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  1. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

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    Mbalibulha Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yona Mbalibulha,1 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Godfrey R Mugyenyi,2 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods: Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT. Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results: Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%; A: 190 (26.%; B: 152 (21%; and AB: 28 (4%. A total of 28 (3.86% pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1% of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8% were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion: Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of

  2. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda.

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    Anou Dreyfus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda.359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2-40.3% defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9-24.4%. The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800 was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9-4.2% and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes. Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048. Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6 with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4-108.6; p = 0.024 of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229 had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2-3.1; p = 0.009 of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby.The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup. Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and "smear-negative malaria" in rural East Africa.

  3. Leptospira Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Health Centre Patients in Hoima District, Western Uganda

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    Pearson, Raewynne; Kankya, Clovice; Kajura, Charles; Alinaitwe, Lordrick; Kakooza, Steven; Pelican, Katharine M.; Travis, Dominic A.; Mahero, Michael; Boulware, David R.; Mugisha, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of human leptospirosis in Uganda is unknown. We estimated the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies, probable acute/recent leptospirosis, and risk factors for seropositivity in humans in rural Western Uganda. Methodology and Principal Findings 359 non-pregnant adults visiting the Kikuube and Kigorobya Health Centers were sequentially recruited during March and April 2014. A health history survey and serum were collected from consented participants. Overall, 69% reported having fever in the past year, with 49% reporting malaria, 14% malaria relapse, 6% typhoid fever, 3% brucellosis, and 0% leptospirosis. We tested sera by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) against eight Leptospira serovars representing seven serogroups. Leptospira seroprevalence was 35% (126/359; 95%CI 30.2–40.3%) defined as MAT titer ≥ 1:100 for any serovar. The highest prevalence was against L. borgpetersenii Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes) at 19.8% (71/359; 95%CI 15.9–24.4%). The prevalence of probable recent leptospirosis (MAT titer ≥1:800) was 1.9% (95%CI 0.9–4.2%) and uniquely related to serovar Nigeria (serogroup Pyrogenes). Probable recent leptospirosis was associated with having self-reported malaria within the past year (p = 0.048). Higher risk activities included skinning cattle (n = 6) with 12.3 higher odds (95%CI 1.4–108.6; p = 0.024) of Leptospira seropositivity compared with those who had not. Participants living in close proximity to monkeys (n = 229) had 1.92 higher odds (95%CI 1.2–3.1; p = 0.009) of seropositivity compared with participants without monkeys nearby. Conclusions/Significance The 35% prevalence of Leptospira antibodies suggests that exposure to leptospirosis is common in rural Uganda, in particular the Nigeria serovar (Pyrogenes serogroup). Leptospirosis should be a diagnostic consideration in febrile illness and “smear-negative malaria” in rural East Africa. PMID:27487398

  4. Unfulfilled promises, unsettled youth: the aftermath of conflict for former child soldiers in Yumbe District, north western Uganda

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    Both, J.; Reis, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the long term impact of having been a child soldier in Yumbe District, Uganda. Within this district, a group of former child soldiers fell beyond the scope of almost all reintegration initiatives from the time a peace agreement was signed in 2002. Ten years after the youths’

  5. Cholera outbreak caused by drinking lake water contaminated with human faeces in Kaiso Village, Hoima District, Western Uganda, October 2015.

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    Oguttu, David W; Okullo, A; Bwire, G; Nsubuga, P; Ario, A R

    2017-10-10

    On 12 October 2015, a cholera outbreak involving 65 cases and two deaths was reported in a fishing village in Hoima District, Western Uganda. Despite initial response by the local health department, the outbreak persisted. We conducted an investigation to identify the source and mode of transmission, and recommend evidence-led interventions to control and prevent cholera outbreaks in this area. We defined a suspected case as the onset of acute watery diarrhoea from 1 October to 2 November 2015 in a resident of Kaiso Village. A confirmed case was a suspected case who had Vibrio cholerae isolated from stool. We found cases by record review and active community case finding. We performed descriptive epidemiologic analysis for hypothesis generation. In an unmatched case-control study, we compared exposure histories of 61 cases and 126 controls randomly selected among asymptomatic village residents. We also conducted an environmental assessment and obtained meteorological data from a weather station. We identified 122 suspected cases, of which six were culture-confirmed, 47 were confirmed positive with a rapid diagnostic test and two died. The two deceased cases had onset of the disease on 2 October and 10 October, respectively. Heavy rainfall occurred on 7-11 October; a point-source outbreak occurred on 12-15 October, followed by continuous community transmission for two weeks. Village residents usually collected drinking water from three lakeshore points - A, B and C: 9.8% (6/61) of case-persons and 31% (39/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point A, 21% (13/61) of case-persons and 37% (46/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point B (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.64-5.3), and 69% (42/61) of case-persons and 33% (41/126) of control-persons were found to usually use point C (OR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.5-17) for water collection. All case-persons (61/61) and 93% (117/126) of control-persons reportedly never treated/boiled drinking water (OR

  6. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

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    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  7. health in Wakiso District, Uganda

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    In a qualitative study on the perceptions of domestic violence in Wakiso district, payment of bride price emerged as .... Bride price payment was found acceptable to many older women .... Issues in Mental Health Nursing 1989; 10: 209-227. 11.

  8. Quality of midwifery care in Soroti District, Uganda | Kaye | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of midwifery care in Soroti District, Uganda. ... Objectives: To determine the quality of care provided by midwives in Soroti district; and specifically, to identify training needs, gaps in ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. "Water as a development constraint : the case of Lwebitakuli subcounty, Sembabule district, Uganda"

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    Kaliisa, Rogers

    2012-01-01

    This is a qualitative study that explores people‟s perspectives of water as a constraint to socio-economic development in Lwebitakuli sub-county, Sembabule District, South western Uganda. Three main research questions were explored: What are the features of socio-economic development in Lwebitakuli? What is the role of water in development? How do people perceive or describe water as a development concern? And what strategies has government, NGOs and community members adopted to cope with...

  10. Knowledge gaps, attitude and beliefs of the communities about sickle cell disease in Eastern and Western Uganda.

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    Okwi, A L; Byarugaba, W; Ndugwa, C M; Parkes, A; Ocaido, M; Tumwine, J K

    2009-09-01

    The management of sickle cell disease (SCD) has remained insurmountable in developing countries such as Uganda, because most communities are not aware of it. To determine knowledge gaps, attitudes and beliefs of the communities about sickle cell disease in Eastern and Western Uganda. Cross sectional descriptive study. The districts of Sironko and Mbale in Eastern Uganda and Mbarara and Ntungamo in Western Uganda. Households, students and health workers. Household respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western (p curse from God compared to 2% in the West. Less than 18% of the household respondents knew they could have children with SCD and (< 52%) of health workers knew SCD screening methods. Fewer (< 14%) of the health workers had participated in screening. Less than 20% of the respondents knew their sickle cell status. Respondents from Eastern Uganda were more aware of SCD than those from Western. Minority of the respondents knew their SCD status and few health staff knew how to screen it. There is need to sensitise communities and policy makers about prevention, screening and treatment of SCD.

  11. the creation of new districts in Uganda

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    phenomenon of the increase in the number of districts. It continues with .... other part of its identity in the rest of Canada.36 Writers such as Fessha make a case ..... For example, Kanyeihamba bemoans the failure to set minimum education .... Therefore, the wage components should be adjusted for the wage increase, if any,.

  12. A Case Study of Cooperative Learning in Bushenyi District in Uganda: Educational Leaders' and Teachers' Perceptions

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    Mujuni, John Bosco

    2015-01-01

    In 2003-2007, the government of Uganda through the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), under the umbrella of UPHOLD and in Partnership with USAID, introduced cooperative learning as a "student-centered teaching approach" in some selected districts and schools in Uganda. This dissertation explored the current state and practice of…

  13. African swine fever among slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda.

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    Muwonge, Adrian; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Kankya, Clovice; Biffa, Demelash; Oura, Chris; Skjerve, Eystein; Oloya, James

    2012-10-01

    Owing to frequent reports of suspected outbreaks and the presence of reservoir hosts and vectors (warthogs, bushpigs and O. moubata ticks), African swine fever (ASF) is believed to be an endemic disease in Uganda. There have, however, been very few studies carried out to confirm its existence in Uganda. This study was carried out to describe the prevalence of ASF based on pathologic lesions and analysis of serum samples from slaughtered pigs during a suspected outbreak in the Mubende district of Uganda. The study was based on visits to 22 slaughterhouses where individual pigs were randomly selected for a detailed ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections. Sera were also collected for laboratory analysis. A total of 997 pigs (53.7% male and 46.3% female) were examined for lesions suggestive of ASF and sero-positivity of sera for ASF antibodies. The sera were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples were further confirmed with an immunoblot assay. The results showed that 3.8% (38/997) of the pigs examined had clinical signs and post-mortem lesions suggestive of ASF. Two of 997 (0.2%) sera analysed were positive for ASF antibodies. Of the sub-counties investigated, Bagezza (12%) and Kiyuni (11%) had the highest prevalence of lesions suggestive of ASF based on ante- and post-mortem examination results, while Mubende town council (1.7%) had the lowest. This study found a low number of pigs (3.8%) with lesions suggestive of ASF at slaughter and an even lower number of pigs (0.2%) that were seropositive at slaughter, however a significantly higher number of pigs were slaughtered during the outbreak as a strategy for farmers to avoid losses associated with mortality.

  14. Schistosomiasis transmission at high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda

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    Philbert Clouds

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to previous reports which indicated no transmission of schistosomiasis at altitude >1,400 m above sea level in Uganda, in this study it has been established that schistosomiasis transmission can take place at an altitude range of 1487–1682 m above sea level in western Uganda. Methods An epidemiological survey of intestinal schistosomiasis was carried out in school children staying around 13 high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda. Stool samples were collected and then processed with the Kato-Katz technique using 42 mg templates. Thereafter schistosome eggs were counted under a microscope and eggs per gram (epg of stool calculated. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data and information on risk factors. Results 36.7% of the pupils studied used crater lakes as the main source of domestic water and the crater lakes studied were at altitude ranging from 1487–1682 m above sea level. 84.6% of the crater lakes studied were infective with over 50% of the users infected. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 27.8% (103/370 with stool egg load ranging from 24–6048 per gram of stool. 84.3%( 312 had light infections (400 egg/gm of stool. Prevalence was highest in the age group 12–14 years (49.5% and geometric mean intensity was highest in the age group 9–11 years (238 epg. The prevalence and geometric mean intensity of infection among girls was lower (26%; 290 epg compared to that of boys (29.6%; 463 epg (t = 4.383, p Conclusion and recommendations The altitudinal threshold for S. mansoni transmission in Uganda has changed and use of crater water at an altitude higher than 1,400 m above sea level poses a risk of acquiring S. mansoni infection in western Uganda. However, further research is required to establish whether the observed altitudinal threshold change is as a result of climate change or other factors. It is also necessary to establish the impact this could

  15. Prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in growing pigs in Kabale District in Uganda.

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    Nissen, Sofie; Poulsen, Idahella H; Nejsum, Peter; Olsen, Annette; Roepstorff, Allan; Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2011-03-01

    During the last 30 years, pig production in Uganda and neighbouring counties has increased markedly. Pigs are mainly kept as a source of income for small-scale farmers; however, the pig production is subject to several constraints, one of them being worm infections. A study was carried out in rural communities in Kabale District in the South Western part of Uganda in September and October 2007 in order to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in pigs based on coprological examination. Fifty-six households were randomly selected and visited. Housing system and deworming history were recorded. Faeces was sampled from rectum of one to five pigs (age, 3-12 months) per household. A total of 106 pigs were examined coprologically of which 91% excreted nematode eggs. The following prevalences of nematode eggs were recorded: strongyles (89%), Ascaris suum (40%), Trichuris suis (17%) and spiruroid eggs (48%). On household level, rearing pigs on slatted floors in pens significantly reduced the faecal egg excretion of strongyle eggs with almost 80% (p=0.010) and a significant interaction between floor type and anthelmintic treatment was found for spiruroids (p=0.037). Fifteen T. suis egg positive pigs were selected for post-mortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The post-mortem examinations revealed that 93% pigs were infected with Oesophagostomum spp. (worm burden, min-max 10-2,180), 73% with A. suum (1-36), 67% with T. suis (6-58), and 20% with Hyostrongylus rubidus (worms not quantified). In general, nematode infections were widespread and polyparasitism common in pigs in Uganda. However, worm burdens were moderate which may be related to recent deworming or to the practice of rearing pigs on slatted floors in wooden elevated pens.

  16. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar Available data in Uganda indicate a resurgence of malaria morbidity and mortality countrywide. This study assessed the burden of malaria, treatment and prevention practices in order initiate a policy debate on the scaling-up of current interventions. A triangulation of methods using a cross-sectional survey and key informant interviews was used to assess self-reported malaria at a household level in Mukono District, Uganda. A total of 5583 households were surveyed,...

  17. Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts

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    Karuhanga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for

  18. Enablers and barriers to evidence based planning in the district health system in Uganda; perceptions of district health managers.

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    Henriksson, Dorcus Kiwanuka; Ayebare, Florence; Waiswa, Peter; Peterson, Stefan Swartling; Tumushabe, Elly K; Fredriksson, Mio

    2017-02-02

    The District Health System was endorsed as the key strategy to achieve 'Health for all' during the WHO organized inter-regional meeting in Harare in 1987. Many expectations were put upon the district health system, including planning. Although planning should be evidence based to prioritize activities, in Uganda it has been described as occurring more by chance than by choice. The role of planning is entrusted to the district health managers with support from the Ministry of Health and other stakeholders, but there is limited knowledge on the district health manager's capacity to carry out evidence-based planning. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers and enablers to evidence-based planning at the district level. This qualitative study collected data through key informant interviews with district managers from two purposefully selected districts in Uganda that have been implementing evidence-based planning. A deductive process of thematic analysis was used to classify responses within themes. There were considerable differences between the districts in regard to the barriers and enablers for evidence-based planning. Variations could be attributed to specific contextual and environmental differences such as human resource levels, date of establishment of the district, funding and the sociopolitical environment. The perceived lack of local decision space coupled with the perception that the politicians had all the power while having limited knowledge on evidence-based planning was considered an important barrier. There is a need to review the mandate of the district managers to make decisions in the planning process and the range of decision space available within the district health system. Given the important role elected officials play in a decentralized system a concerted effort should be made to increase their knowledge on evidence-based planning and the district health system as a whole.

  19. Factors influencing choice of delivery sites in Rakai district of Uganda.

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    Amooti-Kaguna, B; Nuwaha, F

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand factors influencing choice of delivery sites in Rakai district of south-western Uganda, eight focus group discussions based on the Attitudes-Social influence-Self efficacy model were held with 32 women and 32 men. Semi-structured interviews were also held with 211 women from 21 random cluster samples who had a delivery in the previous 12 months (from 2 June 1997). Forty four percent of the sample delivered at home, 17% at traditional birth attendant's (TBA) place, 32% at public health units, and 7% at private clinics. Among the factors influencing choice of delivery site were: access to maternity services; social influence from the spouse, other relatives, TBAs and health workers; self-efficacy; habit (previous experience) and the concept of normal versus abnormal pregnancy. Attitudinal beliefs towards various delivery sites were well understood and articulated. Attendance of ante-natal care may discourage delivery in health units if the mothers are told that the pregnancy is normal. In order to make delivery safer, there is need to improve access to maternity services, train TBAs and equip them with delivery kits, change mother's self-efficacy beliefs, and involve spouses in education about safe delivery.

  20. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda

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    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Karibari, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; Van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. Results 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late preg...

  1. Serological and molecular investigation for brucellosis in swine in selected districts of Uganda.

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    Erume, Joseph; Roesel, Kristina; Dione, Michel M; Ejobi, Francis; Mboowa, Gerald; Kungu, Joseph M; Akol, Joyce; Pezo, Danilo; El-Adawy, Hosny; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy; Neubauer, Heinrich; Grace, Delia

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is a notifiable zoonotic disease affecting livestock, humans, and wildlife in Uganda. Pigs can be infected with human pathogenic Brucella suis biovars 1 and 3 and can be a significant source of brucellosis for humans. Uganda has a rapidly growing pig population, and the pork consumption per capita is the highest in East Africa. The objective of this work was to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Ugandan pigs. A cross-sectional serosurvey of pigs was conducted in three of the major pig-keeping districts in Uganda (Masaka (n = 381 samples), Mukono (n = 398), and Kamuli (n = 414)). In addition, pigs originating from these districts were sampled in the major pig abattoir in Kampala (n = 472). In total, 1665 serum samples were investigated by serological and molecular tests. Only three putative brucellosis-positive samples were detected serologically using indirect ELISA. These sera were found negative for Brucella antibodies by CFT; however, two had antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica as determined by SAT. Presence of antibodies against Yersiniae was confirmed by Y. enterocolitica antibody-specific ELISA. The two Yersiniae ELISA-positive samples were brucellosis negative using real-time PCR. We tested additional 142 sera from the 1665 samples with real-time PCR. All tested negative. Under this type of production system, we expect a maximum B. suis prevalence of less than 1 % at 95 % confidence level, and therefore, the risk of acquiring brucellosis from the pigs or their products is negligible. However, pigs may harbor the zoonotic Y. enterocolitica. This is the first study to investigate the occurrence of brucellosis in pigs in Uganda and the first study to report Y. enterocolitica antibodies in swine in Uganda.

  2. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried...

  3. Evidence of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Antibodies in Small Ruminants in Amuru and Gulu Districts, Uganda

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    Robert Sande, Chrisostom Ayebazibwe1*, Charles Waiswa2, Francis Ejobi2, Frank Norbert Mwiine2, William Olaho-Mukani1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated evidence of antibodies against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV in apparently healthy sheep and goats in Amuru and Gulu districts in Uganda. A total of 474 blood samples were collected in thirty nine internally displaced persons (IDPs camps in seventeen sub-counties, from goats and sheep with no record of previous vaccination. The prevalence of antibodies against PPRV in goats was 12.5 and 0% in Amuru and Gulu districts while in sheep the prevalence of antibodies against PPRV was 16.5 and 11.1% in the respective districts. This is the first report on PPR antibodies in small ruminants in Northern Uganda. There is need to determine the prevalence of antibodies against PPRV in other surrounding districts in Northern Uganda and an attempt should be made to characterize the circulating PPRV.

  4. STUDIES ON THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF MOSQUITOES OF MPIGI DISTRICT, CENTRAL UGANDA.

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    Mayanja, Martin; Mutebi, John-Paul; Crabtree, Mary B; Ssenfuka, Fred; Muwawu, Teddy; Lutwama, Julius J

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of arboviral disease outbreaks and planning for appropriate control interventions require knowledge of the mosquito vectors involved. Although mosquito surveys have been conducted in different regions of Uganda since the mid 30's such studies have not been carried out in Mpigi District. In October 2011, we conducted mosquito collections in Mpigi district to determine species composition and relative abundance of the different species. The survey was conducted in four villages, Njeru, Ddela, Kiwumu and Nsumbain Kammengo sub-county, Mpigi district, Uganda. CDC light traps baited with dry ice (carbon dioxide) were used to capture adult mosquitoes. A total of 54,878 mosquitoes comprising 46 species from eight genera were collected. The dominant species at all sites was Coquilletidia (Coquilletidia) fuscopennata Theobald (n=38,059, 69%), followed by Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) metallica Theobald (n=4,265, 7.8%). The number of species collected varied from 17 in the genus Culex to 1 in the genus Lutzia. Of the 46 species identified, arboviruses had previously been isolated from 28 (60.9%) suggesting a high potential for arboviral transmission and/or maintenance in Mpigi District.

  5. Mycobacterium bovis infections in slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda: a public health concern

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    Muwonge Adrian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (TB caused by Mycobacterium bovis is primarily a disease of ruminants, particularly cattle (Bos primigenius and buffalo (Syncerus caffer, and is endemic in most developing countries. To date, studies done in Uganda have documented the prevalence of M. bovis in cattle, humans and wild life, in addition to non-tuberculous mycobacteria in pigs. Pigs are increasingly becoming an important component of the livestock sector and share the human ecosystem in rural Uganda. It is therefore of public health interest that they are not a source of human infections. As a follow up to previously published findings on mycobacteria in pigs, this study was aimed at investigating the occurrence and molecular characteristics of M. bovis detected in slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda. One hundred fifty mesenteric lymph nodes with lesions suggestive of mycobacterial infections were collected from approximately one thousand slaughtered pigs in Mubende district over a period of five months. The isolation and identification of M. bovis was done using conventional mycobacteriological methods. Mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC were identified to species level using deletion analysis. Molecular typing was done using Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR analysis. Molecular data were analysed and interpreted using MIRU-VNTR plus, SpolDB4.0 and the Mycobacterium bovis spoligo database. Results Of the examined animals, one boar and two sows from Madudu Sub County were infected with M. bovis which presented as lesions of a deep yellow colour and a grit-like texture in the mesenteric lymph nodes. This represents 2% (3/150 of the lymph nodes where lesions suggestive of mycobacterial infections were detected. Molecular analysis revealed that the isolates from the infected pigs showed identical MIRU-VNTR profile and spoligotype (SB1469. Conclusions This is the first study documenting the occurrence of M

  6. Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading

  7. The topic is the Relevance of wetland economic valuation in Uganda Acase study of Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District-Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namulema, Mary Jude

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relevance of economic valuation of wetlands in Uganda. A case study was done on Kiyanja-Kaku wetland in Lwengo District in Central Uganda using a semi-structured survey. Three objectives were examined i.e.: (i) To identify wetland ecosystem services in Uganda (ii) To identify the economic valuation methods appropriate for wetlands in Uganda (iii) To value clean water obtained from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland. The wetland ecosystem services were identified as provisioning, regulating, habitat, cultural and amenities services. The community had knowledge about 17 out of the 22 services as given by TEEB (2010). The economic valuation methods identified were, market price, efficiency price, travel cost, contingent valuation, hedonic pricing, and production function and benefit transfer methods. These were appropriate for valuation of wetlands in Uganda but only three methods i.e. market price, contingent valuation and productivity methods have been applied by researchers in Uganda so far. The economic value of clean water from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the nearby community was established by using the market price of clean water the National water and Sewerage Corporation charges for the water in Uganda to obtain the low value and the market price of water from the survey was used to obtain the high value. The estimated economic value of clean water service for a household ranges from UGX. 612174 to 4054733 (US 168.0-1095.0). The estimated economic value of clean water service from Kiyanja-Kaku wetland to the entire community ranges from UGX. 2,732,133,000.0 to 18,096,274,000.0 (US 775,228.0-4,885,994.0).

  8. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-01-01

    -sectional survey and key informant interviews was used to assess self-reported malaria at a household level in Mukono District, Uganda. A total of 5583 households were surveyed, and a high proportion (2897, 51.9%) reported a person with malaria two weeks prior to the survey. Only 546 households (9.8%) owned...... and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria...

  9. Factors affecting the initial literacy development of urban and rural learners in the Iganga district, Uganda

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    Rebecca Kirunda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education  for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.

  10. Porcine Cysticercosis in Southeast Uganda: Seroprevalence in Kamuli and Kaliro Districts

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    C. Waiswa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent recognition of neurocysticercosis as a major cause of epilepsy in Uganda and changes in pig demography have lead to a need to better understand the basic epidemiology of Taenia solium infections in pigs and humans. Human exposure is a function of the size of the animal reservoir of this zoonosis. This is the first field survey for porcine cysticercosis to investigate the prevalence of antigen-positive pigs across an entire rural district of south-east Uganda. In our field surveys, 8.6% of 480 pigs screened were seropositive for the parasite by B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. In addition, of the 528 homesteads surveyed 138 (26% did not have pit latrines indicating a high probability of pigs having access to human faeces and thus T. solium eggs. This study thus indicates the need for better data on this neglected zoonotic disease in Uganda, with a particular emphasis on the risk factors for infection in both pigs and humans. In this regard, further surveys of pigs, seroprevalence surveys in humans and an understanding of cysticercosis-related epilepsy are required, together with risk-factor studies for human and porcine infections.

  11. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-03-01

    Available data in Uganda indicate a resurgence of malaria morbidity and mortality countrywide. This study assessed the burden of malaria, treatment and prevention practices in order initiate a policy debate on the scaling-up of current interventions. A triangulation of methods using a cross-sectional survey and key informant interviews was used to assess self-reported malaria at a household level in Mukono District, Uganda. A total of 5583 households were surveyed, and a high proportion (2897, 51.9%) reported a person with malaria two weeks prior to the survey. Only 546 households (9.8%) owned and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria was associated with socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental factors, but more especially with household ownership of ITNs. These results will contribute to the current debate on identifying new approaches for scaling-up prevention interventions and effective case management, as well as selection of priority interventions for malaria control in Uganda.

  12. Individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda

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    Turyakira Eleanor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and of adverse outcome for newborns in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda. Methods A review was performed on 12,463 obstetric records for the year 2006 from six hospitals located in south-western Uganda and 11,180 women records were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to control for probable confounders. Results Prevalence of obstructed labour for the six hospitals was 10.5% and the main causes were cephalopelvic disproportion (63.3%, malpresentation or malposition (36.4% and hydrocephalus (0.3%. The risk of obstructed labour was statistically significantly associated with being resident of a particular district [Isingiro] (AOR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86, with nulliparous status (AOR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.22-1.78, having delivered once before (AOR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.30-1.91 and age group 15-19 years (AOR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45. The risk for perinatal death as an adverse outcome was statistically significantly associated with districts other than five comprising the study area (AOR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.60-5.08 and grand multiparous status (AOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.11-3.22. Women who lacked paid employment were at increased risk of obstructed labour. Perinatal mortality rate was 142/1000 total births in women with obstructed labour compared to 65/1000 total births in women without the condition. The odds of having maternal complications in women with obstructed labour were 8 times those without the condition. The case fatality rate for obstructed labour was 1.2%. Conclusions Individual socio-demographic and health system factors are strongly associated with obstructed labour and its adverse outcome in south-western Uganda. Our study provides baseline information which may be used by

  13. Perceptions on the right to adequate food after a major landslide disaster: a cross-sectional survey of two districts in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Peter M; Iversen, Per O; Andreassen, Bård A; Oshaug, Arne; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga

    2015-04-25

    Despite the instruments on the right to adequate food adopted by the United Nations, there exists limited information on how this right is perceived. Following a major 2010 landslide disaster in the Bududa district of Eastern Uganda and the resettlement of some affected households into the Kiryandongo district in Western Uganda, we surveyed both districts to explore perceptions about the right to adequate food among households with different experiences; disaster-affected and controls. We deployed qualitative and quantitative techniques to a cross-sectional survey. The index respondent was the head of each randomly selected household from the landslide affected communities and controls from a bordering sub-county. Data was collected by interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). Structured entries were tested statistically to report associations using Pearson's Chi-square at the 95% CI. Information from FGDs was transcribed, coded, sequenced and patterned. Findings from both techniques were triangulated to facilitate interpretations. Analysis included 1,078 interview entries and 12 FGDs. Significant differences between the affected and control households (P landslide displacement and resettlement. Information materials need to be assembled and disseminated to stimulate awareness and debate on the right to adequate food.

  14. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Kasese and Bushenyi Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F. N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against...

  15. Mental Health in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities in Introducing Western Mental Health System in Uganda

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    Janice Katherine Kopinak, MHSc, MSc., RN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite decades of disagreement among mental health practitioners and researchers in the Western world pertaining to the causation, classification and treatment of mental disorders there is an ongoing push to implement western mental health models in developing countries. Little information exists on the adaptability of western mental health models in developing countries. Method: This paper presents a review of the attempt to implement a western-oriented mental health system into a different culture, specifically a developing country such as Uganda. It draws upon an extensive literature review and the author’s work in Uganda to identify the lessons learned as well as the challenges of introducing a western-oriented mental health system in a totally new cultural milieu. Results: There is recognition by the national government that the challenges faced in mental health services poses serious public health and development concerns. Efforts have and are being made to improve services using the Western model to diagnose and treat, frequently with practitioners who are unfamiliar with the language, values and culture. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Uganda can continue to implement the Western mental health practice model which emanates from a different cultural base, based on the medical model and whose tenets are currently being questioned, or establish a model based on their needs with small baseline in-country surveys that focus on values, beliefs, resiliency, health promotion and recovery. The latter approach will lead to a more efficient mental health system with improved care, better outcomes and overall mental health services to Ugandan individuals and communities.

  16. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended.

  17. Implementation of a comprehensive AIDS education programme for schools in Masaka District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, J; Harrison, S; Kengeya-Kayondo, J; Kanyesigye, E; Musoke, S; Whitworth, J

    1999-10-01

    As part of a large IEC (Information, Education and Communication)/STD intervention trial, a 19-lesson, comprehensive school-based AIDS education programme was implemented and evaluated in 50 primary and 16 secondary schools in 12 parishes of Masaka District, Uganda. A series of three teacher-training and evaluation workshops spread over a year was held in each parish, between which teachers implemented the programme in the classroom. One hundred and forty-eight teachers were trained and about 3,500 students were subsequently exposed to the programme. Both teachers and students responded positively, which suggests that this type of programme has much to offer young people who attend school. However, some problems were encountered: language, programme content, community resistance to teaching about condoms, and several practical issues. Proposed solutions include flexibility with the English language policy, alternative approaches to role play activities, targeting influential individuals with information about the need for young people to learn about safer sex, and a parallel community-based IEC programme to facilitate community acceptance of the need for the programme. In addition, implementation may be incomplete unless comprehensive AIDS education is fully incorporated into the curriculum, and properly examined. These findings are placed in the context of other life skills/AIDS education programmes being introduced both in Uganda and elsewhere in Africa.

  18. Multilevel influences on acceptance of medical male circumcision in Rakai District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilleston, Pamela S; Marcell, Arik V; Nakyanjo, Neema; Leonard, Lori; Wawer, Maria J

    2017-08-01

    Despite access to safe medical male circumcision (MMC) and proven effectiveness of the procedure in reducing acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, uptake remains suboptimal in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, including Rakai District, Uganda. This study explored multilevel barriers and facilitators to MMC in focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 35 groups) in Rakai. Focus groups were conducted from May through July 2012 with adolescent and adult males, with a range of HIV risk and reproductive health service use profiles, and with adolescent and adult females. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti and an inductive approach. Participants' discussions produced several key themes representing multilevel influences that may facilitate or create barriers to uptake of MMC. These include availability of MMC services, economic costs, masculine ideals, religion, and social influence. Understanding how males and females view MMC is a crucial step towards increasing uptake of the procedure and reducing disease transmission.

  19. Performance of district disaster management teams after undergoing an operational level planners' training in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orach, Christopher Garimol; Mayega, Roy William; Woboya, Vincent; William, Bazeyo

    2013-06-01

    Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. The disasters most commonly experienced by the district teams were epidemics of diseases in humans (7 of 12), animals (epizoonotics) (3 of 12) and crops (3 of 12); hailstorms and floods (3 of 12). The capabilities viewed most useful for management of disasters were provision of health care services (9/12) and response management (8 of 12). The capability domains most often consulted during the disasters were general response management (31%), health services (29%) and water and sanitation (17%). The skills areas perceived to be vital following the training were response to epidemics 10/12, disaster management planning 8/12, hazards and vulnerability analysis 7/12 and principles of disaster planning 7/12 respectively. Main challenges mentioned by district teams were inadequacy of finance and logistics, lack of commitment by key partners towards disaster preparedness and response. The most common disaster experienced disasters related to outbreaks of diseases in man, animals and crops. The most frequently applied capabilities were response management and provision of emergency health services. The activities most frequently implemented following disaster management teams training were conducting planning meetings, refinement of plans and dissemination of skills gained. The main challenges were related to limited budget allocations and legal frameworks for disaster management that should be addressed by both central and local governments.

  20. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from slaughter pigs in Mubende district, Uganda

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    Muwonge Adrian

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM in animals and humans has gained considerable recognition during the past few years. In the developed world, where pig production is extensively practiced, studies on mycobacterial infections and related control strategies have received increasing attention. The infections are reported to be caused by a wide spectrum of NTM. Unfortunately, these infections have been less recognized in sub-Saharan Africa owing to lack of awareness and systematic studies. In this study we aimed at isolating and identifying species of mycobacteria involved in causing infections in slaughter pigs in Mubende district of Uganda. Furthermore we wanted to identify factors associated with infection prevalence in the study area. Methods A total of 363 lymph nodes were collected and cultured for the presence of mycobacteria. Isolates were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. A questionnaire survey was administered to identify production related factors associated with infection prevalence. Data were assembled and analysed using descriptive statistics and mixed effects logistic regression analysis. Results Mycobacteria were detected in 39 % (143/363 of the examined lymph nodes, 63 % (59/93 of lymph nodes with gross lesions typical of mycobacteriosis and 31% (84/270 of lymph nodes with no visible lesions. Nineteen per cent of the isolated mycobacteria were identified as Mycobacterium (M avium, of these 78% and 22% were M. avium sub sp. Hominissuis and avium respectively. Other mycobacterial species included M. senuense (16%, M. terrae (7% and M. asiaticum (6%. This study found free range systems (OR = 3.0; P = 0.034 and use of water from valley dams (OR = 2.0; P = 0.049 as factors associated with high prevalence of mycobacteria in slaughter pigs. Conclusions This study demonstrated a high prevalence of NTM infections among slaughter pigs in Mubende district of

  1. Impact of pesticide use by smallholder farmers on water quality in the Wakiso District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramare, Christelle; Weiss, Frederik T.; Atuhaire, Aggrey; Staudacher, Philipp; Niwagaba, Charles; Stamm, Christian

    2017-04-01

    As in many tropical countries, farmers of the Wakiso District rely on heavy use of pesticides to protect crops and animals. This may impair human and environmental health due to poor application techniques, misuse of pesticide bins or diffuse pesticide losses from the treated fields during intense tropical rainstorms. The extent of pollution in different environmental compartments however, are generally only poorly documented. The same holds true for quantitative data on the relevance of different transport pathways of pesticides into the environment. Part of the limited knowledge is caused by the demanding sampling and analytical techniques that are necessary to obtain robust data on the actual pollution status. Especially in surface waters, pesticide concentration may vary rapidly in time such that grab samples may yield a very incomplete picture. This incompleteness was often enhanced because of limited analytical windows that covered only a small fraction of the pesticides actually used. In this presentation, we describe an approach to overcome these limitations to a large extent by using three different passive sampling devices and two broad analytical techniques (GC-MS/MS, LC HR-MS) that allow the quantification of about 260 different pesticides. We will present how these approaches are implemented in the catchment area of the Wakiso District in Uganda. This area is intensively used by smallholder farmers who grow a large set of different crops. Diffuse losses are expected to occur mainly during the two rainy seasons (March to May and September to November). Accordingly, the study will focus on this situation.

  2. Impact of tailings from the Kilembe copper mining district on Lake George, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owor, Michael; Hartwig, Tina; Muwanga, Andrew; Zachmann, Dieter; Pohl, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The abandoned Kilembe copper mine in western Uganda is a source of contaminants, mobilised from mine tailings into R. Rukoki flowing through a belt of wetlands into Lake George. Water and sediments were investigated on the lakeshore and the lakebed. Metal associations in the sediments reflect the Kilembe sulphide mineralisation. Enrichment of metals was compared between lakebed sediments, both for wet and dry seasons. Total C in a lakebed core shows a general increment, while Cu and Co decrease with depth. The contaminants are predominant (> 65%) in the ≤ 63 μm sediment size range with elevated Cu and Zn (> 28%), while Ni, Pb and Co are low (extraction of Fe for lakeshore sediment samples reveals low Fe mobility. Relatively higher mobility and biological availability is seen for Co, Cu and S. Heavy metal contents in lake waters are not an immediate risk to the aquatic environment.

  3. Assessment of partogram use during labour in Rujumbura Health Sub District, Rukungiri District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwang, Simon; Karyabakabo, Zepher; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2009-08-01

    A partogram is a universal tool for monitoring labour. It is used for labour management in Rujumbura HSD, Rukungiri District. However, the District Health Officer reported only 30% use of a partogram. The study intended to find out why the low use, and suggest strategies in scaling up. To establish extent of use of a partogram, health facility and health workers' factors that affected its use during labour plus the relationship between foetal Apgar score and its use. A cross-sectional study involving observations, record reviews and interviewing of staff in 8 health facilities (4 Public and 4 Private Not For Profit) in Rujumbura HSD in Rukungiri district was conducted from May 23(rd) to 27(th) June 2008. It employed both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. The partogram was used in 69.9% of deliveries. The partographs that fulfilled the standard monitoring of foetal heart rate were only 2%. There were few trained health workers and lack of guidelines on partogram use. A good Apgar score was associated with standard foetal monitoring and was statistically significant (P labour mainly affected by health input factors. We recommended training of health workers on partogram use, provision of guidelines and adequate resources.

  4. Use of alternative medicine for hypertension in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Nuwaha, Fred; Musinguzi, Geofrey

    2013-01-01

    Background Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine. Methods In a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of ...

  5. Contribution of Wetland Resources to Household Incomes of Riparian Communities of Katonga Wetland in Mpigi District, Uganda

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    E. Kateyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Katonga wetland which lies to the western part of Lake Victoria covers an area of 237.4 km2. Although the wetland is known to contain flora and fauna that support livelihoods, there has been lack of information on the economic value of these resources and their contribution to livelihoods particularly of the rural riparian communities. The objective of the study was to generate information on the vital wetland resources, the economic value and contribution of these resources to riparian community livelihoods. The study was carried out in Nkozi and Kituntu sub-counties in Mpigi District-Uganda; it covered six parishes through which the wetland runs and involved 120 respondents. The study established that resources in the wetland are collected for subsistence and direct commercial extraction. The most important resource derived from the wetland for subsistence use was water for rural domestic use with each household using an average of 188l per day (23l per person and was estimated at an annual economic value of Uganda shillings (Ushs 490,191 (U$ 233.4 per person per year. Fisheries were the most important commercial activities undertaken in these parts of the wetland involving 36% of respondents collecting an average of 119kg per week with an estimated annual value of Ushs. 3,991,367 (U$ 1,900.6 per person. These activities particularly collection of water and fuel wood are undertaken throughout the year, while harvesting of craft materials is mainly done during the dry season (January-March and June-August. Fishing is done mainly in the wet season (March-May and September-November. he wetland is a source of income for at least 74% of the respondents. The majority of respondents, 57.5%, were among low income groups earning up to Ushs 600,000 per respondent annually. Fishing provides the highest gross incomes per respondent Ushs 200,000 per month hence the high value of the wetland to its riparian communities. It was noted that 30% of respondents

  6. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting priority interventions for child survival.

  7. Access to Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda: A Multi-District, Cross-Sectional Study Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling from 2011 to 2013.

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    Olanrewaju, Ayobami D; Jeffery, Caroline; Crossland, Nadine; Valadez, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the proportion of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) attending school in 89 districts of Uganda from 2011 - 2013 and investigates the factors influencing OVC access to education among this population. This study used secondary survey data from OVCs aged 5 - 17 years, collected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in 87 Ugandan districts over a 3-year period (2011 - 2013). Estimates of OVC school attendance were determined for the yearly time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the factors influencing OVC access to education. 19,354 children aged 5-17 were included in the analysis. We estimated that 79.1% (95% CI: 78.5% - 79.7%) of OVCs attended school during the 3-year period. Logistic regression revealed the odds of attending school were lower among OVCs from Western (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79 - 0.99) and Northern (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.56 - 0.73) regions compared to the Central region. Female OVCs had a significantly higher odds of attending school (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.17) compared to their male counterparts. When adjusting for all variables simultaneously, we found the odds of school attendance reduced by 12% between 2011 and 2012 among all OVCs (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81 - 0.97). Our findings reinforce the need to provide continuing support to OVC in Uganda, ensuring they have the opportunity to attain an education. The data indicate important regional and gender variation that needs to be considered for support strategies and in social policy. The results suggest the need for greater local empowerment to address the needs of OVCs. We recommend further research to understand why OVC access to education and attendance varies between regions and improvement of district level mapping of OVC access to education, and further study to understand the particular factors impacting the lower school attendance of male OVCs.

  8. Perception of quality in certified organic pineapples by farmers in Kayunga district, Central Uganda: Implications for food security

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    Francis Richard Jumba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Uganda is one of the major producers of organic pineapples for export. These pineapples are mainly produced in central Uganda and have to meet stringent quality standards before they can be allowed on international markets. These quality standards may put considerable strain on farmers and may not be wholly representative of their quality interpretation. The aim of this paper is therefore, to determine the Ugandan organic pineapple farmers’ quality perception, the activities they carry out in order to attain that quality and challenges (production, postharvest & marketing faced on the same. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out among 28 organic pineapple farmers in Kayunga district, central Uganda. Findings suggest that quality of organic pineapples is mainly perceived in terms of product attributes particularly appearance followed by food security provision. Certification plays a minor role in what farmers describe as organic quality. High production input costs (labour and coffee husks coupled with a stagnant premium are some of the major challenges faced by farmers in attaining organic quality. The paper argues that currently there are concealed negative food security effects embroiled in these pineapple schemes. It is recommended that the National Organic Agricultural Movement of Uganda (NOGAMU works with all relevant stakeholders to have the farmer premium price raised and an official organic policy enacted.

  9. Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda

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    Acipa Annabel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation.

  10. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

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    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  11. Behavioral change communication strategy vital in malaria prevention interventions in rural communities: Nakasongola district, Uganda.

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    Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures.

  12. Availability of human immunodeficiency virus prevention services in secondary schools in Kabarole District, Uganda

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    Jane Namuddu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%, drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%, peer education clubs (15%, workshops and seminars on HIV (8%, sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%, guidance and counseling (6%, talking compounds- (5%, abstinence talks (6%, keeping students busy in sports (4%, straight talk (4%. Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school.

  13. Predictors for health facility delivery in Busia district of Uganda: a cross sectional study

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    Anyait Agnes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the factors contributing to the high maternal morbidity and mortality in Uganda is the high proportion of pregnant women who do not deliver under supervision in health facilities. This study aimed to identify the independent predictors of health facility delivery in Busia a rural district in Uganda with a view of suggesting measures for remedial action. Methods In a cross sectional survey, 500 women who had a delivery in the past two years (from November 16 2005 to November 15 2007 were interviewed regarding place of delivery, demographic characteristics, reproductive history, attendance for antenatal care, accessibility of health services, preferred delivery positions, preference for disposal of placenta and mother’s autonomy in decision making. In addition the household socio economic status was assessed. The independent predictors of health facility delivery were identified by comparing women who delivered in health facilities to those who did not, using bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis. Results Eight independent predictors that favoured delivery in a health facility include: being of high socio-economic status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.8 95% Confidence interval [95% CI]1.2–6.3, previous difficult delivery (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 3.0–8.0, parity less than four (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.6, preference of supine position for second stage of labour (AOR 5.9, 95% CI 3.5–11.1 preferring health workers to dispose the placenta (AOR 12.1, 95% CI 4.3–34.1, not having difficulty with transport (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.5, being autonomous in decision to attend antenatal care (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.4 and depending on other people (e.g. spouse in making a decision of where to deliver from (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.6. A model with these 8 variables had an overall correct classification of 81.4% (chi square = 230.3, P  Conclusions These data suggest that in order to increase health facility deliveries

  14. Seroepidemiological investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle around Lake Mburo National Park in South-Western Uganda

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    Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Alexandersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in cattle occur annually in Uganda. In this study the authors investigated antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in cattle in surrounding areas of Lake Mburo National Park in South-western Uganda. Two hundred and eleven serum samples from 23 cattle herds were...

  15. Availability of Essential Medicines across Levels of Care in Gulu District, Northern Uganda

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    Musoke, David; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    on a monthly basis. The assessment of the availability of the medicines was carried out using the check lists that were derived from the Essential Medicines and Health Supplies List of Uganda as defined by the Ministry of Health of Uganda for the various levels of care. Seventeen (17) Health Centre level II...

  16. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

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    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  17. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

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    Vanja Kovacic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT, including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early

  18. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

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    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  19. Evaluation of Integrated Community Case Management in Eight Districts of Central Uganda

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    Mubiru, Denis; Byabasheija, Robert; Bwanika, John Baptist; Meier, Joslyn Edelstein; Magumba, Godfrey; Kaggwa, Flavia Mpanga; Abusu, Jackson Ojera; Opio, Alex Chono; Lodda, Charles Clarke; Patel, Jaanki; Diaz, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence is limited on whether Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) improves treatment coverage of the top causes of childhood mortality (acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), diarrhoea and malaria). The coverage impact of iCCM in Central Uganda was evaluated. Methods Between July 2010 and December 2012 a pre-post quasi-experimental study in eight districts with iCCM was conducted; 3 districts without iCCM served as controls. A two-stage household cluster survey at baseline (n = 1036 and 1042) and end line (n = 3890 and 3844) was done in the intervention and comparison groups respectively. Changes in treatment coverage and timeliness were assessed using difference in differences analysis (DID). Mortality impact was modelled using the Lives Saved Tool. Findings 5,586 Village Health Team members delivered 1,907,746 treatments to children under age five. Use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc treatment of diarrhoea increased in the intervention area, while there was a decrease in the comparison area (DID = 22.9, p = 0.001). Due to national stock-outs of amoxicillin, there was a decrease in antibiotic treatment for ARI in both areas; however, the decrease was significantly greater in the comparison area (DID = 5.18; p<0.001). There was a greater increase in Artemisinin Combination Therapy treatment for fever in the intervention areas than in the comparison area but this was not significant (DID = 1.57, p = 0.105). In the intervention area, timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI increased significantly higher in the intervention area than in the comparison area (DID = 2.12, p = 0.029 and 7.95, p<0.001, respectively). An estimated 106 lives were saved in the intervention area while 611 lives were lost in the comparison area. Conclusion iCCM significantly increased treatment coverage for diarrhoea and fever, mitigated the effect of national stock outs of amoxicillin on ARI treatment, improved timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI and saved

  20. Evaluation of Integrated Community Case Management in Eight Districts of Central Uganda.

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    Denis Mubiru

    Full Text Available Evidence is limited on whether Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM improves treatment coverage of the top causes of childhood mortality (acute respiratory illnesses (ARI, diarrhoea and malaria. The coverage impact of iCCM in Central Uganda was evaluated.Between July 2010 and December 2012 a pre-post quasi-experimental study in eight districts with iCCM was conducted; 3 districts without iCCM served as controls. A two-stage household cluster survey at baseline (n = 1036 and 1042 and end line (n = 3890 and 3844 was done in the intervention and comparison groups respectively. Changes in treatment coverage and timeliness were assessed using difference in differences analysis (DID. Mortality impact was modelled using the Lives Saved Tool.5,586 Village Health Team members delivered 1,907,746 treatments to children under age five. Use of oral rehydration solution (ORS and zinc treatment of diarrhoea increased in the intervention area, while there was a decrease in the comparison area (DID = 22.9, p = 0.001. Due to national stock-outs of amoxicillin, there was a decrease in antibiotic treatment for ARI in both areas; however, the decrease was significantly greater in the comparison area (DID = 5.18; p<0.001. There was a greater increase in Artemisinin Combination Therapy treatment for fever in the intervention areas than in the comparison area but this was not significant (DID = 1.57, p = 0.105. In the intervention area, timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI increased significantly higher in the intervention area than in the comparison area (DID = 2.12, p = 0.029 and 7.95, p<0.001, respectively. An estimated 106 lives were saved in the intervention area while 611 lives were lost in the comparison area.iCCM significantly increased treatment coverage for diarrhoea and fever, mitigated the effect of national stock outs of amoxicillin on ARI treatment, improved timeliness of treatments for fever and ARI and saved lives.

