends are separately quantified and compared with those derived from original data. It is shown that the orbital drift and differences of LECTamong different POESs induce a large uncertainty in AMSU-A derived long-term warming/cooling trends. After applying an inter-sensor bias correction and a diurnal correction, the warming trends at different local times, which are approximately the same, are smaller by half than the trends derived without applying these corrections.

  4. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean energy of muons at sea level is ∼4 GeV with a rel- .... of decays of mesons and muons work against each other resulting in temperature coef- ..... The mean muon rate of 16 modules measured every 15 min for one week interval from .... 4. 8. 12. 16. 20. 24. Hours. Figure 12. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured in ...

  5. Reproductive and population parameters of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J H; Cortés, F; Belleggia, M; Massa, A M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate reproductive and population parameters of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias for the south-western Atlantic Ocean. In total, 2714 specimens (1616 males and 1098 females) were collected from surveys carried out using research vessels. Males ranged from 225 to 861 mm total length (LT ) and females from 235 to 925 mm LT . The size at maturity of females (651 mm) was significantly greater than that of males (565 mm). The maximum proportion of mature individuals (Pmax ) of the gestation ogive was 156 mm). The temporal and spatial co-occurrence of non-gravid adult females at different stages of ovarian development, as well as gravid females at all embryonic development stages would indicate that the female reproductive cycle in the south-western Atlantic Ocean is asynchronous. The results indicate that S. acanthias is susceptible to fishing pressure on account of its length at maturity, extended reproductive cycles and low fecundity. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. ESA STSE Project “Sea Surface Temperature Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend – Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    of the vertical extend of diurnal signals. Drifting buoys provide measurements close to the surface but are not always available. Moored buoys are generally not able to resolve the daily SST signal, which strongly weakens with depth within the upper water column. For such reasons, the General Ocean Turbulence......, atmospheric and oceanic modelling, bio-chemical processes and oceanic CO2 studies. The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, is currently not properly understood. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are currently not adequately resolving...... the daily SST variability, resulting in biases of the total heat budget estimates and therefore, demised model accuracies. The ESA STSE funded project SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M. aimed at characterising the regional extend of diurnal SST signals and their impact in atmospheric modelling. This study will briefly...

  7. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  8. The impact of diurnal variations of air traffic on contrail radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stuber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined high resolution aircraft flight data from the EU Fifth Framework Programme project AERO2k with analysis data from the ECMWF's integrated forecast system to calculate diurnally resolved 3-D contrail cover. We scaled the contrail cover in order to match observational data for the Bakan area (eastern-Atlantic/western-Europe.

    We found that less than 40% of the global distance travelled by aircraft is due to flights during local night time. Yet, due to the cancellation of shortwave and longwave effects during daytime, night time flights contribute a disproportional 60% to the global annual mean forcing. Under clear sky conditions the night flights contribute even more disproportionally at 76%. There are pronounced regional variations in night flying and the associated radiative forcing. Over parts of the North Atlantic flight corridor 75% of air traffic and 84% of the forcing occurs during local night, whereas only 35% of flights are during local night in South-East Asia, yet these contribute 68% of the radiative forcing. In general, regions with a significant local contrail radiative forcing are also regions for which night time flights amount to less than half of the daily total of flights. Therefore, neglecting diurnal variations in air traffic/contrail cover by assuming a diurnal mean contrail cover can over-estimate the global mean radiative forcing by up to 30%.

  9. Diurnal and seasonal DOC and POC variability in the land-locked sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Szymczycha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter is a minor yet important component of the marine environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the diurnal and seasonal changes in dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively. Thus, DOC and POC as well as chlorophyll a (Chl a, δ13C, NO3−, NO2−, NH4+, PO43−, salinity, pH, and temperature were regularly measured in samples collected for 24 h (2-h resolution in the Gdańsk Deep (54°44.730′N, 19°08.531′E at three water depths (1, 10, and 40 m during sampling campaigns in 2011 (May, 2014 (May, and 2015 (January, March, May, July, September, November. Seasonal variations in DOC and POC followed the seasonality of Chl a (proportional trend and nutrients (reverse trend concentrations. Diurnal oscillations were detected in six out of the eight measurement series. The strongest diurnal variability in both POC and DOC occurred in May 2011 and March 2015, when phytoplankton activity was highest (high Chl a. The surprisingly low δ13C values (range: −28‰ to −24‰ measured over the course of the study revealed the gaps in our knowledge of the isotopic characteristics of terrestrial- vs. marine-derived particulate organic matter.

  10. Multi-tissue RNA-seq and transcriptome characterisation of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias provides a molecular tool for biological research and reveals new genes involved in osmoregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Chana-Munoz

    Full Text Available The spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias is one of the most commonly used cartilaginous fishes in biological research, especially in the fields of nitrogen metabolism, ion transporters and osmoregulation. Nonetheless, transcriptomic data for this organism is scarce. In the present study, a multi-tissue RNA-seq experiment and de novo transcriptome assembly was performed in four different spiny dogfish tissues (brain, liver, kidney and ovary, providing an annotated sequence resource. The characterization of the transcriptome greatly increases the scarce sequence information for shark species. Reads were assembled with the Trinity de novo assembler both within each tissue and across all tissues combined resulting in 362,690 transcripts in the combined assembly which represent 289,515 Trinity genes. BUSCO analysis determined a level of 87% completeness for the combined transcriptome. In total, 123,110 proteins were predicted of which 78,679 and 83,164 had significant hits against the SwissProt and Uniref90 protein databases, respectively. Additionally, 61,215 proteins aligned to known protein domains, 7,208 carried a signal peptide and 15,971 possessed at least one transmembrane region. Based on the annotation, 81,582 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and 42,078 belong to known clusters of orthologous groups (eggNOG. To demonstrate the value of our molecular resource, we show that the improved transcriptome data enhances the current possibilities of osmoregulation research in spiny dogfish by utilizing the novel gene and protein annotations to investigate a set of genes involved in urea synthesis and urea, ammonia and water transport, all of them crucial in osmoregulation. We describe the presence of different gene copies and isoforms of key enzymes involved in this process, including arginases and transporters of urea and ammonia, for which sequence information is currently absent in the databases for this model species. The

  11. Multi-tissue RNA-seq and transcriptome characterisation of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) provides a molecular tool for biological research and reveals new genes involved in osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chana-Munoz, Andres; Jendroszek, Agnieszka; Sønnichsen, Malene; Kristiansen, Rune; Jensen, Jan K; Andreasen, Peter A; Bendixen, Christian; Panitz, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) is one of the most commonly used cartilaginous fishes in biological research, especially in the fields of nitrogen metabolism, ion transporters and osmoregulation. Nonetheless, transcriptomic data for this organism is scarce. In the present study, a multi-tissue RNA-seq experiment and de novo transcriptome assembly was performed in four different spiny dogfish tissues (brain, liver, kidney and ovary), providing an annotated sequence resource. The characterization of the transcriptome greatly increases the scarce sequence information for shark species. Reads were assembled with the Trinity de novo assembler both within each tissue and across all tissues combined resulting in 362,690 transcripts in the combined assembly which represent 289,515 Trinity genes. BUSCO analysis determined a level of 87% completeness for the combined transcriptome. In total, 123,110 proteins were predicted of which 78,679 and 83,164 had significant hits against the SwissProt and Uniref90 protein databases, respectively. Additionally, 61,215 proteins aligned to known protein domains, 7,208 carried a signal peptide and 15,971 possessed at least one transmembrane region. Based on the annotation, 81,582 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and 42,078 belong to known clusters of orthologous groups (eggNOG). To demonstrate the value of our molecular resource, we show that the improved transcriptome data enhances the current possibilities of osmoregulation research in spiny dogfish by utilizing the novel gene and protein annotations to investigate a set of genes involved in urea synthesis and urea, ammonia and water transport, all of them crucial in osmoregulation. We describe the presence of different gene copies and isoforms of key enzymes involved in this process, including arginases and transporters of urea and ammonia, for which sequence information is currently absent in the databases for this model species. The transcriptome

  12. Selective alterations of NMDAR function and plasticity in D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Maier, Esther Y; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    A major mouse model widely adopted in recent years to induce pronounced ethanol intake is the ethanol vapor model known as "CIE" or "Chronic Intermittent Ethanol." One critical question concerning this model is whether the rapid induction of high blood ethanol levels for such short time periods is sufficient to induce alterations in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function which may contribute to excessive ethanol intake. In this study, we determined whether such short term intermittent ethanol exposure modulates NMDAR function as well as other prominent electrophysiological properties and the expression of plasticity in both D1 (D1+) and D2 (D1-) dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. To distinguish between the two subtypes of MSNs in the NAc we treated Drd1a-TdTomato transgenic mice with CIE vapor and electrophysiological recordings were conducted 24 h after the last vapor exposure. To investigate CIE induced alterations in plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) was induced by pairing low frequency stimulation (LFS) with post synaptic depolarization. In ethanol naïve mice, LFS induced synaptic depression (LTD) was apparent exclusively in D1+ MSNs. Whereas in slices prepared from CIE treated mice, LFS induced synaptic potentiation (LTP) in D1+ MSNs. Furthermore, following CIE exposure, LFS now produced LTD in D1- MSNs. We found that CIE exposure induced an increase in excitability in D1+ MSNs with no change in D1- MSNs. After CIE, we found a significant increase in spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) frequency in D1+ but not D1- MSNs suggesting alterations in baseline α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) mediated signaling. CIE induced changes in NMDAR function were measured using the NMDA/AMPA ratio and input-output curves of isolated NMDAR currents. We observed a significant increase in NMDAR function in D1+ MSNs and a decrease in D1- MSNs after ethanol vapor exposure. The

  13. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  14. The effect of the number of consecutive night shifts on diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Garde, Anne Helene; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge from field studies on how many consecutive night shifts are required for adaptation of diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV) to night work. METHODS: A systematic search of the databases Pub...... recordings for HRV. Most of the studies in the review were small studies with less than 30 participants, and most studies evaluated diurnal rhythms after only two consecutive night shifts whereas only six studies used seven or more consecutive night shifts. The majority of studies found that adaptation...... to night work had not occurred after two consecutive night shifts, whereas a small number found evidence for full adaptation after seven consecutive night shifts based on diurnal rhythms in cortisol and melatonin. CONCLUSION: There are methodological differences in the field studies analyzing diurnal...

  15. Diurnal Variation of Tropical Ice Cloud Microphysics inferred from Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GPM-GMI)'s Polarimetric Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J.; Zeng, X.; Wu, D. L.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Diurnal variation of tropical ice cloud has been well observed and examined in terms of the area of coverage, occurring frequency, and total mass, but rarely on ice microphysical parameters (habit, size, orientation, etc.) because of lack of direct measurements of ice microphysics on a high temporal and spatial resolutions. This accounts for a great portion of the uncertainty in evaluating ice cloud's role on global radiation and hydrological budgets. The design of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's procession orbit gives us an unprecedented opportunity to study the diurnal variation of ice microphysics on the global scale for the first time. Dominated by cloud ice scattering, high-frequency microwave polarimetric difference (PD, namely the brightness temperature difference between vertically- and horizontally-polarized paired channel measurements) from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) has been proven by our previous study to be very valuable to infer cloud ice microphysical properties. Using one year of PD measurements at 166 GHz, we found that cloud PD exhibits a strong diurnal cycle in the tropics (25S-25N). The peak PD amplitude varies as much as 35% over land, compared to only 6% over ocean. The diurnal cycle of the peak PD value is strongly anti-correlated with local ice cloud occurring frequency and the total ice mass with a leading period of 3 hours for the maximum correlation. The observed PD diurnal cycle can be explained by the change of ice crystal axial ratio. Using a radiative transfer model, we can simulate the observed 166 GHz PD-brightness temperature curve as well as its diurnal variation using different axial ratio values, which can be caused by the diurnal variation of ice microphysical properties including particle size, percentage of horizontally-aligned non-spherical particles, and ice habit. The leading of the change of PD ahead of ice cloud mass and occurring frequency implies the important role microphysics play in the

  16. Ten-Year Climatology of Summertime Diurnal Rainfall Rate Over the Conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Mocko, David; Lee, Myong-In; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Suarez, Max J.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    2010-01-01

    Diurnal cycles of summertime rainfall rates are examined over the conterminous United States, using radar-gauge assimilated hourly rainfall data. As in earlier studies, rainfall diurnal composites show a well-defined region of rainfall propagation over the Great Plains and an afternoon maximum area over the south and eastern portion of the United States. Zonal phase speeds of rainfall in three different small domains are estimated, and rainfall propagation speeds are compared with background zonal wind speeds. Unique rainfall propagation speeds in three different regions can be explained by the evolution of latent-heat theory linked to the convective available potential energy, than by gust-front induced or gravity wave propagation mechanisms.

  17. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  18. Sleep Deprivation and Caffeine Treatment Potentiate Photic Resetting of the Master Circadian Clock in a Diurnal Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Bouâouda, Hanan; Gourmelen, Sylviane; Dumont, Stephanie; Fuchs, Fanny; Goumon, Yannick; Bourgin, Patrice; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2017-04-19

    Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light/dark cycle. However, nonphotic factors, such as behavioral arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei , were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep. Phase shifts of locomotor activity were analyzed in grass rats transferred from a light/dark cycle to constant darkness and aroused in early night or late night. Early night, but not late night, sleep deprivation induced a significant phase shift. Caffeine on its own induced no phase shifts. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced phase delays and phase advances in response to a 30 min light pulse, respectively. Sleep deprivation in early night, but not late night, potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in the ventral SCN. Caffeine treatment in midnight triggered c-Fos expression in dorsal SCN. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in calbindin-containing cells of the ventral SCN in early and late night. These findings indicate that, in contrast to nocturnal rodents, behavioral arousal induced either by sleep deprivation or caffeine during the sleeping period potentiates light resetting of the master circadian clock in diurnal rodents, and activation of calbindin-containing suprachiasmatic cells may be involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Arousing stimuli have the ability to regulate circadian rhythms in mammals. Behavioral arousal in the sleeping period phase shifts the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and/or slows down the photic

  19. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present.

  20. Tidal influences on vertical diffusion and diurnal variability of ozone in the mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Gudmundur G.; Solomon, Susan; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1987-01-01

    Possible dynamical influences on the diurnal behavior of ozone are investigated. A time dependent one-dimensional photochemical model is developed for this purpose; all model calculations are made at 70 deg N during summer. It is shown that the vertical diffusion can vary as much as 1 order of magnitude within a day as a result of large changes in the zonal wind induced by atmospheric thermal tides. It is found that by introducing a dissipation time scale for turbulence produced by breaking gravity waves, the agreement with Poker Flat echo data is improved. Comparisons of results from photochemical model calculations, where the vertical diffusion is a function of height only, with those in which the vertical diffusion coefficient is changing in time show large differences in the diurnal behavior of ozone between 70 and 90 km. By including the dynamical effect, much better agreement with the Solar Mesosphere Explorers data is obtained. The results are, however, sensitive to the background zonally averaged wind. The influence of including time-varying vertical diffusion coefficient on the OH densities is also large, especially between 80 and 90 km. This suggests that dynamical effects are important in determining the diurnal behavior of the airglow emission from the Meinel bands.

  1. [Effects of diurnal warming on soil N2O emission in soybean field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-Hua; Zhou, Ying-Ping; Cui, Hai-Ling; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao; Liu, Yan

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the impact of experimental warming on N2O emission from soil of soybean field, outdoor experiments with simulating diurnal warming were conducted, and static dark chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure N2O emission fluxes. Results indicated that: the diurnal warming did not change the seasonal pattern of N2O emissions from soil. In the whole growing season, comparing to the control treatment (CK), the warming treatment (T) significantly enhanced the N2O flux and the cumulative amount of N2O by 17.31% (P = 0.019), and 20.27% (P = 0.005), respectively. The significant correlations were found between soil N2O emission and soil temperature, moisture. The temperature sensitivity values of soil N2O emission under CK and T treatments were 3.75 and 4.10, respectively. In whole growing stage, T treatment significantly increased the crop aboveground and total biomass, the nitrate reductase activity, and total nitrogen in leaves, while significantly decreased NO3(-) -N content in leaves. T treatment significantly increased soil NO3(-) -N content, but had no significant effect on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents. The results of this study suggested that diurnal warming enhanced N2O emission from soil in soybean field.

