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Sample records for district energy trigeneration

  1. Biomass District Energy Trigeneration Systems: Emissions Reduction and Financial Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, A.; Tolis, A.; Tatsiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass cogeneration is widely used for district heating applications in central and northern Europe. Biomass trigeneration on the other hand, constitutes an innovative renewable energy application. In this work, an approved United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change baseline methodology has been extended to allow the examination of biomass trigeneration applications. The methodology is applied to a case study in Greece to investigate various environmental and financial aspects of this type of applications. The results suggest that trigeneration may lead to significant emissions reduction compared to using fossil fuels or even biomass cogeneration and electricity generation. The emissions reduction achieved may be materialized into a considerable revenue stream for the project, if traded through a trading mechanism such as the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to compensate for the high volatility of the emission allowances' value and the immaturity of the EU Trading Scheme, which prevent a reliable estimation of the related revenue. The work concludes that emission allowances trading may develop into one of the major revenue streams of biomass trigeneration projects, significantly increasing their financial yield and attractiveness. The impact on the yield is significant even for low future values of emission allowances and could become the main income revenue source of such projects, if emission allowances increase their value substantially. The application of trigeneration for district energy proves to lead to increased environmental and financial benefits compared to the cogeneration or electricity generation cases

  2. A hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system combined with pit thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominković, D.F.; Ćosić, B.; Bačelić Medić, Z.; Duić, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid optimization model of biomass trigeneration system with PTES is developed. • Influence of premium feed-in tariffs on trigeneration systems is assessed. • Influence of total system efficiency on biomass trigeneration system with PTES is assessed. • Influence of energy savings on project economy is assessed. - Abstract: This paper provides a solution for managing excess heat production in trigeneration and thus, increases the power plant yearly efficiency. An optimization model for combining biomass trigeneration energy system and pit thermal energy storage has been developed. Furthermore, double piping district heating and cooling network in the residential area without industry consumers was assumed, thus allowing simultaneous flow of the heating and cooling energy. As a consequence, the model is easy to adopt in different regions. Degree-hour method was used for calculation of hourly heating and cooling energy demand. The system covers all the yearly heating and cooling energy needs, while it is assumed that all the electricity can be transferred to the grid due to its renewable origin. The system was modeled in Matlab© on hourly basis and hybrid optimization model was used to maximize the net present value (NPV), which was the objective function of the optimization. Economic figures become favorable if the economy-of-scale of both power plant and pit thermal energy storage can be utilized. The results show that the pit thermal energy storage was an excellent option for storing energy and shaving peaks in energy demand. Finally, possible switch from feed-in tariffs to feed-in premiums was assessed and possible subsidy savings have been calculated. The savings are potentially large and can be used for supporting other renewable energy projects

  3. Investigation of Energy and Environmental Potentials of a Renewable Trigeneration System in a Residential Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chul Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro polygeneration utilizing renewable energy is a suitable approach to reduce energy consumption and carbon emission by offering high-efficiency performance, offsetting the need for centrally-generated grid electricity and avoiding transmission/distribution losses associated with it. This paper investigates the energy and environmental potential of a renewable trigeneration system in a residential application under Incheon (Korea and Ottawa (Canada weather conditions. The trigeneration system consists of a ground-to-air heat exchanger (GAHX, photovoltaic thermal (PVT panels and an air-to-water heat pump (AWHP. The study is performed by simulations in TRNSYS (Version 17.02 environment. The performance of the trigeneration system is compared to a reference conventional system that utilizes a boiler for space and domestic hot water heating and a chiller for space cooling. Simulation results showed substantial annual primary energy savings from the renewable trigeneration system in comparison to the reference system—45% for Incheon and 42% for Ottawa. The CO2eq emission reduction from the renewable trigeneration system is also significant, standing at 43% for Incheon and 82% for Ottawa. Furthermore, trigeneration systems’ capability to generate electricity and thermal energy at the point of use is considered as an attractive option for inclusion in the future smart energy network applications.

  4. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass trigeneration system using an organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hamdullahpur, Feridun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, energy and exergy analyses of a biomass trigeneration system using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are presented. Four cases are considered for analysis: electrical-power, cooling-cogeneration, heating-cogeneration and trigeneration cases. The results obtained reveal that the best performance of the trigeneration system considered can be obtained with the lowest ORC evaporator pinch temperature considered, T pp = 20 K, and the lowest ORC minimum temperature, T 9 = 345 K. In addition, this study reveals that there is a significant improvement when trigeneration is used as compared to only electrical power production. This study demonstrates that the fuel utilization efficiency increases, in average, from 12% for electrical power to 88% for trigeneration. Moreover, the maximum exergy efficiency of the ORC is 13% and, when trigeneration is used, it increases to 28%. Furthermore, this study reveals that the electrical to cooling ratio can be controlled through changing the ORC evaporator pinch point temperature and/or the pump inlet temperature. In addition, the study reveals that the biomass burner and the ORC evaporator are the main two sources of exergy destruction. The biomass burner contributes to 55% of the total destructed exergy whereas the ORC evaporator contributes to 38% of the total destructed exergy. -- Highlights: ► The best performance can be obtained with the lowest ORC evaporator pinch temperature and the lowest ORC minimum temperature. ► There is, on average, 75 % gain in energy efficiency for trigeneration compared to electrical system. ► There is, on average, 17% gain in exergy efficiency when trigeneration is used as compared to electrical system. ► The electrical to cooling ratio is sensitive to the variation of the pinch point temperature and pump inlet temperature. ► The two main sources of the exergy destruction are the biomass burner with 55% and the ORC evaporator with 38%.

  5. Trigeneration primary energy saving evaluation for energy planning and policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2007-01-01

    Trigeneration or combined heat, cooling and power (CHCP) is becoming an increasingly important energy option, particularly on a small-scale basis (below 1 MW e ), with several alternatives nowadays available for the cooling power production and the coupling to cogeneration systems. This paper deals with the introduction of a suitable framework for assessing the energy saving performance of trigeneration alternatives, orientated towards energy planning studies and the development of regulatory policies. In particular, a new generalized performance indicator-the trigeneration primary energy saving (TPES)-is introduced and discussed, with the aim of effectively evaluating the primary energy savings from different CHCP alternatives. The potential of the TPES indicator is illustrated through specific analyses run over different combinations of trigeneration equipment, providing numerical examples based on time-domain simulations to illustrate the dependence of the energy saving characteristics on the CHCP system configurations and equipment, as well as on the loading levels. In addition, the key aspect of adequately establishing the reference efficiencies for the conventional separate production of electrical, thermal and cooling power is addressed in detail. This aspect affects both equipment selection and potential profitability of the considered solutions under the outlook of receiving financial incentives

  6. Analysis of a feasible trigeneration system taking solar energy and biomass as co-feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Hongqiang; Liu, Lifang; Zeng, Rong; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A feasible trigeneration system is proposed to generate power, heating and cooling. • The steam for biomass gasification process is provided by solar energy. • The thermodynamic properties of the proposed system are investigated. • Effects of ER and SBR on gasification process is presented. • The sensitivity of the economic performance of trigeneration system is evaluated. - Abstract: The trigeneration systems are widely used owing to high efficiency, low greenhouse gas emission and high reliability. Especially, those trigeneration systems taking renewable energy as primary input are paid more and more attention. This paper presents a feasible trigeneration system, which realizes biomass and solar energy integrating effective utilization according to energy cascade utilization and energy level upgrading of chemical reaction principle. In the proposed system, the solar energy with mid-and-low temperature converted to the chemical energy of bio-gas through gasification process, then the bio-gas will be taken as the fuel for internal combustion engine (ICE) to generate electricity. The jacket water as a byproduct generated from ICE is utilized in a liquid desiccant unit for providing desiccant capacity. The flue gas is transported into an absorption chiller and heat exchanger consequently, supplying chilled water and domestic hot water. The thermodynamic performance of the trigeneration system was investigated by the help of Aspen plus. The results indicate that the overall energy efficiency and the electrical efficiency of the proposed system in case study are 77.4% and 17.8%, respectively. The introduction of solar energy decreases the consumption of biomass, and the solar thermal energy input fraction is 8.6%. In addition, the primary energy saving ratio and annual total cost saving ratio compared with the separated generation system are 16.7% and 25.9%, respectively.

  7. Impact of Fluctuating Energy Prices on the Operation Strategy of a Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Balić

    2015-09-01

    The optimization method is based on two criteria – energy and economic criterion, which were applied hierarchically. Therefore, two optimal operation strategies are introduced. A mixed integer non-linear programming model provides energy and cost savings up to 32% and 28% respectively in comparison with conventional system. In addition, optimal capacity of trigeneration system is explored.

  8. Utilizing primary energy savings and exergy destruction to compare centralized thermal plants and cogeneration/trigeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espirito Santo, Denilson Boschiero do; Gallo, Waldyr Luiz Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Rising energy conversion processes efficiencies reduces CO_2 emissions and global warming implications. Decentralized electricity production through cogeneration/trigeneration systems can save primary energy if it operates with high efficiency. High efficiency is obtained when the system produces electricity and a substantial amount of the energy rejected by the prime mover is used to meet site thermal demands. Environmental concerns and international agreements are directing governments of different countries to incentive high efficiency solutions. Centralized thermal plants and cogeneration/trigeneration efficiency are compared through efficiency indicators using the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics. This paper proposes the use of the primary energy savings analysis and the exergy destruction analysis to compare decentralized power production through cogeneration/trigeneration systems and centralized thermal plants. The analysis concluded that both methods achieve the same results if the thermal efficiency indicator is used to compare the methods. The analysis also revealed that trigeneration systems with the same energy input are comparable with quite different thermal efficiency centralized thermal plants. Case 1 is comparable to a 53% thermal efficiency power plant and case 2 is comparable to a 77% thermal efficiency power plant. - Highlights: • Trigeneration and thermal plants are compared using PES and exergy destruction. • The thermal efficiency indicator is used to compare both methods. • The same equivalent thermal efficiency is achieved by both methods. • Same energy input trigeneration is similar to different thermal efficiency plants. • Evaluated trigeneration are comparable to a 53–77% thermal efficiency power plant.

  9. Energy and environmental evaluation of tri-generation energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, G.; Mancarella, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tri generation facilities manufactured with various technologies represent an important alternative solution for the development more efficient energy systems and low environmental impact. Are described the issues related to modelling and energy and environmental evaluation [it

  10. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  11. Performance comparison of three trigeneration systems using organic rankine cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Hamdullahpur, Feridun; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, energetic performance comparison of three trigeneration systems is presented. The systems considered are SOFC-trigeneration, biomass-trigeneration, and solar-trigeneration systems. This study compares the performance of the systems considered when there is only electrical power and the efficiency improvement of these systems when there is trigeneration. Different key output parameters are examined: energy efficiency, net electrical power, electrical to heating and cooling ratios, and (GHG) GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. This study shows that the SOFC-trigeneration system has the highest electrical efficiency among the three systems. Alternatively, when trigeneration is used, the efficiencies of all three systems considered increase considerably. The maximum trigeneration efficiency of the SOFC-trigeneration system is around 76% while it is around 90% for the biomass-trigeneration system. On the other hand, the maximum trigeneration efficiencies of the solar-trigeneration system is around 90% for the solar mode, 45% for storage and storage mode, and 41% for the storage mode. In addition, this study shows that the emissions of CO 2 in kg per MWh of electrical power are high for the biomass-trigeneration and SOFC-trigeneration systems. However, by considering the emissions per MWh of trigeneration, their values drop to less than one fourth. -- Highlights: → We have compared the energetic performance of three potential trigeneration systems. → These systems are SOFC, biomass, and solar-trigeneration systems. → The SOFC-trigeneration system has the highest electrical efficiency. → The trigeneration efficiencies of the biomass-trigeneration system and solar mode of the solar-trigeneration system are the highest. → The CO 2 emissions per MWh of combined cooling, heating, and power production drop significantly when trigeneration is used.

  12. Modelling and analysis of a novel compressed air energy storage system for trigeneration based on electrical energy peak load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Song; He, Wei; Zhang, Aifeng; Li, Guiqiang; Luo, Bingqing; Liu, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new CAES system for trigeneration based on electrical peak load shifting is proposed. • The theoretical models and the thermodynamics process are established and analyzed. • The relevant parameters influencing its performance have been discussed and optimized. • A novel energy and economic evaluation methods is proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. - Abstract: The compressed air energy storage (CAES) has made great contribution to both electricity and renewable energy. In the pursuit of reduced energy consumption and relieving power utility pressure effectively, a novel trigeneration system based on CAES for cooling, heating and electricity generation by electrical energy peak load shifting is proposed in this paper. The cooling power is generated by the direct expansion of compressed air, and the heating power is recovered in the process of compression and storage. Based on the working principle of the typical CAES, the theoretical analysis of the thermodynamic system models are established and the characteristics of the system are analyzed. A novel method used to evaluate energy and economic performance is proposed. A case study is conducted, and the economic-social and technical feasibility of the proposed system are discussed. The results show that the trigeneration system works efficiently at relatively low pressure, and the efficiency is expected to reach about 76.3% when air is compressed and released by 15 bar. The annual monetary cost saving annually is about 53.9%. Moreover, general considerations about the proposed system are also presented.

  13. Location Optimization for Biomass Trigeneration System with Pit Thermal Energy Storage: the Case of the City of Petrinja

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ćosić, B.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ban, M.

    2015-01-01

    The combined production of electricity, heat and cold in biomass trigeneration power plants integrated with seasonal pit thermal energy storage ensures maximum utilization of biomass resources and at the same time reduction of variable operation costs of the system. Beside optimal size of trigene...

  14. Energy and environmental assessment of integrated biogas trigeneration and photovoltaic plant as more sustainable industrial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, Wiesław; Stanek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas cooling, heating and power and photovoltaic systems were studied. • Biogas and solar energy for production of energy carriers were used. • Primary energy savings for trigeneration and photovoltaic plants were examined. • Reduction of CO_2 emission were estimated. - Abstract: The biogas fired tri-generation system for cooling, heating and electricity generation (BCCHP + PV) supported by a photovoltaic system (PV) is discussed and analyzed from energetic and ecological effectiveness point of view. Analyzed system is based on the internal combustion engine and the adsorption machine. For the evaluation of primary energy savings in the BCCHP aided by PV system, the indicators of the total primary energy savings (TPES) and relative primary energy savings ΔPES were defined. Also an analysis is carried out of the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. In the ecological potential evaluation, the environmental impact as an indicator of the total greenhouse gasses reduction (TGHGR) is taken into account. The presented detailed algorithm for the evaluation of the multigeneration system in the global balance boundary can be applied for the analysis of energy effects (consumption of primary energy) as well as ecological effect (emission of greenhouse gasses) for real data (e.g. hour by hour through the year of operation) taking into account random availability of renewable energy. It allows to take into account a very important factor characterized for renewable energy systems (RES) which is the variability or random availability (e.g. in the case of photovoltaic – PV) of primary energy. Particularly in the presented work the effects of the analysis and the application of the discusses algorithms have been demonstrated for the hour-by-hour availability of solar radiation and for the daily changing availability of chemical energy of biogas. Additionally, the energy and ecological evaluation algorithms have been integrated with the methods offered

  15. Tri-generation in urban networks; Trigeneration en reseau urbain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malahieude, J.M. [Trigen Energy Corp., New-York (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The concepts of tri-generation (simultaneous production of heat, electric power and refrigerating energy) and thermal energy distribution networks, are presented. The different components of the tri-generation system from Trigen Energy Corp. are ammonia as a refrigerant for the production of cooled water, screw compressors, gas turbines and an induction motor-generator in order to optimize the combined gas turbine and compressor utilization. The energy efficiency and pollution reduction of the system are evaluated; the system has been enhanced through re-powering and post combustion

  16. Energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, F.A.; Dincer, I.; Hamdullahpur, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, energy analysis of a trigeneration plant based on Solid Oxide Fuel cell (SOFC) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is carried out. The physical and thermodynamic elements of the plant include a SOFC, ORC, a heating process and a single-effect absorption chiller. The waste heat from the SOFC is used as an input heat to the ORC. In turn, the waste heat from the ORC is used to heat the inlet water, and to provide the heat needed for the single-effect absorption chiller. The results obtained from this study show that the highest cycle efficiency that can be attained under the proposed scheme is 48% and the highest SOFC efficiency is 43%. Furthermore, it is found that the highest net work rate is 435 kW and the highest SOFC-AC work rate is 337 kW. At a current density higher than 0.87 A/cm 2 , the SOFC and cycle efficiencies drop abruptly because of the sharp increase in the voltage losses of the SOFC. At a current density of 0.75 A/cm 2 , the highest SOFC efficiency of 41% is obtained at the inlet fuel cell temperature of 890 K. The change in the inlet pressure of the turbine has insignificant effect on the efficiencies of the ORC and overall cycle. The study shows the effect of both the current density and the inlet fuel cell temperature on the cell voltage and voltage loss. (author)

  17. TRIGENERATION - A highly energy efficient source for heating, domestic hot water preparation, electricity and air cooling systems for tertiary sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuta, Mariana; Ghitulescu, Mircea; Nicolau, Irina; Athanasovici, Cristian; Constantin, Cristinel; Ivan, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The general concerns relating to sustainable energy development have led to the implementation of certain solutions at the international level that have increased both energy generation and energy consuming processes efficiency. In our country the first steps in this direction have been carried out by the private companies that, after having analyzed the income increase and costs diminishing, have come to the conclusion that a reliable way to save money would be the rational use of the energy resources for utilities. A favorable consequence was the synergetic effect of the measures meant to increase energy efficiency for the energy generation and consumption processes that are also accompanied by benefit effects on the environmental impact by reduction CO 2 emissions. One of the solutions making the utmost of primary energy is the combined heat and power production (co-generation) that has significantly developed in our country within the energy sector as a whole. Co-generation may be considered environmentally friendly because it saves fuel on the one hand and, technologically, generates less emissions as compared to the separate generation of heat and power, on the other hand. The most favorable applications of co-generation at a medium and small scale are in the tertiary sector (hotels, hospitals, and office buildings) where heat consumption is usually high enough and is accompanied by relatively constant electricity consumption. By corroborating the above mentioned facts relating to local cogeneration installation utilization with those relating to the increased need for cooling in the tertiary buildings, a concept named 'TRI-GENERATION' in specialized literature has occurred, representing, in fact, utilization of cogeneration installations for supplying energy to the electricity, heat and cold consumer. Thus, the cogeneration installation utilization time will be practically prolonged over the entire duration of a year a fact that has extremely favorable

  18. A trigeneration system based on polymer electrolyte fuel cell and desiccant wheel – Part B: Overall system design and energy performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intini, M.; De Antonellis, S.; Joppolo, C.M.; Casalegno, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seasonal simulation of a trigeneration system for building air-conditioning. • Effects of technical constraints on trigeneration system power consumption. • Optimal PEMFC unit size for maximizing trigeneration primary energy savings. - Abstract: This paper represents the second part of a major work focusing on a trigeneration system integrating a low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEMFC) and a desiccant wheel-based air handling unit. Low temperature PEMFC systems have a significant potential in combined heating, cooling and power applications. However cogenerated heat temperature is relatively low (up to 65–70 °C), resulting in low efficiency of the cooling process, and the fuel processor is far from being flexible, hindering the operation of the system at low load conditions. Therefore a trigeneration system based on PEMFC should be carefully designed through accurate simulation tools. In the current paper a detailed analysis of the energy performance of the trigenerative system is provided, taking into account constraints of real applications, such as PEMFC part load behavior, desiccant wheel effectiveness, heat storage losses and air handling unit electrical consumptions. The methodology adopted to model system components is deeply described. Energy simulations are performed on yearly basis with variable building air conditioning loads and climate conditions, in order to investigate the optimal trigenerative unit size. A sensitivity analysis on crucial design parameters is provided. It is shown that constrains of actual applications have relevant effects on system energy consumption, which is significantly far from expected values based on a simplified analysis. Primary energy savings can be positive in winter time if the ratio of PEMFC heating capacity to air conditioning peak heating load is close to 0.15. Instead on yearly basis primary energy savings cannot be achieved with present components performance. Positive savings

  19. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  20. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-04

    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  1. Trigeneration Possibilities of Implementation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    1999-01-01

    Optimum distribution of energy supply systems can result in large savings in industrial facilities and production devices. Identifying the configuration of existing equipment and its loading, in order to minimize total energy consumption and at the same time satisfy given load demands, has very high payback potential. This paper presents the principle of trigeneration, the technology that can offer a highly efficient way of converting primary fuel (gas, oil) into useful energy as electricity, heat and chilled water simultaneously. It explains different factors that must be considered for such systems to be economically feasible. Some examples of industrial trigeneration systems are analysed and discussed to illustrate the application. Also the possibility of implementation of trigeneration at CERN is discussed, taking into account the existing cogeneration system, power supply structure, secondary energy demands, as well as future developments in our energy policy.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel tri-generation system based on compressed air energy storage and pneumatic motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Based on CAES (compressed air energy storage) and PM (pneumatic motor), a novel tri-generation system (heat energy, mechanical energy and cooling power) is proposed in this paper. Both the cheap electricity generated at night and the excess power from undelivered renewable energy due to instability, can be stored as compressed air and hot water by the proposed system. When energy is in great demand, the compressed air stored in this system is released to drive PM to generate mechanical power. The discharged air from PM can be further utilized as valuable cooling power. Compared to conventional CAES systems, the biggest characteristic of the proposed system is that the discharged air usually abandoned is used as cooling power. In order to study the performances of this system, a thermodynamic analysis and an experimental investigation are carried out. The thermodynamic model is validated by the experimental data. Using the validated thermodynamic model, the mechanical energy output, cooling capacity and temperature of discharged air, as well as the efficiency of the system are analyzed. The theoretical analysis indicates that the additional application of discharged air can improve total energy efficiency by 20–30%. Therefore, this system is very worthy of consideration and being popularized. - Highlights: • The proposed system can provide mechanical energy, heat energy and cooling power. • The exhaust air of pneumatic motor is used as cooling power instead of abandoned. • A thermodynamic model of the proposed system is constructed and validated. • The effects of several parameters on system performance are examined. • The proposed system can improve total energy efficiency of CAES system by 20–30%.

  3. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

  4. An application of trigeneration and its economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temir, Galip; Bilge, Durriye; Emanet, Ozlem [Yildiz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-07-15

    Trigeneration can be described as the production of three different forms of energy - power, heat, and coldness together. Trigeneration increases the productivity and the services provided by cogeneration installations. Consequently, the production costs of the systems related with energy consumption become lower. For this purpose, a trigeneration application has been carried out based on the data of a currently active insulated pipe production plant situated in Istanbul, Turkey. In the feasibility study made after calculations, the profitability and payback period have been calculated. (Author)

  5. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  6. Tri-generation nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Sydney and Melbourne councils are looking to outperform each other with ambitious greenhouse and energy efficiency initiatives. Sydney wants to cut CO_2 by 70 per cent by 2030, while Melbourne's 1200 Buildings retrofit project speaks for itself. One key technology both councils are tapping is trigeneration, which generates electricity, heating and cooling from local gas-fired power units. From a physics perspective, a combustion process cannot be more than 30 per cent efficient, so capturing and using the waste heat can lead to great savings. Sydney Lord Mayor Clover Moore said a third of the council's carbon reduction goal of 3.9Mt a year by 2030 will come from tri-gen. Melbourne is aiming to achieve zero net emissions by 2020, which means eliminating 5.8Mt of CO_2, a lot of it through tri-gen. It has already seen a surge among landlords. GPT, Stockland and Mirvac have all stuck tri-gen units in Sydney office developments, while newly carbon- neutral NAB has installed the technology on its data centre in Melbourne and expects to save 20,000 tonnes of CO_2 a year. But one expert, while welcoming the spike in popularity, says there are traps for the unwary. Johnson Controls' Peter Moser sees two core drivers for its uptake. “First is the prominence of GreenStar and NABERS. Many companies will move to tri-gen as they will want the extra points or stars,” he told WME. “Secondly, there is the continuous increase in the price of energy. At the same time there may be an [emissions trading scheme] or a carbon price introduced, and that puts pressure on the consumer. Combining those two scenarios will see more people adopt tri-gen because it will become more economically viable and the payback periods of tri-gen will come down considerably.” But he points to the importance of pre-planning when considering tri-gen, warning. “To put tri-gen into a building, let alone retrofit a whole city and make it work, you need highly complex teams working together

  7. Experimental investigation of thermal storage integrated micro trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johar, Dheeraj Kishor; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Goyal, Rahul; Gupta, Pradeep K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy Storage System is integrated with Micro trigeneration system. • Erythritol is used as Phase Change Material. • Maximum energy saved is 15.30%. • Combined systems are feasible to increase energy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study a 4.4 kW stationary compression ignition engine is coupled with a double pipe heat exchanger, vapour absorption refrigeration system and thermal energy storage system to achieve Trigeneration i.e. power, heating and cooling. A shell and tube type heat exchanger filled with erythritol is used to store thermal energy of engine exhaust. Various combinations of thermal energy storage system integrated micro-trigeneration were investigated and results related to performance and emissions are reported in this paper. The test results show that micro capacity (4.4 kW) stationary single cylinder diesel engine can be successfully modified to simultaneously produce power, heating and cooling and also store thermal energy.

  8. Trigeneration in waste to energy plants for expanding the efficiency; Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen zur erweiterten Energieeffizienzsteigerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reil, Eberhard [Fernwaerme Wien GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    An impressive metamorphosis changed Waste to Energy plants from originally environmental risky plants to high sophisticated end of pipe technology sites to finally high efficient Energy production plants. Such described plants are situated in urban places to aware the connections into efficient power grids and district heating networks to provide the base load the whole year round. Nowadays the request for cooling is steady rising and again Waste to energy plants, connected to a district cooling network, takes over an important role for the supply. Such concepts are only marketable, if the required criteria's for efficiency are fulfilled. Such criteria's within Europe are the greenhouse gas emission factor and the primary energy factor. Both proof the efficiency of a system according to sustainability and environmental acceptance. Such criteria's are the result of the EU target to enhance the renewable within the energy supply while a more efficient use of site energy should take place. The Vienna Model was chosen as best practice sample. The district heating network is connected to all Waste to energy plants as well to the gas fired CHP plants in Vienna. The peak demand for the supply is realized by gas fired hot water boilers. In 2006 Fernwaerme Wien started to set up a district cooling network. The base load for the cooling derives from absorption chillers driven by heat from the waste to energy plants. According the EN standard 15316 part 4 and 5, method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies, the primary energy factor and CO2 factor has been defined for the Vienna model and as a consequence of that also for the waste to energy plant Pfaffenau. The average primary energy factor of the Vienna model calculated for the years 2006 to 2008 is 0,21 for the renewable part. According to the result the savings on primary energy have been 42 % and equates to 6,9 TWh/a. The reduc tion of the greenhouse gas emissions has been

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted multi-functional trigeneration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder KIZILKAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, modelling and thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted trigeneration system was carried out. The required thermal energy for gas and vapor cycles were supplied from solar tower which is a new concept for gas cycle applications. Additionally, an absorption refrigeration cycle, vapor production process, drying process and water heating process were integrated to the system. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the trigeneration system were determined by the application of first and second law analyses. The results showed that the gas cycle efficiency was found to be 31%, vapor cycle efficiency was found to be 28% and coefficient of performance (COP values of the refrigeration system was found to be 0.77. Also the highest exergy destruction rate was found to be 4154 kW in solar tower.Keywords: Solar tower, Trigeneration, Gas cycle, Vapor cycle, Energy, Exergy

  10. Lagrangian relaxation based algorithm for trigeneration planning with storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, Risto; Luh, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of three energy commodities follows a joint characteristic. This paper presents a Lagrangian relaxation (LR) based algorithm for trigeneration planning with storages based on deflected subgradient optimization method. The trigeneration planning problem is modeled as a linear programming (LP) problem...... an effective method for the long-term planning problem based on the proper strategy to form Lagrangian subproblems and solve the Lagrangian dual (LD) problem based on deflected subgradient optimization method. We also develop a heuristic for restoring feasibility from the LD solution. Numerical results based...

  11. Assessment of a novel solid oxide fuel cell tri-generation system for building applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, Theo; Worall, Mark; Wu, Shenyi; Riffat, Saffa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental assessment of a first-of-its-kind tri-generation system. • High tri-generation efficiencies of 68–71%. • Inclusion of liquid desiccant provides efficiency increase of 9–15%. • System only economically viable with a government’s financial support. - Abstract: The paper provides a performance analysis assessment of a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) liquid desiccant tri-generation system for building applications. The work presented serves to build upon the current literature related to experimental evaluations of SOFC tri-generation systems, particularly in domestic built environment applications. The proposed SOFC liquid desiccant tri-generation system will be the first-of-its-kind. No research activity is reported on the integration of SOFC, or any fuel cell, with liquid desiccant air conditioning in a tri-generation system configuration. The novel tri-generation system is suited to applications that require simultaneous electrical power, heating and dehumidification/cooling. There are several specific benefits to the integration of SOFC and liquid desiccant air conditioning technology, including; very high operational electrical efficiencies even at low system capacities and the ability to utilise low-grade thermal energy in a (useful) cooling process. Furthermore, the novel tri-generation system has the potential to increase thermal energy utilisation and thus the access to the benefits achievable from on-site electrical generation, primarily; reduced emissions and operating costs. Using empirical SOFC and liquid desiccant component data, an energetic, economic and environmental performance analysis assessment of the novel system is presented. Significant conclusions from the work include: (1) SOFC and liquid desiccant are a viable technological pairing in the development of an efficient and effective tri-generation system. High tri-generation efficiencies in the range of 68–71% are attainable. (2) The inclusion of

  12. An investigation of a household size trigeneration running with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaodong; Huang, Ye; Chiremba, Elijah; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Hewitt, Neil; Ding, Yulong; Wu, Dawei; Yu, Hongdong; Chen, Xiangping; Li, Yapeng; Huang, Jincheng; Wang, Ruzhu; Wu, Jingyi; Xia, Zaizhong; Tan, Chunqing

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the performance and emission characteristics of a household size trigeneration based on a diesel engine generator fuelled with hydrogen comparing to that of single generation, cogeneration using ECLIPSE simulation software. In single generation simulation, the engine genset is used to produce electricity only and the heat from the engine is rejected to the atmosphere. In cogeneration and trigeneration, in addition to the electricity generated from the genset, the waste heat rejected from the hot exhaust gases and engine cooling system, is captured for domestic hot water supply using heat exchangers and hot water tank; and a part of the waste heat is used to drive absorption cooling in trigeneration. Comparisons have been made for the simulated results of these three modes of operation for hydrogen and diesel. The results prove that hydrogen is a potential energy vector in the future which is a key to meeting upcoming stringent greenhouse gases emissions. The study show that hydrogen has very good prospects to achieve a better or equal performance to conventional diesel fuel in terms of energetic performance, and a near zero carbon emission, depending on the life cycle analysis of the way the hydrogen is produced. The results also show enormous potential fuel savings and massive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions per unit of useful energy outputs with cogeneration and trigeneration compared with that of single generation.

  13. Thermodynamic performance analysis of a fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with solar-assisted methanol reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangjiang; Wu, Jing; Xu, Zilong; Li, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose a fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with solar-assisted methanol reforming. • Optimize the reaction parameters of methanol steam reforming. • Present the energy and exergy analysis under design and off-design work conditions. • Analyze the contributions of solar energy to the trigeneration system. - Abstract: A solar-assisted trigeneration system for producing electricity, cooling, and heating simultaneously is an alternative scheme to improve energy efficiency and boost renewable energy. This paper proposes a phosphoric acid fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with methanol and steam reforming assisted by solar thermal energy. The trigeneration system consists of a solar heat collection subsystem, methanol steam reforming subsystem, fuel cell power generation subsystem, and recovered heat utilization subsystem. Their respective thermodynamic models are constructed to simulate the system input/output characteristics, and energy and exergy efficiencies are employed to evaluate the system thermodynamic performances. The contribution of solar energy to the system is analyzed using solar energy/exergy share. Through the simulation and analysis of methanol and steam reforming reactions, the optimal reaction pressure, temperature, and methanol to water ratio are obtained to improve the flow rate and content of produced hydrogen. The thermodynamic simulations of the trigeneration system show that the system energy efficiencies at the summer and winter design work conditions are 73.7% and 51.7%, while its exergy efficiencies are 18.8% and 26.1%, respectively. When the solar radiation intensity is different from the design work condition, the total energy and exergy efficiencies in winter decrease approximately by 4.7% and 2.2%, respectively, due to the decrease in solar heat collection efficiency. This proposed novel trigeneration system complemented by solar heat energy and methanol chemical energy is favorable for improving the

  14. Performance evaluation of integrated trigeneration and CO2 refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suamir, IN.; Tassou, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Food retailing is one of the most energy intensive sectors of the food cold chain. Its environmental impacts are significant not only because of the indirect effect from CO 2 emissions at the power stations but also due to the direct effect arising from refrigerant leakage to the atmosphere. The overall energy efficiency of supermarkets can be increased by integrating the operation of CO 2 refrigeration and trigeneration systems. This paper compares three alternative schemes in a medium size supermarket. Experimental results and simulation studies have shown that the best scheme for energy and GHG emissions savings is the one where the cooling produced by the trigeneration system is used to condense the CO 2 fluid in the refrigeration system to ensure subcritical operation throughout the year. It is shown that this system can produce 30% energy savings and over 40% greenhouse gas emissions savings over conventional refrigeration and indoor environment control systems in supermarkets.

  15. Greenhouse gas emission and exergy analyses of an integrated trigeneration system driven by a solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitsaz, Ata; Mahmoudi, S. Mohammad S.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Exergy and greenhouse gas emission analyses are performed for a novel trigeneration system driven by a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The trigeneration system also consists of a generator-absorber heat exchanger (GAX) absorption refrigeration system and a heat exchanger to produce electrical energy, cooling and heating, respectively. Four operating cases are considered: electrical power generation, electrical power and cooling cogeneration, electrical power and heating cogeneration, and trigeneration. Attention is paid to numerous system and environmental performance parameters, namely, exergy efficiency, exergy destruction rate, and greenhouse gas emissions. A maximum enhancement of 46% is achieved in the exergy efficiency when the SOFC is used as the primary mover for the trigeneration system compared to the case when the SOFC is used as a standalone unit. The main sources of irreversibility are observed to be the air heat exchanger, the SOFC and the afterburner. The unit CO 2 emission (in kg/MWh) is considerably higher for the case in which only electrical power is generated. This parameter is reduced by half when the system is operates in a trigeneration mode. - Highlights: • A novel trigeneration system driven by a solid oxide fuel cell is analyzed. • Exergy and greenhouse gas emission analyses are performed. • Four special cases are considered. • An enhancement of up to 46% is achieved in exergy efficiency. • The CO 2 emission drops to a relatively low value for the tri-generation case

  16. Industrial trigeneration using ammonia-water absorption refrigeration systems (AAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, Piero; Gabrielli, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    In many industrial processes there is a simultaneous need for electric power and refrigeration at low temperatures. Examples are in the food and chemical industries. Nowadays the increase in fuel prices and the ecological implications are giving an impulse to energy technologies that better exploit the primary energy source and integrated production of utilities should be considered when designing a new production plant. The number of so-called trigeneration systems installations (electric generator and absorption refrigeration plant) is increasing. If low temperature refrigeration is needed (from 0 to -40 deg. C), ammonia-water absorption refrigeration plants can be coupled to internal combustion engines or turbogenerators. A thermodynamic system study of trigeneration configurations using a commercial software integrated with specifically designed modules is presented. The study analyzes and compares heat recovery from the primary mover at different temperature levels. In the last section a simplified economic assessment that takes into account disparate prices in European countries compares conventional electric energy supply from the grid and optimized trigeneration plants in one test case (10 MW electric power, 7000 h/year)

  17. Trigeneration: A new way for landfill gas utilization and its feasibility in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaoli; Yang Hongxing; Zhang Guoqiang

    2008-01-01

    Application of landfill gas (LFG) means a synergy between environmental protection and energy production. This paper presents a review of the status of LFG application. To more efficiently utilize the LFG in Hong Kong, a trigeneration scheme is proposed as a new way of LFG utilization. The feasibility of LFG trigeneration in Hong Kong is evaluated from the views of primary energy-saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction as well as economic benefit. The proposed scenario is compared with the conventional scenarios of LFG treatment and utilization. It is shown that LFG for trigeneration has a higher energy saving and GHG emission reduction potentials. The new scheme is also more economical than the conventional way of LFG utilization. Some policy recommendations are also given to promote the biomass energy utilization from waste landfills in Hong Kong

  18. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, B.; Bauer, A.; Kraut, G.; Scherberich, F.D.

    1975-08-01

    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.) [de

  19. Ontario Power Authority district energy research report : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    This paper presented an analysis of the technical and economic characteristics of district energy in Ontario. The market context for district energy was evaluated, and institutional issues that may influence the future development and operation of district energy systems in Ontario were explored. Technical, economic, and environmental analyses of district energy based on different neighbourhood sizes, types, and district energy systems were presented. Three case studies were included to demonstrate real world district energy applications. A set of interviews conducted with representatives of the province's district energy supply chain was also provided in order to provide a framework for district energy opportunities and challenges within the province. 22 tabs., 16 figs.

  20. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  1. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  2. Review of tri-generation technologies: Design evaluation, optimization, decision-making, and selection approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Moussawi, Houssein; Fardoun, Farouk; Louahlia-Gualous, Hasna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Trigeneration technologies classified and reviewed according to prime movers. • Relevant heat recovery equipment discussed with thermal energy storage. • Trigeneration evaluated based on energy, exergy, economy, environment criteria. • Design, optimization, and decision-making methods classified and presented. • System selection suggested according to user preferences. - Abstract: Electricity, heating, and cooling are the three main components constituting the tripod of energy consumption in residential, commercial, and public buildings all around the world. Their separate generation causes higher fuel consumption, at a time where energy demands and fuel costs are continuously rising. Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) or trigeneration could be a solution for such challenge yielding an efficient, reliable, flexible, competitive, and less pollutant alternative. A variety of trigeneration technologies are available and their proper choice is influenced by the employed energy system conditions and preferences. In this paper, different types of trigeneration systems are classified according to the prime mover, size and energy sequence usage. A leveled selection procedure is subsequently listed in the consecutive sections. The first level contains the applied prime mover technologies which are considered to be the heart of any CCHP system. The second level comprises the heat recovery equipment (heating and cooling) of which suitable selection should be compatible with the used prime mover. The third level includes the thermal energy storage system and heat transfer fluid to be employed. For each section of the paper, a survey of conducted studies with CHP/CCHP implementation is presented. A comprehensive table of evaluation criteria for such systems based on energy, exergy, economy, and environment measures is performed, along with a survey of the methods used in their design, optimization, and decision-making. Moreover, a classification

  3. Trigeneration in food retail: An energetic, economic and environmental evaluation for a supermarket application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiartha, N.; Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Marriott, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results on the evaluation of energy utilisation efficiency and economic and environmental performance of a micro-gas turbine (MGT) based trigeneration system for supermarket applications. A spreadsheet energy model has been developed for the analysis of trigeneration systems and a 2800 m 2 sales area supermarket was selected for the feasibility study. Historical energy demand data were used for the analysis, which considered factors such as the fraction of the heat output used to drive the absorption chillers, the chiller COP and the difference between electricity and gas prices. The results showed that energy and environmental benefits can be obtained from the application of trigeneration systems to supermarkets compared to conventional systems. The payback period of natural gas driven trigeneration systems and greenhouse gas emissions savings will depend on the relative gas and electricity prices and the COP of the vapour compression and absorption systems. It was also shown that operation at full electrical output gives a better performance than a heat load-following strategy due to the reduction of the electrical generation efficiency of the MGT unit at part load conditions.

  4. Operational strategy and marginal costs in simple trigeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, M.A.; Carvalho, M.; Serra, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    As a direct result of economic pressures to cut expenses, as well as the legal obligation to reduce emissions, companies and businesses are seeking ways to use energy more efficiently. Trigeneration systems (CHCP: Combined Heating, Cooling and Power generation) allow greater operational flexibility at sites with a variable demand for energy in the form of heating and cooling. This is particularly relevant in buildings where the need for heating is restricted to a few winter months. In summer, the absorption chillers make use of the cogenerated heat to produce chilled water, avoiding waste heat discharge. The operation of a simple trigeneration system is analyzed in this paper. The system is interconnected to the electric utility grid, both to receive electricity and to deliver surplus electricity. For any given demand required by the users, a great number of operating conditions are possible. A linear programming model provides the operational mode with the lowest variable cost. A thermoeconomic analysis, based on marginal production costs, is used to obtain unit costs for internal energy flows and final products as well as to explain the best operational strategy as a function of the demand for energy services and the prices of the resources consumed. (author)

  5. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a new compact trigeneration system run with liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proenza Pérez, Nestor; Titosse Sadamitsu, Marlene; Luz Silveira, Jose; Santana Antunes, Julio; Eduardo Tuna, Celso; Erazo Valle, Atilio; Faria Silva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to analyze the quantity and quality of energy in a small compact trigeneration system. This combined cycle is composed of a little reciprocating ICE model GM, 1.0 CORSA (internal combustion engine), using LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as fuel, HE1 and HE2 (two heat exchangers) and an AM (absorption machine) using ammonia–water as working fluid mixture. The mass and energy balance equations of the engine and subsystems are reviewed in detail. Exergy of each involved stream is calculated and the exergetic balance of each subsystem is presented, as well as the global system, identifying where and why losses and irreversibilities occurs. Efficiencies based on the second law of thermodynamics are calculated for each subsystem and compared. Special attention is given to identification and quantification of second law efficiencies and the irreversibilities of various processes and subsystems. The determination of the irreversibilities in each subsystem is particularly important since they are not identified in traditional first law analysis. Furthermore, this study revealed that the combustion was the most important contributor to the system inefficiency representing 36.0% of the total exergy input and 73% of the total exergy destruction. The exergetic efficiency of the trigeneration system is determined to be 51.19%. - Highlights: • The energetic and exergetic performance of trigeneration system was studied. • The engine is the main exergetic destruction equipment. • The exergetic efficiency of the trigeneration system was 51.19%.

  6. EABOT - Energetic analysis as a basis for robust optimization of trigeneration systems by linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Cardona, F.

    2008-01-01

    The optimization of synthesis, design and operation in trigeneration systems for building applications is a quite complex task, due to the high number of decision variables, the presence of irregular heat, cooling and electric load profiles and the variable electricity price. Consequently, computer-aided techniques are usually adopted to achieve the optimal solution, based either on iterative techniques, linear or non-linear programming or evolutionary search. Large efforts have been made in improving algorithm efficiency, which have resulted in an increasingly rapid convergence to the optimal solution and in reduced calculation time; robust algorithm have also been formulated, assuming stochastic behaviour for energy loads and prices. This paper is based on the assumption that margins for improvements in the optimization of trigeneration systems still exist, which require an in-depth understanding of plant's energetic behaviour. Robustness in the optimization of trigeneration systems has more to do with a 'correct and comprehensive' than with an 'efficient' modelling, being larger efforts required to energy specialists rather than to experts in efficient algorithms. With reference to a mixed integer linear programming model implemented in MatLab for a trigeneration system including a pressurized (medium temperature) heat storage, the relevant contribute of thermoeconomics and energo-environmental analysis in the phase of mathematical modelling and code testing are shown

  7. Exergetic Analysis of an Integrated Tri-Generation Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratha Z. Mathkor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output of the system that comprised a parabolic trough collector (PTC, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC, single-effect desalination (SED, and single effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (ACH was electrical power, distilled water, and refrigerant load. The electrical power was produced by the ORC which used cyclopentane as working fluid and Therminol VP-1 was specified as the heat transfer oil (HTO in the collectors with thermal storage. The absorption chiller and the desalination unit were utilize the waste heat exiting from the steam turbine in the ORC to provide the necessary cooling energy and drinking water respectively. The modelling, which includes an exergetic analysis, focuses on the performance of the solar tri-generation system. The simulation results of the tri-generation system and its subsystems were produced using IPSEpro software and were validated against experimental data which showed good agreement. The tri-generation system was able to produce about 194 Ton of refrigeration, and 234 t/day distilled water.

  8. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  9. Development of Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plant for Tri-Generation of Power, Cooling and Clean Water Using Waste Heat Recovery: Techno-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowtham Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tri-generation is one of the most efficient ways for maximizing the utilization of available energy. Utilization of waste heat (flue gases liberated by the Al-Hamra gas turbine power plant is analyzed in this research work for simultaneous production of: (a electricity by combining steam rankine cycle using heat recovery steam generator (HRSG; (b clean water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD plant; and (c cooling by single stage vapor absorption chiller (VAC. The flue gases liberated from the gas turbine power cycle is the prime source of energy for the tri-generation system. The heat recovered from condenser of steam cycle and excess heat available at the flue gases are utilized to drive cooling and desalination cycles which are optimized based on the cooling energy demands of the villas. Economic and environmental benefits of the tri-generation system in terms of cost savings and reduction in carbon emissions were analyzed. Energy efficiency of about 82%–85% is achieved by the tri-generation system compared to 50%–52% for combined cycles. Normalized carbon dioxide emission per MW·h is reduced by 51.5% by implementation of waste heat recovery tri-generation system. The tri-generation system has a payback period of 1.38 years with cumulative net present value of $66 million over the project life time.