  1. Risk factors for obstetric fistula in Western Uganda: a case control study.

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    Justus Kafunjo Barageine

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Two million women worldwide are living with genital fistula with an annual incidence of 50,000-100,000 women. Risk factors for obstetric fistula are context bound. Studies from other countries show variation in the risk factors for obstetric fistula. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for obstetric fistula in western Ugandan context. METHODS: A case control study comparing background factors of women with obstetric fistula (cases and women without fistula (controls was conducted in western Uganda. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stata 12. RESULTS: Altogether, 420 respondents (140 cases and 280 controls participated in the study. Duration of labour was used to form the product terms when assessing for interaction and confounding since it was one the most significant factors at bivariate level with a narrow confidence interval and was hence considered the main predictor. After adjusting for interaction and confounding, significant risk factors associated with development of obstetric fistula in western Uganda were: Caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 13.30, 95% CI = 6.74-26.39, respondent height of 150 cm or less (AOR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.35-5.26, baby weight of 3.5 kg or more (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.15-1.99, prolonged labour (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.08. A quarter of the fistulas had resulted from iatrogenic complication during caesarean section. Compared to no education, post primary level of education was protective against obstetric fistula (AOR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.13-0.72 and there was no difference between respondents without education and those with primary level education. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons contribute to a big proportion (25% of fistula cases hence caesarean section being a risk factor in this region. Other risk factors include; prolonged labour, weight of the baby of 3.5 kg or more, respondent height of 150 cm

  2. Risk Factors for Obstetric Fistula in Western Uganda: A Case Control Study

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    Barageine, Justus Kafunjo; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Byamugisha, Josaphat K.; Almroth, Lars; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Two million women worldwide are living with genital fistula with an annual incidence of 50,000–100,000 women. Risk factors for obstetric fistula are context bound. Studies from other countries show variation in the risk factors for obstetric fistula. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for obstetric fistula in western Ugandan context. Methods A case control study comparing background factors of women with obstetric fistula (cases) and women without fistula (controls) was conducted in western Uganda. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stata 12. Results Altogether, 420 respondents (140 cases and 280 controls) participated in the study. Duration of labour was used to form the product terms when assessing for interaction and confounding since it was one the most significant factors at bivariate level with a narrow confidence interval and was hence considered the main predictor. After adjusting for interaction and confounding, significant risk factors associated with development of obstetric fistula in western Uganda were: Caesarean section (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 13.30, 95% CI  = 6.74–26.39), respondent height of 150 cm or less (AOR  = 2.63, 95% CI  = 1.35–5.26), baby weight of 3.5 kg or more (AOR  = 1.52, 95% CI  = 1.15–1.99), prolonged labour (AOR  = 1.06, 95% CI  = 1.04–1.08. A quarter of the fistulas had resulted from iatrogenic complication during caesarean section. Compared to no education, post primary level of education was protective against obstetric fistula (AOR  = 0.31, 95% CI  = 0.13–0.72) and there was no difference between respondents without education and those with primary level education. Conclusions Surgeons contribute to a big proportion (25%) of fistula cases hence caesarean section being a risk factor in this region. Other risk factors include; prolonged labour, weight of the baby

  3. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA.

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    Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S

    Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.

  4. A comparison of hierarchical cluster analysis and league table rankings as methods for analysis and presentation of district health system performance data in Uganda.

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    Tashobya, Christine K; Dubourg, Dominique; Ssengooba, Freddie; Speybroeck, Niko; Macq, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2016-03-01

    In 2003, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced the district league table for district health system performance assessment. The league table presents district performance against a number of input, process and output indicators and a composite index to rank districts. This study explores the use of hierarchical cluster analysis for analysing and presenting district health systems performance data and compares this approach with the use of the league table in Uganda. Ministry of Health and district plans and reports, and published documents were used to provide information on the development and utilization of the Uganda district league table. Quantitative data were accessed from the Ministry of Health databases. Statistical analysis using SPSS version 20 and hierarchical cluster analysis, utilizing Wards' method was used. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on the basis of seven clusters determined for each year from 2003 to 2010, ranging from a cluster of good through moderate-to-poor performers. The characteristics and membership of clusters varied from year to year and were determined by the identity and magnitude of performance of the individual variables. Criticisms of the league table include: perceived unfairness, as it did not take into consideration district peculiarities; and being oversummarized and not adequately informative. Clustering organizes the many data points into clusters of similar entities according to an agreed set of indicators and can provide the beginning point for identifying factors behind the observed performance of districts. Although league table ranking emphasize summation and external control, clustering has the potential to encourage a formative, learning approach. More research is required to shed more light on factors behind observed performance of the different clusters. Other countries especially low-income countries that share many similarities with Uganda can learn from these experiences. © The Author 2015

  5. A qualitative study of provider perspectives on the barriers to contraceptive use in Kaliro and Iganga Districts, Eastern Central Uganda

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    Constance Sibongile Shumba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family planning confers unique benefits including preventing unintended pregnancies, improving maternal and child health outcomes, and increasing women’s access to education and economic opportunities. However, Uganda has a low contraceptive prevalence rate of only 30%, and progress in improving maternal and child health outcomes is slow. Objective: This assessment explores community health workers’ and facility-based health workers’ qualitative perspectives on the use of contraceptives in the Iganga and Kaliro districts in Eastern Central Uganda. Methods: The baseline assessment used a qualitative approach with a focused sample of community- and facility-based health workers aged 20-60 years. Two focus group discussions with Community Health Workers and four key informant interviews with facility-based health workers were conducted. Thematic content analysis was done manually. Results: The main factors influencing contraceptive use in these communities were preference for large families, perceived inadequate knowledge of family planning and fear of side effects, inadequate spousal and family support, male domination and risk of violence, divorce and polygamy, inadequate human resource capacity and low motivation, and user fees. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that there is low use of contraceptives for family planning in the Kaliro and Iganga districts in Uganda. Recommendations include developing a strong focus in exploring policy options to build the capacities of trained health workers to offer long-term methods in order to increase the availability of family planning options. Family planning interventions should increase the availability of contraceptive methods using gender-sensitive strategies, including community mobilization.

  6. Identification of Echinococcus granulosus strains using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism amongst livestock in Moroto district, Uganda.

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    Chamai, Martin; Omadang, Leonard; Erume, Joseph; Ocaido, Michael; Oba, Peter; Othieno, Emmanuel; Bonaventure, Straton; Kitibwa, Annah

    2016-07-29

    A descriptive study was conducted to identify the different strains of Echinococcus granulosus occurring in livestock in Moroto district, Uganda. Echinococcus cysts from 104 domestic animals, including cattle, sheep, goats and camels, were taken and examined by microscopy, polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism and Sanger DNA sequencing. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes or strains were identified through use of Bioinformatics tools: BioEdit, BLAST and MEGA6. The major finding of this study was the existence of a limited number of E. granulosus genotypes from cattle, goats, sheep and camels. The most predominant genotype was G1 (96.05%), corresponding to the common sheep strain. To a limited extent (3.95%), the study revealed the existence of Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 in three (n = 3) of the E. granulosus-positive samples. No other strains of E. granulosus were identified. It was concluded that the common sheep strain of Echinococcus sensu stricto and G6/7 of E. canadensis were responsible for echinococcal disease in Moroto district, Uganda.

  7. Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda : FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa

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    van Gemert, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda: FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa Worldwide, tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, in many low and middle-income co

  8. A process evaluation of performance-based incentives for village health workers in Kisoro district, Uganda.

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    Miller, James S; Musominali, Sam; Baganizi, Michael; Paccione, Gerald A

    2014-04-08

    Designing effective incentive systems for village health workers (VHWs) represents a longstanding policy issue with substantial impact on the success and sustainability of VHW programs. Using performance-based incentives (PBI) for VHWs is an approach that has been proposed and implemented in some programs, but has not received adequate review and evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. We conducted a process evaluation examining the use of PBI for VHWs in Kisoro, Uganda. In this system, VHWs are paid based on 20 indicators, divided among routine follow-up visits, health education activities, new patient identifications, sanitation coverage, and uptake of priority health services. Surveys of VHWs (n = 30) and program supervisors (n = 7) were conducted to assess acceptability and feasibility. Interviews were conducted with all 8 program supervisors and with 6 purposively selected VHWs to gain a deeper understanding of their views on the PBI system. Program budget records were used to assess the costs of the program. Detailed payment records were used to assess the fairness of the PBI system with respect to VHWs' gender, education level, and village location. In surveys and interviews, supervisors expressed high satisfaction with the PBI system, though some supervisors expressed concerns about possible negative effects from the variation in payments between VHWs and the uncertainty of reward for effort. VHWs perceived the system as generally fair, and preferred it to the previous payment system, but expressed a desire to be paid more. The annual program cost was $516 per VHW, with each VHW covering an average of 115 households. VHWs covering more households tended to earn more. There was some evidence that female gender was associated with higher earnings. Education level and proximity to the district hospital did not appear to be associated with earnings under the PBI system. In a one-year pilot of PBI within a small VHW program, both VHWs and supervisors found

  9. Ebola haemorrhagic fever outbreak in Masindi District, Uganda: outbreak description and lessons learned

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    Borchert Matthias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF is infamous for its high case-fatality proportion (CFP and the ease with which it spreads among contacts of the diseased. We describe the course of the EHF outbreak in Masindi, Uganda, in the year 2000, and report on response activities. Methods We analysed surveillance records, hospital statistics, and our own observations during response activities. We used Fisher's exact tests for differences in proportions, t-tests for differences in means, and logistic regression for multivariable analysis. Results The response to the outbreak consisted of surveillance, case management, logistics and public mobilisation. Twenty-six EHF cases (24 laboratory confirmed, two probable occurred between October 21st and December 22nd, 2000. CFP was 69% (18/26. Nosocomial transmission to the index case occurred in Lacor hospital in Gulu, outside the Ebola ward. After returning home to Masindi district the index case became the origin of a transmission chain within her own extended family (18 further cases, from index family members to health care workers (HCWs, 6 cases, and from HCWs to their household contacts (1 case. Five out of six occupational cases of EHF in HCWs occurred after the introduction of barrier nursing, probably due to breaches of barrier nursing principles. CFP was initially very high (76% but decreased (20% due to better case management after reinforcing the response team. The mobilisation of the community for the response efforts was challenging at the beginning, when fear, panic and mistrust had to be countered by the response team. Conclusions Large scale transmission in the community beyond the index family was prevented by early case identification and isolation as well as quarantine imposed by the community. The high number of occupational EHF after implementing barrier nursing points at the need to strengthen training and supervision of local HCWs. The difference in CFP before and after

  10. Access to Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Uganda: A Multi-District, Cross-Sectional Study Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling from 2011 to 2013.

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    Ayobami D Olanrewaju

    Full Text Available This study estimates the proportion of Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC attending school in 89 districts of Uganda from 2011 - 2013 and investigates the factors influencing OVC access to education among this population.This study used secondary survey data from OVCs aged 5 - 17 years, collected using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in 87 Ugandan districts over a 3-year period (2011 - 2013. Estimates of OVC school attendance were determined for the yearly time periods. Logistic regression was used to investigate the factors influencing OVC access to education.19,354 children aged 5-17 were included in the analysis. We estimated that 79.1% (95% CI: 78.5% - 79.7% of OVCs attended school during the 3-year period. Logistic regression revealed the odds of attending school were lower among OVCs from Western (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79 - 0.99 and Northern (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.56 - 0.73 regions compared to the Central region. Female OVCs had a significantly higher odds of attending school (OR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.17 compared to their male counterparts. When adjusting for all variables simultaneously, we found the odds of school attendance reduced by 12% between 2011 and 2012 among all OVCs (OR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81 - 0.97.Our findings reinforce the need to provide continuing support to OVC in Uganda, ensuring they have the opportunity to attain an education. The data indicate important regional and gender variation that needs to be considered for support strategies and in social policy. The results suggest the need for greater local empowerment to address the needs of OVCs. We recommend further research to understand why OVC access to education and attendance varies between regions and improvement of district level mapping of OVC access to education, and further study to understand the particular factors impacting the lower school attendance of male OVCs.

  11. Integrating refugee and host health services in West Nile districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orach, Christopher Garimoi; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Refugees are a common feature in Africa and Uganda is no exception. However, Uganda does not have the resources to provide health care to all its own citizens, let alone to refugees. Refugee health services are therefore usually set up and provided separately by international organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). However, such services often end up being the only available or reliable services in a particular location for both host and refugee populations. Yet the host populations are often denied access to these services because, in theory, other services are being provided by their government. The case study in the West Nile region of Uganda describes how host and refugee services were integrated in an attempt to address the concerns of inequity of access to care for host populations, when reasonably good health services were available to nearby refugee populations. The paper identifies and discusses the challenges encountered and those remaining.

  12. District Health Officer Perceptions of PEPFAR’s Influence on the Health System in Uganda, 2005-2011

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    Nathaniel Lohman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Vertically oriented global health initiatives (GHIs addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, have successfully contributed to reducing HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. However, there is still debate about whether these disease-specific programs have improved or harmed health systems overall, especially with respect to non-HIV health needs. Methods As part of a larger evaluation of PEPFAR’s effects on the health system between 2005-2011, we collected qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews with District Health Officers (DHOs from all 112 districts in Uganda. We asked DHOs to share their perceptions about the ways in which HIV programs (largely PEPFAR in the Ugandan context had helped and harmed the health system. We then identified key themes among their responses using qualitative content analysis. Results Ugandan DHOs said PEPFAR had generally helped the health system by improving training, integrating HIV and non-HIV care, and directly providing resources. To a lesser extent, DHOs said PEPFAR caused the health system to focus too narrowly on HIV/AIDS, increased workload for already overburdened staff, and encouraged doctors to leave public sector jobs for higher-paid positions with HIV/AIDS programs. Conclusion Health system leaders in Uganda at the district level were appreciative of resources aimed at HIV they could often apply for broader purposes. As HIV infection becomes a chronic disease requiring strong health systems to manage sustained patient care over time, Uganda’s weak health systems will require broad infrastructure improvements inconsistent with narrow vertical health programming.

  13. Interface of culture, insecurity and HIV and AIDS: Lessons from displaced communities in Pader District, Northern Uganda

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    Kwiringira Japheth

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Northern Uganda unlike other rural regions has registered high HIV prevalence rates comparable to those of urbanized Kampala and the central region. This could be due to the linkages of culture, insecurity and HIV. We explored community perceptions of HIV and AIDS as a problem and its inter-linkage with culture and insecurity in Pader District. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in four sub-counties of Pader District, Uganda between May and June 2008. Data for the study were collected through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs held separately; 2 FGDs with men, 6 FGDs with women, and 4 FGDs with the youth (2 for each sex. In addition we conducted 15 key informant interviews with; 3 health workers, 4 community leaders at village and parish levels, 3 persons living with HIV and 5 district officials. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. This process involved identification of the study themes and sub-themes following multiple reading of interview and discussion transcripts. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of study findings. Results The struggles to meet the basic and survival needs by individuals and households overshadowed HIV as a major community problem. Conflict and risky sexual related cultural practices were perceived by communities as major drivers of HIV and AIDS in the district. Insecurity had led to congestion in the camps leading to moral decadence, rape and defilement, prostitution and poverty which increased vulnerability to HIV infection. The cultural drivers of HIV and AIDS were; widow inheritance, polygamy, early marriages, family expectations, silence about sex and alcoholism. Conclusions Development partners including civil society organisations, central government, district administration, religious and cultural leaders as well as other stakeholders should mainstream HIV in all community development and

  14. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health.

  15. Beyond bushmeat: animal contact, injury, and zoonotic disease risk in Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Sarah B; Frost, Simon D W; Gibson, Mhairi A; Jones, James Holland; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M; Ting, Nelson; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Zoonotic pathogens cause an estimated 70% of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in humans. In sub-Saharan Africa, bushmeat hunting and butchering is considered the primary risk factor for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission, particularly for the transmission of simian retroviruses. However, hunting is only one of many activities in sub-Saharan Africa that bring people and wildlife into contact. Here, we examine human-animal interaction in western Uganda, identifying patterns of injuries from animals and contact with nonhuman primates. Additionally, we identify individual-level risk factors associated with contact. Nearly 20% (246/1,240) of participants reported either being injured by an animal or having contact with a primate over their lifetimes. The majority (51.7%) of injuries were dog bites that healed with no long-term medical consequences. The majority (76.8%) of 125 total primate contacts involved touching a carcass; however, butchering (20%), hunting (10%), and touching a live primate (10%) were also reported. Red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) accounted for most primate contact events. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that men who live adjacent to forest fragments are at elevated risk of animal contact and specifically primate contact. Our results provide a useful comparison to West and Central Africa where "bushmeat hunting" is the predominant paradigm for human-wildlife contact and zoonotic disease transmission.

  16. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-01-01

    and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria...... interventions for malaria control in Uganda....

  17. Stratigraphy and structure of the western Kentucky fluorspar district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace, R.D.; Amos, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The western Kentucky fluorspar district is part of the larger Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district, the largest producer of fluorspar in the United States. This report is based largely on data gathered from 1960 to 1974 during the U.S. Geological Survey-Kentucky Geological Survey cooperative geologic mapping program of Kentucky. It deals chiefly with the stratigraphy and structure of the district and, to a lesser extent, with the fluorspar-zinc-lead-barite deposits. Sedimentary rocks exposed in the district range in age from Early Mississippian (Osagean) to Quaternary. Most rocks exposed at the surface are Mississippian in age; two-thirds are marine fossiliferous limestones, and the remainder are shales, siltstones, and sandstones. Osagean deep-water marine silty limestone and chert are present at the surface in the southwestern corner of the district. Meramecian marine limestone is exposed at the surface in about half the area. Chesterian marine and fluvial to fluviodeltaic clastic sedimentary rocks and marine limestone underlie about one-third of the area. The total sequence of Mississippian rocks is about 3,000 ft thick. Pennsylvanian rocks are dominantly fluvial clastic sedimentary rocks that change upward into younger fluviodeltaic strata. Pennsylvanian strata of Morrowan and Atokan age are locally thicker than 600 ft along the eastern and southeastern margin and in the major grabens of the district where they have been preserved from erosion. Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Mississippi embayment truncate Paleozoic formations in and near the southwestern corner of the district and are preserved mostly as erosional outliers. The deposits are Gulfian nonmarine gravels, sands, and clays as much as 170 ft thick and upper Pliocene fluvial continental deposits as thick as 45 ft. Pleistocene loess deposits mantle the upland surface of the district, and Quaternary fluvial and fluviolacustrine deposits are common and widespread along the Ohio and Cumberland

  18. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

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    Nicola A Batchelor

    Full Text Available The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  19. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Gething, Peter W; Picozzi, Kim; Fèvre, Eric M; Kakembo, Abbas S L; Welburn, Susan C

    2009-12-15

    The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease. Disease convergence would result in compromised diagnosis and treatment for HAT. Spatial determinants for HAT are poorly understood across small areas. This study examines the relationships between Rhodesian HAT and several environmental, climatic and social factors in two newly affected districts, Kaberamaido and Dokolo. A one-step logistic regression analysis of HAT prevalence and a two-step logistic regression method permitted separate analysis of both HAT occurrence and HAT prevalence. Both the occurrence and prevalence of HAT were negatively correlated with distance to the closest livestock market in all models. The significance of distance to the closest livestock market strongly indicates that HAT may have been introduced to this previously unaffected area via the movement of infected, untreated livestock from endemic areas. This illustrates the importance of the animal reservoir in disease transmission, and highlights the need for trypanosomiasis control in livestock and the stringent implementation of regulations requiring the treatment of cattle prior to sale at livestock markets to prevent any further spread of Rhodesian HAT within Uganda.

  20. A One Health, participatory epidemiology assessment of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) management in Western Uganda.

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    Coffin, Jeanne L; Monje, Fred; Asiimwe-Karimu, Grace; Amuguni, Hellen Janetrix; Odoch, Terence

    2015-03-01

    Sporadic anthrax outbreaks have occurred in and around Uganda's Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) for years, affecting wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Reported outbreaks (2004-2005 and 2010) in QENP collectively killed over 500 wild animals and over 400 domestic animals. A 2011 outbreak in Sheema district temporarily froze local markets while killing two humans and seven bovines. One Health is multidisciplinary at its core, yet studies sometimes focus on the effects of animals on human health to the detriment of investigating the surrounding ecological and cultural contexts. Participatory methods connect problems - such as disease - to their context. A multidisciplinary team used participatory epidemiology and conventional structured questionnaires to investigate the impacts of anthrax on human livelihoods and the related perceptions of conservation, public health, and veterinary health efforts in the QENP area. Proximities to previous anthrax outbreaks and to QENP were treated as risk factors in the collection and evaluation of data. Participants' feedback indicates that anthrax prevalence may be greater than officially reported. Community member perceptions about anthrax and other diseases appear to be more closely related to their proximity to QENP than their proximity to anthrax outbreaks. Neither risk factor had a strong effect on knowledge of disease, nor any effect on behaviors associated with disease response or control. Instead, participants reported that social pressures, the economics of poverty, and the lack of health and veterinary infrastructure highly influenced responses to disease. The complex connections between the social needs and the economic context of these communities seem to be undermining current anthrax control and education measures. This livelihood-based decision-making may be unlikely to respond to educational intervention alone. This study provides a strong base for further research and for improvements in effective disease

  1. Relatively low HIV infection rates in rural Uganda, but with high potential for a rise: a cohort study in Kayunga District, Uganda.

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    David Guwatudde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted in Uganda to identify and quantify the determinants of HIV-1 infection. We report results from a community-based cohort study, whose primary objectives were to determine HIV-1 prevalence, incidence, and determinants of these infections, among other objectives. METHODOLOGY: Consenting volunteers from the rural district of Kayunga in Uganda aged 15-49 years were enrolled between March and July 2006. Participants were evaluated every six months. A questionnaire that collected information on behavioral and other HIV-1 risk factors was administered, and a blood sample obtained for laboratory analysis at each study visit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV-1 prevalence among the 2025 participants was 9.9% (95% CI = 8.6%-11.2%. By the end of 12 months of follow-up, 1689.7 person-years had been accumulated, with a median follow-up time of 11.97 months. Thirteen HIV-1 incident cases were detected giving an annual HIV-1 incidence of 0.77% (95% CI = 0.35-1.19. Prevalence of HSV-2 infection was 57% and was strongly associated with prevalent HIV-1 infection (adjusted Odds Ratio = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.50-6.17; as well as incident HIV-1 infection (adjusted Rate Ratio (RR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.11-67.2. The single most important behavioral characteristic associated with incident HIV infection was the number of times in the past 6 months, a participant had sex with person(s they suspected/knew were having sex with others; attaining statistical significance at 10 times and higher (adjusted RR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.73-23.1. By the end of 12 months of follow-up, 259 participants (13% were lost to follow-up, 13 (0.6% had died, and 2 (0.1% had withdrawn consent. CONCLUSIONS: Despite relatively low HIV-1 incidence observed in this community, prevalence remains relatively high. In the presence of high prevalence of HSV-2 infection and the behavioral characteristic of having sex with more than one partner, there is potential for increase in HIV-1

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs in Moroto and Bukedea districts in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Peter; Ejobi, Francis; Omadang, Leonard; Chamai, Martin; Okwi, Andrew Livex; Othieno, Emmanuel; Inangolet, Francis Olaki; Ocaido, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in Moroto and Bukedea districts of Uganda from May to September 2013 to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs. Fresh dog faecal samples were collected, preserved in 70 % ethanol, and later screened for presence of taeniid eggs using zinc chloride floatation method. Positive samples were confirmed by a copro-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for E. granulosus using NADH dehydrogenase sub-unit 1 gene (NADH1) as a target molecular marker. Structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data for risk factor identification. Study sub-counties were selected by simple random sampling. Overall apparent prevalence of taeniid infection in dogs of 14.9 % (39/261, confidence interval 10.6-19.2) in both districts was recorded using the faecal floatation test. The sensitivity of the faecal floatation test was found to be 78 % (25/32), while the specificity was 93 % (215/229). Copro-PCR results revealed a true prevalence of 14.4 % (9.91-19.0, 95 % CI) in dogs in Moroto district and 7.4 % (2.14-12.60, 95 % CI) in Bukedea district. The overall true prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) was 12.2 % (8.70-15.76, 95 % CI) in both districts. The major risk factors identified using logistic regression were uncontrolled access of dogs to animal slaughter facilities, higher cattle herd sizes and lack of knowledge about the disease. It was recommended that restricting dog access to infected tissues and public health education about epidemiology of CE should be done.

  3. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

    2014-12-01

    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems.

  4. Molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and economic aspects of tuberculosis in mubende district, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Muwonge; Sydney Malama; Johansen, Tone B; Clovice Kankya; Demelash Biffa; Willy Ssengooba; Jacques Godfroid; Berit Djønne; Eystein Skjerve

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem whose effects have major impact in developing countries like Uganda. This study aimed at investigating genotypic characteristics and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from suspected TB patients. Furthermore, risk factors and economic burdens that could affect the current control strategies were studied. METHODS: TB suspected patients were examined in a cross-sectional study at the Mubende region...

  5. Men's Perspectives and Use of Modern Contraceptives within Marriage in Butagaya Sub County, Jinja district, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Turinde, Kabali Asa

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the significant investments put into improving the provision of contraceptive services in Uganda, the desired outcomes have not been realized. Contraceptive prevalence rate remains low and only 18% of the currently married women are using a modern method. Total fertility rate is as high as 6.9 and there is a huge unmet need for contraceptive use among women estimated at 35% (UBOS & ORC Macro, 2001). One of the reasons often mentioned for these poor reproductive health ou...

  6. Population exposure to trace elements in the Kilembe copper mine area, Western Uganda: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesigye, Abraham R; Young, Scott D; Bailey, Elizabeth H; Tumwebaze, Susan B

    2016-12-15

    The mining and processing of copper in Kilembe, Western Uganda, from 1956 to 1982 left over 15 Mt. of tailings containing cupriferous and cobaltiferous pyrite dumped within a mountain river valley. This pilot study was conducted to assess the nature and extent of risk to local populations from metal contamination arising from those mining activities. We determined trace element concentrations in mine tailings, soils, locally cultivated foods, house dust, drinking water and human biomarkers (toenails) using ICP-MS analysis of acid digested samples. The results showed that tailings, containing higher concentrations of Co, Cu, Ni and As compared with world average crust values had eroded and contaminated local soils. Pollution load indices revealed that 51% of agricultural soils sampled were contaminated with trace elements. Local water supplies were contaminated, with Co concentrations that exceeded Wisconsin (US) thresholds in 25% of domestic water supplies and 40% of Nyamwamba river water samples. Zinc exceeded WHO/FAO thresholds of 99.4mgkg(-1) in 36% of Amaranthus vegetable samples, Cu exceeded EC thresholds of 20mgkg(-1) in 19% of Amaranthus while Pb exceeded WHO thresholds of 0.3mgkg(-1) in 47% of Amaranthus vegetables. In bananas, 20% of samples contained Pb concentrations that exceeded the WHO/FAO recommended threshold of 0.3mgkg(-1). However, risk assessment of local foods and water, based on hazard quotients (HQ values) revealed no potential health effects. The high external contamination of volunteers' toenails with some elements (even after a washing process) calls into question their use as a biomarker for metal exposure in human populations where feet are frequently exposed to soil dust. Any mitigation of Kilembe mine impacts should be aimed at remediation of agricultural soils, regulating the discharge of underground contaminated water but also containment of tailing erosion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nodular worm infection in wild chimpanzees in Western Uganda: a risk for human health?

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    Sabrina Krief

    Full Text Available This study focused on Oeosophagostomum sp., and more especially on O. bifurcum, as a parasite that can be lethal to humans and is widespread among humans and monkeys in endemic regions, but has not yet been documented in apes. Its epidemiology and the role played by non-human primates in its transmission are still poorly understood. O. stephanostomum was the only species diagnosed so far in chimpanzees. Until recently, O. bifurcum was assumed to have a high zoonotic potential, but recent findings tend to demonstrate that O. bifurcum of non-human primates and humans might be genetically distinct. As the closest relative to human beings, and a species living in spatial proximity to humans in the field site studied, Pan troglodytes is thus an interesting host to investigate. Recently, a role for chimpanzees in the emergence of HIV and malaria in humans has been documented. In the framework of our long-term health monitoring of wild chimpanzees from Kibale National Park in Western Uganda, we analysed 311 samples of faeces. Coproscopy revealed that high-ranking males are more infected than other individuals. These chimpanzees are also the more frequent crop-raiders. Results from PCR assays conducted on larvae and dried faeces also revealed that O. stephanostomum as well as O. bifurcum are infecting chimpanzees, both species co-existing in the same individuals. Because contacts between humans and great apes are increasing with ecotourism and forest fragmentation in areas of high population density, this paper emphasizes that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites should be viewed as a major concern for public health. Investigations of the parasite status of people living around the park or working inside as well as sympatric non-human primates should be planned, and further research might reveal this as a promising aspect of efforts to reinforce measures against crop-raiding.

  8. Nodular Worm Infection in Wild Chimpanzees in Western Uganda: A Risk for Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Sabrina; Vermeulen, Benjamin; Lafosse, Sophie; Kasenene, John M.; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Berthelemy, Madeleine; L'Hostis, Monique; Bain, Odile; Guillot, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on Oeosophagostomum sp., and more especially on O. bifurcum, as a parasite that can be lethal to humans and is widespread among humans and monkeys in endemic regions, but has not yet been documented in apes. Its epidemiology and the role played by non-human primates in its transmission are still poorly understood. O. stephanostomum was the only species diagnosed so far in chimpanzees. Until recently, O. bifurcum was assumed to have a high zoonotic potential, but recent findings tend to demonstrate that O. bifurcum of non-human primates and humans might be genetically distinct. As the closest relative to human beings, and a species living in spatial proximity to humans in the field site studied, Pan troglodytes is thus an interesting host to investigate. Recently, a role for chimpanzees in the emergence of HIV and malaria in humans has been documented. In the framework of our long-term health monitoring of wild chimpanzees from Kibale National Park in Western Uganda, we analysed 311 samples of faeces. Coproscopy revealed that high-ranking males are more infected than other individuals. These chimpanzees are also the more frequent crop-raiders. Results from PCR assays conducted on larvae and dried faeces also revealed that O. stephanostomum as well as O. bifurcum are infecting chimpanzees, both species co-existing in the same individuals. Because contacts between humans and great apes are increasing with ecotourism and forest fragmentation in areas of high population density, this paper emphasizes that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites should be viewed as a major concern for public health. Investigations of the parasite status of people living around the park or working inside as well as sympatric non-human primates should be planned, and further research might reveal this as a promising aspect of efforts to reinforce measures against crop-raiding. PMID:20300510

  9. Molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and economic aspects of tuberculosis in Mubende district, Uganda.

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    Adrian Muwonge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB remains a global public health problem whose effects have major impact in developing countries like Uganda. This study aimed at investigating genotypic characteristics and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from suspected TB patients. Furthermore, risk factors and economic burdens that could affect the current control strategies were studied. METHODS: TB suspected patients were examined in a cross-sectional study at the Mubende regional referral hospital between February and July 2011. A questionnaire was administered to each patient to obtain information associated with TB prevalence. Isolates of M. tuberculosis recovered during sampling were examined for drug resistance to first line anti-TB drugs using the BACTEC-MGIT960(TM system. All isolates were further characterized using deletion analysis, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR analysis. Data were analyzed using different software; MIRU-VNTR plus, SITVITWEB, BioNumerics and multivariable regression models. RESULTS: M. tuberculosis was isolated from 74 out of 344 patients, 48 of these were co-infected with HIV. Results from the questionnaire showed that previously treated TB, co-infection with HIV, cigarette smoking, and overcrowding were risk factors associated with TB, while high medical related transport bills were identified as an economic burden. Out of the 67 isolates that gave interpretable results, 23 different spoligopatterns were detected, nine of which were novel patterns. T2 with the sub types Uganda-I and Uganda-II was the most predominant lineage detected. Antibiotic resistance was detected in 19% and multidrug resistance was detected in 3% of the isolates. CONCLUSION: The study detected M. tuberculosis from 21% of examined TB patients, 62% of whom were also HIV positive. There is a heterogeneous pool of genotypes that circulate in this area, with the T2 lineage being the most predominant. High medical related transport bills

  10. Structure of the Red Dog District, western Brooks Range, Alaska

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    de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; McClay, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog district of the western Brooks Range of northern Alaska, which includes the sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag ± Ba deposits at Red Dog, Su-Lik, and Anarraaq, contains one of the world's largest reserves of zinc. This paper presents a new model for the structural development of the area and shows that understanding the structure is crucial for future exploration efforts and new mineral discoveries in the district. In the Red Dog district, a telescoped Late Devonian through Jurassic continental passive margin is exposed in a series of subhorizontally stacked, internally imbricated, and regionally folded thrust sheets. These sheets were emplaced during the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Brookian orogeny and subsequently were uplifted by late tectonic activity in the Tertiary. The thrust sheet stack comprises seven tectonostratigraphically distinct allochthonous sheets, three of which have been subject to regional and detailed structural analysis. The lowermost of these is the Endicott Mountains allochthon, which is overlain by the structurally higher Picnic Creek and Kelly River allochthons. Each individual allochthon is itself internally imbricated into a series of tectonostratigraphically coherent and distinct thrust plates and subplates. This structural style gives rise to duplex development and imbrication at a range of scales, from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The variable mechanical properties of the lithologic units of the ancient passive margin resulted in changes in structural styles and scales of structures across allochthon boundaries. Structural mapping and analysis of the district indicate a dominant northwest to west-northwest direction of regional tectonic transport. Local north to north-northeast transport of thrust sheets is interpreted to reflect the influence of underlying lateral and/or oblique ramps, which may have been controlled by inherited basin margin structures. Some thrust-sheet stacking patterns suggest out

  11. Strongyloides stercoralis: a field-based survey of mothers and their preschool children using ELISA, Baermann and Koga plate methods reveals low endemicity in western Uganda.

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    Stothard, J R; Pleasant, J; Oguttu, D; Adriko, M; Galimaka, R; Ruggiana, A; Kazibwe, F; Kabatereine, N B

    2008-09-01

    To ascertain the current status of strongyloidiasis in mothers and their preschool children, a field-based survey was conducted in western Uganda using a combination of diagnostic methods: ELISA, Baermann concentration and Koga agar plate. The prevalence of other soil-transmitted helminthiasis and intestinal schistosomiasis were also determined. In total, 158 mothers and 143 children were examined from five villages within Kabale, Hoima and Masindi districts. In mothers and children, the general prevalence of strongyloidiasis inferred by ELISA was approximately 4% and approximately 2%, respectively. Using the Baermann concentration method, two parasitologically proven cases were encountered in an unrelated mother and child, both of whom were sero-negative for strongyloidiasis. No infections were detected by Koga agar plate method. The general level of awareness of strongyloidiasis was very poor ( < 5%) in comparison to schistosomiasis (51%) and ascariasis (36%). Strongyloidiasis is presently at insufficient levels to justify inclusion within a community treatment programme targeting maternal and child health. Better epidemiological screening is needed, however, especially identifying infections in HIV-positive women of childbearing age. In the rural clinic setting, further use of the Baermann concentration method would appear to be the most immediate and pragmatic option for disease diagnosis.

  12. Risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goat herds in eastern and western Uganda.

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    Kabagambe, E K; Elzer, P H; Geaghan, J P; Opuda-Asibo, J; Scholl, D T; Miller, J E

    2001-12-03

    Cross-sectional prevalences and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goats in eastern and western Uganda were investigated. Serum was collected from 1518 goats randomly selected from 145 herds which had been identified using multistage sampling. The brucellosis card test (CT) and the Brucella melitensis tube-agglutination test (TAT) were used in parallel to detect antibodies against B. abortus and B. melitensis, respectively. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on goat health and management. This information was used in multivariable logistic-regression models to determine the risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in goat herds. For each analysis, a herd was considered positive if at least one goat in the herd tested positive for antibodies against Brucella and negative if none was positive. Four percent (55/1480) of the goats screened with the CT had antibodies against Brucella. The reactors were distributed in 13% (19/145) of the herds. The most-important herd-level risk factors identified were use of a hired caretaker as the primary manager of the operation compared to owner/family members (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=8.1; 95% CI 1.6, 39.7), keeping sheep in addition to goats (OR=6.0; CI 1.5, 23.7) compared to having no sheep, and free browsing (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.0, 20.7) when compared to tethering or zero-grazing. Using the TAT, 10% (141/1446) of the goats tested positive. The positives were distributed in 43% (63/145) of the herds. Free browsing (OR=6.7; 95% CI 2.7, 16.9) when compared to tethering or zero-grazing and lack of veterinary care (OR=2.9; CI 1.3, 6.7) were the most-important factors identified in the multivariable model for B. melitensis herd seropositivity. To explore/reduce the risk of misclassification in a secondary analysis, herds were reclassified as positive if at least one goat tested positive on both tests and negative if none of the goats was positive on any of the two tests. Using this

  13. Capacity of Health Facilities to Manage Hypertension in Mukono and Buikwe Districts in Uganda: Challenges and Recommendations.

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    Geofrey Musinguzi

    Full Text Available The burden of chronic diseases is increasing in both low- and middle-income countries. However, healthcare systems in low-income countries are inadequately equipped to deal with the growing disease burden, which requires chronic care for patients. The aim of this study was to assess the capacity of health facilities to manage hypertension in two districts in Uganda.In a cross-sectional study conducted between June and October 2012, we surveyed 126 health facilities (6 hospitals, 4 Health Center IV (HCIV, 23 Health Center III (HCIII, 41 Health Center II (HCII and 52 private clinics/dispensaries in Mukono and Buikwe districts in Uganda. We assessed records, conducted structured interviews with heads of facilities, and administered questionnaires to 271 health workers. The study assessed service provision for hypertension, availability of supplies such as medicines, guidelines and equipment, in-service training for hypertension, knowledge of hypertension management, challenges and recommendations.Of the 126 health facilities, 92.9% reported managing (diagnosing/treating patients with hypertension, and most (80.2% were run by non-medical doctors or non-physician health workers (NPHW. Less than half (46% of the facilities had guidelines for managing hypertension. A 10th of the facilities lacked functioning blood pressure devices and 28% did not have stethoscopes. No facilities ever calibrated their BP devices except one. About a half of the facilities had anti-hypertensive medicines in stock; mainly thiazide diuretics (46%, beta blockers (56% and calcium channel blockers (48.4%. Alpha blockers, mixed alpha & beta blockers and angiotensin II receptor antagonists were only stocked by private clinics/dispensaries. Most HCIIs lacked anti-hypertensive medicines, including the first line thiazide diuretics. Significant knowledge gaps in classification of patients as hypertensive were noted among respondents. All health workers (except 5, 1.9% indicated

  14. Factors that influence pig production in Central Uganda - Case study of Nangabo Sub-County, Wakiso district

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    Dennis Muhanguzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the factors affecting pig production in Nangabo Sub-County, Wakiso District, Central Uganda. Materials and Methods: A total of 11% (1350/12783 of all households in the Nangabo Sub-County kept pigs. The systematic sampling technique was used to complete the list of all pig farming households. This was done by taking 10th farming household until 10% of all the farming households were sampled. A total of 135 farmers were interviewed with semi- structured questionnaire. Questionnaire data was entered into Microsoft Excel worksheet and trans-ferred into Statistical Package for Social Scientists Results: Results indicated that 49.6 % of the pigs were raised in the semi-intensive system while 31%, 12% and 8% of the farmers kept pigs on intensive, tethering and free range rearing systems respectively. Farmers that raised their pigs on what is hereby referred to as semi-intensive and intensive management systems allowed their pigs up to five and two hours of open foraging respectively. Ninety eight percent of the farmers provided housing to their pigs and the commonest pig houses were local mud houses and a few of them were tree shades. Majority of farmers (85.2% watered their pigs at least once a day. The major factors limiting pig production were; diseases and parasites mainly helminthosis and African swine fever (ASF. Others included; high costs of inputs, lack of capital, unstable availability of feed resources, inadequate advisory services and feed price fluctuation (maize bran, sow and weaner, lack of good quality breeding stock, poor and unorganized marketing, lack of enough land, high costs of veterinary medicines and inability to keep records. Additionally, lack of enough water and uncontrolled pig movement grossly limited the pig production in Wakiso district. Most Ugandans keep their pigs in peri-urban areas of Uganda. It was however, noted that there were important limitations for pig production in the country. To improve pig

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda

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    Clarke Siân

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1 passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2 a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.

  16. LCT pegmatites from the Wodgina pegmatite district, Western Australia

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    Richter, Lisa; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone and Mt. Cassiterite open pits are located within the Wodgina pegmatite district, about 130 km south of Port Hedland, Western Australia. The albite-spodumene and albite-type pegmatites of the Wodgina pegmatite district are currently mined for tin, tantalum and niobium. The pegmatites are hosted within the Archean East-Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrane linked to the fertile Numbana monzogranite that forms part of the Yule Granitoid Complex. Granitic melt intruded into metasedimentary rocks (~2.8 Ga) and formed a series of pegmatite sheets, dikes and irregular structures. These pegmatites are characterized by a high melt fractionation that led to the formation of pegmatitic minerals, containing high concentrations of rare elements, such as Ta, Nb, Li, Rb and Cs. The pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone sheet open pit, which were investigated within this study, comprises four internal zones consisting of six mineral assemblages, dominated by quartz, albite and white mica, with K-feldspar and spodumene as major or minor constituents. Distribution patterns of cassiterite and Ta-Nb-Sn-oxide minerals (ixiolite/wodginite, tantalite/columbite and microlite) can be observed within the four different pegmatite zones. The contact zones are enriched in cassiterite, ixiolite and microlite; border zones reveal high concentrations of cassiterite, ixiolite and tantalite; the intermediate units are characterized by a moderate enrichment of the ore minerals; whereby core zones host almost no significant contents of the minerals mentioned above. Distribution of Ta-Nb-Sn-oxides within the zones and Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios are indicators for melt fractionation, and change from the core zones to the outermost contact zones, as well as from north to south. Electron microprobe analyses on white mica show the existence of fractionation trends from more primitive white mica of the core zones (zinnwaldite) to higher

  17. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda

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    Gerald Zirintunda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended.

  18. Community awareness about risk factors, presentation and prevention and obstetric fistula in Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Uganda

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    2013-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a worldwide problem that is devastating for women in developing countries. The cardinal cause of obstetric fistula is prolonged obstructed labour and delay in seeking emergency obstetric care. Awareness about obstetric fistula is still low in developing countries. The objective was to assess the awareness about risk factors of obstetric fistulae in rural communities of Nabitovu village, Iganga district, Eastern Uganda. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussion for males and females aged 18-49 years, to explore and gain deeper understanding of their awareness of existence, causes, clinical presentation and preventive measures for obstetric fistula. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. Results The majority of the women and a few men were aware about obstetric fistula, though many had misconceptions regarding its causes, clinical presentation and prevention. Some wrongly attributed fistula to misuse of family planning, having sex during the menstruation period, curses by relatives, sexually transmitted infections, rape and gender-based violence. However, others attributed the fistula to delays to access medical care, induced abortions, conception at an early age, utilization of traditional birth attendants at delivery, and some complications that could occur during surgical operations for difficult deliveries. Conclusion Most of the community members interviewed were aware of the risk factors of obstetric fistula. Some respondents, predominantly men, had misconceptions/myths about risk factors of obstetric fistula as being caused by having sex during menstrual periods, poor usage of family planning, being a curse. PMID:24321441

  19. Risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along the Uganda-Kenya border.

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    Nantima, Noelina; Ocaido, Michael; Ouma, Emily; Davies, Jocelyn; Dione, Michel; Okoth, Edward; Mugisha, Anthony; Bishop, Richard

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess risk factors associated with occurrence of African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks in smallholder pig farms in four districts along Kenya-Uganda border. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 642 randomly selected pig households in the study area. The study showed that the major risk factors that influenced ASF occurrence were purchase of pigs in the previous year (p pigs with swill (p pig production types were identified based on production characteristics that were found to differ significantly between districts. The most vulnerable cluster to ASF was households with the highest reported number of ASF outbreaks and composed of those that practiced free range at least some of the time. The majority of the households in this cluster were from Busia district in Uganda. On the other hand, the least vulnerable cluster to ASF composed of households that had the least number of pig purchases, minimal swill feeding, and less treatment for internal and external parasites. The largest proportion of households in this cluster was from Busia district Kenya. The study recommended the need to sensitize farmers to adopt proper biosecurity practices such as total confinement of pigs, treatment of swill, isolation of newly purchased pigs for at least 2 weeks, and provision of incentives for farmers to report suspected outbreaks to authorities and rapid confirmation of outbreaks.

  20. Around Uganda.

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    1998-07-01

    The UK is donating US$800,000 to Uganda to reduce the death rate in the western region; the number of cases of malaria there has soared because of unusually severe rains. The health ministry is recommending self-medication with drugs purchased from licensed drug shops and pharmacies (there have been cases of fake or substandard chloroquine tablets and injectable solutions). Cholera is a problem in most of the country, but patients seem reluctant to go to the hospital, even though adequate supplies of drugs are available. Because of the Rift Valley Fever outbreak in Kenya, the health ministry is monitoring movements of people in the border area and conducting a mass screening for the disease. The Mulago National Referral Hospital is receiving US$35 million to improve wards and utilities and to build a new drug quality control laboratory. A training hospital which will provide palliative care for patients with AIDS has opened recently; it is a collaborative project with Mildmay Hospital in the UK. During its regional scientific conference in Masaka, members of the Association of Surgeons of East Africa and Central Africa offered free services to patients in Masaka and Rakai districts. According to the Minister of State for Gender and Community Development, fewer Ugandan women are being circumcised; the rate has dropped by 56% since 1990, due to the efforts of government and women's groups. However, other forms of violence against women remain a problem; the Family Protection Unit of the Ugandan police list 400 reported cases of wife beating, 150 cases of rape, and 250 cases of "defilement of school girls." Police intend to work with teachers to decrease the rising rate of sexual crimes in school. Police also say 90% of street children sniff solvents.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis spoligotypes and drug susceptibility pattern of isolates from tuberculosis patients in South-Western Uganda

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    Bwanga Freddie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of the prevalence and drug susceptibility of the M. tuberculosis strains is important in tuberculosis control. We determined the genetic diversity and susceptibility profiles of mycobacteria isolated from tuberculosis patients in Mbarara, South Western Uganda. Methods We enrolled, consecutively; all newly diagnosed and previously treated smear-positive TB patients aged ≥ 18 years. The isolates were characterized using regions of difference (RD analysis and spoligotyping. Drug resistance against rifampicin and isoniazid were tested using the Genotype® MDRTBplus assay and the indirect proportion method on Lowenstein-Jensen media. HIV-1 testing was performed using two rapid HIV tests. Results A total of 125 isolates from 167 TB suspects (60% males with a mean age 33.7 years and HIV prevalence of 67.9% (55/81 were analyzed. Majority (92.8% were new cases while only 7.2% were retreatment cases. All the 125 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis strict sense with the majority (92.8% of the isolates being modern strains while seven (7.2% isolates were ancestral strains. Spoligotyping revealed 79 spoligotype patterns, with an overall diversity of 63.2%. Sixty two (49.6% of the isolates formed 16 clusters consisting of 2-15 isolates each. A majority (59.2% of the isolates belong to the Uganda genotype group of strains. The major shared spoligotypes in our sample were SIT 135 (T2-Uganda with 15 isolates and SIT 128 (T2 with 3 isolates. Sixty nine (87% of the 79 patterns had not yet been defined in the SpolDB4.0.database. Resistance mutations to either RIF or INH were detected in 6.4% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance, INH and RIF resistance was 1.6%, 3.2% and 4.8%, respectively. The rpoβ gene mutations seen in the sample were D516V, S531L, H526Y H526D and D516V, while one strain had a Δ1 mutation in the wild type probes. There were three strains with katG (codon 315 gene mutations only while one strain

  2. Enhancing knowledge and awareness of biosecurity practices for control of African swine fever among smallholder pig farmers in four districts along the Kenya-Uganda border.

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    Nantima, Noelina; Davies, Jocelyn; Dione, Michel; Ocaido, Michael; Okoth, Edward; Mugisha, Anthony; Bishop, Richard

    2016-04-01

    A study was undertaken along the Kenya-Uganda border in four districts of Tororo and Busia (Uganda) and Busia and Teso (Kenya) to understand smallholder farmers' knowledge, practices and awareness of biosecurity measures. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 645 randomly selected pig households in the study area. In addition, focus group discussions were carried out in 12 villages involving 248 people using a standardized list of questions. The outcome suggested that there was a very low level of awareness of biosecurity practices amongst smallholder farmers. We conclude that adoption of specific biosecurity practices by smallholder farmers is feasible but requires institutional support. There is a clear requirement for government authorities to sensitize farmers using approaches that allow active participation of farmers in the design, planning and implementation of biosecurity practices to enable enhanced adoption.