  2. MicroRNA mir-16 is anti-proliferative in enterocytes and exhibits diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal crypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Anita, E-mail: anita.balakrishnan@doctors.org.uk [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); School of Clinical Sciences, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE (United Kingdom); Stearns, Adam T. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Park, Peter J. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Center for Biomedical Informatics, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Dreyfuss, Jonathan M. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ashley, Stanley W. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rhoads, David B. [Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Tavakkolizadeh, Ali, E-mail: atavakkoli@partners.org [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Background and aims: The intestine exhibits profound diurnal rhythms in function and morphology, in part due to changes in enterocyte proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms behind these rhythms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs are involved in mediating these rhythms, and studied the role of microRNAs specifically in modulating intestinal proliferation. Methods: Diurnal rhythmicity of microRNAs in rat jejunum was analyzed by microarrays and validated by qPCR. Temporal expression of diurnally rhythmic mir-16 was further quantified in intestinal crypts, villi, and smooth muscle using laser capture microdissection and qPCR. Morphological changes in rat jejunum were assessed by histology and proliferation by immunostaining for bromodeoxyuridine. In IEC-6 cells stably overexpressing mir-16, proliferation was assessed by cell counting and MTS assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell cycle gene expression by qPCR and immunoblotting. Results: mir-16 peaked 6 hours after light onset (HALO 6) with diurnal changes restricted to crypts. Crypt depth and villus height peaked at HALO 13-14 in antiphase to mir-16. Overexpression of mir-16 in IEC-6 cells suppressed specific G1/S regulators (cyclins D1-3, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and produced G1 arrest. Protein expression of these genes exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in rat jejunum, peaking between HALO 11 and 17 in antiphase to mir-16. Conclusions: This is the first report of circadian rhythmicity of specific microRNAs in rat jejunum. Our data provide a link between anti-proliferative mir-16 and the intestinal proliferation rhythm and point to mir-16 as an important regulator of proliferation in jejunal crypts. This function may be essential to match proliferation and absorptive capacity with nutrient availability.

  3. MicroRNA mir-16 is anti-proliferative in enterocytes and exhibits diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal crypts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T.; Park, Peter J.; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Rhoads, David B.; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims: The intestine exhibits profound diurnal rhythms in function and morphology, in part due to changes in enterocyte proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms behind these rhythms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs are involved in mediating these rhythms, and studied the role of microRNAs specifically in modulating intestinal proliferation. Methods: Diurnal rhythmicity of microRNAs in rat jejunum was analyzed by microarrays and validated by qPCR. Temporal expression of diurnally rhythmic mir-16 was further quantified in intestinal crypts, villi, and smooth muscle using laser capture microdissection and qPCR. Morphological changes in rat jejunum were assessed by histology and proliferation by immunostaining for bromodeoxyuridine. In IEC-6 cells stably overexpressing mir-16, proliferation was assessed by cell counting and MTS assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell cycle gene expression by qPCR and immunoblotting. Results: mir-16 peaked 6 hours after light onset (HALO 6) with diurnal changes restricted to crypts. Crypt depth and villus height peaked at HALO 13-14 in antiphase to mir-16. Overexpression of mir-16 in IEC-6 cells suppressed specific G1/S regulators (cyclins D1-3, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and produced G1 arrest. Protein expression of these genes exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in rat jejunum, peaking between HALO 11 and 17 in antiphase to mir-16. Conclusions: This is the first report of circadian rhythmicity of specific microRNAs in rat jejunum. Our data provide a link between anti-proliferative mir-16 and the intestinal proliferation rhythm and point to mir-16 as an important regulator of proliferation in jejunal crypts. This function may be essential to match proliferation and absorptive capacity with nutrient availability.

  4. Genetic architecture of local adaptation in lunar and diurnal emergence times of the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Heckel, David G

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167-193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95-140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock.

  5. Is the diurnal pattern sufficient to explain the intraday variation in volatility? A nonparametric assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Hounyo, Ulrich; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper, we propose a nonparametric way to test the hypothesis that time-variation in intraday volatility is caused solely by a deterministic and recurrent diurnal pattern. We assume that noisy high-frequency data from a discretely sampled jump-diffusion process are available. The test...... inference, we propose a new bootstrap approach, which leads to almost correctly sized tests of the null hypothesis. We apply the developed framework to a large cross-section of equity high-frequency data and find that the diurnal pattern accounts for a rather significant fraction of intraday variation...

  6. Modelled and Observed Diurnal SST Signals: "SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M." Project Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; LeBorgne, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase of the proj......This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase...

  7. Nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron electrophysiological properties and partner preference behavior in the adult male prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jaime A; Johnson, Ashlyn G; Vogel, Andrea R; Patisaul, Heather B; McGraw, Lisa A; Meitzen, John

    2018-04-01

    Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens have long been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie numerous social and motivated behaviors as studied in rodents such as rats. Recently, the prairie vole has emerged as an important model animal for studying social behaviors, particularly regarding monogamy because of its ability to form pair bonds. However, to our knowledge, no study has assessed intrinsic vole MSN electrophysiological properties or tested how these properties vary with the strength of the pair bond between partnered voles. Here we performed whole cell patch-clamp recordings of MSNs in acute brain slices of the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) of adult male voles exhibiting strong and weak preferences for their respective partnered females. We first document vole MSN electrophysiological properties and provide comparison to rat MSNs. Vole MSNs demonstrated many canonical electrophysiological attributes shared across species but exhibited notable differences in excitability compared with rat MSNs. Second, we assessed male vole partner preference behavior and tested whether MSN electrophysiological properties varied with partner preference strength. Male vole partner preference showed extensive variability. We found that decreases in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude and the slope of the evoked action potential firing rate to depolarizing current injection weakly associated with increased preference for the partnered female. This suggests that excitatory synaptic strength and neuronal excitability may be decreased in MSNs in males exhibiting stronger preference for a partnered female. Overall, these data provide extensive documentation of MSN electrophysiological characteristics and their relationship to social behavior in the prairie vole. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This research represents the first assessment of prairie vole nucleus accumbens core medium spiny neuron intrinsic electrophysiological properties and

  8. Diurnal Variation of Radon Concentration in the Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Postojna Cave, with 20 km of galleries, is the longest known cave system and also the largest of about 20 show caves in Slovenia and one of the most visited show caves in the world. It is well known that high concentrations of radon are common in karstic caves, although quantities of uranium (238U) in limestone are rather low. The reason for this is low natural ventilation of the underground cavities. Tectonic faults constitute an additional source of radon. Variations of radon concentration in cave air arise from a balance of the emission from cave surfaces and drip waters, decay in cave air, and exchange with the outside atmosphere. Because of its elevated radon concentrations, Postojna Cave has been under permanent radon survey since 1995. The influence of meteorological conditions on the radon levels and their temporal variations depends mostly on the shape of the cave, and the number and directions of cracks, corridors and fissures connecting the cave rooms with the outside atmosphere. The driving force for air movement in horizontal caves, and thus the inflow of fresh air and release of the cave air to the atmosphere, is the temperature difference between the cave air and outdoors, which causes seasonal pattern of radon concentration in the cave with high levels in summer and low in winter. However, on a daily scale different behaviour of radon can be observed at different locations in the cave. In this paper diurnal variation of radon concentration at two locations is presented and discussed. Postojna Cave is a horizontal cave with a stable yearly temperature around 10 degrees of @C. Continuous measurements of radon concentration were carried out from 2005 to 2010 at two locations along the guided tourist trail. Radon concentration was measured with Radim 5 WP monitors (SMM Company, Prague, Czech Republic) with sampling frequency once an hour. The evaluation of five-year radon monitoring at two sites in the Postojna Cave reveals significant diurnal and

  9. ANALYSIS THE DIURNAL VARIATIONS ON SELECTED PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHABOOBJAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the diurnal variations on selected physical and physiological parameters such as speed, explosive power, resting heart rate and breath holding time among college students. To achieve the purpose of this study, a total of twenty players (n=20 from Government Arts College, Salem were selected as subjects To study the diurnal variation of the players on selected physiological and performance variables, the data were collected 4 times a day with every four hours in between the times it from 6.00 to 18.00 hours were selected as another categorical variable. One way repeated measures (ANOVA was used to analyze the data. If the obtained F-ratio was significant, Seheffe’s post-hoc test was used to find out the significant difference if anyamong the paired means. The level of significance was fixed at.05 level. It has concluded that both physical and physiological parameters were significantly deferred with reference to change of temperature in a day

  10. Influence of observed diurnal cycles of aerosol optical depth on aerosol direct radiative effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF or aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE. The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally. We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather small and it was relatively small even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant effect on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on

  11. On the Diurnal Periodicity of Representative Earthquakes in Greece: Comparison of Data from Different Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the initiation of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) in late 2007, the quality of observation significantly improved by 2011. For example, the representative magnitude level considerably has decreased and the number of annually recorded events has increased. The new observational system highly expanded the possibilities for studying regularities in seismicity. In view of this, the authors revisited their studies of the diurnal periodicity of representative earthquakes in Greece that was revealed earlier in the earthquake catalog before 2011. We use 18 samples of earthquakes of different magnitudes taken from the catalog of Greek earthquakes from 2011 to June 2016 to derive a series of the number of earthquakes for each of them and calculate its average diurnal course. To increase the reliability of the results, we compared the data for two regions. With a high degree of statistical significance, we have obtained that no diurnal periodicity can be found for strongly representative earthquakes. This finding differs from the estimates obtained earlier from an analysis of the catalog of earthquakes at the same area for 1995-2004 and 2005-2010, i.e., before the initiation of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network. The new results are consistent with the hypothesis of noise discrimination (observational selection) explaining the cause of the diurnal variation of earthquakes with different sensitivity of the seismic network in daytime and nighttime periods.

  12. Diurnal changes of remote sensing reflectance over Chesapeake Bay: Observations from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hu, Chuanmin; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott J.

    2018-01-01

    Using hyperspectral data collected by the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) and a shipborne radiometer in Chesapeake Bay in July-August 2011, this study investigates diurnal changes of surface remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Atmospheric correction of ACAM data is performed using the traditional "black pixel" approach through radiative transfer based look-up-tables (LUTs) with non-zero Rrs in the near-infrared (NIR) accounted for by iterations. The ACAM-derived Rrs was firstly evaluated through comparison with Rrs derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite measurements, and then validated against in situ Rrs using a time window of ±1 h or ±3 h. Results suggest that the uncertainties in ACAM-derived Rrs are generally comparable to those from MODIS satellite measurements over coastal waters, and therefore may be used to assess whether Rrs diurnal changes observed by ACAM are realistic (i.e., with changes > 2 × uncertainties). Diurnal changes observed by repeated ACAM measurements reaches up to 66.8% depending on wavelength and location and are consistent with those from the repeated in situ Rrs measurements. These findings suggest that once airborne data are processed using proper algorithms and validated using in situ data, they are suitable for assessing diurnal changes in moderately turbid estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay. The findings also support future geostationary satellite missions that are particularly useful to assess short-term changes.

  13. Diurnal and circadian rhythms in the tomato transcriptome and their modulation by cryptochrome photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Facella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks are internal molecular time-keeping mechanisms that provide living organisms with the ability to adjust their growth and physiology and to anticipate diurnal environmental changes. Circadian clocks, without exception, respond to light and, in plants, light is the most potent and best characterized entraining stimulus. The capacity of plants to respond to light is achieved through a number of photo-perceptive proteins including cryptochromes and phytochromes. There is considerable experimental evidence demonstrating the roles of photoreceptors in providing light input to the clock. METHODOLOGY: In order to identify genes regulated by diurnal and circadian rhythms, and to establish possible functional relations between photoreceptors and the circadian clock in tomato, we monitored the temporal transcription pattern in plants entrained to long-day conditions, either by large scale comparative profiling, or using a focused approach over a number of photosensory and clock-related genes by QRT-PCR. In parallel, focused transcription analyses were performed in cry1a- and in CRY2-OX tomato genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: We report a large series of transcript oscillations that shed light on the complex network of interactions among tomato photoreceptors and clock-related genes. Alteration of cryptochrome gene expression induced major changes in the rhythmic oscillations of several other gene transcripts. In particular, over-expression of CRY2 had an impact not only on day/night fluctuations but also on rhythmicity under constant light conditions. Evidence was found for widespread diurnal oscillations of transcripts encoding specific enzyme classes (e.g. carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes as well as for post-transcriptional diurnal and circadian regulation of the CRY2 transcript.

  14. Dim nighttime light impairs cognition and provokes depressive-like responses in a diurnal rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Kitsmiller, Emily; Smale, Laura; Nelson, Randy J

    2012-08-01

    Circadian disruption is a common by-product of modern life. Although jet lag and shift work are well-documented challenges to circadian organization, many more subtle environmental changes cause circadian disruption. For example, frequent fluctuations in the timing of the sleep/wake schedule, as well as exposure to nighttime lighting, likely affect the circadian system. Most studies of these effects have focused on nocturnal rodents, which are very different from diurnal species with respect to their patterns of light exposure and the effects that light can have on their activity. Thus, the authors investigated the effect of nighttime light on behavior and the brain of a diurnal rodent, the Nile grass rat. Following 3 weeks of exposure to standard light/dark (LD; 14:10 light [~150 lux] /dark [0 lux]) or dim light at night (dLAN; 14:10 light [~150 lux] /dim [5 lux]), rats underwent behavioral testing, and hippocampal neurons within CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG) were examined. Three behavioral effects of dLAN were observed: (1) decreased preference for a sucrose solution, (2) increased latency to float in a forced swim test, and (3) impaired learning and memory in the Barnes maze. Light at night also reduced dendritic length in DG and basilar CA1 dendrites. Dendritic length in the DG positively correlated with sucrose consumption in the sucrose anhedonia task. Nighttime light exposure did not disrupt the pattern of circadian locomotor activity, and all grass rats maintained a diurnal activity pattern. Together, these data suggest that exposure to dLAN can alter affective responses and impair cognition in a diurnal animal.

  15. Circadian clock-dependent and -independent rhythmic proteomes implement distinct diurnal functions in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauvoisin, Daniel; Wang, Jingkui; Jouffe, Céline; Martin, Eva; Atger, Florian; Waridel, Patrice; Quadroni, Manfredo; Gachon, Frédéric; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-07

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression controlled by the circadian clock underlie rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Although such rhythms have been extensively studied at the level of transcription and mRNA accumulation, little is known about the accumulation patterns of proteins. Here, we quantified temporal profiles in the murine hepatic proteome under physiological light-dark conditions using stable isotope labeling by amino acids quantitative MS. Our analysis identified over 5,000 proteins, of which several hundred showed robust diurnal oscillations with peak phases enriched in the morning and during the night and related to core hepatic physiological functions. Combined mathematical modeling of temporal protein and mRNA profiles indicated that proteins accumulate with reduced amplitudes and significant delays, consistent with protein half-life data. Moreover, a group comprising about one-half of the rhythmic proteins showed no corresponding rhythmic mRNAs, indicating significant translational or posttranslational diurnal control. Such rhythms were highly enriched in secreted proteins accumulating tightly during the night. Also, these rhythms persisted in clock-deficient animals subjected to rhythmic feeding, suggesting that food-related entrainment signals influence rhythms in circulating plasma factors.

  16. Observed diurnal variations in Mars Science Laboratory Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons passive mode data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, C. G.; Moersch, J.; Jun, I.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Drake, D.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Hardgrove, C.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Kuzmin, R.; Lisov, D.; Maclennan, E.; Malakhov, A.; Mischna, M.; Mokrousov, M.; Nikiforov, S.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R.; Vostrukhin, A.

    2018-06-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) experiment measures the martian neutron leakage flux in order to estimate the amount of water equivalent hydrogen present in the shallow regolith. When DAN is operating in passive mode, it is sensitive to neutrons produced through the interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) with the regolith and atmosphere and neutrons produced by the rover's Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). During the mission, DAN passive mode data were collected over the full diurnal cycle at the locations known as Rocknest (sols 60-100) and John Klein (sols 166-272). A weak, but unexpected, diurnal variation was observed in the neutron count rates reported at these locations. We investigate different hypotheses that could be causing these observed variations. These hypotheses are variations in subsurface temperature, atmospheric pressure, the exchange of water vapor between the atmosphere and regolith, and instrumental effects on the neutron count rates. Our investigation suggests the most likely factors contributing to the observed diurnal variations in DAN passive data are instrumental effects and time-variable preferential shielding of alpha particles, with other environmental effects only having small contributions.

  17. Dim light at night increases depressive-like responses in male C3H/HeNHsd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-04-15

    Daily patterns of light exposure have become increasingly variable since the widespread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20th century. Seasonal fluctuations in light exposure, shift-work, and transmeridian travel are all associated with alterations in mood. These studies implicate fluctuations in environmental lighting in the development of depressive disorders. Here we argue that exposure to light at night (LAN) may be causally linked to depression. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, which produce nocturnal melatonin, were housed in either a standard light/dark (LD) cycle or exposed to nightly dim (5 lux) LAN (dLAN). After four weeks in lighting conditions mice underwent behavioral testing and hippocampal tissue was collected at the termination of the study for qPCR. Here were report that mice exposed to dLAN increase depressive-like responses in both a sucrose anhedonia and forced swim test. In contrast to findings in diurnal grass rats, dLAN mice perform comparably to mice housed under dark nights in a hippocampus-dependent learning and memory task. TNFα and IL1β gene expression do not differ between groups, demonstrating that changes in these pro-inflammatory cytokines do not mediate dLAN induced depressive-like responses in mice. BDNF expression is reduced in the hippocampus of mice exposed to dLAN. These results indicate that low levels of LAN can alter mood in mice. This study along with previous work implicates LAN as a potential factor contributing to depression. Further understanding of the mechanisms through which LAN contributes to changes in mood is important for characterizing and treating depressive disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of mesoscale convective systems in the diurnal cycle of rainfall and its seasonality over sub-Saharan Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiran; Cook, Kerry H.; Vizy, Edward K.