  10. Trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming of lignite and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly [Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research

    2009-10-15

    A technical investigation of an innovative trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) of lignite and biomass is carried out using the ECLIPSE process simulator. The system includes an internal combustion engine, an AER gasifier, a waste heat recovery and storage unit and an absorption refrigerator. The whole system is operated in the following sequence: The AER gasifier is used to generate hydrogen using lignite and biomass; the hydrogen generated is used to run the engine which drives a generator to produce electricity. Additionally, the heat recovery unit collects waste heat from the engine and is used to supply hot water and space heating. Furthermore, the waste heat is used to operate the absorption refrigerator. The electricity, heat and cooling can be used to meet the energy requirements for the households in a village, a resident building or a commercial building, or a supermarket. Within the study, the effects of lignite mixed with three different types of biomass (straw, willow and switch grass) on the system performance are investigated and the results are compared. The results show that it is feasible to use an AER system to reform the low quality fuels lignite and biomass to generate a cleaner fuel - hydrogen to replace fossil fuels (diesel or natural gas) and to fuel an engine based trigeneration system; the system works with high efficiencies and with a potential of carbon capture from the sorbent-regeneration process that would benefit the environment. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Prediction and analysis of the seasonal performance of tri-generation and CO2 refrigeration systems in supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.; Suamir, I.N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integration model of a trigeneration with CO 2 refrigeration systems in supermarket. ► Validation of the developed integration model with site and laboratory measurement. ► Application of the trigeneration system in power generation and space conditioning. ► Performance analysis and comparison of the integrated system in supermarket. - Abstract: A modern supermarket energy control system has a concurrent need for electricity, space heating or cooling, and food refrigeration. The power supply to the supermarket is primarily from the national grid, where losses in efficiency are due to the processes of energy conversion and transmission. Combined heat and power (CHP) offers the potential to locally produce electrical power and heating which could save energy and reduce CO 2 emissions in the long run. During the summer months, as the space heating requirement in a supermarket is relatively small, the energy efficiency of a CHP installation can be improved by using excess thermal energy to drive a sorption refrigeration system to provide space cooling or refrigeration. This process is also known as tri-generation. In recent years, the use of CO 2 as a refrigerant in supermarkets has received considerable attention due to its negligible contribution to direct greenhouse gas emissions and excellent thermophysical and heat transfer properties. Consequently, the application of a tri-generation system in a supermarket with CO 2 refrigeration merits further investigation. In this paper, to evaluate the performance of a tri-generation system in the supermarket, a previously tested 80 kWe microturbine device was applied into an operational supermarket to generate power and provide space heating and cooling through exhaust heat. The performance evaluation and comparison for this tri-generation application is based on the prediction from an integrated model of supermarket energy control, cascade CO 2 refrigeration and tri-generation systems. The results

  12. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Integrated Tri-generation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Eda

    Energy demand in the world is increasing with population growth and higher living standards. Today, the need for energy requires a focus on renewable sources without abandoning fossil fuels. Efficient use of energy is one of the most important tasks in modern energy systems to achieve. In addition to the energy need, growing environmental concerns are linked with energy is emerged. Multi-purpose energy generation allows a higher efficiency by generating more outputs with the same input in the same system. Tri-generation systems are expected to provide at least three commodities, such as heating, cooling, desalination, storable fuel production and some other useful outputs, in addition to power generation. In this study, an experimental investigation of gasification is presented and two integrated tri-generation systems are proposed. The first integrated tri-generation system (System 1) utilizes solar energy as input and the outputs are power, fresh water and hot water. It consists of four sub-systems, namely solar power tower system, desalination system, Rankine cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The second integrated tri-generation system (System 2) utilizes coal and biomass as input and the outputs are power, fuel and hot water. It consists of five sub-systems: gasification plant, Brayton cycle, Rankine cycle, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis plant and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Experimental investigation includes coal and biomass gasification, where the experimental results of synthesis gas compositions are utilized in the analysis of the second systems. To maximize efficiency, heat losses from the system should be minimized through a recovery system to make the heat a useful commodity for other systems, such as ORCs which can utilize the low-grade heat. In this respect, ORCs are first analyzed for three different configurations in terms of energy and exergy efficiencies altering working fluids to increase the power output. Among two types of coal and one type

  13. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    District heat transfer is the most economical utilization of the waste heat of power plants. Optimum utilization and heat transfer over large distances are possible because of a new energy distribution system, the ''energy cascading system,'' in which heat is transferred to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. It is made more profitable by the use of heat pumps. The optimum flow-line temperature is 368 0 K, and the optimum return-line temperature is 288 0 K, resulting in an approximately 50% reduction of electric power loss at the power plant

  14. A 'double-effect' tri-generation system ensures the air-conditioning of the CNES building in Toulouse; Une trigeneration ''double effet'' assure la climatisation des locaux du CNES a Toulouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-02-01

    A new type of tri-generation plant has been set up at the French national centre of space studies (CNES) in Toulouse (SW France) for the joint production of heat, coldness and electric power. Beside its high operational efficiency, this plant presents interesting energy and use flexibilities combined with low environmental impacts. (J.S.)

  15. Design of Waste Gasification Energy Systems with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence, and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents a new sustainable trigeneration system (power, heat and cool) based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system integrated with an absorption chiller for special applications such as hotels, resorts, hospitals, etc....... with a focus on plant design and performance. The proposal system is based on the idea of gasifying the municipal waste, producing syngas serving as fuel for the trigeneration system. Such advanced system when improved is thus self-sustainable without dependency on net grid, district heating and district...

  16. Assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions from cogeneration and trigeneration systems. Part I: Models and indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion of cogeneration and trigeneration plants as local generation sources could bring significant energy saving and emission reduction of various types of pollutants with respect to the separate production of electricity, heat and cooling power. The advantages in terms of primary energy saving are well established. However, the potential of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling heat and power (CCHP) systems for reducing the emission of hazardous greenhouse gases (GHG) needs to be further investigated. This paper presents and discusses a novel approach, based upon an original indicator called trigeneration CO 2 emission reduction (TCO 2 ER), to assess the emission reduction of CO 2 and other GHGs from CHP and CCHP systems with respect to the separate production. The indicator is defined in function of the performance characteristics of the CHP and CCHP systems, represented with black-box models, and of the GHG emission characteristics from conventional sources. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown in the companion paper (Part II: Analysis techniques and application cases) with application to various cogeneration and trigeneration solutions

  17. Design and analysis of a waste gasification energy system with solid oxide fuel cells and absorption chillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2018-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence, and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents a new sustainable trigeneration system (power, heat and cool) based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system integrated with an absorption chiller for special applications such as hotels, resorts, hospitals, etc....... with a focus on plant design and performance. The proposal system is based on the idea of gasifying the municipal waste, producing syngas serving as fuel for the trigeneration system. Such advanced system when improved is thus self-sustainable without dependency on net grid, district heating and district...

  18. Analysis of the design and economics of molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation systems providing heat and power for commercial buildings and H2 for FC vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study models the operation of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) tri-generation systems for “big box” store businesses that combine grocery and retail business, and sometimes gasoline retail. Efficiency accounting methods and parameters for MCFC tri-generation systems have been developed. Interdisciplinary analysis and an engineering/economic model were applied for evaluating the technical, economic, and environmental performance of distributed MCFC tri-generation systems, and for exploring the optimal system design. Model results show that tri-generation is economically competitive with the conventional system, in which the stores purchase grid electricity and NG for heat, and sell gasoline fuel. The results are robust based on sensitivity analysis considering the uncertainty in energy prices and capital cost. Varying system sizes with base case engineering inputs, energy prices, and cost assumptions, it is found that there is a clear tradeoff between the portion of electricity demand covered and the capital cost increase of bigger system size. MCFC Tri-generation technology provides lower emission electricity, heat, and H2 fuel. With NG as feedstock the CO2 emission can be reduced by 10%-43.6%, depending on how the grid electricity is generated. With renewable methane as feedstock CO2 emission can be further reduced to near zero.

  19. Scheduling of Multiple Chillers in Trigeneration Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Underwood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The scheduling of both absorption cycle and vapour compression cycle chillers in trigeneration plants is investigated in this work. Many trigeneration plants use absorption cycle chillers only but there are potential performance advantages to be gained by using a combination of absorption and compression chillers especially in situations where the building electrical demand to be met by the combined heat and power (CHP plant is variable. Simulation models of both types of chillers are developed together with a simple model of a variable-capacity CHP engine developed by curve-fitting to supplier’s data. The models are linked to form an optimisation problem in which the contribution of both chiller types is determined at a maximum value of operating cost (or carbon emission saving. Results show that an optimum operating condition arises at moderately high air conditioning demands and moderately low power demand when the air conditioning demand is shared between both chillers, all recovered heat is utilised, and the contribution arising from the compression chiller results in an increase in CHP power generation and, hence, engine efficiency.

  20. Utilization of waste heat from a HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine in a tri-generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarabchi, N.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The waste heat from exhaust gases and cooling water of Homogeneous charge compression ignition engines (HCCI) are utilized to drive an ammonia-water cogeneration cycle (AWCC) and some heating processes, respectively. The AWCC is a combination of the Rankine cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle. Considering the chemical kinetic calculations, a single zone combustion model is developed to simulate the natural gas fueled HCCI engine. Also, the performance of AWCC is simulated using the Engineering Equation Solver software (EES). Through combining these two codes, a detailed thermodynamic analysis is performed for the proposed tri-generation system and the effects of some main parameters on the performances of both the AWCC and the tri-generation system are investigated in detail. The cycle performance is then optimized for the fuel energy saving ratio (FESR). The enhancement in the FESR could be up to 28.56%. Under optimized condition, the second law efficiency of proposed system is 5.19% higher than that of the HCCI engine while the reduction in CO 2 emission is 4.067% as compared with the conventional separate thermodynamic systems. Moreover, the results indicate that the engine, in the tri-generation system and the absorber, in the bottoming cycle has the most contribution in exergy destruction. - Highlights: • A new thermodynamic tri-generation system is proposed for waste heat recovery of HCCI engine. • A single zone combustion model is developed to simulate the natural gas fueled HCCI engine. • The proposed tri-generation cycle is analyzed from the view points of both first and second laws of thermodynamics. • In the considered cycle, enhancements of 28.56% in fuel energy saving ratio and 5.19% in exergy efficiency are achieved

  1. Techno-Environmental Assessment Of Co-Gasification Of Low-Grade Turkish Lignite With Biomass In A Trigeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirabedin Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration or Combined Cooling, Heat and Power (CCHP which is based upon combined heat and power (CHP systems coupled to an absorption chiller can be recognized as one of the best technologies recovering biomass effectively to heat, cooling and power. Co-gasification of the lignite and biomass can provide the possibility for safe and effective disposal of different waste types as well as for sustainable and environmentally-friendly production of energy. In this article, a trigeneration system based on an IC engine and gasifier reactor has been simulated and realized using Thermoflex simulation software. Performance results suggest that utilization of sustainably-grown biomass in a Tri-Generation Power Plant (TGPP can be a possibility for providing cooling, heat and power demands with local renewable sources and reducing the environmental impacts of the energy conversion systems.

  2. Synthesis of Trigeneration Systems: Sensitivity Analyses and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents sensitivity and resilience analyses for a trigeneration system designed for a hospital. The following information is utilized to formulate an integer linear programming model: (1 energy service demands of the hospital, (2 technical and economical characteristics of the potential technologies for installation, (3 prices of the available utilities interchanged, and (4 financial parameters of the project. The solution of the model, minimizing the annual total cost, provides the optimal configuration of the system (technologies installed and number of pieces of equipment and the optimal operation mode (operational load of equipment, interchange of utilities with the environment, convenience of wasting cogenerated heat, etc. at each temporal interval defining the demand. The broad range of technical, economic, and institutional uncertainties throughout the life cycle of energy supply systems for buildings makes it necessary to delve more deeply into the fundamental properties of resilient systems: feasibility, flexibility and robustness. The resilience of the obtained solution is tested by varying, within reasonable limits, selected parameters: energy demand, amortization and maintenance factor, natural gas price, self-consumption of electricity, and time-of-delivery feed-in tariffs.

  3. Evaluation of trigeneration system using microturbine, ammonia-water absorption chiller, and a heat recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preter, Felipe C.; Rocha, Marcelo S.; Simoes-Moreira, Jose Roberto [SISEA - Alternative Energy Systems Lab. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. University of Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: felipe.preter@poli.usp.br, msrocha@poli.usp.br, jrsimoes@usp.br; Andreos, Ronaldo [COMGAS - Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: randreos@comgas.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work, a CCHP or tri generation system has been projected, mounted, and tested in laboratory, combining a microturbine for power generation, a heat recovery boiler for hot water production, and an ammonia water absorption chiller for chilled water production. The project was motivated by the large practical applications of this kind of energy recovery system in commerce, and industry, and, in general, more than 85% of the energy source is used as power, hot water, and cold water. In the first part, the trigeneration system theoretical model is detailed, and in the second part, experimental results are presented for different operation conditions. (author)

  4. Performance assessment of cogeneration and trigeneration systems for small scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Akisawa, Atsushi; Marrasso, Elisa; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indices and methods to assess the performance of polygeneration systems. • Index to evaluate the economic feasibility of trigeneration system is introduced. • Thermo-economic analysis is performed considering three commercial cogenerators. • Sensitivity analysis varying reference electric efficiency for European Countries. • Sensitivity analysis varying environmental and economic parameters. - Abstract: Cogeneration and trigeneration systems can contribute to the reduction of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in residential and tertiary sectors, by reducing fossil fuels demand and grid losses with respect to conventional systems. To evaluate the performance of these systems, several indices and assessment methodologies can be used, due to the high complexity of such systems, which can consist of several energy conversion devices and can perform bidirectional interactions with external electric and thermal grids. In this paper, a review of the available indices and methodologies to assess the performances of polygeneration systems is provided. An index (TSS_t_r_i) aimed to assess the economic feasibility of a trigeneration system is also introduced and discussed. This activity started in the framework of the International Energy Agency Annex 54 project (“Integration of Micro-Generation and Related Energy Technologies in Buildings”), where research groups shared their expertise about methods applied in each Country to evaluate the performance of polygeneration systems. It was concluded that a thermo-economic analysis comparing the performance of a polygeneration system with those of a reference benchmark scenario, is a very suitable assessment method. Some of the reviewed methodologies are then applied to small scale commercial cogenerators. The sensitivity analysis is performed considering different reference average values of electric efficiency, unitary natural gas and electricity prices, and emission factors for

  5. Analysis of a Hybrid Solar-Assisted Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Marrasso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid solar-assisted trigeneration system is analyzed in this paper. The system is composed of a 20 m2 solar field of evacuated tube collectors, a natural gas fired micro combined heat and power system delivering 12.5 kW of thermal power, an absorption heat pump (AHP with a nominal cooling power of 17.6 kW, two storage tanks (hot and cold and an electric auxiliary heater (AH. The plant satisfies the energy demand of an office building located in Naples (Southern Italy. The electric energy of the cogenerator is used to meet the load and auxiliaries electric demand; the interactions with the grid are considered in cases of excess or over requests. This hybrid solution is interesting for buildings located in cities or historical centers with limited usable roof surface to install a conventional solar heating and cooling (SHC system able to achieve high solar fraction (SF. The results of dynamic simulation show that a tilt angle of 30° maximizes the SF of the system on annual basis achieving about 53.5%. The influence on the performance of proposed system of the hot water storage tank (HST characteristics (volume, insulation is also studied. It is highlighted that the SF improves when better insulated and bigger HSTs are considered. A maximum SF of about 58.2% is obtained with a 2000 L storage, whereas the lower thermal losses take place with a better insulated 1000 L tank.

  6. Solar Trigeneration: a Transitory Simulation of HVAC Systems Using Different Typologies of Hybrid Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro del Amo Sancho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The high energy demand on buildings requires efficient installations and the integration of renewable energy to achieve the goal of reducing energy consumption using traditional energy sources. Usually, solar energy generation and heating loads have different profiles along a day and their maximums take place at different moments. In addition, in months in which solar production is higher, the heating demands are the minimum (hot water is consumed only domestically in summer. Cooling machines (absorption and adsorption allow using thermal energy to chill a fluid. This heat flow rate could be recovered from solar collectors or any other heat source. The aim of this study is to integrate different typologies of solar hybrid (photovoltaic and thermal collectors with cooling machines getting solar trigeneration and concluding the optimal combination for building applications. The heat recovered from the photovoltaic module is used to provide energy to these cooling machines getting a double effect: to get a better efficiency on PV modules and to cool the building. In this document the authors analyse these installations, their operating conditions, dimensions and parameters, in order to get the optimal installation in three different European cities. This work suggests that in a family house in Madrid, the optimal combination is to use CPVT with azimuthally tracking and absorption machine. In this case, the solar trigeneration system using 55 m2 of collector area saves the cooling loads and 79% of the heating load in the house round the year.

  7. Energy Neutral Districts in 2050. The Dutch Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Roossien, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Visser, H.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Willems, E. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    According to the EPBD, from the end of 2020 on all new buildings should be built as nearly zero energy buildings. Instead of focusing on buildings only, a district approach to energy supply and consumption can be advantageous as regards the energy performance and economics. The potential of renewable energy technologies can be utilized to a larger extent while fewer energy generators are needed. An example is a so called energy-hub, in which exchange, conversion and seasonal storage of energy can lead to energy neutral districts before 2050. The Dutch study Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development (Transep-DGO), financed largely by the AgentschapNL, has shown that this is possible. For energy neutral district development in 2050, six innovative energy concepts have been elaborated and the extent of energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 calculated. Three concepts are based on an idea of an energy hub - bio hub, geo hub and a solar hub. Other concepts are all-electric, conventional and hydrogen concepts. Calculations show that implementation of each of the concepts can lead to energy neutral districts in 2050 or even earlier. When personal transport is included, energy neutrality in 2050 is not feasible. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts tailored for four Dutch cities have been elaborated as pilots, in close cooperation with municipality representatives. Solar hub has been dynamically simulated in order to show the added value of the exchange, conversion and storage of energy flows on a district scale. Energy Pattern Generator (EPG) has been applied for simulation of a virtual district with 1,000 dwellings of various categories. A solar hub with collective heat storage can reduce the demanded storage capacity by 26%, and the total required solar collector surface by 30% at maximum compared to individual seasonal heat storage capacity in dwellings that are not connected in an energy hub. Energy hub

  8. Sudbury District Energy - a public/private partnership model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prudhomme, H.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of public/private partnership as it relates to the Sudbury District Energy Project was discussed. When completed, it will be the first cogeneration-based district heating and cooling project involving private sector/public sector partnership in Canada. The equal partners include Toromont Energy and Sudbury Hydro. Sudbury Hydro is a community owned energy and communications utility. It was the first electric utility in Ontario to retail natural gas in the new competitive market place. The Sudbury District Energy Project began in 1996, when the utility began the development of a community district energy system in partnership with the City of Sudbury. At the time, the downtown district heating/cooling system supplied cold and hot water to Sudbury's Wellness Centre. In 1998, Toromont Energy accepted a 50/50 partnership arrangement between themselves and the public sector partners to form the Sudbury District Energy Corporation. Sudbury Hydro will benefit from the project because it will reduce their peak loads and it will also be an alternate source of revenue. It is expected that the project will displace 39,600 tons of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming

  9. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand. The space heating demand is supplied through floor heating in the bathroom and low temperature radiators in the rest of rooms. The network thermal and hydraulic conditions are simulated under steady state. A district heating network design and simulation code is developed to incorporate the network optimization procedure and the network simultaneous factor. Through the simulation, the overall system energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system components are identified. Based on the results, suggestions are given to further reduce the system energy/exergy losses and increase the quality match between the consumer heating demand and the district heating supply. -- Highlights: ► Exergy and energy analysis for low and medium temperature district heating systems. ► Different district heating network dimensioning methods are analyzed. ► Major exergy losses are identified in the district heating network and the in-house substations. ► Advantages to apply low temperature district heating are highlighted through exergy analysis. ► The influence of thermal by-pass on system exergy/energy performance is analyzed.

  10. A study of the thermodynamic performance and CO2 emissions of a vapour compression bio-trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, Jose A.R.; Castillo Martinez, Luis C.; Pitanga Marques, Rui; Betancourt Mena, Jesus; Vargas, Jose V.C.

    2011-01-01

    A trigeneration system (simultaneous production of heating, cooling and electricity) using a heat engine and a vapour compression chiller, running on biofuel, is studied. A system configuration, capable of meeting the three energy demands in a realistic situation, was devised. It consisted of a compression ignition internal combustion engine driving an electric generator, an electrically driven vapour compression heat pump and a peak boiler. Part of the heating demand was met by recovering waste heat from the engine and the heat pump condenser, thus reducing the overall fuel consumption. New criteria parameters, based on the relative magnitudes of the three energy demands, were defined to evaluate thermal performance and CO 2 emissions. A comparative analysis between the biofuel trigeneration and conventional fossil fuel with no waste heat recovery was carried out, showing that, depending on the relative values of energy demands and on component characteristics, significant reduction on primary energy consumption (up to 50%) and on CO 2 emissions (up to 5% of the original emissions) can be attained with the biofuel-trigeneration combination.

  11. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The editorial and the volume presents work on district heating system scenarios in Austria, grid optimisation using genetic algorithms and finally design of energy scenarios for the Italian Alpine town Bressanone-Brixen from a smart energy approach. © 2016, Aalborg...

  12. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitola, J.P. [Unicom Thermal Technologies, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In two year`s time, Unicorn Thermal Technologies has grown into one of the largest district cooling systems of 25,000 tons with a 1996 plan to grow to 40,000 tons. This growth is attributed to the development and implementation of a marketing and sales plan based on thorough market research and innovative marketing and sales strategies, and the consistent implementation of those strategies. The beginning of the sales effort was focused around the company`s first district cooling facility, However, it quickly grew into a much broader vision as market acceptance increased. Although the district energy industry has often based its message on being a low cost energy provider, market research and early sales experience indicated that customers choose district cooling as a value added service. As customers began to reserve capacity in the first plant, the idea that district cooling is a value added service and not a commodity energy product was continually reinforced through marketing communications. Although this analysis is a review of developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market, it purposely avoids a long winded discussion of head to head competition.

  14. Improving the Distillate Prediction of a Membrane Distillation Unit in a Trigeneration Scheme by Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Acevedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An Artificial Neural Network (ANN has been developed to predict the distillate produced in a permeate gap membrane distillation (PGMD module with process operating conditions (temperatures at the condenser and evaporator inlets, and feed seawater flow. Real data obtained from experimental tests were used for the ANN training and further validation and testing. This PGMD module constitutes part of an isolated trigeneration pilot unit fully supplied by solar and wind energy, which also provides power and sanitary hot water (SHW for a typical single family home. PGMD production was previously estimated with published data from the MD module manufacturer by means of a new type in the framework of Trnsys® simulation within the design of the complete trigeneration scheme. The performance of the ANN model was studied and improved through a parametric study varying the number of neurons in the hidden layer, the number of experimental datasets and by using different activation functions. The ANN obtained can be easily exported to be used in simulation, control or process analysis and optimization. Here, the ANN was finally used to implement a new type to estimate the PGMD production of the unit by using the inlet parameters obtained by the complete simulation model of the trigeneration unit based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES.

  15. Investigating the effect of several thermodynamic parameters on exergy destruction in components of a tri-generation cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehzadeh, A.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; JalaliVahid, D.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple energy generating cycles such as tri-generation cycles, which produce heat and cold in addition to power through burning of a primary fuel, have increasingly been used in recent decades. On the other hand, advanced exergy analysis of thermodynamic systems by splitting exergy destruction into endogenous and exogenous parts identifies internal irreversibilities of each of the components and the effect of these irreversibilities on the performance of other components. Therefore, main sources of exergy destruction in cycles can be highlighted and useful recommendations in order to improve the performance of thermodynamic cycles can be presented. In the present work, a tri-generation cycle with 100 MW power production, 70 MW heat and 9 MW cooling capacity is considered. For this tri-generation cycle, effects of various thermodynamic parameters on the amount of endogenous and exogenous exergy destructions, exergy loss and the amount of fuel consumption, are investigated. The results indicate that, increasing compressor pressure ratio, pre-heater outlet temperature and excess air leads to better combustion and lower exergy loss and fuel consumption. Increasing the mass flow rate of steam generator, while keeping the cycle outlet temperature constant and considering cooling capacity variable, lead to increase the first- and second-law efficiencies of the cycle. - Highlights: ► Advanced exergy analysis is used to analyze a tri-generation cycle. ► Increasing compressor pressure ratio leads to lower exergy loss and fuel consumption. ► Exergy loss is lowered by increasing pre-heater outlet temperature. ► Increasing the air flow rate of the cycle improves the performance of the cycle

  16. Focus on energy autonomy in overseas districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billerey, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    As French overseas territories have also had a role of leader in the development of renewable energies, and as the French law on energy transition states that energy autonomy is an objective by 2030 for these territories, with 50 per cent of renewable energies by 2020, this publication proposes an overview of the situation in these territories which still strongly depend on imported energies, notably for transports. The publication outlines the specificities of these islands with respect to the metropolitan territory in terms of electric power system: small territories, high production costs, strong consumption increase. It describes how the new energy policy plans evolutions to reach this autonomy: development of renewable energies and of smart grids, development of vehicles fuelled with electricity, biofuels or hydrogen, management of energy consumption in housing and through the use of renewable energies

  17. Performance evaluation of a tri-generation system with simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Suguartha, N.

    2009-01-01

    A test rig for a tri-generation system was set up in the laboratory to investigate the system performance and application feasibility. The rig was composed of three modules, a power component containing a microturbine, a refrigeration unit consisting of an absorption chiller with gas pipe connection, and a supermarket section containing a display cabinet. This system was supposed to be effectively applied into a supermarket energy control system where cooling, heating and electricity power are simultaneously required and subsequently, valuable test results have been produced. In the mean time, a simulation model for the particular tri-generation system has been established by integrating the component models of the system in accordance with the components' actual flow paths and energy streams. These component models, which include a compressor, recuperator, combustion chamber, gas turbine, electric generator, gas pipes, generator (desorber), rectifier, absorbers, condenser and evaporator etc., were developed based upon the balance of heat and mass. The calculations of heat transfer and phase equilibrium were included in the component models and chemical reaction balances were considered in the model of the combustion chamber. The system model has been validated with the test results and has consequently been used to predict the system performance at different operating and design conditions, such as varied ambient temperature, fuel flow rate and pressure ratio etc. The ultimate results of the performance analysis formulated by the system model can contribute significantly to the optimal component and system designs in various practical applications.

  18. Performance evaluation of a tri-generation system with simulation and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.; Suguartha, N. [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Chaer, I. [Faculty of Engineering, Science and the Built Environment, London South Bank University (T617), Borough Road, London SE1 0AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    A test rig for a tri-generation system was set up in the laboratory to investigate the system performance and application feasibility. The rig was composed of three modules, a power component containing a microturbine, a refrigeration unit consisting of an absorption chiller with gas pipe connection, and a supermarket section containing a display cabinet. This system was supposed to be effectively applied into a supermarket energy control system where cooling, heating and electricity power are simultaneously required and subsequently, valuable test results have been produced. In the mean time, a simulation model for the particular tri-generation system has been established by integrating the component models of the system in accordance with the components' actual flow paths and energy streams. These component models, which include a compressor, recuperator, combustion chamber, gas turbine, electric generator, gas pipes, generator (desorber), rectifier, absorbers, condenser and evaporator etc., were developed based upon the balance of heat and mass. The calculations of heat transfer and phase equilibrium were included in the component models and chemical reaction balances were considered in the model of the combustion chamber. The system model has been validated with the test results and has consequently been used to predict the system performance at different operating and design conditions, such as varied ambient temperature, fuel flow rate and pressure ratio etc. The ultimate results of the performance analysis formulated by the system model can contribute significantly to the optimal component and system designs in various practical applications. (author)

  19. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Duic, Neven; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2016-01-01

    scientific understanding on how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainable energy future. The concept of Smart Energy Systems emphasizes the importance of being coherent and cross-sectoral when the best solutions are to be found and how this also calls......This editorial gives an introduction to the important relationship between Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating and presents a number of selected papers from the 1st International Conference on the topic. All of the papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical...... for the active inclusion of the heating and cooling sectors. The concept of 4th Generation District Heating emphasizes that district heating and cooling are both important elements but also technologies that have to be developed further into a 4th generation version to be able to fulfil their roles in future...

  20. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand...... energy/exergy losses and increase the quality match between the consumer heating demand and the district heating supply.......Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network...

  1. A waste to energy plant for an industrial districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreani, M.; Meneghetti, A.; Nardin, G.; Rocco, A.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial districts show characteristics that can be exploited by developing plant solutions studied for their special configuration and not simply extended from single unit models. In the paper a waste-to-energy plant for the chair industrial district in Friuli Venezia Giulia (North Eastern Italy) is described. It has been designed directly involving the University of Udine and can be considered an example of how technology innovation can be promoted by universities, especially in the case of small firms which have limited R and D resources. It is shown how industrial refuse becomes a chance of competitive advantage for the whole district due to its energy recovery in a plant unique for the type of waste processed. Input, combustion, energy recovery and cleaning sections are described in details, underlining innovative approaches and solutions [it

  2. Exergy and Energy Analysis of Low Temperature District Heating Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    is in line with a pilot project that is carrying out in Denmark with network supply/return temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The consumer domestic hot water (DHW) demand is supplied with a special designed district heating (DH) storage tank. The space heating (SH) demand is supplied with a low temperature radiator......Low temperature district heating (LTDH) with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building thermal demand and the low quality waste heat supply. In this paper, an exemplary LTDH network was designed for 30 low energy demand residential houses, which....... The network thermal and hydraulic conditions were simulated under steady state with an in-house district heating network design and simulation code. Through simulation, the overall system energetic and exergetic efficiencies were calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system...

  3. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  4. Phase change material thermal storage for biofuel preheating in micro trigeneration application: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dawei; Chen, Junlong; Roskilly, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine exhaust heat driven phase change material thermal storage. • Fuel preheating for direct use of straight plant oil on diesel engine. • CFD aided design of the phase change material thermal storage. • Melting and solidification model considering natural convection. - Abstract: A biofuel micro trigeneration prototype has been developed to utilise local energy crop oils as fuel in rural areas and developing countries. Straight plant oils (SPOs) only leave behind very little carbon footprint during its simply production process compared to commercial biodiesels in refineries, but the high viscosity of SPOs causes difficulties at engine cold starts, which further results in poor fuel atomisation, compromised engine performance and fast engine deterioration. In this study, a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage is designed to recover and store engine exhaust heat to preheat SPOs at cold starts. High temperature commercial paraffin is selected as the PCM to meet the optimal preheating temperature range of 70–90 °C, in terms of the SPO property study. A numerical model of the PCM thermal storage is developed and validated by references. The PCM melting and solidification processes with the consideration of natural convection in liquid zone are simulated in ANSYS-FLUENT to verify the feasibility of the PCM thermal storage as a part of the self-contained biofuel micro trigeneration prototype

  5. Application of tri-generation systems to the food retail industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Sugiartha, N.; Ge, Y.-T. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Design; Marriott, D. [Doug Marriott Associates (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    The food industry, both food manufacturing and retailing has a need for heating and electrical power as well as refrigeration. Invariably, plant is installed, which consists of heating systems employing low pressure hot water, high pressure hot water or steam, vapour compression refrigeration systems and an electrical power supply derived from the National Grid. The overall utilisation efficiency of these processes is low, because of the relatively low electricity generation efficiency in power stations and distribution losses in the grid. A way of increasing the energy utilisation efficiency of food manufacturing and retail facilities is through tri-generation. This paper considers tri-generation technology and the feasibility of its application to the food retail industry and examines the economics and environmental impacts of the technology compared to conventional systems. The results indicate that the economic viability of these systems is dependent on the relative cost of natural gas and grid electricity. The system investigated can provide payback periods of less than 4.0 years when the relative cost of gas to electricity is below 0.3. (author)

  6. Application of tri-generation systems to the food retail industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Chaer, I.; Sugiartha, N.; Ge, Y.-T.; Marriott, D.

    2007-01-01

    The food industry, both food manufacturing and retailing has a need for heating and electrical power as well as refrigeration. Invariably, plant is installed, which consists of heating systems employing low pressure hot water, high pressure hot water or steam, vapour compression refrigeration systems and an electrical power supply derived from the National Grid. The overall utilisation efficiency of these processes is low, because of the relatively low electricity generation efficiency in power stations and distribution losses in the grid. A way of increasing the energy utilisation efficiency of food manufacturing and retail facilities is through tri-generation. This paper considers tri-generation technology and the feasibility of its application to the food retail industry and examines the economics and environmental impacts of the technology compared to conventional systems. The results indicate that the economic viability of these systems is dependent on the relative cost of natural gas and grid electricity. The system investigated can provide payback periods of less than 4.0 years when the relative cost of gas to electricity is below 0.3

  7. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, Rufus; Pietruschka, Dirk; Sipilä, Kari

    participants being VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences (HFT) and SSE Enterprise in United Kingdom. The demonstration cases described in the report......This report titled “Case studies and demonstrations” is the subtask D report of the IEA DHC|CHP Annex TS1 project “Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems” carried out between 2013 and 2016. The project was led by Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP) with the other...... include examples on low temperature district heating systems, solar heating in a district heating system, heat pump based heat supply and energy storages for both peak load management and for seasonal heat storage. Some demonstrations have been implemented while others are at planning phase...

  8. Final Report. Montpelier District Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Jessie [City of Montpelier Vermont, Montpelier, VT (United States). Dept. of Public Works; Motyka, Kurt [City of Montpelier Vermont, Montpelier, VT (United States). Dept. of Public Works; Aja, Joe [State of Vermont, Montpelier, VT (United States). Dept. of Buildings and General Services; Garabedian, Harold T. [Energy & Environmental Analytics, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The City of Montpelier, in collaboration with the State of Vermont, developed a central heat plant fueled with locally harvested wood-chips and a thermal energy distribution system. The project provides renewable energy to heat a complex of state buildings and a mix of commercial, private and municipal buildings in downtown Montpelier. The State of Vermont operates the central heat plant and the system to heat the connected state buildings. The City of Montpelier accepts energy from the central heat plant and operates a thermal utility to heat buildings in downtown Montpelier which elected to take heat from the system.

  9. District heating with SLOWPOKE energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System, a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions, is at the forefront of these developments. A demonstration unit has been constructed in Canada and is currently undergoing an extensive test program. Because the nuclear heat source is small, operates at atmospheric pressure, and produces hot water below 100 degrees Celcius, intrinsic safety features will permit minimum operator attention and allow the heat source to be located close to the load and hence to people. In this way, a SLOWPOKE Energy System can be considered much like the oil- or coal-fired furnace it is designed to replace. The low capital investment requirements, coupled with a high degree of localization, even for the first unit, are seen as attractive features for the implementation of SLOWPOKE Energy Systems in many countries

  10. Regional Energy Planning Tool for Renewable Integrated Low-Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy district heating systems, operating at low temperature of 55 °C as supply and 25°C as return, can be the energy solution as being the prevailing heating infrastructure in urban areas, considering future energy schemesaiming at increased exploitation of renewable energy sources together...... with low-energy houses in focus with intensified energy efficiency measures. Employing low-temperature operation allows the ease to exploit not only any type of heat source but also low-grade sources, i.e., renewable and industrial waste heat, which would otherwise be lost. In this chapter, a regional...... energy planning tool is described considered with various energy conversion systems based on renewable energy sources to be supplied to an integrated energy infrastructure involving a low-energy district heating, a district cooling, and an electricity grid. The developed tool is performed for two case...

  11. Energy supply and urban planning projects: Analysing tensions around district heating provision in a French eco-district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabillet, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of energy supply choices, this article explores the way in which energy priorities and their climate-related features are incorporated into urban public policy. These choices must take account of different factors, as is the case with district heating, which is justified as a vehicle of renewable energy while subject to pressure in eco-districts because its techno-economic balances are destabilised by falls in demand. Our study focuses particularly on the city of Metz (France), which has chosen district heating as the primary source for provision for the municipal area and for its first eco-district. We analyse the tensions within these choices, with particular attention to the way in which they are negotiated inside municipal departments and with the local energy operator. This enables us to explore the tensions in defining the scale that governs decisions and the linkages between energy-related and urban priorities. - Highlights: • Analyses of tensions in the choice of energy supplies for eco-districts. •District heating networks can be vehicles of renewable energy. • District heating networks are threatened by drops in energy consumption. • Energy supply issues oppose urban planning and energy policy in municipal departments. • Technical and financial adjustments can be made by the municipality to justify its energy choices

  12. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A.; Tolis, Athanasios I.; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  13. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A., E-mail: arent@central.ntua.gr; Tolis, Athanasios I., E-mail: atol@central.ntua.gr; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P., E-mail: itat@central.ntua.gr

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers

  14. District Heating in Areas with Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan Ibrahim

    -energy houses involved, together with the idea of utilizing booster pumps in the district heating network and (ii) use of network layouts of either a branched (tree-like) or a looped type. The methods developed were applied in a case study, the data of which was provided by the municipality of Roskilde...... in Denmark. The second case study was aimed at solving another regional energy planning scheme, one concerned with already existing houses, the heat requirements of which were currently being met by use of a natural gas grid or a conventional high-temperature district heating network. The idea considered......This PhD thesis presents a summary of a three-year PhD project involving three case studies, each pertaining to a typical regional Danish energy planning scheme with regard to the extensive use of low-energy district heating systems, operating at temperatures as low as 55°C for supply and 25°C...

  15. Primary Energy of the District city and Suburb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitonak, Anton; Lopusniak, Martin; Bagona, Miloslav

    2017-10-01

    In member states of the European Union, portion of buildings in the total consumption of energy represents 40 %, and their share in CO2 emissions represents 35 %. Taking into account the dependence of the European Union on import of energy, this represents a large quantity of energy and CO2 in spite of the fact that effective solutions for the reduction of energy demand of buildings exist. The European Union adopted three main commitments for fulfilment of criteria by year 2020 in the 20-20-20 Directive. Based on this Directive Slovakia declares support for renovating the building stock. The goal of the paper was to prove that renovation of the building stock is environmentally and energy preferably as construction of new buildings. In the paper, the settlement unit with the suburban one were compared. Both territories are dealt with in Kosice city, in Slovakia. The settlement units include apartment dwelling houses, amenities, parking areas and green. Suburban part contains family houses. The decisive factor for the final assessment of the buildings was global indicator. Global indicator of the energy performance is primary energy. The new building must meet minimum requirements for energy performance and it must be classified to energy class A1 since 2016, and to energy class A0 since 2020. The paper analyses the effects of the use of different resources of heat considering the global indicator. Primary energy was calculated and based on comparable unit. The primary energy was accounted for on the built-up area, area corresponding to district city and suburb, number of inhabitants. The study shows that the lowest values of global indicator are achieved by using wood. The highest values of global indicator are achieved by using electricity or district heating as an energy source. The difference between the highest and lowest value is 87 %. Primary energy based on inhabitant is 98 % lower in settlement unit compared to the suburban one.

  16. Optimization of trigeneration systems by Mathematical Programming: Influence of plant scheme and boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Gallea, R.; Cardona, F.; Lo Brano, V.; Ciulla, G.; Catrini, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Lay-out, design and operation of trigeneration plant is optimized for hotel building. • The temporal basis used for the optimization is properly selected. • The influence of plant scheme on the optimal results is discussed. • Sensitivity analysis is performed for different levels of tax exemption on fuel. • Dynamic behavior of the cogeneration unit influences its optimal operation strategy. - Abstract: The large potential for energy saving by cogeneration and trigeneration in the building sector is scarcely exploited due to a number of obstacles in making the investments attractive. The analyst often encounters difficulties in identifying optimal design and operation strategies, since a number of factors, either endogenous (i.e. related with the energy load profiles) and exogenous (i.e. related with external conditions like energy prices and support mechanisms), influence the economic viability. In this paper a decision tool is adopted, which represents an upgrade of a software analyzed in previous papers; the tool simultaneously optimizes the plant lay-out, the sizes of the main components and their operation strategy. For a specific building in the hotel sector, a preliminary analysis is performed to identify the most promising plant configuration, in terms of type of cogeneration unit (either microturbine or diesel oil/natural gas-fueled reciprocate engine) and absorption chiller. Then, sensitivity analyses are carried out to investigate the effects induced by: (a) tax exemption for the fuel consumed in “efficient cogeneration” mode, (b) dynamic behavior of the prime mover and consequent capability to rapidly adjust its load level to follow the energy loads

  17. Urban Greening as part ofDistrict Energy Services

    OpenAIRE

    MELIN, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Work carried out during this master’s thesis is about urban greening and its close integration with district energy systems. Urban greening is the fact to develop green infrastructures (parks, street trees, ...) instead of grey infrastructures (buildings, roads, ...) in cities. Despite that the actual economic value of green infrastructure is less appreciated at first glance and very difficult to valorize, urban greening has many undeniable advantages such as reducing pollution and heat islan...

  18. The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    Based on the case of Denmark, this paper analyses the role of district heating in future Renewable Energy Systems. At present, the share of renewable energy is coming close to 20 per cent. From such point of departure, the paper defines a scenario framework in which the Danish system is converted...... to 100 per cent Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the year 2060 including reductions in space heating demands by 75 per cent. By use of a detailed energy system analysis of the complete national energy system, the consequences in relation to fuel demand, CO2 emissions and cost are calculated for various...... as in a potential future system based 100 per cent on renewable energy....

  19. A Smart Forecasting Approach to District Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Yuce

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a model for district-level electricity demand forecasting using a set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs (parallel ANNs based on current energy loads and social parameters such as occupancy. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis is conducted to select the inputs of the ANN by considering external weather conditions, occupancy type, main income providers’ employment status and related variables for the fuel poverty index. Moreover, a detailed parameter tuning is conducted using various configurations for each individual ANN. The study also demonstrates the strength of the parallel ANN models in different seasons of the years. In the proposed district level energy forecasting model, the training and testing stages of parallel ANNs utilise dataset of a group of six buildings. The aim of each individual ANN is to predict electricity consumption and the aggregated demand in sub-hourly time-steps. The inputs of each ANN are determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA methods. The accuracy and consistency of ANN predictions are evaluated using Pearson coefficient and average percentage error, and against four seasons: winter, spring, summer, and autumn. The lowest prediction error for the aggregated demand is about 4.51% for winter season and the largest prediction error is found as 8.82% for spring season. The results demonstrate that peak demand can be predicted successfully, and utilised to forecast and provide demand-side flexibility to the aggregators for effective management of district energy systems.

  20. The situation of district heating, district cooling and energy supply in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmond, Gy.

    2009-01-01

    District heating represents with 650.000 heated dwellings approximately 15% of the Hungarian residential heating market. Since 1990 there is stagnation at the number of connected dwellings because erection of large settlements with prefab buildings has been stopped, and latter ones represent more than 75% of the dwelling heating market. During the same period, residential heat demand shrunk by 33%, because metering of hot water consumption resulted in changing consumer habits, and because of slowly but step by step refurbishment of buildings and heating systems. In Hungary district heating is present in all large and most of the medium size cities, in 92 cities together. Out of them, there is also a single village with a local district heating system, which heats more than 60% of cottages. The capacity os systems is spreading to a large extent. Approximately 36-36% of all heated dwellings are in Budapest and in 10 large cities in the country, while 148 of the total 202 systems have less than 10 MW capacities. In the fuel structure of district heating it is characteristic the overwhelming role of natural gas consumption, which has exceeded 80% already. Only a few numbers of heating power plants are fuelled by crown coal. The use of renewables is growing continuous, but, together with waste and waste energy, it amounts merely 8% of the total fuel use. Oil consumption is negligible. Currently the most promising DH-market is the service sector (public buildings and commercial consumers). DH-companies can sell their surplus supply capacities on the competitive market. Residential market can be preserved only with better legal conditions and with improving of demand side management. The industrial heat market can be gained when the erection of new power plants will be harmonized with industrial development in the frame of territorial planning. District cooling is just at the beginning in Hungary. Many new commercial and office buildings are erected with air conditioning

  1. The new district energy : building blocks for sustainable community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The price of energy is expected to rise as world demand for fossil fuels increases and energy supplies become harder to access. Governments and businesses are interested in the role of energy in the design, development and operation of buildings and whole communities. In addition to contributing to community economic development, district energy (DE) systems can assist communities in meeting their goals for sustainable growth and in managing the changing nature of risk in the generation and delivery of energy. This handbook was developed in order to encourage information sharing and provide ideas on how to advance district energy development in communities across Canada. The handbook identified those who could use DE and listed the benefits provided by DE. These included community, environmental, and business benefits. The handbook also offered suggestions for overcoming common challenges experienced by communities initiating a DE system and provided a checklist to help accelerate the uptake of DE systems in a community. These challenges included working with the community; using integrated design; building knowledge, know-how and technical skills; and partnering to improve project financing and reducing development risk. 50 refs., 8 tabs., 11 figs

  2. Development of Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Plant for Tri-Generation of Power, Cooling and Clean Water Using Waste Heat Recovery: Techno-Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Gowtham; Dahal, Sujata; Kumar, Uday; Martin, Andrew; Kayal, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Tri-generation is one of the most efficient ways for maximizing the utilization of available energy. Utilization of waste heat (flue gases) liberated by the Al-Hamra gas turbine power plant is analyzed in this research work for simultaneous production of: (a) electricity by combining steam rankine cycle using heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); (b) clean water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) plant; and (c) cooling by single stage vapor absorption chiller (VAC). The flue gases liber...

  3. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of a trigeneration (TRIGEN) system with a gas-diesel engine: Part I - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balli, Ozgur; Aras, Haydar; Hepbasli, Arif

    2010-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. Part 1 deals with the thermodynamic and thermoeconomic methodology of a trigeneration (TRIGEN) system with a rated output of 6.5 MW gas-diesel engine while the application of the methodology is presented in Part 2. The system has been installed in the Eskisehir Industry Estate Zone in Turkey. Thermodynamic methodology includes the relations and performance parameters for energy and exergy analysis, while thermoeconomic methodology covers the cost balance relations, cost of products and thermodynamic inefficiencies, relative cost difference and exergoeconomic factor.

  4. Efficiency analysis of a cogeneration and district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.; Le, Minh N.; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency analysis, accounting for both energy and exergy considerations, of a design for a cogeneration-based district energy system. A case study is considered for the city of Edmonton, Canada, by the utility Edmonton Power. The original concept using central electric chillers, as well as two variations (one considering single-effect and the other double-effect absorption chillers) are examined. The energy- and exergy-based results differ markedly (e.g., overall energy efficiencies are shown to vary for the three configurations considered from 83% to 94%, and exergy efficiencies from 28% to 29%, respectively). For the overall processes, as well as individual subprocesses and selected combinations of subprocesses, the exergy efficiencies are generally found to be more meaningful and indicative of system behaviour than the energy efficiencies

  5. Low Temperature District Heating for Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dietrich; Kallert, Anna; Blesl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    of the building stock. Low temperature district heating (LTDH) can contribute significantly to a more efficient use of energy resources as well as better integration of renewable energy (e.g. geothermal or solar heat), and surplus heat (e.g. industrial waste heat) into the heating sector. LTDH offers prospects......The building sector is responsible for more than one third of the final energy consumption of societies and produces the largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions of all sectors. This is due to the utilisation of combustion processes of mainly fossil fuels to satisfy the heating demand...... for both the demand side (community building structure) and the supply side (network properties or energy sources). Especially in connection with buildings that demand only low temperatures for space heating. The utilisation of lower temperatures reduces losses in pipelines and can increase the overall...

  6. Tri-generation in Lisbon: 60 MW coldness, 44 MW heat, 5 MW electric power, 44 km of network; Trigeneration a Lisbonne: 60 MW froid, 44 MW chaud, 5 MW electricite, 44 km de reseau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-11-01

    A tri-generation facility in Lisbon (Portugal) uses the chilled water produced by absorption units (water + lithium bromide) in association with compression groups (ammonia). The combination of both technologies allows to optimize the production of chilled water which is also stored for a better adaptability of use. This facility will supply 450000 m{sup 2} of offices, 150000 m{sup 2} of commercial buildings, 50000 m{sup 2} of public facilities, a marina and about 10000 apartments, which represents a total of 2.5 million of m{sup 2}. A huge network of insulated steel pipes ensures the district heating/cooling of the new industrial area of Lisbon. (J.S.)

  7. An enviro-economic function for assessing energy resources for district energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    District energy (DE) systems provide an important means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and the significant related concerns associated with global climate change. DE systems can use fossil fuels, renewable energy and waste heat as energy sources, and facilitate intelligent integration of energy systems. In this study, an enviro-economic function is developed for assessing various energy sources for a district energy system. The DE system is assessed for the considered energy resources by considering two main factors: CO 2 emissions and economics. Using renewable energy resources and associated technologies as the energy suppliers for a DE system yields environmental benefits which can lead to financial advantages through such instruments as tax breaks; while fossil fuels are increasingly penalized by a carbon tax. Considering these factors as well as the financial value of the technology, an analysis approach is developed for energy suppliers of the DE system. In addition, the proposed approach is modified for the case when thermal energy storage is integrated into a DE system. - Highlights: • Developed a function to assess various energy sources for a district energy system. • Considered CO 2 emissions and economics as two main factors. • Applied renewable energy resources technologies as the suppliers for a DE system. • Yields environmental benefits can lead to financial benefits by tax breaks. • Modified enviro-economic function for the TES integrated into a DE system

  8. Consumer Unit for Low Energy District Heating Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Otto; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    to reduce heat loss in the network. The consumer’s installation is a unit type with an accumulation tank for smoothing the heat load related to the domestic hot water. The building heat load is delivered by an under-floor heating system. The heavy under-floor heating system is assumed to smooth the room...... heat load on a daily basis, having a flow temperature control based on outdoor climate. The unit is designed for a near constant district heating water flow. The paper describes two concepts. The analyses are based on TRNSYS (Klein et al., 2006) simulation, supplied with laboratory verification......A low energy/ low temperature consumer installation is designed and analyzed. The consumer type is a low energy single family house 145 m2 with annual energy consumption in the range of 7000 kWh, incl. domestic hot water in a 2800 degree day climate. The network is an extreme low temperature system...