  3. Land slide disaster in eastern Uganda: rapid assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene situation in Bulucheke camp, Bududa district

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    Musenero Monica

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 1st March 2010, a major landslide occurred on Mt. Elgon in Eastern Uganda. This was triggered by heavy rains that lasted over three months. The landslide buried three villages in Bududa district, killing over 400 and displacing an estimate of 5,000 people. A comprehensive assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene was urgently needed to inform interventions by the Ministries of Health, and Relief, Disaster Preparedness and Refugees, Uganda. Methods This was a cross-sectional study where both qualitative and quantitative data were collected two weeks after the disaster. Quantitative interviews involved 397 heads of households and qualitative methods comprised of 27 Key Informant interviews, four focus group discussions and observations. The survey quantified water safety (collection, treatment, storage and hygiene practices. This was supplemented and triangulated with qualitative data that focused on community perceptions and beliefs regarding water and sanitation needs and practices. Quantitative data was entered in Epi-Info Version 3.2.2 software and then exported to SPSS Version 12 for analysis. Summary statistics and proportions were generated and bi-variable analysis performed for selected variables. Associations were assessed using odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Results Qualitative results showed that there were strong traditional beliefs governing water use and human excreta disposal. The use of river Manafwa water for household consumption was observed to potentially lead to disease outbreaks. Water from this river was reported tastier and the community culturally saw no need to boil drinking water. Latrines were few (23 for 5000 people, shallow, dirty (70% reported flies, 60% fecal littering, not separated by sex and had limited privacy and no light at night. This affected their use. Males were 3 times more likely to wash hands with soap after latrine

  4. Agroforestry and Management of Trees in Bunya County, Mayuge District, Uganda

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    Monica Kyarikunda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Woody plant resources continue to disappear in anthropogenic landscapes in Uganda. To slow down further loss of these resources requires the collaboration of farmers in tree planting in agroforestry systems. Tree planting interventions with the collaboration of farmers require a good understanding of tree management practices as well as trees that best satisfy farmers’ needs. We carried out this research to determine (1 the most preferred tree species and reasons why they are preferred, (2 the species conservation statuses, and (3 existing tree management practices and challenges to tree planting. Fourteen priority species valued because they yield edible fruits and timber have been prioritised in this study. Farmers are interested in managing trees but are constrained by many factors, key among which is scarcity of land and financial capital to manage tree planting. Trees are managed in crop fields and around the homestead. From farmers’ reports, the highly valued species are increasing in the landscape. In conclusion, the potential to manage trees in agroforestry systems exists but is hampered by many challenges. Secondly, the liking of trees that supply edible fruits seems to support the welfare maximisation theory which ideally states that rural people manage trees with the aim of having regular access to products that satisfy their household needs and not for income generation.

  5. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in a rural population in South-Western Uganda: a community based survey.

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    Gershim Asiki

    Full Text Available The burden of dyslipidaemia is rising in many low income countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, dyslipidaemia in Africa.In 2011, we used the WHO Stepwise approach to collect cardiovascular risk data within a general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda. Dyslipidaemia was defined by high total cholesterol (TC ≥ 5.2 mmol/L or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 6% (men aOR=3.00, 95%CI=1.37-6.59; women aOR=2.74, 95%CI=1.77-4.27. The odds of high TC was also higher among married men, and women with higher education or high BMI.Low HDL-C prevalence in this relatively young rural population is high whereas high TC prevalence is low. The consequences of dyslipidaemia in African populations remain unclear and prospective follow-up is required.

  6. No difference in sexual behavior of adolescent girls following Human Papilloma Virus vaccination: a case study two districts in Uganda; Nakasongola and Luwero.

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    Aujo, Judith Caroline; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Kiguli, Sarah; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-02-12

    Vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) before sexual debut has been recommended by WHO as a primary prevention strategy against cervical cancer. In Uganda, vaccination against HPV started as a demonstration project among young girls in Nakasongola; and Ibanda districts. Studies have suggested that vaccination against HPV could result in risky sexual behavior and increase the risk of early sexual debut.This study was done to compare the sexual behavior of HPV vaccinated and non vaccinated adolescent girls in two neighboring districts in Uganda; and to assess whether HPV vaccination had any influence on sexual behavior of vaccinated adolescent girls. This was an unmatched comparative study, which used both qualitative and quantitative study methods. It was carried out among 400 primary school girls aged 12 to 15 years in the districts of Nakasongola (vaccinated) and Luwero (non vaccinated). Quantitative data was collected using a questionnaire while qualitative data was obtained using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The main outcome measure was the number of sexually active girls in each group. Of the 400 girls, 8 volunteered information that they were sexually active, 5(2.5%) from Luwero (non vaccinated) and 3 (1.5%) from Nakasongola (vaccinated), but there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. HPV vaccination was not significantly associated with being sexually active. There was no significant difference in sexual behavior between vaccinated and non vaccinated girls.

  7. Use of alternative medicine for hypertension in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda: a cross sectional study.

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    Nuwaha, Fred; Musinguzi, Geofrey

    2013-11-04

    Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine. In a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of alternative medicine for hypertension, advice about uptake of life style intervention for hypertension control such as reduction of salt intake and about their attitude towards use of alternative medicine. Proportions of people who used alternative medicine and adopt life style interventions and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Predictors of using alternative medicine were identified using logistic binary regression analysis. More than a half 144 (56.2%) had ever used alternative medicine whereas more than one in four 74 (28.6%) were currently using alternative medicine alone or in combination with modern medicine (50%). People who were using alternative medicine alone (29.7% CI 17.5-45.9) were less likely to have received advice on reduction of salt intake compared to those using modern medicine alone or in combination with traditional medicine (56.6%, CI 47.7-65.0). The only independent predictor for using alternative medicine was agreeing that alternative medicine is effective for treatment of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6; 95% CI 1.40-4.82). The use of alternative medicine was common among patients with hypertension and usage was underpinned by the belief that alternative medicine is effective. As patients with hypertension use alternative medicine and modern medicine concurrently, there is need for open communication between health workers and patients regarding use of alternative medicine.

  8. Promising perceptions, divergent practices and barriers to integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda: a mixed methods study.

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    Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 -0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.98). Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication channels

  9. Promising perceptions, divergent practices and barriers to integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda: a mixed methods study.

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    David Musoke

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda.A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages.Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%, removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%, clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%, and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%. If trained, most participants (68.6% would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2% and cost (32.0%. Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 -0.53 and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.98.Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication

  10. The pathway of obstructed labour as perceived by communities in south-western Uganda: a grounded theory study

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    Jerome K. Kabakyenga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Uganda, where many women give birth at home alone or assisted by non-skilled birth attendants. Little is known of how the community view obstructed labour, and what actions they take in cases where this complication occurs. Objective : The objective of the study was to explore community members’ understanding of and actions taken in cases of obstructed labour in south-western Uganda. Design : Grounded theory (GT was used to analyse data from 20 focus group discussions (FGDs, 10 with women and 10 with men, which were conducted in eight rural and two urban communities. Results : A conceptual model based on the community members’ understanding of obstructed labour and actions taken in response is presented as a pathway initiated by women's desire to ‘protecting own integrity’ (core category. The pathway consisted of six other categories closely linked to the core category, namely: (1 ‘taking control of own birth process’; (2 ‘reaching the limit – failing to give birth’ (individual level; (3 ‘exhausting traditional options’; 4 ‘partner taking charge’; (5 ‘facing challenging referral conditions’ (community level; and finally (6 ‘enduring a non-responsive healthcare system’ (healthcare system level. Conclusions : There is a need to understand and acknowledge women's reluctance to involve others during childbirth. However, the healthcare system should provide acceptable care and a functional referral system closer to the community, thus supporting the community's ability to seek timely care as a response to obstructed labour. Easy access to mobile phones may improve referral systems. Upgrading of infrastructure in the region requires a multi-sectoral approach. Testing of the conceptual model through a quantitative questionnaire is recommended.

  11. Mental Health in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities in Introducing Western Mental Health System in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of disagreement among mental health practitioners and researchers in the Western world pertaining to the causation, classification and treatment of mental disorders there is an ongoing push to implement western mental health models in developing countries. Little information exists on the adaptability of western mental health models in developing countries. Method: This paper presents a review of the attempt to implement a western-oriented mental health system ...

  12. Prevalence of Sexual Experience and Initiation of Sexual Intercourse Among Adolescents, Rakai District, Uganda, 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santelli, John S; Song, Xiaoyu; Larsen Holden, Inge Kristine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors and time trends for sexual experience and sexual debut in rural Uganda. METHODS: Using population-based, longitudinal data from 15- to 19-year olds in Rakai, Uganda, we examined temporal trends in the prevalence of sexual experience...... youth in Rakai was associated with social factors particularly school enrollment. Changes in these social factors also appear to influence change over time in sexual experience....

  13. Lost in transition: HIV prevalence and correlates of infection among young people living in post-emergency phase transit camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda.

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    Sheetal Patel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Little is known about HIV infection and the related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs following two decades of war in northern Uganda. The objective of this analysis was to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among young people living in post-conflict transition in Gulu District, northern Uganda. METHODS: In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted in two of Gulu District's sub-counties with 384 purposively selected transit camp residents aged 15 to 29 years. Biological specimens were collected for rapid HIV testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent determinants of HIV infection. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was alarmingly high at 12.8% (95% CI: 9.6%, 16.5%. The strongest determinant of HIV infection among young people was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.88; 95% CI: 1.70-18.06. Residing in Awach sub-county (AOR, 2.93; 95% CI: 1.28-6.68, experiencing STI symptoms in the previous 12 months (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.43-6.17, and practicing dry sex (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI: 1.04-5.13 were other key determinants of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings contribute to filling an important gap in epidemiological evidence and are useful for planning public health interventions in northern Uganda that effectively target young people in post-conflict transition and support them in the resettlement process. Findings serve to recommend reaching beyond traditional prevention programming in a way more effectively beneficial to young people in post-conflict settings by developing population-specific responses sensitive to local contexts and sufficient to address the underlying causes of the complex risk factors influencing the spread of HIV.

  14. Psychological distress and associated factors among the attendees of traditional healing practices in Jinja and Iganga districts, Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

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    Okello Elialilia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units

  15. Farmers' awareness on landslide susceptibility on their plots: a first step towards household resilience in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda

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    Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Lies; Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet

    2016-04-01

    In the mountainous area of the Rwenzori region, western Uganda, landslides frequently destroy houses and plots of farmers living and cultivating on unstable slopes. The impact of these landslides on the local livelihoods depends on the exposure and the resilience of the households. Both the exposure and the resilience can be modified to a certain extent with specific measures, e.g. planting slope stabilizing trees of paying for (informal) insurance. The adoption of such measures and the willingness to accept measures imposed by local governments crucially depends on the local awareness of landslide risk. The aim of this research is to estimate awareness on landslide susceptibility, as a proxy for landslide risk, among household heads in a landslide prone area in the Rwenzori region, Western Uganda. The objective is to compare household and plot characteristics between aware and unaware households. This will allow us to identify those households which are less aware of landslide susceptibility and therefore most likely to be less resilient when exposed to landslide risk. We use data from a susceptibility map constructed in 2016 and a structured household survey conducted in the Rwenzori region in 2015. The susceptibility map is based on a SRTM 30m DEM and validated with field observations, while the household survey includes the answers of more than 450 households that have been asked to evaluate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. Simple probit models at plot level are used to compare the estimated landslide susceptibility with the modelled susceptibility. We use this comparison to identify the household characteristics of those households that do not correctly estimate the landslide susceptibility on their plots. We will exploit the fact that landslide susceptibility is very space specific and that households can therefore have plots in both susceptible and unsusceptible areas. The research is currently ongoing, but we hypothesize that younger farmers

  16. Masculinity, social context and HIV testing: an ethnographic study of men in Busia district, rural eastern Uganda.

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    Siu, Godfrey E; Wight, Daniel; Seeley, Janet A

    2014-01-13

    Uptake of HIV testing by men remains low in high prevalence settings in many parts of Africa. By focusing on masculinity, this study explores the social context and relations that shape men's access to HIV testing in Mam-Kiror, Busia district, rural eastern Uganda. From 2009-2010 in-depth interviews were undertaken with 26 men: nine being treated for HIV, eight who had tested but dropped out of treatment, six not tested but who suspected HIV infection and three with other health problems unrelated to HIV. These data were complemented by participant observation. Thematic analysis was undertaken. There were two main categories of masculinity in Mam-Kiror, one based on 'reputation' and the other on 'respectability', although some of their ideals overlapped. The different forms of masculine esteem led to different motives for HIV testing. Men positioned HIV testing as a social process understood within the social context and relationships men engaged in rather than an entirely self-determined enterprise. Wives' inferior power meant that they had less influence on men's testing compared to friends and work colleagues who discussed frankly HIV risk and testing. Couple testing exposed men's extra-marital relationships, threatening masculine esteem. The fear to undermine opportunities for sex in the context of competition for partners was a barrier to testing by men. The construction of men as resilient meant that they delayed to admit to problems and seek testing. However, the respectable masculine ideal to fulfil responsibilities and obligations to family was a strong motivator to seeking an HIV test and treatment by men. The two main forms of masculine ideals prevailing in Mam-Kiror in Busia led men to have different motives for HIV testing. Reputational masculinity was largely inconsistent with the requirements of couple testing, community outreach testing and the organisation of testing services, discouraging men from testing. Conversely, concern to perform one

  17. Profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in two districts of Eastern Uganda

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    Catherine Abbo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : The WHO estimates that more than 80% of African populations attend traditional healers for health reasons and that 40%–60% of these have some kind of mental illness. However, little is known about the profiles and outcome of this traditional approach to treatment. Objective : The purpose of this study was to describe the profiles and outcome of traditional healing practices for severe mental illnesses in Jinja and Iganga districts in the Busoga region of Eastern Uganda. Methods : Four studies were conducted. Study I used focus group discussions (FGDs with case vignettes with local community members and traditional healers to explore the lay concepts of psychosis. Studies II and III concerned a cross-sectional survey of patients above 18 years at the traditional healer's shrines and study IV was made on a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with psychosis in study III. Manual content analysis was used in study I; quantitative data in studies II, III, and IV were analyzed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels to determine the association between psychological distress and socio-demographic factors; for study IV, factors associated with outcome were analyzed. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was the analysis used in Study IV. Results : The community gave indigenous names to psychoses (mania, schizophrenia, and psychotic depression and had multiple explanatory models for them. Thus multiple solutions for these problems were sought. Of the 387 respondents, the prevalence of psychological distress was 65.1%, where 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness, and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Over 80% of patients with psychosis used both biomedical and traditional healing systems. Those who combined these two systems seemed to have a better outcome. All the symptom scales showed a percentage reduction of more than 20% at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Conclusion : Traditional healers shoulder a

  18. Masculinity, social context and HIV testing: an ethnographic study of men in Busia district, rural eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Uptake of HIV testing by men remains low in high prevalence settings in many parts of Africa. By focusing on masculinity, this study explores the social context and relations that shape men’s access to HIV testing in Mam-Kiror, Busia district, rural eastern Uganda. Methods From 2009–2010 in-depth interviews were undertaken with 26 men: nine being treated for HIV, eight who had tested but dropped out of treatment, six not tested but who suspected HIV infection and three with other health problems unrelated to HIV. These data were complemented by participant observation. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Results There were two main categories of masculinity in Mam-Kiror, one based on ‘reputation’ and the other on ‘respectability’, although some of their ideals overlapped. The different forms of masculine esteem led to different motives for HIV testing. Men positioned HIV testing as a social process understood within the social context and relationships men engaged in rather than an entirely self-determined enterprise. Wives’ inferior power meant that they had less influence on men’s testing compared to friends and work colleagues who discussed frankly HIV risk and testing. Couple testing exposed men’s extra-marital relationships, threatening masculine esteem. The fear to undermine opportunities for sex in the context of competition for partners was a barrier to testing by men. The construction of men as resilient meant that they delayed to admit to problems and seek testing. However, the respectable masculine ideal to fulfil responsibilities and obligations to family was a strong motivator to seeking an HIV test and treatment by men. Conclusion The two main forms of masculine ideals prevailing in Mam-Kiror in Busia led men to have different motives for HIV testing. Reputational masculinity was largely inconsistent with the requirements of couple testing, community outreach testing and the organisation of testing services, discouraging men

  19. Community referral in home management of malaria in western Uganda: A case series study

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    Nsungwa-Sabiiti Jesca

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Challenges in tuberculosis care in Western Uganda: Health care worker and patient perspectives

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    Ashley Wynne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uganda is one of the high burden countries that contribute 80% of the world’s tuberculosis (TB burden. Health care worker and patient perspectives provide valuable insight into gaps between policy and practice within tuberculosis control program. This study was part of a larger mixed-methods study to explore knowledge and stigma around HIV, TB and TB/HIV co-infection. We conducted a secondary analysis of the qualitative data. Findings related to challenges faced by health care workers and patients. Patient’s identified delays in diagnosis and financial burden associated with TB treatment. Health care workers called for more training on TB and TB/HIV co-infection, and identified poor referral practices between health units and lack of program funding resulting in the abandonment of DOTS programs. Training for health care workers is needed to better manage TB/HIV co-infected patients. Overall health system strengthening is needed, including referral systems tracking patients between health centers.

  1. LANDSCAPE-FUNCTIONAL ZONING OF CITY TERRITORIES (THE CASE OF EASTERN AND WESTERN DISTRICTS OF MOSCOW

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    I. A. Labutina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodical approaches to landscape-functional mapping based on functional zoning and analysis of the landscape structure were developed. The technique was tested for the geoinformation mapping of Eastern and Western Districts of Moscow. The synthetic landscape-functional maps of the districts in scale of 1:50 000 showing the differentiation of urban landscapes in the degree of accumulation and the environmental risk of soils and snow cover pollution with heavy metals was compiled.

  2. High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda

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    John Rubaihayo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A population-based HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7 but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3 (c2=0.76, P=0.38. Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05. Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%, followed by prostitution (13.6%, alcoholism (10.1%, carelessness (10.1%, poverty (9.7%, ignorance (9.5%, rape (4.7%, drug abuse (3.6% and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc. (6.2%. Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm

  3. Chimpanzee responses to researchers in a disturbed forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, western Uganda.

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    McLennan, Matthew R; Hill, Catherine M

    2010-09-01

    We describe the behavior of a previously unstudied community of wild chimpanzees during opportunistic encounters with researchers in an unprotected forest-farm mosaic at Bulindi, Uganda. Data were collected during 115 encounters between May 2006 and January 2008. Individual responses were recorded during the first minute of visual contact. The most common responses were "ignore" for arboreal chimpanzees and "monitor" for terrestrial individuals. Chimpanzees rarely responded with "flight". Adult males were seen disproportionately often relative to adult females, and accounted for 90% of individual responses recorded for terrestrial animals. Entire encounters were also categorized based on the predominant response of the chimpanzee party to researcher proximity. The most frequent encounter type was "ignore" (36%), followed by "monitor" (21%), "intimidation" (18%) and "stealthy retreat" (18%). "Intimidation" encounters occurred when chimpanzees were contacted in dense forest where visibility was low, provoking intense alarm and agitation. Adult males occasionally acted together to repel researchers through aggressive mobbing and pursuit. Chimpanzee behavior during encounters reflects the familiar yet frequently agonistic relationship between apes and local people at Bulindi. The chimpanzees are not hunted but experience high levels of harassment from villagers. Human-directed aggression by chimpanzees may represent a strategy to accommodate regular disruptions to foraging effort arising from competitive encounters with people both in and outside forest. Average encounter duration and proportion of encounters categorized as "ignore" increased over time, whereas "intimidation" encounters decreased, indicating some habituation occurred during the study. Ecotourism aimed at promoting tolerance of wildlife through local revenue generation is one possible strategy for conserving great apes on public or private land. However, the data imply that habituating chimpanzees for

  4. Serotype Specificity of Antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Selected Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F.N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.;

    2010-01-01

    Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non...

  5. Efforts by Small-Scale Farmers to Maintain Soil Fertility and Their Impacts on Soil Properties, Luwero District, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Esser, K.B.; Zake, J.Y.K.

    2006-01-01

    Low soil fertility remains a major reason for rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. In light of the need to set priorities and formulate development policies, this study investigates efforts by farmers in central Uganda to maintain soil fertility, factors affecting their capacity to act and impacts o

  6. Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono district, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Mbonye, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    as a tool to improve malaria diagnosis, since they have proved accurate and easy to perform with minimal training. Although RDTs could feasibly be performed by drug shop vendors, it is not known how much customers would be willing to pay for an RDT if offered in these settings. We conducted a contingent...... valuation survey among drug shop customers in Mukono District, Uganda. Exit interviews were undertaken with customers aged 15 years and above after leaving a drug shop having purchased an antimalarial and/or paracetamol. The bidding game technique was used to elicit the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for an RDT...... for an RDT and a course of ACT among drug shop customers is considerably lower than prevailing and estimated end-user prices for these commodities. Increasing the uptake of ACTs in drug shops and restricting the sale of ACTs to parasitologically confirmed malaria will therefore require additional measures....

  7. "They don't care what happens to us." The situation of double orphans heading households in Rakai District, Uganda

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    Musisi Seggane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article is based on information collected about the situation of double orphans who are heading households in Rakai District, Uganda. The information will be used as justification and guidance for planning actions to improve the situation of these and similar children. This research is thus the first step in an Action Research approach leading to specific interventions. The aim of this article is to describe the situation of these orphaned children, with an emphasis on the psychosocial challenges they face. Methods The study involved interviews, focus group discussions, observations and narratives. Forty-three heads of sibling-headed households participated. Information derived from informal discussions with local leaders is also included. The responses were analyzed using a modified version of Giorgi's psychological phenomenological method as described by Malterud 1. Results Factors such as lack of material resources, including food and clothes, limited possibilities to attend school on a regular basis, vast responsibilities and reduced possibilities for social interaction all contribute to causing worries and challenges for the child heads of households. Most of the children claimed that they were stigmatized and, to a great extent, ignored and excluded from their community. The Local Council Secretary ("Chairman" seemed to be the person in the community most responsible and helpful, but some chairmen seemed not to care at all. The children requested counseling for themselves as well as for community members because they experienced lack of understanding from other children and from adult community members. Conclusion The children experienced their situation as a huge and complex problem for themselves as well as for people in their villages. However, the situation might improve if actions focused on practical and psychological issues as well as on sensitization about the children's situation could be initiated. In

  8. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

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    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder seven years after the conflict in three districts in northern Uganda (The Wayo-Nero Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, James; Muyinda, Herbert; Wandiembe, Peter; Kinyanda, Eugene

    2015-07-24

    Research on the prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is still limited in low income countries yet PTSD can be a public health problem in post conflict areas. In order to respond to the burden of PSTD in northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife for over two decades, we need accurate data on its (PTSD) prevalence and the associated risk factors to facilitate public mental health planning. This study employed a cross-sectional study design and data collection was undertaken in three districts in northern Uganda: Gulu, Amuru and Nwoya. Respondents were aged 18 years and above and were randomly selected at community level. A total of 2400 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in the three study districts. In this study, multivariate logistic regression was employed to analyze the associations of socio-demographic factors, trauma related variables and the outcome of PTSD. The prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in the study population was 11.8 % (95 % CI: 10.5 %, 13.1 %) with a prevalence of 10.9 % (95 % CI: 9.3 %, 12.5 %) among female respondents and 13.4 % (95 % CI: 11.2 %, 15.7 %) among male respondents. Quite a number of factors were strongly associated with PTSD. Overall, a respondent had experienced 9 negative life events. In a multivariate logistic regression, the factors that were strongly associated with PTSD were: exposure to war trauma events, childhood trauma, negative life events, negative copying style and food insecurity. The findings also indicate no association between sex, age and PTSD. The prevalence rate of PTSD in the study communities is unacceptably high. Quite a number of factors were associated with PTSD. Effective public mental health services are needed that combine treatment (medical) psychological and social welfare programs especially at community level to address the high burden of PTSD. Longitudinal studies are also recommended to continuously assess the trends in PTSD in

  10. "I Spent a Full Month Bleeding, I Thought I Was Going to Die…" A Qualitative Study of Experiences of Women Using Modern Contraception in Wakiso District, Uganda.

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    Simon P S Kibira

    Full Text Available There is high unmet need for family planning (FP in Uganda as well as high contraceptive discontinuation rates. These contribute to the high fertility rates that in part are due to unplanned pregnancies. There are gaps in knowledge about experiences that couples go through while using contraceptives in their lives. This study explored women's experiences during the course of their contraceptive use.We conducted a qualitative study involving 30 women who had used modern contraception for at least one year in Wakiso district, central Uganda. We used in-depth interviews to obtain their personal accounts. Index women were approached through health officers at four health centres in the district. All ethical approvals and informed consent were obtained. We used conventional content analysis; identifying codes through open coding, on which basis categories were developed and grouped into overarching themes.Women's accounts were summarised in the following themes: negative experiences with modern contraceptive use, motivation to continue using FP in spite of these negative experiences, the role of influential people, and discontinuation of use. Negative accounts dominated the experiences of most women but they expressed strong desire to continue using modern contraception even amidst all challenges. Health workers emerged as the most influential people that played a vital role in women's decisions.Varied negative experiences with modern contraception and misperceptions exist amidst a determination to continue use. Partner engagement, health service strengthening to improve side effects management and health worker skills, and engaging older women that have successfully used contraception as community champions, are potential strategies to support women's contraceptive decisions.

  11. Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Mbonye, Anthony; Clarke, Sian; Cundill, Bonnie; Magnussen, Pascal; Yeung, Shunmay

    2013-03-01

    In Uganda, as in many parts of Africa, the majority of the population seek treatment for malaria in drug shops as their first point of care; however, parasitological diagnosis is not usually offered in these outlets. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria have attracted interest in recent years as a tool to improve malaria diagnosis, since they have proved accurate and easy to perform with minimal training. Although RDTs could feasibly be performed by drug shop vendors, it is not known how much customers would be willing to pay for an RDT if offered in these settings. We conducted a contingent valuation survey among drug shop customers in Mukono District, Uganda. Exit interviews were undertaken with customers aged 15 years and above after leaving a drug shop having purchased an antimalarial and/or paracetamol. The bidding game technique was used to elicit the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for an RDT and a course of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with and without RDT confirmation. Factors associated with WTP were investigated using linear regression. The geometric mean WTP for an RDT was US$0.53, US$1.82 for a course of ACT and US$2.05 for a course of ACT after a positive RDT. Factors strongly associated with a higher WTP for these commodities included having a higher socio-economic status, no fever/malaria in the household in the past 2 weeks and if a malaria diagnosis had been obtained from a qualified health worker prior to visiting the drug shop. The findings further suggest that the WTP for an RDT and a course of ACT among drug shop customers is considerably lower than prevailing and estimated end-user prices for these commodities. Increasing the uptake of ACTs in drug shops and restricting the sale of ACTs to parasitologically confirmed malaria will therefore require additional measures.

  12. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-cassette assay as a survey tool for Schistosoma mansoni in different transmission settings within Bugiri District, Uganda.

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    Adriko, M; Standley, C J; Tinkitina, B; Tukahebwa, E M; Fenwick, A; Fleming, F M; Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Stothard, J R; Kabatereine, N B

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of schistosomiasis at the point-of-care (POC) is a growing topic in neglected tropical disease research. There is a need for diagnostic tests which are affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free and delivered to those who need it, and POC is an important tool for disease mapping and guiding mass deworming. The aim of present study was to evaluate the relative diagnostic performance of two urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) cassette assays, one commercially available and the other in experimental production, against results obtained using the standard Kato-Katz faecal smear method (six thick smears from three consecutive days), as a 'gold-standard', for Schistosoma mansoni infection in different transmission settings in Uganda. Our study was conducted among 500 school children randomly selected across 5 schools within Bugiri district, adjacent to Lake Victoria in Uganda. Considering results from the 469 pupils who provided three stool samples for the six Kato-Katz smears, 293 (76%) children had no infection, 109 (23%) were in the light intensity category, while 42 (9%) and 25 (5%) were in the moderate and heavy intensity categories respectively. Following performance analysis of CCA tests in terms of sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, overall performance of the commercially available CCA test was more informative than single Kato-Katz faecal smear microscopy, the current operational field standard for disease mapping. The current CCA assay is therefore a satisfactory method for surveillance of S. mansoni in an area where disease endemicity is declining due to control interventions. With the recent resolution on schistosomiasis elimination by the 65th World Health Assembly, the urine POC CCA test is an attractive tool to augment and perhaps replace the Kato-Katz sampling within ongoing control programmes.

  13. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

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    Mufubenga Patrobas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC attendance was high (94.4%; 417 (57.7% visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5% during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1% reporting ≥ 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71% and 272 (35.8% received one or ≥ 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8% received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3% of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8% delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3. Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken.

  14. Bi-Temporal Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in Support of a Forest Conservation Program in Western Uganda

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    Thomas, N.; Lambin, E.; Audy, R.; Biryahwaho, B.; de Laat, J.; Jayachandran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies in land use sustainability have shown the conservation value of even small forest fragments in tropical smallholder agricultural regions. Forest patches provide important ecosystem services, wildlife habitat, and support human livelihoods. Our study incorporates multiple dates of high-resolution Quickbird imagery to map forest disturbance and regrowth in a smallholder agricultural landscape in western Uganda. This work is in support of a payments for ecosystem services (PES) project which uses a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of PES for enhancing forest conservation. The research presented here details the remote sensing phase of this project. We developed an object-based methodology for detecting forest change from high-resolution imagery that calculates per class image reflectance and change statistics to determine persistent forest, non-forest, forest gain, and forest loss classes. The large study area (~ 2,400 km2) necessitated using a combination of 10 different image pairs of varying seasonality, sun angle, and viewing angle. We discuss the impact of these factors on mapping results. Reflectance data was used in conjunction with texture measures and knowledge-driven modeling to derive forest change maps. First, baseline Quickbird images were mapped into tree cover and non-tree categories based on segmented image objects and field inventory data, applied through a classification and regression tree (CART) classifier. Then a bi-temporal segmentation layer was generated and a series of object metrics from both image dates were extracted. A sample set of persistent forest objects that remained undisturbed was derived from the tree cover map and the red band (B3) change values. We calculated a variety of statistical indices for these persistent tree cover objects from the post- survey imagery to create maps of both forest cover loss and forest cover gain. These results are compared to visually assessed image objects in addition

  15. The prevalence and characteristics of suicidality in HIV/AIDS as seen in an African population in Entebbe district, Uganda

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    Kinyanda Eugene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicidality in HIV/AIDS is not only a predictor of future attempted suicide and completed suicide, it is also associated with poor quality of life and poor adherence with antiretroviral therapy. This paper examines the prevalence and correlates of suicidality in HIV/AIDS in the African nation of Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 618 respondents attending two HIV clinics in semi-urban Uganda. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic, social, psychological and clinical factors. Correlates of suicidality were assessed using mulitvariable logistic regression. Results Prevalence of ‘moderate to high risk for suicidality’ (MHS was 7.8 % and that of life-time attempted suicide was 3.9 %. Factors associated with MHS at univariate analysis were: female gender, food insecurity, increasing negative life events, high stress score, negative coping style, past psychiatric history, psychosocial impairment, diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder. Factors independently associated with MHS in multivariate models were female gender, increasing negative life events, a previous psychiatric history, and major depressive disorder. Conclusions These results are in agreement with the stress-vulnerability model where social and psychological stressors acting on an underlying diathesis (including previous and current psychiatric morbidities leads to suicidality. These results identify potential targets to mitigate risk through treatment of psychiatric disorders and promoting greater adaptation to living with HIV/AIDS.

  16. Chemical, mineralogical and ceramic properties of kaolinitic materials from the Tresnuraghes mining district (Western Sardinia, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Dondi, Michele; Guarini, Guia; Ligas, Paola; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Palomba, Marcella; Uras, Ivo

    2001-01-01

    Kaolinitic materials crop out in the Tresnuraghes mining district (Western Sardinia, Italy). Three main kaolinitic deposits, located in the Patalza, Salamura and Su Fongarazzu areas, respectively, were investigated in order to assess their potential in the ceramic industry. The parent rock-types of this raw material are the Oligocene-Miocene rhyolitic-rhyodacitic ignimbrites. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were performed on representative samples of each deposit, by XRD and XRF methodolo...

  17. An overview of fish fauna of Raigad District, northern Western Ghats, India

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    Unmesh Katwate

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the fish fauna of Raigad District for two years from August 2008 to August 2010. Sixty six freshwater and secondary freshwater fish species belonging to 31 families and 53 genera were collected from various sampling sites and local markets along the banks of Patalganga, Bhogawati, Amba, Kundalika, Mandad and Savitri river systems present in Raigad District, Maharashtra, northern Western Ghats. Cyprinids were the most dominant group represented by 22 fish species belonging to 13 genera followed by the loaches, croakers and gobies belonging to the family Balitoridae, Sciaenidae and Gobiidae respectively (three species from each family. Of the 66 fish species, five belong to the Vulnerable (VU, four to Near Threatened (NT, 37 to the Least Concern (LC category and 20 were found to be not evaluated for IUCN Red List criteria. Raigad District is under severe threat of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Further, introduced exotic fish species are becoming a major threat to the indigenous fish fauna of Raigad District. Implementation of ecosystem based adaptation plans and conservation measures are necessary to protect the diverse, endemic and threatened fish fauna of Raigad District.

  18. Determinants of clinician knowledge on aging and HIV/AIDS: a survey of practitioners and policy makers in Kampala District, Uganda.

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    Ekwaro A Obuku

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has evolved with an increasing burden in older adults. We assessed for knowledge about aging and HIV/AIDS, among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 301 clinicians complemented by 9 key-informant interviews between May and October 2011. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression for potential determinants of clinician knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults, estimating their adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI using Stata 11.2 software. RESULTS: Two-hundred and sixty-two questionnaires (87.7% were returned. Respondents had a median age of 30 years (IQR 27-34 and 57.8% were general medical doctors. The mean knowledge score was 49% (range 8.8%-79.4%. Questions related to co-morbidities in HIV/AIDS (non-AIDS related cancers and systemic diseases and chronic antiretroviral treatment toxicities (metabolic disorders accounted for significantly lower scores (mean, 41.7%, 95% CI: 39.3%-44% compared to HIV/AIDS epidemiology and prevention (mean, 65.7%, 95% CI: 63.7%-67.7%. Determinants of clinician knowledge in the multivariable analysis included (category, aOR, 95% CI: clinician age (30-39 years; 3.28∶1.65-9.75, number of persons with HIV/AIDS seen in the past year (less than 50; 0.34∶0.14-0.86 and clinical profession (clinical nurse practitioner; 0.31∶0.11-0.83. Having diploma level education had a marginal association with lower knowledge about HIV and aging (p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Our study identified gaps and determinants of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in older adults among clinicians in Kampala district, Uganda. Clinicians in low and middle income countries could benefit from targeted training in chronic care for older adults with HIV/AIDS and long-term complications of antiretroviral treatment.

  19. The disappearance of onchocerciasis from the Itwara focus, western Uganda after elimination of the vector Simulium neavei and 19 years of annual ivermectin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakwo, T L; Garms, R; Rubaale, T; Katabarwa, M; Walsh, F; Habomugisha, P; Oguttu, D; Unnasch, T; Namanya, H; Tukesiga, E; Katamanywa, J; Bamuhiiga, J; Byamukama, E; Agunyo, S; Richards, F

    2013-06-01

    The Itwara onchocerciasis focus is located around the Itwara forest reserve in western Uganda. In 1991, annual treatments with ivermectin started in the focus. They were supplemented in 1995 by the control of the vector Simulium neavei, which was subsequently eliminated from the focus. The impact of the two interventions on the disease was assessed in 2010 by nodule palpations, examinations of skin snips by microscopy and PCR, and Ov16 recombinant ELISA. There was no evidence of any microfilaria in 688 skin snips and only 2 (0.06%) of 3316 children examined for IgG4 were slightly above the arbitrary cut off of 40. A follow up of the same children 21 months later in 2012 confirmed that both were negative for diagnostic antigen Ov-16, skin snip microscopy and PCR. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria of 2001 and the Uganda onchocerciasis certification guidelines, it was concluded that the disease has disappeared from the Itwara focus after 19 years of ivermectin treatments and the elimination of the vector around 2001. Ivermectin treatments were recommended to be halted.

  20. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Malaria among Pregnant Women in a Post-Conflict Internally Displaced Persons' Camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda

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    James Obol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Uganda Malaria continues to be a major public health problem accounting for about 30–50% of all outpatient consultations and 35% of hospital admissions and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Pregnant women and their unborn children are vulnerable to malaria. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 postconflict IDP camps of Gulu district selected randomly as clusters. 769 pregnant women were interviewed. Results. The majority of the respondents 85% have ever heard about malaria. Most (80% 571 respondent attributed malaria to be transmitted by mosquito bites, 15 said cold weather, 53 said dirt, and 35 said not sleeping under net. Most (91% 683 respondents mentioned that malaria was caused by mosquito, 28 mentioned cold food, 3 mentioned playing in the rain, 19 mentioned cold weather, and 6 mentioned eating mangos. Conclusion. Most pregnant women in the post conflict IDP camps have relatively high knowledge about malaria transmission, signs, symptoms, and consequences during pregnancy. However, majority of respondents had misconception about the cause of malaria while a few had misconception about the mode of malaria transmission.

  1. War and HIV: sex and gender differences in risk behaviour among young men and women in post-conflict Gulu District, Northern Uganda.

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    Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Atim, Stella; Lakor, Sam; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about the period that follows cessation of hostilities and its implications for population health. This study sought to fill a lacuna in epidemiological evidence by examining HIV infection and related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of displaced people following two decades of war in northern Uganda. In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted with 384 transit camp residents aged 15-29 years old in Gulu District. Biological specimens were collected for rapid and confirmatory HIV testing. Separate multivariable logistic regression models by sex identified risk factors for HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 15.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.8%, 21.6%) among females and 9.9% (95% CI: 6.1%, 15.0%) among males. The strongest correlate of HIV infection among men was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.24; 95% CI: 1.37-7.67), and having practiced dry sex (AOR 7.62; 95% CI: 1.56-16.95) was the strongest correlate among women. Conflict-affected men and women experience vulnerability to HIV infection in different ways than may have originally been understood. Post-conflict programme planners must therefore design and implement contextualised, evidence-based responses to HIV that are sensitive to gender and cultural issues.

  2. Pyrethroid susceptibility of malaria vectors in four Districts of western Kenya.

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    Ochomo, Eric; Bayoh, Nabie M; Kamau, Luna; Atieli, Francis; Vulule, John; Ouma, Collins; Ombok, Maurice; Njagi, Kiambo; Soti, David; Mathenge, Evan; Muthami, Lawrence; Kinyari, Teresa; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Donnelly, Martin James; Mbogo, Charles

    2014-07-04

    Increasing pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has been reported in western Kenya where long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the mainstays of vector control. To ensure the sustainability of insecticide-based malaria vector control, monitoring programs need to be implemented. This study was designed to investigate the extent and distribution of pyrethroid resistance in 4 Districts of western Kenya (Nyando, Rachuonyo, Bondo and Teso). All four Districts have received LLINs while Nyando and Rachuonyo Districts have had IRS campaigns for 3-5 years using pyrethroids. This study is part of a programme aimed at determining the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria epidemiology. Three day old adult mosquitoes from larval samples collected in the field, were used for bioassays using the WHO tube bioassay, and mortality recorded 24 hours post exposure. Resistance level was assigned based on the 2013 WHO guidelines where populations with Kenya. This resistance does not seem to be associated with either species or location. Insecticide resistance can vary within small geographical areas and such heterogeneity may make it possible to evaluate the impact of resistance on malaria and mosquito parameters within similar eco-epidemiological zones.

  3. Shifts in Geographic Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance during a Prolonged Typhoid Fever Outbreak — Bundibugyo and Kasese Districts, Uganda, 2009–2011

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    Walters, Maroya Spalding; Routh, Janell; Mikoleit, Matthew; Kadivane, Samuel; Ouma, Caroline; Mubiru, Denis; Mbusa, Ben; Murangi, Amos; Ejoku, Emmanuel; Rwantangle, Absalom; Kule, Uziah; Lule, John; Garrett, Nancy; Halpin, Jessica; Maxwell, Nikki; Kagirita, Atek; Mulabya, Fred; Makumbi, Issa; Freeman, Molly; Joyce, Kevin; Hill, Vince; Downing, Robert; Mintz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is transmitted by fecally contaminated food and water and causes approximately 22 million typhoid fever infections worldwide each year. Most cases occur in developing countries, where approximately 4% of patients develop intestinal perforation (IP). In Kasese District, Uganda, a typhoid fever outbreak notable for a high IP rate began in 2008. We report that this outbreak continued through 2011, when it spread to the neighboring district of Bundibugyo. Methodology/Principal Findings A suspected typhoid fever case was defined as IP or symptoms of fever, abdominal pain, and ≥1 of the following: gastrointestinal disruptions, body weakness, joint pain, headache, clinically suspected IP, or non-responsiveness to antimalarial medications. Cases were identified retrospectively via medical record reviews and prospectively through laboratory-enhanced case finding. Among Kasese residents, 709 cases were identified from August 1, 2009–December 31, 2011; of these, 149 were identified during the prospective period beginning November 1, 2011. Among Bundibugyo residents, 333 cases were identified from January 1–December 31, 2011, including 128 cases identified during the prospective period beginning October 28, 2011. IP was reported for 507 (82%) and 59 (20%) of Kasese and Bundibugyo cases, respectively. Blood and stool cultures performed for 154 patients during the prospective period yielded isolates from 24 (16%) patients. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern combinations, including one observed in a Kasese isolate in 2009, were shared among Kasese and Bundibugyo isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed for 18 isolates; among these 15 (83%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR), compared to 5% of 2009 isolates. Conclusions/Significance Molecular and epidemiological evidence suggest that during a prolonged outbreak, typhoid spread from Kasese to Bundibugyo. MDR strains became prevalent. Lasting interventions, such

  4. Shifts in geographic distribution and antimicrobial resistance during a prolonged typhoid fever outbreak--Bundibugyo and Kasese Districts, Uganda, 2009-2011.

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    Walters, Maroya Spalding; Routh, Janell; Mikoleit, Matthew; Kadivane, Samuel; Ouma, Caroline; Mubiru, Denis; Mbusa, Ben; Murangi, Amos; Ejoku, Emmanuel; Rwantangle, Absalom; Kule, Uziah; Lule, John; Garrett, Nancy; Halpin, Jessica; Maxwell, Nikki; Kagirita, Atek; Mulabya, Fred; Makumbi, Issa; Freeman, Molly; Joyce, Kevin; Hill, Vince; Downing, Robert; Mintz, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is transmitted by fecally contaminated food and water and causes approximately 22 million typhoid fever infections worldwide each year. Most cases occur in developing countries, where approximately 4% of patients develop intestinal perforation (IP). In Kasese District, Uganda, a typhoid fever outbreak notable for a high IP rate began in 2008. We report that this outbreak continued through 2011, when it spread to the neighboring district of Bundibugyo. A suspected typhoid fever case was defined as IP or symptoms of fever, abdominal pain, and ≥1 of the following: gastrointestinal disruptions, body weakness, joint pain, headache, clinically suspected IP, or non-responsiveness to antimalarial medications. Cases were identified retrospectively via medical record reviews and prospectively through laboratory-enhanced case finding. Among Kasese residents, 709 cases were identified from August 1, 2009-December 31, 2011; of these, 149 were identified during the prospective period beginning November 1, 2011. Among Bundibugyo residents, 333 cases were identified from January 1-December 31, 2011, including 128 cases identified during the prospective period beginning October 28, 2011. IP was reported for 507 (82%) and 59 (20%) of Kasese and Bundibugyo cases, respectively. Blood and stool cultures performed for 154 patients during the prospective period yielded isolates from 24 (16%) patients. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern combinations, including one observed in a Kasese isolate in 2009, were shared among Kasese and Bundibugyo isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed for 18 isolates; among these 15 (83%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR), compared to 5% of 2009 isolates. Molecular and epidemiological evidence suggest that during a prolonged outbreak, typhoid spread from Kasese to Bundibugyo. MDR strains became prevalent. Lasting interventions, such as typhoid vaccination and improvements in drinking water infrastructure

  5. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

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    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  6. Gaps and gains from engaging districts stakeholders for community-based health professions education in Uganda: a qualitative study.

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    Okello, Elialilia S; Nankumbi, Joyce; Ruzaaza, Gad Ndaruhutse; Bakengesa, Evelyn; Gumikiriza, Joy; Arubaku, Wilfred; Acio, Christine; Samantha, Mary; Matte, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Community-based education research and service (COBERS) is a brand of community-based education that has been adopted by the Medical Education and Service for All Ugandans consortium. The COBERS programme is aimed at equipping students in health professional education with the knowledge, attitudes and skills required to provide appropriate health care services. For sustainability purposes, the health professional training institutions have made efforts to involve various stakeholders in the implementation of the programme. However, the actual engagement process and outcome of such efforts have not been documented. This paper documents gaps and gains made in engaging district stakeholders for community-based education. Key informant interviews, focus group discussions and document review were used to collect data. Atlas.ti, computer software for qualitative data was used to aid analysis. The analysis revealed that the adopted engagement model has registered some gains including increased awareness among district leaders about potential opportunities offered by COBERS such as boosting of human resources at health facilities, opportunities for professional development for health care workers at health facilities, and establishment of linkages between prospective employees and employers. However, the engagement model left some gaps in terms of knowledge, awareness and ownership of the programme among some sections of stakeholders. The apparent information gap about the programme among district stakeholders, especially the political leadership, may hinder concerted partnership. The findings highlight the need for health professional education institutions to broaden the scope of actively engaged stakeholders with the district level.

  7. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

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    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  8. Assessing the potential of rural and urban private facilities in implementing child health interventions in Mukono district, central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Buregyeya, Esther; Lal, Sham;

    2016-01-01

    in diagnostic capabilities, operations and human resource in the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea. METHODS: A survey was conducted in pharmacies, private clinics and drug shops in Mukono district in October 2014. An assessment was done on availability of diagnostic equipment for malaria, record...... attended to at least one sick child in the week prior to the interview. CONCLUSION: There were big gaps between rural and urban private facilities with rural ones having less trained personnel and less zinc tablets' availability. In both rural and urban areas, record keeping was low. Child health...

  9. Communication between HIV-infected children and their caregivers about HIV medicines: a cross-sectional study in Jinja district, Uganda.

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    Kajubi, Phoebe; Whyte, Susan; Muhumuza, Simon; Kyaddondo, David; Katahoire, Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among children with HIV depends on open communication with them about their health and medicines. Guidelines assign responsibility for communication to children's home caregivers. Other research suggests that communication is poor and knowledge about ART is low among children on treatment in low-income countries. This study sought to describe communication about medicine for HIV in quantitative terms from the perspectives of both children and caregivers. Thereafter, it established the factors associated with this communication and with children's knowledge about their HIV medicines. We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 394 children with HIV on treatment and their caregivers at nine health facilities in Jinja District, Uganda. We assessed reported frequency and content of communication regarding their medicines as well as knowledge of what the medicines were for. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with communication patterns and children's knowledge of HIV medicines. Although 79.6% of the caregivers reported that they explained to the children about the medicines, only half (50.8%) of the children said they knew that they were taking medicines for HIV. Older children aged 15-17 years were less likely to communicate with a caregiver about the HIV medicines in the preceding month (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7, p=0.002). Children aged 11-14 years (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.8-13.7, pchildren and caregivers was "what the medicines are for" while "the time to take medicines" was by far the most mentioned by children. Communication about, and knowledge of, HIV medicines among children with HIV is low. Young age (less than 15 years) was associated with more frequent communication. Caregivers should be supported to communicate diagnosis and treatment to children with HIV. Age-sensitive guidelines about the nature and content of communication should be developed.

  10. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  11. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

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    Patience Uchenna Tweteise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2 are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP; HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2% males and 139 (37.8% females, only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  12. Perspectives from the Bench: Patent Law in Pittsburgh An Interview with the Honorable Joy Flowers Conti, District Judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania

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    Katie Angliss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Judge Joy Flowers Conti has served as a district judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania since 2002, when she was nominated by President George W. Bush. Prior to her service as a district judge, Judge Conti served as a law clerk to a Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice, was a partner in private practice at Kirkpatrick & Lockhart, LLP, and a shareholder at Buchanan Ingersoll. She also served as a member of the faculty at Duquesne University School of Law. Judge Conti is a member of the Allegheny County Bar Association, the Pennsylvania Bar Association, the American Bar Association, the Women’s Bar Association of Western Pennsylvania, the Federal Bar Association and the American Inns of Court. She received a Bachelor of Arts Degree from Duquesne University in 1970, and a JD degree summa cum laude from Duquesne University School of Law in 1973.

  13. The effect of prenatal counselling on postpartum family planning use among early postpartum women in Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda.