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluates the role of MCSs in the total rainfall distribution as a function of season from a climatological perspective (1998-2014) over sub-Saharan northern Africa and examines how the diurnal cycle of rainfall changes with season. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42V7 rainfall estimates and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to evaluate the climatology. The percentages of the full TRMM precipitation delivered by MCSs have meridional structures in spring, fall and winter, ranging from 0 to 80% across sub-Saharan northern Africa, while the percentages are homogenous in summer (> 80%). The diurnal cycles of MCS-associated precipitation coincide with the full TRMM rainfall. Attributes of MCSs, including size, count, and intensity, vary synchronously with the diurnal cycle of rainfall. The diurnal peaks are classified into three categories: single afternoon peak, continuous afternoon peak, and nocturnal peak. Single afternoon peaks dominate in spring and fall while continuous afternoon and nocturnal peaks are more common in summer, indicating the seasonality of the diurnal cycle. The continuous afternoon peak combines rainfall from two system types—one locally-generated and one propagating. The seasonality of the diurnal cycle is related to the seasonality of MCS lifetimes, and propagation speeds and directions. The moisture component of the MSE profile contributes to the instability most in summer when convection is more frequent. Low-level temperature, which is related to surface warming and sensible heat fluxes, influences the instability more during winter and spring.

  19. Somatostatin receptor 2 knockout/lacZ knockin mice show impaired motor coordination and reveal sites of somatostatin action within the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeremy P; Hathway, Gareth J; Clarke, Neil J; Jowett, Mike I; Topps, Stephanie; Kendrick, Keith M; Humphrey, Patrick P A; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Emson, Piers C

    2003-05-01

    The peptide somatostatin can modulate the functional output of the basal ganglia. The exact sites and mechanisms of this action, however, are poorly understood, and the physiological context in which somatostatin acts is unknown. Somatostatin acts as a neuromodulator via a family of five 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors, SSTR1-5, one of which, SSTR2, is known to be functional in the striatum. We have investigated the role of SSTR2 in basal ganglia function using mice in which Sstr2 has been inactivated and replaced by the lacZ reporter gene. Analysis of Sstr2lacZ expression in the brain by beta-galactosidase histochemistry demonstrated a widespread pattern of expression. By comparison to previously published in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical data, Sstr2lacZ expression was shown to accurately recapitulate that of Sstr2 and thus provided a highly sensitive model to investigate cell-type-specific expression of Sstr2. In the striatum, Sstr2 expression was identified in medium spiny projection neurons restricted to the matrix compartment and in cholinergic interneurons. Sstr2 expression was not detected in any other nuclei of the basal ganglia except for a sparse number of nondopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Microdialysis in the striatum showed Sstr2-null mice were selectively refractory to somatostatin-induced dopamine and glutamate release. In behavioural tests, Sstr2-null mice showed normal levels of locomotor activity and normal coordination in undemanding tasks. However, in beam-walking, a test of fine motor control, Sstr2-null mice were severely impaired. Together these data implicate an important neuromodulatory role for SSTR2 in the striatum.

  20. The diurnal vertical dynamics of cape hake and their potential prey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cephalopods. Together with their cohabitant potential prey, hake are known to undertake diurnal vertical migrations, aggregating near the bottom during daylight, but migrating off the bottom at night. An attempt to determine the ... predation dominating. This may indicate a feeding strategy where vision is not important.

  1. Global evaluation of ammonia bidirectional exchange and livestock diurnal variation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidirectional air–surface exchange of ammonia (NH3) has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bidirectional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3...

  2. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  3. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachinardi, Patricia; Tøien, Øivind; Valentinuzzi, Veronica S.; Buck, C. Loren; Oda, Gisele A.

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti) are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel. PMID:26460828

  4. Diurnal Dynamics of Standard Deviations of Three Wind Velocity Components in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanaeva, L. G.; Krasnenko, N. P.; Kapegesheva, O. F.

    2018-04-01

    Diurnal dynamics of the standard deviation (SD) of three wind velocity components measured with a minisodar in the atmospheric boundary layer is analyzed. Statistical analysis of measurement data demonstrates that the SDs for x- and y-components σx and σy lie in the range from 0.2 to 4 m/s, and σz = 0.1-1.2 m/s. The increase of σx and σy with the altitude is described sufficiently well by a power law with exponent changing from 0.22 to 1.3 depending on time of day, and σz increases by a linear law. Approximation constants are determined and errors of their application are estimated. It is found that the maximal diurnal spread of SD values is 56% for σx and σy and 94% for σz. The established physical laws and the obtained approximation constants allow the diurnal dynamics of the SDs for three wind velocity components in the atmospheric boundary layer to be determined and can be recommended for application in models of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  5. On the influence of cloud fraction diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability on all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Min; Zhang, Zhibo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how cloud fraction diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability influence the all-sky direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF). We focus on the southeast Atlantic region where transported smoke is often observed above low-level water clouds during burning seasons. We use the CALIOP observations to derive the optical properties of aerosols. We developed two diurnal cloud fraction variation models. One is based on sinusoidal fitting of MODIS observations from Terra and Aqua satellites. The other is based on high-temporal frequency diurnal cloud fraction observations from SEVIRI on board of geostationary satellite. Both models indicate a strong cloud fraction diurnal cycle over the southeast Atlantic region. Sensitivity studies indicate that using a constant cloud fraction corresponding to Aqua local equatorial crossing time (1:30 PM) generally leads to an underestimated (less positive) diurnal mean DARF even if solar diurnal variation is considered. Using cloud fraction corresponding to Terra local equatorial crossing time (10:30 AM) generally leads overestimation. The biases are a typically around 10–20%, but up to more than 50%. The influence of sub-grid cloud optical thickness variability on DARF is studied utilizing the cloud optical thickness histogram available in MODIS Level-3 daily data. Similar to previous studies, we found the above-cloud smoke in the southeast Atlantic region has a strong warming effect at the top of the atmosphere. However, because of the plane-parallel albedo bias the warming effect of above-cloud smoke could be significantly overestimated if the grid-mean, instead of the full histogram, of cloud optical thickness is used in the computation. This bias generally increases with increasing above-cloud aerosol optical thickness and sub-grid cloud optical thickness inhomogeneity. Our results suggest that the cloud diurnal cycle and sub-grid cloud variability are important factors

  6. Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides in the MLT: multi-year MF radar observations from 2 to 70°N, and the GSWM tidal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Hagan, M.; Hall, C.; Hocking, W.; MacDougall, J.; Franke, S.; Riggin, D.; Fritts, D.; Vincent, R.; Burrage, M.

    1999-07-01

    Continuous observations of the wind field have been made by six Medium Frequency Radars (MFRs), located between the equator and high northern latitudes: Christmas Islands (2°N), Hawaii (22°N), Urbana (40°N), London (43°N), Saskatoon (52°N) and Tromsø (70°N). Data have been sought for the time interval 1990-1997, and typically 5 years of data have become available from each station, to demonstrate the level of annual consistency and variability. Common harmonic analysis is applied so that the monthly amplitudes and phases of the semi-diurnal (SD) and diurnal (D) wind oscillations are available in the height range of (typically) 75-95 km in the upper Middle Atmosphere. Comparisons are made with tides from the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM), which are available for 3-month seasons. The emphasis is upon the monthly climatologies at each location based upon comparisons of profiles, and also latitudinal plots of amplitudes and phases at particular heights. For the diurnal tide, the agreement between observations and model is now quite excellent with modelled values frequently lying within the range of yearly values. Both observations and model demonstrate strong seasonal changes. This result is a striking improvement over the comparisons of 1989 (JATP, Special issue). In particular, the phases and phase-gradients for the non-winter months at mid- to high-latitudes are now in excellent agreement. Some of the low latitude discrepancies are attributed to the existence of non-migrating tidal components associated with tropospheric latent heat release. For the semi-diurnal tide, the observed strong transitions between clear solstitial states are less well captured by the model. There is little evidence for improvement over the promising comparisons of 1989. In particular, the late-summer/autumnal tidal maximum of mid-latitudes is observed to be larger, and with strong monthly variability. Also the summer modelled tide has unobserved short (20 km) wavelengths at high

  7. Diurnal circulations and their multi-scale interaction leading to rainfall over the South China Sea upstream of the Philippines during intraseasonal monsoon westerly wind bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Myung-Sook; Elsberry, Russell L. [Naval Postgraduate School, Department of Meteorology, Monterey, CA (United States); Ho, Chang-Hoi [Seoul National University, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinwon [University of California in Los Angeles, Department of Meteorology, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The morning diurnal precipitation maximum over the coastal sea upstream of the Philippines during intraseasonal westerly wind bursts is examined from observations and numerical model simulations. A well-defined case of precipitation and large-scale circulation over the coastal sea west of the Philippines during 17-27 June 2004 is selected as a representative case. The hypothesis is that the mesoscale diurnal circulation over the Philippines and a large-scale diurnal circulation that is induced by large-scale differential heating over Asian continent and the surrounding ocean interact to produce the offshore precipitation maximum during the morning. Three-hourly combined satellite microwave and infrared rainfall retrievals define the morning rainfall peak during this period, and then later the stratiform rain area extends toward the open sea. A control numerical simulation in which a grid-nudging four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) is applied to force the large-scale diurnal circulation represents reasonably well the morning rainfall maximum. An enhanced low-level convergence similar to observations is simulated due to the interaction of the local- and large-scale diurnal circulations. The essential role of the local-scale diurnal circulation is illustrated in a sensitivity test in which the solar zenith angle is fixed at 7 am to suppress this diurnal circulation. The implication for climate diagnosis or modeling of such upstream coastal sea precipitation maxima is that the diurnal variations of both the local- and the large-scale circulations must be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure under dehydration due to fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Baser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations under dehydration conditions and the relationship between the intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure. Methods: The intraocular pressures (IOP, body weights, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP of 36 fasting healthy volunteers were recorded at 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. in the Ramadan of 2014 and two weeks after it. The data were analyzed using paired Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: As the results demonstrated, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were 2.67±1.33 mmHg, 9.44±8.02 mmHg, 3.33±5.94 mmHg, and 0.90±0.46 kg during the fasting period, respectively. In addition, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were -0.33±1.4 mmHg (P=0.001, 0.55±7.25mmHg (P=0.003, -3.33±5.94 mmHg (P=0.001, and 0.12±0.45 kg (P=0.001 during the control period, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the diurnal IOP and SBP differences (r=0.517, P=0.028. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the current study, the total fluid volume might have a more dominant effect on IOP peaks than the sympathetic system activity. Furthermore, the SBP was found to correlate with the IOP.

  9. Diurnal Variations of the Flux Imbalance Over Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanzhao; Li, Dan; Liu, Heping; Li, Xin

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as measured by the eddy-covariance method is systematically lower than the available energy (i.e., the net radiation minus the ground heat flux). We examine the separate and joint effects of diurnal and spatial variations of surface temperature on this flux imbalance in a dry convective boundary layer using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Results show that, over homogeneous surfaces, the flux due to turbulent-organized structures is responsible for the imbalance, whereas over heterogeneous surfaces, the flux due to mesoscale or secondary circulations is the main contributor to the imbalance. Over homogeneous surfaces, the flux imbalance in free convective conditions exhibits a clear diurnal cycle, showing that the flux-imbalance magnitude slowly decreases during the morning period and rapidly increases during the afternoon period. However, in shear convective conditions, the flux-imbalance magnitude is much smaller, but slightly increases with time. The flux imbalance over heterogeneous surfaces exhibits a diurnal cycle under both free and shear convective conditions, which is similar to that over homogeneous surfaces in free convective conditions, and is also consistent with the general trend in the global observations. The rapid increase in the flux-imbalance magnitude during the afternoon period is mainly caused by the afternoon decay of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Interestingly, over heterogeneous surfaces, the flux imbalance is linearly related to the TKE and the difference between the potential temperature and surface temperature, ΔT; the larger the TKE and ΔT values, the smaller the flux-imbalance magnitude.

  10. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Katherine; Sirault, Xavier; Quick, W Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The phylogenetic relationships of insectivores with special reference to the lesser hedgehog tenrec as inferred from the complete sequence of their mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Masato; Cao, Ying; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami

    2003-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi was determined in this study. It is an endemic African insectivore that is found specifically in Madagascar. The tenrec's back is covered with hedgehog-like spines. Unlike other spiny mammals, such as spiny mice, spiny rats, spiny dormice and porcupines, lesser hedgehog tenrecs look amazingly like true hedgehogs (Erinaceidae). However, they are distinguished morphologically from hedgehogs by the absence of a jugal bone. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec and analyzed the results phylogenetically to determine the relationships between the tenrec and other insectivores (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), as well as the relationships between the tenrec and endemic African mammals, classified as Afrotheria, that have recently been shown by molecular analysis to be close relatives of the tenrec. Our data confirmed the afrotherian status of the tenrec, and no direct relation was recovered between the tenrec and the hedgehog. Comparing our data with those of others, we found that within-species variations in the mitochondrial DNA of lesser hedgehog tenrecs appear to be the largest recognized to date among mammals, apart from orangutans, which might be interesting from the view point of evolutionary history of tenrecs on Madagascar.

  12. Nonphotic entrainment in a diurnal mammal, the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Mrosovsky, N.; Daan, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Entrainment by nonphotic, activity-inducing stimuli has been investigated in detail in nocturnal rodents, but little is known about nonphotic entrainment in diurnal animals. Comparative studies would offer the opportunity to distinguish between two possibilities. (1) If nonphotic phase shifts depend

  13. Mechanisms of diurnal precipitation over the US Great Plains: a cloud resolving model perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myong-In; Choi, Ildae; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Kang, In-Sik

    2010-02-01

    The mechanisms of summertime diurnal precipitation in the US Great Plains were examined with the two-dimensional (2D) Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud-resolving model (CRM). The model was constrained by the observed large-scale background state and surface flux derived from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Intensive Observing Period (IOP) data at the Southern Great Plains (SGP). The model, when continuously-forced by realistic surface flux and large-scale advection, simulates reasonably well the temporal evolution of the observed rainfall episodes, particularly for the strongly forced precipitation events. However, the model exhibits a deficiency for the weakly forced events driven by diurnal convection. Additional tests were run with the GCE model in order to discriminate between the mechanisms that determine daytime and nighttime convection. In these tests, the model was constrained with the same repeating diurnal variation in the large-scale advection and/or surface flux. The results indicate that it is primarily the surface heat and moisture flux that is responsible for the development of deep convection in the afternoon, whereas the large-scale upward motion and associated moisture advection play an important role in preconditioning nocturnal convection. In the nighttime, high clouds are continuously built up through their interaction and feedback with long-wave radiation, eventually initiating deep convection from the boundary layer. Without these upper-level destabilization processes, the model tends to produce only daytime convection in response to boundary layer heating. This study suggests that the correct simulation of the diurnal variation in precipitation requires that the free-atmospheric destabilization mechanisms resolved in the CRM simulation must be adequately parameterized in current general circulation models (GCMs) many of which are overly sensitive to the parameterized boundary layer

  14. Habitual sleep quality and diurnal rhythms of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianyi; Poole, Elizabeth M; Vetter, Celine; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Schernhammer, Eva; Rohleder, Nicolas; Hu, Frank B; Redline, Susan; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2017-10-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as a potential mechanism linking sleep and cardiometabolic disorders. However, the associations of two primary outputs of the HPA axis, cortisol and its antagonist dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), with sleep are less well studied. In the Nurses' Health Study II, 233 postmenopausal women provided five timed saliva samples over one day (immediately upon waking, 45min, 4h, and 10h after waking, and prior to going to sleep) to measure cortisol and DHEA. Of these, 209 completed assessment of their habitual sleep patterns using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We used piecewise linear mixed models to compare cross-sectional associations of slopes reflecting diurnal cortisol and DHEA rhythms with overall sleep quality and with seven sub-components. Overall, we observed no differences in the diurnal patterns of cortisol or DHEA between good versus poor sleepers as assessed by the global PSQI score. However, longer sleep latency was associated with significantly reduced cortisol awakening rise (p=0.02). Poorer subjective sleep quality (p=0.02), shorter sleep duration (p=0.02), and lower sleep efficiency (p=0.03) were associated with slower rate of cortisol decline later in the day. Women reporting daytime dysfunction had a sharper cortisol decline early in the day (p=0.03) but a flattened decline later in the day (p=0.01). The differences in diurnal patterns of DHEA between good versus poor sleepers, though less pronounced, were similar in direction to those of cortisol. Self-reported sleep duration, efficiency, latency and daytime dysfunction were associated with altered diurnal rhythms of cortisol and, to a lesser extent, DHEA. These findings provide support for the interplay between sleep and the HPA axis that may contribute to cardiometabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal variations of the semi-diurnal and diurnal tides in the MLT: multi-year MF radar observations from 2–70° N, modelled tides (GSWM, CMAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper (Manson et al., 1999a tidal data (1990–1997 from six Medium Frequency Radars (MFR were compared with the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM, original 1995 version. The radars are located between the equator and high northern latitudes: Christmas Island (2° N, Hawaii (22° N, Urbana (40° N, London (43° N, Saskatoon (52° N and Tromsø (70° N. Common harmonic analysis was applied, to ensure consistency of amplitudes and phases in the 75–95 km height range. For the diurnal tide, seasonal agreements between observations and model were excellent while for the semi-diurnal tide the seasonal transitions between clear solstitial states were less well captured by the model. Here the data set is increased by the addition of two locations in the Pacific-North American sector: Yamagawa 31° N, and Wakkanai 45° N. The GSWM model has undergone two additional developments (1998, 2000 to include an improved gravity wave (GW stress parameterization, background winds from UARS systems and monthly tidal forcing for better characterization of seasonal change. The other model, the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM which is a General Circulation Model, provides internally generated forcing (due to ozone and water vapour for the tides. The two GSWM versions show distinct differences, with the 2000 version being either closer to, or further away from, the observations than the original 1995 version. CMAM provides results dependent upon the GW parameterization scheme inserted, but one of the schemes provides very useful tides, especially for the semi-diurnal component.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  16. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas C. Morton; Jeremy Rubio; Bruce D. Cook; Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry; Marcos Longo; Hyeungu Choi; Maria Hunter; Michael Keller

    2016-01-01

    The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART...