  9. Heat Driven Cooling in District Energy Systems; Vaermedriven Kyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydstrand, Magnus; Martin, Viktoria; Westermark, Mats [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2004-07-01

    This report is reviewing different heat driven technologies for the production of cooling. It is shown that the supply of cooling gives the highest fuel utilization if heat from CHP production is used for the production of cooling instead of maximizing the electricity output in a condensing plant. High fuel utilization is reached since the direct production of cooling from heat is a thermodynamic shortcut as compared to the production of electricity as an intermediate product before cooling is produced. At direct production of cooling from heat it is possible to obtain 70 percent of the obtainable cooling of an ideal process. If electricity is produced from heat, 70 percent electricity could be obtained as compared to an ideal process. If this electricity would be used for the production of cooling 70 percent of the obtainable cooling in an ideal process would the result. The total production of cooling from heat with electricity as an intermediate product would therefore give 50 percent cooling as compared to an ideal process. Hence, heat driven cooling will give more cooling for a given fuel input. In the review of the different heat driven cooling options it was found that there are many alternatives suitable for different applications. Absorption cooling is suitable for water distributed cooling if the latent cooling load is low. Desiccant cooling is believed to have a large market in climates (applications) with high latent cooling loads. In the energy efficiency evaluation it is found that the highest fuel utilization is given for a central production of electricity using either district heating or district cooling as the energy carrier to supply cooling. In fact the potential of district heating as the energy carrier is thought to be the largest in large cities with humid climates. Further it is found that the chiller heat sink can contribute significantly to the cost in many applications, especially if water and/or electricity consumption are issues with

  10. Energy saving and emission reduction of China's urban district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xia; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Sun, Shufeng; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    China's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission ranks highest in the world. China is committed to reduce its CO 2 emission by 40% to 45% from the 2005 levels by 2020. To fulfill the target, China's CO 2 emission reduction must exceed 6995 million tons. Energy consumption and CO 2 emission of China's urban district heating (UDH) are increasing. The current policy implemented to improve UDH focuses on replacing coal with natural gas to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission to some extent. This paper proposes that heat pump heating (HPH) could serve as a replacement for UDH to help realize energy-saving and emission-reduction goals to a greater extent. The paper also analyzes the impact of this replacement on the heating and power generation sectors. The results show that replacing coal-based UDH with HPH decreases energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 43% in the heating sector. In the power generation sector, the efficiency of power generation at the valley electricity time increases by 0.512%, and the ratio of peak–valley difference decreases by 16.5%. The decreases in CO 2 emission from the heating and power generation sectors cumulatively account for 5.55% of China's total CO 2 emission reduction target in 2020. - Highlights: ► Replacing urban district heating with heat pump heating. ► Impact of heat pump heating on heating and power generation sectors. ► Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. ► China should adjust current urban heating strategy

  11. Shortage of energy increases profitability of district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand will cause the price of district heating to increase, but not to the level of the price of electricity. The cheapest heating alternative in Denmark, Norway and Sweden is district heating. In Norway, district heating is developed primarily for commercial buildings and housing cooperatives. Thirty per cent of all buildings under construction are prepared for district heating and the percentage will increase strongly in the coming time. The total net production of district heating in Norway in 2001 was 2000 GWh, which is only a small part of the total potential for district heating

  12. A business case modelling framework for smart multi-energy districts

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Nicholas; Martinez Cesena, Eduardo Alejandro; Liu, Xuezhi; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    The potential energy, environmental, technical and economic benefits that might arise from multi-energy systems are increasing interest in smart districts. However, in a liberalised market, it is essential to develop a relevant attractive business case. This paper presents a holistic techno-economic framework that couples building/district, multi-network and business case assessment models for the development of robust business cases for smart multi-energy districts. The framework is demonstr...

  13. Performance of low-temperature district heating for low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    A Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) network supplying district heating water with temperature 50°C was built in Lærkehaven-Lystrup, Denmark, as a part of the ongoing “Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme” [EUDP, 2008] focused on “CO2-reduction in low energy buildings and com...

  14. Approach and practices of district energy planning to achieve low carbon outcomes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Baoping; Zhou, Shaoxiang; Hao, Lin

    2015-01-01

    District energy planning is an important methodology to assist in realizing a lower carbon target. However, district energy planning has not yet been incorporated into the statutory planning system in China, primarily because there are no clear standards and specifications for these plans. In this paper, we propose a general framework and low carbon estimation method for district energy planning, which is based on evaluating the low carbon energy planning practices of several new districts in China. In addition, several key points of concern in the planning process are extracted and discussed: overall infrastructure planning; co-operation between city planning and other special low carbon eco-planning; investment, financing and profitable operation; planning management mechanisms; and the management of the construction of the energy system to coincide with the project schedule. We carried out a case study of a low carbon energy plan for a new district of Beijing to evaluate our framework. Finally, we conclude that to realize the low carbon target, regional energy planning covering technologies, the market and management should be standardized as soon as possible. -- Highlights: •A general framework for district energy planning is proposed. •A case study of a low carbon energy plan for a new district is carried out. •District energy planning should be standardized as soon as possible. •The most suitable spatial scale for energy planning is at the municipal level

  15. Performance assessment of a novel hybrid district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid system for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) is proposed. This hybrid system consists of biogas based electricity production and a water-to-water geothermal heat pump unit (GHPU), which uses the waste heat for both heating and domestic hot water purposes. Electricity generated by the biogas plant (BP) is utilized to drive the GDHS's pumps, BP systems and the heat pump units. Both the biogas reactor heating unit and the heat pump unit utilize the waste heat from the GDHS and use the system as a heat source. The feasibility of utilizing a hybrid system in order to increase the overall system (GDHS + BP + GHPU) efficiency is then investigated for possible efficiency improvements. The Edremit GDHS in Turkey, which is selected for investigation in this case study, reinjects 16.8 MW of thermal power into the river at a low temperature; namely at 40 °C. Such a temperature is ideal for mesophilic bacterial growth in the digestion process during biogas production. 1.45 MW of biogas based electricity production potential is obtainable from the waste heat output of the Edremit GDHS. The average overall system efficiencies through the utilization of this kind of hybridized system approach are increased by 7.5% energetically and 13% for exergetically. - Highlights: ► A new hybrid system is proposed for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs). ► The average overall system efficiencies are increased by 7.5% for energy and 13% for exergy, respectively. ► Various energetic and exergetic parameters are studied.

  16. Energy-Recovery Pressure-Reducer in District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Borkowski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Already existing man-made infrastructures that create water flow and unused pressure are interesting energy sources to which micro-hydropower plants can be applied. Apart from water supply systems (WSSs, which are widely described in the literature, significant hydropower potential can also be found in district heating systems (DHSs. In this paper, a prototype, a so-called energy-recovery pressure-reducer (ERPR, utilized for a DHS, is presented. It consisted of a pump as a turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The latter was connected to the power grid through the power electronic unit (PEU. The variable-speed operation allowed one to modify the turbine characteristics to match the substation’s hydraulic conditions. The proposed ERPR device could be installed in series to the existing classic pressure reducing valve (PRV as an independent device that reduces costs and simplifies system installation. The test results of the prototype system located in a substation of Cracow’s DHS are presented. The steady-state curves and regulation characteristics show the prototype’s operating range and efficiency. In this study, the pressure-reducer impact on the electrical and hydraulic systems, and on the environment, were analyzed. The operation tests during the annual heating season revealed an average system’s efficiency of 49%.

  17. Trigeneration scheme for a natural gas liquids extraction plant in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valérie; Rodgers, Peter; Popli, Sahil

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Trigeneration scheme tailored to natural gas liquids extraction plant. • High ambient temperature and RH conditions in the Persian Gulf. • Absorption refrigeration powered by gas turbine (GT) exhaust gas waste heat. • GT compressor inlet air- and process gas cooling, process gas heating. • Significant OPEX and primary energy savings, favorable payback period and net present value. - Abstract: Natural gas processing plants in the Persian Gulf face extreme climatic conditions that constrain their gas turbine (GT) power generation and cooling capacities. However, due to a past history of low hydrocarbon prices, such plants have not fully exploited their waste heat recovery potential to date. The techno-economic performance of a combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) scheme designed to enhance the energy efficiency of a major natural gas liquids extraction plant in the Persian Gulf is assessed. The trigeneration scheme utilizes double-effect water–lithium bromide absorption refrigeration powered by steam generated from GT exhaust gas waste heat to provide both GT compressor inlet air- and process gas cooling. Part of the generated steam is also used for process gas heating. Thermodynamic modeling reveals that recovery of 82 MW of GT waste heat would provide additional cooling and heating capacities of 75 MW and 24 MW to the plant, respectively, thereby permitting elimination of a 28 MW GT, and existing cooling and heating equipment. GT compressor inlet air cooling alone yields approximately 151 GW h of additional electric power annually, highlighting the effectiveness of absorption refrigeration in meeting compressor inlet air cooling loads throughout the year in the Gulf climate. The overall net annual operating expenditure savings contributed by the CCHP system would average approximately 14.6 million US$ over its lifespan, which corresponds to average yearly savings of 190 MMSCM of natural gas. The CCHP scheme economic payback period is

  18. Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design o...

  19. A fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making model for trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangjiang; Jing Youyin; Zhang Chunfa; Shi Guohua; Zhang Xutao

    2008-01-01

    The decision making for trigeneration systems is a compositive project and it should be evaluated and compared in a multi-criteria analysis method. This paper presents a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making model (FMCDM) for trigeneration systems selection and evaluation. The multi-criteria decision-making methods are briefly reviewed combining the general decision-making process. Then the fuzzy set theory, weighting method and the FMCDM model are presented. Finally, several kinds of trigeneration systems, whose dynamical sources are, respectively stirling engine, gas turbine, gas engine and solid oxide fuel cell, are compared and evaluated with a separate generation system. The case for selecting the optimal trigeneration system applied to a residential building is assessed from the technical, economical, environmental and social aspects, and the FMCDM model combining analytic hierarchical process is applied to the trigeneration case to demonstrate the decision-making process and effectiveness of proposed model. The results show that the gas engine plus lithium bromide absorption water heater/chiller unit for the residential building is the best scheme in the five options

  20. Integration of Building energy and energy supply simulations for low-energy district heating supply to energy-efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The future will demand implementation of C02 neutral communities, the consequences being a far more complex design of the whole energy system, since the future energy infrastructures will be dynamic and climate responsive systems. Software able to work with such level of complexity is at present...... a missing link in the development. In this paper is demonstrated how a link between a dynamic Building Simulation Programme (BSP) and a simulation program for District Heating (DH) networks can give important information during the design phase. By using a BSP it is possible to analyze the influence...... of the human behaviour regarding the building and link the results to the simulation program for DH networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand...

  1. Fiscal 1999 edition. Guidebook for introducing new energies in Kinki District; Kinki chiiki shin energy donyu guide book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The captioned guidebook is composed of the following subjects: (1) the current status and problems of new energies (the energy status and the current status of new energies in Japan, and approaches to new energies in Japan); (2) the status of introduction and works in Kinki District (the outline of introduction and works in Kinki District on photovoltaic electric power generation, solar heat utilization, wind power generation, wastes power generation, clean energy fueled automobiles, cogeneration, fuel cells, unused energies, and other reproducible energies); (3) NEDO related supportive institutions (new energy introduction promotion projects by NEDO, and the outline of different supportive institutions); (4) new energy introduction flow (total flow leading to the introduction, and introduction flow by new energies); (5) the grand new energy prize in Kinki District (what is the grand new energy prize? and cases of prizes awarded in Kinki District); (6) new energy related supportive institutions (a list of the related institutions, and the outline of different supportive institutions); and (7) new energy consultation windows and contacts (consultation windows and contacts for general new energy aspects and the government related supportive institutions, and consultation windows by new energies). The grand new energy prize is awarded by New Energy Foundation as the 'institution for public recognition of new energy devices of the 21st century type'. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1999 edition. Guidebook for introducing new energies in Kinki District; Kinki chiiki shin energy donyu guide book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The captioned guidebook is composed of the following subjects: (1) the current status and problems of new energies (the energy status and the current status of new energies in Japan, and approaches to new energies in Japan); (2) the status of introduction and works in Kinki District (the outline of introduction and works in Kinki District on photovoltaic electric power generation, solar heat utilization, wind power generation, wastes power generation, clean energy fueled automobiles, cogeneration, fuel cells, unused energies, and other reproducible energies); (3) NEDO related supportive institutions (new energy introduction promotion projects by NEDO, and the outline of different supportive institutions); (4) new energy introduction flow (total flow leading to the introduction, and introduction flow by new energies); (5) the grand new energy prize in Kinki District (what is the grand new energy prize? and cases of prizes awarded in Kinki District); (6) new energy related supportive institutions (a list of the related institutions, and the outline of different supportive institutions); and (7) new energy consultation windows and contacts (consultation windows and contacts for general new energy aspects and the government related supportive institutions, and consultation windows by new energies). The grand new energy prize is awarded by New Energy Foundation as the 'institution for public recognition of new energy devices of the 21st century type'. (NEDO)

  3. Analysis of energy development sustainability: The example of the lithuanian district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveselis, Vaclovas; Dzenajavičienė, Eugenija Farida; Masaitis, Sigitas

    2017-01-01

    Today, sustainable energy development is one of key issues on European development agenda. The article describes one of sustainable energy development promoting tool - the eco-labelling scheme for district heating and cooling systems elaborated within the framework of Intelligent Energy for Europe program project “Ecoheat4cities” and partially funded by European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation. The scheme is based on measured energy and environmental performance data of the district heating and cooling system and considers primary non-renewable energy usage together with the share of renewable energy and carbon dioxide emissions calculated using life-cycle analysis methodology. The “power bonus” approach is used for performance indicators of the heat generated in cogeneration installations. An analysis of a number of Lithuanian district heating companies using elaborated labelling criteria shows positive trends towards fulfilling Lithuania's energy policy goals. The labelling scheme gives opportunity for policy makers and urban planners to compare different heat supply options and decide upon exploiting district heating advantages and benefits for reaching EU energy and environment policy goals. - Highlights: • Overview of Lithuania's district heating sector was performed via main sustainability criteria. • Developing to greener and more efficient state was disclosed via analysis of three years activity results. • Green labelling may help district heating companies to maintain existing and attract new potential consumers.

  4. Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a Compressed Air Energy Storage combined with a district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdanavicius, Audrius; Jenkins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CAES and CAES with thermal storage systems were investigated. • The potential for using heat generated during the compression stage was analysed. • CAES-TS has the potential to be used both as energy storage and heat source. • CAES-TS could be a useful tool for balancing overall energy demand and supply. - Abstract: The potential for using heat generated during the compression stage of a Compressed Air Energy Storage system was investigated using exergy and exergoeconomic analysis. Two Compressed Air Energy Storage systems were analysed: Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage combined with Thermal Storage (CAES-TS) connected to a district heating network. The maximum output of the CAES was 100 MWe and the output of the CAES-TS was 100 MWe and 105 MWth. The study shows that 308 GW h/year of electricity and 466 GW h/year of fuel are used to generate 375 GW h/year of electricity. During the compression of air 289 GW h/year of heat is generated, which is wasted in the CAES and used for district heating in the CAES-TS system. Energy efficiency of the CAES system was around 48% and the efficiency of CAES-TS was 86%. Exergoeconomic analysis shows that the exergy cost of electricity generated in the CAES was 13.89 ¢/kW h, and the exergy cost of electricity generated in the CAES-TS was 11.20 ¢/kW h. The exergy cost of heat was 22.24 ¢/kW h in the CAES-TS system. The study shows that CAES-TS has the potential to be used both as energy storage and heat source and could be a useful tool for balancing overall energy demand and supply

  5. Renewables and CHP with District Energy in Support of Sustainable Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Chris

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the powerful idea of connecting many energy users to environmentally optimum energy sources through integrated community energy systems. Such systems require piping networks for distributing thermal energy, i.e., district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. The possibilities and advantages of the application of integrated energy concepts are discussed, including the economic and environmental benefits of integrating localized electrical generating systems (CHP), transportation systems, industrial processes and other thermal energy requirements. Examples of a number of operating systems are provided. Some of the R and D carried out by the IEA Implementing Agreement on District Heating and Cooling is also described.

  6. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  7. Trigeneration System Based on Municipal Waste Gasification, Fuel Cell and an Absorption Chiller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsaros, Giannis; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    of a specific building is also investigated and the system can fully meet the electricity and cooling demands, whereas the heat needs can be satisfied only up to 55%. Moreover, assuming 20 years of operation, the payback period is 4.3 years and the net present value exceeds 5 MEUR.......The present work focuses on the design of a novel tri-generation system based on municipal solid wastes gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and an ammonia-water absorption chiller. Trigeneration systems can be implemented in buildings such as hospitals, where there is a continuous and large demand...

  8. Lowering district heating temperatures – Impact to system performance in current and future Danish energy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    CHP (Combined heat and power) production in connection with DH (district heating) systems has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in primary energy consumption. With extended installation of intermittent sustainable sources, such as eg. wind turbines rather than thermal units, the cha......CHP (Combined heat and power) production in connection with DH (district heating) systems has previously demonstrated a significant reduction in primary energy consumption. With extended installation of intermittent sustainable sources, such as eg. wind turbines rather than thermal units...

  9. The assessment of global thermo-energy performances of existing district heating systems optimized by harnessing renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şoimoşan, Teodora M.; Danku, Gelu; Felseghi, Raluca A.

    2017-12-01

    Within the thermo-energy optimization process of an existing heating system, the increase of the system's energy efficiency and speeding-up the transition to green energy use are pursued. The concept of multi-energy district heating system, with high harnessing levels of the renewable energy sources (RES) in order to produce heat, is expected to be the key-element in the future urban energy infrastructure, due to the important role it can have in the strategies of optimizing and decarbonizing the existing district heating systems. The issues that arise are related to the efficient integration of different technologies of harnessing renewable energy sources in the energy mix and to the increase of the participation levels of RES, respectively. For the holistic modeling of the district heating system, the concept of the energy hub was used, where the synergy of different primary forms of entered energy provides the system a high degree energy security and flexibility in operation. The optimization of energy flows within the energy hub allows the optimization of the thermo-energy district system in order to approach the dual concept of smart city & smart energy.

  10. Understanding the design and economics of distributed tri-generation systems for home and neighborhood refueling - Part I: Single family residence case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan M. [University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The potential benefits of hydrogen as a transportation fuel will not be achieved until hydrogen vehicles capture a substantial market share. However, although hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) technology has been making rapid progress, the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure remains a major barrier for FCV adoption and commercialization. The high cost of building an extensive hydrogen station network and the foreseeable low utilization in the near term discourages private investment. Based on the past experience of fuel infrastructure development for motor vehicles, innovative, distributed, small-volume hydrogen refueling methods may be required to refuel FCVs in the near term. Among small-volume refueling methods, home and neighborhood tri-generation systems (systems that produce electricity and heat for buildings, as well as hydrogen for vehicles) stand out because the technology is available and has potential to alleviate consumer's fuel availability concerns. In addition, it has features attractive to consumers such as convenience and security to refuel at home or in their neighborhood. The objective of this paper is to provide analytical tools for various stakeholders such as policy makers, manufacturers and consumers, to evaluate the design and the technical, economic, and environmental performances of tri-generation systems for home and neighborhood refueling. An interdisciplinary framework and an engineering/economic model is developed and applied to assess home tri-generation systems for single family residences (case studies on neighborhood systems will be provided in a later paper). Major tasks include modeling yearly system operation, exploring the optimal size of a system, estimating the cost of electricity, heat and hydrogen, and system CO{sub 2} emissions, and comparing the results to alternatives. Sensitivity analysis is conducted, and the potential impacts of uncertainties in energy prices, capital cost reduction (or increase), government

  11. Understanding the design and economics of distributed tri-generation systems for home and neighborhood refueling - Part I: Single family residence case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential benefits of hydrogen as a transportation fuel will not be achieved until hydrogen vehicles capture a substantial market share. However, although hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) technology has been making rapid progress, the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure remains a major barrier for FCV adoption and commercialization. The high cost of building an extensive hydrogen station network and the foreseeable low utilization in the near term discourages private investment. Based on the past experience of fuel infrastructure development for motor vehicles, innovative, distributed, small-volume hydrogen refueling methods may be required to refuel FCVs in the near term. Among small-volume refueling methods, home and neighborhood tri-generation systems (systems that produce electricity and heat for buildings, as well as hydrogen for vehicles) stand out because the technology is available and has potential to alleviate consumer's fuel availability concerns. In addition, it has features attractive to consumers such as convenience and security to refuel at home or in their neighborhood. The objective of this paper is to provide analytical tools for various stakeholders such as policy makers, manufacturers and consumers, to evaluate the design and the technical, economic, and environmental performances of tri-generation systems for home and neighborhood refueling. An interdisciplinary framework and an engineering/economic model is developed and applied to assess home tri-generation systems for single family residences (case studies on neighborhood systems will be provided in a later paper). Major tasks include modeling yearly system operation, exploring the optimal size of a system, estimating the cost of electricity, heat and hydrogen, and system CO 2 emissions, and comparing the results to alternatives. Sensitivity analysis is conducted, and the potential impacts of uncertainties in energy prices, capital cost reduction (or increase), government incentives and

  12. Design and dynamic simulation of a novel solar trigeneration system based on hybrid photovoltaic/thermal collectors (PVT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Vanoli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sheet and tube photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar collector are investigated. ► PVT is integrated in a novel solar trigeneration system. ► The trigeneration system is dynamically investigated for a mediterranean climate. ► PVT performance is excellent during the summer. ► During the winter PVT thermal energy significantly decreases. - Abstract: In this paper, a Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) system including photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) collectors is considered, implementing a novel polygeneration system producing electricity, space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. In particular, PVT collectors operating up to 80 °C are considered. A case study for a university building located in Naples (Italy) is developed and discussed. The system is mainly composed by: PVT collectors, a single-stage LiBr–H 2 O absorption chiller, storage tanks and auxiliary heaters. The system also includes additional balance-of-plant devices: heat exchangers, pumps, controllers, cooling tower, etc. The PVT produces electricity which is utilized in part by the building lights and equipments and in part by the system parasitic loads; the rest is eventually sold to the grid. Simultaneously, the PVT system provides the heat required to drive the absorption chiller. The system performance is analyzed from both energetic and economic points of view by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed with TRNSYS. The economic results show that the system under investigation can be profitable, provided that an appropriate funding policy is available. In addition, the overall energetic and economic results are comparable to those reported in literature for similar systems.

  13. Efficient district heating in the future energy system. Final report; Effektiv fjernvarme i fremtidens energisystem. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to illustrate how district heating can develop its role in the future Danish energy system, for example by reducing energy losses and the dynamic use of common technologies such as cogeneration and heat storage, and less widespread technologies such as heat pumps, geothermal heating, and cooling. The aim is also to analyse how electricity and district heating can interact more effectively, and to point out how framework conditions are important for district heating's continued development and efficiency. In the project, a linear optimization model is developed and applied as to analyse the interaction between district heating supply on the one hand, and energy savings, CO{sub 2} targets, wind power and the international electricity market on the other hand. Furthermore, more close-case operational analyses of district heating systems have been made in Ringkoebing and the metropolitan area, based on data from the district heating companies. Finally, a wide range of challenges for district heating in the long term were discussed and analysed during meetings with the project's reference group, including the need for development and demonstration projects. (ln)

  14. What energy Systems for eco-districts? An initial France-Europe comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Philippe; Blanchard, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, a number of European towns have built eco-districts that integrate social and environmental factors into their priorities. A comparative analysis of the energy Systems in fifteen of them reveals substantial differences in the production of energy, the contribution of renewable sources, the definition of objectives for energy performance and the technologies employed. (authors)

  15. 75 FR 43519 - Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No. 5 Substation and the Palo Verde Hub AGENCY... Department of Energy (DOE), is requesting SOIs from entities that are interested in purchasing transmission...

  16. Low-energy district heating in energy-efficient building areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Rosa, A.; Christensen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative low-energy district heating (DH) concept based on low-temperature operation. The decreased heating demand from low-energy buildings affects the cost-effectiveness of traditionally-designed DH systems, so we carried out a case study of the annual energy performance of a low-energy network for low-energy houses in Denmark. We took into account the effect of human behaviour on energy demand, the effect of the number of buildings connected to the network, a socio-economic comparison with ground source heat pumps, and opportunities for the optimization of the network design, and operational temperature and pressure. In the north-European climate, we found that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher heating power than those anticipated in the reference values in the standard calculations for energy demand patterns in energy-efficient buildings. This considerable impact of human behaviour should clearly be included in energy simulations. We also showed that low-energy DH systems are robust systems that ensure security of supply for each customer in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way in areas with linear heat density down to 0.20 MWh/(m year), and that the levelized cost of energy in low-energy DH supply is competitive with a scenario based on ground source heat pumps. The investment costs represent up to three quarters of the overall expenditure, over a time horizon of 30 years; so, the implementation of an energy system that fully relies on renewable energy needs substantial capital investment, but in the long term this is sustainable from the environmental and socio-economic points of view. Having demonstrated the value of the low-energy DH concept, we evaluated various possible designs with the aim of finding the optimal solution with regard to economic and energy efficiency issues. Here we showed the advantage of low supply and return temperatures, their effect on energy efficiency and that

  17. New energy visions for the Town of Ichinohe district; Ichinohecho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Ichinohe, Iwate Pref. The town's population has been generally decreasing since 1975, from 21,433 to 17,906 in 1995. The town consumed energy totaling 288,691Gcal in 1998, of which the transportation sector accounts for 55%, followed by the domestic, commercial and industrial sectors, in this order, the industrial sector accounting for only 7%. The estimated new energy sources available to the town are wind power, power generated by temperature difference at rivers or using snow, solar energy, biomass energy and energy from wastes, in the order of quantity, totaling 137GWh/y as electrical power and 45.6Tcal/y as heat. The priority projects include making Ichinohe Primary School an eco-school, construction of a biomass demonstration plant in the Okunakayama district, introduction of a boiler firing wood chips at Okunakayama Heights, construction of a wind power mill at Takamori Heights, and introduction of new energies by the citizens. (NEDO)

  18. New energy visions for the Town of Ichinohe district; Ichinohecho chiiki shin energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Ichinohe, Iwate Pref. The town's population has been generally decreasing since 1975, from 21,433 to 17,906 in 1995. The town consumed energy totaling 288,691Gcal in 1998, of which the transportation sector accounts for 55%, followed by the domestic, commercial and industrial sectors, in this order, the industrial sector accounting for only 7%. The estimated new energy sources available to the town are wind power, power generated by temperature difference at rivers or using snow, solar energy, biomass energy and energy from wastes, in the order of quantity, totaling 137GWh/y as electrical power and 45.6Tcal/y as heat. The priority projects include making Ichinohe Primary School an eco-school, construction of a biomass demonstration plant in the Okunakayama district, introduction of a boiler firing wood chips at Okunakayama Heights, construction of a wind power mill at Takamori Heights, and introduction of new energies by the citizens. (NEDO)

  19. Energy system analysis of a pilot net-zero exergy district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılkış, Şiir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Östra Sala backe is analyzed as a pilot district for the net-zero exergy target. • An analysis tool is developed for proposing an energy system for Östra Sala backe. • A total of 8 different measures are included and integrated in the energy system. • The exergy produced on-site is 49.7 GW h, the annual exergy consumed is 54.3 GW h. • The average value of the level of exergy match in the supply and demand is 0.84. - Abstract: The Rational Exergy Management Model (REMM) provides an analytical model to curb primary energy spending and CO 2 emissions by means of considering the level of match between the grade/quality of energy resources (exergy) on the supply and demand sides. This model is useful for developing forward-looking concepts with an energy systems perspective. One concept is net-zero exergy districts, which produce as much energy at the same grade or quality as consumed on an annual basis. This paper analyzes the district of Östra Sala backe in Uppsala Municipality in Sweden as a pilot, near net-zero exergy district. The district is planned to host 20,000 people at the end of four phases. The measures that are considered include an extension of the combined heat and power based district heating and cooling network, heat pumps driven on renewable energy, district heating driven white goods, smart home automation, efficient lighting, and bioelectricity driven public transport. A REMM Analysis Tool for net-zero exergy districts is developed and used to analyze 5 scenarios based on a Net-Zero Exergy District Option Index. According to the results, a pilot concept for the first phase of the project is proposed. This integrates a mix of 8 measures considering an annual electricity load of 46.0 GW h e and annual thermal load of 67.0 GW h t . The exergy that is produced on-site with renewable energy sources is 49.7 GW h and the annual exergy consumed is 54.3 GW h. The average value of the level of match between the demand and supply of

  20. Nationwide survey of energy conservation in public school districts: Institutional, organizational, and technical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.E.; Ettinger, G.A.; Gaines, L.L.; Kier, P.H.; Miller, K.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kammerud, R.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1987-09-01

    This report summarizes the responses to a mail survey sent to superintendents and other administrators of public school districts. The survey was part of an evaluation project for the USDOE Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The goal of the project is to identify the most successful energy conservation measures (equipment and activities) available to the institutional buildings sector. To accomplish this goal, four specific research objectives were defined: To determine the impact of the ICP grants program on fostering energy efficiency and saving energy; to determine key characteristics of institutional conservation efforts outside the federal program; To determine the technical, organizational, and Institutional conditions that create the opportunity for energy conservation measures (ECMS) to be most effective; and to identify key technology transfer opportunities. This report focuses on those characteristics of school districts (and the schools within those districts) that might influence the identification, implementation, operation, and impacts of institutional energy conservation efforts. Information about institutional characteristics was gathered through a mail survey of public school districts and private schools. The first mailing resulted in responses from 90 of the 823 public school districts selected through a combination cluster-and-stratification sampling technique and 64 of the 1,700 private schools selected as a stratified random sample. Remaining project resources were used to collect data to achieve a statistically sound sample of a total of 250 public school districts by telephone interviews. In doing so, some questions had to be dropped. Responses from both the mall surveys and the telephone interviews of public school districts were combined into one data set. This report describes results for all 250 districts.

  1. Geothermal energy developments in the district heating of Szeged

    OpenAIRE

    Osvald, Máté; Szanyi, János; Medgyes, Tamás; Kóbor, Balázs; Csanádi, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The District Heating Company of Szeged supplies heat and domestic hot water to 27,000 households and 500 public buildings in Szeged. In 2015, the company decided to introduce geothermal sources into 4 of its 23 heating circuits and started the preparation activities of the development. Preliminary investigations revealed that injection into the sandstone reservoir and the hydraulic connection with already existing wells pose the greatest hydrogeological risks, while placement and operation of...

  2. Experimental evaluation of a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine operated on micro-trigeneration system for power, drying and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacua, Karen; Olmos-Villalba, Luis; Herrera, Bernardo; Gallego, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A micro-trigeneration system based in a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was obtained. • Heat from engine exhaust gases was used for drying and refrigeration applications. • Energy efficiency of the microtrigeneration system in dual mode was 40%. • Peppermint was dried in the microtrigeneration system. - Abstract: A micro-trigeneration system based on a diesel-biogas dual fuel engine was evaluated experimentally. In this system, waste heat from the engine exhaust was used for heating air using a heat pipe exchanger and for driving an absorption unit freezer. The air heated was used in a convective trays dryer designed to dry peppermint. The global energy efficiency of this system at the engine full load was 40% and 31% in diesel and dual mode, respectively, while the same efficiencies of the engine at the original single generation were 23% and 18%, respectively. On the other hand, a maximum diesel substitution level of 50% was achieved in dual mode.

  3. Investment in hydrogen tri-generation for wastewater treatment plants under uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharieh, Kaveh; Jafari, Mohsen A.; Guo, Qizhong

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present a compound real option model for investment in hydrogen tri-generation and onsite hydrogen dispensing systems for a wastewater treatment plant under price and market uncertainties. The ultimate objective is to determine optimal timing and investment thresholds to exercise initial and subsequent options such that the total savings are maximized. Initial option includes investment in a 1.4 (MW) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) fed by mixture of waste biogas from anaerobic digestion and natural gas, along with auxiliary equipment. Produced hydrogen in MCFC via internal reforming, is recovered from the exhaust gas stream using Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) purification technology. Therefore the expansion option includes investment in hydrogen compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) systems which creates additional revenue by selling hydrogen onsite in retail price. This work extends current state of investment modeling within the context of hydrogen tri-generation by considering: (i) Modular investment plan for hydrogen tri-generation and dispensing systems, (ii) Multiple sources of uncertainties along with more realistic probability distributions, (iii) Optimal operation of hydrogen tri-generation is considered, which results in realistic saving estimation.

  4. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m{sup 2}. One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO{sub 2} emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO{sub 2} emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures. (author)

  5. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO 2 emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m 2 . One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO 2 emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO 2 emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures

  6. The trigeneration cycle as a way to create multipurpose stationary power plants based on conversion of aeroderivative turbofan engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaksin, A. Yu.; Arbekov, A. N.; Inozemtsev, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    A schematic cycle is considered, and thermodynamic analysis is performed to substantiate the possibility of creating multipurpose industrial power plants, operating on a trigeneration cycle, based on production-type turbofan engines.

  7. Integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Jimeno A.; Schlueter, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model to describe spatiotemporal building energy demand patterns was developed. • The model integrates existing methods in urban and energy planning domains. • The model is useful to analyze energy efficiency strategies in neighborhoods. • Applicability in educational, urban and energy planning practices was found. - Abstract: We introduce an integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts. The model addresses the need for a comprehensive method to identify present and potential states of building energy consumption in the context of urban transformation. The focus lies on determining the spatiotemporal variability of energy services in both standing and future buildings in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. This detailed characterization facilitates the assessment of potential energy efficiency measures at the neighborhood and city district scales. In a novel approach we integrated existing methods in urban and energy planning domains such as spatial analysis, dynamic building energy modeling and energy mapping to provide a comprehensive, multi-scale and multi-dimensional model of analysis. The model is part of a geographic information system (GIS), which serves as a platform for the allocation and future dissemination of spatiotemporal data. The model is validated against measured data and a peer model for a city district in Switzerland. In this context, we present practical applications in the analysis of energy efficiency measures in buildings and urban zoning. We furthermore discuss potential applications in educational, urban and energy planning practices

  8. Assessing District Energy Systems Performance Integrated with Multiple Thermal Energy Storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Behnaz

    The goal of this study is to examine various energy resources in district energy (DE) systems and then DE system performance development by means of multiple thermal energy storages (TES) application. This study sheds light on areas not yet investigated precisely in detail. Throughout the research, major components of the heat plant, energy suppliers of the DE systems, and TES characteristics are separately examined; integration of various configurations of the multiple TESs in the DE system is then analysed. In the first part of the study, various sources of energy are compared, in a consistent manner, financially and environmentally. The TES performance is then assessed from various aspects. Then, TES(s) and DE systems with several sources of energy are integrated, and are investigated as a heat process centre. The most efficient configurations of the multiple TESs integrated with the DE system are investigated. Some of the findings of this study are applied on an actual DE system. The outcomes of this study provide insight for researchers and engineers who work in this field, as well as policy makers and project managers who are decision-makers. The accomplishments of the study are original developments TESs and DE systems. As an original development the Enviro-Economic Function, to balance the economic and environmental aspects of energy resources technologies in DE systems, is developed; various configurations of multiple TESs, including series, parallel, and general grid, are developed. The developed related functions are discharge temperature and energy of the TES, and energy and exergy efficiencies of the TES. The TES charging and discharging behavior of TES instantaneously is also investigated to obtain the charging temperature, the maximum charging temperature, the charging energy flow, maximum heat flow capacity, the discharging temperature, the minimum charging temperature, the discharging energy flow, the maximum heat flow capacity, and performance

  9. Price-structure of electricity and district-heating. A background study for energy conservation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present report deals with the pricing and price-structure of electricity and district-heating with their effects on energy saving. It constitutes part of the groundwork for the new Government Energy Conservation Programme. The report describes principles for the pricing of electricity and district-heating in Finland, and gives some examples of tariffs in foreign countries, which are interesting from the point of view of energy saving. Different utilities apply quite similar pricing principles but there are big differences in price levels between the utilities. The difference in consumer prices can be almost 100 % in the case of electricity and over 150 % as concerns district-heating. The change in retail prices in the last ten years has not had a big general impact on the consumption of electricity or on energy saving. On the other hand, when the price increases of individual utilities are studied, the impact on energy saving at least in the short term can be seen. It seems that an increase of the fixed charges in relation to energy rates has been as a general trend after 1990. To promote energy saving the changing energy rates should be given special emphasis in determining electricity and district-heating tariffs. The opening of the electricity market means that the electricity suppliers face a new situation also when pricing their products. Customers and their expectations will play an increasingly role. (orig.)

  10. Implementation of ANN on CCHP system to predict trigeneration performance with consideration of various operative factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Taghavifar, Hadi; Saray, Rahim Khoshbakhti; Khalilarya, Shahram; Jafarmadar, Samad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ANN modeling tool was implemented on the CCHP system. • The best ANN topology was detected 10–8–9 with Levenberg–Marquadt algorithm. • The system is more sensitive of CC outlet temperature and turbine isentropic efficiency. • The lowest RMSE = 3.13e−5 and the best R 2 = 0.999 is related to lambda and second law efficiency terms, respectively. - Abstract: A detailed investigation was aimed based on numerical thermodynamic survey and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of the trigeneration system. The results are presented in two pivotal frameworks namely the sensitivity analysis and ANN prediction capability of proposed modeling. The underlying operative parameters were chosen as input parameters from different cycles and components, while the exergy efficiency, exergy loss, coefficient of performance, heating load exergy, lambda, gas turbine power, exergy destruction, actual outlet air compressor temperature, and heat recovery gas steam generator (HRSG) outlet temperature were taken as objective output parameters for the modeling purpose. Up to now, no significant step was taken to investigate the compound power plant with thermodynamic analyses and network predictability hybrid in such a detailed oriented approach. It follows that multilayer perceptron neural network with back propagation algorithm deployed with 10–8–9 configuration results in the modeling reliability ranged within R 2 = 0.995–0.999. When dataset treated with trainlm learning algorithm and diversified neurons, the mean square error (MSE) is obtained equal to 0.2175. This denotes a powerful modeling achievement in both scientific and industrial scale to save considerable computational cost on combined cooling, heating, and power system in accomplishment of boosting the energy efficiency and system maintenance

  11. Energy saving analyses on the reconstruction project in district heating system with distributed variable speed pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Xianjie; Lin, Duanmu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The mathematical model of economic frictional factor based on DVFSP DHS is established. • Influence factors of economic frictional factor are analyzed. • Energy saving in a DVFSP district heating system is presented and analyzed. - Abstract: Optimization of the district heating (DH) piping network is of vital importance to the economics of the whole DH system. The application of distributed variable frequency speed pump (DVFSP) in the district heating network has been considered as a technology improvement that has a potential in saving energy compared to the conventional central circulating pump (CCCP) district heating system (DHS). Economic frictional factor is a common design parameter used in DH pipe network design. In this paper, the mathematical model of economic frictional factor based on DVFSP DHS is established, and influence factors are analyzed, providing a reference for engineering designs for the system. According to the analysis results, it is studied that the energy efficiency in the DH system with the DVFSP is compared with the one in the DH system with conventional central circulating pump (CCCP) using a case based on a district heating network in Dalian, China. The results of the study on the case show that the average electrical energy saved is 49.41% of the one saved by the DH system with conventional central circulating pump in the primary network.

  12. Improving urban district heating systems and assessing the efficiency of the energy usage therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. E.; Sharapov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes issues in connection with improving urban district heating systems from combined heat power plants (CHPs), to propose the ways for improving the reliability and the efficiency of the energy usage (often referred to as “energy efficiency”) in such systems. The main direction of such urban district heating systems improvement suggests transition to combined heating systems that include structural elements of both centralized and decentralized systems. Such systems provide the basic part of thermal power via highly efficient methods for extracting thermal power plants turbines steam, while peak loads are covered by decentralized peak thermal power sources to be mounted at consumers’ locations, with the peak sources being also reserve thermal power sources. The methodology was developed for assessing energy efficiency of the combined district heating systems, implemented as a computer software product capable of comparatively calculating saving on reference fuel for the system.

  13. Analyzing variables for district heating collaborations between energy utilities and industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, P.; Svensson, I.L.; Trygg, L.

    2010-01-01

    One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is essential to nurture the business relationship. In summary, successful collaboration depends more on the individuals and organizations involved in the relationship between the two parties than on the technology used in the collaboration.

  14. Energy quality management for building clusters and districts (BCDs) through multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hai; Alanne, Kari; Martinac, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy quality management is applied from individual building to district. • A novel time-effective multi-objective design optimization scheme is proposed. • The scheme searches for exergy efficient and environmental solution for districts. • System reliability is considered and addressed in this paper. - Abstract: Renewable energy systems entail a significant potential to meet the energy requirements of building clusters and districts (BCDs) provided that local energy sources are exploited efficiently. Besides improving the energy efficiency by reducing energy consumption and improving the match between energy supply and demand, energy quality issues have become a key topic of interest. Energy quality management is a technique that aims at optimally utilizing the exergy content of various renewable energy sources. In addition to minimizing life-cycle CO 2 emissions related to exergy losses of an energy system, issues such as system reliability should be addressed. The present work contributes to the research by proposing a novel multi-objective design optimization scheme that minimizes the global warming potential during the life-cycle and maximizes the exergy performance, while the maximum allowable level of the loss of power supply probability (LPSP) is predefined by the user as a constraint. The optimization makes use of Genetic Algorithm (GA). Finally, a case study is presented, where the above methodology has been applied to an office BCD located in Norway. The proposed optimization scheme is proven to be efficient in finding the optimal design and can be easily enlarged to encompass more relevant objective functions

  15. Design of energy-efficient buildings using interaction between Building Simulation Programme and Energy Supply Simulations for District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Nagla, Inese

    potential of the energy saving in the society it is very important to address the decisive involvement of the end-users. The human behaviour is the factor that affects the most the energy use in low-energy buildings and should be included in energy simulations. The results can then be linked to programs...... the implementation of C02 neutral communities. A link between a dynamic energy simulation program for buildings and a simulation program for district heating networks is demonstrated. The results of the investigation give an example of how to analyze a community and make recommendations for applying the low...... in a cost-effective way in areas with linear heat densities down to 0.20 MWh/(m.year). Even in cases where the user behaviour is not optimal, the system is able to deliver heat to each customer. The low-energy district heating concept could be strategic for reaching ambitious energy and climate targets...

  16. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of a trigeneration (TRIGEN) system with a gas-diesel engine: Part II - An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balli, Ozgur; Aras, Haydar; Hepbasli, Arif

    2010-01-01

    The paper is Part 2 of the study on the thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of trigeneration system with a gas-diesel engine. In Part 1, thermodynamic and thermoeconomic methodologies for such a comprehensive analysis were provided, while this paper applies the developed methodology to an actual TRIGEN system with a rated output of 6.5 MW gas-diesel engine installed in the Eskisehir Industry Estate Zone, Turkey. Energy and exergy efficiencies, equivalent electrical efficiency, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) efficiency, fuel energy saving ratio, fuel exergy saving ratio and other thermodynamic performance parameters are determined for the TRIGEN system. The efficiencies of energy, exergy, PURPA and equivalent electrical efficiency of the entire system are found to be 58.97%, 36.13%, 45.7% and 48.53%, respectively. For the whole system and its components, exergetic cost allocations and various exergoeconomic performance parameters are calculated using the exergoeconomic analysis based on specific exergy costing method (SPECO). The specific unit exergetic cost of the net electrical power, heat energy in the Factory Heating Center (FHC) heating, heat energy in the Painting Factory Heating (PFH) and chilled water in the absorption chiller (ACh) produced by the TRIGEN system are obtained to be 45.94 US$/GJ, 29.98 US$/GJ, 42.42 US$/GJ and 167.52 US$/GJ, respectively.

  17. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: San Juan National Forest - Dolores Ranger District, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    This report summarizes the results from an energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Dolores Ranger District in the San Juan National Forest in Colorado. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the assessment with United States Forest Service (USFS) personnel on August 16-17, 2016, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use and implement renewable energy technologies. The assessment is approximately an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements.

  18. Proceedings of the Canadian District Energy Association's 9. annual conference and exhibition in association with the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance : Create, conserve, connect : District energy and energy efficiency for Canadian communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference provided an opportunity to demonstrate the latest developments in the supply and delivery of clean and efficient power, heating and cooling, with particular attention to proven energy solutions based on district energy and cogeneration technologies. Opportunities for distributed generation in Canada were presented, along with their associated risks and the impacts they have on business efficiency, communities and the environment. Topics of discussion focused on financing local energy projects, emission reduction implications, developing partnerships, best practices for energy systems, strategies for delivering energy efficiency, and policies that support energy solutions. The latest technological advances in research and development were also reviewed. District energy provides heating and cooling from a central plant to multiple users using piped steam through a series of supply and return pipes. Industrial cogeneration takes advantage of excess thermal capacity and reuses it to generate high-value electric power. Both district energy and cogeneration can save money for users, conserve resources, reduce pollution and offer sustainable energy solutions for the future. The conference featured 32 presentations, all of which were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  19. Energy Efficiency of Low-Temperature Deaeration of Makeup Water for a District Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharapov, V. I., E-mail: vlad-sharapov2008@yandex.ru; Kudryavtseva, E. V. [Ulyanovsk State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    It is shown that the temperature of makeup water in district heating systems has a strong effect on the energy efficiency of turbines of thermal power plants. A low-temperature deaeration process that considerably improves the energy efficiency of thermal power plants is developed. The desorbing agent is the gas supplied to the burners of the boiler. The energy efficiency of the process for a typical unit of thermal power plant is assessed.

  20. Parametric analysis of energy quality management for district in China using multi-objective optimization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hai; Yu, Zitao; Alanne, Kari; Xu, Xu; Fan, Liwu; Yu, Han; Zhang, Liang; Martinac, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A time-effective multi-objective design optimization scheme is proposed. • The scheme aims at exploring suitable 3E energy system for the specific case. • A realistic case located in China is used for the analysis. • Parametric study is investigated to test the effects of different parameters. - Abstract: Due to the increasing energy demands and global warming, energy quality management (EQM) for districts has been getting importance over the last few decades. The evaluation of the optimum energy systems for specific districts is an essential part of EQM. This paper presents a deep analysis of the optimum energy systems for a district sited in China. A multi-objective optimization approach based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) is proposed for the analysis. The optimization process aims to search for the suitable 3E (minimum economic cost and environmental burden as well as maximum efficiency) energy systems. Here, life cycle CO 2 equivalent (LCCO 2 ), life cycle cost (LCC) and exergy efficiency (EE) are set as optimization objectives. Then, the optimum energy systems for the Chinese case are presented. The final work is to investigate the effects of different energy parameters. The results show the optimum energy systems might vary significantly depending on some parameters

  1. Characterizing the energy flexibility of buildings and districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Rune Grønborg; Azar, Armin Ghasem; Lopes, Rui Amaral

    2018-01-01

    The large penetration rate of renewable energy sources leads to challenges in planning and controlling the energy production, transmission, and distribution in power systems. A potential solution is found in a paradigm shift from traditional supply control to demand control. To address such changes...... the demand through the use of penalty signals (e.g., price, CO2, etc.). For instance, CO2-based controllers can be used to accelerate the transition toa fossil-free society. Contrary to previous static approaches to quantify Energy Flexibility, the dynamic nature of the Flexibility Function enables...