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    Ayiasi, Richard Mangwi; Muhumuza, Christine; Bukenya, Justine; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2015-01-01

    Globally, most postpartum pregnancies are unplanned, mainly as a result of low level of knowledge and fear of contraceptive use especially in low-income settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal contraceptive counselling on postpartum contraceptive use and pregnancy outcomes after one year. Sixteen health centres were equally and randomly allocated to control and intervention arms. Mothers were consecutively recruited during their first antenatal clinic consultations. In the intervention arm Village Health Team members made home visits and provided prenatal contraceptive advice and made telephone consultations with health workers for advice while in the control arm mothers received routine antenatal care offered in the health centres. Data were collected in 2014 in the two districts of Kiryandongo and Masindi. This data was collected 12-14 months postpartum. Mothers were asked about their family planning intentions, contraceptive use and screened for pregnancy using human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Socio-demographic and obstetric indices were recorded. Our primary outcomes of interests were current use of modern contraceptive, decision to use a modern contraceptive method and pregnancy status. Multilevel analysis using the xtmelogit stata command was used to determine differences between intervention and control groups. A total of 1,385 women, 748 (control) and 627 (intervention) were recruited. About 80% initiated breastfeeding within six hours of delivery 78.4% (control) and 80.4% (intervention). About half of the mothers in each arm had considered to delay the next pregnancy 47.1% (control) and 49% (intervention). Of these 71.4% in the control and 87% in the intervention had considered to use a modern contraceptive method, only 28.2% of the control and 31.6% in the intervention were current modern contraceptive users signifying unmet contraceptive needs among immediate postpartum mothers. Regarding pregnancy, 3.3% and 5

  14. Communication between HIV-infected children and their caregivers about HIV medicines: a cross-sectional study in Jinja district, Uganda

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    Phoebe Kajubi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of antiretroviral therapy (ART among children with HIV depends on open communication with them about their health and medicines. Guidelines assign responsibility for communication to children's home caregivers. Other research suggests that communication is poor and knowledge about ART is low among children on treatment in low-income countries. This study sought to describe communication about medicine for HIV in quantitative terms from the perspectives of both children and caregivers. Thereafter, it established the factors associated with this communication and with children's knowledge about their HIV medicines. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 394 children with HIV on treatment and their caregivers at nine health facilities in Jinja District, Uganda. We assessed reported frequency and content of communication regarding their medicines as well as knowledge of what the medicines were for. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with communication patterns and children's knowledge of HIV medicines. Results: Although 79.6% of the caregivers reported that they explained to the children about the medicines, only half (50.8% of the children said they knew that they were taking medicines for HIV. Older children aged 15–17 years were less likely to communicate with a caregiver about the HIV medicines in the preceding month (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.7, p=0.002. Children aged 11–14 years (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.8–13.7, p<0.001 and 15–17 years (OR 12.6, 95% CI 4.6–34.3, p<0.001 were more likely to know they were taking medicines for HIV compared to the younger ones. The least common reported topic of discussion between children and caregivers was “what the medicines are for” while “the time to take medicines” was by far the most mentioned by children. Conclusions: Communication about, and knowledge of, HIV medicines among children with HIV is low. Young

  15. The role of off-farm employment in tropical forest conservation: labor, migration, and smallholder attitudes toward land in western Uganda.

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    Mulley, Brad G; Unruh, Jon D

    2004-07-01

    The potential for off-farm employment (OFE) to contribute significantly to forest conservation in the tropics is a widely held logic among donors, governments, and social scientists. While an aggregate level examination of OFE cases can support this logic, there is disagreement as to the operative aspects of specific linkages and assumptions. This study examines the case of the tea industry in western Uganda, and uses a combination of fieldwork and remote sensing to pursue a more nuanced examination of the role of migration and non-monetary aspects of OFE on forest conservation in both a national park and unprotected forest contexts. Results indicate that the tea industry does serve as an off-farm employer to a limited number of local smallholders but these benefits are offset by the industry's overwhelming dependence on migrant labor which sees OFE as temporary, then seeks to settle locally. There is also evidence that the tea industry is contributing to conservation efforts of Kibale National Park by unintentionally serving as a physical buffer zone, which inhibits both human encroachment on the park and wildlife encroachment on smallholder crops. The latter represents a site-specific phenomenon that holds much potential for future management plans of the area and exemplifies the importance of considering the site-specific circumstances associated with OFE development.

  16. Uptake of hormonal contraceptives and correlates of uptake in a phase III clinical trial in rural South Western Uganda.

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    Abaasa, Andrew; Gafos, Mitzy; Anywaine, Zacchaeus; Nunn, Andrew; Crook, Angela; Levin, Jonathan; McCormack, Sheena; Kamali, Anatoli

    2017-03-11

    Use of a reliable contraception method has become an inclusion criterion in prevention trials to minimize time off product. We report on hormonal contraceptive prevalence, uptake, sustained use and correlates of use in the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP 301) trial at the Masaka Centre in Uganda. HIV negative women in sero-discordant relationships were enrolled and followed-up for 52 to 104 weeks from 2005 to 2009. Contraceptive use data was collected through self-report at baseline and dispensing records during follow-up. Hormonal contraceptives were promoted and provided to women that were not using a reliable method at enrolment. Baseline contraceptive prevalence, uptake and sustained use were calculated. Uptake was defined as a participant who reported not using a reliable method at enrolment and started using a hormonal method at any time after. Logistic regression models were fitted to investigate predictors of hormonal contraceptive uptake. A total of 840 women were enrolled of whom 21 aged ≥50 years and 12 without follow-up data were excluded; leaving 807 (median age 31 IQR 26-38) in this analysis. At baseline, 228 (28%) reported using a reliable contraceptive; 197 hormonal, 28 female-sterilisation, two IUCD and one hysterectomy. As such 579 were not using a reliable contraceptive at enrolment, of whom 296 (51%) subsequently started using a hormonal contraceptive method; 253 DMPA, four oral pills, and two norplant. Overall 193 (98%) existing users and 262 (88%) new users sustained use throughout follow-up. Independent correlates of hormonal contraceptive uptake were: younger women ≤30 years, aOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.6 and reporting not using contraceptives at baseline due to lack of access or money, breastfeeding or other reasons, in comparison to women who reported using unreliable method. Promotion and provision of hormonal contraception doubled the proportion of women using a reliable method of contraception. Uptake was pronounced

  17. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption stu

  18. Preliminary study on avian fauna of the Krishna River basin Sangli District, Western Maharashtra, India.

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    Kumbar, Suresh M; Ghadage, Abhijit B

    2014-11-01

    The present study on avifaunal diversity carried out for three years at the Krishna River Basin, Sangli District revealed a total of 126 species of birds belonging to 30 families, of which 91 species were resident, 16 migratory, 12 resident and local migratory and 7 species were resident and migratory. Among the migrant birds, Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus was dominant in the study area. Commonly recorded resident bird species were, Red vented bulbul, Jungle crow, House sparrow, Common myna, Brahminy myna, Rock pigeon, Spotted dove, Rose ringed parakeet, Indian robin, White-browed fantail-flycatcher and Small sunbird. Most of the families had one or two species, whereas Muscicapidae family alone had 16 species. Forty one species of waterfowls were recorded in this small landscape. Out of 126 bird species, 38 were insectivorous, 28 piscivorous, 25 omnivorous, 19 carnivorous, 9 granivorous, 5 frugivorous and 2 species were nectar sucker and insectivorous. These results suggest that richness of avifauna in the Krishna River Basin, Western Maharashtra might be due to large aquatic ground, varied vegetations and favourable environmental conditions.

  19. Phenotypic characterization of wheat landraces from mid and far western districts of Nepal

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    Sangharash Raj Dangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate phenotypic variation in one hundred and sixty six wheat landraces from mid and far western districts of Nepal. They were sown in randomized complete block design with two replications at National Wheat Research Program in 2014/15. The observed traits were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis using MINITAB v. 14. The results showed a wide range of phenotypic variability in observed parameters. The results also showed that the highest value of the standard deviation from mean (Sd was for grain yield (±290.10 followed by plant height (±7.21. Among the traits the lowest deviation from mean (Sd was for thousand grain weight TGW (±2.68. Wheat landraces grouped in four clusters depending on similarity of the studied traits. The results in this cluster, showed that days to maturity ranged from 97 to111 days, TGW ranged from 16 to17 gm, plant height ranged from 76 to 85 cm, and grain yield ranged from 2800 to 3000 Kg ha-1. Wheat landraces under study are grouped depending on specific traits useful for wheat improvement program. Results of this study can be supportive to detect wheat landraces within species with similar traits. In addition it can be useful for sampling in successive studies and parental selection in wheat breeding program.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 32-44

  20. Spatial variation in level of agricultural development in Bulandshahr district of western Uttar Pradesh (India

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    Gomatee Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an attempt has been made to find out the spatial variation in the adaptation of improved agricultural practices to ascertain the level of agricultural development in Bulandshahr district of western Uttar Pradesh. The spatial variation of agricultural development is determined with the help of nine variables viz. net sown area, irrigated area, cropping intensity, crops productivity, area under HYV, agricultural labourers, role of banks and agricultural machinery. Beside this, the development of blocks are taken with their respective categories viz. high, medium and low on the basis of scores (like mean SD of these variables. These analyses have been carried out by transforming and combining the data related to nine variables, using ‘Z’ score to get the composite score. On the basis of Composite Score, developments of blocks have been again categorized in to three categories i.e. high, medium and low. Results of the aforesaid analysis shows that the modern technological inputs have reciprocal relationship with agricultural development in the study area.

  1. Water contamination with heavy metals and trace elements from Kilembe copper mine and tailing sites in Western Uganda; implications for domestic water quality.

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    Abraham, Mwesigye R; Susan, Tumwebaze B

    2017-02-01

    The mining and processing of copper in Kilembe, Western Uganda, from 1956 to 1982 left over 15 Mt of cupriferous and cobaltiferous pyrite dumped within a mountain river valley, in addition to mine water which is pumped to the land surface. This study was conducted to assess the sources and concentrations of heavy metals and trace elements in Kilembe mine catchment water. Multi-element analysis of trace elements from point sources and sinks was conducted which included mine tailings, mine water, mine leachate, Nyamwamba River water, public water sources and domestic water samples using ICP-MS. The study found that mean concentrations (mg kg(-1)) of Co (112), Cu (3320), Ni (131), As (8.6) in mine tailings were significantly higher than world average crust and were being eroded and discharged into water bodies within the catchment. Underground mine water and leachate contained higher mean concentrations (μg L(-1)) of Cu (9470), Co (3430) and Ni (590) compared with background concentrations (μg L(-1)) in un contaminated water of 1.9, 0.21 and 0.67 for Cu, Co and Ni respectively. Over 25% of household water samples exceeded UK drinking water thresholds for Al of 200 μg L(-1), Co exceeded Winsconsin (USA drinking) water thresholds of 40 μg L(-1) in 40% of samples while Fe in 42% of samples exceeded UK thresholds of 200 μg L(-1). The study however found that besides mining activities, natural processes of geological weathering also contributed to Al, Fe, and Mn water contamination in a number of public water sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Andrew Kampikaho Turiho

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000. Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable, but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008. HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  3. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Muhwezi, Wilson Winston; Okello, Elialilia Sarikiaeli; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Banura, Cecil; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable), but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008). HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder seven years after the conflict in three districts in northern Uganda (The Wayo-Nero Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mugisha, James; Muyinda, Herbert; Wandiembe, Peter; Kinyanda, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on the prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is still limited in low income countries yet PTSD can be a public health problem in post conflict areas. In order to respond to the burden of PSTD in northern Uganda, an area that experienced civil strife for over two decades, we need accurate data on its (PTSD) prevalence and the associated risk factors to facilitate public mental health planning. Methods This study employed a cross-sectional study design and data ...

  5. Adherence of community caretakers of children to pre-packaged antimalarial medicines (HOMAPAK®) among internally displaced people in Gulu district, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Jan H Kolaczinski; Ojok, Naptalis; Opwonya, John; Meek, Sylvia; Collins, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2002, home-based management of fever (HBMF) was introduced in Uganda, to improve access to prompt, effective antimalarial treatment of all fevers in children under 5 years. Implementation is through community drug distributors (CDDs) who distribute pre-packaged chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (HOMAPAK®) free of charge to caretakers of febrile children. Adherence of caretakers to this regimen has not been studied. Methods A questionnaire-based survey combined ...

  6. Barriers and facilitators in the provision of post-abortion care at district level in central Uganda - a qualitative study focusing on task sharing between physicians and midwives.

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    Paul, Mandira; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kiggundu, Charles; Namugenyi, Rebecka; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2014-01-21

    Abortion is restricted in Uganda, and poor access to contraceptive methods result in unwanted pregnancies. This leaves women no other choice than unsafe abortion, thus placing a great burden on the Ugandan health system and making unsafe abortion one of the major contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. The existing sexual and reproductive health policy in Uganda supports the sharing of tasks in post-abortion care. This task sharing is taking place as a pragmatic response to the increased workload. This study aims to explore physicians' and midwives' perception of post-abortion care with regard to professional competences, methods, contraceptive counselling and task shifting/sharing in post-abortion care. In-depth interviews (n = 27) with health care providers of post-abortion care were conducted in seven health facilities in the Central Region of Uganda. The data were organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Post-abortion care was perceived as necessary, albeit controversial and sometimes difficult to provide. Together with poor conditions post-abortion care provoked frustration especially among midwives. Task sharing was generally taking place and midwives were identified as the main providers, although they would rarely have the proper training in post-abortion care. Additionally, midwives were sometimes forced to provide services outside their defined task area, due to the absence of doctors. Different uterine evacuation skills were recognized although few providers knew of misoprostol as a method for post-abortion care. An overall need for further training in post-abortion care was identified. Task sharing is taking place, but providers lack the relevant skills for the provision of quality care. For post-abortion care to improve, task sharing needs to be scaled up and in-service training for both doctors and midwives needs to be provided. Post-abortion care should further be included in the educational curricula of

  7. Evolution of the western East African Rift System reflected in provenance changes of Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments (Albertine Rift, Uganda)

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    Schneider, Sandra; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Miocene to Pleistocene synrift sediments in the Albertine Graben reflect the complex geodynamic evolution in the Western branch of the East African Rift System. In this study we focus on the provenance of these siliciclastic deposits to identify sediment sources and supply paths with the ultimate goal to reconstruct the exhumation history of different tectonic blocks during prolonged rifting, with specific focus on the uplift of the Rwenzori Mountains in Uganda. We present framework and heavy mineral petrographic data combined with varietal studies of detrital garnet and rutile, based on logged sediment sections on the Ugandan side of Lake Albert (Kisegi-Nyabusosi area). The analyzed sedimentary units have a feldspatho-quartzose composition and distinct variations in heavy mineral assemblages and mineral chemical composition indicating two provenance changes. The Miocene part of the stratigraphy is dominated by garnet, zircon, tourmaline and rutile, whereas Pliocene to Pleistocene sediment yields high amounts of less stable amphibole and epidote. An abrupt switch in heavy mineral assemblages occurs during the early Pliocene (~ 5.5-5.0 Ma) and clearly postdates the formation of Palaeolake Obweruka at ~ 8 Ma. Provenance signatures point to major sediment supply from the northeast and subsequently from the southeast. We interpret this first shift as transition from the pre-rift to the syn-rift stage. In this scenario, formation of Palaeolake Obweruka is due to higher humidity in the upper Miocene, rather than forced rifting. A second change of sediment composition is documented by mineral geochemistry and coincides with fragmentation of Palaeolake Obweruka starting at ~ 2.5 Ma. Detrital garnet in sediment of Miocene to Pliocene age is rich in pyrope and almandine and calculated Zr-in-rutile temperatures range between ~ 550 and 950 °C. In contrast, garnet occurring in Pleistocene sediment (Nyabusosi Formation) has a higher spessartine component and rutile thermometry

  8. Evidence for a useful life of more than three years for a polyester-based long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net in Western Uganda

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    Atieli Francis

    2011-10-01

    half years. Conclusions Under conditions in Western Uganda the tested long-lasting insecticidal net Interceptor® fulfilled the criteria for phase III of WHO evaluations and, based on preliminary criteria of the useful life, this product is estimated to last on average between three and four years.

  9. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  10. The burden of cholera in Uganda.

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    Godfrey Bwire

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. METHODS: The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. RESULTS: Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61-182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81% occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4-44 weeks. DISCUSSION: There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high

  11. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

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    Obol, James Henry; Arony, Denis Anywar; Wanyama, Ronald; Moi, Kenneth Luryama; Bodo, Bongomin; Odong, Patrick Olwedo; Odida, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. Data on socio-demographic and other risk factors was collected using questionnaires. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes for assay of 3-HK and vitamin B6 using sandwich ELISA. Conditional logistic regression model was used to assess associations. 66 cases and 73 controls were studied. Factors associated with nodding syndrome were being positive for 3-HK (AOR=4.50, p=0.013), vitamin B6 concentration below mean (AOR=7.22, P=0.001), child being taken care of by mother only (AOR=5.43, p=0.011), child being taken care of by guardian (AOR=5.90, p=0.019) and child consuming relief food at weaning (AOR=4.05, p=0.021). Having low vitamin B6 concentration which leads to a build up of 3-hydroxykynurenine concentration in cases as a main risk factor. Therefore, cases should be treated with vitamin B6 and community members should be sensitise to ensure adequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 so that the risk of nodding syndrome among children is averted. We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised 3-HK concentration.

  12. Perspectives from the Bench: Technology in the Pittsburgh Courtroom An Interview with the Honorable Nora Barry Fischer, District Judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania

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    Katie Angliss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Judge Nora Barry Fischer has served as a district judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania since 2007, when she was appointed by President George W. Bush. Prior to her service as a district judge, Judge Fischer worked as a legal editor at Callaghan & Company, was a partner in private practice at Meyer Darragh Buckler Bebenek & Eck, and was an equity partner at Pietragallo Bosick & Gordon. Additionally, Judge Fischer worked as a trained mediator and arbitrator in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Judge Fischer is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers, an active member of the Executive Women’s Council of Pittsburgh, a past President of the Academy of Trial Lawyers of Allegheny County, and a member of the Pennsylvania Bar Association Commission on Women in the Profession, where she serves on the Mentoring Subcommittee. She received a Bachelor of Arts Degree magna cum laude from Saint Mary’s College, and a JD degree from Notre Dame Law School in 1976.

  13. Tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwine, J.; Frinking, H.D.; Jeger, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    A survey on the tomato late blight situation and current practices for disease management was carried out in Uganda using an informal structured questionnaire approach. Ten districts from different agroclimatic zones were selected for the survey. Phytophthora infestans isolates from tomatoes were ob

  14. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13…

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder in HIV/AIDS as seen in semi-urban Entebbe district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyanda Eugene

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not much is known about the risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD in HIV/AIDS in the African socio-cultural context. Therefore a study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors of MDD in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 618 respondents attending two HIV clinics in Uganda. Results Prevalence of MDD was 8.1%. Factors associated with MDD at univariate analysis only were female gender, family history of mental illness, negative coping style, alcohol dependency disorder, food insecurity and stress; not associated with MDD were social support, neurocognitive impairment, CD4 counts and BMI. Factors independently associated with MDD were psychosocial impairment, adverse life events, post traumatic stress disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and life-time attempted suicide. Conclusion Psychological and social factors were the main risk factors of MDD among ambulatory HIV positive persons with no evidence for the role of the neurotoxic effects of HIV. Treatment approaches for MDD in this patient group should be modeled on those used among non-HIV groups.

  16. Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and cost to access the service: client motivators for voluntary seeking of medical male circumcision in Iganga district eastern Uganda, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamadi, Lubega; Ibrahim, Musenze; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Peterson, Stefan; Reynolds, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Iganga district was launched in 2010 as part of the Uganda national strategy to prevent new HIV infections with a target of having 129,896 eligible males circumcised by 2012, only 35,000 (27%) of the anticipated target had been circumcised by mid 2012. There was paucity of information on why uptake of VMMC was low in this setting where HIV awareness is presumably high. This study sought to understand motivators for uptake of VMMC from the perspective of the clients themselves in order to advocate for feasible approaches to expanding uptake of VMMC in Iganga district and similar settings. In Iganga district, we conducted seven key informant interviews with staff who work in the VMMC clinics and twenty in-depth interviews with clients who had accepted and undergone VMMC. Ten focus-group discussions including a total of 112 participants were also conducted with clients who had undergone VMMC. Motivators for uptake of VMMC in the perspective of the circumcised clients and the health care staff included: perceived medical benefit to those circumcised such as protection against acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, peer/partner influence, sexual satisfaction and safety and cost to access the service. Since perceived medical benefit was a motivator for seeking VMMC, it can be used to strengthen campaigns for increasing uptake of VMMC. Peer influence could also be used in advocacy campaigns for VMMC expansion, especially using peers who have already undergone VMMC. There is need to ensure that safety and cost to access the service is affordable especially to rural poor as it was mentioned as a motivator for seeking VMMC.

  17. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Meyer Swanepoel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS of the Western Cape.Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method.Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers.Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes.

  18. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Meyer Swanepoel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS of the Western Cape.Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method.Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers.Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes.

  19. District health planning at a time of transition: a critical review and lessons learnt from the implementation of regional planning in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtale, Filippo; Musila, Timothy; Opigo, Jimmy; Nantamu, Dyogo; Ezati, Isaac Alidria

    2016-05-01

    A quarter of a century after the Harare Declaration on Strengthening District Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care (1987) was conceived, district health teams (DHTs) are facing a markedly changed situation. Rapid population growth, urbanization, a rapidly developing private sector, and the increasing role of vertical programs and global initiatives have marginalized the planning process and weakened the entire district health system (DHS). The Ugandan Ministry of Health (MoH) responded to these challenges by beginning a review of district planning: a key action point of the Harare Declaration. The first step was a critical review of relevant literature, then central and district health staff were engaged with to provide their input in developing the new strategy. Through a field experiment started in 2012-13, and still underway, the MoH is developing an innovative regional approach to health planning, which aims to encompass the complexity of the new context of health care provision and coordinate all new actors (private health providers, projects and local government staff from other sectors) operating in the health sector. A strategic revision of the planning process represents an opportunity to develop an appropriate 'Theory of Change', intended as a broader approach of thinking about the entire DHS and the relative role and functions of the DHT. Leadership and stewardship capacities of MoH staff, at central and peripheral level, must be strengthened and supported to achieve the expected changes and results.

  20. 2005 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Western Seminole County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of a bare earth data set of 498 files covering a geographic area of 175 square miles in western Seminole County, Florida and includes small...

  1. 2005 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Western Seminole County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of a bare earth data set of 498 files covering a geographic area of 175 square miles in western Seminole County, Florida and includes small...

  2. First Report of the Occurrence of Trichinella-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Pigs in Central and Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöckler, Karsten; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Fries, Reinhard; Dione, Michel M.; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on trichinellosis in Africa focused on isolating Trichinella from wildlife while the role of domestic pigs has remained highly under-researched. Pig keeping in Uganda is historically recent, and evidence on zoonotic pig diseases, including infection with Trichinella species, is scarce. A cross-sectional survey on Trichinella seroprevalence in pigs was conducted in three districts in Central and Eastern Uganda from April 2013 to January 2015. Serum from a random sample of 1125 pigs from 22 villages in Eastern and Central Uganda was examined to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) against any Trichinella spp. using a commercially available ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. ELISA positive samples were confirmed using Western Blot based on somatic antigen of Trichinella spiralis as recommended in previous validation studies. Diaphragm pillar muscle samples (at least 5 g each) of 499 pigs from areas with high ELISA positivity were examined using the artificial digestion method. Overall, 78 of all 1125 animals (6.9%, 95% CI: 5.6–8.6%) tested positive for antibodies against Trichinella spp. in the ELISA at significantly higher levels in Kamuli district compared to Masaka and Mukono districts. Thirty-one percent of the ELISA positive samples were confirmed IgG positive by the Western Blot leading to an overall seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4–3.2%). The large proportion of ELISA positive samples that could not be confirmed using Western blot may be the result of cross-reactivity with other gastrointestinal helminth infections or unknown host-specific immune response mechanisms in local pig breeds in Uganda. Attempts to isolate muscle larvae for species determination using the artificial digestion method were unsuccessful. Due to the large number of muscle samples examined we are confident that even if pigs are infected, the larval burden in pork is too low to pose a major risk to consumers of developing trichinellosis. This was the first large

  3. Traditional uses of medicinal plants among the tribal people in Theni District (Western Ghats), Southern India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Jeyaprakash; M Ayyanar; KN Geetha; T Sekar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify the knowledgeable Paliyar and Muthuvar traditional healers in Theni District of Tamil Nadu, Southern India and to explore their indigenous ethnomedicinal knowledge.Methods:With the help of standardized questionnaires, 12 informants were interviewed on the medicinal use of the local flora in various tribal villages of Theni District, Tamil Nadu during August 2008 to July 2009. Results: A total of 86 plant species belonging to 75 genera and 45 families were reported with ethnomedicinal uses. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Acanthaceae (6 genera and 7 species, 8% of total collected plants) and Cucurbitaceae (5 species) are dominant families. Among the different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, the leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions: The use of plants among the Paliyars and Muthuvars reflects their interest in ethnomedicine and further investigation on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules.

  4. Lack of effective communication between communities and hospitals in Uganda: a qualitative exploration of missing links

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    Mutebi Aloysius

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community members are stakeholders in hospitals and have a right to participate in the improvement of quality of services rendered to them. Their views are important because they reflect the perspectives of the general public. This study explored how communities that live around hospitals pass on their views to and receive feedback from the hospitals' management and administration. Methods The study was conducted in eight hospitals and the communities around them. Four of the hospitals were from three districts from eastern Uganda and another four from two districts from western Uganda. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs were conducted with medical superintendents of the hospitals. A member from each of three hospital management boards was also interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with health workers from the hospitals. Another eight FGDs (four with men and four with women were conducted with communities within a five km radius around the hospitals. Four of the FGDs (two with men and two with women were done in western Uganda and the other four in eastern Uganda. The focus of the KIIs and FGDs was exploring how hospitals communicated with the communities around them. Analysis was by manifest content analysis. Results Whereas health unit management committees were supposed to have community representatives, the representatives never received views from the community nor gave them any feed back from the hospitals. Messages through the mass media like radio were seen to be non specific for action. Views sent through suggestion boxes were seen as individual needs rather than community concerns. Some community members perceived they would be harassed if they complained and had reached a state of resignation preferring instead to endure the problems quietly. Conclusion There is still lack of effective communication between the communities and the hospitals that serve them in Uganda. This deprives the

  5. Review of indigenous knowledge in Uganda: Implications for its promotion

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    Tabuti, John R.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK has a role to play for households and community well-being in Uganda. However, IK is undergoing significant change and is on the decline in Uganda because of factors such as acculturation or the loss of IK through exposure to external cultures. In this paper we review some of the roles of, and threats to, IK with particular reference to the local community of Kaliro District. We make some recommendations on how to conserve IK in Kaliro and elsewhere in Uganda.

  6. A large outbreak of typhoid fever associated with a high rate of intestinal perforation in Kasese District, Uganda, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Karen P; Sodha, Samir V; Lukwago, Luswa; O-Tipo, Shikanga; Mikoleit, Matthew; Simington, Sherricka D; Mukobi, Peter; Balinandi, Stephen; Majalija, Samuel; Ayers, Joseph; Kagirita, Atek; Wefula, Edward; Asiimwe, Frank; Kweyamba, Vianney; Talkington, Deborah; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Adem, Patricia; Batten, Brigid C; Zaki, Sherif R; Mintz, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) causes an estimated 22 million typhoid fever cases and 216 000 deaths annually worldwide. In Africa, the lack of laboratory diagnostic capacity limits the ability to recognize endemic typhoid fever and to detect outbreaks. We report a large laboratory-confirmed outbreak of typhoid fever in Uganda with a high proportion of intestinal perforations (IPs). A suspected case of typhoid fever was defined as fever and abdominal pain in a person with either vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, headache, weakness, arthralgia, poor response to antimalarial medications, or IP. From March 4, 2009 to April 17, 2009, specimens for blood and stool cultures and serology were collected from suspected cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on Salmonella Typhi isolates. Surgical specimens from patients with IP were examined. A community survey was conducted to characterize the extent of the outbreak. From December 27, 2007 to July 30, 2009, 577 cases, 289 hospitalizations, 249 IPs, and 47 deaths from typhoid fever occurred; Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 27 (33%) of 81 patients. Isolates demonstrated multiple PFGE patterns and uniform susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Surgical specimens from 30 patients were consistent with typhoid fever. Estimated typhoid fever incidence in the community survey was 8092 cases per 100 000 persons. This typhoid fever outbreak was detected because of an elevated number of IPs. Underreporting of milder illnesses and delayed and inadequate antimicrobial treatment contributed to the high perforation rate. Enhancing laboratory capacity for detection is critical to improving typhoid fever control.

  7. Isolation of myxoviruses from migratory waterfowls in San-in district, western Japan in winters of 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengqing, Yu; Shinya, Kyoko; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2002-11-01

    Between November 1997 and February 2000, winter migratory waterfowls of several species staying in San-in district, western Japan were surveyed for influenza A virus and paramyxovirus at four stations. A total of 18 influenza A viruses was isolated from 1,404 fecal samples of whistling swans, pintails, mallards, and white-fronted geese. Five different hemagglutinins and eight neuraminidases were identified in the viruses isolated, in 11 different combinations, including H7N8 related to a subtype of a highly pathogenic chicken virus. In 2000, five lentogenic (non-pathogenic) Newcastle disease viruses were also isolated from white-fronted geese. These results suggested that possible precursor viruses for highly pathogenic avian myxoviruses are still brought into Japan by migratory waterfowls. The results also support the contention that continued surveillance of wild waterfowl population should be an integral part of control policies for these serious poultry diseases.

  8. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination.

  9. Ethnoknowledge of Bukusu community on livestock tick prevention and control in Bungoma district, western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Pala, A.O.; Hassanali, A.

    2012-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: To date, nomadic communities in Africa have been the primary focus of ethnoveterinary research. The Bukusu of western Kenya have an interesting history, with nomadic lifestyle in the past before settling down to either arable or mixed arable/pastoral farming systems.

  10. Comparison between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Roinah N. Ngunyulu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postnatal care begins immediately after the expulsion of the placenta and continues for six to eight weeks post-delivery. High standard of care is required during the postnatal period because mothers and babies are at risk and vulnerable to complications related to postpartum haemorrhage and infections. Midwives and traditional birth attendants are responsible for the provision of postnatal care in different settings, such as clinics and hospitals, and homes.Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed in this study. Unstructured interviews were conducted with the traditional birth attendants. An integrated literature review was conducted to identify the Western postnatalcare practices. Tesch’s process was followed during data analysis.Findings: The following main categories were identified: similarities between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices, and differences between indigenous and Western postnatal care practices. Based on these findings, training of midwives and traditional birth attendants was recommended in order to empower them with knowledge and skills regarding the indigenous and Western postnatal care practices.Conclusions: It is evident that some indigenous postnatal care practices have adverse effects on the health of postnatal women and their newborn infants, but these are unknown to the traditional birth attendants. The employment of indigenous postnatal care practices by the traditional birth attendants is also influenced by their cultural beliefs, norms, values and attitudes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to train midwives and traditional birth attendants regarding the indigenous and Western postnatal care to improve the health of postnatal women and their babies.

  11. Peculiarities of strength and deformability properties of clay soils in districts of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Sergey; Efimenko, Vladimir; Sukhorukov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The article demonstrates the methodology of the substantiation of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils for the design of pavements by strength conditions in II, III, and IV road-climatic zones in West Siberia. The main purpose of the work is to ensure the quality of the design of roads in newly developed regions of Russia. To achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the dislocation of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been specified, zoning of the investigated territory for the design of roads has been detailed; regularities of changes in strength and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils of their moisture have been established; the territorial normalization of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability of clay subgrade soils in relation to the allocated road districts has been carried out. Specification of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been implemented on the basis of the taxonomic system "zone-subzone-road district". The calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay soils, established and differentiated according to road-climatic zones, will ensure the required level of the reliability of transport infrastructure facilities during the life cycle of roads.

  12. Information and Communication for Rural Innovation and Development: Context, Quality and Priorities in Southeast Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sseguya, Haroon; Mazur, Robert; Abbott, Eric; Matsiko, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the status and priorities for agricultural information generation, dissemination and utilization in the context of agricultural innovation systems in southeast Uganda. Design/Methodology/Approach: Group discussions were conducted with six communities in Kamuli district, southeast Uganda. The focus was on information sources and…

  13. Costs of using "tiny targets" to control Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a vector of gambiense sleeping sickness in Arua District of Uganda.

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    Alexandra P M Shaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relative effectiveness of tsetse control methods, their costs need to be analysed alongside their impact on tsetse populations. Very little has been published on the costs of methods specifically targeting human African trypanosomiasis.In northern Uganda, a 250 km2 field trial was undertaken using small (0.5 X 0.25 m insecticide-treated targets ("tiny targets". Detailed cost recording accompanied every phase of the work. Costs were calculated for this operation as if managed by the Ugandan vector control services: removing purely research components of the work and applying local salaries. This calculation assumed that all resources are fully used, with no spare capacity. The full cost of the operation was assessed at USD 85.4 per km2, of which USD 55.7 or 65.2% were field costs, made up of three component activities (target deployment: 34.5%, trap monitoring: 10.6% and target maintenance: 20.1%. The remaining USD 29.7 or 34.8% of the costs were for preliminary studies and administration (tsetse surveys: 6.0%, sensitisation of local populations: 18.6% and office support: 10.2%. Targets accounted for only 12.9% of the total cost, other important cost components were labour (24.1% and transport (34.6%.Comparison with the updated cost of historical HAT vector control projects and recent estimates indicates that this work represents a major reduction in cost levels. This is attributed not just to the low unit cost of tiny targets but also to the organisation of delivery, using local labour with bicycles or motorcycles. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken, investigating key prices and assumptions. It is believed that these costs are generalizable to other HAT foci, although in more remote areas, with denser vegetation and fewer people, costs would increase, as would be the case for other tsetse control techniques.

  14. Regional flood-frequency reconstruction for Kullu district, Western Indian Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Cánovas, J. A.; Trappmann, D.; Shekhar, M.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Stoffel, M.

    2017-03-01

    Floods are a major threat in many valleys of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). Yet, the lack of reliable data on past events renders the implementation of appropriate adaptation policies a difficult task, and therefore also hampers the mitigation of future disasters. In an attempt to overcome these shortcomings, we combine reconstructed paleoflood events based on tree-ring analyses with existing systematic records, so as to derive a regional flood frequency. Analysis was realized with tree-ring records and through the dating of growth disturbances in riparian trees of major rivers in Kullu district (Himachal Pradesh, Indian Himalayas). To this end, we combined field-based observations, tree-ring analyses, hydraulic modelling and statistical approaches. Results suggest that the occurrence of floods in Kullu district is recurrent, with a marked seasonality and a cyclic natural variability in flood frequency at multi-decadal scales, as well as distinct spatial representativeness. The inclusion of peak discharge data of past, previously ungauged, flood events derived from tree-ring records has a significant and positive impact on the flood frequency assessment. Flood hazards and associated risks have been clearly underestimated in the region and based on the systematic records alone. We also demonstrate that a regional flood frequency approach is suitable to optimize the information gathered from tree rings and that flood frequency can thus be analyzed for larger regions. The approach used in this paper can be implemented in the other, poorly gauged region and thus contribute to climate change adaptation policies in undocumented environments such as the Indian Himalayan Region.

  15. Base of principal aquifer for parts of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Sibray, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in the North and South Platte River valleys of Nebraska, including the valley of Lodgepole Creek, are critical to the social and economic health of the area, and for the recovery of threatened and endangered species in the Platte River Basin. Groundwater and surface water are heavily used resources, and uses are regulated in the study area. Irrigation is the dominant water use and, in most instances, is supplied by both groundwater and surface-water sources. The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys including the valley of Lodgepole Creek in western Nebraska. The objective of the surveys was to map the aquifers and underlying bedrock topography of selected areas to help improve the understanding of groundwater–surface-water relations to guide water-management decisions. This project was a cooperative study involving the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Nebraska Environmental Trust. This report presents the interpreted base-of-aquifer surface for part of the area consisting of the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District. The interpretations presented herein build on work done by previous researchers from 2008 to 2009 by incorporating additional airborne electromagnetic survey data collected in 2010 and additional test holes from separate, related studies. To make the airborne electromagnetic data useful, numerical inversion was used to convert the measured data into a depth-dependent subsurface resistivity model. An interpretation of the elevation and configuration of the base of aquifer was completed in a geographic information system that provided x, y, and z

  16. Helicobacter pylori among patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease in rural Uganda

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    Lawrence Tsongo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To meet key millennium development goals, the rural population needs to be reached for health assessment and service delivery. Gastroduodenal ulcer disease is a common ailment affecting the health of people in Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Bwera Hospital in Kasese district of western Uganda, to establish the prevalence and predisposing factors of Helicobacter pylori among gastroduodenal ulcer disease patients. Methods: A sample of 174 patients with symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer disease was purposively obtained. Using two laboratory test methods, the prevalence of H. pylori among these patients was determined. A structured questionnaire was administered to participants to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. Finally, the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunochromatographic rapid test (IRT were compared. Results: We established the prevalence of H. pylori as 29.9% (52/174 by ELISA and 37.4% (65/174 by IRT. Cigarette smoking, poor sanitation, and lack of formal education were the significant predisposing factors with p-values <0.05. The two tests gave identical results in 87.9% of the patients. Discussion: The prevalence of H. pylori by IRT and ELISA test methods was similar to what has been reported elsewhere in developed countries; but was lower than previously reported in developing countries including Uganda. The previous studies in Uganda were carried out in the urban population and on young children; and some used antibody-detection methods only, therefore leading to different prevalence as a result of difference in study population and methods.

  17. Adherence of community caretakers of children to pre-packaged antimalarial medicines (HOMAPAK® among internally displaced people in Gulu district, Uganda

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    Opwonya John

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002, home-based management of fever (HBMF was introduced in Uganda, to improve access to prompt, effective antimalarial treatment of all fevers in children under 5 years. Implementation is through community drug distributors (CDDs who distribute pre-packaged chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (HOMAPAK® free of charge to caretakers of febrile children. Adherence of caretakers to this regimen has not been studied. Methods A questionnaire-based survey combined with inspection of blister packaging was conducted to investigate caretakers' adherence to HOMAPAK®. The population surveyed consisted of internally displaced people (IDPs from eight camps. Results A total of 241 caretakers were interviewed. 95.0% (CI: 93.3% – 98.4% of their children had received the correct dose for their age and 52.3% of caretakers had retained the blister pack. Assuming correct self-reporting, the overall adherence was 96.3% (CI: 93.9% – 98.7%. The nine caretakers who had not adhered had done so because the child had improved, had vomited, did not like the taste of the tablets, or because they forgot to administer the treatment. For 85.5% of cases treatment had been sought within 24 hours. Blister packaging was considered useful by virtually all respondents, mainly because it kept the drugs clean and dry. Information provided on, and inside, the package was of limited use, because most respondents were illiterate. However, CDDs had often told caretakers how to administer the treatment. For 39.4% of respondents consultation with the CDD was their reported first action when their child has fever and 52.7% stated that they consult her/him if the child does not get better. Conclusion In IDP camps, the HBMF strategy forms an important component of medical care for young children. In case of febrile illness, most caretakers obtain prompt and adequate antimalarial treatment, and adhere to it. A large proportion of malaria episodes are thus

  18. Introduction of mobile phones for use by volunteer community health workers in support of integrated community case management in Bushenyi District, Uganda: development and implementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumusiime, David Katuruba; Agaba, Gad; Kyomuhangi, Teddy; Finch, Jan; Kabakyenga, Jerome; MacLeod, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    established through performance monitoring. Local information/communication consultants, working in concert with a university based department of pediatrics, can design and implement a robust mobile phone based system that may be anticipated to contribute to efficient delivery of iCCM by trained volunteer CHWs in rural settings in Uganda.

  19. Modelling seasonal farm labour demand: What can we learn from rural Kakamega district, western Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Canwat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of agricultural activities causes fluctuation in the quantity of labour consumed by these activities, and yet many rural labour studies in developing countries still treat labour demand in agriculture as if it is the same across different farm operations. To unearth the amount of information hidden by this aggregated analysis, labour demand for specific farm operations was estimated based on data collected from Kakamega District. This analysis shows that increasing household size increases labour demand for planting, weeding and harvesting. Increasing the share of elderly household members has a negligible effect on labour demand for farm activities except for land preparation, with which it is positively related. Participation of primary school-going children in farm activities is the highest in planting and harvesting. Participation in off-farm employment seems to increase labour demand only during peak seasons. The area planted appears to have an insignificant effect on labour demand for land preparation. Planting sugar cane appears to reduce labour demand for weeding and primary processing, but planting tea increases labour demand for planting. Mechanising land preparation only reduces labour demand for land preparation, but it seems to be offset by other labour-intensive farm operations. The distance from water source is positively related to labour demand for land preparation, but the distance to the market is negatively related to labour demand for weeding and harvesting. These observations point to the need for supporting and investing in technological and organisational innovations in agriculture.

  20. Solanum (Solanaceae in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the 41 species, subspecies and cultivar groups in the genus Solanum L. (Solanaceae that occur in Uganda, about 30 are indigenous. In Uganda several members of the genus are utilised as food crops while others are put to medicinal and ornamental use. Some members are notorious weeds. A key to the species and descriptions of all Solanum species occurring in Uganda are provided.

  1. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumela Lelisa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%. Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% – 14.3% were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%, Trypanosoma brucei (23.8% and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%. The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05 higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05. About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity.

  2. Systems for Hazards Identification in High Mountain Areas:An Example from the Kullu District,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James S. Gardner; Eric Saczuk

    2004-01-01

    Methods and techniques for the identification, monitoring and management of natural hazards in high mountain areas are enumerated and described. A case study from the western Himalayan Kullu District in Himachal Pradesh, India is used to illustrate some of the methods. Research on the general topic has been conducted over three decades and that in the Kullu District has been carried out since 1994. Early methods of hazards identification in high mountain areas involved intensive and lengthy fieldwork and mapping with primary reliance on interpretation of landforms, sediments and vegetation thought to be indicative of slope failures, rock falls,debris flows, floods and accelerated soil surface erosion. Augmented by the use of airphotos and ad hoc observations of specific events over time, these methods resulted in the gradual accumulation of information on hazardous sites and the beginnings of a chronology of occurrences in an area. The use of historical methods applied to written and photographic material, often held in archives and libraries, further improved the resolution of hazards information. In the past two decades, both the need for, and the ability to, accurately identify potential hazards have increased. The need for accurate information and monitoring comes about as a result of rapid growth in population, settlements,transportation infrastructure and intensified land uses and, therefore, risk and vulnerability in mountain areas. Ability has improved as the traditional methods of gathering and manipulating data have been supplemented by the use of remote sensing, automated terrain modeling, global positioning systems and geographical information systems. This paper focuses on the development and application of the latter methods and techniques to characterize and monitor hazards in high mountain areas.

  3. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986–2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission, but they successfully anticipate most known foci in the region, making possible the development of a risk map of plague. PMID:20207880

  4. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986-2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework...... to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many...... environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission...

  5. Field Trials of the Prototype Pounder Rig, Uganda, 20th August - 13th November 1999.

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    A prototype low-cost drilling rig was imported to Uganda in August 1999 and handed over to Mpigi District Government. Field trials of this machine were undertaken between 20 th August and 13 th November 1999. This work was enabled through a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding between the Cranfield University/DFID Low Cost well Drilling Project, the Directorate of Water Development (DWD) of the Government of Uganda, and the local Government of Mpigi District. A total of fo...

  6. Bubonic and pneumonic plague - Uganda, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    Plague is a life-threatening fleaborne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The most common clinical form is bubonic plague, which is characterized by high fever and regional lymphadenitis. Without treatment, infection can spread from lymph nodes to the lungs, resulting in pneumonic plague and the potential for person-to-person transmission through respiratory droplets. In November 2006, the Uganda Ministry of Health received reports of an increase in bubonic plague cases and a possible outbreak of pneumonic plague among residents in the Arua and Nebbi districts. In response, the Uganda Ministry of Health and CDC conducted a joint investigation in the two districts during November 28-December 30, 2006. Overall, 127 clinical plague cases were identified, along with evidence of a focal pneumonic outbreak in Nebbi District. Median age of the patients was 14 years (range: 2 weeks-65 years); 65 (51%) were female. Twenty-eight (22%) of the 127 patients died. Among the 102 patients with documented symptoms, 90 (88%) had bubonic plague, and 12 (12%) had pneumonic plague. The results of this investigation underscore the need to 1) continue efforts to educate residents of rural Uganda regarding the source, signs, and symptoms of plague and the life-saving importance of seeking treatment; 2) strengthen plague surveillance and diagnostic capabilities; and 3) improve emergency response and vector-control capacity, especially in remote regions of the country.

  7. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal.

  8. Cytomorphological studies in some members of tribe Paniceae (Poaceae) from district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh (Western Himalayas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, H; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2013-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on the population basis of 21 species belonging to 9 genera of tribe Paniceae of family Poaceae from cytologically unexplored area of Western Himalayas i.e. district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh for the assessment of genetic diversity of grass flora. On world-wide basis, the chromosome counts have been made for the first time for three species such as Brachiaria remota (n = 16), Digitaria granularis (n = 36) and Isachne albens (n = 5). Similarly, on India basis, altogether new records are made for two species such as Echinochloa cruspavonis (n = 27) and Paspalum distichum (2n = 50). A comparison of the different euploid cytotypes studied at present for Digitaria adscendens, D. setigera and Oplismenus compositus revealed significant variations in their morphology, depicting increase in some of the characters of polyploid cytotypes. The course of meiosis has been observed to be normal in all the studied populations with high pollen fertility except for two species such as Paspalum dilatatum and P. distichum marked with abnormal meiosis and reduced pollen fertility.

  9. insurgents in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... of Uganda enacted an Amnesty Act in 2000, and to date more than ten thousand ..... Amnesty Certificate, and then in theory, a package.20 In the case of former .... [H]uman rights obligations are contracted on an international level.

  10. Exploring the Care Relationship between Grandparents/Older Carers and Children Infected with HIV in South-Western Uganda: Implications for Care for Both the Children and Their Older Carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rwamahe Rutakumwa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The care of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is often undertaken by grandparents, yet little is known about the care relationship between grandparent and grandchild. Our aim was to examine this relationship to understand the needs and responsibilities of both the HIV positive child and older carer and the nature of the relationship, and to assess the implications for care for the children and the older carers. A qualitative study was conducted with 40 purposively sampled children (13–17 years and their older carers (50 years and above. Participants were recruited from two clinics in south-western Uganda. Up to three semi-structured interviews were held with each participant. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. We found that the care relationship was mostly reciprocal: HIV positive children depended on carers for basic and health needs and carers counted on the children for performing tedious household tasks. The relationship was also characterised by challenges, sometimes causing tension between child and carer. We conclude that: (1 interventions targeting HIV positive children need to also address the needs of older carers, and (2 carers and children would benefit from psychosocial support and social protection.

  11. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbabazi Pamela K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33 plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies. Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species followed by roots (13 species while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further

  12. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Chinsembu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since many rural-poor Lozi people of Sesheke District (Western Province, Zambia that suffer from sexually transmitted infections do not usually access public health facilities; they turn to traditional healers who administer remedies extracted from medicinal plants. However, the medicinal plants used for sexually transmitted infections and data on the usage of plants in Sesheke District in particular and Western Province in general have not been documented. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants that alleviate symptoms of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia. Using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, ethnobotanical data were collected from twenty traditional healers that manage patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections. The results showed that 52 plant species in 25 families and 43 genera were used to treat gonorrhoea, syphilis, chancroid, chlamydia, genital herpes, and ano-genital warts. Sexually transmitted infections were frequently managed using the following plants: Terminalia sericea, Strychnos cocculoides, Ximenia caffra, Cassia abbreviata, Cassia occidentalis, Combretum hereroense, Combretum imberbe, Dichrostachys cinerea, Boscia albitrunca, Momordica balsamina and Peltophorum africanum. Many of these plants have putative antimicrobial activities which may justify their roles as natural remedies for sexually transmitted infections. Further studies are needed to determine the dosages, minimum inhibitory concentrations, biological activities and toxicities, and characterise the plants' chemical compounds.

  13. Tuberculosis in the era of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: assessment and comparison of community knowledge of both infections in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynne Ashley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, despite a significant public health burden of tuberculosis (TB in the context of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence, little is known about community knowledge of TB. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare knowledge about TB and HIV in the general population of western Uganda and to examine common knowledge gaps and misconceptions. Methods We implemented a multi-stage survey design to randomly survey 360 participants from one district in western Uganda. Weighted summary knowledge scores for TB and HIV were calculated and multiple linear regression (with knowledge score as the dependant variable was used to determine significant predictors. Six focus group discussions were conducted to supplement survey findings. Results Mean (SD HIV knowledge score was 58 (12 and TB knowledge score was 33 (15, both scores out of 100. The TB knowledge score was statistically significantly (p  Conclusion TB knowledge is low and many misconceptions about TB exist: these should be targeted through health education programs. Both TB and HIV-infection knowledge gaps could be better addressed through an integrated health education program on both infections, whereby TB program managers include HIV information and vice versa.