  17. Annual and diurnal african biomass burning temporal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roberts

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning emissions. Here we conduct the first analysis of one full year of geostationary active fire detections and fire radiative power data recorded over Africa at 15-min temporal interval and a 3 km sub-satellite spatial resolution by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI imaging radiometer onboard the Meteosat-8 satellite. We use these data to provide new insights into the rates and totals of open biomass burning over Africa, particularly into the extremely strong seasonal and diurnal cycles that exist across the continent. We estimate peak daily biomass combustion totals to be 9 and 6 million tonnes of fuel per day in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively, and total fuel consumption between February 2004 and January 2005 is estimated to be at least 855 million tonnes. Analysis is carried out with regard to fire pixel temporal persistence, and we note that the majority of African fires are detected only once in consecutive 15 min imaging slots. An investigation of the variability of the diurnal fire cycle is carried out with respect to 20 different land cover types, and whilst differences are noted between land covers, the fire diurnal cycle characteristics for most land cover type are very similar in both African hemispheres. We compare the Fire Radiative Power (FRP derived biomass combustion estimates to burned-areas, both at the scale of individual fires and over the entire continent at a 1-degree scale. Fuel consumption estimates are found to be less than 2 kg/m2 for all land cover types noted to be subject to significant fire activity, and for savanna grasslands where literature values are commonly reported the FRP-derived median fuel consumption estimate of 300 g/m2 is well within commonly quoted values. Meteosat-derived FRP data of the type presented here is now available freely to interested users continuously and in near

  18. An explanation for the different climate sensitivities of land and ocean surfaces based on the diurnal cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleidon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations and climate model simulations consistently show a higher climate sensitivity of land surfaces compared to ocean surfaces. Here we show that this difference in temperature sensitivity can be explained by the different means by which the diurnal variation in solar radiation is buffered. While ocean surfaces buffer the diurnal variations by heat storage changes below the surface, land surfaces buffer it mostly by heat storage changes above the surface in the lower atmosphere that are reflected in the diurnal growth of a convective boundary layer. Storage changes below the surface allow the ocean surface–atmosphere system to maintain turbulent fluxes over day and night, while the land surface–atmosphere system maintains turbulent fluxes only during the daytime hours, when the surface is heated by absorption of solar radiation. This shorter duration of turbulent fluxes on land results in a greater sensitivity of the land surface–atmosphere system to changes in the greenhouse forcing because nighttime temperatures are shaped by radiative exchange only, which are more sensitive to changes in greenhouse forcing. We use a simple, analytic energy balance model of the surface–atmosphere system in which turbulent fluxes are constrained by the maximum power limit to estimate the effects of these different means to buffer the diurnal cycle on the resulting temperature sensitivities. The model predicts that land surfaces have a 50 % greater climate sensitivity than ocean surfaces, and that the nighttime temperatures on land increase about twice as much as daytime temperatures because of the absence of turbulent fluxes at night. Both predictions compare very well with observations and CMIP5 climate model simulations. Hence, the greater climate sensitivity of land surfaces can be explained by its buffering of diurnal variations in solar radiation in the lower atmosphere.

  19. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  20. Golgi Study of Medium Spiny Neurons from Dorsolateral Striatum of the Turtle Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carolina; Mendoza, Janeth; Avila-Costa, María Rosa; Arias, Juan M; Barral, Jaime

    2013-10-25

    Comparative anatomy has shown similarities between reptilian and mammalian basal ganglia. Here the morphological characteristics of the medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of the turtle are described after staining them with the Golgi technique. The soma of MSN in DLS showed three main forms: spherical, ovoid, and fusiform. The number of primary dendritic branches (3-4 dendrites/cell) was less than observed in mammals. The MSN axon originates mainly from the soma, and randomly it emerges at the beginning of the primary dendrite. The main differences between turtle and mammalian MSN were detected on dendritic spines. Short, thin, bifurcated and fungiform types of dendritic spines were observed in the turtle's MSN, according to their shape. In most of the analyzed spines, it was found that its length considerably exceeded that reported in mammals, with dendritic spines up to 8μm in length. These differences could play an important role in the modulation of motor networks preserved along the vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S; Valois, Marie-France

    2014-07-01

    The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults-a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries-may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49%] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27% (95%CI: 2.08-21.29%) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect.

  2. Estimation of Diurnal Cycle of Land Surface Temperature at High Temporal and Spatial Resolution from Clear-Sky MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Bo Duan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal cycle of land surface temperature (LST is an important element of the climate system. Geostationary satellites can provide the diurnal cycle of LST with low spatial resolution and incomplete global coverage, which limits its applications in some studies. In this study, we propose a method to estimate the diurnal cycle of LST at high temporal and spatial resolution from clear-sky MODIS data. This method was evaluated using the MSG-SEVIRI-derived LSTs. The results indicate that this method fits the diurnal cycle of LST well, with root mean square error (RMSE values less than 1 K for most pixels. Because MODIS provides at most four observations per day at a given location, this method was further evaluated using only four MSG-SEVIRI-derived LSTs corresponding to the MODIS overpass times (10:30, 13:30, 22:30, and 01:30 local solar time. The results show that the RMSE values using only four MSG-SEVIRI-derived LSTs are approximately two times larger than those using all LSTs. The spatial distribution of the modeled LSTs at the MODIS pixel scale is presented from 07:00 to 05:00 local solar time of the next day with an increment of 2 hours. The diurnal cycle of the modeled LSTs describes the temporal evolution of the LSTs at the MODIS pixel scale.

  3. The diurnal interaction between convection and peninsular-scale forcing over South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. J.; Simpson, J.; Garstang, M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in modern meterology is that of describing in detail the manner in which larger scales of motion interact with, influence and are influenced by successively smaller scales of motion. The present investigation is concerned with a study of the diurnal evolution of convection, the interaction between the peninsular-scale convergence and convection, and the role of the feedback produced by the cloud-scale downdrafts in the maintenance of the convection. Attention is given to the analysis, the diurnal cycle of the network area-averaged divergence, convective-scale divergence, convective mass transports, and the peninsular scale divergence. The links established in the investigation between the large scale (peninsular), the mesoscale (network), and the convective scale (cloud) are found to be of fundamental importance to the understanding of the initiation, maintenance, and decay of deep precipitating convection and to its theoretical parameterization.

  4. Diurnal modulation due to self-interacting mirror and hidden sector dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.

    2012-01-01

    Mirror and more generic hidden sector dark matter models can simultaneously explain the DAMA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II dark matter signals consistently with the null results of the other experiments. This type of dark matter can be captured by the Earth and shield detectors because it is self-interacting. This effect will lead to a diurnal modulation in dark matter detectors. We estimate the size of this effect for dark matter detectors in various locations. For a detector located in the northern hemisphere, this effect is expected to peak in April and can be detected for optimistic parameter choices. The diurnal variation is expected to be much larger for detectors located in the southern hemisphere. In particular, if the CoGeNT detector were moved to e.g. Sierra Grande, Argentina then a 5σ dark matter discovery would be possible in around 30 days of operation

  5. Influences of diurnal bright or dim light exposure on urine volume in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ki-Ja; Nishimura, Shinya; Tokura, Hiromi

    2006-03-01

    We investigated with eight healthy females if 8 hr diurnal (0700 to 1500 h) bright rather than dim light (5,000 vs. 80 lx) influenced urine volume. Environmental illuminance was made identical at all other times besides 07:00 to 15:00 h. The participants spent time at strictly regulated schedules in a bioclimatic chamber (26 degrees C, relative humidity 60%) for 57 h. Blood was drawn (2 ml) just before lunch in order to calculate Creatinine clearance (Ccr). Urine volume was significantly higher during wakefulness and the 8-h sleep period with bright rather than dim light. Ccr was significantly higher after bright light. The results were discussed in terms of suppression of the sympathetic nerve system under the influence of diurnal bright light exposure. We also discussed these in terms of physiological polymorphisms.

  6. Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

  7. Diurnal variability in carbon and nitrogen pools within Chesapeake Bay and northern Gulf of Mexico: implications for future ocean color satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, A.; Novak, M. G.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.

    2016-02-01

    Relative to their areal extent, estuaries and coastal ocean ecosystems contribute disproportionately more to global biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements compared to the open ocean. Applying ocean color satellite data to study biological and biogeochemical processes within coastal ecosystems is challenging due to the complex mixtures of aquatic constituents derived from terrestrial, anthropogenic, and marine sources, human-impacted atmospheric properties, presence of clouds during satellite overpass, fine-scale spatial gradients, and time-varying processes on diurnal scales that cannot be resolved with current sensors. On diurnal scales, biological, photochemical, and biogeochemical processes are regulated by the variation in solar radiation. Other physical factors, such as tides, river discharge, estuarine and coastal ocean circulation, wind-driven mixing, etc., impart further variability on biological and biogeochemical processes on diurnal to multi-day time scales. Efforts to determine the temporal frequency required from a NASA GEO-CAPE ocean color satellite sensor to discern diurnal variability C and N stocks, fluxes and productivity culminated in field campaigns in the Chesapeake Bay and northern Gulf of Mexico. Near-surface drogues were released and tracked in quasi-lagrangian space to monitor hourly changes in community production, C and N stocks, and optical properties. While only small diurnal changes were observed in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in Chesapeake Bay, substantial variation in particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PN), chlorophyll-a, and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were measured. Similar or greater diurnal changes in POC, PN, chlorophyll-a and DIN were found in Gulf of Mexico nearshore and offshore sites. These results suggest that satellite observations at hourly frequency are desirable to capture diurnal variability in carbon and nitrogen stocks, fluxes

  8. Diurnal phase of late-night against late-afternoon of stratiform and convective precipitation in summer southern contiguous China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Rucong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); China Meteorological Administration, LaSW, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Yuan, Weihua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Jian [China Meteorological Administration, LaSW, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Fu, Yunfei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Laboratory of Satellite Remote Sensing and Climate Environment, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2010-09-15

    Using the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) observations combined with the surface rain gauge data during 1998-2006, the robust diurnal features of summer stratiform and convective precipitation over the southern contiguous China are revealed by exploring the diurnal variations of rain rate and precipitation profile. The precipitation over the southern contiguous China exhibits two distinguishing diurnal phases: late-night (2200-0600 LST) and late-afternoon (1400-2200 LST), dependent on the location, precipitation type and duration time. Generally, the maximum rain rate and the highest profile of stratiform precipitation occur in the late-afternoon (late-night) over the southeastern (southwestern) China, while most of the stratiform short-duration rain rate tends to present late-afternoon peaks over the southern China. For convective precipitation, the maximum rain rate and the highest profile occur in the late-afternoon over most of the southern contiguous China, while the convective long-duration rain rate exhibits late-night peaks over the southwestern China. Without regional dependence, the convective precipitation exhibits much larger amplitude of diurnal variations in both near surface rain rate and vertical extension compared with stratiform precipitation and the convective rain top rises most rapidly between noon and afternoon. However, there are two distinctive sub-regions. The diurnal phases of precipitation there are very weakly dependent on precipitation type and duration time. Over the eastern periphery of the Tibetan Plateau, the maximum rain rate and the highest profile of either convective or stratiform precipitation occur in the late-night. Over the southeastern coastal regions, both the near surface rain rate and rain top of convective and stratiform precipitation peak in the late-afternoon. (orig.)

  9. Seasonal dynamics of the cestode fauna in spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias (Squaliformes: Squalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Maria; Caira, Janine N

    2014-06-01

    This study furthers understanding of cestode infections in a marine environment through time and space by following seasonal fluctuations in infection parameters of three cestode species (Gilquinia squali, Trilocularia gracilis and Phyllobothrium squali) parasitizing spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the northwest Atlantic and comparing them to work previously published from the northeast Atlantic on T. gracilis. For each cestode species, host size, season and presence of the other cestode species were analysed using generalized linear models to determine if they were good predictors of prevalence and intensity. Infection parameters differed across season for the three cestode species. However, within T. gracilis seasonal trends were found to be remarkably similar on both sides of the Atlantic, differing only in a somewhat delayed decline in prevalence in the northwest Atlantic. The differences seen in infection measures across cestode species likely reflect the unique life history strategies of different parasite species. While general trends appear to be maintained across disparate localities, variation seen is likely due to differences in accessibility to intermediate hosts and host diet across sites. The knowledge gained from understanding cestode infections in the vast ocean environment allows us to speculate about the factors driving fluctuations in parasite infections in elasmobranchs.

  10. Biodegradation of Toluene under seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of soil-water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Shrestha, S.R.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing interest in bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites raises the question of the influence of seasonal and diurnal changes on soil-water temperature on biodegradation of BTEX, a widespread group of (sub)-surface contaminants. Therefore, we investigated the impact of a wide range of

  11. Oral Contraceptives and Renal Water Handling; A diurnal study in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard-Jensen, Charlotte; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiær, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that use of oral contraceptives (OC) changes diurnal variation in fluid balance mechanisms including blood pressure, secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin, and renal water and electrolyte excretion. Fifteen naturally cycling (NC) women in mid-follicular phase and 11 long-te...

  12. Tracking diurnal changes of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration using fluorescence, gas exchange and hyperspectral remote sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Guanter, L.; Huang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) are the two most important activities of vegetation and make a great contribution to carbon, water and energy exchanges. Remote sensing provides opportunities for monitoring these processes across time and space. This study focuses on tracking diurnal changes of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration over soybean using multiple measurement techniques. Diurnal changes of both remote sensing-based indicators, including active and passive chlorophyll fluorescence and biophysical-related parameters, including photosynthesis rate (photo) and leaf stomatal conductance (cond), were observed. Results showed that both leaf-level steady-state fluorescence (Fs) and canopy-level solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence were linearly correlated to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime. A double-peak diurnal change curve was observed for leaf-level photo and cond but not for Fs or SIF. Photo and cond showed a strong nonlinear (second-order) correlation, indicating that photosynthesis, which might be remotely sensed by SIF, has the opportunity to track short-term changes of ET. Results presented in this report will be helpful for better understanding the relationship between remote-sensing-based indices and vegetation's biophysical processes.

  13. Corrigendum: Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Original article: Zilioli, S., Slatcher, R. B., Chi, P., Li, X., Zhao, J., & Zhao, G. (2016). Childhood adversity, self-esteem, and diurnal cortisol profiles across the life span. Psychological Science, 27, 1249-1265. doi:10.1177/0956797616658287.