  2. Book of abstracts: International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , which takes a sole focus on the electricity sector, the smart energy systems approach includes the entire energy system in its identification of suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. Focusing solely on the smart electricity grid often leads to the definition of transmission......It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the first International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating at Aalborg University, Copenhagen Campus on 25-26 August 2015. The conference is organised by the 4DH Strategic Research Centre in collaboration with Aalborg...... University and offers more than 70 presentations in 3 parallel sessions with more than 180 participants from 25 countries around the world. The aim is to present and discuss scientific findings and industrial experiences related to the development of Smart Energy Systems and future 4th Generation District...

  3. District of Surrey automated energy mangement project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In November 1981, the Municipality of Surrey was given a contract; under the Canada/British Columbia conservation and renewable energy demonstration agreement, to install a computerized building energy management system (BMS) at a central location with which to monitor and control the energy use in separate and different civic facilities via telephone lines (wireless links would have been feasible). The demonstration had three objectives: to establish the feasibility of centralized control via telephone lines, to collect energy performance data and thus, to determine the effectiveness of a BMS, and to reduce the energy costs to the municipal government. A Johnson Control JC/85/10 energy management computer was connected to seven separate buildings via telephone lines. The buildings represent 5 building types: 2 libraries, 3 swimming pools, 1 municipal office buildiing, 1 court house, and 1 low enforcement building. It took almost 6 months for the BMS to be fully installed in the facilities and an additional 6 months to fix it. An independent consultant was hired to evaluate the performance of the system in each building and thus, to determine its cost-effectiveness. Two periods of energy use were compared in the evaluation: May 1981 to April 1982 was the base year and September 1982 to August 1983 the demonstration year. The BMS was installed for a total cpital cost af about $123,000 and produced a first year energy cost savings of $38,600, yielding an average simple payback of 3.2 years. It was concluded that the demonstration was successful, and it is recommended that the federal governmnent provide further support to BMS demonstrations. 8 tabs.

  4. Bottom-up approach for decentralised energy planning. Case study of Tumkur district in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiremath, Rahul B. [Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur 413006 (India); Kumar, Bimlesh [Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Balachandra, P. [Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ravindranath, N.H. [CST, IISc, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Decentralized Energy Planning (DEP) is one of the options to meet the rural and small-scale energy needs in a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable way. The main aspect of the energy planning at decentralized level would be to prepare an area-based DEP to meet energy needs and development of alternate energy sources at least-cost to the economy and environment. Present work uses goal-programming method in order to analyze the DEP through bottom-up approach. This approach includes planning from the lowest scale of Tumkur district in India. The scale of analysis included village level - Ungra, panchayat level (local council) - Yedavani, block level - Kunigal and district level - Tumkur. The approach adopted was bottom-up (village to district) to allow a detailed description of energy services and the resulting demand for energy forms and supply technologies. Different scenarios are considered at four decentralized scales for the year 2005 and are developed and analyzed for the year 2020. Decentralized bioenergy system for producing biogas and electricity, using local biomass resources, are shown to promote development compared to other renewables. This is because, apart from meeting energy needs, multiple goals could be achieved such as self-reliance, local employment, and land reclamation apart from CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. (author)

  5. Bottom-up approach for decentralised energy planning: Case study of Tumkur district in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiremath, Rahul B., E-mail: rahulhiremath@gmail.co [Walchand Institute of Technology Solapur 413006 (India); Kumar, Bimlesh, E-mail: bimk@iitg.ernet.i [Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Balachandra, P., E-mail: balachandra_patil@hks.harvard.ed [Energy Technology Innovation Policy, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ravindranath, N.H., E-mail: ravi@ces.iisc.ernet.i [CST, IISc, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-02-15

    Decentralized Energy Planning (DEP) is one of the options to meet the rural and small-scale energy needs in a reliable, affordable and environmentally sustainable way. The main aspect of the energy planning at decentralized level would be to prepare an area-based DEP to meet energy needs and development of alternate energy sources at least-cost to the economy and environment. Present work uses goal-programming method in order to analyze the DEP through bottom-up approach. This approach includes planning from the lowest scale of Tumkur district in India. The scale of analysis included village level-Ungra, panchayat level (local council)-Yedavani, block level-Kunigal and district level-Tumkur. The approach adopted was bottom-up (village to district) to allow a detailed description of energy services and the resulting demand for energy forms and supply technologies. Different scenarios are considered at four decentralized scales for the year 2005 and are developed and analyzed for the year 2020. Decentralized bioenergy system for producing biogas and electricity, using local biomass resources, are shown to promote development compared to other renewables. This is because, apart from meeting energy needs, multiple goals could be achieved such as self-reliance, local employment, and land reclamation apart from CO{sub 2} emissions reduction.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Marcus; Gustafsson, Moa Swing; Myhren, Jonn Are; Bales, Chris; Holmberg, Sture

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving measures can be cost-effective as part of a planned renovation. • Primary energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption and CO_2 emissions are assessed for different electricity mixes. • EAHP can be a cost-effective and environmentally beneficial complement to district heating. • EAHP has lower LCC and significantly shorter payback time than ventilation with heat recovery. • Low-temperature ventilation radiators improve the COP of the heat pump. - Abstract: Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO_2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump. Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO_2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the

  7. Renewable energy in district heating grids. A realistic perspective?; Erneuerbare Energien in Waermenetzen. Eine realistische Perspektive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, Elke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschaftsarchitektur und Umweltplanung; Futterlieb, Matthias; Ohlhorst, Doerte [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Zentrum Technik und Gesellschaft (ZTG); Wenzel, Bernd [Ingenieurbuero fuer neue Energie (IfnE), Teltow (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    The heating sector holds high potentials for cutting CO{sub 2} emissions by using renewable energy. These potentials can be tapped either by substituting fossil fuels in individual heating units or by using renewable energy in district heating networks, which may be more efficient. This paper asks for the options to increase the share of renewable energy in Germany's district heating infrastructure and for the restrictions that are hampering further development in this field. It critically discusses the relevant technical, political and economic challenges and determinants. District heating networks fuelled by renewable energy are not only competing with fossil fuels in individual heating units. They are also facing the more fundamental question regarding the preconditions for a profitable and worthwhile operation of grid-bound heat supply. The economic viability of heat grids has to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis, since it depends predominantly on individual framework conditions. Those include a decreasing heat demand due to improving energy performance of buildings, competing gas grids already in place and the complex interest structures of the actors involved. The growth rates that were observed in the last years were predominantly achieved in small renewably fuelled district heating networks. Even under favourable framework conditions, there is a need for additional supportive measures to increase the share of renewable energy in district heating grids. This mix of policy instruments should encompass measures to increase the implementation rates of municipal heat utilization concepts, measures to decrease the initial investments needed, as well as public relations to improve the user perception of grid-bound heat supply. However, the options to increase the share of renewable heat in existing large-scale grids are considered to be rather limited. (orig.)

  8. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO 2 accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO 2 saving of 48 kg CO 2 /GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO 2 /GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  9. Use of KPIs in an integrated decision support system for energy efficient district retrofitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bektas, K.E.; Luiten, G.T.

    2014-01-01

    Retrofitting urban districts is a complex process. It deals with multiple stakeholders who have wide range of stakes, priorities, different time horizons and scale of investments. This complexity is boosted by the energy policies, as the retrofitting requires to incorporate both selection and use of

  10. Decision-making processes for low-energy districts of mixed tenure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.; Maas, G.J.; Eekhout, A.C.J.M.; Peter Roos, xx

    2009-01-01

    This research project investigates the diffusion of innovations in the construction of low-energy districts.The project draws both on deep connections to the construction industry and its professional practices, and on the potential to put this industry into contact with innovation, methods and

  11. Link between intermittent electrical energy sources and district heating sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo

    2016-01-01

    Energy has always been one of the key challenges in planning of societies' development worldwide. The COP conference in Paris in December 2015 has shown unprecedented mutual understanding of harmful consequences climate change can cause. Integrating power and heating sectors in an efficient way...

  12. Possibilities of using geothermal energy for district heating in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levterov, B.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the technical, economic and legal aspects of thermal water resources in Bulgaria is made. There is 137 sources of thermal waters in the country with a total flowrate of 3865 l/s and average temperature 44.5 o C. Some recommendations to various governmental bodies concerning thorough investigation, assessment and effective utilization of thermal waters as energy source are presented. 1 tab

  13. Road map for district heating. The role of district heating in the energy system. Main report; Denmark; Roadmap for fjernvarmen. Fjernvarmens rolle i energisystemet. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, M.; Aabye Moeller, A.; Eggert, A.; Bjerregaard, M. (Fjernvarmens Udviklingscenter, AArhus (Denmark)); Dyrelund, A. (Ramboell, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); OErsted Pedersen, H. (Ea Energianalyse, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Lund, H. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years many studies of how Denmark can be fossil free by 2050 it is agreed that district heating will play a crucial role. District heating is an important factor of phasing out fossil fuels in an energy-and cost-effective way. But the future energy supply without fossil fuels poses new requirements for district heating. In the future, district heating shall provide energy for low-energy houses, have low distribution losses and use a variety of heat sources such as geothermal, solar, waste, surplus heat, CHP and various biomass con-version processes. In addition, it must all be done in an energy efficient way and in an active interaction with production of electricity and electricity consumption and, through integration of electricity from wind, solar and wave power. Low temperature, use of heat pumps and the interaction with electricity and biomass will be keywords. It is not only in Denmark we will need an active development of future technologies and systems. Large parts of Europe and many other parts of the world need the same development, and today Denmark has a significant export in the market - an export that has risen sharply, despite the recent economic recession. There is thus a double need to actively promote the development of future district heating technologies. We will partly need the technology development to realize the goal of a fossil free society and secondly because it is necessary to maintain and expand the export. This report contains a number of proposals for concrete actions - a roadmap for the development of district heating. The project is anchored at the District Energy Development Center that will work for an implementation of the concrete project ideas after the project completion. There is a need to increase the activity level for development of district heating. There is therefore a need to ensure financing of this development. We suggest that this can be done by creating an opportunity for a more sustained funding, for

  14. Road map for district heating. The role of district heating in the energy system. Summary report; Denmark; Roadmap for fjernvarmen. Fjernvarmens rolle i energisystemet. Resumerapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, M.; Aabye Moeller, A.; Eggert, A.; Bjerregaard, M. (Fjernvarmens Udviklingscenter, AArhus (Denmark)); Dyrelund, A. (Ramboell, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); OErsted Pedersen, H. (Ea Energianalyse, Koebenhavn (Denmark)); Lund, H. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    In the recent years many studies of how Denmark can be fossil free by 2050 it is agreed that district heating will play a crucial role. District heating is an important factor of phasing out fossil fuels in an energy-and cost-effective way. But the future energy supply without fossil fuels poses new requirements for district heating. In the future, district heating shall provide energy for low-energy houses, have low distribution losses and use a variety of heat sources such as geothermal, solar, waste, surplus heat, CHP and various biomass con-version processes. In addition, it must all be done in an energy efficient way and in an active interaction with production of electricity and electricity consumption and, through integration of electricity from wind, solar and wave power. Low temperature, use of heat pumps and the interaction with electricity and biomass will be keywords. It is not only in Denmark we will need an active development of future technologies and systems. Large parts of Europe and many other parts of the world need the same development, and today Denmark has a significant export in the market - an export that has risen sharply, despite the recent economic recession. There is thus a double need to actively promote the development of future district heating technologies. We will partly need the technology development to realize the goal of a fossil free society and secondly because it is necessary to maintain and expand the export. This report contains a number of proposals for concrete actions - a roadmap for the development of district heating. The project is anchored at the District Energy Development Center that will work for an implementation of the concrete project ideas after the project completion. There is a need to increase the activity level for development of district heating. There is therefore a need to ensure financing of this development. We suggest that this can be done by creating an opportunity for a more sustained funding, for

  15. A Tale of Three District Energy Systems: Metrics and Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pass, Rebecca Zarin; Wetter, Michael; Piette, Mary Ann

    2017-08-01

    Improving the sustainability of cities is crucial for meeting climate goals in the next several decades. One way this is being tackled is through innovation in district energy systems, which can take advantage of local resources and economies of scale to improve the performance of whole neighborhoods in ways infeasible for individual buildings. These systems vary in physical size, end use services, primary energy resources, and sophistication of control. They also vary enormously in their choice of optimization metrics while all under the umbrella-goal of improved sustainability. This paper explores the implications of choice of metric on district energy systems using three case studies: Stanford University, the University of California at Merced, and the Richmond Bay campus of the University of California at Berkeley. They each have a centralized authority to implement large-scale projects quickly, while maintaining data records, which makes them relatively effective at achieving their respective goals. Comparing the systems using several common energy metrics reveals significant differences in relative system merit. Additionally, a novel bidirectional heating and cooling system is presented. This system is highly energy-efficient, and while more analysis is required, may be the basis of the next generation of district energy systems.

  16. System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidberg, T.; Olofsson, T.; Trygg, L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration. This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases. The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used. When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures. - Highlights: • Choice of building refurbishment measures leads to differences in system impact. • Building refurbishment in district heating systems reduces co-produced electricity. • Valuing biomass as a limited resource is crucial when assessing global GHG impact. • Building envelope measures decrease GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions more than ventilation measures.

  17. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  18. Thermo- economical consideration of Regenerative organic Rankine cycle coupling with the absorption chiller systems incorporated in the trigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anvari, Simin; Taghavifar, Hadi; Parvishi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new trigeneration cycle was studied from a new viewpoint of exergoeconomic and thermodynamic. • Organic Rankine and refrigeration cycles are used for recovery waste heat of cogeneration system. • Application of trigeneration cycles is advantageous in economical and thermodynamic aspects. - Abstract: In this paper, a combined cooling, heating and power cycle is proposed consisting of three sections of gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle, Regenerative organic Rankine cycle, and absorption refrigeration cycle. This trigeneration cycle is subjected to a thorough thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis. The principal goal followed in the investigation is to address the thermodynamic and exergoeconomic of a trigeneration cycle from a new prospective such that the economic and thermodynamic viability of incorporating Regenerative organic Rankine cycle, and absorption refrigeration cycle to the gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle is being investigated. Thus, the cost-effectiveness of the introduced method can be studied and further examined. The results indicate that adding Regenerative organic Rankine cycle to gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator cycle leads to 2.5% increase and the addition of absorption refrigeration cycle to the gas turbine and heat recovery steam generator/ Regenerative Organic Rankine cycle would cause 0.75% increase in the exergetic efficiency of the entire cycle. Furthermore, from total investment cost of the trigeneration cycle, only 5.5% and 0.45% results from Regenerative organic Rankine cycle and absorption refrigeration cycles, respectively.

  19. Energy efficiency improvements utilising mass flow control and a ring topology in a district heating network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laajalehto, Tatu; Kuosa, Maunu; Mäkilä, Tapio; Lampinen, Markku; Lahdelma, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Heating and cooling have a major role in the energy sector, covering 46% of total final energy use worldwide. District heating (DH) is a significant technology for improving the energy efficiency of heating systems in communities, because it enables waste heat sources to be utilised economically and therefore significantly reduces the environmental impacts of power generation. As a result of new and more stringent construction regulations for buildings, the heat demands of individual buildings are decreasing and more energy-efficient heating systems have to be developed. In this study, the energy efficiency of a new DH system which includes both a new control system called mass flow control and a new network design called a ring network is examined. A topology in the Helsinki region is studied by using a commercial DH network modelling tool, Grades Heating. The district heating network is attached to a wood-burning heat station which has a heat recovery system in use. Examination is performed by means of both technical and economic analysis. The new non-linear temperature programme that is required is adopted for supply and return temperatures, which allows greater temperature cooling and smaller flow rates. Lower district heating water temperatures are essential when reducing the heat losses in the network and heat production. Mass flow control allows smaller pressure drops in the network and thus reduces the pumping power. The aim of this study was to determine the most energy-efficient DH water supply temperatures in the case network. If the ring network design is utilised, the district heating system is easier to control. As a result the total heat consumption within the heating season is reduced compared to traditional DH systems. On the basis of the results, the new DH system is significantly more energy-efficient in the case network that was examined than the traditional design. For example, average energy losses within the constraints (which consist of heat

  20. Method for optimal design of pipes for low-energy district heating, with focus on heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The synergy between highly energy-efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy-saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Network transmission and distribution heat loss is one of the k...

  1. French know-how in the field of geothermal energy. District heating and electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This brochure is aimed at presenting the French expertise, public and private, at international level in the field of geothermal energy (district heating and electricity generation systems). It presents a summary of the French public policy framework, measures to support Research and Development, innovation and training and offers from private companies. It has been designed by the ADEME in cooperation with the French ministry for Ecology and Sustainable Development, the French association of geothermal energy professionals, Ubifrance (the French Agency for international business development) and the French renewable energies union

  2. Energy sustainable cities. From eco villages, eco districts towards zero carbon cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Łach, Janusz

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing energy consumption is the effect of sustainable design technics as among many others: designing buildings with solar access and natural ventilation, using climate responsive design materials and effective insulation. Contemporary examples of zero-carbon cities: Masdar City, United Arab Emirates and Dongtan, China, confirm technical feasibility of renewable energy by implementation of solar PV and wind technologies. The ecological city - medium or high density urban settlement separated by greenspace causes the smallest possible ecological footprint on the surrounding countryside through efficient use of land and its resources, recycling used materials and converting waste to energy. This paper investigates the concept of energy sustainable cities, examines, how urban settlements might affect building energy design in eco-villages, eco-districts (e.g. Vauban, Freiburg in Germany, Bo01 Malmo in Sweden), and discuss the strategies for achieving Zero Emission Cities principles in densely populated areas. It is focused on low energy architectural design solutions which could be incorporated into urban settlements to create ecological villages, districts and cities, designed with consideration of environmental impact, required minimal inputs of energy, water, food, waste and pollution.

  3. Cost of district heating using geothermal energy; Ist geothermische Waerme wirtschaftlich?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppermann, G [GRUNEKO AG, Ingenieure fuer Energiewirtschaft, Basel (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The environmental advantages of a district heating network using geothermal energy are obvious. On the other hand utilizing geothermal energy is considered to be very expensive. The goal of this paper is to compare the costs of geothermal energy with other renewable energy sources. Based on the costs of realized plants and projects the following energy sources have been analysed. Geothermal energy, water of tunnel-drainage, waste heat of a sewage disposal platn and waste wood. All plants have a district heating network. The results are a contribution to the actuel discussion about public subsiding of geothermal energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die oekologischen Vorteile einer geothermischen Fernwaermeversorgung sind fuer jeden, der Bohrungen in Erwaegung zieht, unschwer erkennbar. Wie steht es aber mit den Kosten einer geothermischen Nutzung? Hier beleben Horrorzahlen wie auch Wunschdenken die Diskussionen. Der Artikel beabsichtigt einen sachlichen Beitrag zu dieser Diskussion uz liefern. Konkrete Bauprojekte im Megawattbereich der GRUNEKO AG werden kostenmaessig nach gleichen Kriterien analysiert und verglichen. Auf goethermischer Seite wird ein Doublettensystem und eine Tunnelwasserwaermenutzung kostenmaessig analysiert. Als Quervergleich werden ebenfalls GRUNEKO-Projekte mit regenerierbaren Energietraegern herangezogen (Holzschnitzelanlage, Klaeranlagenabwaerme, Seewasser-Abkuehlung). Alle Analgen haben Waermeverteilnetze. Die nachgewiesenen Kostendifferenzen zwischen Geothermie und anderen regenerativen Waermversorgungen koennten einen Beitrag leisten zu der gegenwaertig aktuellen `Ueberpruefung staatlicher Foerderungsmassnahmen zugunsten einer verstaerkten Nutzung der Geothermie`. (orig.)

  4. Energy aspects of city districts and rural townships; Energieaspekte staedtischer und laendlicher Siedlungen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Arend, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Beaujean, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schneider, S. [Planungsbuero Jud AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the energy consumption of various residential districts in cities and in rural townships. The analysis examines the consumption of primary energy by residential buildings, their supply and disposal infrastructures and that of traffic induced by settlements. Also, grey energy: consumption for the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings and infrastructures as well as the consumption of primary energy for the production and disposal of individual motor vehicle traffic and public transport is reviewed. Four Swiss case studies are dealt with including largely homogenous residential districts in Effretikon, Oetwil am See, Uster and the City of Zurich. The results of the analyses made are presented in graphical form. The authors quote the great potential for the reduction of the consumption of settlement-dependent primary energy that lies in the fields of energy-efficiency of buildings, mobility and power consumption. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive appendix.

  5. Flexibility of a combined heat and power system with thermal energy storage for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuytten, Thomas; Claessens, Bert; Paredis, Kristof; Van Bael, Johan; Six, Daan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A generic model for flexibility assessment of thermal systems is proposed. ► The model is applied to a combined heat and power system with thermal energy storage. ► A centrally located storage offers more flexibility compared to individual units. ► Increasing the flexibility requires both a more powerful CHP and a larger buffer. - Abstract: The trend towards an increased importance of distributed (renewable) energy resources characterized by intermittent operation redefines the energy landscape. The stochastic nature of the energy systems on the supply side requires increased flexibility at the demand side. We present a model that determines the theoretical maximum of flexibility of a combined heat and power system coupled to a thermal energy storage solution that can be either centralized or decentralized. Conventional central heating, to meet the heat demand at peak moments, is also available. The implications of both storage concepts are evaluated in a reference district. The amount of flexibility created in the district heating system is determined by the approach of the system through delayed or forced operation mode. It is found that the distinction between the implementation of the thermal energy storage as a central unit or as a collection of local units, has a dramatic effect on the amount of available flexibility

  6. Effects of boosting the supply temperature on pipe dimensions of low-energy district heating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the dimensioning of the low-energy District Heating (DH) piping networks operating with a control philosophy of supplying heat in low-temperature such as 55 °C in supply and 25°C in return regularly while the supply temperature levels are being boosted in cold...... winter periods. The performance of the existing radiators that were formerly sized with over-dimensions was analyzed, its results being used as input data for the performance evaluation of the piping network of the low-energy DH system operating with the control philosophy in question. The optimization...

  7. Comparison of Low-temperature District Heating Concepts in a Long-Term Energy System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Yang, Xiaochen

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy systems. This study compares three alternative concepts for DH temperature level: Low temperature (55/25 °C), Ultra-low temperature with electric boosting (45/25 °C), and Ultra-low temperature with heat pump boosting (35/20 °C) taking into account the grid losses, production efficiencies......District heating (DH) systems are important components in an energy efficient heat supply. With increasing amounts of renewable energy, the foundation for DH is changing and the approach to its planning will have to change. Reduced temperatures of DH are proposed as a solution to adapt it to future...... and building requirements. The scenarios are modelled and analysed in the analysis tool EnergyPLAN and compared on primary energy supply and socioeconomic costs. The results show that the low temperature solution (55/25°C) has the lowest costs, reducing the total costs by about 100 M€/year in 2050....

  8. Demonstration of low-energy district heating for low-energy buildings in EnergyFlexHouse. Subreport 1; Demonstration af lavenergifjernvarme til lavenergibyggeri i energyflexhouse. Delrapport 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Christiansen, C.

    2011-05-15

    This report concerns demonstration of a new concept for low temperature district heating to low energy buildings with district heating flow temperatures on just above 50 deg. C. The concept was developed in a previous energy research project under the EFP-2007-programme supported by the Danish Energy Agency. New types of prototypes for district heating consumer substations and district heating pipes in very small dimensions were developed and manufactured. Demonstration has been carried out in the Danish Technological Institute test houses 'EnergyFlexHouse' with the objective of analyzing and evaluating the performance of the concept in a real low energy house. The EnergyFlexHouse is actually two houses either each designed to be energy neutral with PV's but also fulfilling the Danish building codes low energy class 2015 requirements without the PV's. The two houses are called 'Lab' and 'Family' and are supplied with district heating from a small local distribution network. The tests are carried out in the 'Lab' house connected with a district heating branch twin pipe with two service pipes of just 10 mm inner diameter/14 mm outer diameter and with outer casing diameter of 110 mm corresponding to series 2 insulation. An accumulator consumer substation with a 175 liter storage tank on the primary side (district heating side) has been subject to tests. Tree different tapping patterns of domestic hot water were performed including tapping patterns based on the European standard PrEN50440. Generally the results show that balancing the primary loading flow in relation to actual tapping patterns and domestic hot water consumption is important in order to keep the district heating return temperature as low as possible. Based on the results different options are proposed in order to optimize the operation of the consumer substation. Recently a new project under the EUDP 2010-II has received grant to continue improving and

  9. Renewable energy options in the Hradec Kralove and Pardubice districts, Eastern Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye Olesen, G.; Beranovski, J.

    1993-06-01

    A detailed evaluation of a number of potential renewable energy sources in the districts of Hradec Kralove and Pardubice in Northern Bohemia ( Czech Republic). The possible uses of solar energy in relation to solar water heating and district heating were analyzed. The use of wind power by connecting wind turbines to the grid was not considered to be cost effective owing to low wind resources in this area (mean wind speed at 10m height is below 3 m/s). Possibilities for producing methane were investigated in relation to manures, sewage sludges and wet organic household and industrial wastes. Biomass fuel resources were examined from the point of view of straw, wood chips and biomass crops. Hydroelectric plants already exist and there are some resources of geothermal heat at a lower temperature. Estimates are given of renewable energy potentials dealt with, showing current available resources and potential resources if 50% of household wastes are sorted in organic and inorganic fractions, if 20% of sugar wastes is used for producing methane, if use of wood chips significantly increases and if waste water plants are contructed in Hradec Kralove and Novy Bydzov. These changes could take place before the year 2000. Animal manures, straw and wood resources cover 80% of renewable energy resources potential, excluding solar energy and biomass crops. The compiled data also gives information on estimated investment and running costs. (AB)

  10. Modeling of District Heating Networks for the Purpose of Operational Optimization with Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśko, Michał; Bujalski, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this document is to present the topic of modeling district heating systems in order to enable optimization of their operation, with special focus on thermal energy storage in the pipelines. Two mathematical models for simulation of transient behavior of district heating networks have been described, and their results have been compared in a case study. The operational optimization in a DH system, especially if this system is supplied from a combined heat and power plant, is a difficult and complicated task. Finding a global financial optimum requires considering long periods of time and including thermal energy storage possibilities into consideration. One of the most interesting options for thermal energy storage is utilization of thermal inertia of the network itself. This approach requires no additional investment, while providing significant possibilities for heat load shifting. It is not feasible to use full topological models of the networks, comprising thousands of substations and network sections, for the purpose of operational optimization with thermal energy storage, because such models require long calculation times. In order to optimize planned thermal energy storage actions, it is necessary to model the transient behavior of the network in a very simple way - allowing for fast and reliable calculations. Two approaches to building such models have been presented. Both have been tested by comparing the results of simulation of the behavior of the same network. The characteristic features, advantages and disadvantages of both kinds of models have been identified. The results can prove useful for district heating system operators in the near future.

  11. Introduction of renewable energy sources in the district heating system of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Margaritis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The district heating (DH system of Greece, mainly supported from lignite fired stations, is facing lately significant challenges. Stricter emission limits, decreased efficiency due to old age and increased costs are major challenges of the lignite sector and are expected to result in the decommissioning of several lignite-fired units in the coming years. As a result, managers of DH networks are currently investigating alternative scenarios for the substitution of thermal power that it is expected to be lost, through the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES into the system. In this paper, the DH systems of Kozani and Ptolemaida are examined regarding possible introduction of RES. The first study examines district heating of Kozani and alternative future options for covering a part of city’s thermal load whereas the second study refers to a biomass CHP plant (ORC technology, 1MWe, 5MWth to be powered from a biomass mixture (wood chips and straw.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine trigeneration system for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Lawrence Kar Chung; Wilkins, Steven; McGlashan, Niall; Urban, Bernhard; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Shipping contributes 4.5% to global CO2 emissions and is not covered by the Kyoto Agreement. One method of reducing CO2 emissions on land is combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) or trigeneration, with typical combined thermal efficiencies of over 80%. Large luxury yachts are seen as an ideal entry point to the off-shore market for this developing technology considering its current high cost. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining a SOFC-GT system and an absorption heat pump (AHP) in a trigeneration system to drive the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and electrical base-load systems. A thermodynamic model is used to simulate the system, with various configurations and cooling loads. Measurement of actual yacht performance data forms the basis of this system simulation. It is found that for the optimum configuration using a double effect absorption chiller in Ship 1, the net electric power increases by 47% relative to the electrical power available for a conventional SOFC-GT-HVAC system. This is due to more air cooled to a lower temperature by absorption cooling; hence less electrical cooling by the conventional HVAC unit is required. The overall efficiency is 12.1% for the conventional system, 34.9% for the system with BROAD single effect absorption chiller, 43.2% for the system with double effect absorption chiller. This shows that the overall efficiency of a trigeneration system is far higher when waste heat recovery happens. The desiccant wheel hardly reduces moisture from the outdoor air due to a relative low mass flow rate of fuel cell exhaust available to dehumidify a very large mass flow rate of HVAC air, Hence, desiccant wheel is not recommended for this application.

  13. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  14. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  15. Operational Planning of Low-Energy District Heating Systems Connected to Existing Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    . The response of the radiator heating systems at different levels of supply temperature was used to form the operational planning of the low-energy DH system, which determined the design parameters of the low-energy DH network in terms of overall mass flow requirement and the return temperature from...... the buildings. Since the existing buildings were considered to be renovated to low-energy class, the operational planning was simultaneously modelled for both present high-demand and future low-demand situations of the same case area.......This article focuses on low-energy District Heating (DH) systems operating in low-temperatures such as 55°C in terms of supply and 25°C in terms of return in connection with existing buildings. Since the heat loss from the network has a significant impact in case of supplying heat to low...

  16. Sustainable energy in cities: methodology and results of a summer course providing smart solutions for a new district in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Lobaccaro, Gabriele; Carlucci, Salvatore; Wang, Ruzhu; Li, Yong; Finocchiaro, Luca; Dai, Yanjun; Eikevik, Trygve Magne; Wyckmans, Annemie

    2017-01-01

    A systemic approach for integrated urban energy planning and design can increase energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and bioclimatic strategies to lower the energy footprint at building, district and city scale. Such approach requires experts that are not just proficient in their distinct energy-related disciplines, but, above all, that are trained in interdisciplinary project cooperation. This approach was adopted in the summer course entitled Sustainable energy in cities....

  17. Advancing district energy development in Canada : a process for site selection, review and community participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    Municipalities are giving greater consideration to the role of energy in the design, development, and operation of communities. Organizations and governments around the world are beginning to assess various energy risks beyond just the generation or delivery of energy. Municipalities planning for population growth no longer include only the potential increases in revenue from property taxes or the requirement to expand urban growth boundaries to accommodate new development. Energy planning requires an understanding of how communities can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and local energy consumption. This report presented the development of a process in order to assist decision makers, business leaders and local citizens in reviewing the role of energy in urban regions and how district energy (DE) can be part of the solution. The report presented an overview of the approach developed to identify 10 communities across Canada for the application of DE to assist with urban revitalization, brownfield remediation, community economic development, and sustainable energy conservation. The report outlined the development of an energy selection framework and how the framework could be replicated in urban regions to identify the interest in a community for DE. It was concluded that development of a DE system is complex and requires consideration for the interaction of land use policies and energy supply goals, the support of senior decision makers at the public and private level, an open dialogue between planners, engineers, utility operators and developers, as well as an informed and involved citizens. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 8 appendices

  18. District heat, energy for fore-sighted people. Proceedings; Energie fuer Menschen mit Weitblick. Vortragsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The proceedings volume contains a great part of the papers presented, but some are represented only by copies of the overheads which accompanied the papers. The lecture meeting was devoted to the following major topics: Economical and safe supply of district heat, outlook on the future of the district heat supply industry in a liberalized market, customer relationship management taking into account contracting, information and communication via call centers, and other forms of guidance for decision making.(GL) [German] Vortraege vorliegend teils als Manuskript, teils als Folien mit folgenden Schwerpunkten: Die wirtschaftliche und sichere Versorgung durch Fernwaerme, die Zukunft der Fernwaerme im liberalisierten Markt, der Weg zum Kunden im Hinblick auf Contracting, Kommunikation, Betreuung sowie Beratung und Entscheidungsfindung.(GL)

  19. Cost and primary energy efficiency of small-scale district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed minimum-cost options for small-scale DHSs under different contexts. • District heat production cost increases with reduced DHS scales. • Fewer technical options are suitable for small-scale DHSs. • Systems with combined technologies are less sensitive to changes in fuel prices. - Abstract: Efficient district heat production systems (DHSs) can contribute to achieving environmental targets and energy security for countries that have demands for space and water heating. The optimal options for a DHS vary with the environmental and social-political contexts and the scale of district heat production, which further depends on the size of the community served and the local climatic conditions. In this study, we design a small-scale, minimum-cost DHS that produces approximately 100 GWh heat per year and estimate the yearly production cost and primary energy use of this system. We consider conventional technologies, such as heat-only boilers, electric heat pumps and combined heat and power (CHP) units, as well as emerging technologies, such as biomass-based organic Rankine cycle (BORC) and solar water heating (SWH). We explore how different environmental and social-political situations influence the design of a minimum-cost DHS and consider both proven and potential technologies for small-scale applications. Our calculations are based on the real heat load duration curve for a town in southern Sweden. We find that the district heat production cost increases and that the potential for cogeneration decreases with smaller district heat production systems. Although the selection of technologies for a minimum-cost DHS depends on environmental and social-political contexts, fewer technical options are suitable for small-scale systems. Emerging technologies such as CHP-BORC and SWH improve the efficiency of primary energy use for heat production, but these technologies are more costly than conventional heat-only boilers. However, systems with

  20. Visions of sustainable urban energy systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Ursula [HFT Stuttgart (Germany). zafh.net - Centre of Applied Research - Sustainable Energy Technology; Mikosch, Milena [Steinbeis-Zentrum, Stuttgart (Germany). Europaeischer Technologietransfer; Liesner, Lisa (eds.)

    2010-09-15

    Within the polycity final conference from 15th to 17th September, 2010, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Visions of sustainable urban energy system (Ursula Eicker); (2) Words of welcome (Tanja Goenner); (3) Zero-energy Europe - We are on our way (Jean-Marie Bemtgen); (4) Polycity - Energy networks in sustainable cities An introduction (Ursula Pietzsch); (5) Energy efficient city - Successful examples in the European concerto initiative (Brigitte Bach); (6) Sustainable building and urban concepts in the Catalonian polycity project contributions to the polycity final conference 2010 (Nuria Pedrals); (7) Energy efficient buildings and renewable supply within the German polycity project (Ursula Eicker); (8) Energy efficient buildings and cities in the US (Thomas Spiegehalter); (9) Energy efficient communities - First results from an IEA collaboration project (Reinhard Jank); (10) The European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD) - Lessons learned (Eduardo Maldonado); (11) Passive house standard in Europe - State-of-the-art and challenges (Wolfgang Feist); (12) High efficiency non-residential buildings: Concepts, implementations and experiences from the UK (Levin Lomas); (13) This is how we can save our world (Franz Alt); (14) Green buildings and renewable heating and cooling concepts in China (Yanjun Dai); (15) Sustainable urban energy solutions for Asia (Brahmanand Mohanty); (16) Description of ''Parc de l'Alba'' polygeneration system: A large-scale trigeneration system with district heating within the Spanish polycity project (Francesc Figueras Bellot); (17) Improved building automation and control systems with hardware-in-the loop solutions (Martin Becker); (18) The Italian polycity project area: Arquata (Luigi Fazari); (19) Photovoltaic system integration: In rehabilitated urban structures: Experiences and performance results from the Italian polycity project in Turin (Franco

  1. Romania needs a strategy for thermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leca Aureliu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector in Romania consists of three sub-sectors: electricity, natural gas and heat. Among these, the sub-sector of thermal energy is in the most precarious situation because it has been neglected for a long time. This sub-sector is particularly important both due to the amount of final heat consumption (of over 50% of final energy consumption, and to the fact that it has a direct negative effect on the population, industry and services. This paper presents the main directions for developing a modern strategy of the thermal energy sub-sector, which would fit into Romania’s Energy Strategy that is still in preparation This is based on the author’s 50 years of experience in this field that includes knowledge about the processes and the equipment of thermal energy, expertise in the management and restructuring of energy companies and also knowledge of the specific legislation. It is therefore recommended, following the European regulations and practices, the promotion and upgrading of district heating systems using efficient cogeneration, using trigeneration in Romania, modernizing buildings in terms of energy use, using of renewable energy sources for heating, especially biomass, and modernizing the energy consumption of rural settlements.

  2. Comparative study for endenergy supply with nuclear district heating and with nuclear long distance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, G.

    1975-07-01

    The future energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany will be orientated to secure energy carriers. Moreover economical energy consumption and environmental protection will be a force for an increased application of district heating and nuclear long distance energy. The technics of generation, transport and distribution of the two energy carriers will be discussed, besides a short review of application areas and potentials. The cost comparisons by models show that there are special advantages for both systems. Nevertheless the conclusions from the study can be to favour nuclear long distance energy because of its wide application range in the whole heat market. But there is also the competition with combined heat and power generation on fossil basis, as practised in many industrial companies. As a result of a regional analysis of the area Aachen-Moenchengladbach-Koeln, the cost advantages of the nuclear long distance energy as a parameter of current prices are confirmed. Nuclear long distance energy, in combination with the high temperature reactor and a developed technic of catalysts up to temperatures of 900 K, is an energy source which will be independant of regional necessities, secure, non pollutant and economic. (orig.) [de

  3. Tri-generation System based on Municipal Waste Gasification, Fuel Cell and an Absorption Chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannis Katsaros

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the design of a novel tri-generation system based on gasification of municipal solid wastes, a solid oxide fuel cell and an ammonia-water absorption chiller. Tri-generation systems can be implemented in buildings such as hospitals and hotels, where there is a continuous and large demand for electricity, heating and cooling. The system is modelled in Aspen Plus and the influence of different operating parameters on the system performance was studied. The findings suggest that low air equivalent ratios and high gasification temperatures enhance the overall system performance. Syngas cleaning with metal sorbents zinc oxide and sodium bicarbonate for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride concentrations proved to be very effective, reducing the concentration of contaminants to < 1 ppm (part per million levels. The possibility of covering the demand profiles of a specific building was also investigated: the system could fully meet the electricity and cooling demands, whereas the heat requirements could be satisfied only up to 55%. Moreover, assuming 20 years of operation, the payback period was 4.5 years and the net present value exceeded 5 million euros.

  4. Optimization of a Solar-Driven Trigeneration System with Nanofluid-Based Parabolic Trough Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bellos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to optimize and to evaluate a solar-driven trigeneration system which operates with nanofluid-based parabolic trough collectors. The trigeneration system includes an organic Rankine cycle (ORC and an absorption heat pump operating with LiBr-H2O which is powered by the rejected heat of the ORC. Toluene, n-octane, Octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM and cyclohexane are the examined working fluids in the ORC. The use of CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticles in the Syltherm 800 (base fluid is investigated in the solar field loop. The analysis is performed with Engineering Equation Solver (EES under steady state conditions in order to give the emphasis in the exergetic optimization of the system. Except for the different working fluid investigation, the system is optimized by examining three basic operating parameters in all the cases. The pressure in the turbine inlet, the temperature in the ORC condenser and the nanofluid concentration are the optimization variables. According to the final results, the combination of toluene in the ORC with the CuO nanofluid is the optimum choice. The global maximum exergetic efficiency is 24.66% with pressure ratio is equal to 0.7605, heat rejection temperature 113.7 °C and CuO concentration 4.35%.

  5. District energy-saving visions for Town of Towa; Towa machi chiiki sho energy vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The energy-saving visions are drawn for Town of Towa, Iwate Pref., to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The priority projects in the energy-saving visions include introduction of energy-saving type vehicles, houses/buildings, illuminators; introduction of solar energy utilization systems and alternative energy (e.g., wood, wastes from domestic animals and microhydroelectric power generation); and monitoring/observation of energy consumption situations and energy-saving education. The energy-saving target is set at 3,120kL as crude oil. The energy-saving activities studied for the administrative and public sectors include introduction of energy-saving type vehicles and buildings; introduction of solar energy utilization systems (for roads and public facilities when they are replaced) and microhydroelectric power generation; and monitoring/observation of energy consumption situations and energy-saving education. The energy-saving target is set at 80kL as crude oil. (NEDO)

  6. Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goggio Borgeson, Merrian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Zimring, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-04-01

    This guide focuses on clean energy financing options for school administrators, facility managers, and other K-12 school decision makers who are considering investments in high performance school projects. This guide explicitly focuses on comprehensive energy upgrades, those that involve multiple measures and are targeted toward achieving significant energy savings. Successful implementation of clean energy upgrades in schools is a matter of understanding the opportunity, making the commitment, and creatively tapping into available financing. This guide attempts to provide the foundation needed for successful projects in U.S. schools. It walks through the financing options available to K-12 schools and provides case studies of six school districts from around the country.

  7. Assessing and optimizing the economic and environmental impacts of cogeneration/district energy systems using an energy equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.J.; Rosen, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Energy equilibrium models can be valuable aids in energy planning and decision-making. In such models, supply is represented by a cost-minimizing linear submodel and demand by a smooth vector-valued function of prices. In this paper, we use the energy equilibrium model to study conventional systems and cogeneration-based district energy (DE) systems for providing heating, cooling and electrical services, not only to assess the potential economic and environmental benefits of cogeneration-based DE systems, but also to develop optimal configurations while accounting for such factors as economics and environmental impact. The energy equilibrium model is formulated and solved with software called WATEMS, which uses sequential non-linear programming to calculate the intertemporal equilibrium of energy supplies and demands. The methods of analysis and evaluation for the economic and environmental impacts are carefully explored. An illustrative energy equilibrium model of conventional and cogeneration-based DE systems is developed within WATEMS to compare quantitatively the economic and environmental impacts of those systems for various scenarios. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Low-energy district heating in energy-efficient building areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2011-01-01

    of a low-energy network for low-energy houses in Denmark. We took into account the effect of human behaviour on energy demand, the effect of the number of buildings connected to the network, a socio-economic comparison with ground source heat pumps, and opportunities for the optimization of the network...... to 0.20 MWh/(m year), and that the levelized cost of energy in low-energy DH supply is competitive with a scenario based on ground source heat pumps. The investment costs represent up to three quarters of the overall expenditure, over a time horizon of 30 years; so, the implementation of an energy...... system that fully relies on renewable energy needs substantial capital investment, but in the long term this is sustainable from the environmental and socio-economic points of view. Having demonstrated the value of the low-energy DH concept, we evaluated various possible designs with the aim of finding...

  9. The role of district heating in decarbonising the EU energy system and a comparison with existing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible...... are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emission targets by 2050...

  10. Model-based energy performance assessment of the world largest underground seasonal thermal energy storage in a pilot district heating system in Chifeng City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    District heating systems play an important role in supporting energy transition by using and storing energy delivered by renewable and other low-grade energy sources such as industrial waste heat. However, this low-grade heat is not always able to satisfy the heating demand, including space heating

  11. Application of large underground seasonal thermal energy storage in district heating system : a model-based energy performance assessment of a pilot system in Chifeng, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) technology is a proven solution to resolve the seasonal discrepancy between heating energy generation from renewables and building heating demands. This research focuses on the performance assessment of district heating (DH) systems powered by low-grade energy

  12. An application of data mining in district heating substations for improving energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Puning; Zhou, Zhigang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Automatic meter reading system is capable of collecting and storing a huge number of district heating (DH) data. However, the data obtained are rarely fully utilized. Data mining is a promising technology to discover potential interesting knowledge from vast data. This paper applies data mining methods to analyse the massive data for improving energy performance of DH substation. The technical approach contains three steps: data selection, cluster analysis and association rule mining (ARM). Two-heating-season data of a substation are used for case study. Cluster analysis identifies six distinct heating patterns based on the primary heat of the substation. ARM reveals that secondary pressure difference and secondary flow rate have a strong correlation. Using the discovered rules, a fault occurring in remote flow meter installed at secondary network is detected accurately. The application demonstrates that data mining techniques can effectively extrapolate potential useful knowledge to better understand substation operation strategies and improve substation energy performance.

  13. The potential of district heating using geothermal energy. A case study, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agioutantis, Zacharias; Bekas, Athanassios

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using low-enthalpy geothermal energy from the geothermal field of Sousaki in the province of Korinthos, Greece, to cover the thermal needs of the nearby town of Ag. Theodori. The possibility of developing a system of district heating was examined based on a proposed town model. Total thermal demands were calculated on the basis of a model dwelling and prevailing weather conditions in the area. Subsequently, a heat transfer circuit is proposed, including the distribution network, the heat exchanger, the production and reinjection pumps, and the pumping station. Finally, energy indices are presented, such as demand in tons of equivalent oil and CO 2 emissions. (Author)

  14. A tri-generation retrofit towards green hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, Birol I.; Erol, Ozgur; Can Bayram, Doga [Baskent University (Turkey)], email: bkilkis@baskent.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    According to US Department of Energy statistics, hospitals consume large amounts of energy. Most of this energy involves electricity from steam and goes to providing high quality, reliable services. Energy from steam is an aging technology with low exergy efficiency. It needs to be replaced if the hospitals are to become 'green'. Retrofitting has to be done with various issues of hygiene in mind, both during and after the retrofit. This makes it a difficult task. This paper discusses a provisional technique that maintains the steam heating system while the human and infrastructure environments are adjusted to the retrofit without interfering with the hospital interior. This technique was evolved on the basis of a case study of energy and exergy-efficient thermo-mechanical systems. Results show that steam heating is an outdated system, which is harmful to the environment in terms of CO2 emissions and the energy and exergy points of view. Savings of more than 50% of the fuel presently used in hospitals could be saved with more rational utilization of energy.

  15. Development of an integrated energy benchmark for a multi-family housing complex using district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaewook; Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon; Kim, Jimin; Lee, Minhyun; Jeong, Kwangbok

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy benchmarks for MFHC using district heating were developed. • We consider heating, hot water, electricity, and water energy consumption. • The benchmarks cover the site EUI, source EUI, and CO_2 emission intensity. • The benchmarks were developed through data mining and statistical methodologies. • The developed benchmarks provide fair criteria to evaluate energy efficiency. - Abstract: The reliable benchmarks are required to evaluate building energy efficiency fairly. This study aims to develop the energy benchmarks and relevant process for a multi-family housing complex (MFHC), which is responsible for huge CO_2 emissions in South Korea. A database, including the information on building attributes and energy consumption of 503 MFHCs, was established. The database was classified into three groups based on average enclosed area per household (AEA) through data mining techniques. The benchmarks of site energy use intensity (EUI), source EUI, and CO_2 emission intensity (CEI) were developed from Groups 1, 2, and 3. Representatively, the developed benchmarks of CEI for Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 28.17, 24.16, and 20.96 kg-CO_2/m"2 y, respectively. A comparative analysis using the operational rating identified that the developed benchmarks could solve the irrationality of the original benchmarks from overall database. In the case of the original benchmarks, 93% of small-AEA-groups and 16% of large-AEA-groups received lower grades. In the case of the developed benchmark, the upper and lower grades in Groups 1–3 were both adjusted to 50%. The proposed process for developing energy benchmark is applicable to evaluate the energy efficiency of other buildings, in other regions.