  14. Microfinance, rural livelihoods, and women's empowerment in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakwo, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines in what ways and to what extent microfinance services facilitate the empowerment of married rural women in Nebbi district, northwestern Uganda. In particular, it examines the gender relations inherent in the livelihood practices of the community, the changes in well-being (if any

  15. Multilingual Cultural Resources in Child-Headed Families in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazzi, Elizabeth; Kendrick, Maureen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study focusing on the use of multilingual cultural resources in child-headed households (CHHs) in Uganda's Rakai District. Using funds of knowledge and sociocultural perspectives on children's learning, we documented through ethnographic observations and interviews how children in four CHHs used multilingual…

  16. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  17. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Option B+ Era: Uptake and Adherence During Pregnancy in Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Alexandra; Rempis, Eva; Decker, Sarah; Braun, Vera; Rubaihayo, John; Busingye, Priscilla; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Harms, Gundel; Theuring, Stefanie

    2016-03-01

    Since 2012, lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-positive pregnant women ("Option B+") is recommended by WHO for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Many sub-Saharan African countries have since introduced this regimen, but to date, longer-term outcome evaluations are scarce. We conducted an observational study in Fort Portal Municipality, Uganda, to describe uptake and adherence of Option B+ during pregnancy. HIV-positive women approaching antenatal care (ANC) services in two hospitals were enrolled and followed-up at monthly routine ANC visits until delivery. At each visit, next to sociodemographic and clinical data, we assessed drug adherence through pill counts. In total, 124 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled in our study; from these, 80.8% had not been aware of their positive serostatus before. Forty-five PMTCT clients (36.3%) never returned to ANC after their first visit. Protective factors (p < 0.05) for immediate loss to care included previous HIV status knowledge, status disclosure before or at first ANC visit, and tertiary education. Among those clients starting Option B+, the median adherence during pregnancy was 95.7% pill intake. Rather low adherence (<80%) was observed in 21.1% of clients, while more than half achieved an adherence level of ≥95%, with 40.8% of all clients being 100% adherent. The cohort's median adherence remained stable throughout the course of pregnancy. Healthcare providers should place high emphasis on individual PMTCT counseling at first ANC encounter, and pay special attention to those women previously unaware of their HIV status. However, after initial uptake, high adherence seems to be feasible for Option B+.

  18. Bird assemblages in natural and urbanized habitats along elevational gradient in Nainital district (western Himalaya of Uttarakhand state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh BHATT, Kamal Kant JOSHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indian subcontinent is amongst the biologically better known parts of the tropics and its bird fauna has been well documented. However, avian community composition and diversity along elevational gradients and amongst habitat types remains unclear in India. We attempted to estimate bird assemblages in terms of diversity, species composition, status and abundance in urban and forest habitats of Nainital district of Uttarakhand (350–2450 m asl; 29°N, Western Himalayas. We sampled different elevational gradients and to understand the effect of urbanization and season on avian community composition. Field studies were conducted during January 2005 to January 2007. Results indicated that the forest had more complex bird community structure in terms of higher species richness (14.35 vs 8.69, higher species diversity (Shannon’s index 4.00 vs 3.54, higher evenness (0.838 vs 0.811 and more rare species (17 vs 5 as compared to urban habitat. However, the abundance of 11 species was higher in urban habitats. Bird Species Richness (BSR varied considerably among study areas (91 to 113 species, was highest (113 species at mid elevation (1450–1700 m asl and decreased (22 species at high elevation (1900–2450 m asl. It seems that high BSR at mid altitudes is not caused by the presence of a group of mid altitude specialists but rather that there is an overlap in the distribution of low land and high elevation specialists at this altitude. BSR and Bird Species Diversity fluctuated across seasons but not habitat type [Current Zoology 57 (3: 318–329, 2011].

  19. Bird assemblages in natural and urbanized habitats along elevational gradient in Nainital district (western Himalaya)of Uttarakhand state, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh BHATT; Kamal Kant JOSHI

    2011-01-01

    The Indian subcontinent is amongst the biologically better known parts of the tropics and its bird fauna has been well documented. However, avian community composition and diversity along elevational gradients and amongst habitat types remains unclear in India. We attempted to estimate bird assemblages in terms of diversity, species composition, status and abundance in urban and forest habitats of Nainital district of Uttarakhand (350-2450 m asl; 29N), Western Himalayas. We sampled different elevational gradients and to understand the effect of urbanization and season on avian community composition. Field studies were conducted during January 2005 to January 2007. Results indicated that the forest had more complex bird community structure in terms of higher species richness (14.35 vs 8.69), higher species diversity (Shannon's index 4.00 vs 3.54), higher evenness (0.838 vs 0.811) and more rare species (17 vs 5) as compared to urban habitat. However, the abundance of 11 species was higher in urban habitats. Bird Species Richness (BSR) varied considerably among study areas (91 to 113 species), was highest (113 species) at mid elevation (1450-1700 m asl) and decreased (22 species) at high elevation (1900-2450 m asl). It seems that high BSR at mid altitudes is not caused by the presence of a group of mid altitude specialists but rather that there is an overlap in the distribution of low land and high elevation specialists at this altitude. BSR and Bird Species Diversity fluctuated across seasons but not habitat type [Current Zoology 57 (3): 318-329, 2011].

  20. Ebola hemorrhagic fever associated with novel virus strain, Uganda, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Joseph F; Lukwago, Luswa; Malimbo, Mugagga; Nguku, Patrick; Yoti, Zabulon; Musenero, Monica; Amone, Jackson; Mbabazi, William; Nanyunja, Miriam; Zaramba, Sam; Opio, Alex; Lutwama, Julius J; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Okware, Sam I

    2010-07-01

    During August 2007-February 2008, the novel Bundibugyo ebolavirus species was identified during an outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever in Bundibugyo district, western Uganda. To characterize the outbreak as a requisite for determining response, we instituted a case-series investigation. We identified 192 suspected cases, of which 42 (22%) were laboratory positive for the novel species; 74 (38%) were probable, and 77 (40%) were negative. Laboratory confirmation lagged behind outbreak verification by 3 months. Bundibugyo ebolavirus was less fatal (case-fatality rate 34%) than Ebola viruses that had caused previous outbreaks in the region, and most transmission was associated with handling of dead persons without appropriate protection (adjusted odds ratio 3.83, 95% confidence interval 1.78-8.23). Our study highlights the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for viral hemorrhagic fevers among healthcare workers, building local capacity for laboratory confirmation of viral hemorrhagic fevers, and institutionalizing standard precautions.

  1. Uganda Mission PRS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  2. Perceptions of human papillomavirus vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in western Uganda and their implications for acceptability of HPV vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia Sarikieli; Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza

    2017-08-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been perceived in diverse ways some of which encourage its uptake while others could potentially deter its acceptability. This study explored community member's perceptions about HPV vaccination in Ibanda district and the implications of the perceptions for acceptability of HPV vaccination. The study was conducted following initial vaccination of adolescent schoolgirls in the district between 2008 and 2011. This qualitative study employed focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). FGDs were conducted with schoolgirls and parents/guardians and KIIs were conducted with school teachers, health workers and community leaders. Transcripts from the FGDs and KIIs were coded and analyzed thematically using ATLAS.ti (v. 6). The HPV vaccination was understood to safely prevent cervical cancer, which was perceived to be a severe incurable disease. Vaccinations were perceived as protection against diseases like measles and polio that were known to kill children. These were major motivations for girls' and parents' acceptance of HPV vaccination. Parents' increased awareness that HPV is sexually transmitted encouraged their support for vaccination of their adolescent daughters against HPV. There were reports however of some initial fears and misconceptions about HPV vaccination especially during its introduction. These initially discouraged some parents and girls but over the years with no major side effects reported, girls reported that they were willing to recommend the vaccination to others and parents also reported their willingness to get their daughters vaccinated without fear. Health workers and teachers interviewed however explained that, some concerns stilled lingered in the communities. The perceived benefits and safety of HPV vaccination enhanced girls' and parents' acceptability of HPV vaccination. The initial rumors, fears and concerns about HPV vaccination that reportedly discouraged some girls and

  3. Malaria diagnosis and mapping with m-Health and geographic information systems (GIS): evidence from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Alberto; Moro Visconti, Roberto; Marconi, Michele

    2016-10-24

    Rural populations experience several barriers to accessing clinical facilities for malaria diagnosis. Increasing penetration of ICT and mobile-phones and subsequent m-Health applications can contribute overcoming such obstacles. GIS is used to evaluate the feasibility of m-Health technologies as part of anti-malaria strategies. This study investigates where in Uganda: (1) malaria affects the largest number of people; (2) the application of m-Health protocol based on the mobile network has the highest potential impact. About 75% of the population affected by Plasmodium falciparum malaria have scarce access to healthcare facilities. The introduction of m-Health technologies should be based on the 2G protocol, as 3G mobile network coverage is still limited. The western border and the central-Southeast are the regions where m-Health could reach the largest percentage of the remote population. Six districts (Arua, Apac, Lira, Kamuli, Iganga, and Mubende) could have the largest benefit because they account for about 28% of the remote population affected by falciparum malaria with access to the 2G mobile network. The application of m-Health technologies could improve access to medical services for distant populations. Affordable remote malaria diagnosis could help to decongest health facilities, reducing costs and contagion. The combination of m-Health and GIS could provide real-time and geo-localized data transmission, improving anti-malarial strategies in Uganda. Scalability to other countries and diseases looks promising.

  4. Malaria diagnosis and mapping with m-Health and geographic information systems (GIS: evidence from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Larocca

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural populations experience several barriers to accessing clinical facilities for malaria diagnosis. Increasing penetration of ICT and mobile-phones and subsequent m-Health applications can contribute overcoming such obstacles. Methods GIS is used to evaluate the feasibility of m-Health technologies as part of anti-malaria strategies. This study investigates where in Uganda: (1 malaria affects the largest number of people; (2 the application of m-Health protocol based on the mobile network has the highest potential impact. Results About 75% of the population affected by Plasmodium falciparum malaria have scarce access to healthcare facilities. The introduction of m-Health technologies should be based on the 2G protocol, as 3G mobile network coverage is still limited. The western border and the central-Southeast are the regions where m-Health could reach the largest percentage of the remote population. Six districts (Arua, Apac, Lira, Kamuli, Iganga, and Mubende could have the largest benefit because they account for about 28% of the remote population affected by falciparum malaria with access to the 2G mobile network. Conclusions The application of m-Health technologies could improve access to medical services for distant populations. Affordable remote malaria diagnosis could help to decongest health facilities, reducing costs and contagion. The combination of m-Health and GIS could provide real-time and geo-localized data transmission, improving anti-malarial strategies in Uganda. Scalability to other countries and diseases looks promising.

  5. Stakeholder's perceptions of help-seeking behaviour among people with mental health problems in Uganda

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    Ndyanabangi Sheila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mental health facilities in Uganda remain underutilized, despite efforts to decentralize the services. One of the possible explanations for this is the help-seeking behaviours of people with mental health problems. Unfortunately little is known about the factors that influence the help-seeking behaviours. Delays in seeking proper treatment are known to compromise the outcome of the care. Aim To examine the help-seeking behaviours of individuals with mental health problems, and the factors that may influence such behaviours in Uganda. Method Sixty-two interviews and six focus groups were conducted with stakeholders drawn from national and district levels. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using a framework analysis approach. Results The findings revealed that in some Ugandan communities, help is mostly sought from traditional healers initially, whereas western form of care is usually considered as a last resort. The factors found to influence help-seeking behaviour within the community include: beliefs about the causes of mental illness, the nature of service delivery, accessibility and cost, stigma. Conclusion Increasing the uptake of mental health services requires dedicating more human and financial resources to conventional mental health services. Better understanding of socio-cultural factors that may influence accessibility, engagement and collaboration with traditional healers and conventional practitioners is also urgently required.

  6. Home-based management of fever in rural Uganda: community perceptions and provider opinions

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    Jesca-Nsungwa-Sabiiti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda was the first country to scale up Home Based Management of Fever/Malaria (HBM in 2002. Under HBM pre-packaged unit doses with a combination Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamin (SP and Chloroquine (CQ called "HOMAPAK" are administered to all febrile children by community selected voluntary drug distributors (DDs. In this study, community perceptions, health worker and drug provider opinions about the community based distribution of HOMAPAK and its effect on the use of other antimalarials were assessed. Methods In 2004, four focus group discussions with mothers and 11 key informant interviews with drug sellers, drug distributors and health workers were conducted in Kasese district, western Uganda. This was complemented by three months of field observations. Results Caretakers concurred that they were benefiting from the programme. However, according to the information from the DDs and health workers, many caretakers perceived HOMAPAK as a drug of lower quality only meant for first aid. Caretakers also expressed need for other drugs to treat other childhood diseases. The introduction of HOMAPAKs was said not to affect the sale of other allopathic antimalarial drugs in the community. DDs expressed concerns about lack of incentives and facilitation such as torches, gumboots and diagnostic equipment to improve their performance. Conclusion HBM is well appreciated by the community. However, more efforts are needed to improve uptake of the strategy through systematic community sensitization and community dialogue. This study highlights the potential of community based volunteers if well trained, facilitated and integrated into a functioning local health system.

  7. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

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    Moshi Mainen J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%, bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%, malaria (14 plants; 28.6%, gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%, gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%, hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%, viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%, chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%, diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%, cancer (2 plants; 4.1%, inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism, HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%. Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0% of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system

  8. Graves, Ancestors and Cement in Land disputes in Acholi and Ikland, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Willerslev, Rane; Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the roles of graves, ancestors and concrete pillars in disputes over land across different land-systems, -conflicts, and territory making in northern Uganda by comparing extended cases between Acholi in Gulu district and Ik in Kaabong district . In the post-conflict Acholi region...

  9. Accessing diabetes care in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) are increasing rapidly in most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries like Uganda. Little attention has been given to how patients with T2D try to achieve treatment when the availability of public health care for their disease is limited......, as is the case in most SSA countries. In this paper we focus on the landscape of availability of care and the therapeutic journeys of patients within that landscape. Based on fieldwork in south-western Uganda including 10 case studies, we explore the diabetes treatment options in the area and what it takes...... to access the available treatment. We analyse the resources patients need to use the available treatment options, and demonstrate that the patients’ journeys to access and maintain treatment are facilitated by the knowledge and support of their therapy management groups. Patients access treatment more...

  10. Anti-malarial drug safety information obtained through routine monitoring in a rural district of South-Western Senegal

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    Brasseur Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowing the safety profile of anti-malarial treatments in routine use is essential; millions of patients receive now artemisinin combination therapy (ACT annually, but the return on information through current systems is as yet inadequate. Cohort event monitoring (CEM is a WHO (World Health Organization-recommended practice; testing its performance and feasibility in routine practice in malaria-endemic is important. Methods A nine-year CEM-based study of the safety of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ at five peripheral health facilities in a rural district of South-western Senegal. Staff (nurses, health workers were trained to collect actively and systematically information on the patient, treatment and events on a purposely designed questionnaire. The occurrence and severity of events was collected before, during and after treatment up to 28 days in order to generate information on all adverse events (AEs as well as treatment-emerging signs/symptoms (TESS. Laboratory tests (haematology, liver and renal was planned for at least 10% of cases. Results During 2001–2009, 3,708 parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases (mean age = 16.0 ± 12.7 years were enrolled (26% and 52% of all and parasitologically-confirmed ASAQ treatments, respectively. Treatment was supervised in 96% of cases. Products changed over time: 49% were a loose combination of individually-packaged products (available 2001–03, 42% co-blistered products (2004–09 and 9% a fixed-dose co-formulation (2006–09; dosing was age-based for 42%, weight-based for 58%. AS and AQ were correctly dosed in 97% and 82% of cases with the loose and 93% and 86% with the fixed combination, but only 50% and 42% with the co-blistered product. Thirty-three per cent (33% of patients had at least one sign/symptom pre-treatment, 12% had at least one AE and 9% a TESS (total events 3,914, 1,144 and 693, respectively. AEs overestimated TESS by 1.2-2 fold (average 1.7. Changes in

  11. Beyond ICT4D: new media research in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.

    2011-01-01

    Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the

  12. Beyond ICT4D: new media research in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.

    2011-01-01

    Beyond ICT4D: New Media Research in Uganda is a collection of ethnographic reports from diverse perspectives of those living at the other end of the African ICT pyramid. Crucially, these texts refocus on the so-called "ICT4D" debate away from the standard western lens, which depicts users in the dev

  13. Factors influencing specialist outreach and support services to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape

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    Johan Schoevers

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to health care often depends on where one lives. Rural populations have significantly poorer health outcomes than their urban counterparts. Specialist outreach to rural communities is one way of improving access to care. A multifaceted style of outreach improves access and health outcomes, whilst a shifted outpatients style only improves access. In principle, stakeholders agree that specialist outreach and support (O&S to rural populations is necessary. In practice, however, factors influence whether or not O&S reaches its goals, affecting sustainability.Aim and setting: Our aim was to better understand factors associated with the success or failure of specialist O&S to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts in the Western Cape.Methods: An anonymous parallel three-stage Delphi process was followed to obtain consensus in a specialist and district hospital panel.Results: Twenty eight specialist and 31 district hospital experts were invited, with response rates of 60.7% – 71.4% and 58.1% – 74.2% respectively across the three rounds. Relationships, communication and planning were found to be factors feeding into a service delivery versus capacity building tension, which affects the efficiency of O&S. The success of the O&S programme is dependent on a site-specific model that is acceptable to both the outreaching specialists and the hosting district hospital.Conclusion: Good communication, constructive feedback and improved planning may improve relationships and efficiency, which might lead to a more sustainable and mutually beneficial O&S system.

  14. New zircon data supporting models of short-lived igneous activity at 1.89 Ga in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield

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    P. Skyttä

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New U-Th-Pb zircon data (SIMS from three intrusive phases of the Palaeoproterozoic Viterliden intrusion in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield, dates igneous emplacement in a narrow time interval at about 1.89 Ga. A locally occurring quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite, here dated at 1889 ± 3 Ma, is considered the youngest of the intrusive units, based on the new age data and field evidence. This supports an existing interpretation of its fault-controlled emplacement after intrusion of the dominating hornblende-tonalite units, in this study dated at 1892 ± 3 Ma. The Viterliden magmatism was synchronous with the oldest units of the Jörn type early-orogenic intrusions in the eastern part of the district (1.89–1.88 Ga; cf. Gonzàles Roldán, 2010. A U-Pb zircon age for a felsic metavolcanic rock from the hanging-wall to the Kristineberg VMS deposit, immediately south of the Viterliden intrusion, is constrained at 1883 ± 6 Ma in this study. It provides a minimum age for the Kristineberg ore deposit and suggests contemporaneous igneous/volcanic activity throughout the Skellefte District. Furthermore, it supports the view that the Skellefte Group defines a laterally continuous belt throughout this "ore district". Tentative correlation of the 1889 ± 3 Ma quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite with the Kristineberg "mine porphyry" suggests that these units are coeval at about 1.89 Ga. Based on the new age determinations, the Viterliden intrusion may equally well have intruded into or locally acted as a basement for the ore-hosting Skellefte Group volcanic rocks.

  15. New zircon data supporting models of short-lived igneous activity at 1.89 Ga in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield

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    P. Skyttä

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New U-Th-Pb zircon data (SIMS from three intrusive phases of the Palaeoproterozoic Viterliden intrusion in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield, dates igneous emplacement in a narrow time interval at about 1.89 Ga. A locally occurring quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite, here dated at 1889 ± 3 Ma, is, based on the new age data and field evidence, considered the youngest of the intrusive units. This supports an existing interpretation of its fault-controlled emplacement after intrusion of the dominating hornblende-tonalite units, in this study dated at 1892 ± 3 Ma. The Viterliden magmatism was synchronous with the oldest units of the Jörn type early-orogenic intrusions in the eastern part of the district (1.89–1.88 Ga; cf. Gonzàles Roldán, 2010. A U-Pb zircon age for a felsic metavolcanic rock from the hanging-wall to the Kristineberg VMS deposit, immediately south of the Viterliden intrusion, is in this study constrained in the 1.89–1.88 Ga time interval. It provides a minimum age for the Kristineberg ore deposit and suggests contemporaneous igneous/volcanic activity throughout the Skellefte District. Furthermore, it supports the view that the Skellefte Group defines a laterally continuous belt throughout this "ore district". Tentative correlation of the 1889 ± 3 Ma quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite with the Kristineberg "mine porphyry", which cuts the altered ore-hosting metavolcanic rocks, further constrain the minimum age for ore deposition at 1889 ± 3 Ma. Based on the new age determinations, the Viterliden intrusion may equally well have intruded into, or locally acted as a basement for the ore-hosting Skellefte Group volcanic rocks.

  16. Off-Grid Electricity Access and its Impact on Micro-Enterprises: Evidence from Rural Uganda

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    Muhoro, Peter N.

    The history of development shows convincingly that no country has substantially reduced poverty without massively increasing the use of electricity. The development of micro-enterprises in rural areas of Uganda is linked with increased access and use of electricity services. In this study, I combine quantitative and qualitative methods, including informal surveys, intra-business energy allocation studies and historical analysis, to analyze off-grid electricity access among micro-enterprises in rural western Uganda. I explore the linkages between of grid electricity access and the influence it has on micro- enterprises. Data is obtained from 56 micro-enterprises located in 11 village-towns within 3 districts in Uganda. In studying the micro-enterprises. the focus is on the services that are provided by electricity from modern energy carriers. The type of equipment used, forms of transportation, technical support, level of understanding and education of the entrepreneur, financing for energy equipment, and the role of donors are discussed in this thesis. Qualitative methods are used to allow for new insights and prioritization of concepts to emerge from the field rattier than from theory. Micro-enterprises in rural Uganda create income for the poor; they are resources for poverty reduction. With price adjustments, it becomes possible for those who live below the poverty line, nominally less than $1 a day, to afford the products and services and therefore mitigating the vicious cycle of poverty. Energy consumption among the micro-enterprises is at an average of 0.13kWh/day. The cost of accessing this amount of electricity attributes to about 50% of total revenue. I find that the "practices" used in off-grid electricity access lead to situations where the entrepreneurs have to evaluate pricing and output of products and services to generate higher profits. Such numbers indicate the need for appropriate technologies and profitable policies to be implemented. The data

  17. Laramie in Uganda

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    Kagan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    No matter how disturbing, it is common to hear "that's so gay" or "you're such a fag" echoing through the halls of a high school, but when the high school is an international school in Uganda, those words have a newfound potency. As an American teacher working abroad, the author often struggled over her responsibility for the…

  18. The Karimojong from Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Iva; Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    The Karimojong, an African group from the Karamoja region of Northeast Uganda, were genetically analysed using a decaplex system for X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STRs). A total of 255 individuals (117 males and 138 females) were genotyped for the following loci: DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133,...

  19. Uganda's eco-rebirth.

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    Lazarus, D

    1991-01-01

    In 1986, the Government of Uganda established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to meet the country's socioeconomic development needs without destroying the environment. A Ministry-supported village pilot project in the Gombe region promotes self-sufficiency in potable water, food, and energy and tests means to achieve ecologically sound management of sustainable food/energy/fodder production. The Ministry also serves to sensitize the public to environmental issues by encouraging Ugandan newspapers to report more environment-related stories. A newspaper story informed the government about fishermen along a 20 km stretch of the Nile River and in Lake Victoria who used dynamite to kill fish, including juvenile and noncommercial fish. Thus, the government quickly put a halt to dynamiting. The ministry also produces films on Uganda's environmental problems. Some of these problems include the indiscriminate destruction of forests (e.g., Mabira, Mt. Elgon, Kibale, Budongo, Bwindi, and Maramagambo) and farmlands along Lake Victoria. Further, Uganda is witnessing either killing or smuggling of its elephants, rhinos, insects, birds, reptiles, and primates. In 1988, the World Bank committed about US$33.5 million to activities to protect Uganda's forests. They include planting of exotic softwoods, timber harvesting from remaining forests, and reestablishment of self-sufficiency in fuelwoods. The government hopes that forest rehabilitation will bring back tourism which before the civil war was the country's second highest foreign exchange earner. In fact, the remaining forests house the world's greatest population densities of primates (e.g., mountain gorillas in the southwest) and many rate birds. The UN Environmental Program will write Uganda's environmental protection law and helps the Ministry to promote environmental and public awareness.

  20. Agro-ecosystem and socio-economic role of homegarden agroforestry in Jabithenan District, North-Western Ethiopia: implication for climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Ewuketu

    2014-01-01

    Homegarden agroforestry is believed to be more diverse and provide multiple services for household than other monocropping system and this is due to the combination of crops, trees and livestock. The aim of this study was to assess socio-economic and agro-ecological role of homegardens in Jabithenan district, North-western Ethiopia. Two sites purposively and two villages randomly from each site were selected. Totally 96 households; in which 48 from homegarden agroforestry user and 48 from non-tree based garden user were selected for this study. Socio-economic data and potential economic and agro-ecosystem role of homegarden agroforestry over non-tree based garden were collected by using semi-structured and structured questionnaires to the households. Homegarden agroforestry significantly (P homegarden agroforestry practice provides good socio-economical and agro-ecological service for farmers which have a higher implication for climate change adaptation than non-tree based garden.

  1. Schistosoma mansoni Infections, Undernutrition and Anaemia among Primary Schoolchildren in Two Onshore Villages in Rorya District, North-Western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition and anaemia remains to be a major public health problem in many developing countries, where they mostly affect children. Intestinal parasitic infections are known to affect both growth and haemoglobin levels. Much has been reported on the impact of geohelminths on anaemia and undernutrition, leaving that of Schistosoma mansoni not well studied. Therefore this study intended to determine the association between S.mansoni infections, anaemia and undernutrition among schoolchildren in Rorya district, Northwestern Tanzania. Methodology A cross-sectional study was carried among schoolchildren in two onshore villages namely Busanga and Kibuyi in Rorya district. Single stool specimens were collected from 513 randomly selected schoolchildren and processed for microscopic examination using the Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometry. Blood samples were also collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels using the Giemsa stain and HaemoCue methods, respectively. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and associated factors. Results The prevalence of S. mansoni infection and malaria was 84.02% and 9.16%, respectively. Other parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.36%) and Hookworm (1.36%). The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 38.21% and 14.42%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 29.43%, whereby 0.58% had severe anaemia. S. mansoni infection was not found to be associated with undernutrition or anaemia (p>0.05). The risk of stunting and wasting increased with increasing age (p<0.001). Anaemia was associated with age, sex and village of residence (p<0.05). Conclusions S.mansoni, undernutrition and anaemia are highly prevalent in the study area. The observed rates of undernutrition and anaemia were seen not to be associated with S.mansoni infection suggesting possibly being a result of poor dietary nutrients. This study suggests that policy makers should

  2. Schistosoma mansoni Infections, Undernutrition and Anaemia among Primary Schoolchildren in Two Onshore Villages in Rorya District, North-Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisi, David Zadock; Buza, Joram; Mpolya, Emmanuel A; Kinung'hi, Safari M

    2016-01-01

    Undernutrition and anaemia remains to be a major public health problem in many developing countries, where they mostly affect children. Intestinal parasitic infections are known to affect both growth and haemoglobin levels. Much has been reported on the impact of geohelminths on anaemia and undernutrition, leaving that of Schistosoma mansoni not well studied. Therefore this study intended to determine the association between S.mansoni infections, anaemia and undernutrition among schoolchildren in Rorya district, Northwestern Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was carried among schoolchildren in two onshore villages namely Busanga and Kibuyi in Rorya district. Single stool specimens were collected from 513 randomly selected schoolchildren and processed for microscopic examination using the Kato-Katz method. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometry. Blood samples were also collected and examined for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels using the Giemsa stain and HaemoCue methods, respectively. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and associated factors. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection and malaria was 84.02% and 9.16%, respectively. Other parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.36%) and Hookworm (1.36%). The prevalence of stunting and wasting was 38.21% and 14.42%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 29.43%, whereby 0.58% had severe anaemia. S. mansoni infection was not found to be associated with undernutrition or anaemia (p>0.05). The risk of stunting and wasting increased with increasing age (pAnaemia was associated with age, sex and village of residence (panaemia are highly prevalent in the study area. The observed rates of undernutrition and anaemia were seen not to be associated with S.mansoni infection suggesting possibly being a result of poor dietary nutrients. This study suggests that policy makers should consider Rorya district for inclusion into national schistosomiasis control and school

  3. Prevalence, causes of blindness, visual impairment and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district on the western coastal strip of India

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    Shailbala Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Konkan coast of India is geographically distinct and its pattern of blindness has never been mapped. Aim : To study the prevalence and causes of blindness and cataract surgical services in Sindhudurg district of West Coast. Subjects : Individual aged > 50 years. Materials and Methods: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness used to map blindness pattern in the district. Statistical analysis: SPSS version 19. Results: Amongst those examined 1415 (51.7% had visual acuity (VA >20/60, 924 (33.8%, confidence interval (C.I 30.5%-36.8% had VA 20/200-<20/60(visual impairment, 266 (9.7%, C.I. 6.1%-13.3% had VA < 20/200-20/400 (severe visual impairment and 132 (4.8%, C. I. 1.1%-8.5% had VA < 20/400 (blindness by WHO standards. There was no significant gender difference in prevalence of blindness, but blindness and visual impairment was more in older and rural residing individuals. Amongst those with presenting vision < 20/200 in better eye, 309 (82.4% had cataract, 36 (9.7% had corneal scars, 13 (3.5% had diabetic retinopathyand 3 (0.8% had glaucoma. Cataract surgical coverage for the district was only 30.5%; 32% for males and 28.4% for females. Unable to afford, lack of knowledge and lack of access to services were the commonest barriers responsible for cataract patients not seeking care. Amongst those who had undergone cataract surgery, only 50% had visual acuity ≥ 20/60.46.9% of the population had spectacles for near, but only 53.3% of the population had presenting near vision < N10. Conclusion : Cataract, refractive errors and diabetes were significant causes of visual impairment and blindness.

  4. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district and vicinity, western Brooks Range, Alaska: provenance, deposition, and metallogenic significance

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    Slack, John F.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schmidt, J.M.; Young, L.E.; Rombach, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the western Brooks Range reveal a complex evolutionary history for strata surrounding the large Zn-Pb-Ag deposits of the Red Dog district. Data for major elements, trace elements, and rare earth elements (REE) were obtained on 220 samples of unaltered and unmineralized siliciclastic rocks from the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Endicott Group (Hunt Fork Shale, Noatak Sandstone, Kanayut Conglomerate, Kayak Shale), the overlying Carboniferous Lisburne Group (Kuna Formation, unnamed drowned shelf facies), and the Pennsylvanian-Permian Siksikpuk Formation. Major base metal sulfide deposits of the region are present only in the Kuna Formation, which in the Red Dog district comprises siliceous black shale and black chert, minor limestone (calcareous radiolarite), and sparse lithic turbidite and bedded siliceous rock. Gray and rare black shales of the Kayak Shale and common black shales of the Kuna Formation are anomalously low in iron (avg Fe/Ti = 6.25 and 6.34, respectively) relative to other Paleozoic shales in the region (9.58-10.6) and to average shales worldwide (10.1-10.5). In contrast, the bedded siliceous rocks contain appreciable hematite (avg Fe/Ti = 35.0) and high U/Ti and REE/Ti ratios that are interpreted to reflect low amounts of detrital material and a major Fe-rich eolian component.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella viruses identified in Uganda, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuwulya, Prossy; Abernathy, Emily; Bukenya, Henry; Bwogi, Josephine; Tushabe, Phionah; Birungi, Molly; Seguya, Ronald; Kabaliisa, Theopista; Alibu, Vincent P; Kayondo, Jonathan K; Rivailler, Pierre; Icenogle, Joseph; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas

    2014-12-01

    Molecular data on rubella viruses are limited in Uganda despite the importance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine rubella vaccination, while not administered currently in Uganda, is expected to begin by 2015. The World Health Organization recommends that countries without rubella vaccination programs assess the burden of rubella and CRS before starting a routine vaccination program. Uganda is already involved in integrated case-based surveillance, including laboratory testing to confirm measles and rubella, but molecular epidemiologic aspects of rubella circulation have so far not been documented in Uganda. Twenty throat swab or oral fluid samples collected from 12 districts during routine rash and fever surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were identified as rubella virus RNA positive and PCR products encompassing the region used for genotyping were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 20 sequences identified 19 genotype 1G viruses and 1 genotype 1E virus. Genotype-specific trees showed that the Uganda viruses belonged to specific clusters for both genotypes 1G and 1E and grouped with similar sequences from neighboring countries. Genotype 1G was predominant in Uganda. More epidemiological and molecular epidemiological data are required to determine if genotype 1E is also endemic in Uganda. The information obtained in this study will assist the immunization program in monitoring changes in circulating genotypes.

  6. Why the increase in under five mortality in Uganda from 1995 to 2000? A retrospective analysis

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    Ayiga Natal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 1995-2000 the under five mortality rate in Uganda increased from 147.3 to 151.5 deaths per 1000 live births and reasons for the increase were not clear. This study was undertaken to understand factors influencing the increase in under five mortality rate during 1995-2000 in Uganda with a view of suggesting remedial actions. Methods We performed a comparative retrospective analysis of data derived from the 1995 and the 2000 Uganda demographic and health surveys. We correlated the change of under five mortality rate in Uganda desegregated by region (central, eastern, north and western with change in major known determinants of under five mortality such social economic circumstances, maternal factors, access to health services, and level of nutrition. Results The increase in under five mortality rate only happened in western Uganda with the other 3 regions of Uganda (eastern, northern and central showing a decrease. The changes in U5MR could not be explained by changes in poverty, maternal conditions, level of nutrition, or in access to health and other social services and in the prevalence of HIV among women attending for ante-natal care. All these factors did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05 using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Conclusion In order to explain these findings, there is need to find something that happened in western Uganda (but not other parts of the country during the period 1995-2000 and has the potential to change the under five mortality by a big margin. We hypothesize that the increase in under five mortality could be explained by the severe malaria epidemic that occurred in western Uganda (but not other regions in 1997/98.

  7. Timing and origin of ignimbrites exposed in the Palmarejo and Guazapares mining districts in western Chihuahua: Implications for the genesis of Ag-Au epithermal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, M. A.; Ramirez, A.; Goodell, P.

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we provided the zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope composition of the post-Laramidic ignimbrites exposed in the Palmarejo and Guazapares Ag-Au epithermal mineralization districts in western Chihuahua, Mexico. Three ignimbrite samples from Guerra Al Tirano and one sample from Guadalupe Norte dome in the Palmarejo district yielded weighted mean ages of 23.1 ± 0.4 Ma, 23.4 ± 0.4 Ma, 23.7 ± 0.4 Ma and 23.7 ± 1.1 Ma, respectively. One sample from San Francisco in the Guazapares district yielded a weighted mean age of 28 ± 1.0 Ma. Zircon U-Pb ages suggest that the post-subduction ignimbrite flare-up in the Palmarejo and Guazapares district remained restricted in the Early Oligocene to Early Miocene. The Hf isotope composition of the selected grains is dominantly positive with the majority (85%) of the analyses ranging from +1.0 to +5.8. Three samples from Guerra Al Tirano and one sample from San Francisco yielded radiogenic and positive weighted mean ɛHf (t) of 4.6 ± 1.0, 3.3 ± 0.8, and 4.7 ± 0.9 and 1.6 ± 0.9, respectively. The Hf isotope composition observed in the post-Laramidic ignimbrites is identical to the Late-Cretaceous Early Tertiary granodiorites exposed 60 km southeast in the Rio El Fuerte region. However, we did not find any inheritance from the Laramidic plutons. It is possible that the older zircons have dissolved by the strong acidic fluids (pH <4), that is typical for the high sulfidation epithermal mineralization. Newly grown inheritance-free zircons actually recorded the timing of achieving the near-surface relatively lower sulfidation conditions, where acidic fluids have been neutralized while interacting with meteoric waters. Alternatively, the absence of zircon inheritance and dominant positive Hf isotope composition suggest a minimum role of crustal-derived melts in the generation of the ignimbrites during Early Oligocene to Early Miocene. We suggest that the ignimbrites recorded the dominant contribution from mantle

  8. Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Albariño, César G.; Conlan, Sean; Reeder, Serena A.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Lipkin, W. Ian; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Okware, Samuel; Lutwama, Julius; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Kayiwa, John; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of the initial 29 suspect-case blood specimens by classic methods (antigen capture, IgM and IgG ELISA) and a recently developed random-primed pyrosequencing approach quickly identified this to be an Ebola HF outbreak associated with a newly discovered ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) distantly related to the Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus found in western Africa. Due to the sequence divergence of this new virus relative to all previously recognized ebolaviruses, these findings have important implications for design of future diagnostic assays to monitor Ebola HF disease in humans and animals, and ongoing efforts to develop effective antivirals and vaccines. PMID:19023410

  9. Newly discovered ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Towner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of the initial 29 suspect-case blood specimens by classic methods (antigen capture, IgM and IgG ELISA and a recently developed random-primed pyrosequencing approach quickly identified this to be an Ebola HF outbreak associated with a newly discovered ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus distantly related to the Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus found in western Africa. Due to the sequence divergence of this new virus relative to all previously recognized ebolaviruses, these findings have important implications for design of future diagnostic assays to monitor Ebola HF disease in humans and animals, and ongoing efforts to develop effective antivirals and vaccines.

  10. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  11. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  12. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  13. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  14. Delaying sexual debut amongst out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘sexual debut’ among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda, factors influencing its timing and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a sexual health needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young p

  15. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total of...

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about malaria among communities: Comparing epidemic and non-epidemic prone communities of Muleba district, North-western Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishamawe Coleman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muleba district in North-western Tanzania has experienced malaria epidemics in recent years. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices are important in enhancing disease control interventions. This study investigated determinants of malaria epidemics in the study area in relation to household knowledge, attitudes and practice on malaria. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey involving 504 study participants was conducted between April and June 2007 using a structured questionnaire focusing on knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members in epidemic and non-epidemic villages about malaria transmission, signs and symptoms, treatment, prevention and control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess determinants of malaria epidemics. Results A total of 504 respondents (males = 36.9% were interviewed. Overall, 453 (90.1% mentioned malaria as the most important disease in the area. Four hundred and sixty four respondents (92.1% knew that malaria is transmitted through mosquito bite. A total of 436 (86.7%, 306 (60.8% and 162 (32.1% mentioned fever, vomiting and loss of appetite as major symptoms/signs of malaria, respectively. Of those interviewed 328 (65.1% remembered the recent outbreak of 2006. Of the 504 respondents interviewed, 296 (58.7% reported that their households owned at least one mosquito net. Three hundred and ninety seven respondents (78.8% knew insecticides used to impregnate bed nets. About two thirds (63.3% of the respondents had at least a household member who suffered from malaria during the recent epidemic. During the 2006 outbreak, 278 people (87.2% sought treatment from health facilities while 27 (8.5% obtained drugs from drug shops and 10 (3.1% used local herbs. Logistic regression analysis showed that household location and level of knowledge of cause of malaria were significant predictors of a household being affected by epidemic. Conclusions Residents of Muleba

  17. Second generation plant health clinics in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank; Mutebi, Emmanuel;

    standards and procedures were in place and followed up on. Many of the observed clinic weaknesses were products of missing coordination, follow up and communication. The sustainability of plant clinics is still uncertain. Funds are limited and skilled human resources to man the clinics have yet to reach......The purpose of the present study was to assess the performance of plant clinics in Uganda and to identify system factors that are conducive or constraining to clinic performance. Our analytical framework was derived from the health system model of World Health Organisation (WHO), designed...... their leading role. A mismatch between institutional mandates/authority and allocated resources limited the scope of the actions both at district and national level. The plant clinics risk ‘falling between the two chairs’ of extension and pest and disease control. Finding a solid institutional base...

  18. Variable Wood Formation and Adaptation to the Alpine Environment of Ephedra pachyclada (Gnetales: Ephedraceae) in the Mustang District, Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Hiroyuki; Noshiro, Shuichi; Mikage, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants of Ephedra normally have vessels, but are known to become nearly vessel-less in some alpine localities. Previous studies implied that wood formation in Ephedra differs fundamentally from that in dicotyledons in which vessel-bearing and vessel-less taxa are systematically distinct. Using E. pachyclada in the Mustang district of Nepal, growing in an altitudinal range of over 2000 m, variation in wood formation and adaptation to alpine environment was studied in this normally vessel-bearing species. Methods Variation in wood anatomy and wood formation was observed with conventional optical microscopy. The lengths of three kinds of tracheary elements were measured and statistically analysed against habitat altitude and plant size of the individuals studied. Key Results In E. pachyclada three kinds of tracheary elements, vessel elements, tracheids and fibre-tracheids, were nearly equal in length within individuals showing no elongation after differentiation from cambial initials. Tracheary element lengths among individuals had a negative correlation with altitude and a positive correlation with plant size. Multivariate analyses showed that altitude has a stronger correlation with tracheary element lengths than plant height or stem diameter. Moreover, several individuals from high elevations completely lacked vessels, and vessel formation fluctuated even in individuals from lower elevations. Conclusions Wood anatomical trends in E. pachyclada are considered as an adaptation to extremely dry conditions in high mountains. Fluctuation in vessel formation in individuals from low elevations indicated that vessels differentiate only when their lateral expansion is allowed. These results showed that E. pachyclada has a different system of wood formation from dicotyledons and supported the opinion that the wood structure of Gnetales is fundamentally different from that of angiosperms. PMID:17576659

  19. A study of certain correlates of job satisfaction among judicial personnel, in a district of Western Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti A Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In present scenario, the legal profession has gained utmost importance, which makes the job of a lawyer the most challenging, with lots of mental and physical strain. The rewards can be great, but so are the pressures. High job demands lead to imbalance between what is expected and what is received (job dissatisfaction which, in turn, leads to job strains. So, the present study focused on the impact of certain variables on job satisfaction of the judiciaries. Objectives: To study the level of job satisfaction among judicial personnel; to identify the impact of job level (hierarchy in the experience of job satisfaction; to find the gender difference (if any for the level of job satisfaction; and to examine the pattern of relationship of certain variables with job satisfaction. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 year duration, in total 965 judicial personnel of different courts in the district of Sangli, which involved data collection using predesigned proforma. A scale, having 15 different independent predictors was used as a validated screening tool, to calculate their job satisfaction score. The most contributing variable and its correlation with job satisfaction was found by stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis using SPSS Version-16. Results and Conclusion: Out of the total, Class I judiciaries were 692 (71.7%. A majority (71.4% of the study subjects were male. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.38 ± 2.7. Twenty-three percent females, compared with only 9% males, had low job satisfaction (P < 0.5. The best predictor of job satisfaction in males and females was emotional exhaustion (β = 0.191 and conflicts between values and practice (β = 0.252, respectively. Higher is the job satisfaction score, lesser the level of job satisfaction. The findings of the study revealed that job satisfaction was found to be significantly (P < 0.0005 and positively correlated with all the

  20. Risk factors and spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection among primary school children in Mbita District, Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiyo Nagi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing risk of Schistosoma mansoni infection has been observed around Lake Victoria, western Kenya since the 1970s. Understanding local transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis is crucial in curtailing increased risk of infection.We carried out a cross sectional study on a population of 310 children from eight primary schools. Overall, a total of 238 (76.8% children were infected with S. mansoni, while seven (2.3% had S. haematobium. The prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides were 6.1%, 5.2% and 2.3%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite detected (12.0%. High local population density within a 1 km radius around houses was identified as a major independent risk factor of S. mansoni infection. A spatial cluster of high infection risk was detected around the Mbita causeway following adjustment for population density and other potential risk factors.Population density was shown to be a major factor fuelling schistosome infection while individual socio-economic factors appeared not to affect the infection risk. The high-risk cluster around the Mbita causeway may be explained by the construction of an artificial pathway that may cause increased numbers of S. mansoni host snails through obstruction of the waterway. This construction may have, therefore, a significant negative impact on the health of the local population, especially school-aged children who frequently come in contact with lake water.

  1. Environmental systems and local actors: decentralizing environmental policy in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterveer, Peter; Van Vliet, Bas

    2010-02-01

    In Uganda, environmental and natural resource management is decentralized and has been the responsibility of local districts since 1996. This environmental management arrangement was part of a broader decentralization process and was intended to increase local ownership and improve environmental policy; however, its implementation has encountered several major challenges over the last decade. This article reviews some of the key structural problems facing decentralized environmental policy in this central African country and examines these issues within the wider framework of political decentralization. Tensions have arisen between technical staff and politicians, between various levels of governance, and between environmental and other policy domains. This review offers a critical reflection on the perspectives and limitations of decentralized environmental governance in Uganda. Our conclusions focus on the need to balance administrative staff and local politicians, the mainstreaming of local environmental policy, and the role of international donors.

  2. The geology and mineral deposits of part of the western half of the Hailey 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangle, Idaho; with sections on the Neal mining district and the Dixie mining district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Earl H.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks in the western half of the Hailey 1 ?? 2 ? quadrangle of south-central Idaho include various units of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith (biotite granodiorite to two-mica granite) of Cretaceous age and plutons and dikes of Tertiary (Eocene to Miocene) age that intrude the batholith. Eocene plutonic rocks consist of a bimodal suite of anorogenic granite and tonalite-granodiorite and hypabyssal rhyolite and rhyodacite dikes. Rocks of the Eocene Challis Volcanics are scarce in the map area but are widespread to the east. Rhyolite ash flows of the Miocene Idavada Volcanics and basalt of the Snake River Plain crop out in the southern part of the area. Lacustrine rocks of probable Eocene to Holocene age are present in the vicinity of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Quaternary basalts and gravels are widespread on the South Fork of the Boise River, and alluvial deposits are common along active drainages. Metasedimentary rocks of unknown age crop out on House Mountain, Chimney Peak, and on the ridges east of Anderson Ranch Reservoir. Older structures in the Idaho batholith include a major fault beneath House Mountain that may be a decollement for one of the large thrust sheets in eastern Idaho or part of an extensional core complex. The southern part of the Atlanta lobe of the Idaho batholith is cut by northeast-striking faults (parallel with the Trans-Challis fault system) that are related to Eocene extension and by northwest-oriented faults that formed during basin and range extension in the Miocene. The basin and range faults have prominent scarps typical of basin and range topography. The combination of northeast and northwest faults has broken the batholith into a series of rhomboid blocks. Some of these northeast and northwest faults are older structures that were reactivated in the Eocene or Miocene, as indicated by Ar 40 /Ar 39 dates on mineralized rock contained in some of the structures. The Idaho batholith and associated rocks in the map area host several

  3. Hydro-chemical characterization and quality assessment of a Western Himalayan river, Munawar Tawi, flowing through Rajouri district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohd; Azeez, P A

    2016-09-01

    Studies on river water quality in the Indian Himalayas are limited to a few larger ones; the smaller ones, although vital for a large section of people, mostly remain untouched. Therefore, Munawar Tawi a tributary of Chenab flowing through Rajouri district of Jammu region, Western Himalayas was selected for the study. Fifty-four water samples from 27 sites from Rajouri town and its upstream and downstream locations were collected during January and June 2014. Fourteen water quality parameters that include major cations and anions were analyzed. Water quality indicators such as SAR, %Na, RSC, MAR, KI, and PI were also calculated to determine suitability of water for irrigation. Piper plots identified four water types, of which Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 was the dominant type in both the seasons. While in January, water samples varied across all the four types, in June only two types were seen (i.e. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Na(+)-HCO(-) 3). Ludwig-Langelier plot also showed Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO(-) 3 type as the dominant water type. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed most of the parameters, except TDS, significantly high in January than in June. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant variation in concentration among most of the parameters from upstream to the town and towards downstream. The water, with respect to the set standards (WHO, ISI, UNESCO), in both January and June, is found suitable for drinking and irrigation.

  4. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  5. Urban malaria in the Brazilian Western Amazon Region I: high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in an urban riverside district is associated with a high level of clinical malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Shugiro Tada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross sectional studies on malaria prevalence was performed in 2001, 2002, and 2004 in Vila Candelária, an urban riverside area of Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Brazilian Western Amazon, followed by longitudinal surveys on malaria incidence. Vila Candelária is a working class district, provided with electricity, water supply, and basic sanitation. Previous preliminary surveys indicated high malaria incidence in this community. At the end of year 2000 regular diagnostic and treatment measures for malaria were introduced, with active search of febrile cases among residents. Despite of both rapid treatment of cases and relative good sanitary and housing conditions, the malaria incidence persisted at high levels during the following years with an annual parasite index of 150 to 300/1000 inhabitants. Parasite surveys in 2001, 2002, and 2004 achieved through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to diagnose malaria showed a constant high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. It was concluded that asymptomatic carriers represent an important reservoirs of parasites and that the carriers might contribute to maintaining the high level of transmission. Comparing our findings to similar geo-demographic situations found in other important urban communities of the Brazilian Amazon, we propose that asymptomatic carriers could explain malaria's outbreaks like the one recently observed in Manaus.