  14. Coordinated Ramping of Dorsal Striatal Pathways preceding Food Approach and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Tanisha D; Licholai, Julia A; Szczot, Ilona; Ali, Mohamed A; LeBlanc, Kimberly H; Fobbs, Wambura C; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2018-04-04

    The striatum controls food-related actions and consumption and is linked to feeding disorders, including obesity and anorexia nervosa. Two populations of neurons project from the striatum: direct pathway medium spiny neurons and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons. The selective contribution of direct pathway medium spiny neurons and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons to food-related actions and consumption remains unknown. Here, we used in vivo electrophysiology and fiber photometry in mice (of both sexes) to record both spiking activity and pathway-specific calcium activity of dorsal striatal neurons during approach to and consumption of food pellets. While electrophysiology revealed complex task-related dynamics across neurons, population calcium was enhanced during approach and inhibited during consumption in both pathways. We also observed ramping changes in activity that preceded both pellet-directed actions and spontaneous movements. These signals were heterogeneous in the spiking units, with neurons exhibiting either increasing or decreasing ramps. In contrast, the population calcium signals were homogeneous, with both pathways having increasing ramps of activity for several seconds before actions were initiated. An analysis comparing population firing rates to population calcium signals also revealed stronger ramping dynamics in the calcium signals than in the spiking data. In a second experiment, we trained the mice to perform an action sequence to evaluate when the ramping signals terminated. We found that the ramping signals terminated at the beginning of the action sequence, suggesting they may reflect upcoming actions and not preconsumption activity. Plasticity of such mechanisms may underlie disorders that alter action selection, such as drug addiction or obesity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alterations in striatal function have been linked to pathological consumption in disorders, such as obesity and drug addiction. We recorded spiking and

  15. The influence of sea- and land-breeze circulations on the diurnal variability in precipitation over a tropical island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the diurnal variation in precipitation over Hainan Island in the South China Sea using gauge observations from 1951 to 2012 and Climate Prediction Center MORPHing technique (CMORPH satellite estimates from 2006 to 2015, as well as numerical simulations. The simulations are the first to use climatological mean initial and lateral boundary conditions to study the dynamic and thermodynamic processes (and the impacts of land–sea breeze circulations that control the rainfall distribution and climatology. Precipitation is most significant from April to October and exhibits a strong diurnal cycle resulting from land–sea breeze circulations. More than 60 % of the total annual precipitation over the island is attributable to the diurnal cycle with a significant monthly variability. The CMORPH and gauge datasets agree well, except that the CMORPH data underestimate precipitation and have a 1 h peak delay. The diurnal cycle of the rainfall and the related land–sea breeze circulations during May and June were well captured by convection-permitting numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, which were initiated from a 10-year average ERA-Interim reanalysis. The simulations have a slight overestimation of rainfall amounts and a 1 h delay in peak rainfall time. The diurnal cycle of precipitation is driven by the occurrence of moist convection around noontime owing to low-level convergence associated with the sea-breeze circulations. The precipitation intensifies rapidly thereafter and peaks in the afternoon with the collisions of sea-breeze fronts from different sides of the island. Cold pools of the convective storms contribute to the inland propagation of the sea breeze. Generally, precipitation dissipates quickly in the evening due to the cooling and stabilization of the lower troposphere and decrease of boundary layer moisture. Interestingly, the rather high island orography is not a

  16. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominiek Vangansbeke

    Full Text Available The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  17. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  18. Comparison of specific-yield estimates for calculating evapotranspiration from diurnal groundwater-level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2018-05-01

    Methods that use diurnal groundwater-level fluctuations are commonly used for shallow water-table environments to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) and recharge. The key element needed to obtain reliable estimates is the specific yield (Sy), a soil-water storage parameter that depends on unsaturated soil-moisture and water-table fluxes, among others. Soil-moisture profile measurement down to the water table, along with water-table-depth measurements, can provide a good opportunity to calculate Sy values even on a sub-daily scale. These values were compared with Sy estimates derived by traditional techniques, and it was found that slug-test-based Sy values gave the most similar results in a sandy soil environment. Therefore, slug-test methods, which are relatively cheap and require little time, were most suited to estimate Sy using diurnal fluctuations. The reason for this is that the timeframe of the slug-test measurement is very similar to the dynamic of the diurnal signal. The dynamic characteristic of Sy was also analyzed on a sub-daily scale (depending mostly on the speed of drainage from the soil profile) and a remarkable difference was found in Sy with respect to the rate of change of the water table. When comparing constant and sub-daily (dynamic) Sy values for ET estimation, the sub-daily Sy application yielded higher correlation, but only a slightly smaller deviation from the control ET method, compared with the usage of constant Sy.

  19. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  20. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Solomon and Jin 2005). The diurnal change in. SST has also been examined to study the possible feedbacks on the atmosphere (Clayson and Chen. 2002; Bernie et al 2007). Solar heating of the sea surface in low-wind conditions can lead to the development of a stable warm layer of a few meters thickness at the surface.

  1. Diurnal variation in the performance of rapid response systems: the role of critical care services-a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Krishnaswamy; Flabouris, Arthas; Thompson, Campbell

    2016-01-01

    The type of medical review before an adverse event influences patient outcome. Delays in the up-transfer of patients requiring intensive care are associated with higher mortality rates. Timely detection and response to a deteriorating patient constitute an important function of the rapid response system (RRS). The activation of the RRS for at-risk patients constitutes the system's afferent limb. Afferent limb failure (ALF), an important performance measure of rapid response systems, constitutes a failure to activate a rapid response team (RRT) despite criteria for calling an RRT. There are diurnal variations in hospital staffing levels, the performance of rapid response systems and patient outcomes. Fewer ward-based nursing staff at night may contribute to ALF. The diurnal variability in RRS activity is greater in unmonitored units than it is in monitored units for events that should result in a call for an RRT. RRT events include a significant abnormality in either the pulse rate, blood pressure, conscious state or respiratory rate. There is also diurnal variation in RRT summoning rates, with most activations occurring during the day. The reasons for this variation are mostly speculative, but the failure of the afferent limb of RRT activation, particularly at night, may be a factor. The term "circadian variation/rhythm" applies to physiological variations over a 24-h cycle. In contrast, diurnal variation applies more accurately to extrinsic systems. Circadian rhythm has been demonstrated in a multitude of bodily functions and disease states. For example, there is an association between disrupted circadian rhythms and abnormal vital parameters such as anomalous blood pressure, irregular pulse rate, aberrant endothelial function, myocardial infarction, stroke, sleep-disordered breathing and its long-term consequences of hypertension, heart failure and cognitive impairment. Therefore, diurnal variation in patient outcomes may be extrinsic, and more easily modifiable

  2. Modeling the Dispersal of Spiny Lobster (Palinurus elephas Larvae: Implications for Future Fisheries Management and Conservation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Whomersley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of larval dispersal, population dynamics and connectivity in relation to the management and conservation of commercially important species is vital if existing fisheries are to remain sustainable into the future. Larval dispersal of the commercially exploited spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas, was modeled from Marine Protected Areas located in the southwest of England for a 16-month period using a General Individuals Transport Model (GITM. The model included physical particle advection based on current fields from a 3D hydrodynamics model and a larval behavior module. Our results demonstrate the overall dispersal patterns of P. elephas larvae and highlight populations capable of self-seeding and those which are seemingly reliant on larvae from more distant populations. The results indicate where further research may be required to fully understand how populations of P. elephas are maintained at regional, national and international scales while providing us with the opportunity to discuss the effectiveness of current approaches to conservation and fisheries management.

  3. Effects of the Relaxation of Upwelling-Favorable Winds on the Diurnal and Semidiurnal Water Temperature Fluctuations in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, María. F.; Fewings, Melanie R.; Washburn, Libe

    2017-10-01

    In the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and around the Northern Channel Islands, water temperature fluctuations in the diurnal and semidiurnal frequency bands are intermittent, with amplitudes that vary on time scales of days to weeks. The cause of this intermittency is not well understood. We studied the effects of the barotropic tide, vertical stratification, propagation of coastal-trapped waves, regional wind relaxations, and diurnal-band winds on the intermittency of the temperature fluctuations during 1992-2015. We used temperature data from 43 moorings in 10-200 m water depth and wind data from two buoys and one land station. Subtidal-frequency changes in vertical stratification explain 20-40% of the intermittency in diurnal and semidiurnal temperature fluctuations at time scales of days to weeks. Along the mainland north of Point Conception and at the Northern Channel Islands, the relaxation of upwelling-favorable winds substantially increases vertical stratification, accounting for up to 55% of the subtidal-frequency variability in stratification. As a result of the enhanced stratification, wind relaxations enhance the diurnal and semidiurnal temperature fluctuations at those sites, even though the diurnal-band wind forcing decreases during wind relaxation. A linear model where the background stratification is advected vertically explains a substantial fraction of the temperature fluctuations at most sites. The increase of vertical stratification and subsequent increase in diurnal and semidiurnal temperature fluctuations during wind relaxation is a mechanism that can supply nutrients to the euphotic zone and kelp forests in the Channel in summer when upwelling is weak.

  4. Diurnal variation in glycogen phosphorylase activity in rat liver. A quantitative histochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; Bosch, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The diurnal variations of the glycogen content and of glycogen phosphorylase activity in periportal and pericentral areas of rat liver parenchyma have been analyzed in periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-stained cryostat sections using quantitative microdensitometry. Glycogen content and phosphorylase

  5. Diurnal variation in ruminal pH on the digestibility of highly digestible perennial ryegrass during continuous culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, W J; Kolver, E S; Thorne, P L; Egan, A R

    2004-06-01

    Dairy cows grazing high-digestibility pastures exhibit pronounced diurnal variation in ruminal pH, with pH being below values considered optimal for digestion. Using a dual-flow continuous culture system, the hypothesis that minimizing diurnal variation in pH would improve digestion of pasture when pH was low, but not at a higher pH, was tested. Four treatments were imposed, with pH either allowed to exhibit normal diurnal variation around an average pH of 6.1 or 5.6, or maintained at constant pH. Digesta samples were collected during the last 3 d of each of four, 9-d experimental periods. A constant pH at 5.6 compared with a constant pH of 6.1 reduced the digestibility of organic matter (OM), neutral detergent (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) by 7, 14, and 21%, respectively. When pH was allowed to vary (averaging 5.6), digestion of OM, NDF, and ADF were reduced by 15,30, and 36%, respectively, compared with pH varying at 6.1. There was little difference in digestion parameters when pH was either constant or varied with an average pH of 6.1. However, when average pH was 5.6, maintaining a constant pH significantly increased digestion of OM, NDF, and ADF by 5, 25, and 24% compared with a pH that exhibited normal diurnal variation. These in vitro results show that gains in digestibility and potential milk production can be made by minimizing diurnal variation in ruminal pH, but only when ruminal pH is low (5.6). However, larger gains in productivity can be achieved by increasing average daily ruminal pH from 5.6 to 6.1.

  6. Cognitive control moderates parenting stress effects on children's diurnal cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Raffington, Laurel; Schmiedek, Florian; Heim, Christine; Shing, Yee Lee

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated associations between parenting stress in parents and self-reported stress in children with children's diurnal cortisol secretion and whether these associations are moderated by known stress-regulating capacities, namely child cognitive control. Salivary cortisol concentrations were assessed from awakening to evening on two weekend days from 53 6-to-7-year-old children. Children completed a cognitive control task and a self-report stress questionnaire with an experiment...

  7. ESA STSE “SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend - Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, has been observed in various regions of the global ocean [4, 5, 6]. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are not adequately resolving the daily SST cycle, resulting in biases of the total...

  8. Mechanisms of Diurnal Precipitation over the United States Great Plains: A Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.-I.; Choi, I.; Tao, W.-K.; Schubert, S. D.; Kang, I.-K.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of summertime diurnal precipitation in the US Great Plains were examined with the two-dimensional (2D) Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud-resolving model (CRM). The model was constrained by the observed large-scale background state and surface flux derived from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program s Intensive Observing Period (IOP) data at the Southern Great Plains (SGP). The model, when continuously-forced by realistic surface flux and large-scale advection, simulates reasonably well the temporal evolution of the observed rainfall episodes, particularly for the strongly forced precipitation events. However, the model exhibits a deficiency for the weakly forced events driven by diurnal convection. Additional tests were run with the GCE model in order to discriminate between the mechanisms that determine daytime and nighttime convection. In these tests, the model was constrained with the same repeating diurnal variation in the large-scale advection and/or surface flux. The results indicate that it is primarily the surface heat and moisture flux that is responsible for the development of deep convection in the afternoon, whereas the large-scale upward motion and associated moisture advection play an important role in preconditioning nocturnal convection. In the nighttime, high clouds are continuously built up through their interaction and feedback with long-wave radiation, eventually initiating deep convection from the boundary layer. Without these upper-level destabilization processes, the model tends to produce only daytime convection in response to boundary layer heating. This study suggests that the correct simulation of the diurnal variation in precipitation requires that the free-atmospheric destabilization mechanisms resolved in the CRM simulation must be adequately parameterized in current general circulation models (GCMs) many of which are overly sensitive to the parameterized boundary layer heating.

  9. Predominant role of water in regulating the tree-growth response to diurnal asymmetric warmin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Xia, J.; Cui, E.

    2017-12-01

    Growth of the Northern Hemisphere trees is affected by diurnal asymmetric warming, which is generally considered to touch off carbon assimilation and increment of carbon storage. Asymmetric effects of diurnal warming on vegetation greenness were validated in previous researches, however, the effect of diurnal warming on wood tissue which stores most carbon of a whole plant is still unknown. Here, we combined ring-width index (RWI), remote sensing-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and climate datasets to detect the effects of daytime and night-time warming on vegetation growth, respectively. Our results indicate that daytime warming enhances NDVI but has neutral effect on tree woody growth over the Northern Hemisphere. Response of wood growth to daytime warming is linearly regulated by soil water availability. The underlying mechanism of different response of canopy and wood growth to daytime warming may attribute to the biomass change, that is, allocation to foliage tissues increased at the expense of wood tissue under warming and water-limited conditions. Night-time warming show neutral effects on NDVI and RWI over the Northern Hemisphere, and the neutral Tmin-NDVI correlations result from the non-linear mediation of soil water availability. Our results highlight the current greening trend under daytime warming does not mean higher carbon sink capacity, the warming-drying climate may impair the large carbon sink of global forests.

  10. Diurnal microstructural variations in healthy adult brain revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Jiang

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is a fundamental property of human physiology. Changes in the extracellular space induced by cell swelling in response to the neural activity enable the in vivo characterization of cerebral microstructure by measuring the water diffusivity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. To study the diurnal microstructural alterations of human brain, fifteen right-handed healthy adult subjects were recruited for DTI studies in two repeated sessions (8∶30 AM and 8∶30 PM within a 24-hour interval. Fractional anisotropy (FA, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, axial (λ// and radial diffusivity (λ⊥ were compared pixel by pixel between the sessions for each subject. Significant increased morning measurements in FA, ADC, λ// and λ⊥ were seen in a wide range of brain areas involving frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Prominent evening dominant λ⊥ (18.58% was detected in the right inferior temporal and ventral fusiform gyri. AM-PM variation of λ⊥ was substantially left side hemisphere dominant (p<0.05, while no hemispheric preference was observed for the same analysis for ADC (p = 0.77, λ// (p = 0.08 or FA (p = 0.25. The percentage change of ADC, λ//, λ⊥, and FA were 1.59%, 2.15%, 1.20% and 2.84%, respectively, for brain areas without diurnal diffusivity contrast. Microstructural variations may function as the substrates of the phasic neural activities in correspondence to the environment adaptation in a light-dark cycle. This research provided a baseline for researches in neuroscience, sleep medicine, psychological and psychiatric disorders, and necessitates that diurnal effect should be taken into account in following up studies using diffusion tensor quantities.

  11. Reduced foraging in the presence of predator cues by the Black Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura similis (Sauria: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent R. Farallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a predator may have direct and indirect effects on the behavior of the prey. Although altered behavior may help prey avoid predators, it also can have a potential impact on critical activities such as foraging. Predator-prey interactions are routinely studied in laboratory-based experiments owing to theperceived difficulties of conducting such experiments in natural settings. We conducted an experimental study under field conditions in Palo Verde National Park in northwestern Costa Rica to assess behavioral responses of Black Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Ctenosaurasimilis to the presence of predators and predator cues. Free-roaming iguanas were offered mango in designated areas in the presence of a predator (Boa constrictor, a predator cue (B. constrictor feces, and a control (no predator or predator cue. Results indicate that iguanas reduced their foraging efforts in the presence of both a predator and its cue.

  12. Never judge an iguana by its spines: Systematics of the Yucatan spiny tailed iguana, Ctenosaura defensor (Cope, 1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Catherine L; Reynoso, Víctor Hugo; Buckley, Larry

    2017-10-01

    Spiny tailed iguanas are highly diverse clade of lizards in Mesoamerica, ranging from northern Mexico through Panama. Utilizing 2 regions of mitochondrial DNA (1948bp) and 4 nuclear loci (2232bp) we explored the relationships between these species and the phylogeographic history of the major clades. We discovered that the lineage endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula renders the genus Ctenosaura paraphyletic. To resolve this non-monophyly, we resurrect the taxon Cachryx Cope, 1866, and provide a new diagnosis for the genus. We also find that small body-size and highly spinose tails in the species previously referred to the subgenus Enyaliosaurus, have evolved independently 3 times. Cachryx were recovered as sister to the lineage of iguanines endemic to the Galapagos Islands, and we discuss biogeographic scenarios to explain this relationship as well as those among the primary clades of Ctenosaura in Mesoamerica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nighttime Convection, Temperature Inversions, and Diurnal Variations at Low Altitudes in the Martian Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Haberle, R. M.; Spiga, A.; Tellmann, S.; Paetzold, M.; Asmar, S. W.; Haeusler, B.

    2014-07-01

    We are using radio occultation measurements and numerical simulations to explore the atmospheric structure and diurnal variations in the lowest few scale heights of the martian atmosphere, with emphasis on nighttime convective layers.