  16. Analysis of energy demand, and evaluation of energy conservation measures in urban districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1994-01-01

    Mitsubishi Research Institute has analyzed the energy demand of a typical Japanese city, Yokohama, as well as the distribution of fossil-energy flow, and the final consumption by sectors. It has evaluated the effectiveness of various energy conservation measures, (e.g., cogeneration, electric cars, insulation,...) in countering the global warming trend. This study defines a viable methodology which may be utilized, in the future, in examining the effectiveness of environmental policies. (TEC). 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Process of optimization of district heat production by utilizing waste energy from metallurgical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Fužir, Miran; Slatinek, Matic; Šepul, Tanja; Plesnik, Kristijan; Lečnik, Samo

    2017-07-01

    In a consortium with SIJ (Slovenian Steel Group), Metal Ravne, the local community of Ravne na Koro\\vskem and the public research Institut Jožef Stefan, with its registered office in Slovenia, Petrol Energetika, d.o.o. set up a technical and technological platform of an innovative energy case for a transition of steel industry into circular economy with a complete energy solution called »Utilization of Waste Heat from Metallurgical Processes for District Heating of Ravne na Koro\\vskem. This is the first such project designed for a useful utilization of waste heat in steel industry which uses modern technology and innovative system solutions for an integration of a smart, efficient and sustainable heating and cooling system and which shows a growth potential. This will allow the industry and cities to make energy savings, to improve the quality of air and to increase the benefits for the society we live in. On the basis of circular economy, we designed a target-oriented co-operation of economy, local community and public research institute to produce new business models where end consumers are put into the centre. This innovation opens the door for steel industry and local community to a joint aim that is a transition into efficient low-carbon energy systems which are based on involvement of natural local conditions, renewable energy sources, the use of waste heat and with respect for the principles of sustainable development.

  18. Enviro-exergy sustainability analysis of boiler evolution in district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, M.; Rezaie, B.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations into energy resources are important from the point of energy sustainability. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of the operating boilers at the University of Idaho (UI) district energy plant through an exergy analysis. The biomass boiler uses western red cedar chips from nearby lumber mills and provides 95% of the steam requirements of the main campus of UI in Moscow, ID, USA. Thermodynamic analysis reveals a thermal efficiency of 76% and an exergy efficiency of 24% for the biomass boiler. A combustion model is developed to determine the primary emissions products of both the bone dry wood chips and natural gas fuels. CO 2 comprises 26% of the bone dry biomass emissions and 8% of the natural gas emissions products. Testing results of the biomass boiler exhaust stack show CO 2 emissions of 14% when an average moisture content of 33% is accounted for. An overview of the evolution of the energy plant is discussed, showing the generational differences in each boiler. By using a biomass fuel source, the cost per 1000 kg of steam produced is on average 63% lower than using natural gas, resulting in savings of over $1 million annually. - Highlights: • Exergy efficiency comparison of biomass and natural gas boilers. • Moisture content in biomass reduces average heating value and exergy efficiency. • Local sustainable energy sources can result in economic savings over fossil fuels. • Older boilers can have comparable efficiencies with newer ones after improvements.

  19. Risk assessment of new pricing strategies in the district heating market. A case study at Sundsvall Energi AB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkqvist, Olof; Idefeldt, Jim; Larsson, Aron

    2010-01-01

    The price structure of district heating has been no major scientific issue for the last decades in energy-related research. However, today trends in district heating pricing tend to move towards a more customer-oriented approach with predetermined prices under a longer periods, leading to a more complex price structure. If a district heating supplier offers district heating with predetermined prices in order to compete with similar electricity offers, the financial risk of the new price structure is significantly higher than the risk of an ordinary variable cost offer based on short-run marginal cost. In contrary to an electricity seller, the district heating company cannot transfer all of the risk of predetermined prices to the financial market, instead the company is thrown upon its own ability to handle the risk by, e.g., hedging its own energy purchase. However, all uncertainties cannot be coped with in this manner. Thus, there is a need for a methodology that can be used to estimate the financial risk of different price structures and to value different opportunities to reduce the risk. In this article, we propose a methodology, implemented in prototype software, to evaluate the risk associated with new price structures in district heating. (author)

  20. On the Reliability of Optimization Results for Trigeneration Systems in Buildings, in the Presence of Price Uncertainties and Erroneous Load Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piacentino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration and trigeneration plants are widely recognized as promising technologies for increasing energy efficiency in buildings. However, their overall potential is scarcely exploited, due to the difficulties in achieving economic viability and the risk of investment related to uncertainties in future energy loads and prices. Several stochastic optimization models have been proposed in the literature to account for uncertainties, but these instruments share in a common reliance on user-defined probability functions for each stochastic parameter. Being such functions hard to predict, in this paper an analysis of the influence of erroneous estimation of the uncertain energy loads and prices on the optimal plant design and operation is proposed. With reference to a hotel building, a number of realistic scenarios is developed, exploring all the most frequent errors occurring in the estimation of energy loads and prices. Then, profit-oriented optimizations are performed for the examined scenarios, by means of a deterministic mixed integer linear programming algorithm. From a comparison between the achieved results, it emerges that: (i the plant profitability is prevalently influenced by the average “spark-spread” (i.e., ratio between electricity and fuel price and, secondarily, from the shape of the daily price profiles; (ii the “optimal sizes” of the main components are scarcely influenced by the daily load profiles, while they are more strictly related with the average “power to heat” and “power to cooling” ratios of the building.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Modular Solar Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of solar thermal power (STP system, a novel modular system combining cooling, heating, and power generation (CCHP is proposed and introduced in this work. This modular CCHP system can simultaneously provide 10 kW electricity, −15~5°C coolant, and 60°C hot water to meet the requirements of cooling, heating, and electricity in a general family or other fields. The flow chart and working process of the modular system are introduced, based on which the energy and exergy efficiencies at the CCHP and STP operation modes are primarily evaluated and discussed. The results show that when the output electricity is constant, the overall efficiencies of energy and exergy of the system operating at the CCHP mode are 9.37 times and 2.62 times as big as those of the system operating at the STP mode, respectively. Thus, the modular solar thermal CCHP system can improve the energy and exergy efficiencies. Furthermore, calculation shows that both the overall energy and exergy efficiencies decrease with increase of inlet vapor temperature at given inlet vapor pressure, but both the efficiencies increase with increase of inlet vapor pressure at given inlet temperature.

  2. Energy efficiency and economic feasibility of CCHP driven by stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Huang, X.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of energy efficiency evaluation and economic feasibility analysis of a small scale trigeneration system for combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP) with an available Stirling engine. Trigeneration systems have a large potential of energy saving and economical efficiency. The decisive values for energetic efficiency evaluation of such systems are the primary energy rate and comparative primary energy saving (Δq), while the economic feasibility analysis of such systems relates the avoided cost, the total annual saving and payback period. The investigation calculates and compares the energy saving and economic efficiency of trigeneration system with Stirling engine against contemporary conventional independent cooling, heating and power, showing that a CCHP system saves fuel resources and has the assurance of economic benefits

  3. Environmental considerations for geothermal energy as a source for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    Geothermal energy currently provides a stable and environmentally attractive heat source for approximately 20 district heating (DH) systems in the US. The use of this resource eliminates nearly 100% of the conventional fuel consumption (and, hence, the emissions) of the loads served by these systems. As a result, geothermal DH systems can rightfully claim the title of the most fuel-efficient DH systems in operation today. The cost of producing heat from a geothermal resource (including capitalization of the production facility and cost for pumping) amounts to an average of $1.00 per million Btu (0.0034 $/kWh). The major environmental challenge for geothermal systems is proper management of the producing aquifer. Many systems are moving toward injection of the geothermal fluids to ensure long-term production

  4. Geothermal and Trigeneration Systems as Innovative and EnvironmentallyFriendly Solutions for Telecommunication Plant Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Trotta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a model-based analysis of innovative cooling systems, to be deployed in telecommunication (TLC plants in consideration of their size, geographical location and typology (e.g. central Offices or data-centers. Environmentally friendly systems, such as geothermal heat pumps and trigeneration plants, were considered. The trade-off between the investment and operating costs was first analyzed, followed by a comparative evaluation of economic savings achievable via each candidate solution with respect to reference benchmarks, here represented by traditional air-water heat pump and conventional interaction with electrical grid. In this way, a preliminary macroscopic assessment of the best solutions was accomplished, according to the different scenarios (i.e. small or big TLC plant under investigation. A more detailed analysis, concerning the comparison between traditional and geothermal systems, was specifically carried out to evaluate savings as a function of the external temperature and, consequently, of geographical location.

  5. Integrated gasification and Cu-Cl cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghahosseini, S; Dincer, I; Naterer, G F [University of Ontario, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Institute of Technology

    2011-02-15

    This paper develops and analyzes an integrated process model of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and a thermochemical copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle for trigeneration of hydrogen, steam and electricity. The process model is developed with Aspen HYSYS software. By using oxygen instead of air for the gasification process, where oxygen is provided by the integrated Cu-Cl cycle, it is found that the hydrogen content of produced syngas increases by about 20%, due to improvement of the gasification combustion efficiency and reduction of syngas NOx emissions. Moreover, about 60% of external heat required for the integrated Cu-Cl cycle can be provided by the IGCC plant, with minor modifications of the steam cycle, and a slight decrease of IGCC overall efficiency. Integration of gasification and thermochemical hydrogen production can provide significant improvements in the overall hydrogen, steam and electricity output, when compared against the processes each operating separately and independently of each other.

  6. Biomass gasification in district heating systems - The effect of economic energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Soederstroem, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification is considered a key technology in reaching targets for renewable energy and CO 2 emissions reduction. This study evaluates policy instruments affecting the profitability of biomass gasification applications integrated in a Swedish district heating (DH) system for the medium-term future (around year 2025). Two polygeneration applications based on gasification technology are considered in this paper: (1) a biorefinery plant co-producing synthetic natural gas (SNG) and district heat; (2) a combined heat and power (CHP) plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Using an optimisation model we identify the levels of policy support, here assumed to be in the form of tradable certificates, required to make biofuel production competitive to biomass based electricity generation under various energy market conditions. Similarly, the tradable green electricity certificate levels necessary to make gasification based electricity generation competitive to conventional steam cycle technology, are identified. The results show that in order for investment in the SNG biorefinery to be competitive to investment in electricity production in the DH system, biofuel certificates in the range of 24-42 EUR/MWh are needed. Electricity certificates are not a prerequisite for investment in gasification based CHP to be competitive to investment in conventional steam cycle CHP, given sufficiently high electricity prices. While the required biofuel policy support is relatively insensitive to variations in capital cost, the required electricity certificates show high sensitivity to variations in investment costs. It is concluded that the large capital commitment and strong dependency on policy instruments makes it necessary that DH suppliers believe in the long-sightedness of future support policies, in order for investments in large-scale biomass gasification in DH systems to be realised.

  7. Smart Grids for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES): a case study for the Amsterdam Zuidas district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Bloemendal, Martin; Rostampour, Vahab

    2017-04-01

    In the context of increasingly strict requirements for building energy efficiency, Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems have emerged as an effective means to reduce energy demand for space heating and cooling in larger buildings. In the Netherlands, over 2000 systems are currently active, which has already raised issues with spatial planning in some areas; current planning schemes may lack the flexibility to properly address variations in ATES operation, which are driven by uncertainties across a broad range of time scales - from daily changes in building energy demand, to decadal trends for climate or groundwater conditions. This work is therefore part of a broader research effort on ATES Smart Grids (ATES-SG), which has focused on more adaptive methods for ATES management and control. In particular, improved control schemes which allow for coordination between neighboring ATES systems may offer more robust performance under uncertainty (Rostampour & Keviczky, 2016). The case studies for the ATES-SG project have so far focused on idealized cases, and on a historical simulation of ATES development in the city center of Utrecht. This poster will present an additional case study for the city center of Amsterdam, which poses several geohydrological challenges for ATES: for instance, variable density flow due to salinity gradients in the local aquifer, and varying depths for ATES systems due to the thickness of the aquifer. To study the effect of these conditions, this case uses an existing 15-layer geohydrological model of the Amsterdam region, cropped to an area of 4500m x 2500m around the Amsterdam Zuidas district. This rapidly developing business district is one of the densest areas of ATES use in Amsterdam, with 32 well doublets and 53 monowells currently registered. The geohydrological model is integrated with GIS data to accurately represent ATES spatial planning; simulated well flows are provided by a model predictive control component. This model is

  8. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-01-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder. PMID:24427514

  9. Regulating district heating in Romania: Legislative challenges and energy efficiency barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poputoaia, Diana; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Many states in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE) possess extensive district heating (DH) networks that were constructed during the days of communist rule in order to provide a universally accessible energy service that supported Soviet development policies. But the post-communist transition was marked by the exacerbation of the sector's numerous technical, economic, regulatory and environmental problems, accompanied by its abandonment in favour of alternative methods of domestic heating. Recent efforts to increase the use of DH in ECE as a result of environmental and energy security concerns have taken place in an absence of critical, context-sensitive research. The purpose of this paper is to explore the legal aspects of post-communist DH reforms in Romania, with the aim of identifying some of the governance challenges faced by state authorities in managing the sector. In broader terms, we seek to explore the extent to which the Romanian legislative framework is in a position to promote energy efficiency in DH. This has been achieved via an analysis of formal policy documents, government decrees, strategic documents and laws pertaining to this sector, as published and subsequently amended in the Official Gazette. The conclusions of the paper identify the key regulatory issues in the sector-especially with respect to the tariff setting process and the division of competences among different organisations in it-while suggesting a set of policy steps and general restructuring approaches that could help overcome the current situation.

  10. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    . Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating...... °C and 50 °C district heating scenarios, while the individual micro tank solution consumed less energy and cost less in the 35 °C district heating scenario....

  11. The strategic role of district heating in renewable energy use; Die strategische Bedeutung der Nahwaerme zur Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nast, M. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung; Boehnisch, H. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    District heating allows the utilization of biomass in low emission heating plants, the exploitation of solar energy and the seasonal storage of heat. If a sustainable energy supply system is to be created, district heating must not only be the system of choice for new housing districts but must also be retrofitted in existing settlements. The detailed analysis of a rural community shows that large segments of existing buildings can be connected to district heating systems even in regions with predominantly single dwellings and rural housing densities. The conditions necessary for establishing district heating systems are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nahwaermesysteme ermoeglichen, fossile und biogene Brennstoffe einzusetzen und lassen sich an saisonale Waermespeicher anschliessen. Zum Aufbau einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung ist Nahwaerme nicht nur in Neubaugebieten notwendig sondern muss auch in den schon laenger genutzten Gebaeudebestand integriert werden. Das Beispiel einer umfassend analysierten Landgemeinde zeigt, dass ein grosser Teil des bestehenden Gebaeudebestandes an Waermenetze angeschlossen werden kann, selbst bei vorherrschender Bebauung mit Einfamilienhaeusern und laendlichen Gebaeudedichten. Die notwendigen Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Aufbau einer Nahwaermeversorgung werden erlaeutert. (orig.)

  12. Research report. Environmentally friendly energy community research business for Fujieda district (Refuse energy utilization); Fujieda chiku kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo (haikibutsu energy riyo shisetsu) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An environmentally friendly refuse energy utilizing business, for which RDF (refuse derived fuel) produced out of wastes discharged by industries belonging to a Fujieda city environmental protection council will provide the heat source, is proposed by the said council. The proposal is subjected to a study, a basic plan is drafted, and a decision is made on its profitability. In the study, surveys are conducted on the actualities of wastes and of demand for heat, and specifications are worked out relating to transportation and storage of RDF, production of steam by an RDF-fired boiler, routing of pipes for transmitting the steam to the industries in the district, facility costs, operating costs, etc. It is found that the amount of RDF produced out of the wastes discharged by the council member industries is so small that it can meet the demand of only one industry and that, even if more wastes are collected from a wider area, the increased amount will but meet the demand of two industries and a hot water pool. It is found that the system will be economically feasible, however, if the shortage of RDF-generated energy is covered by an oil-fired boiler and thereby impartiality is established in steam distribution and steam production unit price is reduced. In view of the intensification of control over dioxin, etc., the business will be gaining profit in 2002 and after. (NEDO)

  13. District heating systems - the necessary infrastructure for geothermal energy; Fern- und Nahwaermesysteme - notwendige Infrastruktur fuer die Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, I [Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik e.V. (UMSICHT), Oberhausen (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The contribution discusses the future chances of geothermal energy use with cost-optimized systems of geothermal energy + cogeneration + district heating and with the focus on innovation instead of state funding. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag bezieht sich auf die zukuenftigen Chancen der Geothermie, die eine kostenoptimierte Systemloesung Geothermie + KWK + Nah-/Fernwaerme sowie durch Mut zur Innovation und nicht durch Foerderung bestimmt werden. (orig./AKF)

  14. Peat Deposits at Bijoynagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria District, Bangladesh : A Potential Local Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nazwanul Haque

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh with about 160 million people in land of 147,570 square km which is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. With the increase of population and diversifying of economic activities, Bangladesh has become an energy hunger country. Presently, 80% peoples depend on non commercial energy sources living in the rural area. Peat exploration at Bijoynagar Upazila, Brahmanbaria district. Bangladesh has been carried out for reserve estimation and its economic aspect evaluation. Total peat exploration area is about 4000 hectare. In explored area, nine peat bearing locations are identified in which peat deposits are observed from 0.152 to 3.0 meters below the surface. Total reserves are about 32.61 million tons in wet condition and 13.044 million tons in dry conditions. The peat is grayish brown to grayish black, fibrous, less to medium compacted and water content is about 60-80 % in wet condition. Chemical analyses of the peat shows that fixed carbon content is 15-25 %, Sulfur is 0.1 to 0.8 % and calorific value of the peat is 3000-7000 BTU. The peat of the area is medium to good quality. The peat may be extracted by open peat mining because of its surface to near surface position. This peat can be conveniently used for small industrial and domestic purpose as briquette and compressed tablet form to meet the growing energy demand of the area. But most of the people of Bijoynagar area live on agriculture. So, peat extraction and related geo-environmental degradation may change living style of the people. Proper land use planning, environmental management and policy should be taken before peat extraction.

  15. Background report for the formerly utilized Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission sites program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting a program to determine radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Army Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission in the early years of nuclear energy development. Also included in the program are sites used in the Los Alamos plutonium development program and the Trinity atomic bomb test site. Materials, equipment, buildings, and land became contaminated, primarily with naturally occurring radioactive nuclides. They were later decontaminated in accordance with the standards and survey methods in use at that time. Since then, however, radiological criteria, and proposed guidelines for release of such sites for unrestricted use have become more stringent as research on the effects of low-level radiation has progressed. In addition, records documenting some of these decontamination efforts cannot be found, and the final radiological conditions of the sites could not be adequately determined from the records. As a result, the Formerly Utilized Sites Program was initiated in 1974 to identify these formerly used sites and to reevaluate their radiological status. This report covers efforts through June 1980 to determine the radiological status of sites for which the existing conditions could not be clearly defined. Principal contractor facilities and associated properties have already been identified and activities are continuing to identify additional sites. Any new sites located will probably be subcontractor facilities and areas used for disposal of contractor waste or equipment; however, only limited information regarding this equipment and material has been collected to date. As additional information becomes available, supplemental reports will be published.

  16. A Convergence of Energy and Talent: External Support Boosts New York District's Literacy Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mike; Sykut, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the collaborative efforts of the Webster Central School District in New York, USA, and the Learning Forward's Center for Results consultants, in the fall of 2010 in a focus to improve the elementary literacy program. The School District realized it was vital to have a strong, sustained foundation of professional and student…

  17. Thermoeconomic analysis of an integrated multi-effect desalination thermal vapor compression (MED-TVC) system with a trigeneration system using triple-pressure HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaebi, Hadi; Abbaspour, Ghader

    2018-05-01

    In this research, thermoeconomic analysis of a multi-effect desalination thermal vapor compression (MED-TVC) system integrated with a trigeneration system with a gas turbine prime mover is carried out. The integrated system comprises of a compressor, a combustion chamber, a gas turbine, a triple-pressure (low, medium and high pressures) heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) system, an absorption chiller cycle (ACC), and a multi-effect desalination (MED) system. Low pressure steam produced in the HRSG is used to drive absorption chiller cycle, medium pressure is used in desalination system and high pressure superheated steam is used for heating purposes. For thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of the proposed integrated system, Engineering Equation Solver (EES) is used by employing mass, energy, exergy, and cost balance equations for each component of system. The results of the modeling showed that with the new design, the exergy efficiency in the base design will increase to 57.5%. In addition, thermoeconomic analysis revealed that the net power, heating, fresh water and cooling have the highest production cost, respectively.

  18. The Forest Energy Chain in Tuscany: Economic Feasibility and Environmental Effects of Two Types of Biomass District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fagarazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine two biomass district heating plants operating in Tuscany, with a specific focus on the ex-post evaluation of their economic and financial feasibility and of their environmental benefits. The former biomass district heating plant supplies only public users (Comunità Montana della Lunigiana, CML: administrative body that coordinates the municipalities located in mountain areas, the latter supplies both public and private users (Municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana. Ex-post investment analysis was performed to check both the consistency of results with the forecasts made in the stage of the project design and on the factors, which may have reduced or jeopardized the estimated economic performance of the investment (ex-ante assessment. The results of the study point out appreciable results only in the case of biomass district heating plants involving private users and fuelled by biomasses sourced from third parties. In this case, the factors that most influence ex-post results include the conditions of the woody biomass local market (market prices, the policies of energy selling prices to private users and the temporal dynamics of private users’ connection. To ensure the consistency of ex-post economic outcome with the expected results it is thus important to: (i have good knowledge of the woody local market; (ii define energy selling prices that should be cheap for private users but consistent with energy production costs and (iii constrain private users beforehand to prevent errors in the plant design and in the preliminary estimate of return on investment. Moreover, the results obtained during the monitoring activities could help in providing information on the effectiveness of the supporting measures adopted and also to orient future choices of policy makers and particularly designers, to identify the most efficient configuration of district heating organization for improving energy and

  19. District heating and cogeneration in the EU-28: Current situation, potential and proposed energy strategy for its generalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rosales-Asensio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yearly, EU-28 conventional thermal generating plants reject a greater amount of energy than what ultimately is utilised by residential and commercial loads for heating and hot water. If this waste heat were to be used through district heating networks, given a previous energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in imported fossil fuels for heating. As a consequence, benefits in the form of an energy efficiency increase, an energy security improvement, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases would occur. Given that it is not expected for heat demand to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. However, to make this happen, some barriers that are far from being technological but are mostly institutional and financial need to be removed. The purpose of this review is to provide information on the potential of using waste heat from conventional thermal power plants (subsequently converted into cogeneration plants in district heating networks located in the EU-28. For this, a preliminary assessment is conducted in order to show an estimate of the cost of adopting an energy strategy in which district heating networks are a major player of the energy mix. From this assessment, it is possible to see that even though the energy strategy proposed in this paper, which is based on a dramatic increase in the joint use of district heating networks and cogeneration, is capital-intensive and would require an annual investment of roughly 300 billion euros, its adoption would result in a reduction of yearly fuel expenses in the order of 100 billion euros and a shortening of about 15% of the total final energy consumption, which makes it of paramount interest as an enabler of the legal basis of the “Secure, Clean and Efficient Energy” future enacted by the EU-28 Horizon 2020.

  20. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Provided domestic hot water configurations for low-temperature district heating. • Various building typologies and district heating supply temperatures were included. • Different scenarios were evaluated from the energy, economy and exergy aspects. • The benefits of lower return temperature to district heating were investigated. - Abstract: District heating in Denmark is going through the transition from 3rd generation (80/40 °C) to 4th generation (50–55 °C/25 °C) systems in preparation for district heating based completely on renewable fuels by 2035. However, concern about Legionella growth and reduced comfort with low-temperature domestic hot water supply may be discouraging the implementation of low-temperature district heating. Aimed at providing possible solutions, this study modelled various proposals for district heating systems with supply temperatures of 65 °C, 50 °C and 35 °C and for two different building topologies. Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating and to reduce the return temperature to district heating. The benefits of lower return temperatures were also analysed compared with the current district heating situation. The evaluation results show that the decentralized substation system with instantaneous heat exchanger unit performed better under the 65 °C and 50 °C district heating scenarios, while the individual micro tank solution consumed less energy and cost less in the 35 °C district heating scenario.

  1. Stochastic control and real options valuation of thermal storage-enabled demand response from flexible district energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kitapbayev, Yerkin; Moriarty, John; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    In district energy systems powered by Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, thermal storage can significantly increase CHP flexibility to respond to real time market signals and therefore improve the business case of such demand response schemes in a Smart Grid environment. However, main challenges remain as to what is the optimal way to control inter-temporal storage operation in the presence of uncertain market prices, and then how to value the investment into storage as flexibility enabler...

  2. Diagnosis of district potential in terms of renewable energies. Report 1 - Present situation: Assessment of renewable energy production, Identification and quantification of territory's potentialities in terms of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    After a presentation of the Gers district context (geography, administrative organisation, demography, housing, economy, expertise), the report presents the energy situation, an overview of the solar thermal sector (installations and installers), of the solar photovoltaic sector (existing and projected installations, installers), of hydroelectricity, of wood-energy (individual heating, industrial heating plants, planned installations), of wind energy, of biogas, and of geothermal energy (existing and planned installations). It proposes an assessment of these energies as a whole. Then, after an overview of the district situation with respect to national objectives and to other districts of the region, the study reports an identification and quantification of potentialities in terms of theoretical resources for different energy sources (solar, wind, hydraulic, wood, methanization, valorizable biomass, geothermal, and agri-fuels). Avoided CO 2 emissions are assessed

  3. Case Studies in Low-Energy District Heating Systems: Determination of Dimensioning Methods for Planning the Future Heating Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Svendsen, Svend

    suggests a plan for an energy efficient District Heating (DH) system with low operating temperatures, such as 55°C supply and 25°C return; connected to low-energy buildings. Different case studies referring to typical DH planning situations could show the rational basis for the integrated planning...... of the future’s sustainable and energy efficient heating infrastructure. In this paper, a case study which focuses on dimensioning method of piping network of low-energy DH system in a new settlement, located in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark, is presented. In addition to the developed dimensioning method......, results about the optimal network layout and substation type for low-energy DH systems are also pointed out regarding to this case study. A second case study, included in this paper, focuses on technical and economical aspects of replacing natural gas heating system to low-energy DH system in an existing...

  4. Developments to an existing city-wide district energy network – Part I: Identification of potential expansions using heat mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finney, Karen N.; Sharifi, Vida N.; Swithenbank, Jim; Nolan, Andy; White, Simon; Ogden, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Domestic heat loads here are vast: 1.5 GW for current areas and 35 MW for new homes. ► Other heat sinks in Sheffield had a heat load/demand of 54 MW. ► New heat sources could provide additional heat to the network to meet these demands. ► Six ‘heat zones’ for possible district energy network expansions were identified. ► The infrastructure was planned, including energy centres, back-ups and heat pipes. - Abstract: District heating can provide cost-effective and low-carbon energy to local populations, such as space heating in winter and year-round hot/cold water; this is also associated with electricity generation in combined-heat-and-power systems. Although this is currently rare in the UK, many legislative policies, including the Renewable Heat Incentive, aim to increase the amount of energy from such sources; including new installations, as well as extending/upgrading existing distributed energy schemes. Sheffield already has an award-winning district energy network, incorporating city-wide heat distribution. This paper aimed to demonstrate the opportunities for expansions to this through geographical information systems software modelling for an in-depth analysis of the heat demands in the city. ‘Heat maps’ were produced, locating existing and emerging heat sources and sinks. Heat loads (industrial, commercial, educational, health care, council and leisure facilities/complex) total 53 MW, with existing residential areas accounting for ∼1500 MW and new housing developments potentially adding a further 35 MW in the future. A number of current and emerging heat sources were also discovered – potential suppliers of thermal energy to the above-defined heat sinks. From these, six ‘heat zones’ where an expansion to the existing network could be possible were identified and the infrastructure planned for each development.

  5. 15 local climate-energy plans: regions and districts, local leaders of the struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents some general information, the sectors addressed by the Climate - Energy Plan, the approaches adopted, the plan elaboration process (organisation, participation and governance, diagnosis and challenges identification, communication actions), the actions and their follow-up, the success factors and the improvement opportunities of the Climate-energy Plans elaborated and adopted by different French regions (Alsace, Aquitaine, Basse-Normandie, Champagne-Ardenne, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Poitou-Charentes) and districts (Alpes Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Eure, Seine-Maritime)

  6. Technology data for energy plants. Generation of electricity and district heating, energy storage and energy carrier generation and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk, the Danish electricity transmission and system operator, have at regular intervals published a catalogue of energy producing technologies. The previous edition was published in June 2010. This report presents the results of the most recent update. The primary objective of publishing a technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses, e.g. on the framework conditions for the development and deployment of certain classes of technologies. With this scope in mind, it has not been the intention to establish a comprehensive catalogue, including all main gasification technologies or all types of electric batteries. Only selected, representative, technologies are included, to enable generic comparisons of e.g. thermal gasification versus combustion of biomass and electricity storage in batteries versus hydro-pumped storage. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiatives aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to rely primarily on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesstimates. The current update has been developed with an unbalanced focus, i.e. most attention to technologies which are most essential for current and short

  7. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district : a case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-res...

  8. Development and demonstration of low-energy district heating for low-energy buildings. Main report and appendices; Udvikling og demonstration af lavenergifjernvarme til lavenergibyggeri. Hovedrapport + bilag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, C.H.; Paulsen, O.; Boehm, B. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Thorsen, J.E. (Danfoss A/S, (Denmark)); Ting Larsen, C.; Jepsen, B.K. (LOGSTOR A/S, (Denmark)); Kaarup Olsen, P.; Lambertsen, H.; Hummelshoej, R. (COWI A/S, (Denmark)); Svendsen, Svend; Fan, J.; Furbo, S. (DTU-BYG, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Worm, J.; Didriksen, J. (Energitjenesten, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-03-15

    The project describes a design concept for district heating supply of low energy houses based on 24 hour equalizing of load and very low district heating flow temperatures. District heating is a very flexible system in terms of utilizing waste heat from CHPplants, refuse incineration and industrial processes as well as renewable energy sources in an energy efficient manner. However, in relation to district heating for low energy houses there are some challenges according to investment costs and costs related to heat loss from distribution network. The objective of the project is to develop a design concept that will reduce these costs and be a 'de facto' standard of district heating to low energy houses. The design concept is based on a new type of consumer station with a domestic hot water plate heat exchanger connected to a tank on the district heating primary side. To specify design and operating parameters a simulation model of the consumer station was developed in TRNSYS. Different parameters were investigated e.g. tank size (60-200 liter) and charge flow (120-14 kg/h). An area of 92 single family houses classified as 'class 1' (42.6 kWh/m2) according to the Danish Building Regulation was chosen as reference area. Hydraulic and thermal analysis in the calculation tool TERMIS were used to lay out the distribution network based on pre-insulated twinpipes (supply and return in same casing pipe) with low-lambda PUR insulation and diffusion barrier. The design concept is compared with 3 other types of district heating systems. For a traditional system with single pipes and high district heating temperatures, the heat loss of the distribution network is calculated to 36%. In comparison, the distribution loss of the design concept can be as low as 12%. The total investment costs are almost equal for the 4 systems. In the new design concept, the cost of distribution network is reduced due to the use of smaller dimensions and twin-pipes. Though, the

  9. Study of the potential of jobs generated by the development of renewable energies in the Ardennes district - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This study is notably based on the content of the Climate Energy Regional Plan and Climate-Air-Energy Regional Scheme, and aims at assessing the job creation potential associated with the objectives defined in the regional scheme regarding the development of the renewable energy sector, and at defining conditions under which local public and private actors may support, anticipate and amplify this potential local development. The authors first assessed the present job situation in the district in order to quantify and to analyse the situation of the renewable energy sector. Then, they tried to assess perspectives in relationship with scheme development objectives by 2, 5 and 10 years. A macro-economic approach was used to assess direct and indirect jobs. A qualitative and quantitative survey has been performed, and its results have been used in an extrapolation. Advices are given to develop jobs and to boost the sector

  10. A modular approach to inverse modelling of a district heating facility with seasonal thermal energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tordrup, Karl Woldum; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Nielsen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We use a modular approach to develop a TRNSYS model for a district heating facility by applying inverse modelling to one year of operational data for individual components. We assemble the components into a single TRNSYS model for the full system using the accumulation tanks as a central hub conn...

  11. Co-operation between Canada and Hungary on the application of the SLOWPOKE energy system to district heating in eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, R. E.; Halzl, J.; Sigmond, G.; Takats, F.; Bakacs, I.

    1989-06-15

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System is a nuclear energy source designed to provide up to 10 MWt of heat energy in the form of hot water to medium- and large- size district heating systems. An appropriate grouping of Canadian and Hungarian companies with the support of the Hungarian Ministry of Industry is studying the technical, economic, commercial, and nuclear licensability aspects of the application of the SLOWPOKE Energy System to district heating in Hungary. Results of these studies indicate that there is a significant potential market for SLOWPOKE Energy Systems in existing district heating systems, that the SLOWPOKE Energy System can be readily integrated into such systems, that high capacity factors can be achieved, and that it will be relatively easy to localize the supply of most components and systems.

  12. Co-operation between Canada and Hungary on the application of the SLOWPOKE energy system to district heating in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, R.E.; Halzl, J.; Sigmond, G.; Takats, F.; Bakacs, I.

    1989-06-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System is a nuclear energy source designed to provide up to 10 MWt of heat energy in the form of hot water to medium- and large- size district heating systems. An appropriate grouping of Canadian and Hungarian companies with the support of the Hungarian Ministry of Industry is studying the technical, economic, commercial, and nuclear licensability aspects of the application of the SLOWPOKE Energy System to district heating in Hungary. Results of these studies indicate that there is a significant potential market for SLOWPOKE Energy Systems in existing district heating systems, that the SLOWPOKE Energy System can be readily integrated into such systems, that high capacity factors can be achieved, and that it will be relatively easy to localize the supply of most components and systems

  13. Study on energy efficiency in Vietnamese row house - case study of Tang Nhon Phu A Ward, District 9, HCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, H. T. P.; Nam, N. D.

    2018-04-01

    District 9 is a new urban development area which is well-known as an industrial city in the rear of Ho Chi Minh City. This area has special characteristics which are different from central downtown. The housing of district 9 is a new urban area so that it is easier to orient particular architectural style accordance with climatic conditions and other conditions. However, at present, these new residential areas are rising with no clear management of architectural form. That is the reason lead to shortcomings such as: increasing the use of electricity, affecting to climate change and creating urban heat island, increasing costs of energy use. Those problems will be difficult to overcome in the future if we don’t have the right attention on it. By using a combination of multiple methods such as: data collection, case study analysis method, GIS, research by design, etc., this research topic will pay attention on analysis the row house in Tang Nhon Phu A Ward of district 9 and trying to propose some solution and management criteria to local government. The analysis results will ensure that the conclusions reflect the realities of the situation, those also become the basis for the proposed solutions to deal with the existence problems. The result of research may become an application research platform for the related research topics.

  14. Energy, economy and exergy evaluations of the solutions for supplying domestic hot water from low-temperature district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    District heating in Denmark is going through the transition from 3rd generation (80/40 °C) to 4th generation (50-55 °C/25 °C) systems in,preparation for district heating based completely on renewable fuels by 2035. However, concern about Legionella growth and reduced comfort with low......-temperature domestic hot water supply may be discouraging the implementation of low-temperature district heating. Aimed at providing possible solutions, this study modelled various proposals for district heating systems with supply temperatures of 65 °C, 50 °C and 35 °C and for two different building topologies....... Evaluation models were built to investigate the energy, economy and exergy performances of the proposed domestic hot water systems in various configurations. The configurations of the devised domestic hot water substations were optimised to fit well with both low and ultra-low-temperature district heating...

  15. Heat demand profiles of energy conservation measures in buildings and their impact on a district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundström, Lukas; Wallin, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy savings impact on an low CO 2 emitting district heating system. • Heat profiles of eight building energy conservation measures. • Exhaust air heat pump, heat recovery ventilation, electricity savings etc. • Heat load weather normalisation with segmented multivariable linear regression. - Abstract: This study highlights the forthcoming problem with diminishing environmental benefits from heat demand reducing energy conservation measures (ECM) of buildings within district heating systems (DHS), as the supply side is becoming “greener” and more primary energy efficient. In this study heat demand profiles and annual electricity-to-heat factors of ECMs in buildings are computed and their impact on system efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of a Swedish biomass fuelled and combined heat and power utilising DHS are assessed. A weather normalising method for the DHS heat load is developed, combining segmented multivariable linear regressions with typical meteorological year weather data to enable the DHS model and the buildings model to work under the same weather conditions. Improving the buildings’ envelope insulation level and thereby levelling out the DHS heat load curve reduces greenhouse gas emissions and improves primary energy efficiency. Reducing household electricity use proves to be highly beneficial, partly because it increases heat demand, allowing for more cogeneration of electricity. However the other ECMs considered may cause increased greenhouse gas emissions, mainly because of their adverse impact on the cogeneration of electricity. If biomass fuels are considered as residuals, and thus assigned low primary energy factors, primary energy efficiency decreases when implementing ECMs that lower heat demand.

  16. The Role of Absorption Cooling for Reaching Sustainable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindmark, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    This thesis focuses on the role and potential of absorption cooling in future energy systems. Two types of energy systems are investigated: a district energy system based on waste incineration and a distributed energy system with natural gas as fuel. In both cases, low temperature waste heat is used as driving energy for the absorption cooling. The main focus is to evaluate the absorption technology in an environmental perspective, in terms of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Economic evaluations are also performed. The reduced electricity when using absorption cooling instead of compression cooling is quantified and expressed as an increased net electrical yield. The results show that absorption cooling is an environmentally friendly way to produce cooling as it reduces the use of electrically driven cooling in the energy system and therefore also reduces global CO{sub 2} emissions. In the small-scale trigeneration system the electricity use is lowered with 84 % as compared to cooling production with compression chillers only. The CO{sub 2} emissions can be lowered to 45 CO{sub 2}/MWh{sub c} by using recoverable waste heat as driving heat for absorption chillers. However, the most cost effective cooling solution in a district energy system is a combination between absorption and compression cooling technologies according to the study. Absorption chillers have the potential to be suitable bottoming cycles for power production in distributed systems. Net electrical yields over 55 % may be reached in some cases with gas motors and absorption chillers. This small-scale system for cogeneration of power and cooling shows electrical efficiencies comparable to large-scale power plants and may contribute to reducing peak electricity demand associated with the cooling demand.

  17. Book of abstracts: 3rd International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This year the conference is organised by two research centres/projects in collaboration with Aalborg University. The first is the 4DH Strategic Research Centre and the other is the project RE-INVEST, both supported financial by the Danish Innovation Fund. After the previous two year´s success...... everyone for your valuable contributions. The aim is to present and discuss scientific findings and industrial experiences related to the development of Smart Energy Systems and future 4th Generation District Heating Technologies and Systems (4GDH). This development is fundamental to the implementation...

  18. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  19. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  20. Excess heat production of future net zero energy buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Denmark’s long-term energy goal is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources by 2050. To reach this goal, energy savings in buildings is essential. Therefore, the focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and netzeroenergybuildings (NZEBs) has increased. Most...

  1. School and district wellness councils and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2011-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required school districts participating in the federal school meals program to establish by the start of the 2006-2007 school year policies that included nutrition guidelines for all foods sold on school campus during the school day and policy development involving key stakeholders. For many schools, policy development was done by wellness councils. This study examined the association between having a wellness council and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages in school vending machines following enactment of the federal legislation. In 2006-2007, Minnesota middle (n=35) and high (n=54) school principals reported whether their school and district had a wellness council. Trained research staff observed foods/beverages in vending machines accessible to students. Low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages (snacks >3 g fat or >200 calories/serving, and soda, fruit/sport drinks and reduced-fat/whole milk) were grouped into seven categories (eg, high-fat baked goods) and a food score was calculated. Higher scores indicated more low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare. Multivariate linear regression, adjusted for school characteristics, was used to examine associations between scores and a three-category council variable (district-only; district and school; no council). Among schools, 53% had district-only councils, 38% district and school councils, and 9% had no council. Schools with both a district and school council had a significantly lower mean food score than schools without councils (P=0.03). The potential of wellness councils to impact availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare is promising. There may be an added benefit to having both a school and district council. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plans for promoting district energy-saving visions for City of Wakkanai; Wakkanai-shi chiiki sho energy vision suishin keikakusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The district energy-saving visions and promotion plans therefor are drawn for City of Wakkanai, to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The conception of the energy-saving introduction project includes introduction of co-generation systems in the facilities of pivotal functions in the city center, and energy-saving systems in a municipal heated pool and public hot spring facilities. The facilities of pivotal functions in the city, e.g., the municipal office buildings, municipal hospital and all-around culture center of the city are supplied with heat in a centralized manner from the energy center, and the energy-saving effect is expected when co-generation systems are introduced in the energy center. The study results indicate that introduction of the co-generation systems in the energy center has a potential energy-saving effect of 2,400Gcal/y. The energy-saving effects are also analyzed for each of the municipal office buildings, municipal hospital, all-around culture center, municipal heated pool and public hot spring facilities, including those potentially realized by improving illumination and air supply/discharge facilities. (NEDO)

  3. Optimisation of a Swedish district heating system with reduced heat demand due to energy efficiency measures in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Henning, D.

    2011-01-01

    The development towards more energy efficient buildings, as well as the expansion of district heating (DH) networks, is generally considered to reduce environmental impact. But the combined effect of these two progressions is more controversial. A reduced heat demand (HD) due to higher energy efficiency in buildings might hamper co-production of electricity and DH. In Sweden, co-produced electricity is normally considered to displace electricity from less efficient European condensing power plants. In this study, a potential HD reduction due to energy efficiency measures in the existing building stock in the Swedish city Linköping is calculated. The impact of HD reduction on heat and electricity production in the Linköping DH system is investigated by using the energy system optimisation model MODEST. Energy efficiency measures in buildings reduce seasonal HD variations. Model results show that HD reductions primarily decrease heat-only production. The electricity-to-heat output ratio for the system is increased for HD reductions up to 30%. Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. If co-produced electricity replaces electricity from coal-fired condensing power plants, a 20% HD reduction is optimal for decreasing global CO 2 emissions in the analysed DH system. - Highlights: ► A MODEST optimisation model of the Linköping district heating system is used. ► The impact of heat demand reduction on heat and electricity production is examined. ► Model results show that heat demand reductions decrease heat-only production. ► Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. ► The system electricity-to-heat output increases for reduced heat demand up to 30%.

  4. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings; Combined geothermal and gas district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    The City of Oradea, Romania, has a population of about 230 000 inhabitants. Almost 70% of the total heat demand, including industrial, is supplied by a classical East European type district heating system. The heat is supplied by two low grade coal fired co-generation power plants. The oldest distribution networks and substitutions, as well as one power plant, are 35 years old and require renovation or even reconstruction. The geothermal reservoir located under the city supplies at present 2,2% of the total heat demand. By generalizing the reinjection, the production can be increased to supply about 8% of the total heat demand, without any significant reservoir pressure or temperature decline over 25 years. Another potential energy source is natural gas, a main transport pipeline running close to the city. Two possible scenarios are envisaged to replace the low grade coal by natural gas and geothermal energy as heat sources for Oradea. In one scenario, the geothermal energy supplies the heat for tap water heating and the base load for space heating in a limited number of substations, with peak load being produced by natural gas fired boilers. In the other scenario, the geothermal energy is only used for tap water heating. In both scenarios, all substations are converted into heat plants, natural gas being the main energy source. The technical, economic, and environmental assessment of the two proposed scenarios are compared with each other, as well as with the existing district heating system. Two other possible options, namely to renovate and convert the existing co-generation power plants to natural gas fired boilers or to gas turbines, are only briefly discussed, being considered unrealistic, at least for the short and medium term future. (Author)

  5. Monitoring of the energy performance of a district heating CHP plant based on biomass boiler and ORC generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, Dario; Renzi, Massimiliano; Gasparella, Andrea; Baratieri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    More than seventy district heating (DH) plants based on biomass are operating in South Tyrol (Italy) and most of them supply heat to residential districts. Almost 20% of them are cogenerative systems, thus enabling primary energy savings with respect to the separate production of heat and power. However, the actual performance of these systems in real operation can considerably differ from the nominal one. The main objectives of this work are the assessment of the energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled with an Organic Rankine Cycle (i.e. ORC) generator under real operating conditions and the identification of its potential improvements. The fluxes of energy and mass of the plant have been measured onsite. This experimental evaluation has been supplemented with a thermodynamic model of the ORC generator, calibrated with the experimental data, which is capable to predict the system performance under different management strategies of the system. The results have highlighted that a decrease of the DH network temperature of 10 °C can improve the electric efficiency of the ORC generator of one percentage point. Moreover, a DH temperature reduction could decrease the main losses of the boiler, namely the exhaust latent thermal loss and the exhaust sensible thermal loss, which account for 9% and 16% of the boiler input power, respectively. The analysis of the plant has pointed out that the ORC pump, the flue gases extractor, the thermal oil pump and the condensation section fan are the main responsible of the electric self-consumption. Finally, the negative effect of the subsidisation on the performance of the plant has been discussed. - Highlights: • Energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled to an ORC turbine in real operation. • Potential improvements of a CHP plant connected to a DH network. • Performance prediction by means of a calibrated ORC thermodynamic model. • Influence of the DH temperature on the electric efficiency. • Impact of the

  6. Study of energetic consumptions and of renewable energy production potential for the Dordogne district. Phase 1 - Status and stakes, Phase 2 - Assessment of territory potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document gathers reports made for phases 1 and 2 of a study which aimed at assessing the potential energy production by renewable energies in the French district of Dordogne. The first phase aimed at providing an overview of the present situation and an identification of stakes through an identification of electric and thermal energy sources (renewable or not) on this territory, and an analysis of energy consumptions per sector (housing and so on) in the district. Thus, it presents the district in its geographical, administrative, and demographic dimensions, as well as its local expertise. It gives an overview of the energy situation (energy and renewable energy production, electric power sector, gas sector, fuel supply network), and an overview of energy consumptions in the different sectors (housing, office building, industry, agriculture, transports). The second phase aimed at identifying and at assessing the potential energy production by renewable resources on the territory, and of the economic potential associated with renewable energy development. Raw, net and likely resources are assessed for hydroelectricity, solar sectors, wood energy, geothermal energy, aero-thermal energy, methanization, wind energy, and heat recovery

  7. Heat Mismatch of future Net Zero Energy Buildings within district heating areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    The long-term goal for Denmark is to develop an energy system solely based on renewable energy sources (RES) in 2050. To reach this goal energy savings in buildings are essential. Therefore, a focus on energy efficient measures in buildings and net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) have increased...... systems enables them to send or receive energy from these systems. This is beneficial for NZEBs because even though they have an annual net exchange of zero, there is a temporal mismatch in regard to the energy consumption of buildings and the production from the renewable energy units added to them...

  8. A Comparative Study on Substation Types and Network Layouts in Connection with Low-Energy District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with low-energy district heating (DH) networks operating in low temperatures such as 55 °C in terms of supply and 25 °C in terms of return. The network layout, additional booster pumps, and different substation types such as storage tanks either equipped or not equipped in domesti...... for end-consumers were also studied, heat loss from these networks and the drop in temperature in the heat-carrier-supply medium being compared.......The study deals with low-energy district heating (DH) networks operating in low temperatures such as 55 °C in terms of supply and 25 °C in terms of return. The network layout, additional booster pumps, and different substation types such as storage tanks either equipped or not equipped in domestic...... hot water production site were examined. Effects of booster pumps on pipe dimensions in the latter case were investigated. Temperature drops during the summer months due to low heat demands of consumers were explored. Use of approaches such as looped networks and branched network layouts with bypasses...