  6. Phylogeography and population structure of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in Uganda: implications for control of tsetse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon S Beadell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, a riverine species of tsetse, is the main vector of both human and animal trypanosomiasis in Uganda. Successful implementation of vector control will require establishing an appropriate geographical scale for these activities. Population genetics can help to resolve this issue by characterizing the extent of linkage among apparently isolated groups of tsetse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted genetic analyses on mitochondrial and microsatellite data accumulated from approximately 1000 individual tsetse captured in Uganda and neighboring regions of Kenya and Sudan. Phylogeographic analyses suggested that the largest scale genetic structure in G. f. fuscipes arose from an historical event that divided two divergent mitochondrial lineages. These lineages are currently partitioned to northern and southern Uganda and co-occur only in a narrow zone of contact extending across central Uganda. Bayesian assignment tests, which provided evidence for admixture between northern and southern flies at the zone of contact and evidence for northerly gene flow across the zone of contact, indicated that this structure may be impermanent. On the other hand, microsatellite structure within the southern lineage indicated that gene flow is currently limited between populations in western and southeastern Uganda. Within regions, the average F(ST between populations separated by less than 100 km was less than approximately 0.1. Significant tests of isolation by distance suggested that gene flow is ongoing between neighboring populations and that island populations are not uniformly more isolated than mainland populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the presence of population structure arising from historical colonization events, our results have revealed strong signals of current gene flow within regions that should be accounted for when planning tsetse control in Uganda. Populations in southeastern Uganda

  7. The Distribution and Conservation Status of Otters in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranga J.

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of otters in Uganda was carried from 1986 onwards, together with other mammals. The information presented here was re-checked in the last three years. All three African otters are found in Uganda: the spotted-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis. the Cape clawless otter (Aonyx capensis and the swamp otter or Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congica. The first two are widely distributed throughout the country with the exception of the dry North eastern region. The swamp otter has a limited distribution in the country and reaches its most easterly extension in western Uganda. Although otters are still relatively common in most of their traditional habitats, they are under pressure from hunters, fishermen, land developers and general habitat destruction. Digging up the stream bed, swamp drainage and destruction of natural vegetation has produced silting, lowered the water table and adversely affected otters in addition to other aquatic biota. The wetland, ecosystem, and therefore otter habitat, are under-represented in Uganda national parks (Baranga 1990. That leaves most of the otters numerically out of the strict conservation areas and thus exposed to potential danger. Suggestions to improve the conservation status of Ugandan otters are made in a more detailed article which will be published as part of the proceedings of the Sixth International Otter Symposium.

  8. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: HIV & AIDS, Deprivation, Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Deaths, IDP camps, .... Uganda Peoples Defence Forces (UPDF), the Police and Local Defense .... on-going, northern Uganda is only included in the Rural Finance Service ...

  9. Knowledge, perception, and management skills of mothers with under-five children about diarrhoeal disease in indigenous and resettlement communities in Assosa District, Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Nigatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2015-03-01

    As primary caregiver to under-five children in Ethiopia, mothers' knowledge, perception, and management skills are important to minimize the effects of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Abramo and Megele 37 kebeles (the last administration division) in Assosa district of western Ethiopia in July 2010. Quantitative data were obtained by a structured questionnaire from 232 randomly-selected mothers having children aged less than five years regarding their knowledge, perception, and management. Qualitative data were also collected by arranging four focus group discussions involving mothers from the two communities. The prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children was 33.2%, and the knowledge of mothers about the causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoea in the study area was 37.5%. The prevalence of diarrhoeal disease was higher in the settlement area whereas mothers' knowledge was better in the indigenous community; 62.9% of mothers were categorized as having good attitude on causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoeal disease. Community water source, water storage container, and knowledge of mothers remained a strong predictor of diarrhoeal morbidity after conducting logistic regression analysis (OR=8.4, CI 3.59-31.85; OR=2.2, CI 1.02-4.89; and OR=3.62, CI 1.23-4.71 respectively). Diarrhoeal morbidity was high in the study areas. On the contrary, knowledge and attitude of mothers, recognizing the danger sign of dehydration due to diarrhoea, and the prevention and management of childhood diarrhoeal diseases were not adequate. Information, education and communication strategy may help increase the knowledge and create positive attitude among mothers regarding the cause, prevention, and management of diarrhoea.

  10. Declining maternal mortality ratio in Uganda: priority interventions to achieve the Millennium Development Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, A K; Mutabazi, M G; Asimwe, J B; Sentumbwe, O; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Orinda, V

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a survey to determine availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and to provide data for advocating for improved maternal and newborn health in Uganda. The survey, covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities, assessed availability of EmOC signal functions, documented maternal deaths and the related causes. Three levels of health facilities were covered. Few health units had running water; electricity or a functional operating theater. Yet having these items had a protective effect on maternal deaths as follows: theater (OR 0.56, PEmOC, were not doing so. This is the likely explanation for the high health facility-based maternal death rate of 671/100,000 live births in Uganda. Addressing health system issues, especially human resources, and increasingaccess to EmOC could reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and enable the country to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG).

  11. An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okware, S I; Omaswa, F G; Zaramba, S; Opio, A; Lutwama, J J; Kamugisha, J; Rwaguma, E B; Kagwa, P; Lamunu, M

    2002-12-01

    An outbreak of Ebola disease was reported from Gulu district, Uganda, on 8 October 2000. The outbreak was characterized by fever and haemorrhagic manifestations, and affected health workers and the general population of Rwot-Obillo, a village 14 km north of Gulu town. Later, the outbreak spread to other parts of the country including Mbarara and Masindi districts. Response measures included surveillance, community mobilization, case and logistics management. Three coordination committees were formed: National Task Force (NTF), a District Task Force (DTF) and an Interministerial Task Force (IMTF). The NTF and DTF were responsible for coordination and follow-up of implementation of activities at the national and district levels, respectively, while the IMTF provided political direction and handled sensitive issues related to stigma, trade, tourism and international relations. The international response was coordinated by the World Health Organization (WHO) under the umbrella organization of the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network. A WHO/CDC case definition for Ebola was adapted and used to capture four categories of cases, namely, the 'alert', 'suspected', 'probable' and 'confirmed cases'. Guidelines for identification and management of cases were developed and disseminated to all persons responsible for surveillance, case management, contact tracing and Information Education Communication (IEC). For the duration of the epidemic that lasted up to 16 January 2001, a total of 425 cases with 224 deaths were reported countrywide. The case fatality rate was 53%. The attack rate (AR) was highest in women. The average AR for Gulu district was 12.6 cases/10 000 inhabitants when the contacts of all cases were considered and was 4.5 cases/10 000 if limited only to contacts of laboratory confirmed cases. The secondary AR was 2.5% when nearly 5000 contacts were followed up for 21 days. Uganda was finally declared Ebola free on 27 February 2001, 42 days after the last case

  12. Evaluation of a monitoring program for assessing the effects of management practices on the quantity and quality of drainwater from the Panoche Water District, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, David A.; Fio, John L.

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation was made of an existing monitoring program in the Panoche Water District for 1986-93. The Panoche Water District is an agricultural area located in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. Because irrigation drainage from this area has high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium, management strategies have been developed to improve the quality of drainwater discharge. The purpose of the Panoche Water District's monitoring program is to assess the effects of water- and land-use practices on local ground water and drain flow from the district. Drainflow from the district consists of the discharge from 50 separate on-farm underground tile-drainage systems. The Panoche Water District maintains information on water deliveries, planned and actual crop types, and planned and actual acreages planted each year. In addition, the water district monitors ground-water and drainage-system discharges using a variety of data-collection methods. A total of 62 observation well sites are used to monitor ground-water level and quality. A total of 42 sites were monitored for drainflow quantity, and drain flow quality samples were collected from the outlets of each of the 50 drainage systems. However, these data were collected inconsistently and (or) intermittently during the period studied. All data obtained from the water district were compiled and stored in a geographic information system database. Water delivered for irrigation by the Panoche Water District is a mix of imported water and local ground water pumped directly into delivery canals. Although delivered water is a mix, information on the proportion of water from the two sources is not reported. Also, individual growers pump directly to their crops unknown quantities of ground water, the total of which could be greater than 60 percent of total applications during years when water district deliveries are greatly reduced (for example, the years during and following a drought). To evaluate the

  13. District, south-western Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of information about malaria and its control were mainly from their teachers. (47.4%), print materials ... In Tanzania, mass media and public campaigns against malaria lias .... ownership of net and coverage at community level, for.

  14. A descriptive analysis of the institutional frameworks for disaster management in Uganda: structures, functions and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayega, R W; Wafula, M R; Woboya, V; Musenero, M; Omale, A; Orach, G C; Kiguli, J; Kabagambe, G; Bazeyo, W

    2013-06-01

    There is insufficient documentation of the institutional frameworks for disaster management and resilience at different levels in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to describe the institutional framework for disaster management in Uganda, and to identify actionable gaps at the different levels. This was part of a multi-country assessment in which 6 countries in Eastern Africa developed and applied a common tool. The assessment was qualitative in nature employing a mixed methods approach including review of documents, interviews with key informants from agencies involved in disaster management in Uganda, group discussions with stakeholder and synthesis meetings of the assessment team. The Office of the Prime Minister is the lead agency for disaster management, but management of disasters of a technical nature is devolved to line ministries (e.g. epidemics by the Health Ministry and Epizootics by the Agriculture Ministry). A new policy spells out disaster management structures at national, district, sub-county, and village levels. Key challenges included coordination, more focus on prevention than risk reduction, differences in capacity between sectors and inadequate inter-sectoral collaboration. The new policy and structures have not yet been rolled out to districts and sub-district levels, and districts lack a line item budget for disaster capacity building. The institutional framework for disaster management in Uganda needs to be strengthened at all levels through initiation of the relevant structures, training, and resource allocation so that they develop disaster management plans.

  15. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.

  16. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  17. Sexual partner types and related sexual health risk among out-of-school adolescents in rural south-west Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on ‘sexual debut’ among out-of-school youth in Masaka District, Uganda, factors influencing its timing and assistance young people feel they need to delay sexual initiation. Data were drawn from a sexual health needs assessment using applied anthropological techniques with young p

  18. Effects of two pheromone trap densities against banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, populations and their impact on plant damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Kagezi, G.H.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    An on-farm study to evaluate the effect of pheromone trap density on the population of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Col., Curculionidae) was conducted in Masaka district, Uganda. The pheromone used was Cosmolure+, a commercially available weevil aggregation pheromone. Forty-two

  19. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N.;

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001–2008. An assessment of perceived FMD...

  20. Sexual and reproductive health information sources preferred by out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and rep

  1. Sexual and reproductive health information sources preferred by out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and

  2. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  3. The Effect of Land Tenure System on Women's Knowledge-Base and Resource Management in Manjiya County, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoda, Alice Merab

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the status of women in relationship to land ownership, the resources they are exposed to and management practices, consequently its effect on the environment of Manjiya County, Mbale District in (now Manafwa since 2008) Uganda. It was found out that low levels of education limit women's abilities of creativity and…

  4. Clinical manifestations and outcomes of severe malaria among children admitted at Rungwe and Kyela district hospitals in south-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinga, Akili; Mayige, Mary; Kagaruki, Gibson; Shao, Amani; Mwakyusa, Brighton; Jacob, Frank; Mwesiga, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains as an important public health and a major cause of childhood death and paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. This prospective hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from April 2007 to April 2008. The main objective was to assess clinical manifestations and outcomes of severe malaria in children admitted to district hospital in Rungwe and Kyela in south-western Tanzania. A total of 1371 children were selected as screening group of which 409 (29.8%) were tested positive for malaria. Mean age of the children was 2.7 (95%CI= 2.5, 2.8) years and the majority (86%) were under five years of age. The proportion of children severe malaria in Rungwe was significantly higher than that of Kyela by 21.3% (P=0.002). The common symptoms of severe malaria during admission were convulsions (50.9%) compensated shock (30.6%), prostration (29.1%) and symptomatic severe anaemia (14.9%). The case fatality rate (CFR) was 4.6% and the cure rate (CR) was 95.4%. Children with suspected severe acidosis and symptomatic severe anemia were 4.8 (95%CI=1.6, 14.6) and 5.5 (95%CI 1.1, 28.2), respectively, more likely to die compared to those without these symptoms. The proportion of deaths among children presenting ≥5 symptoms was 32.1% higher than among those presenting one symptom (OR =0.50, 95%CI 0.125-2.000; P=0.000). Convulsions and compensated shock were the leading symptoms at admission. Suspected severe acidosis and symptomatic severe anemia were the predictors of mortality for children. In order to reduce mortality among admitted children with severe malaria there is a need for health providers to deploy strategic management of fatal prognostic factors. In conclusion, convulsion and compensated shock were the leading symptoms among children at admission and that suspected severe acidosis and symptomatic severe anemia were the predictors of mortality. It is therefore important to emphasis early diagnosis and prompt treatment of severe cases of

  5. Brote de Fiebre Hemorrágica por el virus del Ébola en Uganda Hemorrhagic Fever outbreak due to Ebola virus in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MªC. Aríñez Fernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En Uganda se está llevando a cabo la Misión de la Unión Europea (EUTM Somalia, en la que participan efectivos de las Fuerzas Armadas españolas. En mayo de 2011 el Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda notificó un brote de fiebre hemorrágica por el virus del bola a 70 km de distancia de Kampala. El caso índice y único caso confirmado, fue una niña de 12 años que falleció. La investigación epidemiológica se llevó a cabo por un equipo internacional que incluyó personal del Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda y de la OMS. Tras mantener la vigilancia del brote durante un tiempo igual a dos veces el periodo de incubación y no confirmar otros casos, fue declarado finalizado el brote el 17 de junio de 2011. Se distribuyó información sobre el brote y recomendaciones de actuación tanto a profesionales de la salud como a la población general.The European Mission (EUTM Somalia is being conducted in Uganda. Military personnel of the Spanish Armed Forces participate in that mission. On 13 May 2011, The Ministry of Health of Uganda notified a case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a district 70 kilometers far from Kampala. The index case and only confirmed case, was a 12-year-old girl who finally died. Epidemiologic surveillance was conducted by an international team including representatives of the Ugandan Ministry of Health and WHO. The Ministry of Health of Uganda declared the end of the outbreak on the 17 June 2011, since the epidemiological investigations, including twofold the incubation period surveillance, did not confirm new cases. Guidelines to control the outbreak and information on the disease were distributed to health professionals and general population.

  6. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  7. Legislative Districts - Senate Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State Senate district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of Apportionment,...

  8. Multidistrict Outbreak of Marburg Virus Disease-Uganda, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knust, Barbara; Schafer, Ilana J; Wamala, Joseph; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Okot, Charles; Shoemaker, Trevor; Dodd, Kimberly; Gibbons, Aridth; Balinandi, Stephen; Tumusiime, Alex; Campbell, Shelley; Newman, Edmund; Lasry, Estrella; DeClerck, Hilde; Boum, Yap; Makumbi, Issa; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Mbonye, Anthony; Aceng, Jane Ruth; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E

    2015-10-01

    In October 2012, a cluster of illnesses and deaths was reported in Uganda and was confirmed to be an outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Patients meeting the case criteria were interviewed using a standard investigation form, and blood specimens were tested for evidence of acute or recent Marburg virus infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total count of confirmed and probable MVD cases was 26, of which 15 (58%) were fatal. Four of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases (27%) were fatal. Case patients were located in 4 different districts in Uganda, although all chains of transmission originated in Ibanda District, and the earliest case detected had an onset in July 2012. No zoonotic exposures were identified. Symptoms significantly associated with being a MVD case included hiccups, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. Contact with a case patient and attending a funeral were also significantly associated with being a case. Average RT-PCR cycle threshold values for fatal cases during the acute phase of illness were significantly lower than those for nonfatal cases. Following the institution of contact tracing, active case surveillance, care of patients with isolation precautions, community mobilization, and rapid diagnostic testing, the outbreak was successfully contained 14 days after its initial detection.

  9. Poverty, life events and the risk for depression in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Woodburn, Patrick; Tugumisirize, Joshua; Kagugube, Johnson; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Patel, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of major depression in sub-Saharan Africa is important for planning effective intervention strategies. To investigate the social and life-event determinants of major depressive disorder in the African sociocultural context of rural Uganda. A cross-section survey was carried out in 14 districts in Uganda from 1 June 2003 to 30 October 2004. 4,660 randomly selected respondents (15 years and above) were interviewed. The primary outcome was the presence of 'probable major depressive disorder' (PMDD) as assessed by the Hopkins symptom checklist. The prevalence of PMDD was 29.3% (95% confidence interval, 28.0-30.6%). Factors independently associated with depression in both genders included: the ecological factor, district; age (increase with each age category after 35 years); indices of poverty and deprivation (no formal education, having no employment, broken family, and socioeconomic classes III-V). Only a few adverse life events, notably those suggestive of a disrupted family background (death of a father in females and death of a mother in males) were associated with increased risk. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, operating at both ecological and the individual level are the strongest independent determinants of depression. Adverse life events were less strongly associated with depression in this sample.

  10. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  11. Application of geologic-mathematical 3D modeling for complex structure deposits by the example of Lower- Cretaceous period depositions in Western Ust - Balykh oil field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevertailo, T.; Nedolivko, N.; Prisyazhnyuk, O.; Dolgaya, T.

    2015-11-01

    The complex structure of the Lower-Cretaceous formation by the example of the reservoir BC101 in Western Ust - Balykh Oil Field (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District) has been studied. Reservoir range relationships have been identified. 3D geologic- mathematical modeling technique considering the heterogeneity and variability of a natural reservoir structure has been suggested. To improve the deposit geological structure integrity methods of mathematical statistics were applied, which, in its turn, made it possible to obtain equal probability models with similar input data and to consider the formation conditions of reservoir rocks and cap rocks.

  12. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  13. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  14. Allegheny County Pennsylvania Senate District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania Senate district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  15. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  16. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  17. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  18. Relationship between Social Capital and Livelihood Enhancing Capitals among Smallholder Farmers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Abenakyo, Annet; Sanginga, Pascal; Njuki, Jemimah M.; Kaaria, Susan; Delve, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is an important characteristic of a community and is one of the components of the asset pentagon of the sustainable livelihood framework. The study aimed at assessing the levels and dimensions of social capital and how social capital influences other livelihood capitals. A Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 208 households was conducted in Masindi and Hoima Districts in Uganda to assess the current livelihood conditions and strategies for improving rural livelihoods. A...

  19. Gneiss wastes as secondary raw material for the ceramic industry: an example from the Verbano Cusio Ossola district (Piedmont, north-western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The Verbano Cusio Ossola province (VCO, Piedmont, north-western Italy) is one of the most important Italian quarrying districts, due to the peculiarity and variety of its exploited rock types, mainly orthogneisses such as Serizzo and Beola, and subordinately granites, marbles and other rocks. The most important and extensively exploited ornamental stone from the VCO province is surely the Serizzo, commercialized in four main varieties, and representing about 70% of all the stone production from the VCO area. The protholith of the Serizzo is a Permian granite - granodiorite metamorphosed during the alpine events, and the rock-forming minerals are mainly quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase (andesine), biotite, with variable amounts of muscovite and epidote (allanite). The other important ornamental stone of the VCO province is the Beola, a series of heterogeneous materials (mainly orthogneisses) with marked (mylonitic) foliation and strong mineralogical lineation, occurring in the median Ossola Valley; its production (15% of the whole stones of the VCO) is subordinated with respect to that of Serizzo. The mineralogical composition of the Beola varieties is similar to Serizzo, consisting of quite homogeneous quartz, K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), plagioclase, biotite and muscovite. The main differences relate to the grain size, the rock fabric (generally mylonitic) and to the presence of accessory/secondary minerals. Recent regulatory developments and the growing environmental awareness, require an increasing reuse of wastes deriving from the extraction and processing of dimension stones (up to 50 % of the extracted gross volume). Granite wastes from the VCO (Baveno pink granite and Montorfano white granite), after specific industrial treatments (crushing, sieving, drying, magnetic separation of biotite and hornblende), are used successfully as quartz-feldspars mix in the ceramic industry, with very low FeOtot content. On the other hand, other quartzose

  20. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests: findings from randomized trials in two contrasting areas of high and low malaria transmission in south-western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian; Clarke, Siân E

    2016-09-01

    To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children <5 years of age receiving appropriately targeted treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), vs. presumptive treatment. Cluster-randomized trials were conducted in two contrasting areas of moderate-to-high and low malaria transmission in rural Uganda. Each trial examined the effectiveness of mRDTs in the management of malaria and targeting of ACTs by CHWs comparing two diagnostic approaches: (i) presumptive clinical diagnosis of malaria [control arm] and (ii) confirmatory diagnosis with mRDTs followed by ACT treatment for positive patients [intervention arm], with village as the unit of randomisation. Treatment decisions by CHWs were validated by microscopy on a reference blood slide collected at the time of consultation, to compare the proportion of children <5 years receiving appropriately targeted ACT treatment, defined as patients with microscopically-confirmed presence of parasites in a peripheral blood smear receiving artemether-lumefantrine or rectal artesunate, and patients with no malaria parasites not given ACT. In the moderate-to-high transmission area, ACT treatment was appropriately targeted in 79.3% (520/656) of children seen by CHWs using mRDTs to diagnose malaria, vs. 30.8% (215/699) of children seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). In the low transmission area, 90.1% (363/403) children seen by CHWs using mRDTs received appropriately targeted ACT treatment vs. 7.8% (64/817) seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). Low mRDT sensitivity in children with low-density parasitaemia (<200 parasites/μl) was identified as a potential concern. When equipped with mRDTs, ACT treatments delivered by CHWs are more accurately targeted to children with malaria parasites. mRDT use could play an important role in reducing overdiagnosis of malaria and improving fever case management within

  1. Towards improving hospital performance in Uganda and Zambia: reflections and opportunities for autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kara; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kamwanga, Jolly; McPake, Barbara; Mungule, Oswald; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2002-07-01

    Hospitals have been relatively neglected although their high resource consumption implies that gains from improving the services they deliver may be substantial. Nevertheless, the challenges posed by hospital reforms are great. Hospital autonomy usually consists of both decentralisation, and a greater measure of exposure to market forces. In Uganda and Zambia, more traditional 'decentralisation' of authority to district level authorities includes district hospitals; and some measure of 'autonomy' (known as 'self-accounting status' in Uganda) has been applied to some or all second and third level referral hospitals. The hospital policies pursued in both countries present opportunities to tackle their hospital sectors. In Zambia, purchasing of services means that new incentives and policy mechanisms can come into play. Little advantage has been taken of these opportunities to date. In Uganda, there is no financial link between districts and higher levels of the system, but decentralisation of control over personnel is more advanced. These two components--the alignment of incentives (to promote access and quality for those intended to be covered by the public budget) and the effective decentralisation of control over key resources--seem to us the key tools to address the stubborn problems of hospitals.

  2. The resistance councils in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Per

    in the capitals. In my dissertation I propose to change that focus. Partly by paying particular attention to rural politics, partly through a discussion of democracy in a longer-term perspective using a broader definition of democracy and finally through a discussion of democracy as effective political...... participation rather than only form al rights. I shall do so by analysing the Resistance Councils (RCs) in Uganda....

  3. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K

    2014-01-01

    countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic......BACKGROUND: Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted...... using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression...

  4. Genetic diversity of Leishmania tropica strains isolated from clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural districts of Herat province, Western Afghanistan, based on ITS1-rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Pazoki Ghohe, Hossein; Rasooli, Sayed Abobakar; Karamian, Mehdi; Mohib, Abdul Satar; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan, there is a little information concerning epidemiological status of the disease and phylogenetic relationship and population structure of causative agents. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of CL cases and investigate the Leishmania tropica population structure in rural districts of Heart province in the West of Afghanistan in comparison to neighboring foci. Overall, 4189 clinically suspected CL cases from 177 villages (including 12 districts) in Herat province were enrolled in the referral laboratory of WHO sub-office in Herat city from January 2012 to December 2013. 3861 cases were confirmed as CL by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides. ITS1 PCR-RFLP analysis showed dominance of L. tropica (more than 98%) among 127 randomly chosen samples. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences revealed 4 sequence types among the 21 L. tropica isolates. Comparison of sequence types from Herat rural districts with the representatives of L. tropica from Iran, India, and Herat city showed two main population groups (cluster A and B). All isolates from Herat province, India and Southeast, East, and Central Iran were found exclusively in cluster A. The close proximity of West Afghanistan focus and Birjand county as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in East Iran can explain relatively equal to the genetic composition of L. tropica in these two neighboring regions. In addition, two populations were found among L. tropica isolates from Herat rural districts. Main population showed more similarity to some isolates from Birjand county in East Iran while minor population probably originated from the Southeast and East Iranian L. tropica. Recent study provided valuable information concerning the population structure of L. tropica and epidemiology of ACL in the West of Afghanistan, which could be the basis for molecular epidemiology studies in other regions of Afghanistan.

  5. Factors associated with skilled attendance at delivery in Uganda: results from a national health facility survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Asimwe, John Bosco

    2010-01-01

    Uganda has high maternal mortality ratio of 435/100,000 live births. In order to address this, Uganda has developed a strategy and has prioritized skilled attendance at delivery as a key intervention. A survey covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities was conducted to determine availability and access to essential maternity care and health system factors related to maternal health. The survey specifically assessed availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions, the state of health infrastructure and availability of basic drugs and supplies. A total of 194,029 deliveries were recorded in the year preceding the survey. Majority, 117,761 (60.7%) occurred in hospitals, while 76,268 (39.3%) occurred in health centers. The following factors were associated with increased deliveries at health facilities; running water, (RR 1.5, P EmOC had the highest chances of attracting women to deliver there, (RR 4.0, P EmOC, (RR 3.1, P EmOC, 349 (97.2%) were not offering the service. This is the likely explanation for the high health facility-based maternal ratio of 671/100,000 live births in Uganda. Improving availability and quality of care especially EmOC; and ensuring that health units have electricity, running water and accommodation for staff could increase skilled attendance at delivery and help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) target on maternal health in Uganda.

  6. A qualitative study of caregivers' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation for sick children in Uganda.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiguli, S.; Mafigiri, D.; Nakigudde, J.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little data exist on patients' expectations and communication desires during medical consultation in Non-Western settings. We conducted a qualitative study to compare expectations and communication desires of sick children's caregivers at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, to those of patients in W

  7. Credit Demand Amongst Farmers in Mukono District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proximity to credit facility, easier application procedures, customary land tenure system and membership to ... extension to farmers would improve farm productivity thereby enhancing returns on investment. ...... quality control for produce, and mutual insurance (Ray, 1998). Indeed .... American Economic Review, Vol. 98 (3) ...

  8. Predictors of Home Deliveries in Rakai District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify independent predictors for home delivery, 211 women from 21 clusters, who had a delivery in the previous one year .... also include time taken to walk to die nearest ma- ... stepwise multivariate logistic regression procedures.

  9. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the objective of management, means that the investors are able to get .... of revaluing a future product, event, condition, or service to give a PV. .... Incentives for Sustainable Management of Tropical ... Guide to Practical ProjectAppraisal, Social.

  10. Experiences of Parents with the Reading to Learn Approach: A Randomised Control Trial Initiative to Improve Literacy and Numeracy in Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Oketch, Moses; Ngware, Moses W.; Mutisya, Maurice; Musyoka, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Parental involvement in their children's schooling is in recognition that establishing the context in which a child attends school is important. Reading to Learn (RtL)was implemented in two districts of Kwale and Kinango in Kenya and of Amolatar and Dokolo in Uganda. This paper looks at parental involvement and their experiences with RtL. Data are…

  11. Universitety Severo-Zapadnogo federal'nogo okruga v rossijsko-shvedskom i rossijsko-finskom nauchnom sotrudnichestve [Universities of the North-western federal district in Russian-Finnish research cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko Arkady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the cooperation between universities of the North-western federal district (NWFD of the Russian Federation, Sweden, and Finland, its intensity and territorial differentiation. The analysis was conducted on the basis of public domain information on the international activity of universities available on their official websites. The authors identify the principle areas and leading centres of such cooperation. The NWFD universities have significant experience in cooperation with Finnish universities. Cooperation with Swedish universities is proved to be less developed. Approximately 50 NFWD universities, 29 of which are located in Saint Petersburg, are involved in cooperation; most NWFD universities do not cooperate with the mentioned countries. Such low degree of cooperation in the field of education is a serious inhibiting factor, which reduces competitiveness on the modern market of educational services.

  12. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  13. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Mesozoic magmatic history of the North American margin records the evolution from a more segmented assemblage of parautochthonous and allochthonous terranes to the more cohesive northern Cordilleran orogenic belt. We characterize the setting of magmatism, tectonism, and epigenetic mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska, where parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic tectonic assemblages are juxtaposed, using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and feldspar Pb isotopes of Mesozoic intrusions and spatially associated mineral prospects. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages and published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate four episodes of plutonism in the western Fortymile district: Late Triassic (216-208 Ma), Early Jurassic (199-181 Ma), mid-Cretaceous (112-94 Ma), and Late Cretaceous (70-66 Ma). All age groups have calc-alkalic arc compositions that became more evolved through time. Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous igneous rocks similarly became more radiogenic with time and are consistent with the magmas being mantle derived but extensively contaminated by upper crustal components with evolving Pb isotopic compositions. Feldspar Pb isotopes from mid-Cretaceous rocks have isotopic ratios that indicate magma derivation from upper crustal sources, probably thickened mid-Paleozoic basement. The origin of the mantle component in Late Cretaceous granitoids suggested by Pb isotopic ratios is uncertain, but we propose that it reflects asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff and sinking of an inactive inner subduction zone that delivered the previously accreted Wrangellia composite terrane to the North American continental margin, after the outer Farallon subduction zone was established.

  14. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  15. Bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, Sarah A; Borchert, Jeff N; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Gage, Kenneth L; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-03-01

    The presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (Rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in Uganda, Arua and Zombo, was examined by PCR detection and culture. Blood from a total of 228 R. rattus, 31 A. niloticus, and 5 C. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as Bartonella species using citrate synthase gene- (gltA) specific primers. One hundred and four fleas recovered from R. rattus were also tested for the presence of Bartonella species using the same gltA primer set. An overall prevalence of 1.3% (three of 228) was obtained in R. rattus, whereas 61.3% of 31 A. niloticus and 60% of five C. gambianus were positive for the presence of Bartonella species. Genotypes related to Bartonella elizabethae, a known zoonotic pathogen, were detected in three R. rattus and one C. gambianus. Bartonella strains, similar to bacteria detected in indigenous rodents from other African countries, were isolated from the blood of A. niloticus. Bartonellae, similar to bacteria initially cultured from Ornithodorus sonrai (soft tick) from Senegal, were found in two C. gambianus. Interestingly, bartonellae detected in fleas from invasive rats were similar to bacteria identified in indigenous rodents and not their rat hosts, with an overall prevalence of 6.7%. These results suggest that if fleas are competent vectors of these bartonellae, humans residing in these two districts of Uganda are potentially at greater risk for exposure to Bartonella species from native rodents than from invasive rats. The low prevalence of bartonellae in R. rattus was quite surprising, in contrast, to the detection of these organisms in a large percentage of Rattus species from other geographical areas. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed.

  16. A cluster randomised trial introducing rapid diagnostic tests into registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham;

    2015-01-01

    the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial...... adhered to the mRDT results, reducing over-treatment of malaria by 72·6% (95% CI: 46·7- 98·4), pDiagnostic testing with mRDTs compared to presumptive treatment of fevers implemented in registered drug shops...... of introducing mRDTs in registered drug shops was implemented in 20 geographical clusters of drug shops in Mukono district, central Uganda. Ten clusters were randomly allocated to the intervention (diagnostic confirmation of malaria by mRDT followed by ACT) and ten clusters to the control arm (presumptive...

  17. Breeding Services and the Factors Influencing Their Use on Smallholder Dairy Farms in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mugisha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle breeding is an important technology in the enhancement and promotion of dairy production in Uganda. The introduction of germplasm through AI is crucial to enhance the production potential of the local breeds. A study was conducted in six districts of Uganda in the central region using a questionnaire survey involving 450 randomly selected households to profile the dairy breeding services in use and investigate the factors that affect the success of dairy breeding focusing on AI. Adoption of the AI service was highly (P0.05. Use or nonuse of AI did not significantly (P>0.05 influence the sex of the calf born. While preference for AI was marked, very few farmers actually used it. This implies that focus should be put on improved AI service delivery alongside improved extension services.

  18. World Bank credits Uganda with $50m. -- emphasis on communities, NGOs and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1984, the World Bank financed 11 AIDS/STD projects in Africa, most of which tended to cost comparatively small amounts. It increased the amount of its AIDS/STD loans considerably in 1993 and 1994 ($75 million in Zimbabwe and $50 million in Uganda). The Ugandan government, Germany, Sweden, and the UK are also funding the AIDS/STD project. Since the money is from the Bank's International Development Association, Uganda does not need to pay any interest on the loan. About 1.5 million people in Uganda are HIV positive. The number of AIDS patients continues to rise. The AIDS project in Uganda focuses on prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, mitigation of the personal impact of the epidemic, and institutional development. Prevention of sexual transmission activities are: promotion of safer sex behavior, condoms, and STD care-seeking behavior and effective STD care. Support for community-based and home-based health care and social support for people with AIDS, training staff about and providing drugs for opportunistic infections, protective supplies for public and private district health facilities, and diagnosis and case management of tuberculosis comprise mitigation of the personal impact of AIDS activities. Institutional development efforts include strengthening the district level's capacity to plan, coordinate, implement, monitor, and evaluate integrated AIDS-related activities, and the national level's capacity to provide adequate technical support on health issues linked to AIDS. Three key policies of the project are decentralization, community mobilization, and encouragement of nongovernmental organizations to work with communities and to complement government efforts. A large scale AIDS/STD mass media program is planned. Project goals are: 50% of the population knowing at least 2 actual ways to protect themselves from HIV. 50% of the population using condoms, and 70% of people seeking STD care receiving appropriate STD case management.

  19. Uganda National Council for Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the country is constrained by inadequate financial and human resource ... INTRODUCTION of clonal coffee material in Uganda's agricultural ... provision of improved health services. ... given to molecular and genetic aspects of.

  20. Uganda elanikud tarbivad enim alkoholi / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) statistika järgi tarbivad maailmas kõige enam alkoholi Uganda elanikud - aastas 17,6 liitrit puhast alkoholi vanema kui 15-aastase elaniku kohta. Lisaks tabel alkoholi tarbimise kohta maailmas

  1. Environmental interpretation in Uganda's national parks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    qualities of an interpreter, job motivation, monthly salary ... All the respondents were full time employees of the Uganda ... effective tool for managing ecotourism and conservation. ... required for interpretation is communication both verbally.

  2. Media and Mental Health in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental health and the guiding factors for wider media coverage of mental health issues in ... and the factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues in Uganda. ..... of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1998;8(3):213-28.

  3. dense sweetpotato varieties to farmers in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Uganda is among the African countries reported to be at high risk of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) ... nurseries the plants of which are individually screened for reaction to SPVD, Alternaria blight, ... breeding and delivering a bio-fortified crop.

  4. Towards Introducing Space Science in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguma, S.; Ayikoru, J.

    This paper discusses the strategies and importance of introducing space science in Uganda. It proposes that Mbarara University, as a new university focusing on science and technology, would be ideally situated to spearhead the introduction of space science in Uganda. It is our expectation that this will have a spin-off effect to other higher institutions of learning and that consequently space science will become fully incorporated into the national teaching curriculum for all schools in Uganda. Based on the fact that the Government has a deliberate policy of popularizing science and technology to accelerate national economic development, the introduction of space science in the school system is to be enhanced by these efforts. We have charted the way forward for space science in Uganda and outlined the conceptual framework illustrating the spin-off effect into the education system.

  5. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda: design and implementation of a cluster randomized trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Mbonye, AK; Magnussen, P; Chandler, CI; Hansen, KS; S. Lal; Cundill, B; Lynch, CA; Clarke, SE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An intervention was designed to introduce rapid diagnostics tests for malaria (mRDTs) into registered drug shops in Uganda to encourage rational and appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We conducted participatory training of drug shop vendors and implemented supporting interventions to orientate local communities (patients) and the public sector (health facility staff and district officials) to the behavioral changes in diagnosis, trea...

  6. Nutritional and developmental status among 6- to 8-month-old children in southwestern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Grace K. M. Muhoozi; Atukunda, Prudence; Mwadime, Robert; Iversen, Per Ole; Westerberg, Ane C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undernutrition continues to pose challenges to Uganda’s children, but there is limited knowledge on its association with physical and intellectual development.Objective: In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the nutritional status and milestone development of 6- to 8-month-old children and associated factors in two districts of southwestern Uganda.Design: Five hundred and twelve households with mother–infant (6–8 months) pairs were randomly sampled. Data about background vari...

  7. Cervical cancer screening and treatment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Nakisige

    2017-05-01

    Training of health professionals, ongoing construction of new radiotherapy bunkers, and opening of regional centers are all geared towards improving cervical cancer care in Uganda. The Uganda Cancer Institute Bill establishes the Institute as a semi-autonomous agency mandated to undertake and coordinate the prevention and treatment of cancer. Its implementation will be a milestone in cervical cancer prevention and control. However, execution will require political will and an increase in domestic and international investment.

  8. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Egypt and Uganda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Egyptian-Chinese Friendship Association(ECFA) and the Uganda-China Friendship Association(UCFA),a goodwill delegation led by Wang Mingyi,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Henan Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Henan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Egypt and Uganda from November 3 to 14,2006.

  9. Summary sensory workshop Uganda, 21 - 25 November 2005, Uganda Fisheries Laboratory in Entebbe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) has requested The Netherlands Institute of Fisheries Research (RIVO) to organize a sensory workshop in Uganda. ICEIDA is establishing a fisheries laboratory in Uganda in cooperation with the Ugandan government. One of the tasks within this proj

  10. African Indigenous science in higher education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akena Adyanga, Francis

    This study examines African Indigenous Science (AIS) in higher education in Uganda. To achieve this, I use anticolonial theory and Indigenous knowledge discursive frameworks to situate the subjugation of Indigenous science from the education system within a colonial historical context. These theories allow for a critical examination of the intersection of power relations rooted in the politics of knowledge production, validation, and dissemination, and how this process has become a systemic and complex method of subjugating one knowledge system over the other. I also employ qualitative and autoethnographic research methodologies. Using a qualitative research method, I interviewed 10 students and 10 professors from two universities in Uganda. My research was guided by the following key questions: What is African Indigenous Science? What methodology would help us to indigenize science education in Uganda? How can we work with Indigenous knowledge and anticolonial theoretical discursive frameworks to understand and challenge the dominance of Eurocentric knowledge in mainstream education? My research findings revealed that AIS can be defined in multiple ways, in other words, there is no universal definition of AIS. However, there were some common elements that my participants talked about such as: (a) knowledge by Indigenous communities developed over a long period of time through a trial and error approach to respond to the social, economic and political challenges of their society. The science practices are generational and synergistic with other disciplines such as history, spirituality, sociology, anthropology, geography, and trade among others, (b) a cumulative practice of the use, interactions with and of biotic and abiotic organism in everyday life for the continued existence of a community in its' totality. The research findings also indicate that Indigenous science is largely lacking from Uganda's education curriculum because of the influence of colonial and

  11. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  12. Epidemiological Overview of African Swine Fever in Uganda (2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kalenzi Atuhaire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a contagious viral disease, which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs. In Uganda there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of the disease, hence a study was carried out to elucidate the patterns of ASF outbreaks. Spatial and temporal analyses were performed with data collected monthly by the district veterinary officers (DVOs and sent to the central administration at MAAIF from 2001 to 2012. Additionally, risk factors and the associated characteristics related to the disease were assessed based on semistructured questionnaires sent to the DVOs. A total of 388 ASF outbreaks were reported in 59 districts. Of these outbreaks, 201 (51.8% were reported in districts adjacent to the national parks while 80 (20.6% were adjacent to international borders. The number of reported ASF outbreaks changed over time and by geographical regions; however, no outbreak was reported in the North-Eastern region. ASF was ranked as second most important disease of pigs, and it occurred mostly during the dry season (P=0.01. Pig movements due to trade (OR 15.5, CI 4.9–49.1 and restocking (OR 6.6, CI 2.5–17.3 were the major risk factors. ASF control strategies should focus on limiting pig movements in Uganda.

  13. Crustal extension and magmatism during the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up in the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions, northern Sierra Madre Occidental, western Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bryan Patrick

    Silicic large igneous provinces are significant in the geologic record, due to their unusually extensive areal coverage (>100,000 km2) and large volumes (>250,000 km3), and may be characteristic of continental regions undergoing broad lithospheric extension. The Sierra Madre Occidental of northwestern Mexico is the biggest and best-preserved silicic large igneous province of the Cenozoic and is considered part of the extensive mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up that affected much of the southwestern North American Cordillera. Despite its size and preservation, very little is known about the geology of the Sierra Madre Occidental, and the timing and spatial extent of ignimbrite flare-up volcanism in relation to crustal extension is relatively unknown. This study presents new geologic mapping, stratigraphy, zircon U-Pb laser ablation ICP-MS dating, modal analysis, and geochemical data from the Guazapares Mining District and Cerocahui basin regions, two adjacent areas of the northern Sierra Madre Occidental in western Chihuahua. The rock exposure and topographic relief in this previously unmapped ~450 km2 area make it ideal for studying the relationships between silicic large igneous province volcanism and crustal extension. Three informal formations are identified in the study area: (1) the ca. 27.5 Ma Parajes formation, a ~1-km-thick succession of primarily welded silicic outflow ignimbrite sheets erupted from sources within ~50--100 km of the study area that were active during the Early Oligocene pulse of the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up; (2) the ca. 27--24.5 Ma Temoris formation, composed primarily of locally erupted mafic-intermediate lavas and associated intrusions with interbedded alluvial deposits, likely related to rocks of the Southern Cordillera basaltic andesite province that were intermittently erupted across all of the northern Sierra Madre Occidental following the Early Oligocene ignimbrite pulse; and (3) the ca. 24.5--23 Ma Sierra Guazapares

  14. Structural, mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the atypical komatiite-hosted Turret deposit in the Agnew-Mt. White district, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voute, F.; Thébaud, N.

    2015-08-01

    In the Norseman-Wiluna belt, Yilgarn Craton, the Agnew-Mt. White district is the host of many gold deposits. Located in the hinge of the regional Lawlers anticline, the Turret gold deposit is structurally controlled by the Table Hill shear zone that transects the Agnew Ultramafic unit. Geochemistry, coupled with petrographic data, allowed the delineation of the paragenetic sequence associated with gold mineralisation and include (1) a pervasive talc-carbonate alteration assemblage, (2) a pre-mineralisation stage associated with pervasive arsenopyrite + chalcopyrite + pyrrhotite + pyrite alteration, followed by (3) a late deformation event along a dilatational segment of the main Table Hill shear zone, leading to the formation of a breccia hosting a Cu-Bi-Mo-Au (± Ag ± Zn ± Te ± W) metal assemblage. The presence of Au-Ag-Cu alloys, native bismuth, chalcopyrite and other Bi-Te-S phases in the mineralisation stage suggest that gold may have been scavenged from the hydrothermal fluids by composite Bi-Te-Cu-Au-Ag-S liquids or melts. Using this mineral paragenetic sequence, together with mineralogical re-equilibration textures observed, we show that the gold deposition at Turret occurred over a temperature range approximately between c. 350 and 270 °C. This temperature range, together with the structural control and typical mesothermal alteration pattern including carbonate-chlorite alteration, shows that the Turret deposit shares common characteristics with the orogenic gold deposit class. However, the metal association of Cu, Au, Bi, and Mo, the quartz-poor, and high copper-sulphide content (up to 15 %) are characteristics that depart from the typical orogenic gold deposit mineralogy. Through comparison with similar deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and worldwide, we propose that the Turret deposit represents an example of a porphyry-derived Au-Cu-Bi-Mo deposit.

  15. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Spring 2015 - Spring 2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  16. Allegheny County Pennsylvania U.S. Legislative Congressional District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the U.S. Legislative Congressional district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania...

  17. Allegheny County Pennsylvania House of Representatives District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania House of Representatives district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western...

  18. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Spring 2017 - present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  19. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Fall 2016 - present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  20. Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Anitha; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard; Pradel, Gabriele; Ngwa, Che Julius; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-04-01

    To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight). The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Discussions revealed that pregnant adolescents faced domestic physical violence. Furthermore .... pregnant adolescents' health care seeking, partner relations, perception of ... tings were held at the end of each day to ensure good quality data and discuss ... One may have a very harsh parent, myself 1 have a very.

  2. Plasmodium infection and its risk factors in eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population. Methods In 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four contiguous villages in Mulanda, sub-county in Tororo district, eastern Uganda, to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Plasmodium species infection. All permanent residents were invited to participate, with blood smears collected from 1,844 individuals aged between six months and 88 years (representing 78% of the population. Demographic, household and socio-economic characteristics were combined with environmental data using a Geographical Information System. Hierarchical models were used to explore patterns of malaria infection and identify individual, household and environmental risk factors. Results Overall, 709 individuals were infected with Plasmodium, with prevalence highest among 5-9 year olds (63.5%. Thin films from a random sample of 20% of parasite positive participants showed that 94.0% of infections were Plasmodium falciparum and 6.0% were P. malariae; no other species or mixed infections were seen. In total, 68% of households owned at least one mosquito although only 27% of school-aged children reported sleeping under a net the previous night. In multivariate analysis, infection risk was highest amongst children aged 5-9 years and remained high in older children. Risk of infection was lower for those that reported sleeping under a bed net the previous night and living more than 750 m from a rice-growing area. After accounting for clustering within compounds, there was no evidence for an association between infection prevalence and socio

  3. Farmer’s Knowledge and Perceptions on Rice Insect Pests and Their Management in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alibu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a new crop in Uganda, but has quickly grown in importance. Between 2000 and 2010, total area under rice cultivation in the country grew by 94% from 140,000 ha. Changes in the agro ecosystem due to expansion in rice area may have altered the pest status of rice insect pests. However, far too little attention has been paid to assessing the prevalence and importance of rice insect-pests in Uganda. In this study, we interviewed 240 lowland-rice farming households from eight districts within the north, east and central regions of Uganda about their perceived insect-pest problems and control measures employed, if any. A semi-structured questionnaire was used. The farmers ranked rice insect pests as the most important biotic constraint in rice production, with stem borers and the African rice gall midge (AfRGM perceived to be the 1st and 2nd most detrimental insect pests, respectively. In spite of this, only 36% of the respondents could positively identify symptoms of AfRGM damage on rice plants, while 64% were familiar with stem borer damage. Over 60% of interviewed farmers expressed confidence in the effectiveness of insecticides for controlling rice insect pests. Cultural control measures were not popular among the farmers.

  4. Hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive medication utilisation among HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Laura D; Newell, Kevin; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Mondo, George; Reynolds, Steven

    2015-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of hypertension, elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among HIV-positive individuals in rural Rakai District, Uganda. We assessed 426 HIV-positive individuals in Rakai, Uganda from 2007 to 2010. Prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure assessed by clinical measurement was compared to clinician-recorded hypertension in case report forms. Multiple logistic regression and z-tests were used to examine the association of hypertension and elevated blood pressure with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), CD4 cell count and antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. For individuals on antihypertensives, medication utilisation was reviewed. The prevalence of hypertension (two elevated blood pressure readings at different time points) was 8.0% (95% CI: 5.4-10.6%), and that of elevated blood pressure (one elevated blood pressure reading) was 26.3% (95% CI: 22.1-30.5%). Age ≥50 years and higher BMI were positively associated with elevated blood pressure. ART use, time on ART and CD4 cell count were not associated with hypertension. Eighty-three percent of subjects diagnosed with hypertension were on antihypertensive medications, most commonly beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers. Hypertension is common among HIV-positive individuals in rural Uganda. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mobility among youth in Rakai, Uganda: Trends, characteristics, and associations with behavioural risk factors for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Ashley C; Edelstein, Zoe R; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J; Serwadda, David M; Santelli, John S

    2015-08-27

    Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999 to 2011 (N = 112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003 to 2008 (N = 18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV-risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV-risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions.