  14. Striatal Distribution and Cytoarchitecture of Dopamine Receptor Subtype 1 and 2: Evidence from Double-Labeling Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the main input nucleus of the basal ganglion, the striatum executes different functions, including motivation, reward and attention. The functions of the striatum highly rely on its subregions that receive projections from various cortical areas and the distribution of striatonigral neurons that express D1 dopamine (DA receptors (or D1 medium-sized spiny neurons, D1 MSNs and striatopallidal neurons that express D2 DA receptors (or D2 MSNs. Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC transgenic mice, several studies have recently been performed on the spatial distribution of D1 and D2 MSNs. However, these studies mainly focused on enumeration of either D1-enhanced fluorescent protein (eGFP or D2-eGFP in mice. In the present work, we used Drd1a-tdTamato and Drd2-eGFP double BAC transgenic mice to evaluate the spatial pattern of D1 MSNs (red fluorescence and D2 MSNs (green fluorescence along the rostro-caudal axis of the dorsal striatum. The dorsal striatum was divided into three subregions: rostral caudoputamen (CPr, intermediate CP (CPi, and caudal CP (CPc across the rostral–caudal extent of the striatum. The results demonstrate that D1 and D2 MSNs were intermingled with each other in most of these regions. The cell density of D1 MSNs was slightly higher than D2 MSNs through CPr, CPi, and CPc, though it did not reach significance. However, in CPi, the ratio of D1/D2 in the ventromedial CPi group was significantly higher than those in dorsolateral, dorsomedial, and ventrolateral CPi. There was similar proportion of cells that co-expressed D1 and D2 receptors. Moreover, we demonstrated a pathway-specific activation pattern of D1 MSNs and D2 MSNs in a manic like mouse model induced by D-Amphetamine by utilizing this double transgenic mice and c-fos immunoreactivity. Our results may provide a morphological basis for the function or pathophysiology of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons with diverse cortical inputs to the dorsal striatum.

  15. Observing Seasonal and Diurnal Hydrometeorological Variability Within a Tropical Alpine Valley: Implications for Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Mark, B. G.

    2007-12-01

    Conditions of glacier recession in the seasonally dry tropical Peruvian Andes motivate research to better constrain the hydrological balance in alpine valleys. There is an outstanding need to better understand the impact of the pronounced tropical hygric seasonality on energy and water budgets within pro-glacial valleys that channel glacier runoff to stream flow. This paper presents a novel embedded network installed in the glacierized Llanganuco valley of the Cordillera Blanca (9°S) comprising eight low-cost, discrete temperature and humidity microloggers ranging from 3470 to 4740 masl and an automatic weather station at 3850 masl. Data are aggregated into distinct dry and wet periods sampled from two full annual cycles (2004-2006) to explore patterns of diurnal and seasonal variability. The magnitude of diurnal solar radiation varies little within the valley between the dry and wet periods, while wet season near-surface air temperatures are cooler. Seasonally characteristic diurnal fluctuations in lapse rate partially regulate convection and humidity. Steep lapse rates during the wet season afternoon promote up-slope convection of warm, moist air and nocturnal rainfall events. Standardized grass reference evapotranspiration (ET0) was estimated using the FAO-56 algorithm of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and compared with estimates of actual ET from the process-based BROOK90 model that incorporates more realistic vegetation parameters. Comparisons of composite diurnal cycles of ET for the wet and dry periods suggest about twice the daily ET0 during the dry period, attributed primarily to the 500% higher vapor pressure deficit and 20% higher daily total solar irradiance. Conversely, the near absence of rainfall during the dry season diminishes actual ET below that of the wet season by two orders of magnitude. Nearly cloud-free daylight conditions are critical for ET during the wet season. We found significant variability of ET with elevation

  16. Impact of land convection on temperature diurnal variation in the tropical lower stratosphere inferred from COSMIC GPS radio occultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Khaykin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following recent studies evidencing the influence of deep convection on the chemical composition and thermal structure of the tropical lower stratosphere, we explore its impact on the temperature diurnal variation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the high-resolution COSMIC GPS radio-occultation temperature measurements spanning from 2006 through 2011. The temperature in the lowermost stratosphere over land during summer displays a marked diurnal cycle characterized by an afternoon cooling. This diurnal cycle is shown collocated with most intense land convective areas observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM precipitation radar and in phase with the maximum overshooting occurrence frequency in late afternoon. Two processes potentially responsible for that are identified: (i non-migrating tides, whose physical nature is internal gravity waves, and (ii local cross-tropopause mass transport of adiabatically cooled air by overshooting turrets. Although both processes can contribute, only the lofting of adiabatically cooled air is well captured by models, making it difficult to characterize the contribution of non-migrating tides. The impact of deep convection on the temperature diurnal cycle is found larger in the southern tropics, suggesting more vigorous convection over clean rain forest continents than desert areas and polluted continents in the northern tropics.

  17. The effects of diurnal Ramadan fasting on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; Ismail, Mohammad; Baker, Alicia; Blair, Jason; Adebayo, Adeboye; Kelly, Liam; Chandurkar, Vikram; Cheema, Sukhinder; Joanisse, Denis R; Basset, Fabien A

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of diurnal Ramadan fasting (RF) on substrate oxidation, energy production, blood lipids and glucose as well as body composition. Nine healthy Muslim men (fasting (FAST) group) and eight healthy non-practicing men (control (CNT) group) were assessed pre- and post-RF. FAST were additionally assessed at days 10, 20 and 30 of RF in the morning and evening. Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry, substrate oxidation and energy production by indirect calorimetry, blood metabolic profile by biochemical analyses and energy balance by activity tracker recordings and food log analyses. A significant group×time interaction revealed that chronic RF reduced body mass and adiposity in FAST, without changing lean mass, whereas CNT subjects remained unchanged. In parallel to these findings, a significant main diurnal effect (morning v. evening) of RF on substrate oxidation (a shift towards lipid oxidation) and blood metabolic profile (a decrease in glucose and an increase in total cholesterol and TAG levels, respectively) was observed, which did not vary over the course of the Ramadan. In conclusion, although RF induces diurnal metabolic adjustments (morning v. evening), no carryover effect was observed throughout RF despite the extended daily fasting period (18·0 (sd 0·3) h) and changes in body composition.

  18. Water-stress-induced breakdown of carbon-water relations: indicators from diurnal FLUXNET patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jacob A.; Carvalhais, Nuno; Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Jung, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles is currently hampered by an uncertainty in how to capture the large variety of plant responses to drought. In FLUXNET, the global network of CO2 and H2O flux observations, many sites do not uniformly report the ancillary variables needed to study drought response physiology. To this end, we outline two data-driven indicators based on diurnal energy, water, and carbon flux patterns derived directly from the eddy covariance data and based on theorized physiological responses to hydraulic and non-stomatal limitations. Hydraulic limitations (i.e. intra-plant limitations on water movement) are proxied using the relative diurnal centroid (CET*), which measures the degree to which the flux of evapotranspiration (ET) is shifted toward the morning. Non-stomatal limitations (e.g. inhibitions of biochemical reactions, RuBisCO activity, and/or mesophyll conductance) are characterized by the Diurnal Water-Carbon Index (DWCI), which measures the degree of coupling between ET and gross primary productivity (GPP) within each day. As a proof of concept we show the response of the metrics at six European sites during the 2003 heat wave event, showing a varied response of morning shifts and decoupling. Globally, we found indications of hydraulic limitations in the form of significantly high frequencies of morning-shifted days in dry/Mediterranean climates and savanna/evergreen plant functional types (PFTs), whereas high frequencies of decoupling were dominated by dry climates and grassland/savanna PFTs indicating a prevalence of non-stomatal limitations in these ecosystems. Overall, both the diurnal centroid and DWCI were associated with high net radiation and low latent energy typical of drought. Using three water use efficiency (WUE) models, we found the mean differences between expected and observed WUE to be -0.09 to 0.44 µmol mmol-1 and -0.29 to -0.40 µmol mmol-1 for decoupled and morning-shifted days, respectively, compared

  19. Variability of radiatively forced diurnal cycle of intense convection in the tropical west pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W.M.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Thorson, W.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime (DVN) net radiative cooling in clear versus cloudy areas of the tropical atmosphere. Daytime average cooling is approximately -0.7{degrees}C/day, whereas nighttime net tropospheric cooling rates are about -1.5{degrees}C/day, an approximately two-to-one difference. The comparatively strong nocturnal cooling in clear areas gives rise to a diurnally varying vertical circulation and horizontal convergence cycle. Various manifestations of this cyclic process include the observed early morning heavy rainfall maxima over the tropical oceans. The radiatively driven DVN circulation appears to strongly modulate the resulting diurnal cycle of intense convection which creates the highest, coldest cloudiness over maritime tropical areas and is likely a fundamental mechanism governing both small and large scale dynamics over much of the tropical environment.

  20. Seasonal Cycle of the Near-Surface Diurnal Wind Field Over the Bay of La Paz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrent, Cuauhtémoc; Zaitsev, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The results of numerical simulations of the troposphere over the Bay of La Paz, calculated for the months of January, April, July and October during the period 2006-2010 with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF v3.5) regional model, are used to describe the seasonal features of the diurnal cycle of planetary boundary-layer winds. Two distinct near-surface diurnal flows with strong seasonal variability were identified: (1) a nocturnal and matutinal breeze directed from the subtropical Pacific Ocean, over the Baja California peninsula and the Bay of La Paz, into the Gulf of California that is associated with the regional sea-surface temperature difference between those two major water bodies; and (2) a mid to late afternoon onshore sea-breeze related to the peninsula's daily cycle of insolation heating that evolves with counter-clockwise rotation over the Bay of La Paz. The model results reveal the interaction over Baja California of opposing afternoon sea-breeze fronts that originate from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California, with a convergence line forming over the peaks of the peninsula's topography and the associated presence of a closed vertical circulation cell over the Bay of La Paz and the adjacent Gulf. The collision of the opposing sea-breeze fronts over the narrow peninsula drives convection that is relatively weak due to the reduced heat source and only appears to produce precipitation sporadically. The spatial structure of the sea-breeze fronts over the Bay of La Paz region is complex due to shoreline curvature and nearby topographic features. A comparison of the numerical results with available meteorological near-surface observations indicates that the modelling methodology adequately reproduced the observed features of the seasonal variability of the local planetary boundary-layer diurnal wind cycle and confirms that the low-level atmospheric circulation over the Bay of La Paz is dominated by kinetic energy in the diurnal band

  1. diurnal and seasonal water relations of the desert phreatophyte prosopis-glandulosa (honey mesquite) in the Sonoran Desert of California

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, E. T.; Sharifi, M. R.; Rundel, P. W.; Jarrell, W. M.; Virginia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Diurnal and Seasonal water relations were monitored in a population of Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana in the Sonoran Desert of southern California. Prosopis glandulosa at this research site acquired its water from a ground water source 4-6 m deep. Measurements of diurnal and seasonal cycles of aboveground environmental conditions, soil moisture, and soil water potential (to 6 m depth) were taken to ascertain environmental water availability and water stress. Leaf water potential, leaf con...

  2. Diurnal Variation In Behaviour Of Pink-Footed Geese (Anser Brachyrhynchus) During Spring Migration In Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    During spring migration, Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus stop in mid Norway to refuel before their onward flight to the Svalbard breeding grounds. In mid Norway, geese feed on pastures, stubble as well as newly sown grain fields. The aim of the paper is to describe diurnal variations...... in the behaviour of geese and to examine whether these variations are driven by digestibility of food geese feed on or also by external factors such as distance to the roost, disturbance and flock size. Based on diurnal flock scans of activity budgets (observations carried out between 05h00 and 22h00 hrs) in each...... habitat type, we fitted a model containing all predictors we believe may influence geese behaviour. The number of feeding and alert geese on fields displayed a strong diurnal trend, which varied among habitat types, frequent and sporadic disturbance, but not flock size. On roost sites, geese also showed...

  3. Diurnal salivary cortisol in relation to perceived stress at home and at work in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Anna; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the association between diurnal salivary cortisol profile and perceived stress at work and at home. Healthy participants (N=180, 52% women) collected saliva cortisol samples immediately after waking up, 15 min later, 30 min later, and at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00. The area under the cortisol awakening curve with respect to ground (AUCgCAR) and increase (AUCiCAR), and diurnal slope between 9:00 and 21:00 were analyzed. Perceived stress at work and at home was measured with the Stress-Energy Questionnaire. Participants reporting stress at home had significantly lower AUCgCAR and a flatter diurnal slope. When performing separate analyses for men and women, this association was only significant among women. Perceived stress at work was not associated with any cortisol measure. This study highlights the importance of stress outside the workplace. The sex differences may indicate an increased vulnerability to non-work stress in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Circadian modulation of complex learning in diurnal and nocturnal Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Katzoff, Ayelet; Susswein, Abraham J.; Eskin, Arnold

    2005-01-01

    Understanding modulation of memory, as well as the mechanisms underlying memory formation, has become a key issue in neuroscience research. Previously, we found that the formation of long-term, but not short-term, memory for a nonassociative form of learning, sensitization, was modulated by the circadian clock in the diurnal Aplysia californica. To define the scope of circadian modulation of memory, we examined an associative operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). Si...

  5. Diurnal bird visiting of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. in Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    MELO, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nectar of nocturnal flowers may be used by diurnal species that occasionally accomplish secondary pollination. Thirteen bird species visited Caryocar brasiliense flowers in central Brazil. There is a temporal separation between nectarivores and non-nectarivores species. Nectarivores birds visited flowers late in the morning, while other species appear earlier. C. brasiliense nectar may be an alternative resource to birds visitors during the dry season. O néctar de flores noturnas pode ser ...

  6. Analysis on diurnal global geomagnetic variability under quiet-time conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Klausner, Virginia; Domingues, Margarete Oliveira; Mendes Jr, Odim; Papa, Andres Reinaldo Rodriguez; Frick, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology (or treatment) to establish a representative signal of the global magnetic diurnal variation based on a spatial distribution in both longitude and latitude of a set of magnetic stations as well as their magnetic behavior on a time basis. For that, we apply the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique implemented using gapped wavelet transform and wavelet correlation. The continuous gapped wavelet and the wavelet correlation techniques were used to descri...

  7. Midday Depression vs. Midday Peak in Diurnal Light Interception: Contrasting Patterns at Crown and Leaf Scales in a Tropical Evergreen Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Ventre-Lespiaucq

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Crown architecture usually is heterogeneous as a result of foraging in spatially and temporally heterogeneous light environments. Ecologists are only beginning to identify the importance of temporal heterogeneity for light acquisition in plants, especially at the diurnal scale. Crown architectural heterogeneity often leads to a diurnal variation in light interception. However, maximizing light interception during midday may not be an optimal strategy in environments with excess light. Instead, long-lived plants are expected to show crown architectures and leaf positions that meet the contrasting needs of light interception and avoidance of excess light on a diurnal basis. We expected a midday depression in the diurnal course of light interception both at the whole-crown and leaf scales, as a strategy to avoid the interception of excessive irradiance. We tested this hypothesis in a population of guava trees (Psidium guajava L. growing in an open tropical grassland. We quantified three crown architectural traits: intra-individual heterogeneity in foliage clumping, crown openness, and leaf position angles. We estimated the diurnal course of light interception at the crown scale using hemispheric photographs, and at the leaf scale using the cosine of solar incidence. Crowns showed a midday depression in light interception, while leaves showed a midday peak. These contrasting patterns were related to architectural traits. At the crown scale, the midday depression of light interception was linked to a greater crown openness and foliage clumping in crown tops than in the lateral parts of the crown. At the leaf scale, an average inclination angle of 45° led to the midday peak in light interception, but with a huge among-leaf variation in position angles. The mismatch in diurnal course of light interception at crown and leaf scales can indicate that different processes are being optimized at each scale. These findings suggest that the diurnal course of

  8. Diurnal Variation of Rainfall Associated with Tropical Depression in South China and its Relationship to Land-Sea Contrast and Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Convective precipitation associated with tropical depression (TD is one primary type of post-flooding season rainfall in South China (SC. Observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite have shown specific diurnal features of convective rainfall in South China, which is somewhat different from that in other seasons or regions of China. Convective precipitation is usually organized into a rainfall band along the southeastern coast of South China in the early morning hours. The rainfall band develops and intensifies quickly in the morning, then moves inland in the afternoon and, finally, diminishes at night. The daily convective rainfall along the coast is much more than that in the inland region, and heavy rainfall is often found along the coast. A long-duration heavy rainfall event associated with tropical depression “Fitow” during the period from 28 August to 6 September 2001, is selected in this study to explore the diurnal feature of convective rainfall and its formation mechanism. Modeling results of the 10-day heavy rainfall event are compared with both rain-gauge observation and satellite-retrieved rainfall. Total precipitation and its spatial distribution, as well as diurnal variations are reasonably simulated and agree well with observations. Further analysis reveals that the development and movement of convective precipitation is mainly related to the land and sea breezes. The anomalous height-latitudinal circulation in the morning-to-noon hours is completely reversed in the afternoon-to-late-evening hours, with the convective rainfall swinging back and forth, following its updraft branch. Sensitivity experiments show that the afternoon convective rainfall in the inland region of SC is caused by the diurnal variation of solar radiation forcing. The mountain range along the coast and the complex topography in the inland region of SC plays a critical role in the enhancement of diurnal convective rainfall