  9. National energy policies: Obstructing the reduction of global CO2 emissions? An analysis of Swedish energy policies for the district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difs, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    The effect of national energy policies on a local Swedish district heating (DH) system has been studied, regarding the profitability of new investments and the potential for climate change mitigation. The DH system has been optimised regarding three investments: biomass-fuelled CHP (bio CHP), natural gas-fuelled combined cycle CHP (NGCC CHP) and biomass-fuelled heat-only boiler (bio HOB) in two scenarios (with or without national taxes and policy instruments). In both scenarios EU's tradable CO 2 emission permits are included. Results from the study show that when national policies are included, the most cost-effective investment option is the bio CHP technology. However, when national taxes and policy instruments are excluded, the DH system containing the NGCC CHP plant has 30% lower system cost than the bio CHP system. Regardless of the scenario and when coal condensing is considered as marginal electricity production, the NGCC CHP has the largest global CO 2 reduction potential, about 300 ktonne CO 2 . However, the CO 2 reduction potential is highly dependent on the marginal electricity production. Demonstrated here is that national policies such as tradable green certificates can, when applied to DH systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the DH systems' potential for global CO 2 emissions reductions. - Research highlights: →Swedish energy policies are promoting biomass fuelled electricity generating technologies over efficient fossil fuel electricity generating technologies. →An efficient fossil fuel technology like the natural gas combine cycle CHP technology with high power-to-heat ratio has potential to reduce the global CO 2 emissions more than a biomass fuelled electricity generating technology. →Swedish energy policies such as tradable green certificates for renewable electricity can, when applied to district heating systems, contribute to investments that will not fully utilise the district heating systems potential for

  10. Addressing barriers to low carbon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Fiona; Dunstan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Two energy solutions gaining attention are cogeneration and trigeneration, mostly fuelled by natural gas, although other renewable sources can be used, such as sewage, agricultural waste and municipal waste. Trigeneration has become increasingly popular in Australia's urban centres as a relatively cost-effective means to cut the carbon-intensity of energy supply by more than half compared to traditional coal- fired electricity. Some examples of trigeneration projects include the City of Sydney's planned 360 megawatt trigeneration networks by 2030, the University of Technology Sydney's campus master plan and the six star Green Star Commonwealth Bank Place building in Sydney. Trigeneration and cogeneration can present opportunities such as addressing the issue of rising peak demand, which is a major driver for the current $9 billion per annum of network infrastructure spending. They can also face barriers. For example, depending on the current state of the network, additional network costs can be required to accommodate trigeneration. Furthermore, under the current National Electricity Market regulations and conventions, challenges do exist to timely and financially viable connection to the grid. Here we present two examples of barriers to trigeneration and cogeneration and solutions being considered and implemented. The University of Technology Sydney campus master plan is underway, with approximately 100,000sq.m of floor area being built by 2019 and includes plans for trigeneration. During the master planning phase of development, the university considered small trigeneration units in individual buildings in order to reduce the carbon intensity of electricity supply and deliver high ratings under Green Star ratings. When considering connecting trigeneration with the grid at multiple buildings on an individual basis, a number of barriers were encountered by UTS. The largest barrier was appropriate charging for connecting to and using the grid. However

  11. Analysis and comparison of methods for the preparation of domestic hot water from district heating system, selected renewable and non-renewable sources in low-energy buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an economic analysis and comparison of selected (district heating, natural gas, heat pump with renewable energy sources methods for the preparation of domestic hot water in a building with low energy demand. In buildings of this type increased demand of energy for domestic hot water preparation in relation to the total energy demand can be observed. As a result, the proposed solutions allow to further lower energy demand by using the renewable energy sources. This article presents the results of numerical analysis and calculations performed mainly in MATLAB software, based on typical meteorological years. The results showed that system with heat pump and renewable energy sources Is comparable with district heating system.

  12. Analysis and comparison of methods for the preparation of domestic hot water from district heating system, selected renewable and non-renewable sources in low-energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Maciej

    2018-02-01

    The article presents an economic analysis and comparison of selected (district heating, natural gas, heat pump with renewable energy sources) methods for the preparation of domestic hot water in a building with low energy demand. In buildings of this type increased demand of energy for domestic hot water preparation in relation to the total energy demand can be observed. As a result, the proposed solutions allow to further lower energy demand by using the renewable energy sources. This article presents the results of numerical analysis and calculations performed mainly in MATLAB software, based on typical meteorological years. The results showed that system with heat pump and renewable energy sources Is comparable with district heating system.

  13. The development of a new district heating concept: Network design and optimization for integrating energy conservation and renewable energy use in energy sustainable communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Rosa, A.

    2012-07-01

    PART I of this doctoral thesis consists of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the main issues caused by the use of energy resources. They involve ecological, economic, demographical and socio-political topics that are linked together and define the background of the thesis. Chapter 2 describes the state-of-the-art of District Heating (DH) systems, with focus on the present and future situation in Denmark. The core of the thesis consists of the development of a new DH paradigm, the ''Low- Temperature District Heating (LTDH)'', the study of its potential, and investigations of technical options which improve its applicability in terms of energy performance and socio-economy. Chapter 3 describes the whole idea about LTDH. Chapter 4 presents the hypotheses of the studies, draws the boundaries between the focus area of the thesis and other relevant aspects of the subject, describes the limitations of the work and lists the methods which were used. Chapter 5 explains the results of the scientific content reported in the articles in PART II. Article I introduces the technical and organizational strategies that can facilitate the establishment of a successful energy planning in a community. It analyses the state-of-the-art in community energy planning, discusses critical issues, and points at the role of DH in moving towards sustainable heat supply. The articles II and III aim at providing science-based knowledge for the development of improved solutions for the DH networks; they focus on the performance simulation of DH pipelines through models for assessing the energy performance of innovative pipe geometries, materials or system configurations. The models were validated against experimental measurements on real DH pipes. Article II considers the detailed steady-state modelling and analysis of heat losses in pre-insulated DH pipes. Article III focuses on the modelling and computation of the transient heat transfer in service pipes, which are important

  14. Local electricity market design for the coordination of distributed energy resources at district level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzis, M.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources at the distribution grid level creates concerns about their successful integration in the existing electric grid, designed for centralized generation by large power plants. Failure to the proper integration of distributed energy resources

  15. Modeling Transient Heat Transfer in Small-Size Twin Pipes for End-User Connections to Low-Energy District Heating Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    The low-energy district heating concept has the potential of increasing the energy and exergy efficiencies of heat supply systems and of exploiting renewable energy, provided technical solutions for its wide application can be developed and implemented. This paper investigates the dynamic behaviour...... of district heating branch pipes in low-temperature operation (supply temperature 50-55°C and return temperature 20-25°C). We looked at state-of-the-art district heating branch pipes, suitable for the connection of a typical single-family house to a substation equipped with a heat exchanger for domestic hot...... water preparation. Experimental measurements of the supply temperature profiles at the outlet of the pipe, i.e. at the inlet to the substation, were compared with detailed simulations based on the finite volume (FV) method. A programming code was developed to model these profiles, and this was validated...

  16. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  17. Optimisation based design of a district energy system for an eco-town in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.; Shah, N.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of CO 2 emissions linked with human activities (mainly energy services and transport), together with the increased use of renewable energies, remain high priorities on various political agendas. However, considering the increased consumption of energy services (especially electricity), and the stochastic nature of some of the most promising renewable energies (wind for instance), the challenge is to find the optimal mix of technologies that will provide the energy services, without increasing the CO 2 emissions, but nonetheless ensuring reliability of supply. The focus of this paper is to present the DESDOP tool, based on mixed integer linear optimisation technics, that helps giving insight in the optimal mix of technologies that will simultaneously help decrease the emissions while at the same time guarantee resilience of supply. The results show that while it is not yet possible to avoid electricity from the grid completely (hence nuclear or fossil fuel), CO 2 reductions up to 20%, at no extra costs compared to the business-as-usual case, are easily achievable. -- Research highlights: → Mixed integer linear optimisation techniques are a powerful tool to design and optimise district energy systems. → Integrated energy conversion systems (especially combination of CHPs and heat-pumps) allow CO2 reductions for energy services of at least 20% at no extra-costs compared to business-as-usual (grid and boiler). → While the grid (hence nuclear and/or fossil fuels) cannot be avoided as long as electricity storage doesn't come of age, the criticism of anti-wind lobbyists regarding the ineffectiveness of wind power could not be verified.

  18. Geothermal energy and district heating in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the possibilities for using shallow geothermal energy for heating purposes in Ny-Ålesund. The current energy supply in Ny-Ålesund is a diesel generator, which does not comply with the Norwegian government and Ny-Ålesund Science Managers Committee’s common goal to maintain the natural environment in Ny-Ålesund. Ny-Ålesund has a potential for replacing the heat from the current diesel based energy source with geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is considered to have low im...

  19. Report on the project of drawing energy-saving visions for the Town of Sayo district; Sayomachi chiiki sho energy vision sakutei jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The survey/study is conducted to draw the district energy visions for Town of Sayo, Hyogo Pref. The town as a whole consumes energy at 1,269,040GJ/y, or 140,817MJ/y per capita, which is about 1.2 times larger than the nationwide average. By energy source, electric power accounts for 43%, and oil products 53%. The town as a whole emits carbon dioxide at 18,900,403kg-C/y, or 2,097kg-C/y per capita, which is lower than the nationwide average. The short-term (1 year or less), medium-term (3 year or less) and long-term (5 years or less) targets are drawn by employees of the town offices, citizens and entrepreneurs for energy-saving directions (saving of power for air conditioning by adjusting clothes, wider use of bicycles and public trains). Those facilities investigated for promoting energy saving include those for the town office buildings, solar energy system for producing hot water for town-operated swimming pool, and solar energy system and photovoltaic system for Harima Observatory Park. (NEDO)

  20. Case Study of a Low-Energy District Heating Network in Energy-Efficient Settlements in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    for low-energy houses in Denmark was investigated. We considered the influence of the human behavior on the energy demand, the importance of the degree of buildings connected to the network and a socio-economical comparison with ground source heat pumps. In the North European climate, the human behavior...... customer in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way in areas with linear heat density down to 0.20 MWh/(m.year). This suggests that the mandatory connection of low-energy buildings to DH in specific areas, by means of detailed energy planning, would improve the energy efficiency and the overall...... socio-economy and it is strategic for effective energy policy. The levelised cost of energy in case of low-energy DH supply is competitive with the scenario based on ground source heat pumps. The investment costs represent up to three quarters of the overall expenditure, over a time horizon of 30 years...

  1. Modelling and optimal operation of a small-scale integrated energy based district heating and cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Z.X.; Jiang, X.S.; Wu, Q.H.; Tang, W.H.; Hua, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive model of a small-scale integrated energy based district heating and cooling (DHC) system located in a residential area of hot-summer and cold-winter zone, which makes joint use of wind energy, solar energy, natural gas and electric energy. The model includes an off-grid wind turbine generator, heat producers, chillers, a water supply network and terminal loads. This research also investigates an optimal operating strategy based on Group Search Optimizer (GSO), through which the daily running cost of the system is optimized in both the heating and cooling modes. The strategy can be used to find the optimal number of operating chillers, optimal outlet water temperature set points of boilers and optimal water flow set points of pumps, taking into account cost functions and various operating constraints. In order to verify the model and the optimal operating strategy, performance tests have been undertaken using MATLAB. The simulation results prove the validity of the model and show that the strategy is able to minimize the system operation cost. The proposed system is evaluated in comparison with a conventional separation production (SP) system. The feasibility of investment for the DHC system is also discussed. The comparative results demonstrate the investment feasibility, the significant energy saving and the cost reduction, achieved in daily operation in an environment, where there are varying heating loads, cooling loads, wind speeds, solar radiations and electricity prices. - Highlights: • A model of a small-scale integrated energy based DHC system is presented. • An off-grid wind generator used for water heating is embedded in the model. • An optimal control strategy is studied to optimize the running cost of the system. • The designed system is proved to be energy efficient and cost effective in operation

  2. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating

  3. A system design for distributed energy generation in low temperature district heating (LTDH) networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sean; Gillott, Mark C.; Boukhanouf, Rabah; Walker, Gavin S.; Tunzi, Michele; Tetlow, David; Rodrigues, Lucélia Taranto; Sumner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Project SCENIC (Smart Controlled Energy Networks Integrated in Communities) involves connecting properties at the University of Nottingham’s Creative Energy Homes test site in a community scale, integrated heat and power network. Controls will be developed to allow for the most effective heat load allocation and power distribution scenarios. Furthermore, the system will develop the prosumer concept, where consumers are both buyers and sellers of energy in both heat and power systems. \\ud \\ud ...

  4. District heating (DH) network design and operation toward a system-wide methodology for optimizing renewable energy solutions (SMORES) in Canada: A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, A.; Boulter, R.; Church, K.

    2012-01-01

    better energy delivery performance than high-temperature district heating (HTDH) (Tsupply> 100 C), decreasing the heat loss by approximately 40%. The low-temperature networks (Tsupplyinvestment. The implementation...... in Canada. The paper discusses critical issues and quantifies the performance of design concepts for DH supply to low heat density areas. DH is a fundamental energy infrastructure and is part of the solution for sustainable energy planning in Canadian communities....

  5. Living with comfort in the Kelheim district. Energy efficient - safe - barrier-free; Wohnen mit Komfort im Landkreis Kelheim. Energieeffizient - sicher - barrierefrei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-01

    In the future, the increasing costs of energy will shape the housing conditions more and more. A house should be built not only energy efficiently but also barrier-free. Under this aspect, the brochure under consideration provides information on the future planning of a building and on the alteration of the existing housing situation. Financial supports and offers of consultancy as well as energy consultants in the Kelheim district (Federal Republic of Germany) are presented.

  6. Predictive Factors Associated with Solar Energy Development in Laikipia District Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Wambuguh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of sunlight and the availability affordable solar technologies in many areas far from grid-based electricity has sparked the development of renewable energy technologies (RETs which tap solar radiation energy to provide electricity. A study on solar photovoltaics (SPVs use and utilization took place in the Wiyumiririe Location of Kenya. A purposive randomized convenience sample of 246 households was selected and landowner interviews conducted guided by a questionnaire, followed by field surveys and observations. Although solar energy contributed less than a quarter of total household energy needs, residents specifically associated it with specific developmental initiatives. Correlation and logistic regression model analyses showed that solar power development was closely associated (and thus can be predicted from five main independent variables. The findings of the study allowed the development of a probabilistic model general enough to be applicable elsewhere in the development of alternative energy resources particularly those based on solar input.

  7. Analysis of district heating pricing in Finland from the customers' and energy companies perspectives. Final report; Kaukolaemmoen hinnoittelun nykytila ja tulevaisuuden mahdollisuudet. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, A.; Jaaskelainen, J.; Puolakka, J.; Kouri, P. [AF-Consult, Vantaa (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    The heating market in Finland is changing. Until now, district heating demand has been constantly increasing. However, forecasts predict the demand to drop slightly in the future due to the increasing energy efficiency demands and development of competing heating technologies. Maintaining existing customer base may rise as one of the major challenges of a district heating company in the future. This report covers the topic 'Analysis of district heating pricing in Finland from the customers' and energy companies perspectives'. The report provides a general description of the current challenges and future opportunities of district heating pricing in Finland. Cost and pricing structures are discussed from both the companies and customers' perspectives. The overall objective is to provide an overview of the current state of district heating pricing in Finland and provide information on new pricing opportunities. The conclusions of the report provide information that district heating companies can use in developing their pricing system. Based on the literature and material analysed in this study, district heating pricing currently lacks adequate transparency and therefore should be developed to reflect the cost structure more closely. New metering technologies allow more accurate information on heat consumption and can hence be used to improve the transparency of pricing. Average marginal costs generally vary between seasons. If the goal is to reflect the cost structure taking into account the average variable costs, season dependent pricing becomes desirable. More variability in pricing between seasons may also keep customers from switching completely or partially into other heating systems, as the pricing becomes more cost-effective and easier to understand. Different types of customers wish for different properties in pricing: transparency, freedom of choice, convenience, more dynamic pricing, etc.. While expanding and tailoring the pricing

  8. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  9. Assessing the full costs of water, liquid waste, energy and solid waste infrastructure in the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.

    2001-01-01

    This document presents a newly drafted growth strategy developed by the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) in British Columbia. It guides the sustainable growth, change and development of the region for the next 25 years and deals with air pollution, water quality, traffic congestion, affordable housing, employment, energy use, parks and green space. In particular, this case study develops a method to apply full cost accounting (FCA) to a growth strategy. FCA is the most appropriate way to approach a sustainable strategy because it considers economic, social and environmental issues. The study also includes the development of a software tool consisting of an ACCESS database and an ARCVIEW GIS file for compiling and analyzing detailed infrastructure profiles which can be used to assess the full costs of different growth scenarios. The following four issue categories of environmental and economic indicators of FVRD performance were addressed: solid waste, water and wastewater, energy, and infrastructure costs. Each issue category was then used to establish a set of 5 performance indicators that can be measured and assessed over time. These included solid waste, water consumption, wastewater, energy consumption and air emissions. The database and methodology developed for this project is suitable for other regions. The software can be viewed by contacting the Sheltair Group Resource Consultants Inc. in Vancouver

  10. Situation of the development of renewable energies in the Deux-Sevres district - Year 2013, Year 2015. Renewable energies in Deux-Sevres - Assessment and perspective May 20, 2015, February 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    While providing tables of data regarding energy sources, existing installations, energy production and its evolution, a set of annual publications proposes a synthetic analysis of the situation of the Deux-Sevres district regarding renewable energy production origin and level, energy consumption by the different sectors, and avoided emissions. It also indicates and comments the share of the different energy sources in comparison with that noticed in the other districts of the region, indicates and comments the evolution of renewable energy production per source since 1990. It also proposes data and comments on specific sources, a topic which may change from one year to the other among wood-energy, methanization, wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy

  11. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  12. Revitalization of Energy Supply Systems in the Scale of a Town, a District and an Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juchimiuk Justyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Model actions undertaken in HafenCity and Wilhelmsburg during IBA Hamburg 2006- 13 as well as energy transformation of Danish island of Samsø towards self-sufficiency are examples of the use of energy as one of the key factors in the design of revitalization process in various scales. An important issue is to determine the impact of renewable energy systems on design process, architecture and urbanism of revitalized structures. Article examines the programs and projects related to the processes: renewal of degraded inner-industrial areas (brownfields, ecological restoration of degraded land, the revitalization of port and underdeveloped areas in the aspects of climate protection, the use of energy from renewable sources and improvement of technical conditions of building substance while maintaining the principles of sustainable development.

  13. Step by step towards an energy efficient district; Stap voor stap naar een energiezuinige wijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celie, N. [Deerns raadgevende ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Van Luijpen, M.R.; Sweeb, M. [Yacht, Randstad, Diemen (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Building Brains has been set up by TNO as a cooperative and started September 21, 2009. The aim of the project was to answer the question how the energy consumption in the Netherlands can be reduced by 50% up to 2030 or how the built environment can be made energy-neutral. This issue of the magazine is dedicated to Building Brains project. Sustainability and energy conservation are current topics on the agenda of many organizations. The emphasis on this topics may be inspired by an ideology, economic considerations, image building or carrying out a social responsibility or possibly enforced by law. Many organizations struggle with translating the ambition in the field of energy saving and sustainability into practice, partly because the collection of reliable data and knowledge of sustainable technologies is a specialism and time consuming and costly accordingly. There seems to be no tools available that provide this support. The Quick Urban Energy Scan can help. [Dutch] Building Brains is een door TNO opgezet samenwerkingsproject dat op 21 september 2009 van start ging. Het doel van het project is antwoord te geven op de vraag hoe tot 2030 het energiegebruik in Nederland kan worden gehalveerd of hoe de gebouwde omgeving energieneutraal kan worden gemaakt. Deze aflevering van het tijdschrift TVVL is vrijwel geheel gewijd aan het Building Brains project. In dit artikel wordt aandacht besteed aan de rol die de zogenaamde Quick Urban Energy Scan (QUES) kan spelen in de vertaling van beleidsanbities voor duurzaamheid naar concrete uitvoering van herstructurerings- of nieuwbouwprojecten.

  14. FY 2000 Project report on survey for drawing district energy-saving visions for City of Oguchi; 2000 nendo Oguchi-shi chiiki sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The energy-saving visions are drawn for City of Oguchi to help spread the energy-saving practices through the citizens, based on the studies on more efficient and realizable energy-saving measures, including effective utilization of district energy. The energy-saving activities cover the following 6 areas: (1) energy demand trends and current status of energy-saving measures, (2) basic environmental conditions related to energy saving in the district, (3) prediction of energy demands, (4) basic conception of the district energy saving, and introduction methodology, (5) energy-saving implementation plans, and (6) promotion of and problems involved in introduction of the energy-saving measures. The energy-saving implementation plans cover the public facilities, household, schools and private enterprises, and the energy-saving measures studied for the public facilities include introduction of microhydroelectric power generation systems for service water and sewer systems, revolving doors for libraries, high-efficiency illumination systems, and various types of solar systems. Those for household include economic utilization of home electric appliances and automobiles, and those for cooperation by the administration and citizens include thorough separation of garbage. (NEDO)

  15. Semantic BIM and GIS modelling for energy-efficient buildings integrated in a healthcare district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.; Bohms, H.M.; Bonsma, P.; Helm, P.W. van den

    2013-01-01

    The subject of energy-efficient buildings (EeB) is among the most urgent research priorities in the European Union (EU). In order to achieve the broadest impact, innovative approaches to EeB need to resolve challenges at the neighbourhood level, instead of only focusing on improvements of individual

  16. Determination of Optimum Network Layout for Low-Energy District Heating Systems with Different Substation Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    with comparisons given in the point of dimensions and energy efficiency of the DH network for winter peak conditions. Also, two different network layouts –branched network with bypasses, installed at the end-users, and looped network without bypasses–, which are appointed for the purpose to prevent excessive...

  17. Promotional study for joint implementation program. Energy conservation and efficiency improvement for district heating system in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was carried out for repair/improvement of the district heating system in Tashkent City, the Republic of Uzbekistan. In the project, the following were studied: heightening of electrical insulation of the total pipeline, improvement in efficient utilization of heat energy in the thermal plant. As to the existing pipeline, heat loss is improved by 0-5% by changing it to electrical insulation pipe. In relation to the thermal plant, studied were cogeneration facility A using three 4MW gas turbines and combined cycle cogeneration facility B using two 40MW gas turbines. As a result, the amount of energy saving was 11,370 toe/y in pipeline, 12,750 toe/y in facility A and 69,000 toe/y in facility B. Further, the reduction amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions was 27,200t-CO2/y in pipeline, 30,500t-CO2/y in facility A and 164,900t-CO2/y in facility B. (NEDO)

  18. High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage for electrification and district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. Schrøder; Engelbrecht, K.; Soprani, S.

    stability upon thermal cycling. The most promising material consists of basalt, diabase, and magnetite, whereas the less suited rocks contain larger proportions of quartz and mica. An HT-TES system, containing 1.5 m3 of rock pieces, was constructed. The rock bed was heated to 600 ˚C using an electric heater......The present work describes development of a High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage (HT-TES) system based on rock bed technology. A selection of rocks was investigated by thermal analysis in the range 20-800 ˚C. Subsequently, a shortlist was defined primarily based on mechanical and chemical...... to simulate thermal charging from wind energy. After complete heating of the rock bed it was left fully charged for hours to simulate actual storage conditions. Subsequently the bed discharging was performed by leading cold air through the rock bed whereby the air was heated and led to an exhaust. The results...

  19. Optimal dimensioning of low-energy district heating networks with operational planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    in design stage resulted in satisfaction of heat demand of the house in low temperature operation. In this paper the operational planning of the low-energy DH systems was investigated to reduce the dimensions of the distribution network with consideration given both to current high-heat and future low......-heat demand situations. The operational planning was based on boosting (increasing) the supply temperature at peak-demand situations which occur rarely over a year period. Hence optimal pipe dimensions of low-energy DH systems were investigated based on the dynamic response of in-house heating systems...... of operational planning in comparison to DH network dimensioned according to high heat demand situation....

  20. Report on feasibility study of district energy-saving and waste heat utilization for City of Iwai; Iwai-shi chiiki sho energy hainetsu riyo kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As part of the (district energy-saving visions for City of Iwai), the feasibility study is implemented for citizen community facilities which utilize waste heat discharged from factories in the city. More concretely, those items studied include a heated pool, other community facilities and botanical garden of tropical plants which utilize waste heat of exhaust gas cooling water heated to around 70 degrees C by a desulfurization unit at a pulp factory. Case 1 includes the citizen community facilities (e.g., heated pool and bath facilities), and Case 2 includes a green house botanical garden, involving studies on facility scales, requirements of heat and recycling water, hot water supply, air conditioning, bath systems, and heating systems for green houses. It is estimated that the citizen community facilities have an energy saving effect of 640kL/y as fuel oil, which corresponds to saving of around 29 million yen/y, and CO2 abatement effect of 471t/y as carbon, and that the green house botanical garden has an energy saving effect of 669kL/y as fuel oil, which corresponds to saving of around 30 million yen/y, and CO2 abatement effect of 492t/y as carbon. (NEDO)

  1. Regulatory aspects, an important factor for geothermal energy application for district heating development. European insurance scheme to cover geological risk related to geothermal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    District heating is one of the most interesting fields of geothermal energy application development in Europe. However, besides the technical/technological/economical and organizational aspects of the problem in question, the related legal and regulatory aspects influence very much the real possibilities for wider introduction of this energy source in the state energy balances in most of the countries. Based on the official EU report for the State-of-the-art of the problem of the insurance to cover geological risks and necessary aspects to be developed and resolved in a better and 'common' way in order to enable higher investments in bigger projects (district heating) development, the paper presents the situation in different European countries in relation to the Macedonian one. Conclusions extracted should give a positive contribution to the process of the Macedonian laws accommodation to the common EU practice. (Author)

  2. Estimating the potential for industrial waste heat reutilization in urban district energy systems: method development and implementation in two Chinese provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kangkang; Fang, Andrew; Yu, Huajun; Li, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yangjun; Wang, Shuxiao; Ramaswami, Anu

    2017-12-01

    Utilizing low-grade waste heat from industries to heat and cool homes and businesses through fourth generation district energy systems (DES) is a novel strategy to reduce energy use. This paper develops a generalizable methodology to estimate the energy saving potential for heating/cooling in 20 cities in two Chinese provinces, representing cold winter and hot summer regions respectively. We also conduct a life-cycle analysis of the new infrastructure required for energy exchange in DES. Results show that heating and cooling energy use reduction from this waste heat exchange strategy varies widely based on the mix of industrial, residential and commercial activities, and climate conditions in cities. Low-grade heat is found to be the dominant component of waste heat released by industries, which can be reused for both district heating and cooling in fourth generation DES, yielding energy use reductions from 12%-91% (average of 58%) for heating and 24%-100% (average of 73%) for cooling energy use in the different cities based on annual exchange potential. Incorporating seasonality and multiple energy exchange pathways resulted in energy savings reductions from 0%-87%. The life-cycle impact of added infrastructure was small (<3% for heating) and 1.9% ~ 6.5% (cooling) of the carbon emissions from fuel use in current heating or cooling systems, indicating net carbon savings. This generalizable approach to delineate waste heat potential can help determine suitable cities for the widespread application of industrial waste heat re-utilization.

  3. Chromosome identification by new molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization in the Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Duan, Yamei; Chi, Dawn; Liu, Huiping; Huang, Shuai; Cao, Wenguang; Gao, Yong; Fedak, George; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-08-01

    It is very important to use chromosome-specific markers for identifying alien chromosomes in advanced generations of distant hybridization. The chromosome-specific markers of rye and Thinopyrum elongatum, as well as genomic in situ hybridization, were used to identify the alien chromosomes in eight lines that were derived from the crossing between Triticum trititrigia (AABBEE) and triticale (AABBRR). The results showed that four lines contained all rye chromosomes but no Th. elongatum chromosomes. The line RE36-1 contained all of the rye chromosomes except for chromosome 2R. The lines RE33-2 and RE62-1 contained all rye chromosomes and 1E and 5E translocated chromosome, respectively. The line RE24-4 contained 12 rye chromosomes plus a 7E chromosome or 12 rye chromosomes plus one R-E translocated chromosome. Chromosome identification in the above lines was consistent using chromosome-specific markers and genomic in situ hybridization. These chromosome-specific markers provide useful tools for detecting alien chromosomes in trigeneric hybrids, and these lines could be utilized as valuable germplasm in wheat improvement.

  4. Planning of the district heating system in copenhagen from an economic perspective comparing energy-savings versus fossil-free supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    geothermal heating plants, may lead to oversized heating plants that are too expensive to build compared to implementing energy savings. Therefore reducing heat demand of existing buildings before investing in supply capacity will save society half the investment, indicating the importance of carrying out......The Danish government has adopted a long-term energy policy of being independent of fossil fuels by 2050, and that the energy supply for buildings should be independent of fossil fuels by 2035. Therefore, urgent action is needed to meet the requirements for the future energy system. One way...... of becoming independent of fossil fuels is to energy upgrade the existing building stock and change the energy supply to renewable energy sources. A sustainable way of providing space heating (SH) and domestic hot water (DHW) to buildings in densely populated areas is through the use of district heating (DH...

  5. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan İbrahim Tol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-Energy District Heating (DH systems, providing great energy savings by means of very low operating temperatures of 55 °C and 25 °C for supply and return respectively, were considered to be the 4th generation of the DH systems for a low-energy future. Low-temperature operation is considered to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives.

  6. Cattle Cow Dung Use As An Alternative Energy Source And Organic Fertilizer Friendly Enviroment Village Kasang Districts Batang Anai Padang Pariaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Budaraga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of farmers will have a negative impact on the increase of waste generated. Waste from the farm can be either solid gas and liquid waste. Livestock waste can be processed to produce biogas as an alternative energy substitute for oil stove and organic fertilizers. The research objective is a know how the biogas production process in Kanagarian Kasang District of Batang Anai Padang Pariaman b know how to slug biogas applications in rice plants. The usefulness of this research would be useful to increase incomes of farmers especially in Kanagarian Kasang District of Batang Anai Padang Pariaman district on the field of alternative energy and the use of organic fertilizers and can support government programs to support the development of the field of energy and sustainable agricultural development. The research concludes that a The process of making digester system balloon is most appropriate at household level because they are cheap and the manufacturing process is that starting with the manufacturing process digester system balloon when the digester is ready followed by installation of biogas and biogas stove using secondhand goods. b sewage sludge biogas very well be used as organic fertilizer because it can be directly available for the plants and very good impact on the environment.

  7. Stochastic control and real options valuation of thermal storage-enabled demand response from flexible district energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitapbayev, Yerkin; Moriarty, John; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We calculate the real option value of flexibility from CHP-thermal storage. • Stochastic optimal feedback control problem is solved under uncertain market prices. • Efficient real-time numerical solutions combine simulation, regression and recursion. • Clear, interpretable feedback control maps are produced for each hour of the day. • We give a realistic UK case study using projected market gas and electricity prices. - Abstract: In district energy systems powered by Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, thermal storage can significantly increase CHP flexibility to respond to real time market signals and therefore improve the business case of such demand response schemes in a Smart Grid environment. However, main challenges remain as to what is the optimal way to control inter-temporal storage operation in the presence of uncertain market prices, and then how to value the investment into storage as flexibility enabler. In this outlook, the aim of this paper is to propose a model for optimal and dynamic control and long term valuation of CHP-thermal storage in the presence of uncertain market prices. The proposed model is formulated as a stochastic control problem and numerically solved through Least Squares Monte Carlo regression analysis, with integrated investment and operational timescale analysis equivalent to real options valuation models encountered in finance. Outputs are represented by clear and interpretable feedback control strategy maps for each hour of the day, thus suitable for real time demand response under uncertainty. Numerical applications to a realistic UK case study with projected market gas and electricity prices exemplify the proposed approach and quantify the robustness of the selected storage solutions

  8. Missed opportunities in the diagnosis and management of protein energy malnutrition among children under 5 years in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akugizibwe, Roselyne; Kasolo, Josephine; Makubuya, Duncan B; Damani, Ali M

    2013-11-30

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is one of the leading causes of death among children below 5 years in Uganda. It develops after acute childhood illnesses despite children having received treatment from health facilities. This study assessed knowledge and practices of health workers in the diagnosis and management of PEM, which was used to establish missed opportunities to prevent severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in its management. This was a cross sectional descriptive study that used questionnaires and observation of health workers at Health Center IV (HCIV) in Wakiso district, Uganda. The clinical nutrition diagnosis of the children was then obtained. There were 44 health workers that assessed 225 children. Most of the health workers 32 (72.7%) had education in PEM management and over 60% of them knew the forms of PEM, clinical signs of kwashiorkor and marasmus and the factors that predispose to PEM. Health workers did not weigh 56 (24.9%) of the children, 193 (86%) children had no height taken and only 32 (14.2%) had mid upper arm circumference measured. The weight for height of 223 (99.2%) and weight for age of 109 (93%) children was not calculated. Only 38 (16.89%) were examined for edema and 40 (17.78%) for muscle wasting. Health workers diagnosed only 21 (9%) children with malnutrition, while researchers found 94 (31.9%) with malnutrition. Children who missed opportunity to have malnutrition diagnosed at the health facility were 73 (32.9%). The knowledge of health workers on PEM is adequate, but their practice is inadequate. There is missed opportunity to diagnose and manage PEM among children who present with acute illnesses at the health centers, hence missed opportunity to prevent SAM.

  9. Diagnostic information system dynamics in the evaluation of machine learning algorithms for the supervision of energy efficiency of district heating-supplied buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiluk, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency classification sustainability benefits from knowledge prediction. • Diagnostic classification can be validated with its dynamics and current data. • Diagnostic classification dynamics provides novelty extraction for knowledge update. • Data mining comparison can be performed with knowledge dynamics and uncertainty. • Diagnostic information refinement benefits form comparing classifiers dynamics. - Abstract: Modern ways of exploring the diagnostic knowledge provided by data mining and machine learning raise some concern about the ways of evaluating the quality of output knowledge, usually represented by information systems. Especially in district heating, the stationarity of efficiency models, and thus the relevance of diagnostic classification system, cannot be ensured due to the impact of social, economic or technological changes, which are hard to identify or predict. Therefore, data mining and machine learning have become an attractive strategy for automatically and continuously absorbing such dynamics. This paper presents a new method of evaluation and comparison of diagnostic information systems gathered algorithmically in district heating efficiency supervision based on exploring the evolution of information system and analyzing its dynamic features. The process of data mining and knowledge discovery was applied to the data acquired from district heating substations’ energy meters to provide the automated discovery of diagnostic knowledge base necessary for the efficiency supervision of district heating-supplied buildings. The implemented algorithm consists of several steps of processing the billing data, including preparation, segmentation, aggregation and knowledge discovery stage, where classes of abstract models representing energy efficiency constitute an information system representing diagnostic knowledge about the energy efficiency of buildings favorably operating under similar climate conditions and

  10. Report on the basic survey on the commercialization of innovative energy technology in the Tibet district; Tibet chiku ni okeru kakushinteki energy gijutsu jitsuyoka no jisshi ni kansuru kiso chosa report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A field survey was conducted with the aim of commercializing innovative energy technology in the Tibet district. The survey included the energy supply/demand situation and supply plan and the situation of new energy utilization in the Tibet district. And, based on the concrete circumstances in the Tibet district, a realistic plan was presented for solution to the energy supply/demand problem. To carry out the project, used are a lot of solar energy and wind power energy resources which are abundant in Tibet. In about 5 years, 100 sets of village use system and 80,000 sets of household use system are to be installed, which solves the problem on electric power demand in a part of the non-electrified houses. Accordingly, farmers/stockbreeders living in the non-electrified region will alter their life patterns which are closed and behind other countries, get out of the poverty, basically enhance the quality of life, promote the communication of various knowledge/information of scientific technology, renew their life/production concepts, and heighten the production efficiency for the wealthy society. The project itself belongs to the construction for protection of ecological environment. It produces no exhaust gas/solid waste which do harm to the environment. The ecological environment efficiency is very high. (NEDO)

  11. Modeling and optimal resources allocation of a novel tri-distributed generation system based on sustainable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheyli, Saman; Mehrjoo, Mehri; Shafiei Mayam, Mohamad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Considering renewable resources as the main prime movers in tri-generation systems. • Using EDM and TDM strategies simultaneously by defining probability functions. • Using an area function to evaluate the practical implementation of the system. • Reducing fuel consumption and pollution up to 154 and 207 times more than SP system. • Reducing the need to power grid and other auxiliary systems to less than 1%. - Abstract: Tri-generation systems with the aim of recycling heat dissipation of equipment and importing the heat into the energy production cycle have been considered by researchers recently because of increasing energy efficiency and decreasing environmental pollution. Many studies have been done in the field of tri-generation systems, but the studies have been more focused on centralized energy sources, such as, steam and gas turbines. Thus, required researches to move the sources of tri-generation systems toward renewable energy resources are not perfect enough. Moreover, the type of operation strategy, which is one of the important issues in investigating tri-generation system, is usually depended on assistant resources, such as, local power grid. In this paper, a novel tri-generation system based on wind and solar renewable energy resources and natural gas as the system prime movers is evaluated. Furthermore, a different operation strategy is considered to minimize the need to auxiliary sources and so the ability to use the system in remote regions, independently. Hence, wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) modules, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as prime movers of the system. Moreover, a battery bank and heat storage tanks (HSTs) are deployed to balance the fluctuations in produced energy by wind and solar renewable resources. Hence, thermal demand management (TDM) and electrical demand management (EDM) operation strategies are considered simultaneously and defined as two possible functions to achieve a system with

  12. Assessing the potential of solar energy in pressurized irrigation networks. The case of Bembézar MI irrigation district (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Carrillo-Cobo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The high energy requirements and the rising costs highlight the need to reduce the energy dependence of the irrigation sector. Alternative management strategies have been developed to reduce the energy consumption of the irrigated areas and to improve the efficiency in the water and energy use. In addition, the renewable energy sources are starting to be considered as an alternative to reduce energy costs with smaller environmental impacts. In this work, a new methodology, that combines sectoring as energy saving measure and solar energy, is developed. Thus, it reduces the energy requirements and the dependence on conventional energy resources. This methodology is applied to the irrigation district of Bembézar Margen Izquierda (Córdoba, Spain. The results show that organizing the network in two irrigation sectors, annual potential energy savings of 30.8% were achieved. Therefore, this measure reduces the annual energy bill in 30.4% without major investments. Then, a 2.1 MW photovoltaic would supply energy to the sector with higher energy consumption. However, conventional energy would be required (with an annual cost of € 33.6 ha-1 when solar energy is not available or it is not enough to supply the demanded flows. Both measures together would reduce the energy costs in 71.7% and the greenhouse gases emissions in 70.5%. The total investment would be M€ 2.8 but with a payback period of 8 years. At present, solar energy is a technically and economically viable alternative, which offers both economic and environmental benefits.

  13. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...... on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C...

  14. Sustainable residential districts : the residents' role in project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable residential districts have been realized worldwide. These districts are promoted to be efficient in the use of natural materials and sustainable energy resources. Realization of sustainable residential districts can strongly contribute to achieve environmental objectives as imposed by

  15. Effectiveness of the Solar Panels in the Castro Valley Unified School District Based on Projected Amount of Energy to be Produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J. R.; Palmer, T. C.; Siegel, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years Americans have warmed to the idea of installing solar panels to their homes and businesses. These panels help reduce the cost of receiving energy from power plants that lose a lot of energy in transportation. These power plants provide energy by burning gas or coal producing emissions that add to the growing problem of pollution and global warming. In 2010 the Castro Valley Unified School District decided to add solar panels to Canyon Middle School, Castro Valley High School, and Castro Valley Adult School. We researched whether the solar panels reached their projected amount of energy (74%) for the sites where the panels were placed. The solar panels at all three sites were found to exceed these projected amounts. The solar panels at each site produce a little over 74% for the each school.

  16. Innovations in Agriculture in Oregon: Farmers Irrigation District Improves Water Quality, Maximizes Water Conservation, and Generates Clean, Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hood River Farmers Irrigation District used $36.2 million in CWSRF loans for a multiple-year endeavor to convert the open canal system to a piped, pressurized irrigation system to maximize water conservation and restore reliable water delivery to crops

  17. Interactions of district electricity and heating systems considering time-scale characteristics based on quasi-steady multi-energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhaoguang; Guo, Qinglai; Sun, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Interaction mechanisms of district electricity and heating systems are analyzed. • The interaction process is divided into four quasi-steady stages. • A quasi-steady multi-energy flow model is proposed and calculated. • A heating network node type transformation technique is developed. • Attention should be paid on the fast hydraulic process and slow thermal process. - Abstract: Integrated energy systems (IESs) are under development for a variety of benefits. District electricity and heating systems (DEHSs) deliver electricity and heat, the most common energy demands, to end-users. This paper studies the interactions in a DEHS considering the time-scale characteristics. Interaction mechanisms of a DEHS are analyzed. A disturbance in one system influences another system through coupling components, depending on the disturbance, operating characteristics, and control strategies. A model of the main components in DEHSs is presented. The time scale characteristics are studied based on a dynamic comparison of the different components. Then the interaction process is divided into four stages; each is a quasi-steady state. A quasi-steady multi-energy flow model is proposed and calculated, with a heating network node type transformation technique developed. A case study with detailed results and discussion of 3 types of disturbance is presented to verify the methods. The results present the interactions between the electricity and the system. It is suggested that attention should be paid both on the fast hydraulic process and slow thermal process for system security and economic operation.

  18. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  19. Report on survey for environment harmonizing type energy community project for Chubu International Airport. District heat supply facilities using large-scale cogeneration systems; Chubu kokusai kuko kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Chubu International Airport is positioned as a hub airport scheduled to start its use in the early part of the 21st century, to which introduction of large-scale cogeneration systems was discussed. Structuring an energy supply system conscious of the 21st century is intended, that is friendly to the environment, is attached with importance on the economy, and has high reliability and safety. The systems have cogeneration capacity from 4,500 to 6,000 kW, and utilize high-pressure waste heat from the cogeneration system as the heat source. The system uses the high pressure waste heat, stored heat, and gas at the same time to achieve high economic performance brought about by heat storage and the best energy source mix, while attempting cascade utilization of the heat. Considerations were given to suppress the environmental and energy load on the district as low as possible for the coexistence with the district, and to build framework and coordination to return the merits to the district. Subsidy introduction also has a great effect to assure the economic performance. The optimal specific construction of the system was found in combining the utilization of energy generated from temperature difference in sea water as a heat source system, the topping system utilizing the high pressure waste heat available in the system, high-efficiency heat pumps, and the heat storing system utilizing electric power available at late night. (NEDO)

  20. Energy policy strategies of the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period - focusing on electricity and district heating generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    This study presents a comprehensive analysis of energy policy strategies for the Baltic Sea Region for the post-Kyoto period. To this aim, the study provides scenarios for the region in order to develop a both secure and climate-compatible energy system for the year 2020 and beyond. The long-term development of the energy systems in the Baltic Sea Region is analysed, i.e. in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the north western part of Russia. The study focuses on the electricity and district heating sectors. The Baltic Sea Region is comprised of countries with very different economies and characteristics. Hydropower is an important source of electricity generation in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Latvia. Biomass resources are significant throughout the region, deriving from both agricultural residues and large forested areas. Wind power already contributes considerably to electricity generation in countries such as Denmark and Germany, and is likely to play a much greater role in the region in the years to come, both onshore and offshore. In the longer term (2030 and beyond), solar power and geothermal energy could also provide notable contributions to the overall energy supply. The study shows that it is technically possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity and district heating sectors of the Baltic Sea Region by close to 100% using mainly renewable energy sources. The results indicate that this is a challenging, but manageable task. The associated costs are moderate and can be further decreased through regional cooperation. Once the various production technologies have the possibility to interact with district heating and flexible electricity consumption, and transmission connections are optimally utilised, it becomes realistic to integrate e.g. large volumes of wind power into the energy system as a whole. Furthermore, the hydro power reservoirs, particularly in Norway, play a key role in

  1. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  2. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  3. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  4. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  5. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  6. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  7. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  8. CO2-reductions in low energy buildings and communities by implementation of low temperature district heating systems. Demonstration cases in Boligforeningen Ringgaarden and EnergyFlexHouse. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, J.

    2011-05-15

    The project consisted of 3 tasks. In task 1, the aim was, through demonstration in EnergyFlexHouse in Taastrup, to analyse the district heating tank in interaction with a larger low-energy house, and to analyse different patterns of hot water use in order to validate and further develop the concept of low temperature district heating (LTDH). In task 2, the aim was, through demonstration in the housing community Ringgaarden in Lystrup near Aarhus, to show that the low heat losses found in a previous project can be achieved in practice, and to further develop the technology of the concept. In task 3, the aim was to assess the potential for CO{sub 2} reductions and energy conservation in both new and existing district heating distribution systems using the concept of LTDH. Furthermore the aim was to analyse the implementation of LTDH in existing buildings and to analyse optimization of LTDH design. The present report is a summary of the results of the three tasks. Detailed results of each task are presented in three separate reports. (ln)

  9. Theoretical study of a novel solar trigeneration system based on metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xiangyu; Yang, Fusheng; Bao, Zewei; Deng, Jianqiang; Serge, Nyallang N.; Zhang, Zaoxiao

    2010-01-01

    In order to utilize the low grade heat energy efficiently, the preliminary scheme of a metal hydride based Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) system driven by solar energy and industrial waste heat was proposed, in which both refrigeration and power generation are achieved. Following a step-by-step procedure recently developed by the authors, two pairs of metal hydrides were selected for the CCHP system. The working principle of the system was discussed in detail and further design of the configuration for CCHP was conducted. Based on the cycle mentioned above, the models of energy conversion and exergy analysis were set up. The multi-element valued method was used to assess the performance of the CCHP system in a whole sense, thus the analysis of influence factors on the system performance can be carried out. The typical climate conditions of Xi'an in 2005 were taken for discussion, and the results showed that the system performance is mainly affected by the quantity of solar radiation energy. The objective of the system's optimization is to increase the exergy efficiency of the metal hydride heat pump, based on the quantity of solar radiation energy. The comparison with two different traditional types of CCHP systems proved that the novel CCHP system is superior to the traditional CCHP systems concerning the integrated performance.

  10. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  11. Heat supply to low energy dwellings in district heating areas. Analyses of CO{sub 2} emissions and electricity supply security; Varmeforsyning til lavenergiboliger i omraader med fjernvarmekonsesjon. Analyser av CO{sub 2}-utslipp og forsyningssikkerhet for elektrisitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyholt, Marit

    2006-07-01

    Building low energy dwellings in large development projects is a new situation in Norway. The municipalities have to a little extent analyzed the consequences of this new housing standard with respect to the energy supply to such areas, and how this standard may change the plans for new or extended district heat production. In the provision about the mandatory connection to district heating plants, and the appendant provision related to a heating system that can utilize district heat, the district heat supply and the heat demand are not seen in connection. The objective of this dissertation is to provide the municipalities with a basis for decision making in the processing of applications concerning dispensation from the mandatory connection or the heating system requirement for dwellings with low heat demand. This basis for decision making is based on the national aim of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and of improving the electricity supply security. This summary provides an abstract from the discussion of the legislation as an incentive or barrier for building low energy dwellings. An abstract from a survey among construction firms concerning the motivation for building low energy dwellings is also included. In addition, the summary provides a comprehensive abstract of the results from the CO{sub 2} emission calculations, and the basis for these calculations. Introductorily a brief background of the national focus on energy savings and increased use of hydronic heating, including district heat, is given.

  12. Dynamic Simulation of a Trigeneration Scheme for Domestic Purposes Based on Hybrid Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Acevedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a system providing electricity by coupling photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors and a wind turbine (WT, sanitary hot water (SHW coming from the PVT and evacuated tube collectors (ETCs and fresh water (FW produced in two seawater desalting facilities (membrane distillation, MD, and reverse osmosis, RO, has been carefully analyzed by means of a dynamic model developed in TRNSYS®. This analysis is compulsory to operate a lab-scale pilot plant that is being erected at Zaragoza, Spain. A new model-type has been included in TRNSYS® in order to include the MD unit in the scheme. A sensitivity analysis of some free-design variables, such that the ETC surface, PVT and ETC tilt, water storage tank, batteries capacities, and mass flow rates delivered to the SHW service and/or feeding the MD unit has been performed in order to propose the definite design of the scheme. The proposed base case was able to produce up to 15,311 L per year in the MD system and cover an electric energy demand of 1890 kWh. Coverage of SHW, water (including RO and MD and power is respectively 99.3%, 100% and 70%. However, daily and yearly assessment of FW, SHW and power produced with the optimized design gave a better coverage of water and energy demands for a typical single family home. The improved and definite design was able to increase its MD production in 35% and the electric energy in 7% compared with base case.