  6. The Impact of Hotspot-Targeted Interventions on Malaria Transmission in Rachuonyo South District in the Western Kenyan Highlands: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teun Bousema

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both inside hotspots and in surrounding communities.Twenty-seven serologically defined malaria hotspots were detected in a survey conducted from 24 June to 31 July 2011 that included 17,503 individuals from 3,213 compounds in a 100-km2 area in Rachuonyo South District, Kenya. In a cluster-randomized trial from 22 March to 15 April 2012, we randomly allocated five clusters to hotspot-targeted interventions with larviciding, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and focal mass drug administration (2,082 individuals in 432 compounds; five control clusters received malaria control following Kenyan national policy (2,468 individuals in 512 compounds. Our primary outcome measure was parasite prevalence in evaluation zones up to 500 m outside hotspots, determined by nested PCR (nPCR at baseline and 8 wk (16 June-6 July 2012 and 16 wk (21 August-10 September 2012 post-intervention by technicians blinded to the intervention arm. Secondary outcome measures were parasite prevalence inside hotpots, parasite prevalence in the evaluation zone as a function of distance from the hotspot boundary, Anopheles mosquito density, mosquito breeding site productivity, malaria incidence by passive case detection, and the safety and acceptability of the interventions. Intervention coverage exceeded 87% for all interventions. Hotspot-targeted interventions did not result in a change in nPCR parasite prevalence outside hotspot boundaries (p ≥ 0.187. We observed an average reduction in nPCR parasite prevalence of 10.2% (95% CI -1.3 to 21.7% inside hotspots 8 wk post-intervention that was

  7. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  8. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  9. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  10. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  11. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  12. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  13. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  14. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  15. "Homosexuality/Homophobia Is Un-African"?: Un-Mapping Transnational Discourses in the Context of Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill/Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Amar

    2016-01-01

    This article un-maps the recent impasse between pro- and antigay mobilization around Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Act (AHA, 2009-2014). Drawing on scholarly and social media sources, it summarizes the increasing influence of (U.S.) transnational evangelism that has precipitated a state-religious complex of "anticipatory political homophobia" in Uganda. If transnational evangelism against same-sex sexuality in Uganda has generated a strong reaction from global LGBT human-rights advocates, this article critiques this Western homotransnationalist response by analyzing its limited terms of operation, focusing on the ways in which Uganda is hailed into the biopolitical project of a Western queer modernity. The author focuses on the copresence between homotransnationalist mobilization and "homophobic anticipatory countermobilization" as (re)organizing/suturing a global ordering project that is deeply invested in biopolitics and necropolitics. This suggests that the global flashpointing of Uganda in the context of the AHA incites further questions concerning the transnationality of "gay human rights" discourse under neoliberalism.

  16. Uganda does what it can for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Uganda is a fertile, but poor, predominately rural country that was a British protectorate from 1894 until 1962. Uganda made significant achievements in the delivery of health care and education until the rule of Idi Amin (1971-79), when the country was plunged into chaos. The current Ugandan president enjoys broad-based support and has responded to the health care crisis by creating a national system of Resistance Councils using traditional networks to monitor local health developments. The health priorities for women in Uganda include improving maternal-child health; combating AIDS, rape, and sexual abuse; increasing use of family planning; understanding and working to change the cultural context that shapes reproductive health and sex behavior (such as "sugar daddies," older men who entice sex from young girls with presents and money); and expanding women's rights so that they can improve their health.

  17. Partnerships for Policy Development: A Case Study From Uganda's Costed Implementation Plan for Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Alyson B; Gribble, James N; Cahaelen, Linda; Sharma, Suneeta

    2016-06-20

    In global health, partnerships between practitioners and policy makers facilitate stakeholders in jointly addressing those issues that require multiple perspectives for developing, implementing, and evaluating plans, strategies, and programs. For family planning, costed implementation plans (CIPs) are developed through a strategic government-led consultative process that results in a detailed plan for program activities and an estimate of the funding required to achieve an established set of goals. Since 2009, many countries have developed CIPs. Conventionally, the CIP approach has not been defined with partnerships as a focal point; nevertheless, cooperation between key stakeholders is vital to CIP development and execution. Uganda launched a CIP in November 2014, thus providing an opportunity to examine the process through a partnership lens. This article describes Uganda's CIP development process in detail, grounded in a framework for assessing partnerships, and provides the findings from 22 key informant interviews. Findings reveal strengths in Uganda's CIP development process, such as willingness to adapt and strong senior management support. However, the evaluation also highlighted challenges, including district health officers (DHOs), who are a key group of implementers, feeling excluded from the development process. There was also a lack of planning around long-term partnership practices that could help address anticipated execution challenges. The authors recommend that future CIP development efforts use a long-term partnership strategy that fosters accountability by encompassing both the short-term goal of developing the CIP and the longer-term goal of achieving the CIP objectives. Although this study focused on Uganda's CIP for family planning, its lessons have implications for any policy or strategy development efforts that require multiple stakeholders to ensure successful execution.

  18. Expert knowledge sourcing for public health surveillance: national tsetse mapping in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang-Ford, Lea; Garton, Kelly

    2013-08-01

    In much of sub-Saharan Africa, availability of standardized and reliable public health data is poor or negligible. Despite continued calls for the prioritization of improved health datasets in poor regions, public health surveillance remains a significant global health challenge. Alternate approaches to surveillance and collection of public health data have thus garnered increasing interest, though there remains relatively limited research evaluating these approaches for public health. Herein, we present a case study applying and evaluating the use of expert knowledge sources for public health dataset development, using the case of vector distributions of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Uganda. Specific objectives include: 1) Review the use of expert knowledge sourcing methods for public health surveillance, 2) Review current knowledge on tsetse vector distributions of public health importance in Uganda and the methods used for tsetse mapping in Africa; 3) Quantify confidence of the presence or absence of tsetse flies in Uganda based on expert informant reports, and 4) Assess the reliability and potential utility of expert knowledge sourcing as an alternative or complimentary method for public health surveillance in general and tsetse mapping in particular. Information on tsetse presence or absence, and associated confidence, was collected through interviews with District Entomologist and Veterinary Officers to develop a database of tsetse distributions for 952 sub-counties in Uganda. Results show high consistency with existing maps, indicating potential reliability of modeling approaches, though failing to provide evidence for successful tsetse control in past decades. Expert-sourcing methods provide a novel, low-cost and rapid complimentary approach for triangulating data from prediction modeling where field-based validation is not feasible. Data quality is dependent, however, on the level of expertise and documentation to support confidence levels for

  19. An Open Conversation with Traditional Birth Attendants in Rural Uganda: The Potential for Collaborative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging the World-Africa (ITWA is a registered non-governmental organization aimed at distributing low-cost ultrasound services at health centres in rural Uganda. Yet, studies demonstrate that the majority of mothers continue to deliver with unregulated traditional birth attendants (TBAs in their local villages. It has been suggested that the unregulated practices of TBAs has contributed to the high rate of maternal and fetal mortality. A greater understanding of the roles of TBAs in the management of pregnancy and delivery is needed. Purpose: The purpose of this report is to provide the international community with a greater understanding of TBA practices as well as an assessment of their willingness for future collaboration. Methods: Three TBAs from different nearby villages attended a meeting with ITWA in Kamuli District, Uganda. The meeting included an interview and an educational session. A test on the management principles of common obstetric complications was administered at the beginning and end of the meeting to assess baseline knowledge and the effect of the interaction. Results: The meeting with the TBAs provided valuable qualitative information about TBA clinical experience, the value of TBAs to the community and TBA understanding of ultrasound. On the pre-educational test, the TBAs had a limited understanding of pregnancy complications and conditions in which it would be safer for a mother to deliver at a hospital. After the educational session, the TBAs performed statistically significantly better on the post-test (p=0.03. Conclusion: The open conversation with the TBAs provided valuable information on the current role of TBAs in rural Uganda. Our experience with the TBAs demonstrates that TBAs are willing to engage with trained healthcare providers. Collaboration between TBAs and health centers in Uganda has the potential to bring to light previously unknown barriers and create solutions to better maternal and fetal

  20. Efficacy of single and double doses of albendazole and mebendazole alone and in combination in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura in school-age children in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namwanje, Harriet; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Olsen, Annette

    2011-01-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted in Kabale District, southwestern Uganda, to compare the efficacies of single and double doses of a combination of 400mg albendazole (ALB) and 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) with those of single and double doses of each drug given alone in the treatment of Trichu...

  1. Strengthening health facilities for maternal and newborn care: experiences from rural eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude Namazzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda maternal and neonatal mortality remains high due to a number of factors, including poor quality of care at health facilities. Objective: This paper describes the experience of building capacity for maternal and newborn care at a district hospital and lower-level health facilities in eastern Uganda within the existing system parameters and a robust community outreach programme. Design: This health system strengthening study, part of the Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST, aimed to increase frontline health worker capacity through district-led training, support supervision, and mentoring at one district hospital and 19 lower-level facilities. A once-off supply of essential medicines and equipment was provided to address immediate critical gaps. Health workers were empowered to requisition subsequent supplies through use of district resources. Minimal infrastructure adjustments were provided. Quantitative data collection was done within routine process monitoring and qualitative data were collected during support supervision visits. We use the World Health Organization Health System Building Blocks to describe the process of district-led health facility strengthening. Results: Seventy two per cent of eligible health workers were trained. The mean post-training knowledge score was 68% compared to 32% in the pre-training test, and 80% 1 year later. Health worker skills and competencies in care of high-risk babies improved following support supervision and mentoring. Health facility deliveries increased from 3,151 to 4,115 (a 30% increase in 2 years. Of 547 preterm babies admitted to the newly introduced kangaroo mother care (KMC unit, 85% were discharged alive to continue KMC at home. There was a non-significant declining trend for in-hospital neonatal deaths across the 2-year study period. While equipment levels remained high after initial improvement efforts, maintaining supply of even the most basic medications was a challenge, with

  2. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains.

  3. Community based peer counsellors for support of exclusive breastfeeding: experiences from rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndeezi Grace

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of training community based peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in a rural district in Uganda. Methods With assistance of the investigators, the local communities selected fifteen women aged 25 to 30 years. These women were trained for five days on breastfeeding counselling using the La Leche League curriculum. After training they returned to their communities and started supporting breastfeeding peers. They were followed up and supported in their work for three months. The programme was evaluated through focus group discussions with the peer counsellors, fathers and mothers. Results The trainees appreciated the knowledge gained and discussed cultural beliefs which affect breastfeeding. They offered breastfeeding support to 15 mothers each within the first two months. They found time to visit and help their breastfeeding peers despite busy schedules. They identified common breastfeeding problems as "insufficient breast milk", sore nipples, breast engorgement, mastitis and poor positioning at the breast. They further observed that most of these problems were eased by correct positioning of the baby at the breast. The peer counsellors were easily accepted by their communities. The mothers were happy to have someone within their community helping them with their breastfeeding problems. Although the peer counsellors were initially selected as volunteers, soon they demanded remuneration. Conclusion The training and follow up of peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in this rural district is feasible. The peer

  4. Incidence and Severity of Maize Ear Rots and Factors Responsible for Their Occurrence in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigirwa, G.; Kaaya, A. N.; Sseruwu, G.; Adipala, E.; Okanya, S.

    Eleven major maize growing districts of Uganda were surveyed for three consecutive seasons between 2002 and 2003 to establish maize ear rot incidence and severity. Sternocarpella maydis and Fusarium species particularly F. graminearum and F. verticillioides were the identified maize ear rot causing fungi. Incidence of S. maydis ranged from 2.5 to 32.5% while that of Fusarium sp. was in the range of 1.9 and 15.3%. In districts of higher altitude (above 1,800 m above sea level) F. graminearum dominated in all seasons while in districts with an altitude between 900 and 1,500 m above sea level, S. maydis was the major cause of ear rots. This observation was attributed to differences in temperature, altitude and rainfall. There was a strong positive correlation (p = 0.001) between incidence and severity for S. maydis and a weak one for Fusarium sp. because the latter would rarely infect the entire cob unlike the former. All farmers expressed concern about the quality of maize due to ear rots and sort out infected grain after harvest. However, varied uses of infected grain were noted. For example, in Kapchorwa district 82% of the respondents indicated that the infected grain is used for making local brew because the moulds give it a good taste and aroma, while in Kamuli and Masaka districts, 36% use it as animal feed ingredient. This indicates that people and animals could be ingesting mycotoxins unknowingly thus the need for sensitization programmes.

  5. Emergency obstetric care as the priority intervention to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, A K; Asimwe, J B; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Orinda, V

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) to provide baseline data for monitoring provision of obstetric care services in Uganda. The survey, covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities, assessed availability of EmOC signal functions. Following this, performance improvement process was implemented in 20 district hospitals to scale-up EmOC services. A maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 671/100,000 live births was recorded. Hemorrhage, 42.2%, was the leading direct cause of maternal deaths, and malaria accounted for 65.5% of the indirect causes. Among the obstetric complications, abortion accounted for 38.9% of direct and malaria 87.4% of indirect causes. Removal of retained products (OR 3.3, PEmOC, 349 (97.2%) were not offering them. Using the performance improvement process, availability of EmOC in the 20 hospitals improved significantly. An integrated programming approach aiming at increasing access to EmOC, malaria treatment and prevention services could reduce maternal mortality in Uganda.

  6. Risk factors for injuries in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gopalakrishnan, Tisha; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-08-01

    The frequency of occurrence of natural disasters has increased over the past several decades, which necessitates a better understanding of human vulnerability, particularly in low-resource settings. This paper assesses risk factors for injury in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda, and compares the effects of location, injury type, and severity. A stratified cluster survey of the disaster-affected populations was conducted five months after onset of the disasters. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to sample 800 households, including 400 affected by floods in Butaleja District and 400 affected by landslides in Bududa District. Flood- and landslide-affected populations were surveyed in July 2010 using a stratified cluster design. The odds of injury were 65% higher in the flood-affected groups than the landslide-affected groups in a logistic regression (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52; P landslide-affected population, and injuries were more severe. This study illustrates differences between populations injured by flood and landslide disasters that occurred simultaneously in Eastern Uganda in 2010. In areas where landslides are prone to occur due to massive rainfalls or floods, preventative measures, such as early warning systems and evacuation, are more likely to increase the likelihood of people surviving, while for areas with massive floods, immediate and effective medical attention can save lives and improve injury outcomes.

  7. Peste des Petits Ruminants serological survey in Karamoja sub region of Uganda by competitive ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonny Mulindwa; Simon Petter Ruhweza; Chrisostom Ayebazibwe; Frank Norbert Mwiine; Dennis Muhanguzi; and William Olaho-Mukani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the historical reports of mysterious illnesses and deaths in goats in the Karamoja sub-region in April, 2007 and subsequent confirmation of Pest des Petitis Ruminants in July, 2007; we carried out a serological survey to determine the indicative caprine PPRV exposure rate by 2009. We sampled 280 goats from Moroto, Nakapiripirit, Abim and Kotido Districts of North-eastern Uganda to detect antibodies against PPRV using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The prevalence of PPRV antibodies in the districts of Moroto, Nakapiripirit, Kotido and Abim was 63.2% (CI = 95%, 58.0 – 68.0%, 72.0% (CI = 95%, 65.6 - 78.4%, 85% (CI = 95%, 81.0 –88.9% and 1.6% (CI = 95%, -0.01 – 3.22% respectively. The overall prevalence of antibodies against PPRV in Karamoja sub-region was found to be 57.6 % (CI = 95%, 48.8 – 66.4%. The high prevalence of antibodies against PPRV suggests that active infection may still be present and therefore the need to institute disease control measures. More studies should be undertaken to characterize the viruses involved and the epidemiology of PPR in Uganda [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 149-152

  8. Treatment of fevers prior to introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K.; Lal, Sham; Cundill, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since drug shops play an important role in treatment of fever, introducing rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria at drug shops may have the potential of targeting anti-malarial drugs to those with malaria parasites and improve rational drug use. As part of a cluster randomized trial...... to examine impact on appropriate treatment of malaria in drug shops in Uganda and adherence to current malaria treatment policy guidelines, a survey was conducted to estimate baseline prevalence of, and factors associated with, appropriate treatment of malaria to enable effective design and implementation...... of the cluster randomized trial. METHODS: A survey was conducted within 20 geographical clusters of drug shops from May to September 2010 in Mukono district, central Uganda. A cluster was defined as a parish representing a cluster of drug shops. Data was collected using two structured questionnaires: a provider...

  9. Experiences from Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (Uganda)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-25

    Aug 25, 2006 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2006. (ISSN 0850-3907) ... in turn induced new approaches designed to counteract the perceived .... BINP alone hosts about half of the world's population of the ..... Fortunately, the current national law review may include the Uganda Wildlife.

  10. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and increa

  11. Cyber Crime in Uganda : Myth or Reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tushabe, Florence; Baryamureeba, Venansius; Ardil, C

    2005-01-01

    There is a general feeling that Internet crime is an advanced type of crime that has not yet infiltrated developing countries like Uganda. The carefree nature of the Internet in which anybody publishes anything at anytime poses a serious security threat for any nation. Unfortunately, there are no fo

  12. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Uganda And Botswana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Ministry of Local Government of Uganda and the Botswana-China Friendship Association, a 28-member Delegation of the CPAFFC, local government officials and Entrepreneurs led by CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku, paid a goodwill visit to the two countries from May 27 to June 3.

  13. Seroprevalence of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Nathan C; Sarosi, George A; Meya, David B; Bohjanen, Paul R; Richer, Sarah M; Swartzentruber, Samantha; Halupnick, Ryan; Jarrett, Deidre; Wheat, L Joseph; Boulware, David R

    2016-03-01

    Histoplasmosis is endemic to the Midwestern United States, but cases have been reported nearly worldwide. A 1970 study found 3.8% skin test sensitivity to Histoplasma capsulatum in Uganda but no systemic study of histoplasmosis exposure has occurred since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study investigated the seroprevalence of H. capsulatum and sought previously undetected cases of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine specimens were obtained from HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis. Specimens were tested for H. capsulatum IgG and IgM by enzyme immune assay and Histoplasma antigen. 147 of the 257 subjects who were enrolled had cryptococcal meningitis. Overall, 1.3% (2/151) of subjects were serum Histoplasma IgG positive, and zero of 151 were IgM positive. Antigen was not detected in any serum (n = 57), urine (n = 37, or CSF (n = 63) samples. Both subjects with serum Histoplasma IgG positivity had cryptococcal meningitis. Histoplasma capsulatum IgG was detected at low levels in persons with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Histoplasmosis is not widespread in Uganda but microfoci do exist. There appears to be no cross-reactivity between Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma antigen testing, and cryptococcosis appears to be at most, a rare cause of positive Histoplasma IgG.

  14. Technology, production and partnership innovation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Musaazi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 a partnership between UNHCR, the Government of Uganda and ‘MakaPads’ inventor Moses Musaazi has helped provide affordable sanitary pads for thousands of refugee girls and women while substantially reducing UNHCR’s expenditure on these essential items.

  15. Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Sukhdeep; Farley, Sara E.; Hawkins, Robert; Wagner, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Science, Technology and Innovation in Uganda is part of the World Bank Studies series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. This study presents a unique methodology to view science, technology and innovation (STI) in developing countries. The study provides a set…

  16. Traditional male circumcision in Uganda: a qualitative focus group discussion analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sabet Sarvestani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC. Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDINGS: During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. CONCLUSION: This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.

  17. Genetically distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes populations in the Lake Kyoga region of Uganda and its relevance for human African trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echodu, Richard; Sistrom, Mark; Hyseni, Chaz; Enyaru, John; Okedi, Loyce; Aksoy, Serap; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei--the agent of human (HAT) and animal (AAT) trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff) is the main vector species in Uganda--the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense) occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  18. Strengthening referral of sick children from the private health sector and its impact on referral uptake in Uganda: a cluster randomized controlled trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; LaRussa, Philip; Mbonye, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda’s under-five mortality is high, currently estimated at 66/1000 live births. Poor referral of sick children that seek care from the private sector is one of the contributory factors. The proposed intervention aims to improve referral and uptake of referral advice for children that seek care from private facilities (registered drug shops/private clinics). Methods/Design A cluster randomized design will be applied to test the intervention in Mukono District, central Uganda. A s...

  19. Bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets against pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from different malaria transmission zones in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Okia, Michael; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Kirunda, James; Byaruhanga, Anatol; Adibaku, Seraphine; Lwamafa, Denis K; Kironde, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Background There are major concerns over sustaining the efficacy of current malaria vector control interventions given the rapid spread of resistance, particularly to pyrethroids. This study assessed the bioefficacy of five WHO-recommended long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae field populations from Uganda. Methods Adult An. gambiae from Lira, Tororo, Wakiso and Kanungu districts were exposed to permethrin (0.75%) or deltamethrin (0.05%) in stan...

  20. Strategies for sustainable land management and poverty reduction in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    "The government of Uganda, with help from its development partners, is designing and implementing policies and strategies to address poverty, land degradation, and declining agricultural productivity. Land degradation, especially soil erosion and depletion of soil nutrients, is widespread in Uganda and contributes to declining productivity, which in turn increases poverty. The report has four major objectives: (1) to examine the causes of land degradation in Uganda; (2) to identify the determ...

  1. Partnerships for development: municipal solid waste management in Kasese, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, David; Drysdale, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Vanhille, Josefine; Wolf, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management systems of many developing countries are commonly constrained by factors such as limited financial resources and poor governance, making it a difficult proposition to break with complex, entrenched and unsustainable technologies and systems. This article highlights strategic partnerships as a way to affect a distributed agency among several sets of stakeholders to break so-called path dependencies, which occur when such unsustainable pathways arise, stabilize and become self-reinforcing over time. Experiences from a North-South collaborative effort provide some lessons in such partnership building: In Uganda and Denmark, respectively, the World Wildlife Fund and the network organization access2innovation have mobilized stakeholders around improving the municipal solid waste management system in Kasese District. Through a municipal solid waste management system characterization and mapping exercise, some emergent lessons and guiding principles in partnership building point to both pitfalls and opportunities for designing sustainable pathways. First, socio-technical lock-in effects in the municipal solid waste management system can stand in the way of partnerships based on introducing biogas or incineration technologies. However, opportunities in the municipal solid waste management system can exist within other areas, and synergies can be sought with interlinking systems, such as those represented with sanitation.

  2. Geothermal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  3. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food producers in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Wamala, S; Baryamutuma, R; Kabwama, E; Loewenson, R

    2013-09-01

    Globalization-related measures to liberalize trade and stimulate export production were applied in Uganda in the late 1980s, including in the coffee production sector, to revitalize agricultural production, increase incomes to farmers and improve rural food security. To explore the different effects of such measures on the health and dietary outcomes of female coffee and food small holder farmers in Uganda. We gathered evidence through a cross-sectional comparative interview survey of 190 female coffee producers and 191 female food producers in Ntungamo district. The study mostly employed quantitative methods of data collection, targeting the sampled households. We also utilized qualitative data; collected three months after the household survey data had been collected and their analysis had been accomplished. Using qualitative interviews based on an unstructured interview guide, extra qualitative information was collected from key informants at national, district and community levels. This was among other underlying principles to avoid relying on snapshot information earlier collected at household level in order to draw valid and compelling conclusions from the study. We used indicators of production, income, access to food and dietary patterns, women's health and health care. Of the two groups selected from the same area, female coffee producers represented a higher level of integration into liberalised export markets. Document review suggests that, although Uganda's economy grew in the period, the household economic and social gains after the liberalization measures may have been less than expected. In the survey carried out, both food and coffee producers were similarly poor, involved in small-scale production, and of a similar age and education level. Coffee producers had greater land and livestock ownership, greater access to inputs and higher levels of income and used a wider variety of markets than food producers, but they had to work longer hours to obtain

  4. Between a rock and a hard place: stigma and the desire to have children among people living with HIV in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C; Orach, Christopher G; Earnest, Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-related stigma, among other factors, has been shown to have an impact on the desire to have children among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Our objective was to explore the experiences of HIV-related stigma among PLHIV in post-conflict northern Uganda, a region of high HIV prevalence, high infant and child mortality and low contraception use, and to describe how stigma affected the desires of PLHIV to have children in the future. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda. The interviews, conducted in Luo, the local language, were audio recorded, transcribed and then translated into English. Thematic data analysis was undertaken using NVivo8 and was underpinned by the “Conceptual Model of HIV/AIDS Stigma”. Results HIV-related stigma continues to affect the quality of life of PLHIV in Gulu district, northern Uganda, and also influences PLHIV's desire to have children. PLHIV in northern Uganda continue to experience stigma in various forms, including internal stigma and verbal abuse from community members. While many PLHIV desire to have children and are strongly influenced by several factors including societal and cultural obligations, stigma and discrimination also affect this desire. Several dimensions of stigma, such as types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma), stigmatizing behaviours (abusing and desertion) and agents of stigmatization (families, communities and health systems), either directly, or indirectly, enhanced or reduced PLHIV's desire to have more children. Conclusion The social-cultural context within which PLHIV continue to desire to have children must be better understood by all health professionals who hope to improve the quality of PLHIV's lives. By delineating the stigma process, the paper proposes interventions for reducing stigmatization of PLHIV in northern Uganda in order to improve the quality of life and health outcomes for PLHIV and their children

  5. Mind the gap: house structure and the risk of malaria in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Wanzirah

    Full Text Available Good house construction may reduce the risk of malaria by limiting the entry of mosquito vectors. We assessed how house design may affect mosquito house entry and malaria risk in Uganda.100 households were enrolled in each of three sub-counties: Walukuba, Jinja district; Kihihi, Kanungu district; and Nagongera, Tororo district. CDC light trap collections of mosquitoes were done monthly in all homes. All children aged six months to ten years (n = 878 were followed prospectively for a total of 24 months to measure parasite prevalence every three months and malaria incidence. Homes were classified as modern (cement, wood or metal walls; and tiled or metal roof; and closed eaves or traditional (all other homes.A total of 113,618 female Anopheles were collected over 6,765 nights. 6,816 routine blood smears were taken of which 1,061 (15.6% were malaria parasite positive. 2,582 episodes of uncomplicated malaria were diagnosed after 1,569 person years of follow-up, giving an overall incidence of 1.6 episodes per person year at risk. The human biting rate was lower in modern homes than in traditional homes (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.37-0.64, p<0.001. The odds of malaria infection were lower in modern homes across all the sub-counties (adjusted odds ratio 0.44, 95%CI 0.30-0.65, p<0.001, while malaria incidence was lower in modern homes in Kihihi (adjusted IRR 0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.91, p = 0.02 but not in Walukuba or Nagongera.House design is likely to explain some of the heterogeneity of malaria transmission in Uganda and represents a promising target for future interventions, even in highly endemic areas.

  6. HIV Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Teachers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Bazeyo, William; Tanga, Erasmus Otolok

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34) compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97). Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59). Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58). Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote individual

  7. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Ayebale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote

  8. Education and agricultural productivity: evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Existing evidence on the impact of education on agricultural productivity in Africa is mixed, with estimates usually insignificant although sometimes large. Analysis of the first nationally representative household survey of Uganda gives an estimate of the impact of household primary schooling on crop production comparable to the developing country average. In addition, the primary schooling of neighbouring farm workers appears to raise crop production and these external returns exceed the in...

  9. Media and mental health in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, F; Ssebunnya, J; Kizza, D; Ndyanabangi, S

    2010-05-01

    The media is largely regarded as an important stakeholder in health service delivery, with a great influence on public attitudes. However, little is known about its interest in mental health and the guiding factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues. This article describes the importance accorded to mental health by the media and the factors that influence media coverage of mental health issues in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were held with representatives from six prominent media houses as part of the situational analysis of the mental health system in Uganda. Data was analyzed using Nvivo 7 qualitative data analysis software. The media was found to be interested and actively involved in health initiatives, but with little attention devoted to mental health. Coverage and interest in mental health was noted to be mainly dependent on the individual journalists' interests, and mostly for personal reasons. Low interest was largely attributed to mental health being perceived as a non-priority area, and the fact that mental illness is not a major contributor to mortality. Media coverage and reporting is guided by prioritization of the Health Department. The media in Uganda is an important stakeholder in the health care system with a key role of advocacy, publicity and mass education. Media houses however are less interested in mental health as evidenced by low coverage of mental health issues. This calls for advocacy and sensitization as a way of persuading media for more involvement in mental health initiatives.

  10. The reliability and validity of the SF-8 with a conflict-affected population in northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, B; Browne, J; Ocaka, KF; Oyok, T; Sondorp, E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The SF-8 is a health-related quality of life instrument that could provide a useful means of assessing general physical and mental health amongst populations affected by conflict. The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the SF-8 with a conflict-affected population in northern Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey was conducted with 1206 adults in camps for internally displaced persons in Gulu and Amuru districts...

  11. Private Sector Drug Shops in Integrated Community Case Management of Malaria, Pneumonia, and Diarrhea in Children in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Awor, Phyllis; Wamani, Henry; Bwire, Godfrey; Jagoe, George; Peterson, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a survey involving 1,604 households to determine community care-seeking patterns and 163 exit interviews to determine appropriateness of treatment of common childhood illnesses at private sector drug shops in two rural districts of Uganda. Of children sick within the last 2 weeks, 496 (53.1%) children first sought treatment in the private sector versus 154 (16.5%) children first sought treatment in a government health facility. Only 15 (10.3%) febrile children treated at drug sho...

  12. The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle, Goats and Humans in Rural Uganda: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R; Nakavuma, J L; Ssajjakambwe, P; Vudriko, P; Musisi, N; Kaneene, J B

    2016-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the presence of brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in farms from south-western Uganda and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in these three host groups. Data and serum samples were collected from 768 cattle, 315 goats and 236 humans, with 635 samples of bovine milk, from 70 farms in two different study areas in south-western Uganda. Sera from livestock were tested with the Rose Bengal Plate test, using B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens, and human sera were tested with a commercial IgG/IgM lateral flow assay. Milk samples were tested using the OIE-approved milk ring test. Screening tests for brucellosis were positive in 14% of cattle serum, 29% of bovine milk, 17% of goat serum and 11% of human serum samples. There were significant differences in the test prevalence of brucellosis by study site, with levels higher in the study area near Lake Mburo National Park than in the study area near Queen Elizabeth National Park. Multivariable regression models identified risk factors associated with increasing test positivity at the individual and farm levels for cattle, goats and humans. Positive associations were seen between increasing seropositivity of brucellosis in goats, cattle and humans. Results of multivariable analyses suggest that improvements in farm biosecurity and hygiene may reduce the risk of brucellosis on the farm and suggest a role for ticks in bovine brucellosis. Although cattle are the focus of brucellosis control in Uganda, the significant associations between seropositivity in humans and seropositivity in goats suggest that brucellosis in goats may be an important contributor to the epidemiology of the disease on the farm.

  13. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the Uganda conditions, the use of artificial fertilisers was ha~pered by their high cost ... of plant nutrients in Uganda came into light between 1903 ai1d 1924 during .... and would not be stimulated to heavy vegetative growth, as was the ...

  14. Dilemmas in Implementing Language Rights in Multilingual Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namyalo, Saudah; Nakayiza, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Even after decades of uttering platitudes about the languages of Uganda, language policy pronouncements have invariably turned out to be public relations statements rather than blueprints for action. A serious setback for the right to linguistic equality and the right to use Uganda's indigenous languages has largely hinged on the language…

  15. Assessment of Business Information Access Problems in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constant Okello-Obura

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uganda's economy has great potential. Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits, it appeared poised for rapid economic growth and development at independence. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that left Uganda among the world's poorest and least-developed countries (United States, Bureau of African Affairs 2007. This situation can be averted by effectively promoting the involvement of the engine of economic growth, the SMEs in national and international businesses. The international involvement of SMEs requires accurate and adequate access to relevant business information. Based on that, a study was conducted to assess the problems SMEs face in accessing business information in Uganda. The study using a descriptive design with survey research techniques among others examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in northern Uganda and established whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information. The paper reports on among others the proposed strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs . The paper concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs.

  16. Transitional justice and gender in Uganda: Making peace, failing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    part of normal political business. The peace process in Uganda. The formal peace negotiation process to address Northern Uganda's conflict began in 2006 after ... Women's International Cross Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE) who collected ... Building skills of women: The coalition built the knowledge and skills of identified.

  17. Luther and the Law in the Lutheran Church of Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-26

    May 26, 2016 ... Finally, the Lutheran Church of Uganda refers to the body of Lutherans in Uganda. .... lightning, smoke and the burning mountain, even those who claim to be righteous .... of what happened with the unfaithful Cain and Esau, and how God .... Law stay away from committing sin because the Law threatens to ...

  18. The challenge to restoring basic health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, D O; Lubanga, R; Guwatudde, D; Sebina-Zziwa, A

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a health facility survey conducted in Uganda between June 1992 and December 1993. The survey covered both government and non-government organisation (NGO) facilities from 10 districts in the five regions of the country. The main objective of the survey was to assess resource use, costs and financing of health facilities. The survey found differences between resource levels of NGOs and government facilities. Government facilities were inadequately maintained, and mostly in a state of disrepair. The user fee scheme that had been recently introduced in some government units to meet running costs was not only inadequate, but was not being used to meet the needs of consumers. In addition, most available resources, including human resources, were concentrated in hospitals. As a result, there was heavy demand for hospital services and less use of services in the lower level facilities. And furthermore, staff in government facilities were paid much less than staff working for NGOs, who not only got better pay but also in-kind forms of rewards, which made them better motivated to work. The number of qualified staff, particularly for primary health care, was grossly inadequate, and most of the work in local facilities was being done by unqualified employees, such as ward maids and dressers. In order to alleviate some of the problems identified, particularly in government facilities, there is a need to explore ways in which more can be done with the available resources to improve the efficiency of health services. The user charge system could be effective in improving the resource base of the health facilities, but it must result in visible improvement in the quality of services for consumers to be willing to pay. Collection methods should be standardised, and expenditures supervised. As part of the government's decentralisation programme, districts should be given the power to recruit and fire personnel. Once this authority is in place, the

  19. Decentralisation and Development: Can Uganda now pass the test of being a role model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ssonko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uganda’s Government of the National Resistance Movement (NRM assumed power in 1986, in an environment of political turmoil, and initiated a policy of decentralisation as a way of restoring state credibility and deepening democracy. Decentralisation was accordingly legislated under the Local Government Act of 1997, as a framework act directing the decentralisation process. The aim of the Act was to enable implementation of decentralisation provisions provided for under Chapter 11 of the 1995 National Constitution. The decentralisation policy in Uganda aimed at improving local democracy, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability in the delivery of essential services country-wide. Improved service delivery was in turn expected to make significant positive impact on people’s quality of life. Unfortunately, the implementation of decentralisation appears to have concentrated more on administrative objectives as a means of promoting popular democracy and less on service delivery which would have led to economic transformation and better lives for the majority of Ugandans, and now new districts are being created without corresponding improvements in service delivery. Surprisingly, this is happening in the midst of external praise that decentralisation reform in Uganda is one of the most far-reaching local government reform programmes in the developing world. The paper explores the role of decentralisation in development and how it can be undermined by political factors. It highlights the development of decentralisation in Uganda, discusses its achievements, failure and challenges, and concludes that the decentralisation programme which was ambitious and politically driven has had mixed results in terms of enhancing service delivery and should be seriously reviewed and strengthened if it is to remain as a role model in Africa.

  20. A Survey: Potential Impact of Genetically Modified Maize Tolerant to Drought or Resistant to Stem Borers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac M. Wamatsembe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Uganda is constrained by various factors, but especially drought and stem borers contribute to significant yield losses. Genetically modified (GM maize with increased drought tolerance and/or Bt insect resistance (producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein is considered as an option. For an ex ante impact analysis of these technologies, a farmer survey was carried out in nine districts of Uganda, representing the major farming systems. The results showed that farmers did rate stem borer and drought as the main constraints for maize farming. Most farmers indicated a positive attitude towards GM maize, and 86% of all farmers said they would grow GM maize. Farmer estimated yield losses to drought and stem borer damage were on average 54.7% and 23.5%, respectively, if stress occurred. Taking the stress frequency into consideration (67% for both, estimated yield losses were 36.5% and 15.6% for drought and stem borer, respectively. According to the ex-ante partial budget analysis, Bt hybrid maize could be profitable, with an average value/cost ratio of 2.1. Drought tolerant hybrid maize had lower returns and a value/cost ratio of 1.5. Negative returns occurred mainly for farmers with non-stressed grain yields below 2 t·ha−1. The regulatory framework in Uganda needs to be finalized with consideration of strengthening key institutions in the maize sector for sustainable introduction of GM maize.

  1. Effectiveness of a pre-treatment snack on the uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background:School-based mass treatment with praziquantel is the cornerstone for schistosomiasis control in school-aged children. However, uptake of treatment among school-age children in Uganda is low in some areas. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pre-treatment sn......Background:School-based mass treatment with praziquantel is the cornerstone for schistosomiasis control in school-aged children. However, uptake of treatment among school-age children in Uganda is low in some areas. The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pre......-treatment snack on uptake of mass treatment.Methods and Findings:In a cluster randomized trial carried out in Jinja district, Uganda, 12 primary schools were randomized into two groups; one received education messages for schistosomiasis prevention for two months prior to mass treatment, while the other......, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. Four weeks after mass treatment, uptake of praziquantel was assessed among a random sample of 595 children in the snack schools and 689 children in the non-snack schools as the primary outcome. The occurrence...

  2. Household food insecurity and diet diversity after the major 2010 landslide disaster in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Peter M; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Oshaug, Arne; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-02-28

    In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls - 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (Pfood had higher food insecurity - 12·0 (se 0·6) v. 10·4 (se 0·3) (P=0·02)--whereas farmers had higher DDS - 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (Pfood insecurity (OR 1·15; 95% CI 1·00, 1·32; Pfood insecurity - 12·3 (se 0·8) v. 2·6 (se 0·8) (Pfood insecurity.

  3. Health services for survivors of gender-based violence in northern Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henttonen, Mirkka; Watts, Charlotte; Roberts, Bayard; Kaducu, Felix; Borchert, Matthias

    2008-05-01

    The 20-year war in northern Uganda has resulted in up to 1.7 million people being internally displaced, and impoverishment and vulnerability to violence amongst the civilian population. This qualitative study examined the status of health services available for the survivors of gender-based violence in the Gulu district, northern Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2006 with 26 experts on gender-based violence and general health providers, and availability of medical supplies was reviewed. The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) guidelines on gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian settings were used to prepare the interview guides and analyse the findings. Some legislation and programmes do exist on gender-based violence. However, health facilities lacked sufficiently qualified staff and medical supplies to adequately detect and manage survivors, and confidential treatment and counselling could not be ensured. There was inter-sectoral collaboration, but greater resources are required to increase coverage and effectiveness of services. Intimate partner violence, sexual abuse of girls aged under 18, sexual harassment and early and forced marriage may be more common than rape by strangers. As the IASC guidelines focus on sexual violence by strangers and do not address other forms of gender-based violence, we suggest the need to explore this issue further to determine whether a broader concept of gender-based violence should be incorporated into the guidelines.

  4. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  5. Allocative efficiency of smallholder common bean producers in Uganda: A stochastic frontier and Tobit model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibiko, K.W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated allocative efficiency levels of common bean farms in Eastern Uganda and the factors influencing allocative efficiencies of these farms. To achieve this objective, a sample of 480 households was randomly selected in Busia, Mbale, Budaka and Tororo districts in Eastern Uganda. Data was collected using a personally administered structured questionnaire with a focus on household decision makers; whereas a stochastic frontier model and a two limit Tobit regression model were employed in the analysis. It was established that the mean allocative efficiency was 29.37% and it was significantly influenced by farm size, off-farm income, asset value and distance to the market. Therefore the study suggested the need for policies to discourage land fragmentation and promote road and market infrastructure development in the rural areas. The study also revealed the need for farmers to be trained on entrepreneurial skills so that they can invest their farm profits into more income generating activities that will harness more farming capital.

  6. Circulation of bluetongue virus in goats in the Karamoja region of Uganda

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    Elijah N. Mulabbi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV in indigenous goats from the Karamoja region of northern Uganda was investigated. A total of 300 goats were sampled (serum and whole blood from five districts within the Karamoja region. The samples were analysed for the presence of bluetongue (BT antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and for the presence of BTV viral RNA by real-time Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, because BTV is an RNA virus. Of the 300 goats tested, 269 (90% were positive for BTV antibodies, indicating high levels of BTV circulation within the region. Out of the 150 whole blood samples tested for the presence of the virus by real-time RT-PCR, 84 (56% were positive for BTV RNA. This study, which is the first of its kind in Uganda, showed a high seroprevalence of BT antibodies and active circulation of BTV in a high proportion of goats in the Karamoja region.

  7. Risk factors for mortality in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Assess mortality risk factors including age, sex, and disaster type, in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda and to compare time period, cause, location, and receipt of medical care among landslide and flood fatalities. A stratified cluster survey was conducted of 802 affected households in community and camp locations. Flood and landslide affected populations in the East Uganda the districts of Baduda and Butaleja. Adult household members in 802 households were surveyed regarding household member deaths in the floods and landslides areas. The primary outcome measure was the odds of death associated with age, sex, and disaster type (flood or landslide). The secondary outcome measure was the odds of event (landslide or flood) among fatalities associated with sex, age, time period of death, and cause of death. The odds of death were significantly higher in landslide affected populations than in flood affected populations (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.20-4.25, p landslides as compared to floods. More deaths occurred due to landslides than floods, and landslide deaths were more immediate, with a majority occurring on the day of the event. Females and younger age groups faced a greater risk of death from the landslide than the flood.

  8. Persistent high fertility in Uganda: young people recount obstacles and enabling factors to use of contraceptives

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    Nalwadda Gorrette

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High fertility among young people aged 15-24 years is a public health concern in Uganda. Unwanted pregnancy, unsafe induced abortions and associated high morbidity and mortality among young women may be attributed to low contraceptive use. This study aims at exploring reasons for low contraceptive use among young people. Methods In 16 focus group discussions, the views of young people about obstacles and enabling factors to contraceptive use in Mityana and Mubende districts, Uganda were explored. The groups were homogeneously composed by married and unmarried men and women, between the ages of 15-24. The data obtained was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Young men and women described multiple obstacles to contraceptive use. The obstacles were categorized as misconceptions and fears related to contraception, gender power relations, socio-cultural expectations and contradictions, short term planning, and health service barriers. Additionally, young people recounted several enabling factors that included female strategies to overcome obstacles, changing perceptions to contraceptive use, and changing attitude towards a small family size. Conclusions Our findings suggest changing perceptions and behavior shift towards contraceptive use and a small family size although obstacles still exist. Personalized strategies to young women and men are needed to motivate and assist young people plan their future families, adopt and sustain use of contraceptives. Reducing obstacles and reinforcing enabling factors through education, culturally sensitive behavior change strategies have the potential to enhance contraceptives use. Alternative models of contraceptive service delivery to young people are proposed.

  9. Circulation of bluetongue virus in goats in the Karamoja region of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A. Batten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV in indigenous goats from the Karamoja region of northern Uganda was investigated. A total of 300 goats were sampled (serum and whole blood from five districts within the Karamoja region. The samples were analysed for the presence of bluetongue (BT antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and for the presence of BTV viral RNA by real-time Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, because BTV is an RNA virus. Of the 300 goats tested, 269 (90% were positive for BTV antibodies, indicating high levels of BTV circulation within the region. Out of the 150 whole blood samples tested for the presence of the virus by real-time RT-PCR, 84 (56% were positive for BTV RNA. This study, which is the first of its kind in Uganda, showed a high seroprevalence of BT antibodies and active circulation of BTV in a high proportion of goats in the Karamoja region.

  10. The UNDP spends $2m. on grass-roots income-generation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    A $2 million UNDP project designed to provide assistance to those suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is having problems finding its target population in Uganda. Staff cannot rely on many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), so money is being directly channeled to villages via local leaders, who weed out the undeserving. Internationally, most funds are directed at prevention, education, and prediction of the social and economic impacts of the epidemic. However, the impact at the national, local, and family levels has gone unaddressed. The approach has been charitable, rather than sustainable. The aims of the project are as follows: 1) establishment of income generation programs for orphans, widows, low income survivors, and communities with large numbers of patients with AIDS; and 2) establishment of skills and resources in local groups to implement and manage the projects. 90 microprojects are currently funded in 20 of 39 Ugandan districts. Funds are channelled through the HIV/AIDS Grassroots Initiative Support Fund. The steering committee includes representatives of the Uganda AIDS Commission and the Ministry of Planning and Economic Development. In an effort to rehabilitate prostitutes in Kampala, $6000 was loaned to 21 women and 15 orphans to buy cooking and sewing equipment. Other income generation programs include carpentry and agricultural projects and piggeries. The project time has been extended by 18 months and funds have increased from $700,000 to $2,000,000.

  11. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda

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    Oyok Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20 year war in northern Uganda between the Lord's Resistance Army and the Ugandan government has resulted in the displacement of up to 2 million people within Uganda. The purpose of the study was to measure rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression amongst these internally displaced persons (IDPs, and investigate associated demographic and trauma exposure risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey with 1210 adult IDPs was conducted in November 2006 in Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version, and levels of depression were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association of demographic and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Results Over half (54% of the respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD, and over two thirds (67% of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. Over half (58% of respondents had experienced 8 or more of the 16 trauma events covered in the questionnaire. Factors strongly linked with PTSD and depression included gender, marital status, distance of displacement, experiencing ill health without medical care, experiencing rape or sexual abuse, experiencing lack of food or water, and experiencing higher rates of trauma exposure. Conclusion This study provides evidence of exposure to traumatic events and deprivation of essential goods and services suffered by IDPs, and the resultant effect this has upon their mental health. Protection and social and psychological assistance are urgently required to help IDPs in northern Uganda re-build their lives.

  12. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda.

  13. A sector-wide approach to emergency obstetric care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orinda, V; Kakande, H; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Mbonye, A K

    2005-12-01

    To establish a baseline for the availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC, and to help develop an operational strategy based on the findings. A needs assessment of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) was carried out in 197 health facilities in 19 out of 56 districts in Uganda, covering 38% of the total population. There were a large number of missing signal functions at health facilities and an urgent need to improve the availability of EmOC. By using the data from the assessment, it was possible to influence national policy through the health sector-wide approach (SWAp) and place EmOC high on the national agenda. A national strategy and roll out plan to strengthen EmOC is now in place.

  14. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire...... was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms...

  15. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire...... was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms...

  16. Using a plant health system framework to assess plant clinic performance in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Systems thinking is commonly applied to understand the complexities of human healthcare delivery. In contrast, plant health systems as an organising principle have evolved more recently from work with plant clinics as providers of plant healthcare services to farmers. As plant health systems evolve...... and expand, new analytical frameworks and tools are needed to identify factors influencing performance of services and systems in specific contexts, and to guide interventions. In this paper we apply a plant health system framework to assess plant clinic performance, using Uganda as a case study....... A comparative study of plant clinics was carried out between July 2010 and September 2011 in the 12 districts where plant clinics were operating at that time. The framework enabled us to organise multiple issues and identify key features that affected the plant clinics. Clinic performance was, among other...

  17. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  18. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary L; Paydos, Michael

    2008-06-20

    This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article--number two in the series--describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM) system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.

  19. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paydos Michael

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article – number two in the series – describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP, a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.

  20. Prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in Uganda.

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    Geofrey Musinguzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention and control of hypertension are critical in reducing morbidity and mortality attributable to cardiovascular diseases. Awareness of hypertension is a pre-condition for control and prevention. This study estimated the proportion of adults who were hypertensive, were aware of their hypertension and those that achieved adequate control. METHODS: We conducted a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda. People had their blood pressure measured and were interviewed about their social-demographic characteristics. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or previous diagnosis of hypertension. Participants were classified as hypertensive aware if they reported that they had previously been informed by a health professional that they had hypertension. Control of hypertension among those aware was if systolic blood pressure was <140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure was <90 mmHg. RESULTS: The age standardized prevalence of hypertension was 27.2% (95% CI 25.9-28.5 similar among females (27.7% and males (26.4%. Prevalence increased linearly with age, and age effect was more marked among females. Among the hypertensive participants, awareness was 28.2% (95% CI 25.4-31.0 higher among females (37.0% compared to males (12.4%. Only 9.4% (95% CI 7.5-11.1 of all hypertensive participants were controlled. Control was higher among females (13.2% compared to males (2.5%. CONCLUSION: More than a quarter of the adult population had hypertension but awareness and control was very low. Measures are needed to enhance control, awareness and prevention of hypertension.