  9. Thermoregulatory Behavior in Diurnal Lizards as a Vehicle for Teaching Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Field experiments offer the opportunity for hands on experience with the scientific process. While this is true of a wide variety of activities, many have pitfalls both experimental and logistical that reduce the overall rate of success, in turn, influencing student learning outcomes. Relying on small, territorial, diurnal lizards and an array of…

  10. Estimation of evaporation from equilibrium diurnal boundary layer humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, G.; Rigden, A. J.; Li, D.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Simplified conceptual models of the convective boundary layer as a well mixed profile of potential temperature (theta) and specific humidity (q) impinging on an initially stably stratified linear potential temperature profile have a long history in atmospheric sciences. These one dimensional representations of complex mixing are useful for gaining insights into land-atmosphere interactions and for prediction when state of the art LES approaches are infeasible. As previously shown (e.g. Betts), if one neglects the role of q in bouyancy, the framework yields a unique relation between mixed layer Theta, mixed layer height (h), and cumulative sensible heat flux (SH) throughout the day. Similarly assuming an initially q profile yields a simple relation between q, h, and cumulative latent heat flux (LH). The diurnal dynamics of theta and q are strongly dependent on SH and the initial lapse rates of theta (gamma_thet) and q (gamma q). In the estimation method proposed here, we further constrain these relations with two more assumptions: 1) The specific humidity is the same at the start of the period of boundary layer growth and at the collapse; and 2) Once the mixed layer reaches the LCL, further drying occurs proportionally to the deardorff convective velocity scale (omega) multiplied by q. Assumption (1) is based on the idea that below the cloud layer, there are no sinks of moisture within the mixed layer (neglecting lateral humidity divergence). Thus the net mixing of dry air aloft with evaporation from the surface must balance. Inclusion of the simple model of moisture loss above the LCL into the bulk-CBL model allows definition of an equilibrium humidity (q) condition at which the diurnal cycle of q repeats (i.e. additions of q from surface balance entrainment of dry air from above). Surprisingly, this framework allows estimation of LH from q, theta, and estimated net radiation by solving for the value of Evaporative Fraction (EF) for which the diurnal cycle of q

  11. Volume-activated trimethylamine oxide efflux in red blood cells of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomoa, D L; Musch, M W; MacLean, A V; Goldstein, L

    2001-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the pathway of swelling-activated trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) efflux and its regulation in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) red blood cells and compare the characteristics of this efflux pathway with the volume-activated osmolyte (taurine) channel present in erythrocytes of fishes. The characteristics of the TMAO efflux pathway were similar to those of the taurine efflux pathway. The swelling-activated effluxes of both TMAO and taurine were significantly inhibited by known anion transport inhibitors (DIDS and niflumic acid) and by the general channel inhibitor quinine. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea activated both TMAO and taurine effluxes similarly. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea also stimulated the activity of tyrosine kinases p72syk and p56lyn, although the stimulations by the latter two treatments were less than by hypotonicity. The volume activations of both TMAO and taurine effluxes were inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting that activation of tyrosine kinases may play a role in activating the osmolyte effluxes. These results indicate that the volume-activated TMAO efflux occurs via the organic osmolyte (taurine) channel and may be regulated by the volume activation of tyrosine kinases.

  12. Individual-based ant-plant networks: diurnal-nocturnal structure and species-area relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based on the number of extrafloral nectaries available in individual-based ant-plant networks. We observed that diurnal and nocturnal ant-plant networks exhibited the same pattern of interactions: a nested and non-modular pattern and an average level of network specialization. Despite the high similarity in the ants' composition between the two collection periods, ant species found in the central core of highly interacting species totally changed between diurnal and nocturnal sampling for all plant species. In other words, this "night-turnover" suggests that the ecological dynamics of these ant-plant interactions can be temporally partitioned (day and night at a small spatial scale. Thus, it is possible that in some cases processes shaping mutualistic networks formed by protective ants and plants may be underestimated by diurnal sampling alone. Moreover, we did not observe any effect of the number of extrafloral nectaries on ant richness and their foraging on such plants in any of the studied ant-plant networks. We hypothesize that competitively superior ants could monopolize individual plants and allow the coexistence of only a few other ant species, however, other alternative hypotheses are also discussed. Thus, sampling period and species-area relationship produces basic information that increases our confidence in how individual-based ant-plant networks are structured, and the need to consider nocturnal records in ant-plant network sampling design so as to decrease inappropriate inferences.

  13. Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 2 Regulates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Diurnal Glucose Metabolism Through 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molusky, Matthew M.; Li, Siming; Ma, Di; Yu, Lei; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is important for maintaining steady blood glucose levels during starvation and through light/dark cycles. The regulatory network that transduces hormonal and circadian signals serves to integrate these physiological cues and adjust glucose synthesis and secretion by the liver. In this study, we identified ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) as an inducible regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis that responds to nutritional status and clock. Adenoviral-mediated expression of USP2 in the liver promotes hepatic glucose production and exacerbates glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice. In contrast, in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of this factor improves systemic glycemic control. USP2 is a target gene of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a coactivator that integrates clock and energy metabolism, and is required for maintaining diurnal glucose homeostasis during restricted feeding. At the mechanistic level, USP2 regulates hepatic glucose metabolism through its induction of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD1) and glucocorticoid signaling in the liver. Pharmacological inhibition and liver-specific RNAi knockdown of HSD1 significantly impair the stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by USP2. Together, these studies delineate a novel pathway that links hormonal and circadian signals to gluconeogenesis and glucose homeostasis. PMID:22447855

  14. Mean diurnal variations of noctilucent clouds during 7 years of lidar observations at ALOMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fiedler

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1997 to 2003, noctilucent clouds (NLC were observed by lidar above the ALOMAR observatory in Northern Norway (69° N during a total of 1880 measurement hours. This data set contains NLC signatures for 640h, covering all local times, even during the highest solar background conditions. After data limitation imposing a threshold value of 4x10-10m-1sr-1 for the volume backscatter coefficient of the NLC particles, a measure for the cloud brightness, local time dependencies of the NLC occurrence frequency, altitude, and brightness were determined. On average, over the 7 years NLC occurred during the whole day and preferably in the early morning hours, with a maximum occurrence frequency of ~40% between 4 and 7 LT. Splitting the data into weak and strong clouds yields almost identical amplitudes of diurnal and semidiurnal variations for the occurrence of weak clouds, whereas the strong clouds are dominated by the diurnal variation. NLC occurrence, altitude, as well as brightness, show a remarkable persistence concerning diurnal and semidiurnal variations from 1997 to 2003, suggesting that NLC above ALOMAR are significantly controlled by atmospheric tides. The observed mean anti-phase behavior between cloud altitude and brightness is attributed to a phase shift between the semidiurnal components by ~6h. Investigation of data for each individual year regarding the prevailing oscillation periods of the NLC parameters showed different phase relationships, leading to a complex variability in the cloud parameters.

  15. Some analysis on the diurnal variation of rainfall over the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T.; Perng, S.; Hughes, A.

    1981-01-01

    Data collected from the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was examined. The data were collected from 10,000 grid points arranged as a 100 x 100 array; each grid covered a 4 square km area. The amount of rainfall was measured every 15 minutes during the experiment periods using c-band radars. Two types of analyses were performed on the data: analysis of diurnal variation was done on each of grid points based on the rainfall averages at noon and at midnight, and time series analysis on selected grid points based on the hourly averages of rainfall. Since there are no known distribution model which best describes the rainfall amount, nonparametric methods were used to examine the diurnal variation. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test if the rainfalls at noon and at midnight have the same statistical distribution. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test if the noon rainfall is heavier than, equal to, or lighter than the midnight rainfall. These tests were done on each of the 10,000 grid points at which the data are available.

  16. Does diurnal variation in cough reflex testing exist in healthy young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diurnal variation in cough reflex sensitivity exists in healthy young adults when a tidal-breathing method is used. Fifty-three participants (19-37 years) underwent cough reflex testing on two occasions: once in the morning (between 9 am - midday) and once in the afternoon (between 2-5 pm). The order of testing was counter-balanced. Within each assessment, participants inhaled successively higher citric acid concentrations via a facemask, with saline solution randomly interspersed to control for a placebo response. The lowest concentration that elicited a reflexive cough response was recorded. Morning cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L) were not different from afternoon cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L), p=0.16, T=101, r=-0.14. We found no evidence of diurnal variability in cough reflex testing. There was, however, an order effect irrespective of time of day, confirming that healthy participants are able to volitionally modulate their cough response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A combined stochastic analysis of mean daily temperature and diurnal temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model, previously proposed for the maximum daily temperature, has been improved for the combined analysis of mean daily temperature and diurnal temperature range. In particular, the procedure applied to each variable sequentially performs the deseasonalization, by means of truncated Fourier series expansions, and the normalization of the temperature data, with the use of proper transformation functions. Then, a joint stochastic analysis of both the climatic variables has been performed by means of a FARIMA model, taking into account the stochastic dependency between the variables, namely introducing a cross-correlation between the standardized noises. The model has been applied to five daily temperature series of southern Italy. After the application of a Monte Carlo simulation procedure, the return periods of the joint behavior of the mean daily temperature and the diurnal temperature range have been evaluated. Moreover, the annual maxima of the temperature excursions in consecutive days have been analyzed for the synthetic series. The results obtained showed different behaviors probably linked to the distance from the sea and to the latitude of the station.

  18. Development and application of diurnal thermal modeling for camouflage, concealment, and deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Mark L. B.

    2000-07-01

    The art of camouflage is to make a military asset appear to be part of the natural environment: its background. In order to predict the likely performance of countermeasures in attaining this goal it is necessary to model the signatures of targets, backgrounds and the effect of countermeasures. A library of diurnal thermal models has been constructed covering a range of backgrounds from vegetated and non- vegetated surfaces to snow cover. These models, originally developed for Western Europe, have been validated successfully for theatres of operation from the arctic to the desert. This paper will show the basis for and development of physically based models for the diurnal thermal behavior both of these backgrounds and for major passive countermeasures: camouflage nets and continuous textile materials. The countermeasures set up significant challenges for the thermal modeler with their low but non-zero thermal inertial and the extent to which they influence local aerodynamic behavior. These challenges have been met and the necessary extensive validation has shown the ability of the models to predict successfully the behavior of in-service countermeasures.

  19. Approximate analytical solution to diurnal atmospheric boundary-layer growth under well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The system of governing equations of a simplified slab model of the uniformly-mixed, purely convective, diurnal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is shown to allow immediate solutions for the potential temperature and specific humidity as functions of the ABL height and net radiation when expressed i...

  20. Advances in tecnological development and present status of the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus from egg to commecial size / Avanços no desenvolvimento tecnológico e status atual do cultivo de lagostas (Panulirus argus do ovo ao tamanho comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Igarashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to sumarize the studies on culture of Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus. Spiny lobster became a highly valued marine organism, since then, have had a manifold increase over the years in Brazil. However, most fisheries are fully exploited, and one of the few ways to increase production is through aquaculture. Keeping the larval spiny lobster alive in the laboratory through these delicate stages is very difficult. The first complete culture of Caribbean spiny lobster from hatch to puerulus stage occurred in 2006 at Mie Prefectural Fisheries Station in Japan. This result reflects the increasing availability of information on optimal culturing conditions, such as optimal environmental parameters, feeding, and tank design. Still, there are significant problems to overcome in the establishment of large-scale culture of phyllosoma. These further challenges include the control of bacterial diseases and excessive aggregation of larvae, the use of prepared diets such as artificial foods, and the reduction of high operating costs. In addition possibilities for the present are exploitation of juveniles from densely populated areas and utilization of natural food resources as feed for the lobster. In conclusion it is possible farming juvenile spiny lobsters in growout system.A proposta desta revisão é resumir as informações sobre os estudos do cultivo de lagosta vermelha (Panulirus argus. As lagostas espinhosas tornaram-se, desde o início de sua exploração, um produto marinho de relevante importância econômica para o Brasil. No entanto, é notória a ocorrência da sobrepesca e, para efeito de minimizar essa situação uma das soluções é o seu cultivo. A larvicultura de lagostas em condições laboratoriais é sobremodo difícil, devido ao alto grau de sensibilidade da larva. O primeiro cultivo completo da lagosta vermelha desde a eclosão até o estágio de puerulus ocorreu em 2006 na Estação de Pesca na

  1. Effect of different mowing regimes on butterflies and diurnal moths on road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtonen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Europe road verges offer alternative habitats for declining plant and invertebrate species of semi-natural grasslands. The quality of road verges as habitats depends on several factors, of which the mowing regime is one of the easiest to modify. In this study we compared the Lepidoptera communities on road verges that underwent three different mowing regimes regarding the timing and intensity of mowing; mowing in mid-summer, mowing in late summer, and partial mowing (a narrow strip next to the road. A total of 12,174 individuals and 107 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. The mid-summer mown verges had lower species richness and abundance of butterflies and lower species richness and diversity of diurnal moths compared to the late summer and partially mown verges. By delaying the annual mowing until late summer or promoting mosaic-like mowing regimes, such as partial mowing, the quality of road verges as habitats for butterflies and diurnal moths can be improved.

  2. Solar tri-diurnal variation of cosmic rays in a wide range of rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S.; Ueno, H.; Fujii, Z.; Morishita, I.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Solar tri-diurnal variations of cosmic rays have been analyzed in a wide range of rigidity, using data from neutron monitors, and the surface and underground muon telescopes for the period 1978-1983. The rigidity spectrum of the anisotropy in space is assumed to be of power-exponential type as (P/gamma P sub o) to the gamma exp (gamma-P/P sub o). By means of the best-fit method between the observed and the expected variations, it is obtained that the spectrum has a peak at P (=gamma P sub o) approx = 90 GV, where gamma=approx 3.0 and P sub o approx. 30 GV. The phase in space of the tri-diurnal variation is also obtained as 7.0 hr (15 hr and 23 hr LT), which is quite different from that of approx. 1 hr. arising from the axisymmetric distribution of cosmic rays with respect to the IMF.

  3. Diurnal and day-to-day variation of isometric muscle strength in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinge, Lotte; Jakobsen, Johannes; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    In patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), muscle strength is expected to decrease gradually during the day due to physical activities. Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 10 MG patients (MGFA class II-IV) who were receiving usual medical treatment and in 10 control subjects. To determine diurnal and day-to-day variation, muscle strength was measured 4 times during day 1 and once at day 2. Knee extension strength decreased during the day in both patients and controls. Neither diurnal nor day-to-day variation of muscle strength was higher in patients compared with controls. Patients with mild to moderate MG did not have increased variation of isometric muscle strength during the day or from day-to-day compared with controls. This suggests that isometric muscle performance can be determined with high reproducibility in similar groups of MG patients without regard to time of day. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Diurnal regulation of photosynthesis in Jatropha curcas under drought during summer in a semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Jun; Inafuku, Sayuri; Coetzee, Tidimalo; Kawamitsu, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    The diurnal photosynthetic responses to drought in Jatropha curcas have not been well assessed under field conditions in harsh semi-arid habitats. To illustrate this, diurnal changes in chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange rates were measured in field-grown Jatropha with or without a short (13 days) water recovery treatment under drought conditions during hot summer in a semi-arid. Sensitive stomatal closure coordinated with a drying atmosphere strictly limited a net CO 2 assimilation rate with a predominant morning peak, eventually turning negative during the day. Even though the risk of excess excitation energy which potentially causes photodamage increased with the extremely low capacity for CO 2 fixation, Jatropha preserved the integrity of PSII. Quantitative analysis of quenching partitioning revealed that regulated thermal energy dissipation accounted a large fraction of both instantaneous and daily absorbed energy by up to 80 and 72%, respectively, under the drought condition. Water recovery treatment more than doubled daily CO 2 uptake via mitigating diurnal stomatal closure. The regulated thermal dissipation flexibly adjusted PSII quantum efficiency to capacity of CO 2 fixation. In addition, downregulation of PSII quantum efficiency via sustained regulated thermal dissipation was observed and thought to be an additional photoprotective function. It is clear that Jatropha strongly rely upon the regulated thermal dissipation under drought condition, which must be critically important for this strict water conserving species, especially under a climate with high solar radiation loads as is seen in semi-arid regions. - Highlights: • Diurnal gas exchange and the fate of absorbed energy were assessed in Jatropha. • The dynamic stomatal closure was the predominant restriction under water stress. • The PSII integrity was preserved even under severe water stress. • The regulated thermal dissipation accounted by up to 72% of daily absorbed energy.