  13. Utilization of waste heat from Vienna waste incinerators for the operation of a district cooling grid. Effects on the primary energy efficiency of district heating and district cooling in Vienna; Nutzung der Abwaerme aus den Wiener Abfallverbrennungsanlagen fuer den Betrieb eines Fernkaeltenetzes. Auswirkungen auf die Primaerenergieeffizienz der Fernwaerme und Fernkaelte in Wien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelar, F.; Wallisch, A. [Fernwaerme Wien GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The need of coldness increases and has to be covered efficiently as well as ecologically. At optimal constellation and mode of operation, the establishment of refrigeration plants from absorption refrigerators and compression refrigerators seems to be economically more competitive than decentralized plants. The optimal constellation is present, if: (a) ecologically and economically favourable waste heat are available; (b) Electricity from the domestic production with waste energy is present; (c) Resources-conserving recirculation cooling possibilities exist; (d) cooling water tanks and/or hot water tanks are available for top coverage; (e) a high grid density exists; (f) in-building station corresponds to the technical conditions. If these fundamental conditions are present, then the district coldness offers a good chance for waste incineration plants to use a safe heat consumer also in summer and to utilize optimally the existing energy.

  14. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D.; Williams, P.T.

    1998-01-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e. the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oil shale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  15. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Williams, P.T. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-02-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e. the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oil shale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  16. Modelling oil-shale integrated tri-generator behaviour: predicted performance and financial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, J.O.; Probert, S.D. [Cranfield University, Bedford (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Williams, P.T. [Leeds University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1998-03-01

    A simple theoretical model relating the inputs and outputs of the proposed process has been developed; the main objectives being to predict the final products (i.e., the production rates for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity), the total energy-conversion efficiency and the incurred costs under various operating conditions. The tri-production concept involves the use of a circulating fluidised-bed combustor together with a gasifier, retort and simple combined-cycle plant. The mathematical model requires mass and energy balances to be undertaken: these are based on the scarce published data about retorting as well as fluidised-bed combustion and gasification of oilshale. A prima facie case is made that the proposed tri-production plant provides an attractive and economic means for producing synthetic fuels and electricity from oil shale. The unit cost of electricity, so generated, would at present be about 0.057 US$ per kWh, assuming a 10% annual interest charge on the invested capital. If the produced shale oil could be sold for more than 25 US$ per barrel, then the cost of the generated electricity would be appropriately less and hence more competitive. (author)

  17. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  18. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  19. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    These 4. national energy sittings were organized around 3 invited talks and 16 workshops dealing with: the technological, economical and territorial stakes of decentralized energy; the small cogeneration experience of Frankfurt city (Germany); the new power supply tariff in Geneva (Switzerland), which choice for the consumer? Which role for the city?. Workshop 1 - knowing about the energy situation of a a territory: why? How? What the energy collective services scheme says; the example of a regional energy observatory. Workshop 2 - the electric power law: consequences for the local organizations; role and point of view of a licence holder with respect to the territory energy supply. Workshop 3 - the new legal dispositions for territory projects and the place of energy; a commonwealth of towns integrates the renewable energies in its competences; the solar ordinance of Barcelona (Spain). Workshop 4 - energy, a development tool inside the regional natural parks; a citizenship action for a wind power project; a district heating network supplied by a wood-fueled boiler plant and a gas-fueled cogeneration plant. Workshop 5 - cogeneration and cogeneration systems: what is the matter in France? In other countries? Which place for local systems?; district heating and cooling in Montpellier city: the tri-generation plant of the town hall. Workshop 6 - the success of biomass in Styria (Austria); geothermal energy and other energy sources, from competition to complementarity, the example of two district heating networks: Chevilly-Larue/l'Hay-les-Roses and Fresnes. Workshop 7 - overview of the French and European situation; a micro-hydroelectric power plant on a drinkable water supply; the Vauban district in Freiburg. Workshop 8 - heat pumps; solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaic power: from birth to full development; conversion, coupling and control technologies for the development of distributed power generation; evolution of biomass valorization files. Workshop 9 - will

  20. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M. [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G. [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    These 4. national energy sittings were organized around 3 invited talks and 16 workshops dealing with: the technological, economical and territorial stakes of decentralized energy; the small cogeneration experience of Frankfurt city (Germany); the new power supply tariff in Geneva (Switzerland), which choice for the consumer? Which role for the city?. Workshop 1 - knowing about the energy situation of a a territory: why? How? What the energy collective services scheme says; the example of a regional energy observatory. Workshop 2 - the electric power law: consequences for the local organizations; role and point of view of a licence holder with respect to the territory energy supply. Workshop 3 - the new legal dispositions for territory projects and the place of energy; a commonwealth of towns integrates the renewable energies in its competences; the solar ordinance of Barcelona (Spain). Workshop 4 - energy, a development tool inside the regional natural parks; a citizenship action for a wind power project; a district heating network supplied by a wood-fueled boiler plant and a gas-fueled cogeneration plant. Workshop 5 - cogeneration and cogeneration systems: what is the matter in France? In other countries? Which place for local systems?; district heating and cooling in Montpellier city: the tri-generation plant of the town hall. Workshop 6 - the success of biomass in Styria (Austria); geothermal energy and other energy sources, from competition to complementarity, the example of two district heating networks: Chevilly-Larue/l'Hay-les-Roses and Fresnes. Workshop 7 - overview of the French and European situation; a micro-hydroelectric power plant on a drinkable water supply; the Vauban district in Freiburg. Workshop 8 - heat pumps; solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaic power: from birth to full development; conversion, coupling and control technologies for the development of distributed power generation; evolution of biomass valorization files. Workshop 9

  1. Working Towards Net Zero Energy at Fort Irwin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    sub- metering of their energy use. • MERV 15 – 16 air filtration would be used to reduce the impact of very fine desert dust on the heat transfer coil...use and 1,420,414 KWh/yr electrical use. The electrical use can be offset further with waste to energy cogeneration , or the use of a trigeneration...Biogas cogeneration plant (25 kWth / 50 kWth): $70,000–$90,000 Fermentation plant (300 – 400 t/yr): $150,000 7.3.2 Usable energy 200 MWh electricity

  2. Structure of energy supply, energy analysis, projections for energy demand development and for emission-reducing energy carrier application in powered vehicles in the district Schmalkalden-Meiningen; Struktur der Energieversorgung, Energieanalysen, Prognosen zur Energiebedarfsentwicklung und zum emissionsmindernden Energietraegereinsatz fuer Kraftfahrzeuge im Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krah, N. [Fachhochschule Schmalkalden (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    2001-07-01

    The present publication is based on facts, data, knowledge and projects, which have been incorporated in the development of an energy concept for the district Schmalkalden-Meiningen. The energy concept of a district is a concept oriented at action on and realisation of mid-term and long term decisions in the fields of energy policy, economy and ecology, which must be taken by municipal and economic decision-making bodies. The energy concept accords with the targets of the Agenda 21, the environmental targets of the Federal Republic of Germany and of the Land Thuringia. Accepting this energy concept the district Schmalkalden-Meiningen shows its willingness to contribute to a lasting development in all fields of economy and ecology and thus does justice to its increasing responsibility. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Veroeffentlichung baut auf Fakten, Daten, Erkenntnissen und Projekten auf, die in die Erarbeitung des Energiekonzeptes fuer den Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen eingeflossen sind. Das Energiekonzept eines Landkreises ist ein handlungs- und umsetzungsorientiertes Konzept fuer mittel- und langfristige energiepolitische, wirtschaftliche und oekologische Entscheidungen, die kommunale und wirtschaftliche Entscheidungstraeger zu treffen haben. Es steht im Einklang mit den Zielen der Agenda 21, den Umweltzielen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und denen des Landes Thueringen. Der Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen hat mit der Annahme dieses Energiekonzeptes seine Bereitschaft dokumentiert, zu einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung in allen oekonomischen und oekologischen Bereichen beizutragen und seiner daraus erwachsenen Verantwortung gerecht zu werden. (orig.)

  3. FY 2000 Project report on survey for drawing district energy-saving visions for City of Ginowan; 2000 nendo Ginowan-shi sho energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The Ginowan municipal energy-saving vision drawing committee is established. It is responsible for drawing the energy-saving visions for the city, to study the basic guidelines and promotion measures for energy saving and promote the energy-saving measures suitable for the local characteristics. The studied items include background of and basic guidelines for the plans, analysis of energy consumption, survey on energy-saving consciousness and actual situations, prediction of potentially saved energy, drawing of the basic plans for energy saving and plan implementation programs, and surveys on preceding examples. The action plans include green planning for and revamping of public facilities, green purchasing, energy-saving diagnosis, drawing the design guidelines for energy saving and environmental considerations in public facilities, introduction of low-pollution local transportation systems, drawing the environment-related technology lists, including energy saving, and promotion of clean energy vehicles. (NEDO)

  4. Perspectives of increasing energy efficiency on designing new and reconstruction of present city districts: World experiences and local recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With 20th century along came a significant increase of energy consumption and a serious ecological crisis caused by the extensive usage of fossil fuels (oil, coal. Because of that, many countries have declared regulations to lower the traditional energy consumption and to stimulate usage of renewable energy sources. This problem is particularly evident in residential buildings sector, because over 50% of the overall energy produced is slinked in this way. This paper gives methodological recommendations regarding the principles of energy efficient housing and general comfort improvement as well as evident advantages of passive solar panels compared to traditional energy sources (fossil fuels. These possibilities are considered in two different scenarios: reconstruction of already built city blocks, and energy efficient implementation in case of brand new structures. This paper considers two different case studies, one reconstructive - a city block in France, built in the mid 60’s and the other of energy efficient settlement in Greece "Solar Village", built in the 80’s, which was designed by bioclimatic principles from the very beginning. Energy efficient planning and design methodological recommendations based on these two examples are regarding the New Belgrade block 7/3, which has been built in the 50’s.

  5. Performance analysis of single stage libr-water absorption machine operated by waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Hafiz Zafar; Leman, A. M.; Muthuraman, S.; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Zakaria, Supaat

    2017-09-01

    Combined heating, cooling, and power is also known as Tri-generation. Tri-generation system can provide power, hot water, space heating and air -conditioning from single source of energy. The objective of this study is to propose a method to evaluate the characteristic and performance of a single stage lithium bromide-water (LiBr-H2O) absorption machine operated with waste thermal energy of internal combustion engine which is integral part of trigeneration system. Correlations for computer sensitivity analysis are developed in data fit software for (P-T-X), (H-T-X), saturated liquid (water), saturated vapor, saturation pressure and crystallization temperature curve of LiBr-H2O Solution. Number of equations were developed with data fit software and exported into excel work sheet for the evaluation of number of parameter concerned with the performance of vapor absorption machine such as co-efficient of performance, concentration of solution, mass flow rate, size of heat exchangers of the unit in relation to the generator, condenser, absorber and evaporator temperatures. Size of vapor absorption machine within its crystallization limits for cooling and heating by waste energy recovered from exhaust gas, and jacket water of internal combustion engine also presented in this study to save the time and cost for the facilities managers who are interested to utilize the waste thermal energy of their buildings or premises for heating and air conditioning applications.

  6. Report on FY 2000 project for drawing district energy-saving visions for Village of Satomi; 2000 nendo Satomi-mura chiiki sho energy vision sakutei nado jigy hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The district energy-saving visions are drawn for Village of Satomi, aimed at construction of an energy-saving, resources-recycling type farming village in mountains, friendly to the environments, and the implementation organization is established. The activities include (1) questionnaire survey for energy saving, with the questionnaires sent to the citizens and enterprises, (2) actual situations of energy consumption, (3) setting the hardware and software targets achievable in 5 years, (4) setting the projects for introducing energy-saving facilities, and (5) establishment of the energy-saving spreading committee, and drawing the action programs. Insufficient practices are pointed out, and necessity for the spread/enlightenment activities are clarified. At the same time, it is estimated that the energy consumption can be potentially reduced by 8% in 5 years. It is decided to introduce a co-generation system in the biomass recycling center, systems for photovoltaic power generation and production of hot water by solar heat in the integrated day-care center, and wind power system in Plateau Satomi. (NEDO)

  7. Report on results of the survey for drawing new energy visions for the Town of Shiranuka district; Shiranukamachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Shiranuka. Utilization of solar energy is at the top of the prospective new energy reserves for the town, followed by utilization of heat of wastes, biomass energy (in the stock raising industry), and photovoltaic power generation. The expected recoverable new energies account for approximately 35% of the total annual energy consumption of the town. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are drawing the priority projects which place importance on environmental education and bringing up talented persons, development of the soft policies for supporting the citizens and related entrepreneurs, and introduction of new energies for promoting new industries. The priority projects include hard ones, e.g., foundation of Eco-school Shiranuka, Eco-park Kushiro/Shiranuka (biomass energy supply center) and Koima new energy park, and soft ones, e.g., establishment of the new energy grand prize awarded by PR brochure ''Shiranuka'', foundation of the Shiranuka fund for introduction of new energies, construction of a Shiranuka Citizens' power station, and rent-a-car project for eco-car test runs. (NEDO)

  8. Project report on drawing district energy-saving visions for Town of Nishi Senboku; Nishi Senboku machi sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studied in this project are concrete energy-saving procedures, and potentially saved energy and abated CO2 emissions in Town of Nishi Senboku, to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The energy-saving procedures studied include co-generation, utilization of waste heat, wind power generation, utilization of low-temperature heat by snow, fuel-efficient vehicles, use of insulators for houses, energy-saving type electric appliances, energy-saving activities, and eco-driving. The results indicate that the energy-saving activities and eco-driving can potentially more contribute to energy saving than the others. The study on introduction of energy-saving facilities in the 'Nukumori Hot Spring/Umeria' project indicates that the heat pump plus co-generation case is the most advantageous, because it can potentially reduce primary energy by 2,845,215MJ/y and CO2 emissions by 22,688kg-C/y. Introduction of energy-saving facilities is also studied for an information center in the Nishi-Senboku service area for the Akita Highway. The results indicate that the introduction can potentially reduce primary energy and CO2 emissions by 25 and 13%, respectively. (NEDO)

  9. The Scenario of the Potential Analysis Alternative Energy in Order to Strengthening District's Energy Resilience (The Case Study in South Sumatera Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry Muhrom, Muhammad; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The current development of fossil energy, which is the driving force of the economy in Indonesia, is a non-renewable energy and is in need to know when it will be exhausted so it may be replaced with renewable energy. Many powerplant systems in Indonesia are still using conventional system that utilizes fossil energy as the primary energy in the process of electricity generation. The occurrence of electrical energy crisis is marked by several electricity blackout phenomenon in some areas in South Sumatera province rotately, which is the proof that the installed power capacity has exceeded the capacity of generation power. Interconnection among several islands, namely Java Island, Sumatera Island, and Bali Island which has been interconnected with closed loop system through transmission network has not been able to overcome the electrical energy crisis. This paper aims to create alternative energy potential scenarios in the province of South Sumatera in sequence/ranking by using quantitative methods with sequential explanatory model formulated in the determination of alternative energy strategies then analyzed by using Analitycal Hierarchy Process(AHP) method. The simulation results from this research indicate that geothermal energy potentials get the highest value so that it becomes the priority of alternative energy strategy in South Sumatera Province.

  10. What has changed in the 8th amendment of the GWB for the energy industry, water resource management and district heating industry?; Was aendert sich durch die 8. GWB-Novelle fuer die Energie-, Wasser- und Fernwaermewirtschaft?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haellmigk, Christian F.; Pelka, Sascha C. [Sozietaet CMS Hasche Sigle, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Compared with the Restriction of Competition (GWB) in its actual version, the eighth amendment of the GWB provides modifications especially in the misuse control, in the fusion control, in the cartel regulation adversity law and sanctions with respect to the factual application areas of the GWB. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the modifications of the general antitrust regulations with special impacts on the energy industry, water resources management and district heating industry. Furthermore, the authors report on a prolongation of the special misuse control in the energy industry with respect to paragraph 29 GWB as well as on the transfer of the special antitrust misuse regulations for the water resource management. Innovations in the range of legal consequences of a violation of the GWB are presented.

  11. Survey report on project for drawing district energy-saving visions for Town of Aizu Wakamatsu. Preliminary survey; 2000 nendo Aizu Wakamatsu shi chiiki sho energy vision sakutei nado jigyo (shoki dankai chosa) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The feasibility study is conducted for introduction of the district energy-saving measures in City of Aizu Wakamatsu, for which the actual situations of energy consumption and promising energy-saving measures are surveyed. The city has a typical basinal weather, cold in winter and very hot and humid in summer, and tends to have a longer air-condition period in a year. It is considered that there are many wasteful energy consumption items to be studied for reduction. In the area of moving means, dependence on public transportation systems is considered to be relatively low, suggesting that there are much space of reducing transportation energy by the measures such as self-imposed control on use of private cars, promotion of utilizing public transportation systems and fuel-saving type driving throughout the city. The promising energy-saving measures studied to verify the effects include introduction of PVM analyzers for establishing better cost/effect relationship between power consumed by air-conditioners and pleasantness; introduction of garbage power generation, co-generation and high-efficiency illuminators; improvement of power-factor; and demand control for air conditioning, rationalization of power-receiving facilities, introduction of systems for saving flushing water and improvement of air conditioners' outdoor facilities. (NEDO)

  12. Assessing high shares of renewable energies in district heating systems - a case study for the city of Herten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Ali; Popovski, Eftim; Bellstädt, Daniel; Fleiter, Tobias; Büchele, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Many earlier studies have assessed the DH generation mix without taking explicitly into account future changes in the building stock and heat demand. The approach of this study consists of three steps that combine stock modeling, energy demand forecasting, and simulation of different energy technologies. First, a detailed residential building stock model for Herten is constructed by using remote sensing together with a typology for the German building stock. Second, a bottom-up simulation model is used which calculates the thermal energy demand based on energy-related investments in buildings in order to forecast the thermal demand up to 2050. Third, solar thermal fields in combination with large-scale heat pumps are sized as an alternative to the current coal-fired CHPs. We finally assess cost of heat and CO2 reduction for these units for two scenarios which differ with regard to the DH expansion. It can be concluded that up to 2030 and 2050 a substantial reduction in buildings heat demand due to the improved building insulation is expected. The falling heat demand in the DH substantially reduces the economic feasibility of new RES generation capacity. This reduction might be compensated by continuously connecting apartment buildings to the DH network until 2050.

  13. Scaling up local energy infrastructure; An agent-based model of the emergence of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonathan; Roelich, Katy; Bale, Catherine S.E.; Knoeri, Christof

    2017-01-01

    The potential contribution of local energy infrastructure – such as heat networks – to the transition to a low carbon economy is increasingly recognised in international, national and municipal policy. Creating the policy environment to foster the scaling up of local energy infrastructure is, however, still challenging; despite national policy action and local authority interest the growth of heat networks in UK cities remains slow. Techno-economic energy system models commonly used to inform policy are not designed to address institutional and governance barriers. We present an agent-based model of heat network development in UK cities in which policy interventions aimed at the institutional and governance barriers faced by diverse actors can be explored. Three types of project instigators are included – municipal, commercial and community – which have distinct decision heuristics and capabilities and follow a multi-stage development process. Scenarios of policy interventions developed in a companion modelling approach indicate that the effect of interventions differs between actors depending on their capabilities. Successful interventions account for the specific motivations and capabilities of different actors, provide a portfolio of support along the development process and recognise the important strategic role of local authorities in supporting low carbon energy infrastructure. - Highlights: • Energy policy should account for diverse actor motivations and capabilities. • Project development is a multi-stage process, not a one-off event. • Participatory agent-based modelling can inform policy that accounts for complexity. • Policy should take a portfolio approach to providing support. • Local authorities have an important strategic role in local infrastructure.

  14. On the way towards smart energy supply in cities: The impact of interconnecting geographically distributed district heating grids on the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, D. F.; Bačeković, I.; Sveinbjörnsson, D.

    2017-01-01

    assessed. Moreover, the impact of industrial waste heat on the DH supply was also assessed. In the reference year (2013) two out of four interconnections proved to be economically viable. The results for the future energy system (2029) showed that interconnecting geographically distributed DH grids reduces...... of the future energy supply system with interconnected DH grids and installed industrial waste heat recuperation results in the lowest primary energy demand, emissions and costs. Finally, the benefits of the interconnected DH grid, in terms of system flexibility, CO2 emissions, total costs and energy efficiency...... primary energy supply by 9.5%, CO2 emissions by 11.1% and total system costs by 6.3%. Inclusion of industrial waste heat in the fully interconnected DH grid reduced primary energy supply for an additional 3%, CO2 emissions for an additional 2.2% and total system costs for an additional 1.3%. The case...

  15. Report on results of the survey for drawing new energy visions for the Town of Hamanaka district; Hamanakacho chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Hamanaka, Hokkaido. The town had a population of 7,866 in 1995, which compares with 11,915 in 1960, aging as a whole with reduced number of new born babies. The town has been holding the Japan's top town in tangleweed production and core site in the Kushi-Ne dairy belt. Biomass energy (excreta and woody resources) is at the top of the prospective new energy reserves for the town, which total 88,741Gcal/y, followed by utilization of solar energy and heat exhausted from garbage incineration. The priority projects selected for introduction of new energies include a biogas plant which produces organic compost and biogas energy by anaerobic fermentation of excreta discharged from domestic animals, raw garbage and fishery wastes; system for utilizing waste heat from a stoker type incinerator burning domestic garbage, which satisfies the dioxin emission standard; and system for utilizing low-temperature heat including energy of snow and ice, which uses only a limited extent of the conventional energy and free of chlorofluorocarbon gases. (NEDO)

  16. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  17. New energy visions for the Town of Naie district. Human-friendly Town of Naie City by environment-friendly energies; Naiemachi chiiki shin energy vision. Kankyo ni yasashii energy ga tsukuru hito ni yasashii machi Naie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The new energy visions are drawn for Town of Naie, Sorachi-gun in Hokkaido, where the industrial sector (manufacturing industries) consumes more than 60% of the total energy consumption. By energy type, oil and others account for 80%. When arranged in the order of expected recoverable quantity, the new energies for the town include utilization of solar energy, photovoltaic power generation, wind power generation, and utilization of wastes, biomass energy (agricultural products) and snow energy. The basic guidelines for introduction of new energies are for health and welfare, clearing and utilization of snow, environmental education and bringing up talented persons, supporting the related entrepreneurs, and integration of new energy with promotion of energy-saving movement. The priority projects the town plans to promote include utilization of biogas and temperature-differential energy for the town's water purification center; foundation of the Naie eco-school; and drawing conceptions for utilization of underground heat, utilization of low-temperature and snow/ice energy, co-energy around the spa of Naie, and mega-solar and eco-park at the Sorachi housing complex. (NEDO)

  18. Changes in heat load profile of typical Danish multi-storey buildings when energy-renovated and supplied with low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    end-use savings are implemented in buildings concurrent with the application of low-temperature district heating (LTDH), the heat profiles of the buildings will change. Reducing peak loads is important, since this is the dimensioning foundation for future district heating systems. To avoid oversized...

  19. Miscellaneous investigations. Subreport 3; CO{sub 2}-reductions in low-energy buildings and communities by implementation of low-temperature district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, M. (DTU-BYG, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kaarup Olsen, P. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    The report focuses on possibilities of how to further decrease CO{sub 2} emissions by implementation of low-temperature district heating (LTDH) in areas with new low-energy buildings as well as in areas with existing buildings. In the first chapter, three different sites where LTDH is considered are reported. The first site is in Solbjerg near Aarhus, where 104 low-energy single-family houses are planned to be built. Calculations for a LTDH network (60/30 deg. C) have been made in the program TERMIS. The results show that depending on the houses being built as low-energy class 1 or 2, a cost saving potential of 6-13% can be achieved compared to traditional district heating (DH). The CO{sub 2}-reduction potential is 4.4-7.5 tonnes per year. The second reported site is an area with single-family houses built in the 1970s in Skjoldhoejparken in Tilst near Aarhus. Eight single-family houses have been investigated. Refurbishment can reduce the heat demand and make the houses more suitable for LTDH, but even with subsidy it is difficult to motivate the building owners to make energy saving initiatives. Analyses show that if the DH supply temperature is lowered gradually from 80 deg. C to 60 deg. C, depending on the outdoor temperature, the heat loss in the existing pipe network for the eight houses can be reduced by 20%. An even larger potential can be achieved with replacement of the existing pipe system. The third site is neighbourhood in Soenderby in Hoeje Taastrup with 75 single-family houses from the 1990s. The existing DH network is poor and has a heat loss of more than 40%. With LTDH it will be possible to reduce the network heat loss to 15% or lower. The CO{sub 2}-emission could be reduced by about 66 tonnes per year. In the second chapter are described existing district heating systems in Aarhus and Hoeje Taastrup. The average DH temperature is currently 80-77/47-42 deg. C, so there is a potential for LTDH. The network heat loss in the DH systems is 15

  20. Towards modeling of combined cooling, heating and power system with artificial neural network for exergy destruction and exergy efficiency prognostication of tri-generation components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghavifar, Hadi; Anvari, Simin; Saray, Rahim Khoshbakhti; Khalilarya, Shahram; Jafarmadar, Samad; Taghavifar, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an attempt to address the investigation of the CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system when 10 input variables were chosen to analyze 10 most important objective output parameters. Moreover, ANN (artificial neural network) was successfully applied on the tri-generation system on account of its capability to predict responses with great confidence. The results of sensitivity analysis were considered as foundation for selecting the most suitable and potent input parameters of the supposed cycle. Furthermore, the best ANN topology was attained based on the least amount of MSE and number of iterations. Consequently, the trainlm (Levenberg–Marquardt) training approach with 10-9-10 configuration has been exploited for ANN modeling in order to give the best output correspondence. The maximum MRE = 1.75% (mean relative error) and minimum R 2  = 0.984 represents the reliability and outperformance of the developed ANN over common conventional thermodynamic analysis carried out by EES (engineering equation solver) software. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis is undertaken for CCHP components based on operative factors. • ANN tool is applied to obtained database from thermodynamic analyses session. • The best ANN topology is detected at 10-9-10 with trainlm learning algorithm. • The input and output layer parameters were selected based on sensitivity analysis.

  1. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of two Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum Trigeneric Hybrids Exhibiting Superior Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight, Leaf Rust, and Stem Rust Race Ug99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yi; Duan, Yamei; Liu, Huiping; Chi, Dawn; Cao, Wenguang; Xue, Allen; Gao, Yong; Fedak, George; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2 n = 2 x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2 n = 6 x = 42, AABBEE), were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, three pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R, and 7R), and four pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E, and 5E) for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, six pairs of R-chromosomes, and one pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2 n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages under greenhouse conditions, line RE21 showed high levels of resistance to FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust race Ug99, and line RE62 was highly resistant to leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two lines (RE21 and RE62) display superior disease resistance characteristics and have the potential to be utilized as valuable germplasm sources for future wheat improvement.

  2. STUDI POTENSI ENERGIANGIN DAERAH PANTAI PURWOREJO UNTUK MENDORONG PENYEDIAAN LISTRIK MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER ENERGI TERBARUKAN YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN ((The Study of Wind Energy Potential at The Cost Area of Purworejo District To Stimulate The Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Kamal

    2007-03-01

    information on site potential of high wind energy.  The government of Central Java province through Purworejo district government plans to stimulate the use of  clean energy for electric energy supply by using wind energy source. This study is to revisit the wind energy source at Purworejo cost area by collecting information on the prospective sites with high wind energy potential.  Based on the speed, direction and characteristic of wind measured at Kertojayan  located at  latitude 67o 49’ 49.5” S  and  longitude 109o 49’ 45.6 “ N , it is indicated that the site is a prospective site location for electric wind energy area.  The collected data were used to show that the available wind energy at measuring site is sufficient for the generation of electricity.  The mean annual wind speed was found to be 6.06  m/s.  The corresponding annual power density was found to be 300.045  W/m2. On the basis of the wind data , it is  suggested to use the medium  scale of 100 kW wind turbine machine per unit with fixed direction for harvesting the available wind energy economically.

  3. Energy saving analysis on mine-water source heat pump in a residential district of Henan province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Duan, Huanlin; Chen, Aidong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the mine-water source heat pump system is proposed in residential buildings of a mining community. The coefficient of performance (COP) and the efficiency of exergy are analyzed. The results show that the COP and exergy efficiency of the mine-water source heat pump are improved, the exergy efficiency of mine-water source heat pump is more than 10% higher than that of the air source heat pump.The electric power conservation measure of “peak load shifting” is also emphasized in this article. It shows that itis a very considerable cost in the electric saving by adopting the trough period electricity to produce hot water. Due to the proper temperature of mine water, the mine-watersource heat pump unit is more efficient and stable in performance, which further shows the advantage of mine-water source heat pump in energy saving and environmental protection. It provides reference to the design of similar heat pump system as well.

  4. The energy-effective redesign of district heat supply for the city of Eisenach; Energiewirtschaftliche Neugestaltung der Fernwaermeversorgung fuer die Stadt Eisenach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stich, J. [Eproplan GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The present contribution describes the optimal heat generation for the district heat area ``North`` of the city of Eisenach and economic redesign of this district heat network. The district heat network is operated by the public utility of Eisenach (Eisenacher Versorgungs-Betriebe GmbH (EVB)), which also runs the heating station, that used to be fuelled with coal. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit der optimalen Waermeerzeugung fuer das Fernwaerme-Versorgungsgebiet `Nord` der Stadt Eisenach und mit der wirtschaftlichen Umgestaltung dieses Fernwaermenetzes. Das Fernwaermenetz wird durch die Eisenacher Versorgungs-Betriebe GmbH (EVB) betrieben, wie auch das ehemalige kohlegefeuerte Heizwerk. (orig./GL)

  5. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  6. Information on district initiatives on energy conservation in the Dutch province Noord-Holland. Learning for an effective method and communication strategy; Kennisdocument wijkinitiatieven energiebesparing Noord-Holland. Leerpunten voor een effectieve aanpak en communicatiestrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubbelhuis, D. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    In the Dutch province North Holland several district projects were started in recent years with the purpose to save energy. The Renewable Energy Service Centre analyzed ten such initiatives with the aim to provide municipalities and other initiators with knowledge and information about the experiences [Dutch] In Noord-Holland zijn de afgelopen jaren diverse wijkprojecten opgestart, gericht op energiebesparing. Het Servicepunt Duurzame Energie analyseerde tien van deze initiatieven met het doel om gemeenten en andere initiatiefnemers kennis te laten nemen van de leerervaringen.

  7. Survey report of FY 1996 on the questionnaires related to new energies for local governments in Kinki district; 1996 nendo chosa hokokusho (shin energy ni kansuru Kinki chiiki jichitai anketo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) power generation system having a lot of merits for environment and energy has been put into a diffusion stage from the viewpoint of its technology due to its progressive technology innovation. However, it is not widely diffused in the whole society due to its high cost. Systematic investigation for the future PV power generation was conducted through the verification of factors obstructing the diffusion promotion and the investigation of the problems. Then, questionnaires were conducted for local governments in the Kinki district. Proportion of the local governments positively promoting the introduction of PV power generation was 3.4%. Among new energies, 45.7% of the governments were interested in solar heat utilization, and 43.1% were interested in PV power generation. Proportion of the local governments understanding the subsidy system of MITI was 57.7%. For the explanation meeting of new energy introduction promotion, 55.4% of the local governments wanted to participate. Among the interesting themes, 61.0% were interested in the introduction examples, 52.4% were in the introduction support, 52.1% were in the introduction of fundamental knowledge, and 30.0% were in the latest technology trends and in the guide for introduction

  8. Better business case for embedded energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The first customer-led rule change to reform the National Energy Market has been successful, making it easier for clean energy to connect to the national electricity grid. The rule change was adopted by the Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC) recently and will come into effect from October 1. Led by ClimateWorks Australia, the Property Council of Australia and Seed Advisory, these reforms will make it cheaper and faster to connect co/trigeneration plants and renewable energy to the electricity grid. Some see the reforms unleashing a wave of embedded generation projects on commercial buildings and precincts, seeking energy savings and higher sustainability ratings. However, the benefits that can be assumed at this stage are, greater information from electricity network operators to avoid delays, and known fees and charges so that financial feasibility can be calculated up front.

  9. A renewable energy policy concept for the rural district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen - Assessment of potential and modelling calculations; Potentiale und Modellrechnungen zur Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien im Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krah, N. [Fachhochschule Schmalkalden (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau

    2001-06-01

    The publication is based on previous studies, facts, information, analyses and project results. Using this available reservoir of information, the author examines the potentials and demonstrates that the rural district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen meets all requirements and owns all means to put into place an energy policy that focuses on the use of renewable energy sources and the relevant technologies. The aspects examined are: increasing the energy efficiency; rational use of energy and development of environmentally sound energy supply; use of renewable energy sources; reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (orig./CB) [German] Die Veroeffentlichung baut auf fruehere Untersuchungen, Fakten, Daten, Erkenntnisse und Projekten auf. Unter Verwendung dieser Quellen wird ein Energiekonzept fuer den Landkreis Schmalkalden-Meiningen erarbeitet, das die Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien in den Vordergrund stellt und zeigt, dass der Landkreis alle Voraussetzungen besitzt, um die folgenden Potentiale nutzbar zu machen oder auszubauen: Energieeinsparmoeglichkeiten; rationelle, umweltfreundliche Energieversorgung; Anwendung erneuerbarer Energien; Reduzierung der Schadstoffemissionen. (orig./CB)

  10. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of two Triticum–Secale–Thinopyrum Trigeneric Hybrids Exhibiting Superior Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight, Leaf Rust, and Stem Rust Race Ug99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host Dewey (2n = 2x = 14, EE is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum–Secale–Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2n = 6x = 42, AABBEE, were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers. The results indicated that line RE21 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, three pairs of R-chromosomes (4R, 6R, and 7R, and four pairs of E-chromosomes (1E, 2E, 3E, and 5E for a total chromosome number of 2n = 42. Line RE62 contained 14 A-chromosomes, 14 B-chromosomes, six pairs of R-chromosomes, and one pair of translocation chromosomes between chromosome 5R and 5E, for a total chromosome number of 2n = 42. At the seedling and adult growth stages under greenhouse conditions, line RE21 showed high levels of resistance to FHB, leaf rust, and stem rust race Ug99, and line RE62 was highly resistant to leaf rust and stem rust race Ug99. These two lines (RE21 and RE62 display superior disease resistance characteristics and have the potential to be utilized as valuable germplasm sources for future wheat improvement.

  11. Study of a molten carbonate fuel cell combined heat, hydrogen and power system: Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer A.; Hamad, Yousif M.; Hamad, Tarek A.; Thomas, Mathew; Bapat, Sushrut; Martin, Kevin B.; Sheffield, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Countries around the world are trying to use alternative fuels and renewable energy to reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas contains methane is considered a potential source of clean renewable energy. This paper discusses the design of a combined heat, hydrogen and power system, which generated by methane with use of Fuelcell, for the campus of Missouri University of Science and Technology located in Rolla, Missouri, USA. An energy flow and resource availability study was performed to identify sustainable type and source of feedstock needed to run the Fuelcell at its maximum capacity. FuelCell Energy's DFC1500 unit (a molten carbonate Fuelcell) was selected as the Fuelcell for the tri-generation (heat, hydrogen and electric power) system. This tri-generation system provides electric power to the campus, thermal energy for heating the anaerobic digester, and hydrogen for transportation, backup power and other applications on the campus. In conclusion, the combined heat, hydrogen and power system reduces fossil fuel usage, and greenhouse gas emissions at the university campus. -- Highlights: • Combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) using a molten carbonate fuel cell. • Energy saving and alternative fuel of the products are determined. • Energy saving is increased when CHHP technology is implemented. • CHHP system reduces the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption

  12. Nuclear power for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Sochaski, R.O.

    1975-09-01

    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  13. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...... as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...

  14. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  15. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  16. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  17. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  18. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  19. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  20. Energy-efficient and cost-effective in-house substations bypass for improving thermal and DHW (domestic hot water) comfort in bathrooms in low-energy buildings supplied by low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Svendsen, Svend

    2014-01-01

    temperature and additional cooling of bypass water by 3.9 °C, reducing the heat loss from the DH network by 13% and covering 40% of the heat used in the bathroom FH. The use of the bypass flow in bathroom FH is a cost-effective solution exploiting the heat that would otherwise be lost in the DH network......Using a bypass to redirect a small flow through the in-house DH (district heating) substation directly to the return pipe is a commonly used but energy-inefficient solution to keep the DH network “warm” during non-heating seasons. Instead, this water can be redirected to the bathroom FH (floor...... heating) to cool down further and thus reduce the heat lost from bypass operation while tempering the bathroom floor and guaranteeing fast provision of DHW (domestic hot water). We used the commercial software IDA-ICE to model a reference building where we implemented various solutions for controlling...

  1. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 11068-014--California] Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of Environmental... has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove Irrigation District's and Friant...

  2. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  3. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  4. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1976-01-01

    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  5. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  6. Thermodynamic sensitivity analysis of a novel trigeneration thermodynamic cycle with two-phase expanders and two-phase compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briola, Stefano; Di Marco, Paolo; Gabbrielli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A novel Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) cycle, operating with two-phase devices for the compression and expansion processes and a single-component wet working fluid, is proposed. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the novel CCHP cycle has been investigated in order to evaluate, in terms of energy performance indicators, its potentiality to serve typical trigenerative tertiary and industrial end-users with different fixed operating temperatures. In general, the novel CCHP cycle is characterized by higher energy performance indicators than a separated energy production system. The comparison between the novel CCHP cycle and several commercialized CCHP systems has been performed in the case studies related to tertiary and industrial end-users. The novel CCHP cycle shows a trigenerative capability in wide ranges of the end-users demands without surplus or deficit of the electric or thermal powers. Furthermore, the maximum allowable capital cost of the whole novel CCHP plant (BEPCC), that will assure the profitability of the investment, is calculated in the tertiary and industrial end-users case studies. For the tertiary end-user, the capital costs of the commercialized CCHP are between the minimum and maximum BEPCC values. On the contrary, for the industrial end-user, they are lower than the minimum and maximum BEPCC values. - Highlights: • Novel CCHP cycle with two-phase expanders and compressors has been conceived. • Novel CCHP cycle has higher performances than a separated energy production system. • Novel CCHP cycle satisfies the user demands in wide ranges without surplus/deficit. • Tertiary user: novel CCHP cycle is competitive against marketed CCHP systems. • Industrial user: novel CCHP cycle is not competitive against marketed CCHP systems.

  7. Optimal integration of energy at the Combined Energy Plant in Norrkoeping -Integration of steam, hot water and district heat to biogas plants; Optimal integrering av energianvaendningen vid energikombinatet i Norrkoeping -Integrering av aanga, hetvatten och fjaerrvaerme till biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Goldschmidt, Barbara; Uddgren, Roger

    2010-09-15

    The background of this report is to investigate and highlight the benefits of establishing a biogas plant nearby a combined energy plant where steam and district heat is available. By using heat from the combined energy plant, more biogas can be produced as vehicle fuel instead of being used as fuel to heat the digester, the biogas upgrading plant or the dryer. The project's objective is to analyze where it is interesting with integration of heat to the biogas plant and to compare alternative technologies and possible integration options. The stakeholders of the study are industries with access to organic matter for biogas production and heat producers who can deliver thermal energy into biogas plants. The project was implemented by collection of information from the Haendeloe combined energy plant outside Norrkoeping where there is a cogeneration plant, an ethanol plant and a biogas plant. Case studies for the study have been carried out with proposals regarding how heat flows from the power plant and ethanol plant can be further integrated with the biogas plant. As case studies, both the current design of the biogas plant, as well as a fictional case in which half of all distillery residues was digested, have been evaluated. The case studies show that in today's biogas plant it is not economical to replace the existing biogas upgrading unit with water absorption to chemical absorption. The upgrading cost with water absorption at today's smaller facility is 0.11 kr/kWh and in order to obtain the same total cost of chemical absorption a steam price of 0.15 kr/kWh is required. For large gas flows, chemical absorption is an advantage since the technology is more suitable for upscaling in comparison with water absorption that must be delivered in multiple lines. Nevertheless, a possibility to recover waste heat from chemical absorption is necessary if the technology shall be competitive. If waste heat from both water absorption and chemical absorption

  8. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1998-01-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  9. District heating in energetic and environmental politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    di Riscaldamento Urbano, Associazione Italiana

    1989-05-01

    A review is made of what was said at the Third Bi-annual Convention (Reggio Emilia, 24-25/11/88) of AIRU (the Italian Association for District Heating). In general, the seven papers presented dealt with the following points: the technology of primary energy supply, thermal energy production, energy distribution to users, environmental engineering and socio-economic factors. Emphasis was given to the themes: district heating in Italy within the framework of the 1988 National Energy Plan and the impact on energy marketing due to the future free trade system planned for the E.E.C. in 1992. A critical analysis is made of: forecasts of primary energy demand for the year 2000, plans for the reduction of dependency on foreign supplied petroleum, the promotion of the increased use of natural gas and methane and overall energy conservation measures as called for by the National Energy Plan.

  10. HEAT PUMP STATION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE AS A WORKING FLUID ENERGY EFFICIENCY GROWTH IN COMBINED DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM DUE TO ITS CONTROL SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit B.M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A diagram of the heat pump station (HPS for the central heat supply station of the district heating system, which gets the power from the CHP plant is examined. A block diagram of the control of the system and compressor pressure control system are examined. The description of the control laws of evaporator at the variable heat load of the HPS and control laws of the gas cooler taking into account the goal of achieving the maximum of COP of HPS is shown as well.

  11. Change in heat load profile for typical Danish multi-storey buildings when energy-renovated and supplied with low-temperature district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    ) supply. When end-use-savings are implemented in buildings concurrent with the application of low-temperature district heating (DH) (supply=55°C, return=25°C) the heat demand profiles for the individual buildings will change. The reduction in peak load is important since it is the dimensioning foundation...... for the future DH-systems and in order to avoid oversized RE-based capacity, a long-term perspective needs to be taken. The results show that it is possible to design the DH-plants based on an average value of the 5 days with highest daily average loads without compromising with indoor thermal comfort. Applying...

  12. A dynamic optimization-based architecture for polygeneration microgrids with tri-generation, renewables, storage systems and electrical vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Stefano; Delfino, Federico; Pampararo, Fabio; Robba, Michela; Rossi, Mansueto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We describe two national special projects on smart grid. • We developed dynamic decision model based on a MPC architecture. • We developed an optimization model for microgrids, for a specific case study. - Abstract: An overall architecture, or Energy Management System (EMS), based on a dynamic optimization model to minimize operating costs and CO 2 emissions is formalized and applied to the University of Genova Savona Campus test-bed facilities consisting of a Smart Polygeneration Microgrid (SPM) and a Sustainable Energy Building (SEB) connected to such microgrid. The electric grid is a three phase low voltage distribution system, connecting many different technologies: three cogeneration micro gas turbines fed by natural gas, a photovoltaic field, three cogeneration Concentrating Solar Powered (CSP) systems (equipped with Stirling engines), an absorption chiller equipped with a storage tank, two types of electrical storage based on batteries technology (long term Na–Ni and short term Li-Ion ion), two electric vehicles charging stations, other electrical devices (inverters and smart metering systems), etc. The EMS can be used both for microgrids approximated as single bus bar (or one node) and for microgrids in which all buses are taken into account. The optimal operation of the microgrid is based on a central controller that receives forecasts and data from a SCADA system and that can schedule all dispatchable plants in the day ahead or in real time through an approach based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). The architecture is tested and applied to the case study of the Savona Campus

  13. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  14. State and development prospects of district heating in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, A.

    1975-12-01

    The study outlines the state of district heating, investigates the preconditions of its increased application and determines the thus obtainable saving in energy consumption. The heat consumption in homes, the energy use and the types of heating for room heating and hot water supply, the covering of the demand for district heating, design of a district heating supply, the regional planning and the production costs of district heating are individually considered. The results are shown clearly in tables, maps and and graphs. (HR/LH) [de

  15. Case study of McCormick place cogeneration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overstreet, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    In the authors business of providing district energy services, competition is the key to his being able to have a positive impact on the environment, business stability, and economic activity. In the district energy industry, the competitive options are for property owners to continue to self generate energy to meet their needs, purchase energy from a company that utilizes electricity during off-peak hours to produce chilled water or take advantage of a total solution of purchasing tri-generation energy from Trigen-Peoples District Energy Company. Tri-generation is an innovative technology which involves the simultaneous production of steam, chilled water, and electricity. The McCormick Place cogeneration project calls for producing steam and chilled water (co-) for use by the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA). The plant will produce electricity (tri-) to run the production equipment

  16. Case study of McCormick place cogeneration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overstreet, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    In the authors business of providing district energy services, competition is the key to his being able to have a positive impact on the environment, business stability, and economic activity. In the district energy industry, the competitive options are for property owners to continue to self generate energy to meet their needs, purchase energy from a company that utilizes electricity during off-peak hours to produce chilled water or take advantage of a total solution of purchasing tri-generation energy from Trigen-Peoples District Energy Company. Tri-generation is an innovative technology which involves the simultaneous production of steam, chilled water, and electricity. The McCormick Place cogeneration project calls for producing steam and chilled water (co-) for use by the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA). The plant will produce electricity (tri-) to run the production equipment.

  17. District heating system Neckarsulm-Amorbach. Demonstration plant - seasonal thermal energy storage Amorbach II - experience report on construction and operation; Nahwaermeversorgung Neckarsulm-Amorbach. Demonstrationsanlage Saisonaler Erdwaermespeicher Amorbach II - Erfahrungen bei Bau und Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, S. [Stadtwerke Neckarsulm (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    By an exchange the city of Neckarsulm acquired fifty hectare of a building site from the neighbouring community Oedheim in the east of the district Amorbach in 1992. The initial intention was to supply the whole area with natural gas but during the construction phase the decision was taken to build a district heating system parallel to the `Bordighera Allee`, fortunately it was taken in time and did not incur additional costs. Supported by two cogeneration plants with a thermal capacity of 50 kW each 250 units in residential buildings are supposed to be supplied. Another system has been set up between Eugen-Bolz Strasse and Oedheimer Strasse in order to supply 250 units in terrace houses, semi detached houses and residential buildings. This district heating system has been designed in such a way that approximately 12% of the yearly energy demand is met by the collector plant with an area of 700 square metres and the residual energy is generated by two gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers with a capacity of 1.44 MW. The solar energy as well as the energy generated by the boilers are stored parallel in a buffer tank with a capacity of 20 cubic metres that has been set up next to the heating plant in a separate basement room. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Jahre 1992 hat die Stadt Neckarsulm ueber einen Markungstausch 50 Hektar Bauland oestlich des Stadtteiles Amorbach von der Nachbargemeinde Oedheim erworben. Entgegen der urspruenglichen Absicht, das ganze Gebiet konventionell mit Erdgas zu versorgen, wurde noch in der Bauphase, jedoch rechtzeitig ohne Mehrkosten zu produzieren, beschlossen in einem Teilbereich entlang der Bordighera-Allee eine Nahwaermeinsel aufzubauen. Mit Unterstuetzung von zwei BHKW-Aggregaten mit einer thermischen Leistung von jeweils 50 KW sollten 250 Wohneinheiten vorwiegend im Geschosswohnbau versorgt werden. Fast parallel zu dieser Insel entstand ein weiteres Projekt zwischen der Eugen-Bolz-Strasse und der Oedheimer Strasse zur Versorgung von weiteren

  18. District heating in Italy: Extent of use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Author surveys the trend that has been established over the last two decades in the use of district heating in Italy. Comparison with the European situation reveals that Italy is lagging behind. The reason for this the Author states is the Italian public's aversion to unknown risks involved in the utilization of innovative technologies associated with cogeneration/district heating (current preference is given to autonomous methane fuelled building space heating systems), and the current opinion of some misinformed public administrations that cogeneration/district heating plants are too costly. Citing the successful campaign by the natural gas industry to promote the public acceptance of methane as a safe, readily available and competitively priced energy source, he suggests that similar efforts be made to have the public also accept cogeneration (with methane fired gas turbines)/district heating as being safe and environmentally, as well as, economically beneficial

  19. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  20. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan İbrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated...... in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives....

  1. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Duic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    Hybridisation of district heating systems can contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or through the share increase of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption while reducing negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In this work......, the performance of a hybrid district energy system for a small town in Croatia has been analysed. Mathematical model for process analysis and optimisation algorithm for optimal system configuration has been developed and described. The main goal of the system optimisation is to reduce heat production costs....... Several energy sources for heat production have been considered in 8 different simulation cases. Simulation results show that the heat production costs could be reduced with introduction of different energy systems into an existing district heating system. Renewable energy based district heating systems...

  2. Comparative evaluation of energy-related aspects in urban and in rural districts - Case study in the Canton of Neuchatel, Switzerland; Analyse comparative des aspects energetiques de quartiers urbains et ruraux. Etude de cas dans le canton de Neuchatel. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, L.; Vuilleumier, R.; Bonhote, P. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland); Rey, E. [Bauart Architectes et Urbanistes SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The project aims at identifying the energy impact of various current ways of regional planning through a case study of eight districts in the canton of Neuchatel. The districts reveal the trends of planning in an urban centre, and in incorporated (suburb) or unincorporated territory. Thus, the influence of the distance to the centre of the agglomeration named 'centrality' has been studied. The energy expenditure for the buildings' construction phase (buildings, roads, networks) and utilization phase (heating, electricity, water, waste, networks) has been taken into account as well as the mobility. The energy investments have been evaluated by the method SNARC. The energy expenditure for operation and mobility has been evaluated based on questionnaires addressed to the inhabitants. As a result, the variable 'centrality' has only a weak role on the life cycle analysis (LCA) per inhabitant. In our case, the LCA for incorporated districts (suburb) and unincorporated districts are similar. With a LCA per square meter, the impact is completely similar and no correlation with the variable 'centrality' has been noticed. As the households are larger per inhabitants when the district is located in a suburban zone, the LCA per square meter remains stable. On the contrary, if the LCA is determined per household, the LCA is perfectly correlated with the variable 'centrality'. Thus, a household in the centre of Neuchatel consumes twice less energy resources than a household in Val-of-Ruz (rural area). The study highlights also the critical impacts of a LCA on a district scale. Finally, this study gives recommendations based on the energy and demographic prospects in order to respond to the objective of a 2000 watts society. (author)

  3. Environmental issues and competitiveness of district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1991-01-01

    The advantages of district heating systems are evaluated in competition to individual heating for the Swiss markets. The preservation of the environmental quality on the national (clean air concept) and global scale (Toronto recommendation) is formulated as constraint of the energy system. The implications of these constraints for the economic competition of district heating is evaluated. The study estimates the evolution of energy demand in the heating markets and shortly describes the technical possibilities in satisfying demand by a set of conventional heating systems, systems using renewable energy sources, energy conservation measures and district heating systems based on conventional or nuclear energy sources. The main conclusion is that small capacity nuclear district heating systems, if acceptable, could enhance the flexibility of the Swiss energy system in respect to CO 2 control. (author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  4. DESIGN EXPERIMENT WITH SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ELABORATION OF 25-STOREY RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX FOR THE CRIMEA DISTRICT OF THE SEVASTOPOL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva Alesya Sergeevna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The scientific project examines the issues of energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, as well as ecology. In today's world the ecological issues are more current than ever. Some of them are ozone holes, disappearance of many species of animals and plants, exhaustible fuel reserves. Ecology is a huge problem of our civilization, which may be solved by paying more attention to energy efficiency in the process of urban development. In the implementation of energy efficiency experiments it is necessary to involve the efforts of scientists, politicians, non-governmental organizations, but first and foremost — of inventors, architects and designers. Energy efficiency in civil construction is presented in the article as an area allowing us to find design solutions basing on renewable energy sources, in particular photocell energy. Project experiment data on a residential high-rise complex in the city of Sevastopol is considered. The author presents design calculations and the comparison of the variants of design decisions on the use of photovoltaic cells producing energy to illuminate the underground car park of a residential high-rise complex. In the future, the use of photovoltaic cells as cladding structures may change the energy characteristics of buildings in case of transition to production scale implementation of the technology. This makes it possible to consider the prospects of urban development growth and improvement of the economy of the construction of expensive facilities. However, subsequent design experiments should be based mostly on other types of facilities and should take into account the impact of wind and aerodynamic performance of buildings in case of application of photovoltaic cells on roofs and facades. The results of the design experiment allow initially investigating the regularities of urban conditions and the amount of energy produced by building surfaces. Thus, the provided concept and the design experiment can be

  5. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  6. District nursing is vital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2016-08-03

    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  7. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  8. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  9. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  10. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  11. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  12. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  13. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  14. Challenges in Smart Low-Temperature District Heating Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Wang, Stephen Jia

    2014-01-01

    Previous research and development shows that low temperature district heating (LTDH) system is economic feasible for low energy buildings and buildings at sparse areas. Coupling with reduced network temperature and well-designed district heating (DH) networks, LTDH can reduce network heat loss by...

  15. Economic and environmental efficiency of district heating plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    heat, have arbitrary valuation.This study concerns the most developed European district heating and cogeneration system, the Danish.By assessing environmental and economic ef¿ciency, the impact of governmental, market and managerial imperfections are estimated.The principal methodological base......District heating, the conversion of primary energy into distributed thermal energy and possible electric energy, is a challenge to regulate.In addition to the ever present asymmetric information in any suf¿ciently complex activity, some of the inputs for district heating, such as excess process...

  16. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... 8--Salmon and Steelhead Full Life-Cycle Population Models; and Request 9--Effects of the Project and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project Project... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District...

  17. Power to the people : how sustainable energy services and development can be facilitated through grass root development- a case study from the Bondo district in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, Marius Halkinrud

    2010-01-01

    Masteroppgave i development management- Universitetet i Agder 2010 Serious international actors like the IPCC, the UNFCCC and the WEO, highlight the need to implement sustainable energy resources as fossil fuels has contributed to increase the global CO2 emission, which again has contributed to climate change. In many parts of the developing world there is currently no access to energy services. WEO predicts that developing countries will be responsible for much of ...

  18. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  19. Survey report of year 2000 version. Feasibility study on energy efficiency/conservation, and environmental improvement of district heat and electricity supply station Radom City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In order to promote the COP3 joint implementation, discussions were given on the district heat and electricity supply station in Radom City in Poland. Power capacity utilized above a certain level will be generated by cogeneration power plants according to the annual heat supply load patterns, and insufficient capacity will be supplied from the existing hot water boilers during winter when thermal load is high. Daily load variation will be handled by installing auxiliary combustion facilities of 20% of the full capacity. The power plants will be of natural gas burning gas-turbine cogeneration plants, and hot water will be supplied from the modified waste heat boilers. The cogeneration power plants will be capable of taking care of 80% of the annual supply quantity of heat. The heat supply capacity will be 72 MWt including the auxiliary combustion, and the electric power generation capacity will be 35 MWe. Improvement in thermal efficiency to 80% or higher will reduce coal consumption, resulting in saving of 28,117 toe/year after subtracting the increase in natural gas consumption. Reduction in CO2 emission will also be as large as 206,000 tons/year, causing air pollutants to be also reduced. Assuming the facility cost of 4,336 billion yen to be taken care by the Japanese environmental yen loan, the Polish National Fund loan, and the independent fund of the city of Radom, the IRRON investment over the operation period of 30 years is considerably good at 10%. The investment can be recovered in nine years, and the cash flow will have no problems. (NEDO)

  20. Toward 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, district heating (DH) has a key role in the national strategic energy planning. However, tighter legislation on new and future buildings requires much less heating demand which subsequently causes relative high network heat loss. This will make current DH system uneconomical co...

  1. On Innovative Cool-Colored Materials for Building Envelopes: Balancing the Architectural Appearance and the Thermal-Energy Performance in Historical Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Rosso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Architectural expression and energy performance are key decision-drivers in the selection of a particular construction element, with the purpose of Urban Heat Island mitigation, energy-consumption reductions, and cultural heritage preservation in historical centers. In historical centers, the external layer of the envelope and the visible parts of the building are built with traditional materials and technological solutions, such as single-layer walls or brickworks, depending on the country’s context, while the energy performance is usually optimized by means of internal insulation layers, or other active and passive solutions. Thermal-energy efficient materials and construction elements for the temperate, warm climate of the Mediterranean area are usually light-colored to reflect the largest part of solar radiation, thus reducing energy demands for cooling and improving thermal comfort conditions for occupants. On the other hand, many historical centers in such areas are characterized by reddish or grayish colors. In this work, we considered Italian historical areas, and other countries in the Mediterranean area with present similar situations. Thus, in this study, innovative, cool-colored, cement-based materials were developed to improve the thermal-energy performance of the external envelope of historical/historic built environments, without altering their appearance. These materials were prepared directly on-site, by mixing two types of pigments to achieve the desired color saturation. Optic and thermal properties were assessed, and yearly dynamic simulations of a historic, listed, case study building were performed, by comparing traditional-colored mortar and the prototype cool mortar envelopes. The research demonstrates that such cool-colored materials can maintain lower surface temperatures (−8 °C, while reducing energy demands for cooling (−3%.

  2. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999. Environment harmonizing energy community survey project for Public Yatsushika Hospital area (large-scale cogeneration district heat supplying facility); Koritsu Yatsushika byoin chiku kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey is intended to utilize cogeneration to promote structuring a system to effectively utilize potential energy in a district. In connection with the total rebuilding plan for Yatsushika Hospital, a proposal was made on a cogeneration district heat supply system that could be introduced to six facilities in total including the hospital, its three ancillary facilities, and two neighboring facilities. The proposal is intended to evaluate energy conservation performance, environmentality, and economic performance of the system, and structure an optimal system. Two gas engines having the same capacity were selected as the driving source of the cogeneration system. The waste heat recovering system adopted the 'hot water plus steam recovery system'. Generators were selected that have high energy saving and overall cogeneration efficiency, power dependence, heat dependence, and waste heat utilization factor. As the countermeasures for heat load that cannot be taken care by the waste heat recovery alone, discussions were given on the cogeneration plus gas-burning absorption type cold-hot water device system (the system 1) and the cogeneration plus heat pump heat storing system (the system 2). As a result, the system 2 was selected as the optimal system because it uses both of LNG and commercial electric power effectively, and has stability against variation in fuel prices and excellent environmentality. (NEDO)

  3. Hawaii hydrogen energy economy: production and distribution of hydrogen and oxygen in the district of north Kohala, the Big Island of Hawaii: a global prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows how a community which is totally oil dependent can be transformed into a hydrogen fuel based economy by using the concept of setting hydrogen zones, with the use of off-peak hydro-electrical power and renewable energies. An existing hydro-electric plant in Hawaii could serve as a local prototype. 2 figs

  4. Thermal storage in a heat pump heated living room floor for urban district power balancing - effects on thermal comfort, energy loss and costs for residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; de Wit, J.B.; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch smart grid demonstration project Meppelenergie, the effects of controlled thermal energy storage within the floor heating structure of a living room by a heat pump are investigated. Storage possibilities are constrained by room operative and floor temperatures. Simulations indicate

  5. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  6. Research report on promotion of geothermal energy exploitation for fiscal 1997. Fluid geochemical research (No.B-6 Tsujinodake district); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Ryutai chikagaku chosa hokokusho (No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The research covers the Tsujinodake district spreading over Yamakawa-cho and Ibusuki-shi, Kagoshima Prefecture. Hot spring water in the district is of the neutral Cl type, heated mainly by conduction and containing seawater. The thermal water layer of the highest geothermal potential exists in the vicinity of the Nishi district of Ibusuki-shi. It spreads widely in the westward part and may be linked with the Unagiike district. The temperature of the deep-seated thermal water layer is estimated at 220-230 degrees C, yet it may be higher. In addition to the layer in the vicinity of the Nishi and Unagiike districts, there is a shallow-seated hot spring aquifer in the Nagasakibana district, where the deep-seated thermal water is probably prevented from lifting in the presence of an aquiclude. In the Narikawa district, possibilities are low that the thermal water just beneath will come up. As for hot spring water in the Oyama and Okachogamizu districts, there are no signs of high-temperature thermal water infiltration. In these two districts, it appears that hot spring water is heated by conduction over a large area. For the disclosure of linkage of hot water systems and deep-seated geothermal structures which cannot be detected by geochemical investigations conducted into hot spring water, etc., it is necessary to resort to geological and geophysical researches, and to carry out test drilling. (NEDO)

  7. Design and exergetic analysis of a novel carbon free tri-generation system for hydrogen, power and heat production from natural gas, based on combined solid oxide fuel and electrolyser cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdikaris, N.; Hofmann, Ph.; Spyrakis, S. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panopoulos, K.D. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) are able to operate in two modes: (a) the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) that produce electricity and heat and (b) the Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cells (SOEC) that consume electricity and heat to electrolyse water and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The present paper presents a carbon free SOEC/SOFC combined system for the production of hydrogen, electricity and heat (tri-generation) from natural gas fuel. Hydrogen can be locally used as automobile fuel whereas the oxygen produced in the SOEC is used to combust the depleted fuel from the SOFC, which is producing electricity and heat from natural gas. In order to achieve efficient carbon capture in such a system, water steam should be used as the SOEC anode sweep gas, to allow the production of nitrogen free flue gases. The SOEC and SOFC operations were matched through modeling of all components in Aspenplus trademark. The exergetic efficiency of the proposed decentralised system is 28.25% for power generation and 18.55% for production of hydrogen. The system is (a) carbon free because it offers an almost pure pressurised CO{sub 2} stream to be driven for fixation via parallel pipelines to the natural gas feed, (b) does not require any additional water for its operation and (c) offers 26.53% of its energetic input as hot water for applications. (author)

  8. State space model approach for forecasting the use of electrical energy (a case study on: PT. PLN (Persero) district of Kroya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, Devi; Hoyyi, Abdul; Widiharih, Tatik

    2018-05-01

    Time series data is a series of data taken or measured based on observations at the same time interval. Time series data analysis is used to perform data analysis considering the effect of time. The purpose of time series analysis is to know the characteristics and patterns of a data and predict a data value in some future period based on data in the past. One of the forecasting methods used for time series data is the state space model. This study discusses the modeling and forecasting of electric energy consumption using the state space model for univariate data. The modeling stage is began with optimal Autoregressive (AR) order selection, determination of state vector through canonical correlation analysis, estimation of parameter, and forecasting. The result of this research shows that modeling of electric energy consumption using state space model of order 4 with Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) value 3.655%, so the model is very good forecasting category.

  9. Adjustable Model of Renewable Energy Projects for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of the Nišava District in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Dimić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and ranks the key performance indicators of multi-criteria decision-making in the process of selecting renewable energy sources (RES. Different categories of factors (e.g., political, legal, technological, economic and financial, sociocultural, and physical are crucial for the analysis of such projects. In this paper, we apply the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP method—a mathematical method—in order to analyze the main criteria for such projects, which include the environment, the organizational management structure, project participants, and participants’ relationship with the performance indicators. In order of ranking, the indicators are the following: time, costs, quality, monitoring the project’s sustainability, user feedback, and users’ health and safety. The aim of this paper is to point out the necessity of creating an adjustable model for renewable energy projects in order to proceed with the sustainable development of the southeast part of Serbia. This model should lead the creation process for such a project, with the aim of increasing its energy efficiency.

  10. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  11. Renewable heat: Waste heat, an emerging sector full of resources. An eco-district fed by the heat from a data center; Integrating objectives matching the ambitions, clear and on the long term; High-energy wastes in Brittany: Brest is securing its heat network with multiple energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude

    2017-01-01

    This file on renewable heat contains four articles which themes are: waste heat (from incineration plants or industrial sites) is an emerging sector full of resources, which benefits now of a financial subsidy from ADEME, the French organization for energy and environment; an example is given with Chamtor, a highly energy-consuming cereal transformer. The second article presents an urban eco-district in Paris that is fed by the heat issued by a data center. The third article (Integrating objectives matching the ambitions, clear and on the long term) presents some recommendations from the French Renewable Energy Association (SER) towards a better energy valorization of residual wastes. The fourth article presents two examples of energy valorization of wastes in Brittany, one with the valorization of high-energy solid wastes for supplying heat to a milk farm and greenhouses, the other one concerns the development of a heat network supplied by an incineration plant, with a mix of energy sources such as wastes, wood and gas, and a special juridical scheme

  12. 1993-1994 Final technical report for establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickers, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    This is the final report for a program to establish the SECME Model in the District of Columbia. This program has seen the development of a partnership between the District of Columbia Public Schools, the University of the District of Columbia, the Department of Energy, and SECME. This partnership has demonstrated positive achievement in mathematics and science education and learning in students within the District of Columbia.

  13. 1993-1994 Final technical report for establishing the SECME Model in the District of Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for a program to establish the SECME Model in the District of Columbia. This program has seen the development of a partnership between the District of Columbia Public Schools, the University of the District of Columbia, the Department of Energy, and SECME. This partnership has demonstrated positive achievement in mathematics and science education and learning in students within the District of Columbia

  14. Free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Oeystein B.

    2006-01-01

    Norway has fallen behind in the development of district heating and use of solar energy compared to Sweden and Denmark. It is a myth that Norway has less hours of sun than its neighbours; southern and eastern Norway has equally good conditions as areas in Sweden and Denmark that have large solar collector installations used for district heating. Benefits of the solar energy technology are highlighted, especially environmental aspects (ml)

  15. Report on drawing district energy-saving visions for Town of Senmaya. Construction of the town of the 21st century beginning also from here; Senmayacho sho energy vision sakutei hokokusho. Kokokara mo hajimaru 21 seiki no machizukuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The energy-saving visions are drawn for the Town of Senmaya area, Iwate Pref., to promote energy saving and abatement of gas emissions which cause global warming. The project include supporting the citizens for energy-saving, e.g., enlightenment of introduction of energy-saving type household facilities (illuminators and air conditioners) and preferential parking spaces for energy-saving type vehicles; and spread/introduction supporting for enterprises, e.g., charge-free energy-saving diagnoses for studying potentially saved energy, and providing information, seminars and information exchange meetings to help enterprises obtain the ISO14001 qualification. The energy-saving activities studied for the administration sector itself to take include introduction of energy-saving/new energy type systems for new public facilities, high-efficiency illumination and insulation systems in existing facilities, energy-saving type model houses utilizing solar energy for municipal houses, office vehicles and municipal buses when they are replaced, and utilization of waste heat from garbage incinerators for air conditioning of public facilities. (NEDO)

  16. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  17. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  18. Energy and microclimatic performance of restored hypogeous buildings in south Italy: The ''Sassi'' district of Matera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinale, Nicola [Department of Engineering and Environmental Physics, University of Basilicata, Via Lazazzera, 75100 Matera (Italy); Rospi, Gianluca; Stazi, Alessandro [Department of Architecture, Constructions and Structures, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The site of the ''Sassi of Matera'' classified by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as World Heritage in 1993, is an exceptional example of traditional bioclimatic Mediterranean architecture. Within this immense artistic heritage, we find hypogea habitations, stone buildings, and mixed habitation - half-hypogeum and half-built. In this study, we analyze the energy and microclimatic performance of hypogeous structures in three states: not-restored, immediately after restoration, and a few years after restoration (in normal use). We monitored a surface hypogeum and a deep hypogeum. We performed a dynamic parametric simulation using the software EnergyPlus to quantify the energetic balance of the hypogeous structures during one calendar year. The energetic valuation of the surface hypogea shows that these environments, once restored and in a condition of normal use, give indoor comfort within the limits of comfort thermo-hygrometrics established by the comfort indices of predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD). The huge thermal mass of the walls ensures that the microclimate indoor conditions are regular throughout the seasons, without differences in the daily thermal oscillation. Deep hypogea without an air change system cannot reach thermal-hygrometric comfort values. We determined that these structures have a null thermal balance during mid-season, while in the summer the floor loses heat, thereby cooling the environment. The opposite occurs in winter. We can conclude that these buildings were designed as bioclimatic. In fact they can be used, after restoration, with limited use of technology systems. (author)

  19. Local business models for district heat production; Kaukolaemmoen paikalliset liiketoimintamallit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, L.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-12-15

    Local district heating business, outside large urban centers, is a profitable business in Finland, which can be practiced with several different business models. In addition to the traditional, local district heating business, local district heat production can be also based on franchising business model, on integrated service model or on different types of cooperation models, either between a local district heat producer and industrial site providing surplus heat or between a local district heat producer and a larger district heating company. Locally available wood energy is currently utilized effectively in the traditional district heating business model, in which a local entrepreneur produces heat to consumers in the local area. The franchising model is a more advanced version of the traditional district heating entrepreneurship. In this model, franchisor funds part of the investments, as well as offers centralized maintenance and fuel supply, for example. In the integrated service model, the local district heat producer offers also energy efficiency services and other value-added services, which are based on either the local district heat suppliers or his partner's expertise. In the cooperation model with industrial site, the local district heating business is based on the utilization of the surplus heat from the industrial site. In some cases, profitable operating model approach may be a district heating company outsourcing operations of one or more heating plants to a local entrepreneur. It can be concluded that all business models for district heat production (traditional district heat business model, franchising, integrated service model, cooperative model) discussed in this report can be profitable in Finnish conditions, as well for the local heat producer as for the municipality - and, above all, they produce cost-competitive heat for the end-user. All the models were seen as viable and interesting and having possibilities for expansion Finland

  20. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  1. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District... Ventura County. (l) Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County...

  2. Demonstration of low-energy district heating for low-energy buildings in the housing community Ringgaarden's section 34 in Lystrup. Subreport 2; Denmark; Demonstration af lavenergifjernvarme til lavenergibyggeri i boligforeningen Ringgaardens afd. 34 i Lystrup. Delrapport 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm Christiansen, C.

    2011-05-15

    The project has completed the first demonstration of a new concept for energy efficient district heating (DH) for low energy buildings where the supplied district heating temperature delivered at the consumer is down to 50 deg. C. The concept involves new types of DH building substations and DH twin pipes in very small dimensions. Demonstration area is Dept. 34 of the housing association Boligforeningen Ringgaarden near Aarhus in Denmark, which consists of 7 row houses with in total 40 dwellings, low-energy building, class 1 according to the Danish building code and built 2009-2010. The purpose of the demonstration was to show that the concept works in practice and to further develop and refine the technology behind the concept. A large measurement program was conducted during weeks 26-47, 2010 focusing on 1) consumption and operation temperatures, 2) simultaneity and simultaneity factors and 3) heat loss from district heating network and electricity consumption of network booster pump. DH consumption of the individual consumer is measured and combined with measurements of temperature in individual homes, it is confirmed that it is reasonable to assume a room temperature of at least 22 deg. C in the calculation of heating demand. Based on an energy signature the annual consumption per dwelling was estimated to approx. 5.8 MWh for a reference year, corresponding to a measured heat density of 0.3 MWh/m network line and 14 kWh/m2 field. The results also show that it is possible to supply customers with temperature just above 50 deg. C, with a DH supply temperature to the area of approx. 56 deg. C. Detailed measurements show that the domestic hot water can be produced at temperature of just 3 deg. C below the primary supply temperature, e.g. 47 deg. C at a DH supply temperature of 50 deg. C.. The simultaneity factors of 2 types of DH building substations, district heating tank unit (FVB) with reservoirs at primary side and unit with instantaneous water heater (GVV) is

  3. Cogeneration and local authorities; Cogeneration et collectivites territoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This conference is composed of 15 communications concerning cogeneration systems and applications in local communities. The main themes are: the regulation context and administrative procedures for cogeneration projects in France; legal aspects, risk covering, financing and sellback conditions for cogeneration systems; examples of cogeneration and tri-generation (with refrigeration energy) in different cities, airport, hospitals, campus, combined with the upgrading of district heating systems or municipal waste incineration plants. Impacts on energy savings and air pollution are also discussed

  4. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  5. Energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    Status reports are given for the Danish Trade Ministry's energy research projects on uranium prospecting and extraction, oil and gas recovery, underground storage of district heating, electrochemical energy storage systems, wind mills, coal deposits, coal cambustion, energy consumption in buildings, solar heat, biogas, compost heat. (B.P.)

  6. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  7. Conversion of individual natural gas to district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Replacing individual natural gas heating with district heating based to increasing shares of renewable energy sources may further reduce CO2-emissions in the Danish Building mass, while increasing flexibility of the energy system to accommodate significantly larger amounts of variable renewable...... energy production. The present paper describes a geographical study of the potential to expand district heating into areas supplied with natural gas. The study uses a highly detailed spatial database of the built environment, its current and potential future energy demand, its supply technologies and its...

  8. A new district heating system in the city of Bolanzo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzocato, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Marchiori, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the EU project “Sinfonia”, that aims to reduce Bolzano’s primary energy consumption up to 40%, SEL AG, an Italian energy company is planning to extend the existing district heating and cooling (DHC) network and explore strategies to improve efficiency, environmental, and economic...... performance. This research aims to assess the potential energy saving of temperature and peak heating load reduction in the Bolzano’s DHC network. Historical performance data from district heating (DH) users were collected and residential building were classified based on construction year and energy...

  9. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  10. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  11. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Ostersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey

  12. District heating systems for small scale development areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, Rory e-mail: rory.mcdougall@online.no; Jensen, Bjoernulf

    2008-09-15

    Building projects are normally developed without considering integrated heating systems, especially where properties are for further sale. Due to focus on energy efficiency and environmental impact it is worth considering district heating systems, which include several energy carriers. The choice of energy carrier is assessed to optimize energy costs, account for environmental impact and obtain reliable heating supply, thus giving an energy flexible system for several buildings as opposed to individual heating systems in each building

  13. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  14. The application of ground source heat pumps to a subdivision-wide district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciavaglia, L.

    2005-01-01

    Design guidelines for economic ground source heat pumps (GSHP) in district energy systems were presented. The broad economics of using central GSHP in a community district energy system were examined. Design parameters needed to utilize GSHP in district energy system were outlined. The sensitivity of energy prices and the costs of major capital were reviewed. District heating load duration curves were outlined. It was suggested that varying GSHP capacity from 0 to 100 per cent of load was advisable. In addition, capacity should be balanced with gas boiler technology. The amortizing of capital within energy costs was recommended. It was suggested that the best scenario was a minimum of 50 per cent ground energy. Details of pipings and heat exchanger costs were presented, along with costs for gas boilers and gas costs for the district energy system. Charts of current costing and reduction of piping capital were included. It was concluded that GSHP can be a viable component of a district energy system, as a GSHP based district energy system can provide more stable energy prices than conventional fossil fuel systems. It was suggested that sizing of GSHP at, or near, 40 per cent of peak demand provided optimal conditions with respect to energy cost and use of earth energy. tabs., figs

  15. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Bohlin, F.; Hektor, B.; Hillring, B.

    2003-01-01

    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  16. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  17. The future of the low temperature district heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingzhong; Wang Dazhong; Ma Changwen; Dong Duo; Tian Jiafu.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the role, development and situation of the low temperature district heating reactor (LTDHR) are briefly summarized. There are four types of LTDHR. They are PWR, reactor with boiling in the chimney, organic reactor and swimming pool reactor. The features of these reactors are introduced. The situation and role of the LTDHR in the future of the energy system are also discussed. The experiment on nuclear district heating with the swimming pool reactor in Qinghua Univ. is described briefly. (Author)

  18. District heating and co-generation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovatin, Franc; Pecaric, Marko; Perovic, Olgica

    2000-01-01

    Recent development of district heating systems, gasification and co-generation processes in local communities in Slovenia as well as current status, potentials, possibilities and plans for further development in this sphere are presented. The current status presents energy production, distribution and use in district heating systems and in local gas distribution networks. An analysis of the energy and power generated and distributed in district power systems, made with regard to the size of the system, fuel used, type of consumers and the way of production, is given. Growth in different areas of local power systems in the period of last years is included. Potentials in the sphere of electrical energy and heat co-generation were assessed. Some possibilities and experience in heat energy storage are given and trends and plans for further development are introduced. (Authors)

  19. Renewable energy development scheme of the Ardennes district. January 2010, Assessment 2010 and perspectives 2011, Assessment 2011 and perspectives 2012, Assessment 2012 and perspectives 2013, Assessment 2013 and perspectives 2014, Assessment 2014 and perspectives 2015, Key figures 2015, Key figures 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perissat, Frederic; N'Gahane, Pierre; Savy, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    After a recall of France's commitments in the struggle against climate change and in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, this report first proposes a diagnosis of the Ardennes district territory in terms of potential development of renewable energies with respect to objectives defined on the short, medium and long terms. Thus, for each renewable energy (wind, hydroelectricity, solar, geothermal, biogas, solid biomass, energies used in transports), it proposes an analysis of the present potential while discussing technical constraints, environmental benefits and drawbacks (impacts on landscapes, on the natural environment, on heritage), economic benefits and drawbacks, and governance issues. Sheets are then proposed which give a synthetic presentation (action type, situation, objectives, actions to be undertaken, partners, time frame, result indicators) of actions and projects related to these different renewable energies. Appendices contain a methodological note, a presentation of the organisational approach. A synthetic version of the first part is proposed with a set of two-page documents, one document for each energy. Another set of documents gather annual publications which contain assessments and discussions of development perspectives for each renewable energy in the district

  20. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  1. THERMOS, district central heating nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    1981-02-01

    In order to expand the penetration of uranium in the national energy balance sheet, the C.E.A. has been studying nuclear reactors for several years now, that are capable of providing heat at favourable economic conditions. In this paper the THERMOS model is introduced. After showing the attraction of direct town heating by nuclear energy, the author describes the THERMOS project, defines the potential market, notably in France, and applies the lay-out study to the Grenoble Nuclear Study Centre site with district communal heating in mind. The economic aspects of the scheme are briefly mentioned [fr

  2. Rural district of Harz tests electricity supply of the future. Exploiting potential of renewable energies with virtual power plants, load management and electronic market platforms; Landkreis Harz erprobt Stromversorgung der Zukunft. Mit virtuellem Kraftwerk, Lastmanagement und elektronischer Marktplattform erneuerbare Potenziale ausschoepfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uwe

    2012-07-01

    Regions with a large proportion of renewable energies offer particularly good prerequisites for testing out future decentralised supply systems. In the rural district of Harz, one of six model regions in the German government's E-Energy programme, more than 20 partners from various sectors of the electricity industry have developed technologies and business models for smart grids. Four municipal utility companies and two distribution network operators were involved in their implementation. The four-year RegModHarz research project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, will be completed at the beginning of 2013. (orig.)

  3. Industrial Heat Pump for a High Temperature District Heating Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Claus Nørgaard

    by excess thermal energy from thermal solar panels. An industrial heat pump system using the natural refrigerant ammonia, is extracting the thermal energy from the storage when needed, and produce hot water at 85°C, for the district heating grid. The heat pump also acts as contributor to electricity grid...

  4. Technical assessment of electric heat boosters in low-temperature district heating based on combined heat and power analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hanmin; You, Shi; Wang, Jiawei

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides a technical assessment of electric heat boosters (EHBs) in low-energy districts. The analysis is based on a hypothetical district with 23 terraced single-family houses supplied by both a lowtemperature district heating (LTDH) network and a low-voltage network (LVN). Two case...

  5. North–South debate on district heating: Evidence from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin; Huang, Ying; Wei, Chu

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long debate on whether South China should supply district heating for the residential sector, a system that is widely used in North China. The major concern is that it may further accelerate China's energy demand. Using a unique urban household level dataset, the China Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS), we investigate residential energy consumption for heating and examine the energy intensity and energy cost of distributed heating in South China and district heating in North China during the 2012 heating season. Our results show that the total energy consumption for distributed heating system users in southern cities is significantly lower than for users of district heating systems in northern cities. However, when accounting for the heating area and heating season, the distributed heating households in the South consumed 32% more energy and paid 189% higher cost per unit area and per hour, but had lower comfort than district heating users in the North. These findings suggest promoting the district heating market in appropriate areas in South China. This not only can improve residential welfare, but also can indirectly reduce energy consumption and financial burdens. - Highlights: • The debate on whether Southern China apply district heating is present. • The household data in 2012 is used to compare the energy efficient and cost. • South resident use more energy and higher cost but less comfort than North. • Government should not prevent the district heating market.

  6. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  7. A nuclear reactor for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancroft, A.R.; Fenton, N.

    1989-07-01

    Global energy requirements are expected to double over the next 40 years. In the northern hemisphere, many countries consume in excess of 25 percent of their primary energy supply for building heating. Satisfying this need, within the constraints now being acknowledged for sustainable global development, provides an important opportunity for district heating. Fuel-use flexibility, energy and resource conservation, and reduced atmospheric pollution from acid gases and greenhouse gases, are important features offered by district heating systems. Among the major fuel options, only hydro-electricity and nuclear heat completely avoid emissions of combustion gases. To fill the need for an economical nuclear heat source, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has designed a 10 MW plant that is suitable as a heat source within a network or as the main supply to large individual users. Producing hot water at temperatures below 100 degrees C, it incorporates a small pool-type reactor based on AECL's successful SLOWPOKE Research Reactor. A 2 MW prototype for the commercial unit is now being tested at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Manitoba. With capital costs of $7 million (Canadian), unit energy costs are projected to be $0.02/kWh for a 10 MW unit operating in a heating grid over a 30-year period. By keeping the reactor power low and the water temperature below 100 degrees C, much of the complexity of the large nuclear power plants can be avoided, thus allowing these small, safe nuclear heating systems to be economically viable

  8. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Environmental Gamma Radiation Measurements in Baskil District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canbazoglu, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined environmental gamma radiation dose rate in Baskil district which has very high granite content in its geographical structure. Gamma radiation dose rate measurements were achieved by portable radiation monitoring equipment based on the energy range between 40 keV and 1.3 MeV. The measurements were performed on asphalt and soil surface level and also one meter above the ground surface. The gamma dose rate was also performed inside and outside of buildings over the district. The dose rates were found to be between 8.46μR/h and 34.66 μR/h. Indoor and outdoor effective dose rate of the gamma radiation exposure has been calculated to be 523μSv/y and 196μSv/y, respectively

  10. Fault diagnosis methods for district heating substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakanen, J.; Hyvaerinen, J.; Kuismin, J.; Ahonen, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    A district heating substation is a demanding process for fault diagnosis. The process is nonlinear, load conditions of the district heating network change unpredictably and standard instrumentation is designed only for control and local monitoring purposes, not for automated diagnosis. Extra instrumentation means additional cost, which is usually not acceptable to consumers. That is why all conventional methods are not applicable in this environment. The paper presents five different approaches to fault diagnosis. While developing the methods, various kinds of pragmatic aspects and robustness had to be considered in order to achieve practical solutions. The presented methods are: classification of faults using performance indexing, static and physical modelling of process equipment, energy balance of the process, interactive fault tree reasoning and statistical tests. The methods are applied to a control valve, a heat excharger, a mud separating device and the whole process. The developed methods are verified in practice using simulation, simulation or field tests. (orig.) (25 refs.)

  11. Energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides a selection of energy statistics in France on, the energy in the economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating systems, rational use of energy, prices, energy and the environment and some useful addresses. (A.L.B.)

  12. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  13. China: to invest in energy management. Proceedings of the French-Chinese seminar, Chengdu (Sichuan), 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguinat, Elisabeth; Gromard, Christian de; Breton, Herve; Francoz, Eric J.F.; Richard, Christophe; Henry, Alain; Xuhong, Liu; Henry, Alain; Yaping, Li; Dumasy, Jacques; Fabre, Thibaut; Lopez, Jose; Yazhong, Liu; Wenbin, Lu; Huang, Zhou; Plazy, Jean-Louis; Irigoin, Michel; Raoust, Michel; Devillier, Thierry; Jianping, Chen; Mezghani, Mohamed; Delcroix, Jean; Gerbeaux, Jean-Marie; Yande, Dai; Mulet, Jean-Charles; Junfeng, Li; Crepon, Olivier; Tournaye, Dominique; Thornald Decrop, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Energy management encompasses demand regulation (energy sobriety), efficiency improvements (energy efficiency), and the promotion of renewable energies. After opening speeches, a first set of contributions addressed methodological issues and status of energy management, with notably a characterisation of investments in energy efficiency (organisation per sector, economic elaboration combining regulative and financial measures, combination of incentive measures to correct market insufficiencies), an overview of R and D activities in France, a discussion of lessons learned for emerging countries for the experience of energy efficiency in Europe, an overview of actions and investments in China, and of the Chinese policy for renewable energies. The next sessions addressed various themes like urban organisation (energy efficient cities, actions by the AFD, twenty years of energy efficiency in Montpellier in France), the building sector (thermal rehabilitation, equipment and training in China, heat pumps and energy storage), the transport sector (urban transport, reduction of emissions by urban transport, railways), the industrial sector, the production of renewable or efficient energy (promotion of renewable energies in European grids, market perspectives in China). Some case studies are then reported: tri-generation in Montpellier, the revival of small hydraulic plants, development of geothermal energy in France and opportunities in China, coal-bagasse co-generation in France and Maurice Island. The last part addressed financial tools for a high energy quality in China

  14. A Tale of Two Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

  15. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  16. Suburban District Leadership Does Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Eustace; France, Roxanne Garcia

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for educational reform and accountability has resulted in a renewed focus on the relationship between building leaders and district leaders, particularly on how district leaders can support principals to ensure the academic success of students. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) and Race to the Top (RttT) legislations…

  17. Industrial excess heat for district heating in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2017-01-01

    analyses excess heat sources from the industrial sector and how they could be used for district heating. This method first allocates excess heat to single production units by introducing and validating a new approach. Spatial analysis of the heat sources and consumers are then performed to evaluate...... the potential for using them for district heating. In this way the theoretical potential of using the excess heat for covering the heating demand of buildings is determined. Through the use of industry specific temperature profiles the heat usable directly or via heat pumps is further found. A sensitivity...... analysis investigates the impact of future energy efficiency measures in the industry, buildings and the district heating grid on the national potential. The results show that for the case study of Denmark, 1.36 TWh of district heat could be provided annually with industrial excess heat from thermal...

  18. VT Data - Overlay District 20170710, South Burlington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Overlay data for the City of South Burlington included in this data:Flood Plain Overlay DistrictTraffic Overlay DistrictInterstate Highway Overlay DistrictScenic...

  19. VT Data - Overlay District 20170419, Colchester

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The following Overlay Districts are included in the data:General Development Four Commercial DistrictGeneral Development Four Openspace DistrictShoreland...

  20. The Innovative Concept of Cold District Heating Networks: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pellegrini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of sustainable and innovative solutions for the production and supply of energy at district level is nowadays one of the main technical challenges. In the past, district heating and cooling networks aimed to achieve greater energy efficiency through the centralization of the energy production process but with relevant losses related to heat transport. Moving towards a higher share of renewables and lower demand of primary energy requires redesign of the energy district networks. The novel concept of cold district heating networks aims to combine the advantages of a centralized energy distribution system with low heat losses in energy supply. This combined effect is achieved through the centralized supply of water at relatively low temperatures (in the range 10–25 °C, which is then heated up by decentralized heat pumps. Moreover, cold district heating networks are also very suitable for cooling delivery, since cold water supplying can be directly used for cooling purposes (i.e., free cooling or to feed decentralized chillers with very high energy efficiency ratio. This paper provides a preliminary literature review of existing cold district heating networks and then qualitatively analyses benefits and drawbacks in comparison with the alternatives currently used to produce heat and cold at district level, including the evaluation of major barriers to its further development.

  1. Dedicated low temperature nuclear district heating plants: Rationale and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Space heating accounts for a substantial fraction of the end-energy consumption in a large number of industrialized countries. Accordingly, efforts have been under way since many years to utilize nuclear energy as a source for district heating. The paper describes the key technical and institutional issues affecting the implementation of such technology. It is argued that the basic case for nuclear district heating is sound but that its introduction merits and drawbacks strongly depend on local circumstances. (author). 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Dedicated low temperature nuclear district heating plants: Rationale and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzmann, C A [Division of Nuclear Power, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-09-01

    Space heating accounts for a substantial fraction of the end-energy consumption in a large number of industrialized countries. Accordingly, efforts have been under way since many years to utilize nuclear energy as a source for district heating. The paper describes the key technical and institutional issues affecting the implementation of such technology. It is argued that the basic case for nuclear district heating is sound but that its introduction merits and drawbacks strongly depend on local circumstances. (author). 4 figs, 1 tab.

  3. A Feasibility Study on District Heating and Cooling Business Using Urban Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byoung Youn; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae In; Yoon, Jae Ho; Oh, Myung Do; Park, Moon Su; Kang, Han Kee; Yoo, Kyeoung Hoon; Bak, Jong Heon; Kim, Sun Chang; Park, Heong Kee; Bae, Tae Sik [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Investigation of papers related to waste heat utilization using heat pump. Estimate of various kinds of urban waste heat in korea. Investigation and study on optimal control of district heating and cooling system. Prediction of energy saving and environmental benefits when the urban waste heat will be used as heat source and sink of heat pump for district heating and cooling. Estimation of economic feasibility on district heating and cooling project utilizing urban waste heat. (author). 51 refs., figs

  4. Steps towards modern trends in district heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasek Lubomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on new trends in district heating a cooling (DHC area and algorithms allowing incorporating new technologies and performing optimal control. Classical district heating usually means huge source (as heating plant and set of pipes which transfer heat energy through a medium, mostly water, across whole town and chilled water is returning back to the plant. Let’s imagine a modern city where buildings are consuming only a fraction of the energy contrary to what buildings required in the past. And especially during sunny or windy days, they have energy to spare. Around of such modern city is not only the one big heating plant, but perhaps solar and wind farms, waste incinerators, industrial companies with energy surpluses. Simply in this modern city are dozens, perhaps hundreds of small energy producers that share pipe network or at least part of it. In such a district energy system, production planning is more difficult. And not only production, modern houses with minimal heat loss and data connections also allow to plan consumption more effectively. The aim is to achieve the best solution evaluated by the objective function, usually determined by minimizing the production and distribution costs and providing meets the needs of energy consumers. The method presented in this paper is based on a simulation using the proposed holonic distributed model. This model also introduces the idea of general prosumers strategy, where all active elements within the modern DHC system are represented by prosumer objects. The prosumers are perceived as objects able to actively participate in the planning and realization of the production and consumption of energy. It is assumed that the general behaviour of the object in DHC is the same, no matter how they differ in size and design. Thus, all the objects are defined by two characteristics - the ability to produce and consume. The model based on this basic principle, of course, with the most

  5. VT Data - Overlay District 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Cartographic version of overlay district (surface water buffer), Marlboro, Vermont. Base zoning districts are in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created...

  6. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  7. Pricing district heating by marginal cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difs, Kristina; Trygg, Louise

    2009-01-01

    A vital measure for industries when redirecting the energy systems towards sustainability is conversion from electricity to district heating (DH). This conversion can be achieved for example, by replacing electrical heating with DH and compression cooling with heat-driven absorption cooling. Conversion to DH must, however, always be an economically attractive choice for an industry. In this paper the effects for industries and the local DH supplier are analysed when pricing DH by marginal cost in combination with industrial energy efficiency measures. Energy audits have shown that the analysed industries can reduce their annual electricity use by 30% and increase the use of DH by 56%. When marginal costs are applied as DH tariffs and the industrial energy efficiency measures are implemented, the industrial energy costs can be reduced by 17%. When implementing the industrial energy efficiency measures and also considering a utility investment in the local energy system, the local DH supplier has a potential to reduce the total energy system cost by 1.6 million EUR. Global carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced by 25,000 tonnes if the industrial energy efficiency measures are implemented and when coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal electricity source

  8. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  9. Energy in France. Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents a selection of statistics (figures as of 30 April 2002) about: energy in the French economy, all energies, oil, gas, coal, electricity, renewable energies, district heating, rational use of energy, prices, energy and environment (CO 2 emissions). Data are presented in tables and graphs. (J.S.)

  10. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T. [Department of Wood Science, University of British Columbia, 2931-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Sokhansanj, S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Melin, S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Delta Research Corporation, Delta, BC (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders. (author)

  11. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  12. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  13. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Britain stays cool on district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G

    1982-04-08

    Britain's wealth of energy sources has kept interest in the energy conservation potential of combined heat and power (CHP) and district heating (DH) at a low level. An active lobby for CHP/DH continues to argue against formidable odds. The Marshall group set up in the early days of the oil crisis reported on several strategies for CHP/DH and proposed technologies already proven in other European countries. The economics of abundant natural gas and coal, however, precludes commercial interest until energy prices reach higher levels. The lobbyists point out that this could occur within a short time, and local governments would do well to examine the lead-city concept for application on a national level. The present government's preference for the private sector pursuing development beyond the feasibility-study stage could make CHP/DH more of a political issue as unemployment increases. (DCK)

  15. Comparison of district heating expansion potential based on consumer-economy or socio-economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundahl, Lars; Nielsen, Steffen; Lund, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that a high share of district heating is an important part of a future sustainable energy system or smart energy system with a high renewable energy penetration. These studies also show socio-economic benefits of expanding the district heating coverage. However, in order...... to implement such an expansion, district heating needs to be economically feasible for the heat consumers. This aspect is often not investigated and hence it is unknown if calculations based on consumer-economy, where tax payment is included, will yield the same potential of expansion. This study identifies...... the differences in the expansion potential of district heating calculated with a socio-economic and a consumer-economic approach, respectively, in a case study of Denmark. By also investigating the consumer-economy of expanding district heating, a deeper insight is obtained of possible locations for expanding...

  16. Utilization of straw in district heating and CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaisen, L.

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark 64 straw-fired district heating plants and 6 decentral CHP plants have been built since 1980 which are completely or partly straw-fired. The annual straw consumption in the district heating plants is 275,000 tons and in the decentral plants about 200,000 tons. The size of the district heating plants amounts to 0.5 MW - 10 MW and that of the CHP plants to 7 MW - 67 MW heat flow rate. Either whole bales or cut/scarified straw is used for firing. Hesston bales of about 450 kg control the market. The Centre of Biomass Technology is an activity supported 100 % by the Danish Energy Agency with the purpose of increasing the use of straw and wood in the energy supply (orig.)

  17. Uncertainties in the daily operation of a district heating plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Peter

    Studies have found that district heating (DH) systems should play an important role in future sustainable energy systems, but that DH has to adapt to lower heat demands. This means adapting to reduced operation hours for units essential for DHs integration in other parts of the energy system......, such as CHP. It will therefore likely be increasingly important to increase the value per operation hour. The value can be increased by offering balancing for the electricity system. This in turn increases the uncertainties in the daily operation planning of the DH system. In this paper the Danish DH plant...... Ringkøbing District Heating is used as a case to investigate what costs market uncertainties can incur on a DH plant. It is found that the market uncertainties in a 4 months simulated period increased Ringkøbing District Heatings costs by less than 1%. Several factors are however not included in this paper....

  18. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  19. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  20. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavell, I.W.; Peabody, C.O.

    1961-09-01

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)