  1. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  2. The milk delivery chain and presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in bulk milk in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kim Toeroek; Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Ståhl, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence of informal milk delivery chains on the risk of human exposure to Brucella spp. through milk consumption in two regions of Uganda (Gulu and Soroti Districts). The work involved describing milk delivery chains, investigating brucellosis awareness amongst milk deliverers and determining the presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in cattle milk on delivery to primary collection points (boiling points and dairies). Milk samples (n = 331) were collected from deliverers at primary collection points and from street vendors at point of sale and analysed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). A written questionnaire was used to collect data from deliverers (n = 279) on their milk delivery chains and their brucellosis awareness. The most common delivery points in Gulu District were small dairies and in Soroti District boiling points. The presence of Brucella spp. antibodies in milk samples was higher in Soroti (40 %) than in Gulu (11 %) (P < 0.0001). There are possible public health risk consequences of this finding as 42 % of deliverers in Soroti District reported drinking raw milk, compared with 15 % in Gulu District (P < 0.0001). Awareness of brucellosis was low, with 70 % of all milk deliverers reporting not having heard of the disease or the bacterium. Application of quality controls for milk (colour and odour) along the delivery chain varied depending upon supply and demand. This study provides evidence of the diversity of informal milk markets in low-income countries and of the potential public health risks of consuming unpasteurised milk. These results can be useful to those planning interventions to reduce brucellosis.

  3. Medical education and health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, J M

    1980-10-01

    Health care and medical education in Uganda, once the best in Black Africa, have been adversely affected by the economic, political, and social upheavals in this developing country during the past decade. Crop failures, inadequate public health measures, shortage of medical equipment and essential drugs, and lack of sufficient medical school faculty have resulted in a major crisis. Substantial aid from the medical profession in developed countries will be necessary to help restore medical practice and education to the level present before the regime of Idi Amin.

  4. Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of potato pests and their management in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Sikhu Okonya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we initiate entomological research on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. in Uganda, there is need to understand farmers’ knowledge of existing insect pest problems and their management practices. Such information is important for designing a suitable intervention and successful integrated pest management (IPM strategy. A farm household survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted among 204 potato farmers in six districts of Uganda (i.e., Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, Kapchorwa, Mubende, and Kyegegwa during August and September 2013. Diseases, insect pests, price fluctuations, and low market prices were the four highest ranked constraints in potato production, in order of decreasing importance. Cutworms (Agrotis spp., aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer, and potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller were the three most severe insect pests. Ants (Dorylis orantalis Westwood, whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, and leafminer flies (Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard were pests of moderate importance. Major yield losses are predominantly due to late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary and reached 100% without chemical control in the districts of Kabale, Kisoro, Mbale, and Kapchorwa. On average, farmers had little to moderate knowledge about pest characteristics. The predominant control methods were use of fungicides (72% of respondents and insecticides (62% of respondents. On average, only 5% of the 204 farmers knew about insect pests and their natural enemies. This lack of knowledge calls for training of both farmers and extension workers in insect pest identification, their biology, and control. Empowering farmers with knowledge about insect pests is essential for the reduction of pesticide misuse and uptake of more environmentally friendly approaches like IPM. Field surveys would need follow-up in order to assess the actual field infestation rates and intensities of each insect pest and compare the results with the responses

  5. Health practitioners' and health planners' information needs and seeking behavior for decision making in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiriri, Lydia; Bondy, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    Access to reliable information is the most cost-effective and achievable strategy for sustainable improvement in health care. While several studies have described practitioners' information seeking behavior in developed countries, literature from developing countries is lacking. The aims of the study were: (i) to determine the most influential type of information for health workers' and planners' decision making; (ii) to establish the practitioners' evaluation of the availability and quality of this important information; and (iii) to establish the most commonly used/accessible sources of the information relevant for decision making in Uganda. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 610 health workers, planners, and administrators at the national, district and health facility levels in four districts in Uganda. Respondents were reminded three times, after which non-response was registered. Data were entered, cleaned and analysed using SPSS version 12.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to test for differences in responses. The response rate was 67.7% (413). The respondents indicated that personal experience (79%), discussion with colleagues (76%) and national policy and treatment guidelines (75%) were most influential when making decisions in health care and planning. They reported that most of the epidemiological information was available and of relatively good quality but there was lack of information about distribution of benefit, segregated demographic data, and social values. The most often used sources of information included; discussions with colleagues (89%), doctors' statements (85%) and text books (77%). The least frequently used sources were the internet and the library. This varied with respondents' designation and region of origin. Health planners and practitioners lack some of the information relevant for decision making. They tend to rely on the national policy and treatment guidelines, discussion with colleagues, and personal experience

  6. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Tabuti, John R S; Obua, Celestino; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Lanyero, Hindam; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Bbosa, Godfrey S; Lubega, Aloysius; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Ryan, Mairin; Waako, Paul J; Merry, Concepta

    2010-07-06

    In Uganda, there are over one million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV/AIDS recognition, control and treatment in Sembabule, Kamuli, Kabale and Gulu districts in Uganda. In this study, 25 traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The TMPs could recognize important signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS and its associated opportunistic infections. The majority of practitioners treated patients who were already receiving allopathic medicines including antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) prescribed by allopathic practitioners. There were 103 species of medicinal plants identified in this survey. Priority plants identified include Aloe spp., Erythrina abyssinica, Sarcocephalus latifolius, Psorospermum febrifugum, Mangifera indica and Warburgia salutaris. There was low consensus among TMPs on the plants used. Decoctions of multiple plant species were commonly used except in Gulu where mono-preparations were common. Plant parts frequently used were leaves (33%), stem bark (23%) and root bark (18%). About 80% of preparations were administered orally in variable doses over varied time periods. The TMP had insufficient knowledge about packaging and preservation techniques. Numerous medicinal plants for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients were identified in the four districts surveyed and the role of these plants in the management of opportunistic infections warrants further investigation as these plants may have a role in Uganda's public health approach to HIV/AIDS control. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  7. A dental experience with the Abayudaya community in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetchkenbaum, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    If anyone told me four months ago that I would be taking out teeth and caring about the future of dental health in Uganda, the land of Idi Amin and Raid on Entebbe, I'd have told them they were crazy. I was going to Kenya for Operation Smile; a string of events led me to Samson Wamani, Medical Director for the Abayudaya community in Uganda, and helped me realize there's a huge difference between dental care here in the U.S., and what it is for fellow Jews of Uganda.

  8. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  9. Efficacy of single and double doses of albendazole and mebendazole alone and in combination in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura in school-age children in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namwanje, Harriet; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Olsen, Annette

    2011-10-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted in Kabale District, southwestern Uganda, to compare the efficacies of single and double doses of a combination of 400mg albendazole (ALB) and 500mg mebendazole (MBZ) with those of single and double doses of each drug given alone in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura. Infected pupils (n=611) were randomised to six treatment groups. Three groups received either a single dose of ALB, MBZ or the combination (ALB+MBZ). The other three groups received either a double dose of ALB (ALB/ALB), MBZ (MBZ/MBZ) or the combination (ALB+MBZ/ALB+MBZ). All double doses were given 8h apart. Children were followed-up weekly for 1 month. Cure rates were significantly higher using double doses compared with single doses (irrespective of drug; z=-4.02, Ptrichiura in Uganda, but both combination treatments showed satisfactory egg reduction rates 3 weeks after treatment.

  10. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabukenya, Immaculate; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Olila, Deogracious; Muhangi, Denis; Höglund, Johan

    2014-10-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5-20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r(498) = -0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit

  11. Genetically Distinct Glossina fuscipes fuscipes Populations in the Lake Kyoga Region of Uganda and Its Relevance for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Echodu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies (Glossina spp. are the sole vectors of Trypanosoma brucei—the agent of human (HAT and animal (AAT trypanosomiasis. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Gff is the main vector species in Uganda—the only country where the two forms of HAT disease (rhodesiense and gambiense occur, with gambiense limited to the northwest. Gff populations cluster in three genetically distinct groups in northern, southern, and western Uganda, respectively, with a contact zone present in central Uganda. Understanding the dynamics of this contact zone is epidemiologically important as the merger of the two diseases is a major health concern. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA data from Gff samples in the contact zone to understand its spatial extent and temporal stability. We show that this zone is relatively narrow, extending through central Uganda along major rivers with south to north introgression but displaying no sex-biased dispersal. Lack of obvious vicariant barriers suggests that either environmental conditions or reciprocal competitive exclusion could explain the patterns of genetic differentiation observed. Lack of admixture between northern and southern populations may prevent the sympatry of the two forms of HAT disease, although continued control efforts are needed to prevent the recolonization of tsetse-free regions by neighboring populations.

  12. Stakeholder analysis for a maternal and newborn health project in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazzi, Gertrude; N, Kiwanuka Suzanne; Peter, Waiswa; John, Bua; Olico, Okui; A, Allen Katharine; A, Hyder Adnan; Elizabeth, Ekirapa Kiracho

    2013-03-04

    Based on the realization that Uganda is not on track to achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, Makerere University School of Public Health in collaboration with other partners proposed to conduct two community based maternal/newborn care interventions aimed at increasing access to health facility care through transport vouchers and use of community health workers to promote ideal family care practices. Prior to the implementation, a stakeholder analysis was undertaken to assess and map stakeholders' interests, influence/power and position in relation to the interventions; their views regarding the success and sustainability; and how this research can influence policy formulation in the country. A stakeholder analysis was carried out in March 2011 at national level and in four districts of Eastern Uganda where the proposed interventions would be conducted. At the national level, four key informant interviews were conducted with the ministry of health representative, Member of Parliament, and development partners. District health team members were interviewed and also engaged in a workshop; and at community level, twelve focus group discussions were conducted among women, men and motorcycle transporters. This analysis revealed that district and community level stakeholders were high level supporters of the proposed interventions but not drivers. At community level the mothers, their spouses and transporters were of low influence due to the limited funds they possessed. National level and district stakeholders believed that the intervention is costly and cannot be affordably scaled up. They advised the study team to mobilize and sensitize the communities to contribute financially from the start in order to enhance sustainability beyond the study period. Stakeholders believed that the proposed interventions will influence policy through modeling on how to improve the quality of maternal/newborn health services, male involvement, and improved accessibility of

  13. can volunteer community health workers in rural Uganda provide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Integrated community case management (iCCM) involves assessment and treatment of common ... proportions of children treated for fever, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in rural Uganda. ...... Clinical management of acute diarrhoea:.

  14. Behaviour and communication change in reducing HIV: is Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Are there lessons to learn for other countries or is Uganda unique? ... risk behaviour has decreased and analysis of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) rates ... However, where they were built on by distinctive HIV policies, HIV prevention has ...

  15. Discourse on the values transmitted in universities Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discourse on the values transmitted in universities Uganda. ... suitability of the knowledge and values offered in African universities has been a matter ... It was found that material, social/ public, personal and religious values are transmitted to ...

  16. High proportion of mosquito vectors in Zika forest, Uganda, feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHOEBE

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... InUganda, earlier mosquito studies from forests including. Zika focused ..... from Turdus pelios and Culex annulioris from Sus scrofa. For both ... species in the genus Coquillettidia have been reported to .... adults and pupae.

  17. Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theory and Practice in Language Policy: The Case of Uganda. ... Then English as a medium of instruction would be gradually extended to Science, Geography, Art, ... The role of the other 'minority' indigenous languages must also not be ...

  18. Determinants of fast food consumption in Kampala, Uganda | Ayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    probability of consuming fast-food; and to determine the level of expenditure on ... from a sample of 300 respondents using a multi-stage sampling procedure. ... the fast-food sector to agricultural marketing and farmers' livelihoods in Uganda.

  19. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 9, No 1 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in composition of macro-benthic invertebrates as an indication of water quality ... Agronomic, pests and economic factors influencing sustainability of .... Factors affecting the sustainability of tick-borne disease control in Uganda and ...

  20. genetic analysis of resistance to rice bacterial blight in uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. ... in Uganda and as part of strategies to develop resistant cultivars, it is ... However, the cost-effective way to control this ... the pathogen continue to evolve and overcome ..... Changes in race frequency of.

  1. Monitoring the severity of iodine deficiency disorders in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : USI has improved iodine intake in Uganda. ... have low iodine consumption, while others such as Luwero now have iodine excess. ... Recommendation : The national set standard of household salt iodine of 100ppm be revised.

  2. Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda Highlands. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Abstract. The lack of farmer awareness of costs and benefits associated with the use of sustainable land ...

  3. Experiences of orphan care in Amach, Uganda: assessing policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-01

    May 1, 2007 ... Experiences of orphan care in Amach, Uganda: assessing policy implications .... in local concepts, institutions and practices with relevance in an .... Data analysis: The qualitative data was analysed using the conceptual ...

  4. Outcome of patients undergoing open heart surgery at the Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Training of the superspecialties abroad is largely limited to observation with little or no opportunity ... Results: A total of 124 patients underwent open heart surgery during the study period. ..... The experience at the Uganda heart institute shows.

  5. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda. ... Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place to protect road users to ... drivers of different categories of vehicles, motorcyclists and bicyclists locally known ...

  6. Nodule worm infection in humans and wild primates in Uganda: cryptic species in a newly identified region of human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria R Ghai

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to West Africa but has also been identified in Uganda, East Africa, among primates (including humans. However, the taxonomy and ecology of Oesophagostomum in Uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, which are infected by both O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied Oesophagostomum in Uganda in a community of non-human primates that live in close proximity to humans. Prevalence estimates based on microscopy were lower than those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating greater sensitivity of PCR. Prevalence varied among host species, with humans and red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus infected at lowest prevalence (25% and 41% by PCR, respectively, and chimpanzees, olive baboons (Papio anubis, and l'hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti infected at highest prevalence (100% by PCR in all three species. Phylogenetic regression showed that primates travelling further and in smaller groups are at greatest risk of infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed three cryptic clades of Oesophagostomum that were not distinguishable based on morphological characteristics of their eggs. Of these, the clade with the greatest host range had not previously been described genetically. This novel clade infects humans, as well as five other species of primates. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple cryptic forms of Oesophagostomum circulate in the people and primates of western Uganda, and parasite clades differ in host range and cross-species transmission potential. Our results expand knowledge about human Oesophagostomum infection beyond the West African countries of Togo and Ghana, where the parasite is a known public health concern. Oesophagostomum infection in humans may be common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and the transmission of

  7. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  8. Strategic Marketing Problems in the Uganda Maize Seed Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Larson,Donald W.; Mbowa, Swaibu

    2004-01-01

    Strategic marketing issues and challenges face maize seed marketing firms as farmers increasingly adopt hybrid varieties in a modernizing third world country such as Uganda. The maize seed industry of Uganda has changed dramatically from a government owned, controlled, and operated industry to a competitive market oriented industry with substantial private firm investment and participation. The new maize seed industry is young, dynamic, growing and very competitive. The small maize seed marke...

  9. Economic viabilty of fishing enterprises on Lake Victoria, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Wegoye, J.; Kaidhiwa, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fishing in Uganda are largely developed into comericially oriented activity as a result of the fish export trade that started in the late 1980's. Despite this rapid commercialization,poverty level among fishing communities have remained relatively high thus raising concerns about the profitability of fishing. An analysis of the costs, earnings and profitability of the various fishing enterprises in Uganda was undertaken to address this concern.

  10. Chikungunya in Uganda: Sometimes the Hoof Beats Really Are Zebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Project, Kampala, Uganda 4 Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Rockville, Maryland, USA 5 Nakasero Blood Bank , Kampala, Uganda 6 Walter Reed Army...disease emerging in Latin America and the Caribbean prompting WHO to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (World Health...cycle likely involves the urban mosquito, Aedes aegypti and humans. In the Caribbean and the Americas , the transmission cycle probably involves

  11. A Scoping Study of the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Shinyekwa, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at mapping out the Mobile Telecommunications Industry in Uganda with a view to identify areas for further research in a systematic and more detailed way. The economic and social upgrading/downgrading conceptual framework to guide the Capturing the Gains research agenda was used in this process. The paper briefly presents the mobile phone domains, emphasising the relevant parts for Uganda, which include; software development, sales and marketing, mobile service provision and end...

  12. Maternal education and childbirth care in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bbaale E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGlobally, over 500,000 females die of complications relatedto pregnancy and childbirth each year, and of these, over99% of deaths occur in developing countries such asUganda. Utilisation of modern and professional care duringdelivery is important in lowering maternal mortality. Thispaper sets out to investigate the factors associated with theutilisation of modern and professional childbirth care so asto inform policy makers on the pertinent factors that needto be influenced by policy.MethodA nationally representative Uganda Demographic andHealth Survey (UDHS (2006 was used. Sampling was donein two stages. In the first stage 321 clusters were selectedfrom a list of clusters sampled in the 2005/06 UgandaNational Household Survey (UNHS, 17 clusters from the2002 Census frame from Karamoja, and 30 internallydisplaced camps (IDPs. In the second stage, the householdsin each cluster were selected as per the UNHS listing. Inaddition an additional 20 households were randomlyselected in each cluster. Questionnaires were used duringdata collection. During the analysis, a maximum likelihoodprobit technique was employed. Prior to this, a bivariateapproach was used to generate average percentages ofmothers using the childbirth care services by backgroundcharacteristics.ResultsIt is found that maternal education is the strongestpredictor, especially at post-secondary level (highestmarginal effect of 33% and p<0.01, associated with theutilisation of childbirth care. Whereas partner’s education atall levels is important, maternal education is observed toexert a much stronger association. Other factorssignificantly associated with the utilisation of professionalchildbirth care include community infrastructure,occupation, location, and regional differences, wealthstatus, religion, and age cohorts.ConclusionThese findings suggest that whereas all levels of educationare important, the effects of post-secondary education aremore pronounced. Therefore

  13. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  14. The Elections in Uganda, February 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Gibb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On 18 February, Uganda conducted presidential and parliamentary elections. Incumbent president Yoweri Museveni of the National Resistance Movement (NRM won the multiparty contest for a third consecutive time. If his reign as the NRM leader during Uganda’s stint as a one-party state is counted, the February elections marked the beginning of Museveni’s fifth overall term as president. The NRM continues to dominate parliament, having won a super-majority of the contested seats. Opposition members who competed for both the presidential seat and a seat in parliament contested the results of the election, and the primary opposition candidate Kizza Besigye was placed under house arrest. International observers questioned the integrity of the results, specifically in rural areas that were poorly monitored, and opposition strongholds in urban centres suffered logistical problems. The elections reconfirmed the strength of the NRM following years of political infighting.

  15. The Development of Professional Counseling in Uganda: Current Status and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyonyi, Ruth M.; Ochieng, Lois A.; Sells, James

    2012-01-01

    Professional counseling in Uganda has foundations in traditional cultures of its peoples, guidance offered in schools, and counseling to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, a definitive professional counselor profile in Uganda is being established. The Uganda Counselling Association continues the process of seeking legal authority to regulate…

  16. Getting closer to people: family planning provision by drug shops in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, Angela; Chin-Quee, Dawn; Wamala-Mucheri, Patricia; Namwebya, Jane Harriet; Mercer, Sarah Jilani; Stanback, John

    2014-11-13

    Private-sector drug shops are often the first point of health care in sub-Saharan Africa. Training and supporting drug shop and pharmacy staff to provide a wide range of contraceptive methods and information is a promising high-impact practice for which more information is needed to fully document implementation experience and impact. Between September 2010 and March 2011, we trained 139 drug shop operators (DSOs) in 4 districts of Uganda to safely administer intramuscular DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) contraceptive injections. In 2012, we approached 54 of these DSOs and interviewed a convenience sample of 585 of their family planning clients to assess clients' contraceptive use and perspectives on the quality of care and satisfaction with services. Finally, we compared service statistics from April to June 2011 from drug shops, community health workers (CHWs), and government clinics in 3 districts to determine the drug shop market share of family planning services. Most drug shop family planning clients interviewed were women with low socioeconomic status. The large majority (89%) were continuing family planning users. DMPA was the preferred contraceptive. Almost half of the drug shop clients had switched from other providers, primarily from government health clinics, mostly as a result of more convenient locations, shorter waiting times, and fewer stock-outs in drug shops. All clients reported that the DSOs treated them respectfully, and 93% trusted the drug shop operator to maintain privacy. Three-quarters felt that drug shops offered affordable family planning services. Most of the DMPA clients (74%) were very satisfied with receiving their method from the drug shop and 98% intended to get the next injection from the drug shop. Between April and June 2011, clinics, CHWs, and drug shops in 3 districts delivered equivalent proportions of couple-years of protection, with drug shops leading marginally at 36%, followed by clinics (33%) and CHWs (31

  17. Assessment of core capacities for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] – Uganda, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisu Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda is currently implementing the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] within the context of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. The IHR(2005 require countries to assess the ability of their national structures, capacities, and resources to meet the minimum requirements for surveillance and response. This report describes the results of the assessment undertaken in Uganda. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional assessment using the protocol developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO. The data collection tools were adapted locally and administered to a convenience sample of HR(2005 stakeholders, and frequency analyses were performed. Results Ugandan national laws relevant to the IHR(2005 existed, but they did not adequately support the full implementation of the IHR(2005. Correspondingly, there was a designated IHR National Focal Point (NFP, but surveillance activities and operational communications were limited to the health sector. All the districts (13/13 had designated disease surveillance offices, most had IDSR technical guidelines (92%, or 12/13, and all (13/13 had case definitions for infectious and zoonotic diseases surveillance. Surveillance guidelines were available at 57% (35/61 of the health facilities, while case definitions were available at 66% (40/61 of the health facilities. The priority diseases list, surveillance guidelines, case definitions and reporting tools were based on the IDSR strategy and hence lacked information on the IHR(2005. The rapid response teams at national and district levels lacked food safety, chemical and radio-nuclear experts. Similarly, there were no guidelines on the outbreak response to food, chemical and radio-nuclear hazards. Comprehensive preparedness plans incorporating IHR(2005 were lacking at national and district levels. A national laboratory policy existed and the strategic plan was being drafted. However, there were critical gaps

  18. Geological Conditions and Petroleum Exploration Potential of the Albertine Graben of Uganda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Lirong; WANG Jianjun; CHENG Dingsheng; RAN Xuefeng; Ernest N.T. RUBONDO; Robert KASANDE; Abdul BYAKAGABA; Frank MUGISHA

    2004-01-01

    The Albertine Graben in western Uganda is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic riff basin with petroleum exploration potential. A fundamental evaluation of petroleum potential of the graben is given based on field research, data processing of gravity and magnetism, analysis of graben structure, geochemistry, reservoir and composition research. The basin has a double-layered framework and a large thickness of sediments. Gravity highs shown in a residual anomaly map might indicate central uplift zones. There exist at least two sets of mature or low-maturity source rocks corresponding to a certain source rock in the Cretaceous or Paleogene and Neogene strata. The graben has basement rock with potential reservoirs and Tertiary sandstone reservoirs and thus has petroleum exploration potential.

  19. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  20. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  1. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  2. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  3. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  4. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  5. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  6. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the us

  7. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  8. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  9. Pyrethroid resistance in an Anopheles funestus population from Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The susceptibility status of Anopheles funestus to insecticides remains largely unknown in most parts of Africa because of the difficulty in rearing field-caught mosquitoes of this malaria vector. Here we report the susceptibility status of the An. funestus population from Tororo district in Uganda and a preliminary characterisation of the putative resistance mechanisms involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new forced egg laying technique used in this study significantly increased the numbers of field-caught females laying eggs and generated more than 4000 F1 adults. WHO bioassays indicated that An. funestus in Tororo is resistant to pyrethroids (62% mortality after 1 h exposure to 0.75% permethrin and 28% mortality to 0.05% deltamethrin. Suspected DDT resistance was also observed with 82% mortality. However this population is fully susceptible to bendiocarb (carbamate, malathion (organophosphate and dieldrin with 100% mortality observed after exposure to each of these insecticides. Sequencing of a fragment of the sodium channel gene containing the 1014 codon conferring pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. gambiae did not detect the L1014F kdr mutation but a correlation between haplotypes and resistance phenotype was observed indicating that mutations in other exons may be conferring the knockdown resistance in this species. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GSTs, P450s and pNPA compared to a susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. RT-PCR further confirmed the involvement of P450s with a 12-fold over-expression of CYP6P9b in the Tororo population compared to the fully susceptible laboratory colony FANG. CONCLUSION: This study represents the first report of pyrethroid/DDT resistance in An. funestus from East Africa. With resistance already reported in southern and West Africa, this indicates that resistance in An. funestus may be more widespread

  10. Sex inequality, high transport costs, and exposed clinic location: reasons for loss to follow-up of clients under prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in eastern Uganda – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubega M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhamadi Lubega,1–4 Ibrahim A Musenze,3 Gukiina Joshua,2 George Dhafa,2 Rose Badaza,3 Christopher J Bakwesegha,3 Steven J Reynolds41District Health Office, Iganga District Administration, Iganga, Uganda; 2Research Institute, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Busoga University, Iganga, Uganda; 4National Institutes of Health/NIAID-ICER American Embassy, Kampala, UgandaBackground: In Iganga, Uganda, 45% of women who tested HIV-positive during antenatal care between 2007 and 2010 were lost to follow-up (LTFU. We explored reasons for LTFU during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT from a client perspective in eastern Uganda, where antiretroviral therapy (ART awareness is presumably high.Methods: Seven key informant interviews and 20 in-depth interviews, including both clients who had been retained under PMTCT care and those LTFU during PMTCT were held. Ten focus-group discussions involving a total of 112 participants were also conducted with caretakers/relatives of the PMTCT clients. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes.Results: Our findings indicate that LTFU during PMTCT in eastern Uganda was due to sex inequality, high transport costs to access the services, inadequate posttest counseling, lack of HIV status disclosure, and the isolated/exposed location of the ART clinic, which robs the clients of their privacy.Conclusion: There is a need for approaches that empower women with social capital, knowledge, and skills to influence health-seeking practices. There is also a need to train low-ranking staff and take PMTCT services closer to the clients at the lower-level units to make them affordable and accessible to rural clients. Posttest counseling should be improved to enable PMTCT clients to appreciate the importance of PMTCT services through increasing the number of staff in antenatal care to match the client numbers for improved quality. The counseling should emphasize HIV status disclosure to

  11. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrang Ford Lea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  12. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang Ford, Lea

    2007-03-29

    Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  13. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Angubua Baluka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing.

  14. Parasite-based malaria diagnosis: Are Health Systems in Uganda equipped enough to implement the policy?

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    Kyabayinze Daniel J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria case management is a key strategy for malaria control. Effective coverage of parasite-based malaria diagnosis (PMD remains limited in malaria endemic countries. This study assessed the health system's capacity to absorb PMD at primary health care facilities in Uganda. Methods In a cross sectional survey, using multi-stage cluster sampling, lower level health facilities (LLHF in 11 districts in Uganda were assessed for 1 tools, 2 skills, 3 staff and infrastructure, and 4 structures, systems and roles necessary for the implementing of PMD. Results Tools for PMD (microscopy and/or RDTs were available at 30 (24% of the 125 LLHF. All LLHF had patient registers and 15% had functional in-patient facilities. Three months’ long stock-out periods were reported for oral and parenteral quinine at 39% and 47% of LLHF respectively. Out of 131 health workers interviewed, 86 (66% were nursing assistants; 56 (43% had received on-job training on malaria case management and 47 (36% had adequate knowledge in malaria case management. Overall, only 18% (131/730 Ministry of Health approved staff positions were filled by qualified personnel and 12% were recruited or transferred within six months preceding the survey. Of 186 patients that received referrals from LLHF, 130(70% had received pre-referral anti-malarial drugs, none received pre-referral rectal artesunate and 35% had been referred due to poor response to antimalarial drugs. Conclusion Primary health care facilities had inadequate human and infrastructural capacity to effectively implement universal parasite-based malaria diagnosis. The priority capacity building needs identified were: 1 recruitment and retention of qualified staff, 2 comprehensive training of health workers in fever management, 3 malaria diagnosis quality control systems and 4 strengthening of supply chain, stock management and referral systems.

  15. Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Feldmeier, Hermann; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Sentongo, Elizabeth; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda. Methods and Findings To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3–37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0–64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (panimal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, panimals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, pAnimal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3–11.4, pAnimal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals. PMID:26473360

  16. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates.

  17. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: using supply chain management to appraise health systems strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Ricarda; Waiswa, Peter; Neuhann, Florian; Scheibe, Florian; de Savigny, Don

    2011-08-01

    Strengthened national health systems are necessary for effective and sustained expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART and its supply chain management in Uganda are largely based on parallel and externally supported efforts. The question arises whether systems are being strengthened to sustain access to ART. This study applies systems thinking to assess supply chain management, the role of external support and whether investments create the needed synergies to strengthen health systems. This study uses the WHO health systems framework and examines the issues of governance, financing, information, human resources and service delivery in relation to supply chain management of medicines and the technologies. It looks at links and causal chains between supply chain management for ART and the national supply system for essential drugs. It combines data from the literature and key informant interviews with observations at health service delivery level in a study district. Current drug supply chain management in Uganda is characterized by parallel processes and information systems that result in poor quality and inefficiencies. Less than expected health system performance, stock outs and other shortages affect ART and primary care in general. Poor performance of supply chain management is amplified by weak conditions at all levels of the health system, including the areas of financing, governance, human resources and information. Governance issues include the lack to follow up initial policy intentions and a focus on narrow, short-term approaches. The opportunity and need to use ART investments for an essential supply chain management and strengthened health system has not been exploited. By applying a systems perspective this work indicates the seriousness of missing system prerequisites. The findings suggest that root causes and capacities across the system have to be addressed synergistically to enable systems that can match and accommodate investments in

  18. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974

  19. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  20. Assessment of impact of climate change and adaptation strategies on maize production in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikoyo, Duncan A.; Nobert, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Globally, various climatic studies have estimated a reduction of crop yields due to changes in surface temperature and precipitation especially for the developing countries which is heavily dependent on agriculture and lacks resources to counter the negative effects of climate change. Uganda's economy and the wellbeing of its populace depend on rain-fed agriculture which is susceptible to climate change. This study quantified the impacts of climate change and variability in Uganda and how coping strategies can enhance crop production against climate change and/or variability. The study used statistical methods to establish various climate change and variability indicators across the country, and uses the FAO AquaCrop model to simulate yields under possible future climate scenarios with and without adaptation strategies. Maize, the most widely grown crop was used for the study. Meteorological, soil and crop data were collected for various districts representing the maize growing ecological zones in the country. Based on this study, it was found that temperatures have increased by up to 1 °C across much of Uganda since the 1970s, with rates of warming around 0.3 °C per decade across the country. High altitude, low rainfall regions experience the highest level of warming, with over 0.5 °C/decade recorded in Kasese. Rainfall is variable and does not follow a specific significant increasing or decreasing trend. For both future climate scenarios, Maize yields will reduce in excess of 4.7% for the fast warming-low rainfall climates but increase on average by 3.5% for slow warming-high rainfall regions, by 2050. Improved soil fertility can improve yields by over 50% while mulching and use of surface water management practices improve yields by single digit percentages. The use of fertilizer application needs to go hand in hand with other water management strategies since more yields as a result of the improved soil fertility leads to increased water stress, especially

  1. Factors influencing modes of transport and travel time for obstetric care: a mixed methods study in Zambia and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Emma; Vail, Daniel; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Macwan'gi, Mubiana; Kruk, Margaret E; Grépin, Karen A

    2016-04-01

    Transportation is an important barrier to accessing obstetric care for many pregnant and postpartum women in low-resource settings, particularly in rural areas. However, little is known about how pregnant women travel to health facilities in these settings. We conducted 1633 exit surveys with women who had a recent facility delivery and 48 focus group discussions with women who had either a home or a facility birth in the past year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. Quantitative data were analysed using univariate statistics, and qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis techniques. On average, women spent 62-68 min travelling to a clinic for delivery. Very different patterns in modes of transport were observed in the two countries: 91% of Ugandan women employed motorized forms of transportation, while only 57% of women in Zambia did. Motorcycle taxis were the most commonly used in Uganda, while cars, trucks and taxis were the most commonly used mode of transportation in Zambia. Lower-income women were less likely to use motorized modes of transportation: in Zambia, women in the poorest quintile took 94 min to travel to a health facility, compared with 34 for the wealthiest quintile; this difference between quintiles was ∼50 min in Uganda. Focus group discussions confirmed that transport is a major challenge due to a number of factors we categorized as the 'three A's:' affordability, accessibility and adequacy of transport options. Women reported that all of these factors had influenced their decision not to deliver in a health facility. The two countries had markedly different patterns of transportation for obstetric care, and modes of transport and travel times varied dramatically by wealth quintile, which policymakers need to take into account when designing obstetric transport interventions.

  2. The reliability and validity of the SF-8 with a conflict-affected population in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyok Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-8 is a health-related quality of life instrument that could provide a useful means of assessing general physical and mental health amongst populations affected by conflict. The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the SF-8 with a conflict-affected population in northern Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional multi-staged, random cluster survey was conducted with 1206 adults in camps for internally displaced persons in Gulu and Amuru districts of northern Uganda. Data quality was assessed by analysing the number of incomplete responses to SF-8 items. Response distribution was analysed using aggregate endorsement frequency. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a separate smaller survey using the intraclass correlation test. Construct validity was measured using principal component analysis, and the Pearson Correlation test for item-summary score correlation and inter-instrument correlations. Known groups validity was assessed using a two sample t-test to evaluates the ability of the SF-8 to discriminate between groups known to have, and not have, physical and mental health problems. Results The SF-8 showed excellent data quality. It showed acceptable item response distribution based upon analysis of aggregate endorsement frequencies. Test-retest showed a good intraclass correlation of 0.61 for PCS and 0.68 for MCS. The principal component analysis indicated strong construct validity and concurred with the results of the validity tests by the SF-8 developers. The SF-8 also showed strong construct validity between the 8 items and PCS and MCS summary score, moderate inter-instrument validity, and strong known groups validity. Conclusion This study provides evidence on the reliability and validity of the SF-8 amongst IDPs in northern Uganda.

  3. Vulnerability of Maize Yields to Droughts in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA forecast an increase in the intensity and frequency of droughts with implications for maize production. While studies have examined how maize might be affected at the continental level, there have been few national or sub-national studies of vulnerability. We develop a vulnerability index that combines sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity and that integrates agroecological, climatic and socio-economic variables to evaluate the national and spatial pattern of maize yield vulnerability to droughts in Uganda. The results show that maize yields in the north of Uganda are more vulnerable to droughts than in the south and nationally. Adaptive capacity is higher in the south of the country than in the north. Maize yields also record higher levels of sensitivity and exposure in the north of Uganda than in the south. Latitudinally, it is observed that maize yields in Uganda tend to record higher levels of vulnerability, exposure and sensitivity towards higher latitudes, while in contrast, the adaptive capacity of maize yields is higher towards the lower latitudes. In addition to lower precipitation levels in the north of the country, these observations can also be explained by poor soil quality in most of the north and socio-economic proxies, such as, higher poverty and lower literacy rates in the north of Uganda.

  4. Assessment of Business Information Access Problems in Uganda

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    Constant Okello-Obura

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of quality business information is crucial in attaining long-term and sustainable economic growth of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. It is established that SMEs in northern Uganda operate in a business environment that is characterized by fragmented and incomplete information. It is a situation where an awareness of markets, technology, policies, regulations and finance is limited because businesses fail to receive timely business information. This article reports a portion of the results of a larger study using a descriptive design with survey research and other techniques. The study examined the problems SMEs in northern Uganda face in accessing business information; identified problems information providers face in providing business information to the SMEs in the region and attempted to establish whether SMEs in northern Uganda use public libraries in accessing business information as should be expected. The study’s respondents included the SMEs, information providers and business policy makers with the response rate of 87.3%; 72% and 85% respectively. The article proposes strategic interventions for business information to be accessed by the SMEs. It concludes that there is a need for Uganda and, in particular, northern Uganda to develop a strategy for business information access by the SMEs

  5. Private Sector Drug Shops in Integrated Community Case Management of Malaria, Pneumonia, and Diarrhea in Children in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awor, Phyllis; Wamani, Henry; Bwire, Godfrey; Jagoe, George; Peterson, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a survey involving 1,604 households to determine community care-seeking patterns and 163 exit interviews to determine appropriateness of treatment of common childhood illnesses at private sector drug shops in two rural districts of Uganda. Of children sick within the last 2 weeks, 496 (53.1%) children first sought treatment in the private sector versus 154 (16.5%) children first sought treatment in a government health facility. Only 15 (10.3%) febrile children treated at drug shops received appropriate treatment for malaria. Five (15.6%) children with both cough and fast breathing received amoxicillin, although no children received treatment for 5–7 days. Similarly, only 8 (14.3%) children with diarrhea received oral rehydration salts, but none received zinc tablets. Management of common childhood illness at private sector drug shops in rural Uganda is largely inappropriate. There is urgent need to improve the standard of care at drug shops for common childhood illness through public–private partnerships. PMID:23136283

  6. DETERMINANTS OF FIRST ANTENATAL CARE VISIT BY PREGNANT WOMEN AT COMMUNITY BASED EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND SERVICE SITES IN NORTHERN UGANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyasiima, M; Tugume, R; Openy, A; Ahairwomugisha, E; Opio, R; Ntunguka, M; Mahulo, N; Akera, P; Odongo-Aginya, E

    2014-09-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) aims mainly at prevention, early detection and management of general medical and pregnancy associated disorders. Early booking is recommended for maximum utilisation. To investigate the determinants of first ANC visit and trimesters at which pregnant mothers enrol for ANC at the COBERS sites of Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Five community based Education, Research and Service sites (COBERS) of Atiak, Madi Opei, Mungula, Namukora and Pajule health centre, fours (HC IV) in the five respective districts of Amuru, Lamwo, Adjumani, Kitgum and Pader, Northern Uganda, from April to July 2013. Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in five health centres and ten purposively selected midwives were interviewed using questionnaires. Of the 417 respondents, only 11.5% (n = 48) had their first ANC at the recommended period of 0-16 weeks. Prevalence of late entry to ANC was 88.5% (n = 369). Mean gestational age at booking was 22.6 ± 5.7 weeks. Paternal level of education, outcome of previous pregnancy, previous ANC attendance, weeks of amenorrhea, convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to health facility, knowing the right time for ANC enrollment and pregnancy planning remained significant predictors governing early booking. Late ANC booking is still a major public health concern that demands public enlightenment and paternal education coupled with women empowerment will reduce the magnitude of the problem.

  7. The health system burden of chronic disease care: an estimation of provider costs of selected chronic diseases in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settumba, Stella Nalukwago; Sweeney, Sedona; Seeley, Janet; Biraro, Samuel; Mutungi, Gerald; Munderi, Paula; Grosskurth, Heiner; Vassall, Anna

    2015-06-01

    To explore the chronic disease services in Uganda: their level of utilisation, the total service costs and unit costs per visit. Full financial and economic cost data were collected from 12 facilities in two districts, from the provider's perspective. A combination of ingredients-based and step-down allocation costing approaches was used. The diseases under study were diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), epilepsy and HIV infection. Data were collected through a review of facility records, direct observation and structured interviews with health workers. Provision of chronic care services was concentrated at higher-level facilities. Excluding drugs, the total costs for NCD care fell below 2% of total facility costs. Unit costs per visit varied widely, both across different levels of the health system, and between facilities of the same level. This variability was driven by differences in clinical and drug prescribing practices. Most patients reported directly to higher-level facilities, bypassing nearby peripheral facilities. NCD services in Uganda are underfunded particularly at peripheral facilities. There is a need to estimate the budget impact of improving NCD care and to standardise treatment guidelines. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessing the effects of air temperature and rainfall on malaria incidence: an epidemiological study across Rwanda and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe J. Colón-González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the short-term effects of air temperature, rainfall, and socioeconomic indicators on malaria incidence across Rwanda and Uganda from 2002 to 2011. Delayed and nonlinear effects of temperature and rainfall data are estimated using generalised additive mixed models with a distributed lag nonlinear specification. A time series cross-validation algorithm is implemented to select the best subset of socioeconomic predictors and to define the degree of smoothing of the weather variables. Our findings show that trends in malaria incidence agree well with variations in both temperature and rainfall in both countries, although factors other than climate seem to play an important role too. The estimated short-term effects of air temperature and precipitation are nonlinear, in agreement with previous research and the ecology of the disease. These effects are robust to the effects of temporal correlation. The effects of socioeconomic data are difficult to ascertain and require further evaluation with longer time series. Climate-informed models had lower error estimates compared to models with no climatic information in 77 and 60% of the districts in Rwanda and Uganda, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of using climatic information in the analysis of malaria surveillance data, and show potential for the development of climateinformed malaria early warning systems.

  9. Private sector drug shops in integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in children in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awor, Phyllis; Wamani, Henry; Bwire, Godfrey; Jagoe, George; Peterson, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a survey involving 1,604 households to determine community care-seeking patterns and 163 exit interviews to determine appropriateness of treatment of common childhood illnesses at private sector drug shops in two rural districts of Uganda. Of children sick within the last 2 weeks, 496 (53.1%) children first sought treatment in the private sector versus 154 (16.5%) children first sought treatment in a government health facility. Only 15 (10.3%) febrile children treated at drug shops received appropriate treatment for malaria. Five (15.6%) children with both cough and fast breathing received amoxicillin, although no children received treatment for 5-7 days. Similarly, only 8 (14.3%) children with diarrhea received oral rehydration salts, but none received zinc tablets. Management of common childhood illness at private sector drug shops in rural Uganda is largely inappropriate. There is urgent need to improve the standard of care at drug shops for common childhood illness through public-private partnerships.

  10. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and ch...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda.......Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers...

  11. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

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    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  12. Malaria treatment policy change and implementation: the case of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanyunja, Miriam; Nabyonga Orem, Juliet; Kato, Frederick; Kaggwa, Mugagga; Katureebe, Charles; Saweka, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  13. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  14. HIV-1 prevalence and factors associated with infection in the conflict-affected region of North Uganda

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    Musinguzi Joshua

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1986, northern Uganda has been severely affected by civil strife with most of its population currently living internally displaced in protected camps. This study aims at estimating the HIV-1 prevalence among this population and the factors associated with infection. Methods In June-December 2005, a total of 3051 antenatal clinics attendees in Gulu, Kitgum and Pader districts were anonymously tested for HIV-1 infection as part of routine sentinel surveillance. Factors associated with the infection were evaluated using logistic regression models. Results The age-standardised HIV-1 prevalence was 10.3%, 9.1% and 4.3% in the Gulu, Kitgum and Pader district, respectively. The overall prevalence in the area comprised of these districts was 8.2% when data was weighted according to the districts' population size. Data from all sites combined show that, besides older women [20–24 years: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.29–2.97; 25–29 years: AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; ≥ 30 years: AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.23–2.97], unmarried women (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.06–2.04, and those with a partner with a non-traditional occupation (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.18–2.21, women living outside of protected camps for internally displaced persons have a higher risk of being HIV-1 infected than internally displaced women (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15–2.08. Conclusion Although published data from Gulu district show a declining HIV-1 prevalence trend that is consistent with that observed at the national level since 1993, the prevalence in North Uganda is still high. Internally displaced women have a lower risk of being infected probably because of their reduced mobility and accessibility, and increased access to health prevention services.

  15. Western, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    schools students in the Ibarapa district of Southwestern Nigeria. A baseline ... A follow-up survey using the same sampling procedures as baseline was conducted to ... Scores that measured the students' perceived self-efficacy for safe sex increased significantly .... the opportunity of social interactions among students of the ...

  16. Butterfly Diversity from Farmlands of Central Uganda

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    M. B. Théodore Munyuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect information about the diversity of butterfly communities in the mixed coffee-banana mosaic (seminatural, agricultural landscapes of rural central Uganda. Data were collected for one year (2006 using fruit-bait traps, line transect walk-and-counts, and hand nets. A total of 56,315 individuals belonging to 331 species, 95 genera, and 6 families were sampled. The most abundant species was Bicyclus safitza (14.5% followed by Acraea acerata (6.3%, Catopsilia florella (6.5% and Junonia sophia (6.1%. Significant differences in abundance, species richness, and diversity of butterflies occurred between the 26 study sites. Farmland butterflies visited a variety of habitats within and around sites, but important habitats included woodlands, fallows, hedgerows, swampy habitats, abandoned gardens, and home gardens. The highest diversity and abundance of butterflies occurred in sites that contained forest remnants. Thus, forest reserves in the surrounding of fields increased the conservation values of coffee-banana agroforestry systems for butterflies. Their protection from degradation should be a priority for policy makers since they support a species-rich community of butterflies pollinating cultivated plants. Farmers are encouraged to protect and increase on-farm areas covered by complex traditional agroforests, linear, and nonlinear seminatural habitats to provide sufficient breeding sites and nectar resources for butterflies.

  17. The enigmatic nodding syndrome outbreak in northern Uganda: an analysis of the disease burden and national response strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deogratius, Mwaka Amos; David, Kitara Lagoro; Christopher, Orach Garimoi

    2016-04-01

    To date, the cause of nodding syndrome (NS) remains unknown; however, efforts continue to establish risk factors and optimal symptomatic treatments. We documented the burden and national response strategies including involvement of key stakeholders in the management of the NS epidemic in order to inform future interventions against epidemics of undetermined aetiology. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with selected leaders in the affected districts and at the Ministry of Health, and through review of documents. We participated in and analysed the proceedings of the first international scientific conference on NS held in Kampala in August 2012. We then analysed the chronology of the NS notification and the steps undertaken in the response plan. Over 3000 children have been affected by NS in northern Uganda; with an estimated case fatality of 6.7%. The first cases of NS were reported in 1997 in internally displaced people's camps in Kitgum district; however, response efforts by the Ministry of Health and partners towards understanding the disorder and establish management only commenced in 2009. Key strategies in response to the NS epidemic have included formation of a national and district task forces, development of training manual on NS and training of primary healthcare professionals on case diagnosis and clinical management, establishment of treatment and rehabilitation centres, surveillance and promotion of researches to further inform management of the syndrome.

  18. Severe Flooding and Malaria Transmission in the Western Ugandan Highlands: Implications for Disease Control in an Era of Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ross; Reyes, Raquel; Matte, Michael; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Metlay, Joshua P; Band, Lawrence; Siedner, Mark J

    2016-11-01

     There are several mechanisms by which global climate change may impact malaria transmission. We sought to assess how the increased frequency of extreme precipitation events associated with global climate change will influence malaria transmission in highland areas of East Africa.  We used a differences-in-differences, quasi-experimental design to examine spatial variability in the incidence rate of laboratory-confirmed malaria cases and malaria-related hospitalizations between villages (1) at high versus low elevations, (2) with versus without rivers, and (3) upstream versus downstream before and after severe flooding that occurred in Kasese District, Western Region, Uganda, in May 2013.  During the study period, 7596 diagnostic tests were performed, and 1285 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of malaria. We observed that extreme flooding resulted in an increase of approximately 30% in the risk of an individual having a positive result of a malaria diagnostic test in the postflood period in villages bordering a flood-affected river, compared with villages farther from a river, with a larger relative impact on upstream versus downstream villages (adjusted rate ratio, 1.91 vs 1.33).  Extreme precipitation such as the flooding described here may pose significant challenges to malaria control programs and will demand timely responses to mitigate deleterious impacts on human health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Range extension of Malabar Tree Nymph Idea malabarica (Moore (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae to northern Western Ghats of Maharashtra and a review of distribution records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barring a single record of Ghosh et al. (1990 from Raigarh District as a new report for Maharashtra State, no further records of Idea malabarica from any of the districts of Maharashtra, northern Western Ghats is available. The occurrence of Malabar Tree Nymph, an endemic butterfly of southern Western Ghats in the new geographical area is interesting to study. A distribution map for Idea malabarica in Western Ghats is provided based on the published records.

  20. Connections Between Soil Fertility Declines, Land Use, Ethnicity, Education, and Wealth In Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, L. K.; Hartter, J.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Food security issues are particularly acute in Uganda, where the world's 8th highest population growth rate will lead to cultivation of all land available for agriculture by 2022. Agricultural intensification in Uganda, which includes continuous cropping, mono-cropping and expansion of agriculture into marginal areas, has put unprecedented pressure on soils. In western Uganda, we surveyed 474 households, collecting demographic data, information on land use practices and perceptions of risk to crop yields and food security. We also sampled soils from maize fields associated with each surveyed household and measured total organic C and nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Using these data, we sought to determine how risk perceptions, ethnicity, household wealth and education combine to determine land use decisions and ultimately, declines in soil organic matter and soil nutrients. We conducted our study within 5 km of an un-cultivated native tropical forest reserve, Kibale National Park (KNP), which serves as a reference point for potential soil fertility. Of 470 respondents, only 29 answered `no' when asked if they noticed year to year declines in crop yields. Across all maize fields we found soil C has been reduced by 30% and soil N by 45% relative to KNP soils and declines were more pronounced when survey respondents were Bakiga rather than Batooro. Households that indicated they were "very much" dependent upon profits from maize had a 31% increase in soil C:N while those indicating no dependence on maize profits had a significantly lower increase in soil C:N of 21%. Ethnicity and education influenced land use decisions; the Batooro and people with a lower level of education were more likely to burn their fields or crop residues. Additionally, the Bakiga were more likely to use rock P in their fields and in consequence had 108% while Batooro soils had 65% of the P found in KNP soils. Across all respondents, the top two ranked risks to crop yields and