  5. Diurnal and seasonal variations in surface methane at a tropical coastal station: Role of mesoscale meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, M; Nair, Prabha R; Girach, I A; Aneesh, S; Sijikumar, S; Renju, R

    2018-08-01

    In view of the large uncertainties in the methane (CH 4 ) emission estimates and the large spatial gaps in its measurements, studies on near-surface CH 4 on regional basis become highly relevant. This paper presents the first time observational results of a study on the impacts of mesoscale meteorology on the temporal variations of near-surface CH 4 at a tropical coastal station, in India. It is based on the in-situ measurements conducted during January 2014 to August 2016, using an on-line CH 4 analyzer working on the principle of gas chromatography. The diurnal variation shows a daytime low (1898-1925ppbv) and nighttime high (1936-2022ppbv) extending till early morning hours. These changes are closely associated with the mesoscale circulations, namely Sea Breeze (SB) and Land Breeze (LB), as obtained through the meteorological observations, WRF simulations of the circulations and the diurnal variation of boundary layer height as observed by the Microwave Radiometer Profiler. The diurnal enhancement always coincides with the onset of LB. Several cases of different onset timings of LB were examined and results presented. The CH 4 mixing ratio also exhibits significant seasonal patterns being maximum in winter and minimum in pre-monsoon/monsoon with significant inter-annual variations, which is also reflected in diurnal patterns, and are associated with changing synoptic meteorology. This paper also presents an analysis of in-situ measured near-surface CH 4 , column averaged and upper tropospheric CH 4 retrieved by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Earth Observing System (EOS)/Aqua which gives insight into the vertical distribution of the CH 4 over the location. An attempt is also made to estimate the instantaneous radiative forcing for the measured CH 4 mixing ratio. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parents Function and Behavioral Disorders in Children with and without Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diurnal voiding dysfunction is one of the most common causes of pediatric urology clinic admissions. It can cause behavioral problems for children and their parents. We lunch this study to compare the parents’ function and children’s behavior problem in pediatric patients suffering from diurnal voiding dysfunction referring Arak Amir Kabir hospital. Materials and Methods: To perform this case-control study, we recruit 116 children with diurnal voiding dysfunction and compared them with other 116 children non-affected children aged between 5 to 16 years old. The child behavior checklist (CBCL4/18 for children behavior assessment and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF for the evaluation of their parent’s behavior was completed by the parents. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, qualitative variables and χ2 formula. Results: Among 116 patient with voiding dysfunction, 10 case (8.6% showed behavioral problem while this figure was 3 case (2.6% in the control group, denoting a significant difference (p=0.04. Moreover 20 children (17.2% in the case group and 9 children (7.8% in the control group had internalizing problem (p=0.02. Twenty two children (19% with voiding dysfunction and 8 children (6.9% in the healthy group had externalizing problem which was also a significant difference (p=0.01. As a significant difference (0.01, the parent’s average stress and behavior scores in case and control group were 3.65 and 3.76, respectively. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of behavioral problem in the children suffering from diurnal voiding dysfunction and their parent’s functional impairment highlights the importance of early parent’s intervention for early treatment and subsequently prevention of future behavioral problem in their sibling.

  7. Diurnal Regulation of Cellular Processes in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Insights from Transcriptomic, Fluxomic, and Physiological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Saha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is the most widely studied model cyanobacterium, with a well-developed omics level knowledgebase. Like the lifestyles of other cyanobacteria, that of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is tuned to diurnal changes in light intensity. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of all of the genes of this cyanobacterium over two consecutive diurnal periods. Using stringent criteria, we determined that the transcript levels of nearly 40% of the genes in Synechocystis PCC 6803 show robust diurnal oscillating behavior, with a majority of the transcripts being upregulated during the early light period. Such transcripts corresponded to a wide array of cellular processes, such as light harvesting, photosynthetic light and dark reactions, and central carbon metabolism. In contrast, transcripts of membrane transporters for transition metals involved in the photosynthetic electron transport chain (e.g., iron, manganese, and copper were significantly upregulated during the late dark period. Thus, the pattern of global gene expression led to the development of two distinct transcriptional networks of coregulated oscillatory genes. These networks help describe how Synechocystis PCC 6803 regulates its metabolism toward the end of the dark period in anticipation of efficient photosynthesis during the early light period. Furthermore, in silico flux prediction of important cellular processes and experimental measurements of cellular ATP, NADP(H, and glycogen levels showed how this diurnal behavior influences its metabolic characteristics. In particular, NADPH/NADP+ showed a strong correlation with the majority of the genes whose expression peaks in the light. We conclude that this ratio is a key endogenous determinant of the diurnal behavior of this cyanobacterium.

  8. Diurnal tidal currents attributed to free baroclinic coastal-trapped waves on the Pacific shelf off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Akira; Isoda, Yutaka; Honda, Satoshi; Ito, Sayaka; Onitsuka, Toshihiro

    2018-04-01

    To understand the properties of tides and tidal currents on the Pacific shelf off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, we analyzed time series of 9 current meters that were moored on the shelf for 1 month to 2 years. Diurnal tidal currents such as the K1 and O1 constituents were more dominant than semi-diurnal ones by an order of magnitude. The diurnal tidal currents clearly propagated westward along the coast with a typical phase velocity of 2 m s-1 and wavelength of 200 km. Moreover, the shape and phase of the diurnal currents measured by a bottom-mounted ADCP were vertically homogeneous, except in the vicinity of the bottom boundary layer. These features were very consistent with theoretically estimated properties of free baroclinic coastal-trapped waves of the first mode. An annual (semi-annual) variation was apparent for the phase (amplitude) of the O1 tidal current, which was correlated with density stratification (intensity of an along-shelf current called the Coastal Oyashio). These possible causes are discussed in terms of the propagation and generation of coastal-trapped waves.

  9. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  10. Sulfur redox chemistry governs diurnal antimony and arsenic cycles at Champagne Pool, Waiotapu, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Maria K.; Pope, James G.; Seward, Terry M.; Wilson, Nathaniel; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2013-07-01

    Champagne Pool, a sulfidic hot spring in New Zealand, exhibits distinct diurnal variations in antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) concentrations, with daytime high and night-time low concentrations. To identify the underlying mobilization mechanisms, five sites along the drainage channel of Champagne Pool were sampled every 2 h during a 24 h period. Temporal variations in elemental concentrations and Sb, As, and sulfur (S) speciation were monitored in the discharging fluid. Total trace element concentrations in filtered and unfiltered samples were analyzed using ICP-MS, and Sb, As and S species were determined by IC-ICP-MS. Sulfur speciation in the drainage channel was dominated by thiosulfate and sulfide at night, while sulfate dominated during the day. The distinct diurnal changes suggest that the transformations are caused by phototrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These bacteria metabolize thiosulfate and sulfide in daylight to form sulfate and, as suggested by modeling with PhreeqC, elemental sulfur. Sulfide consumption during the day results in undersaturation of antimony sulfides, which triggers the additional release of dissolved Sb. For As, diurnal cycles were much more pronounced in speciation than in total concentrations, with di- and trithioarsenate forming at night due to excess sulfide, and monothioarsenate forming from arsenite and elemental sulfur during the day. Sulfur speciation was thus found to control Sb and As in terms of both solubility and speciation.

  11. The spiny dogfish (Squalus cubensis/megalops group): the envenoming of a fisherman, with taxonomic and toxinological comments on the Squalus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Vidal; Gadig, Otto Bismarck Fazzano

    2005-12-01

    The authors report a spiny dogfish (Squalus cubensis/megalops group) sting of a professional fisherman. He was injured on the left hand by the spine anterior to the fish's dorsal fin and manifested local edema, erythema, and excruciating pain for 6 h. Sharks of the genus Squalus megalops/cubensis and Squalus acanthias are found throughout the world; they have two spines in front of their dorsal fins and channels with a whitish mass containing large vacuolated cells which secrete venom. The Squalus genus has a complex taxonomy; the species involved in this injury belongs to the megalops/cubensis group. A detailed taxonomic and toxinological study on the Squalus genus is important and would complement other work on these fish, especially as stings in humans are very rare and not fully understood.

  12. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and B...

  13. Diurnal variations of humidity and ice water content in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eriksson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational results of diurnal variations of humidity from Odin-SMR and AURA-MLS, and cloud ice mass from Odin-SMR and CloudSat are presented for the first time. Comparisons show that the retrievals of humidity and cloud ice from these two satellite combinations are in good agreement. The retrieved data are combined from four almost evenly distributed times of the day allowing mean values, amplitudes and phases of the diurnal variations around 200 hpa to be estimated. This analysis is applied to six climatologically distinct regions, five located in the tropics and one over the subtropical northern Pacific Ocean. The strongest diurnal cycles are found over tropical land regions, where the amplitude is ~7 RHi for humidity and ~50% for ice mass. The greatest ice mass for these regions is found during the afternoon, and the humidity maximum is observed to lag this peak by ~6 h. Over tropical ocean regions the variations are smaller and the maxima in both ice mass and humidity are found during the early morning. Observed results are compared with output from three climate models (ECHAM, EC-EARTH and CAM3. Direct measurement-model comparisons were not possible because the measured and modelled cloud ice masses represent different quantities. To make a meaningful comparison, the amount of snow had to be estimated from diagnostic parameters of the models. There is a high probability that the models underestimate the average ice mass (outside the 1-σ uncertainty. The models also show clear deficiencies when it comes to amplitude and phase of the regional variations, but to varying degrees.

  14. Topography induced spatial variations in diurnal cycles of assimilation and latent heat of Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, C.; Dolman, A. J.; Waterloo, M. J.; Raspor, K.

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explain topography induced spatial variations in the diurnal cycles of assimilation and latent heat of Mediterranean forest. Spatial variations of the fluxes are caused by variations in weather conditions and in vegetation characteristics. Weather conditions reflect short-term effects of climate, whereas vegetation characteristics, through adaptation and acclimation, long-term effects of climate. In this study measurements of plant physiology and weather conditions are used to explain observed differences in the fluxes. A model is used to study which part of the differences in the fluxes is caused by weather conditions and which part by vegetation characteristics. Data were collected at four experimental sub-Mediterranean deciduous forest plots in a heterogeneous terrain with contrasting aspect, soil water availability, humidity and temperature. We used a sun-shade model to scale fluxes from leaf to canopy, and calculated the canopy energy balance. Parameter values were derived from measurements of light interception, leaf chamber photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen content and 13C isotope discrimination in leaf material. Leaf nitrogen content is a measure of photosynthetic capacity, and 13C isotope discrimination of water use efficiency. For validation, sap-flux based measurements of transpiration were used. The model predicted diurnal cycles of transpiration and stomatal conductance, both their magnitudes and differences in afternoon stomatal closure between slopes of different aspect within the confidence interval of the validation data. Weather conditions mainly responsible for the shape of the diurnal cycles, and vegetation parameters for the magnitude of the fluxes. Although the data do not allow for a quantification of the two effects, the differences in vegetation parameters and weather among the plots and the sensitivity of the fluxes to them suggest that the diurnal cycles were more strongly affected by spatial variations in

  15. Topography induced spatial variations in diurnal cycles of assimilation and latent heat of Mediterranean forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. van der Tol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explain topography induced spatial variations in the diurnal cycles of assimilation and latent heat of Mediterranean forest. Spatial variations of the fluxes are caused by variations in weather conditions and in vegetation characteristics. Weather conditions reflect short-term effects of climate, whereas vegetation characteristics, through adaptation and acclimation, long-term effects of climate. In this study measurements of plant physiology and weather conditions are used to explain observed differences in the fluxes. A model is used to study which part of the differences in the fluxes is caused by weather conditions and which part by vegetation characteristics. Data were collected at four experimental sub-Mediterranean deciduous forest plots in a heterogeneous terrain with contrasting aspect, soil water availability, humidity and temperature. We used a sun-shade model to scale fluxes from leaf to canopy, and calculated the canopy energy balance. Parameter values were derived from measurements of light interception, leaf chamber photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen content and 13C isotope discrimination in leaf material. Leaf nitrogen content is a measure of photosynthetic capacity, and 13C isotope discrimination of water use efficiency. For validation, sap-flux based measurements of transpiration were used. The model predicted diurnal cycles of transpiration and stomatal conductance, both their magnitudes and differences in afternoon stomatal closure between slopes of different aspect within the confidence interval of the validation data. Weather conditions mainly responsible for the shape of the diurnal cycles, and vegetation parameters for the magnitude of the fluxes. Although the data do not allow for a quantification of the two effects, the differences in vegetation parameters and weather among the plots and the sensitivity of the fluxes to them suggest that the diurnal cycles were more strongly affected by spatial

  16. Effect of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their development during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A year-round (i.e. 365 days experiment was performed at the Mendel University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic (GPS 49°0’51.967”N and 16°36’14.614”E, the altitude 179 m with the aim to quantify the effect of the variation of average diurnal barn airspace temperatures on prediction of their changes during the day. Barn airspace temperatures were monitored daily in one-hour intervals and the recorded values were used for calculations of average diurnal temperatures. These were classified into 7 categories (i.e. below 0 °C; 0.1 to 5 °C; 5.1 to 10 °C; 10.1 to 15 °C; 15.1 to 20 °C; 20.1 to 25 °C and above 25 °C. Regarding this classification system, all differences between temperatures measured at identical hours but within various limits were statistically highly significant. The statistical analysis involved also the calculation of the third degree polynomial regression equations, which enabled to characterise the relationship between the temperature and the hour of measurement within the aforementioned categories of diurnal temperatures. Individual equations were markedly different and ranged from y = − 0.0019x3 + 0.0596x2 − 0.3797x − 1.2169 (for temperatures below 0 °C to y = − 0.0108x3 + 0.3297x2 − 1.9367x + 24.3931 (for temperatures above 25 °C. Correlation coefficients (r and coefficients of determination (R2 of these regression equations were generally very high and ranged from 0.872 to 0.976 and from 0.760 to 0.953, respectively. Regarding high values of both coefficients it can be concluded that the calculated equations enable a good and reliable prediction of the diurnal development of barn airspace temperatures.

  17. Mount for continuously orienting a collector dish in a system adapted to perform both diurnal and seasonal solar tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. W., Jr.; Lawson, B. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A collector dish is continuously oriented toward the sun in a system adapted to perform both diurnal and seasonal solar tracking. The mount is characterized by a rigid, angulated axle having a linear midportion supporting a collector dish, and oppositely extended end portions normally related to the midportion of the axle and received in spaced journals. The longitudinal axis of symmetry for the midportion of the axle is coincident with a seasonal axis while the axes of the journals are coincident with a diurnal axis paralleling the earth's polar axis. Drive means are provided for periodically displacing the axle about the diurnal axis at a substantially constant rate, while other drive means are provided for periodically indexing the dish through 1 deg about the seasonal axis whereby the position of the dish relative to the axle is varied for accommodating seasonal tracking as changes in the angle of inclination of the polar axis occurs.

  18. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  19. Effect of copper on the characterization of proteins in the Spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus (Linnaeus,1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharajan Athisuyambulingam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is most toxic metal in marine organisms. Characterization of protein occurring in the metabolically active tissues of muscle (MU, hepatopancreas (HP and gills (GL of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus on exposure to two sub-lethal doses (9.55 and 19.1 µg/l of copper were studied for 28 days of exposure (DoE. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle, hepatopancreas and gill proteins revealed 12, 8 and 8 slow moving bands (control. The number of bands decreased to 8 and 7, 6 and 5, 6 and 4 after 7 days of exposure to 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. After 28 days, the protein bands decreased to 7 and 6, 5 and 4, 4 and 4 at 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. Present study to indicate that to avoid the Cupro-Nickel coil in lobster holding centers in chiller plants used for cooling of water was found to be responsible for the mortality of lobsters during live transportation.

  20. Study of Diurnal Cycle Variability of Planetary Boundary Layer Characteristics over the Red Sea and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Weigang

    2012-07-01

    This work is aimed at investigating diurnal cycle variability of the planetary boundary layer characteristics over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea region. To fulfill this goal the downscaling simulations are performed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We analyze planetary boundary layer height, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and surface air temperature. The model results are compared with observations in different areas, for different seasons, and for different model resolutions. The model results are analyzed in order to better quantify the diurnal cycle variability over the Arabian Peninsula and the Red Sea. The specific features of this region are investigated and discussed.

  1. Seasonal Variation of Diurnal Cycle of Rainfall in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Pednekar, S.; Katsumata, M.; Antony, M.K.; Kuroda, Y.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    The diurnal cycle of rainfall over the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean is studied for the period 23rd October 2001 to 31st October 2003 using the hourly data from the Triton buoy positioned at 1.5°S and 90°E. An analysis of the active and weak...

  2. Diurnal variability of surface fluxes at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.

    Diurnal variability of the surface fluxes and ocean heat content was studied using the time-series data on marine surface meteorological parameters and upper ocean temperature collected at an oceanic station in the Bay of Bengal during 1st to 8th...

  3. Comparison of data-driven and model-driven approaches to brightness temperature diurnal cycle interpolation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two new schemes for interpolating missing samples in satellite diurnal temperature cycles (DTCs). The first scheme, referred to here as the cosine model, is an improvement of the model proposed in [2] and combines a cosine...

  4. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2002-01-01

    retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... or absence of macrovascular disease was assessed by an independent physician. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients had no detectable retinal changes (grade 1), 13 had grade 2 retinopathy, and 18 had more advanced retinopathy (grades 3-6). Compared to patients without retinopathy (grade 1), patients with grades 2......BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic